WorldWideScience

Sample records for residential wood furniture

  1. CEFTA Agreement and Opportunities for Wood Furniture Export of the Republic of Macedonia

    OpenAIRE

    Ilijana Petrovska; Živka Meloska; Krum Efremov; Kiril Postolov

    2016-01-01

    This paper is focused on business possibilities of CEFTA 2006 and its influence on export trend of wood furniture from the Republic of Macedonia. First, six categories of wood furniture export are analyzed such as: office furniture, kitchen furniture, bedroom furniture, living and dining room furniture, shop furniture and other furniture, presenting a positive trend in each category, except for living and dining room furniture. The total export of wood furniture shows a positive trend. The se...

  2. Transitioning Wood Furniture Products towards Sustainability

    OpenAIRE

    Lu, Lei; Zhang, WeiGuang; Zhang, WeiQing

    2008-01-01

    Wood Furniture Products (WFPs) play a significant role in both the global economy and the transition of society towards sustainability. This paper begins with a brief description of the industry and highlights the current challenges and compelling measures of WFPs from a systems perspective through the lens of the Framework for Strategic Sustainable Development (FSSD) and by applying backcasting from sustainability principles (SPs). An examination of the challenges and opportunities of WFPs i...

  3. CASE STUDIES: LOW-VOC/HAP WOOD FURNITURE COATINGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a study in which wood furniture manufacturing facilities were identified that had converted at least one of their primary coating steps to low-volatile organic compound (VOC)/hazardous Air pollutant (HAP) wood furniture coatings: high-solids, water...

  4. Utilization trend of wood species utilized in furniture industry in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The utilization trend of four commonly used wood species and two lesser used wood species that are used for furniture making was examined. The wood species are Mansonia altissima (Mansonia), Khaya ivorensis (Khaya), Cordia millenii (Cordia) and Tectona grandis (Teak) as commonly used wood species; Aningeria ...

  5. The effect of changes in lumber and furniture prices on wood furniture manufacturers' lumber usage

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold

    1983-01-01

    Wood furniture manufacturers' demands for oak, maple, poplar, open-grain, and close-grain lumber are estimated using cross-sectional, time-series techniques. The analyses indicate that the demand for open-grain species is more price responsive than the demand for close-grain species. The calculated cross-price elasticities indicate that furniture producers do...

  6. FORMULATING ULTRA-LOW-VOC WOOD FURNITURE COATINGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The article discusses the formulation of ultra-low volatile organic compound (VOC) wood furniture coatings. The annual U.S. market for wood coatings is about 240, 000 cu m (63 million gal). In this basis, between 57 and 91 million kg (125 and 200 million lb) of VOCs are emitted i...

  7. The wood household furniture and kitchen cabinet industries: a contrast in fortune

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold; Matthew S. Bumgardner

    2009-01-01

    In 1977, the value of wood household furniture shipments from domestic manufacturers exceeded kitchen cabinet shipments by 170 percent; conversely, in 2006 shipments of cabinets exceeded shipments of furniture by 78 percent. The most apparent reason for the decrease in domestic furniture shipments is the increase in furniture imports, whereas cabinet demand has...

  8. Integrating energy and environmental management in wood furniture industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordić, Dušan; Babić, Milun; Jelić, Dubravka; Konćalović, Davor; Vukašinović, Vladimir

    2014-01-01

    As energy costs continue to rise, industrial plants (even those of energy nonintensive industries such as furniture industry) need effective way to reduce the amount of energy they consume. Besides, there are a number of economic and environmental reasons why a company should consider environmental management initiatives. This paper provides a detailed guideline for implementing joint energy and environmental management system in wood furniture industrial company. It covers in detail all essential aspects of the system: initial system assessment, organization, policy development, energy and environmental auditing, action plan development, system promotion, checking system performance, and management review.

  9. Understanding perception of wood household furniture: application of a policy capturing approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Brinberg; Matthew Bumgardner; Kim Daniloski

    2007-01-01

    Consumer and retailer perceptions of wood household furniture were modeled using a policy capturing approach. A sample of consumers and retailers evaluated four pictures of wood furniture on eight visual cues deemed representative of the furniture purchasing environment. These cues were then regressed on respondents' judgment of willingness to pay for each...

  10. Wood Identification of 18th Century Furniture. Interpreting Wood Naming Inventoires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocio Astrid BERNAL

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The 18th century Portuguese church furniture represents an extraordinary richness recognised worldwide, which demands safeguarding and valorisation. The identification of the wood of furniture artworks is the most important component for its comprehension and preservation. In this work wood anatomical characters of an 18th century Portuguese decorative furniture set from the Colegiada de São Martinho de Cedofeita, in Porto, were analysed to identify the woods used for manufacturing and to clarify their common names. Furthermore, the objectives were to recognise some of the criteria for choice of wood as well as the source of each wood. The woods identified from 16 fragments belong to Apuleia sp., Acacia sp., Neolamarckia sp. and Castanea sativa. Apuleia sp. and Acacia sp. woods most likely arrived from Brazil, while the Neolamarckia sp. woods likely arrived from India and the C. sativa woods from Portugal. The results are in accordance with the known Portuguese colonial sea routes of the 15th -18th centuries. Interestingly the terms found in the inventories can refer to finishing methods instead to the name of the woods, as for instance “oil wood” can refer to “oiled wood” or “linseed oiled wood”. The species choice may be related to the mechanical properties of the wood as well as the original tree size. Two large planks of Acacia sp. were used for the top of the “Portuguese arcaz”, and Apuleia sp. was found on main structural elements of this set of furniture, suggesting that wood colour was also important. Woods from Neolamarckia sp. and C. sativa, were also identified, being Castanea wood present only in the most recent pieces of the furniture set.

  11. Thirty-nine years of U.S. wood furniture importing: sources and products

    Science.gov (United States)

    William G. Luppold; Matthew S. Bumgardner

    2011-01-01

    In this study we analyze changes in United States imports of wood furniture over the 39-year period from 1972 to 2010. In 1972, Canada and the former Yugoslavia were the most important sources of imported wood furniture, and Europe accounted for nearly 60 percent of total imports. Shipments of low-cost wood furniture from Taiwan started to increase in the 1970s, and by...

  12. Asthma in furniture and wood processing workers: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiggans, R E; Evans, G; Fishwick, D; Barber, C M

    2016-04-01

    Wood dust is a common cause of occupational asthma. There is potential for high exposure to wood dust during furniture and wood manufacturing processes. To evaluate the evidence for non-neoplastic respiratory ill health associated with work in the furniture and wood manufacturing sector. A systematic review was performed according to PRISMA guidelines. Articles were graded using SIGN (Scottish Intercollegiate Guideline Network) and MERGE (Methods for Evaluating Research Guidelines and Evidence) criteria, with data grouped by study outcome. Initial searches identified 1328 references, from which 55 articles were included in the review. Fourteen studies were graded A using MERGE or >2++ using SIGN. All but one paper describing airway symptoms reported an increased risk in higher wood dust exposed workers in comparison to lower or non-exposed groups. Five studies reporting asthma examined dose response; three found a positive effect. The relative risk for asthma in exposed workers in the single meta-analysis was 1.5 (95% CI 1.25-1.87). Two studies reported more obstructive lung function (forced expiratory volume in 1 s [FEV1]/forced vital capacity < 0.7) in exposed populations. Excess longitudinal FEV1 decline was reported in female smokers with high wood dust exposures in one study population. Where measured, work-related respiratory symptoms did not clearly relate to specific wood immunoglobulin E positivity. Work in this sector was associated with a significantly increased risk of respiratory symptoms and asthma. The evidence for wood dust exposure causing impaired lung function is less clearly established. Further study is required to better understand the prevalence, and causes, of respiratory problems within this sector. © Crown copyright 2015.

  13. CASE STUDY PROJECT: THE USE OF LOW-VOC/HAP COATINGS AT WOOD FURNITURE MANUFACTURING FACILITIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses a study of pollution prevention and the use of low-VOC/HAP (volatile organic compound/hazardous air pollutant) coatings at wood furniture manufacturing facilities. The study is to identify wood furniture and cabinet manufacturing facilities that have converted...

  14. POLLUTION PREVENTION AND THE USE OF LOW-VOC/HAP COATINGS AT WOOD FURNITURE MANUFACTURING FACILITIES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The paper discusses a study of pollution prevention and the use of low-VOC/HAP (volatile organic compound/hazardous air pollutant) coatings at wood furniture manufacturing facilities. The study is to identify wood furniture and cabinet manufacturing facilities that have converted...

  15. The Role of Contemporary Innovations on Flexible Residential Furniture with Smart and Green Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Farjami, Elnaz

    2014-01-01

    Sustainability, being comfortable, having innovative technologies in terms of furniture, especially in residential spaces, are important factors in interior architecture, for better future life and lifecycle. Togetherness of these factors is complicated, in order to achieve all mentioned features within a furniture design, however, some companies attempt to create innovative furniture having all desired features together. It seems that there are a number of problems, such as high cost or lack...

  16. Impact of Furniture Layout on Indoor Daylighting Performance in Existing Residential Buildings in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Mousavi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, home-based computing workspaces have developed substantially all over the world, especially in Malaysia. This growing trend attracts computer workers to run a business from their residential units. Hence, visual comfort needs to be considered in addition to thermal comfort for home workers in their residential working rooms. While such rooms are always occupied with furniture, the layout of the furniture may influence the indoor daylighting distribution. Several various furniture layouts can be arranged in a residential working room. However, to have better generalisation, this study focused on the impacts of mostly-used-furniture-layouts (MUFLs on indoor daylighting performance in residential working rooms. The field measurement was conducted in a typically furnished room under a tropical sky to validate the results of the simulation software under different sky conditions. Then, daylight ratio (DR, as a quantitative daylighting variable, and the illuminance uniformity ratio (IUR, CIE glare index (CGI, and Guth visual comfort probability (GVCP, as qualitative daylighting variables, were analysed through simulation experiments. In conclusion, by changing the furniture layout, daylight uniformity recorded the highest fluctuations in the case room among all variables. While various furniture layouts, in a residential working room in the tropics, may even slightly reduce the extreme indoor daylight quantity, they can worsen the indoor daylight quality compared to an unfurnished space. The paper shows that furniture as an interior design parameter cannot help to improve tropical daylighting performance in a building.

  17. Global Market Access in the Internet Era: South Africa's Wood Furniture Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moodley, Sagren

    2002-01-01

    Explores the link between Internet connectivity and access to global markets, and uses the South African wood furniture producers as they are integrated into global value chains and exposed to the demands of more sophisticated markets. Articulates policy recommendations to promote greater diffusion of e-commerce technologies in the wood furniture…

  18. Prioritization of Wood Species Utilized for Furniture Making in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study identified the Commonly Used Tree Species (CUTS) and the Lesser Used Tree Species (LUTS) used for furniture making with the aim of developing a priority class for them. The prioritization was carried out through the administration of questionnaires on 193 furniture factories selected through stratified random ...

  19. Respiratory Tract Problems among Wood Furniture Manufacturing Factory Workers in the Northeast of Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soongkhang, I; Laohasiriwong, W

    2015-01-01

    Wood furniture manufacturing factory workers are at high risk of exposure to wood dust in wood working processes. Wood dust exposure could cause respiratory symptoms, such as reduce lung function, chronic bronchitis, and asthma. The Northeast region of Thailand has many wood furniture manufacturing factories. However, limited studies were carried out to explore the effect of wood dust exposure on workers. This study aimed to assess the respiratory symptoms and determine factors associated with these symptoms among wood furniture manufacturing factory workers. This cross-sectional analytical research used a multistage random sampling to select 511 workers from three provinces in the Northeast of Thailand. The data was collected using a structured questionnaire interview. The content validity of questionnaire was tested by 3 experts and had a Cronbach's alpha coefficient of 0.82. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and multiple logistic regressions. The result indicated that 29.94% of these workers had respiratory symptoms, including coughing(18.79%), nasal secretion (15.66%), and stuffy nose (15.07%). Factors that were significantly associated with respiratory symptoms (p-value furniture manufacturing factory workers had respiratory symptoms with related to both personal preventive behaviors and their working environments. Therefore, the raising awareness for using personal protective equipment during work will help them to prevent from various respiratory track problems.

  20. Discover the benefits of residential wood heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This publication described how residential wood-heating systems are being used to reduce energy costs and increase home comfort. Biomass energy refers to all forms are renewable energy that is derived from plant materials. The source of fuel may include sawmills, woodworking shops, forest operations and farms. The combustion of biomass is also considered to be carbon dioxide neutral, and is not considered to be a major producer of greenhouse gases (GHG) linked to global climate change. Wood burning does, however, release air pollutants, particularly if they are incompletely burned. Incomplete combustion of wood results in dense smoke consisting of toxic gases. Natural Resources Canada helped create new safety standards and the development of the Wood Energy Technical Training Program to ensure that all types of wood-burning appliances are installed correctly and safely to reduce the risk of fire and for effective wood heating. In Canada, more than 3 million families heat with wood as a primary or secondary heating source in homes and cottages. Wood heating offers security from energy price fluctuations and electrical power failures. This paper described the benefits of fireplace inserts that can transform old fireplaces into modern heating systems. It also demonstrated how an add-on wood furnace can be installed next to oil furnaces to convert an oil-only heating system to a wood-oil combination system, thereby saving thousands of dollars in heating costs. Wood pellet stoves are another wood burning option. The fuel for the stoves is produced from dried, finely ground wood waste that is compressed into hard pellets that are loaded into a hopper. The stove can run automatically for up to 24 hours. New high-efficiency advanced fireplaces also offer an alternative heating system that can reduce heating costs while preserving Canada's limited supply of fossil fuels such as oil and gas. 13 figs

  1. 40 CFR 429.160 - Applicability; description of the wood furniture and fixture production without water wash spray...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Applicability; description of the wood furniture and fixture production without water wash spray booth(s) or... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability; description of the wood furniture and fixture production without water wash spray booth(s) or without laundry facilities subcategory...

  2. 40 CFR 429.170 - Applicability; description of the wood furniture and fixture production with water wash spray...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...; description of the wood furniture and fixture production with water wash spray booth(s) or with laundry... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability; description of the wood furniture and fixture production with water wash spray booth(s) or with laundry facilities subcategory. 429...

  3. Engineering economic assessment of residential wood heating in NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    We provide insight into the recent resurgence in residential wood heating in New York by: (i) examining the lifetime costs of outdoor wood hydronic heaters (OWHHs) and other whole-house residential wood heat devices,(ii) comparing these lifetime costs with those of competing tech...

  4. Furniture wood wastes: Experimental property characterisation and burning tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tatano, Fabio; Barbadoro, Luca; Mangani, Giovanna; Pretelli, Silvia; Tombari, Lucia; Mangani, Filippo

    2009-01-01

    Referring to the industrial wood waste category (as dominant in the provincial district of Pesaro-Urbino, Marche Region, Italy), this paper deals with the experimental characterisation and the carrying out of non-controlled burning tests (at lab- and pilot-scale) for selected 'raw' and primarily 'engineered' ('composite') wood wastes. The property characterisation has primarily revealed the following aspects: potential influence on moisture content of local weather conditions at outdoor wood waste storage sites; generally, higher ash contents in 'engineered' wood wastes as compared with 'raw' wood wastes; and relatively high energy content values of 'engineered' wood wastes (ranging on the whole from 3675 to 5105 kcal kg -1 for HHV, and from 3304 to 4634 kcal kg -1 for LHV). The smoke qualitative analysis of non-controlled lab-scale burning tests has primarily revealed: the presence of specific organic compounds indicative of incomplete wood combustion; the presence exclusively in 'engineered' wood burning tests of pyrroles and amines, as well as the additional presence (as compared with 'raw' wood burning) of further phenolic and containing nitrogen compounds; and the potential environmental impact of incomplete industrial wood burning on the photochemical smog phenomenon. Finally, non-controlled pilot-scale burning tests have primarily given the following findings: emission presence of carbon monoxide indicative of incomplete wood combustion; higher nitrogen oxide emission values detected in 'engineered' wood burning tests as compared with 'raw' wood burning test; and considerable generation of the respirable PM 1 fraction during incomplete industrial wood burning.

  5. Wood Dust in Joineries and Furniture Manufacturing : An Exposure Determinant and Intervention Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Douwes, Jeroen; Cheung, Kerry; Prezant, Bradley; Sharp, Mark; Corbin, Marine; McLean, Dave; 't Mannetje, Andrea; Schlunssen, Vivi; Sigsgaard, Torben; Kromhout, Hans; LaMontagne, Anthony D; Pearce, Neil; McGlothlin, James D

    Objectives: To assess wood dust exposures and determinants in joineries and furniture manufacturing and to evaluate the efficacy of specific interventions on dust emissions under laboratory conditions. Also, in a subsequent follow-up study in a small sample of joinery workshops, we aimed to develop,

  6. POLLUTION PREVENTION CASE STUDIES: LOW-VOC/HAP WOOD FURNITURE COATINGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This article provides a brief profile of the wood furniture industry, discusses pollution prevention activities typically implemented, describes the four low-VOC/HAP coating technologies studied. and summarizes one case study for each of the low-VOC/HAP coating yechnologies inves...

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF A NO-VOC/NO-HAP WOOD FURNITURE COATINGS SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of the development and demonstration of a no-VOC (volatile organic compound)/no-HAP (hazardous air pollutant) wood furniture coating system. The performance characteristics of the new coating system are excellent in terms of adhesion, drying time, gloss, ...

  8. DEMONSTRATION OF NO-VOC/NO-HAP WOOD FURNITURE COATING SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency has contracted with AeroVironment Environmental Services, Inc. and its subcontractor, Adhesives Coating Co., to develop and demonstrate a no-VOC (volatile organic compound)/no-HAP (hazardous air pollutant) wood furniture coating s...

  9. Particulate emissions from residential wood combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo; Jensen, Ole Michael; Tarelho, Luis A. C.

    Residential wood combustion (RWC) in fireplaces and conventional appliances is the main contributor to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions in Denmark and Portugal representing more than 30% of the total emissions [1;2]. Such estimations are uncertain concerning the wood consumption...... and official emission factors, not taking into account actual burning conditions in dwellings [3]. There is limited knowledge on the real-life performance and spatial distribution of existing appliance types. Few studies have been targeting to understand the influence of fuel operation habits on PM2.5...... the available estimations for Denmark and Portugal, suggesting a methodology to increase the accuracy of activity data and emission factors. This work is based on new studies carried out to quantify the PM2.5 emissions in daily life through field experiments in Danish dwellings and by considering typical...

  10. Upgrading Wood-Based Industries: Harnessing the Social Network of Small-Scale Furniture Producers and Their Institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melati ,

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Furniture is a major export commodity in Indonesia with a total value of USD 1.96 million in 2007.  Jepara District is one of the key location for wood furniture production with 15,271 furniture related business units employing 176,469 workers.  However, inefficiencies and power imbalances throughout the furniture value chain have resulted in overharvesting and uneven distribution of gains among the industry’s actors.  In contrast to price-setting international furniture retailers, small-scale producers enjoy the least value from their products.  In order to increase added value and competitiveness, small-scale furniture producers have made efforts to upgrade by harnessing their social network and institutions.  This paper describes small-scale furniture producers’ efforts to upgrade by utilising their social network and institutions in Jepara.  Data was collected through in-depth interviews with members of the small-scale furniture producers’ association.  The research provides insight into the nature of social networks and information flow and develops future scenarios to upgrade.  The scenarios will not only benefit the furniture industry in Jepara, but may also be adopted for similar industries throughout Indonesia and the world, and potentially improve many people’s economies and livelihoods.Keywords: wood-based industry, furniture, small-scale, social network, institution

  11. Source emission and model evaluation of formaldehyde from composite and solid wood furniture in a full-scale chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper describes the measurement and model evaluation of formaldehyde source emissions from composite and solid wood furniture in a full-scale chamber under dynamic conditions using ASTM D 6670-01 (2007). Four brands of the same type furniture product were tested. The data we...

  12. UTILIZING LOW VOLATILE ORGANIC CONTENT EXTERIOR COATINGS FOR WOOD FURNITURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report provides an evaluation of commercially viable source reduction techniques implemented by a manufacturer of wood chairs, bar stools and settees in various styles ranging from classic American to European contemporary. As federal EPA regulations became more stringent fo...

  13. Wood Dust in Joineries and Furniture Manufacturing: An Exposure Determinant and Intervention Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douwes, Jeroen; Cheung, Kerry; Prezant, Bradley; Sharp, Mark; Corbin, Marine; McLean, Dave; 't Mannetje, Andrea; Schlunssen, Vivi; Sigsgaard, Torben; Kromhout, Hans; LaMontagne, Anthony D; Pearce, Neil; McGlothlin, James D

    2017-05-01

    To assess wood dust exposures and determinants in joineries and furniture manufacturing and to evaluate the efficacy of specific interventions on dust emissions under laboratory conditions. Also, in a subsequent follow-up study in a small sample of joinery workshops, we aimed to develop, implement, and evaluate a cost-effective and practicable intervention to reduce dust exposures. Personal inhalable dust (n = 201) was measured in 99 workers from 10 joineries and 3 furniture-making factories. To assess exposure determinants, full-shift video exposure monitoring (VEM) was conducted in 19 workers and task-based VEM in 32 workers (in 7 joineries and 3 furniture factories). We assessed the efficacy of vacuum extraction on hand tools and the use of vacuum cleaners instead of sweeping and dry wiping under laboratory conditions. These measures were subsequently implemented in three joinery workshops with 'high' (>4 mg m-3) and one with 'low' (furniture making were 2.5 mg m-3 [geometric standard deviations (GSD) 2.5] and 0.6 mg m-3 (GSD 2.3), respectively. In joinery workers cleaning was associated with a 3.0-fold higher (P furniture makers, we found a 5.4-fold higher exposure (P furniture makers with frequent use of hand tools and cleaning being key drivers of exposure. Vacuum extraction on hand tools and alternative cleaning methods reduced workplace exposures substantially, but may be insufficient to achieve compliance with current occupational exposure limits. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Occupational Hygiene Society.

  14. WOOD - PLASTIC COMPOSITES FROM WASTE MATERIALS RESULTED IN THE FURNITURE MANUFACTURING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia COŞEREANU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the application of waste materials resulted in the furniture manufacturing process as components for wood-plastic composites. The composites are produced from industrial byproducts, such as shavings and ABS (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene, without coupling agent. The two components are derived from industrial processes of furniture manufacturing: the first one consists of wood residues resulted from planing machine as planer shavings, and the second one from ABS edge banding operation. A wide array of mixtures varying from 100% ABS to 50% ABS: 50% shavings were used to produce eight variants of boards. Density was determined for each board and the method for the determination of ABS particle size distribution by oscillating screen method using sieve apertures up to 4mm was also applied, in order to establish the particle fractions and the distribution of their sizes. Based on ABS properties, several technologies of manufacturing wood-plastic composites from the waste materials were tested and one of them was selected. The results of the first stage analysis, when the physical integrity and the compactness of the panels’ structures were tested, have shown that a maximum proportion of 30% of wood shavings is accepted in the mixture. On the other hand, the low density of the boards and their porous structure recommend further investigations for thermal and sound insulation applications

  15. Determination of the equivalent emission parameters of wood-based furniture by applying C-history method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yuan; Xiong, Jianyin; Liu, Weiwei; Mo, Jinhan; Zhang, Yinping

    2011-10-01

    VOC pollution in indoor air has become a serious problem in urban areas of China. Building materials and furniture used indoors are the main sources of such pollution. How to determine the VOC emission characteristics of furniture rapidly and conveniently is an important but difficult problem. In this paper, we extend the C-history method for determining the VOC emission characteristic parameters (i.e., the initial emittable VOC concentration, C0, the partition coefficient, K, and the diffusion coefficient, D) of homogeneous building materials developed by Xiong et al. (2011a) to measure the parameters of VOC emissions from wood-based furniture in a 30 m 3 full-scale chamber. The conditions under which there are three equivalent parameters, C0,equ, Kequ and Dequ for multi-layer board and wood-based furniture is analyzed and presented. A series of tests were performed to determine the three parameters of some commonly used wood-based furniture in China. A run of independent ventilated chamber experiments were carried out to validate the method. The results show that: (1) The agreement of the formaldehyde and six VOCs concentrations between the ventilated experiment and the simulated results based on the determined parameters is very good; (2) The method could be used in testing multi-layer board and wood-based furniture. The testing time is usually less than 3 days as compared with the furniture testing method typically performed under ventilated chamber conditions and take 5,7,14 or 28 days. The possibilities and limitations of applying the method to the existing furniture labeling schemes are discussed.

  16. Emissions Characterization of Residential Wood-Fired Hydronic Heater Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Residential wood-fired hydronic heaters (RWHHs) can negatively impact the local ambient air quality and thus are of major environmental concern in wood burning areas of the U. S. Few studies have been conducted which characterize the emissions from RWHHs. To address the lack of e...

  17. TECHNOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE WOOD OF Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden AND Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell, AS A SUPPLY FOR THE FURNITURE INDUSTRY

    OpenAIRE

    Joaquim Carlos Gonçalez; Lílian de Cássia S. Breda; João Francisco M. Barros; Denízia Gonçalves Macedo; Gerard Janin; Alexandre Florian da Costa; Ailton Teixeira do Vale

    2010-01-01

    This work was carried out at Universidade de Brasília at the Wood Products of Forestry Laboratory (IBAMA, Brasília, DF, Brazil). Two species of eucalypt wood (Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden and Eucalyptus cloeziana) were studied to supply the furniture making industry. The wood of Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden shows physical properties (density and retractibility) and mechanical properties (static bending and hardness) very suitable for the industry of wood furniture. Such characte...

  18. Challenges in assessing air pollution from residential wood combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Helge Rørdam

    2016-01-01

    The paper highlights a number of important challenges in quantifying the impact of residential wood combustion on air quality. The fact that real life emissions are controlled by the behaviour of the users makes it a challenge to determine representative emission factors. Further, in respect...... to determination of particle emissions factors, there are inconsistences between countries due to different handling of condensable gases released from wood combustion. These and other challenges are discussed in the paper....

  19. Understanding the Residential Wood Heater Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information on the components of the current wood heater new source performance standards (NSPS) and proposed updates to the NSPS including which types of heaters are covered under the rules and the benefits.

  20. RESIDENTIAL WOOD COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY REVIEW VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report gives results of a review of the current state-of-the-art of residential wood combustion (RWC). The key environmental parameter of concern was the air emission of particles. The technological status of all major RWC categories -- cordwood stoves, fireplaces, masonry h...

  1. RESIDENTIAL WOOD COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY REVIEW - VOLUME 2. APPENDICES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a review of the current state-of-the-art of residential wood combustion (RWC). The key environmental parameter of concern was the air emission of particles. The technological status of all major RWC categories--cordwood stoves, fireplaces, masonry heat...

  2. Miami Indonesian Furniture

    OpenAIRE

    repfun

    2016-01-01

    Miami Indonesian Furniture Many years experience manufacturers launched in both traditional and contemporary design as an ultimate complete package sets in an extensive range. A large range of great value for your garden, patio or outdoor space, made beautifully to withstand all weather conditions products offered.Indonesian Teak Wood Furniture trusted Manufacturer and Supplier which is extensively used having both recycled and plantation Teak Furniture Indonesia. Original teak wood furniture...

  3. Strategi Pemasaran Mebel Kayu Sentra Industri Kecil Pondok Bambu, Jakarta Timur (Wood Furniture Marketing Strategy on Pondok Bambu Small Industry Centre, East Jakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulius Hero

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Furniture is one of wood products to fulfill the household needs, especially for household furnishing. Wood product which is used for furniture tends to decrease because of the substitution products, i.e.: plastic, rattan, bamboo, glass, and metal. To continue their effort, small industries in Indonesia face hard problems and challanges. To solve the hard problems and challenges, then a new marketing strategy through the study on marketing strategy of small wood-furniture industry is needed. This research objectives are to know several factors which have relation toward marketing of woodfurniture and compile alternative small industrial marketing strategy of wood-furniture. Research conducts in Small Industry Centre, Pondok Bambu, East Jakarta from June to July 2008. Some tools are used in this research, such as: questionaire, calculator, camera, and stationery. The method of data collection is purposive sampling with total amount of responden is 30 people-small industry owners. Data analysis uses regression and SWOT method (Strength, Weaknesses. Opportunities, Threath. Result of the research for the regression equation of wood-furniture marketing Y= 9,001 - 0,6798 X1 - 1,4834 X2 - 1,4834 X3 + 0,4818 X4 with value R2 is equal to 51.3%. Linearity test model indicates that F Calculated is 6.57 in significat level α = 1%. Factors that influence wood-furniture marketing of sale volume are variation of product, wood-furniture price, distribution system and promotion. The relation between sale volume with variable of product variation, wood-furniture price, and distribution system is significant with negative direction. It means that smaller product variation, lower wood-furniture price, and more efficient distribution system; will effect to higher sale volume. Whereas the relation between sale volume with variable of promotion is not significant with positive direction. It

  4. Test methods and reduction of organic pollutant compound emissions from wood-based building and furniture materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Sumin; Choi, Yoon-Ki; Park, Kyung-Won; Kim, Jeong Tai

    2010-08-01

    This paper reviews different methods for the analysis of formaldehyde and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from wood-based panel materials for furniture and building interiors and highlights research on reduction of emission from wood-based panels that can adversely affect indoor air quality. In Korea, standard test methods have been developed to determine formaldehyde and VOC emissions from building products, and the Ministry of Environment regulates the use of building materials with pollutant emissions. Desiccator and perforator methods are being used for formaldehyde and the chamber and field and laboratory emission cell (FLEC) methods for VOC and formaldehyde emissions. The VOC analyzer is a suitable pre-test method for application as a total VOC (TVOC) emission test and bake-out is a useful method to reduce TVOC and formaldehyde emissions from furniture materials in indoor environments. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Formaldehyde and acetaldehyde emissions from residential wood combustion in Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerqueira, Mário; Gomes, Luís; Tarelho, Luís; Pio, Casimiro

    2013-06-01

    A series of experiments were conducted to characterize formaldehyde and acetaldehyde emissions from residential combustion of common wood species growing in Portugal. Five types of wood were investigated: maritime pine (Pinus pinaster), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus globulus), cork oak (Quercus suber), holm oak (Quercus rotundifolia) and pyrenean oak (Quercus pyrenaica). Laboratory experiments were performed with a typical wood stove used for domestic heating in Portugal and operating under realistic home conditions. Aldehydes were sampled from diluted combustion flue gas using silica cartridges coated with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine and analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography with diode array detection. The average formaldehyde to acetaldehyde concentration ratio (molar basis) in the stove flue gas was in the range of 2.1-2.9. Among the tested wood types, pyrenean oak produced the highest emissions for both formaldehyde and acetaldehyde: 1772 ± 649 and 1110 ± 454 mg kg-1 biomass burned (dry basis), respectively. By contrast, maritime pine produced the lowest emissions: 653 ± 151 and 371 ± 162 mg kg-1 biomass (dry basis) burned, respectively. Aldehydes were sampled separately during distinct periods of the holm oak wood combustion cycles. Significant variations in the flue gas concentrations were found, with higher values measured during the devolatilization stage than in the flaming and smoldering stages.

  6. Studying and Assessment of the Effective Criteria on Opportunities Attainment from Offshore Outsourcing in Iran Wood Furniture Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    nemat allah mohebbi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, many of developing countries are looking for outsourcing opportunities of developed countries, because this will bring them many benefits. In this regard, the goal of this study is determining and prioritizing of the effective criteria on attainment of outsourcing benefits of the developed countries in wood furniture industry by non-parametric approach of analytic hierarchy process as one of the most creditable multi-criteria decisionmaking methods. For this purpose, after comparative studies and interview with relevant experts, the effective criteria were identified. After design of analytic hierarchy levels of decision making tree, the necessary data for prioriting provided by standard questionnaire based on paired comparisons and finally the computational steps was done by Expert Choice software. Base on the obtained results, currency exchange rate, economical stability, inflation rate, labor cost, cost of raw material, technological software and hardware of furniture industry, skillfull manpower and developed lateral industries, have the highest priorities.

  7. TECHNOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE WOOD OF Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden AND Eucalyptus cloeziana F. Muell, AS A SUPPLY FOR THE FURNITURE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Carlos Gonçalez

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out at Universidade de Brasília at the Wood Products of Forestry Laboratory (IBAMA, Brasília, DF, Brazil. Two species of eucalypt wood (Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden and Eucalyptus cloeziana were studied to supply the furniture making industry. The wood of Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden shows physical properties (density and retractibility and mechanical properties (static bending and hardness very suitable for the industry of wood furniture. Such characteristics are complemented by its excellent behaviour in machining and also good finishing with varnishes. The colour and patterns the wood bring to the consumers a good feeling as well as for the furnitures built with such a species. The wood of Eucalyptus cloeziana, in spite of its mechanical and physical properties higher than those of Eucalyptus grandis W.Hill ex Maiden, presents good characteristics for the manufacture of furniture. Its grey-olive colouring is consistent with a good choice and taste for the consumers. However, some precaution must be observed during the machining of the wood. This wood’s hardness makes it suitable for parquetry.

  8. Particulate emissions from residential wood combustion: Final report: Norteast regional Biomass Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-01-01

    The objective of this study was to provide a resource document for the Northeastern states when pursuing the analysis of localized problems resulting from residential wood combustion. Specific tasks performed include assigning emission rates for total suspended particulates (TSP) and benzo(a)pyrene (BaP) from wood burning stoves, estimating the impact on ambient air quality from residential wood combustion and elucidating the policy options available to Northeastern states in their effort to limit any detrimental effects resulting from residential wood combustion. Ancillary tasks included providing a comprehensive review on the relevant health effects, indoor air pollution and toxic air pollutant studies. 77 refs., 11 figs., 25 tabs.

  9. 75 FR 54854 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Partial Rescission of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-09

    ... Furniture Co. Ltd. Fuzhou Huan Mei Furniture Co., Ltd. Gainwell Industries Limited Green River Wood... Hotel Furniture Co. Ltd. Zhangzhou Guohui Industrial & Trade Co. Ltd. Zhejiang Shaoxing Huaweimei...

  10. Analysis of ergonomic furniture made of wood and sub-products from renewable forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira, Luciana Aparecida; de Souza, Amaury Paulo; Fialho, Patrícia Bhering; Minette, Luciano José; de Torres, Fernanda Freitas Costa

    2012-01-01

    The furniture ergonomic evaluation was carried out through the use of questionnaires and forms in industries. For the ergonomic product analysis, it was used the methodology "Object Ergonomics - Ergonomic System Technical Reading" (design goals and management actions), and measurements of products. The values achieved were compared with the standard dimensions, and the compliance or non-compliance of the furniture to it was assessed. In relation to the dimensions of the bed, the following variables did not comply with the norms: external and internal length, external and internal width, height and width of the sidebar and distance to the floor. The dimensions of these variables were above the recommended values. The double bed was inadequate for management actions and maintenance. Since the kitchen cabinet is a product that went through physical testing and follows national standards; the finish used is powder coating. The kitchen cabinet proved to be appropriate in all design requirements and for management actions. Both furniture pieces were inadequate, considering the difficulty for maintenance when a product or part of it was damaged. It was recommended the creation of regulatory standards for the production of safe and comfortable furniture.

  11. Secondary air systems for improved residential wood stove combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirot, R.L.; Sanborn, C.R.

    1982-12-21

    Three wood burning stoves were modified by the addition of preheated secondary air systems to keep burn volatile gases given off during the initial stage of combustion. This report describes the modifications and the performance of the stoves after modification. Stoves tested during the year's study included a Jotul 118, a Garrison IV and a Hearthstone I. After modification, total particulate emissions decreased in the three stoves by 56%, 69% and 4%, respectively. Flue gas CO/sub 2/ (a by-product of combustion and an indicator of the completeness of combustion) increased by 15%, 15% and 17%, respectively. Temperatures in the secondary combustion zones increased by 17%, 50% and 6%. On the basis of these measurements, other internal temperatures and visual observations, we believe the modifications significantly increased the combustion efficiencies of the Jotul and the Garrison. No improvement was discerned in the Hearthstone's performance (possibly due to unrealistic burn rate compared to firebox size). The design concepts developed, refined and tested under this year's study should be readily applicable to the majority of residential wood stoves on the market.

  12. Eco-innovation of a wooden childhood furniture set: an example of environmental solutions in the wood sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, Sara; García Lozano, Raúl; Moreira, M Teresa; Gabarrell, Xavier; Rieradevall i Pons, Joan; Feijoo, Gumersindo; Murphy, Richard J

    2012-06-01

    The environmental profile of a set of wood furniture was carried out to define the best design criteria for its eco-design. A baby cot convertible into a bed, a study desk and a bedside table were the objects of study. Two quantitative and qualitative environmental approaches were combined in order to propose improvement alternatives: Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) and Design for Environment (DfE). In the first case Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) was applied to identify the hot spots in the product system. As a next step, LCA information was used in eco-briefing to determine several improvement alternatives. A wood products company located in Catalonia (NE Spain) was assessed in detail, dividing the process into three stages: assembly, finishing and packaging. Ten impact categories were considered in the LCA study: abiotic depletion, acidification, eutrophication, global warming, ozone layer depletion, human toxicity, fresh water aquatic ecotoxicity, marine aquatic ecotoxicity, terrestrial ecotoxicity and photochemical oxidant formation. Two processes can be considered the key environmental factors: the production of the wooden boards and electricity, with contributions of 45-68% and 14-33% respectively depending on the impact categories. Subsequently, several improvement alternatives were proposed in the eco-design process (DfE) to achieve reductions in a short-medium period of time in the environmental impact. These eco-design strategies could reduce the environmental profile of the setup by 14%. The correct methodological adaptation of the concept of eco-briefing, as a tool for communication among environmental technicians and designers, the simplification of the analytical tool used and the LCA, could facilitate the environmental analysis of a product. The results obtained provide information that can help the furniture sector to improve their environmental performance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Identifying and prioritizing indicators and effective solutions to optimization the use of wood in construction classical furniture by using AHP (Case study of Qom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ghofrani

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available AbstractThe aim of this study was to identify and prioritize the indicators and provide effective solutions to optimize the use of wood in construction classical furniture using the analytic hierarchy process (case study in Qom. For this purpose, studies and results of other researchers and interviews with experts, the factors affecting the optimization of wood consumption were divided into 4 main categories and 23 sub-indicators. The importance of the sub after getting feedback furniture producers were determined by AHP. The results show that the original surface design and human resources are of great importance. In addition, among 23 sub-effective optimization of the use of wood in construction classical furniture, ergonomics, style, skill training and inlaid in classical furniture industry in order to weight the value of 0/247, 0/181, 0/124 and 0/087 are of paramount importance and the method of use of force specialist solutions were a priority.

  14. An engineering economic assessment of whole-house residential wood heating in New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood devices are being selected increasingly for residential space heating by households in New York State. Motivations for their use include energy independence, mitigating climate change, stimulating local economic development, and reducing exposure to high and variable fuel c...

  15. Effects of species information and furniture price on consumer preferences for selected woods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew Bumgardner; David Nicholls; Geoffrey Donovan

    2007-01-01

    Changing consumer tastes and species availability are influencing the design and manufacture of hardwood products. In addition, the globalization of wood product markets is exposing U.S. consumers to new species. This research evaluates consumer preferences for six domestic wood species--three from the eastern United States and three from the western United States. The...

  16. Wood Products Other Building Materials Used in New Residential Construction in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    David B. McKeever; Joe Elling

    2015-01-01

    On average, new residential construction accounts for about one-third of all wood products consumed in the United States annually. During periods of robust housing activity, 45% or more of all wood products consumed are for new single-family and multifamily housing. This can fall to as low as 20% or less during times of economic recession. Unfortunately, 2012 was not...

  17. An analysis of the physical properties of recovered CCA-treated wood from residential decks

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Bailey; Robert L. Smith; Philip A. Araman

    2004-01-01

    A large volume of CCA-treated wood removed from residential decks is disposed of in landfills every year, and better environmentally conscious alternatives are needed. Recycling CCA-treated wood from the decks could be a feasible alternative, but there is a lack of knowledge regarding the physical properties of the material. This research analyzed the chemical and...

  18. Impact of wood combustion on particle levels in a residential area in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glasius, Marianne; Ketzel, Matthias; Wåhlin, Peter

    2006-01-01

    The influence of residential wood-combustion on local air quality was studied during two periods in 2002 and 2003/04 in a small rural town with widespread use of wood combustion for heating. During one 6-week winter period, particle levels (PM2.5) in the residential area were about 4 μg m-3 higher...... and at a background site. Receptor modelling and source apportionment of the results confirmed that the most important sources to particles were long-range transport (both organic and inorganic compounds) and local heating (particularly organic compounds) in addition to regional traffic emissions. Local wood...

  19. Development of a residential wood smoke reduction plan in a wood burning community: A case study in Libby, Montana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, R.J.; Manderino, L.; Lyons, C.E.; Morris, A.L.; Anderson, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Libby, Montana depends on wood as a heating fuel. Libby exceeded the 24-hour federal PM10 ambient air quality standard every year since monitoring began in 1987. Residential wood smoke significantly contributes to its air pollution. To decrease residential wood smoke's contribution to air pollution, residents have to modify their heating habits. County officials sponsored the development of a comprehensive community-oriented plan to reduce wood smoke. This paper describes how the plan was developed and the components of the air pollution reduction strategies. The plan was developed using community input and tailored to local conditions. Four specific strategies were developed to reduce residential wood smoke pollution. Development of strategies required analysis of home heating habits and potential alternatives. Economic conditions were also considered. Expensive control strategies would be worthless unless alternative funding methods were provided. Thus, the plan included an array of funding sources to facilitate implementation. The development and implementation techniques are applicable to other communities with similar air pollution challenges

  20. Longitudinal lung function decline and wood dust exposure in the furniture industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Gitte; Schlünssen, V; Schaumburg, I

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between change in lung function and cumulative exposure to wood dust. In total, 1,112 woodworkers (927 males, 185 females) and 235 reference workers (104 males, 185 females) participated in a 6-yr longitudinal study. Forced expirato...

  1. Longitudinal lung function decline and wood dust exposure in the furniture industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, G.; Schluenssen, V.; Schaumburg, I.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between change in lung function and cumulative exposure to wood dust. In total, 1,112 woodworkers (927 males, 185 females) and 235 reference workers (104 males, 185 females) participated in a 6-yr longitudinal study. Forced expirato...

  2. Effects of Different Wood Preservatives on The Some Physical Properties of Wood Species Used in Furniture and Building Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdi Atılgan

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the combustion, density values of Fagus and Pinus sylvestris’ woods impregranted with Ammonium tetra fluoro borate (1 - 3 % and the mixture of cement and borax (6 % – 9 % according to ASTM-D 1413-76 standards. In the combustion test carried out according to ASTM-D 160-50, the combustion resulted from flame, the self-combustion and the combustion as glowing processes were completed and the amount of lux, combustion duration, decomposition and ash were determined. According to experimental results, it is determined that Fogus’ wood has the highest retention (42,43 kg/m3 in the mixture of cement and borax 9 %, combustion tempature (587 o C in the mixture of cement and borax 6 % , the value of lux (267 lux in the the combustion as glowing and Pinus sylvestris’ wood has the longest combustion duration (29,03 min. Ammonium tetrafluoro borate 1%, the most weight loss (94 %.

  3. ORC technology for waste-wood to energy conversion in the furniture manufacturing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moro Riccardo

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Exploitation of low and medium temperature thermal sources, in particular those based on biomass combustion and on industrial residual heat recovery, has been increasingly investigated in the last decades, accordingly to the growing interest towards reduction in primary energy consumption and environmental issues. Organic Rankine cycle technology allows designing power plants that are less demanding in terms of auxiliaries, safety systems, maintenance and operating costs when compared to conventional water steam power plants. To support the preliminary technical and economic design of this kind of plants in different contexts, a simulation code of part load and off-design operation of an organic Rankine cycle unit for combined heat and power has been developed. In the paper, taking the real situation of a furniture manufacturing factory as a starting point, it is shown how all energy flows occurring all year long inside the combined heat and power plant, can be estimated on the basis of the thermal user duty time profile, the available biomass flow rate and the adopted operation strategy. This information is the basis in order to correctly evaluate the energetic, economic and environmental advantages of the proposed technical solution, with respect to a particular context, as it is shown in the concluding part of the paper.

  4. Preliminary correlation of organic molecular tracers in residential wood smoke with the source of fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Standley, Laurel J.; Simoneit, Bernd R. T.

    Polar cyclic di- and triterpenoids were analyzed in the extracts of residential wood combustion aerosols collected in suburban sections of Eugene, Oakridge and Corvallis, Oregon. Additional samples collected included alder wood, smoke from two wood stoves burning only alder or pine as fuel, soot from a stove burning alder and a fireplace where oak was the predominant fuel. Due to the relatively cooler temperatures present under the smoldering conditions of residential wood combustion, as compared to the active burning of forest fires and slash burns, incomplete combustion resulted in the preservation of high levels of the natural products. There were three distinct signatures which could be used to trace relative input from coniferous, alder and oak combustion products, i.e. diterpenoids, lupane-derived triterpenoids and friedelin, respectively. Conifer combustion products dominated the suburban smoke aerosols.

  5. Contact allergy to finished woods in furniture and furnishings: a small allergic contact dermatitis epidemic to western red cedar in sauna interior decoration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huilaja, L; Kubin, M E; Riekki, R

    2016-01-01

    Allergic contact dermatitis caused by wood dust remains uncommon and most cases are occupational. Contact allergy to finished wooden products is even more rare and only few cases of contact dermatitis to wooden furnishings and furniture are described. During 2012-2014 surprisingly many patients with dermatitis associated to sauna baths were referred to our clinic. We report three novel cases with allergic contact dermatitis to western red cedar due to exposure during sauna baths. Three cases of non-occupational contact dermatitis to western red cedar were confirmed by patch testing. Allergic contact dermatitis to interior decoration or furniture is a rarity, but can be induced by novel exposures, like western red cedar in sauna interior decoration. © 2015 European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology.

  6. Emission characteristics of modern and old-type residential boilers fired with wood logs and wood pellets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansson, Linda S.; Leckner, Bo; Gustavsson, Lennart; Cooper, David; Tullin, Claes; Potter, Annika

    Emissions from commercial residential boilers fired with wood logs and wood pellets, have been compared. Seven boilers, selected with respect to age, design, connection to heat storage tank, and type of biofuel, were included in the study, which also covers two oil-fired boilers in comparison. The measurements of gaseous emissions comprised carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO 2), oxygen (O 2), total organic carbons (TOC), nitrogen oxides (NO x), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and 33 volatile organic compounds (VOC). Particle emissions were characterised by mass concentration, number concentration, and the corresponding particle size distributions. In general, old-type wood boilers caused considerably higher emissions than modern wood and pellet boilers. The mass concentration of particles was 180 times larger in the worst old-type case (a water-cooled wood boiler without heat storage tank) compared to the best modern case (wood pellets). The TOC emission was shown to be correlated to the CO emission, both ranging between very low values and up to 10 000 mg/MJ, depending on design and operation. The highest emissions of unoxidised compounds occurred at the highest excess air ratio, and oxygen was not the limiting parameter for poor combustion. Instead, high excess air can be suspected to cool the combustion chamber, resulting in high CO emissions. VOC was dominated by methane. Especially from an old-type boiler the methane emissions could be high and the effect on climate change then may become larger than that of an oil boiler. However, substitution of an old-type wood boiler with a modern wood boiler attached to a storage tank or with a pellet boiler, would reduce methane emissions by 8 to 9000 times and the efficiency would increase. Most emissions could be considerably lowered by connecting the old-type wood boiler to a heat storage tank, or by charging small (in relation to the combustion chamber) batches of wood.

  7. Residential wood heating: The forest, the atmosphere and the public consciousness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulland, J.F.; Hendrickson, O.Q.

    1993-01-01

    It is generally agreed by both energy and forestry scientists that, provided harvesting is conducted in a sustainable manner, the combustion of wood for energy production is essentially carbon dioxide neutral when the normal forest regeneration period is considered. When wood combustion replaces the consumption of fossil fuels, however, the net reduction in carbon dioxide release is almost immediate. In addition to the requirement of sustainable forestry practices, the maintenance of site biodiversity must also be considered. A preliminary review of the literature reveals that periodic selective harvesting can actually have a positive impact on the biodiversity of the forest. Despite the fact that the harvesting, processing and transportation of wood fuel invariably consumes fossil fuels, it has been shown in case studies that the energy return on investment can easily exceed a ratio of 25:1. Approximately 20 percent of the single family dwellings in Canada are heated to some extent with wood and the potential exists for an increasing contribution of wood fuel to residential energy requirements. However, there is evidence of confusion among the public regarding the environmental impact of woodburning, particularly as it relates to CO 2 emissions and carbon storage in forests. The confusion could impede the increased use of wood for residential heating because it calls into question the appropriateness of using wood for energy purposes. The forms of residential wood energy use that have evolved in rural North America provide important but neglected models of sustainable development. This could serve as the central theme of public information program to clarify the role of wood energy in the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions

  8. Wood energy for residential heating in Alaska: current conditions, attitudes, and expected use

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Nicholls; Allen M. Brackley; Valerie. Barber

    2010-01-01

    This study considered three aspects of residential wood energy use in Alaska: current conditions and fuel consumption, knowledge and attitudes, and future use and conditions. We found that heating oil was the primary fuel for home heating in southeast and interior Alaska, whereas natural gas was used most often in south-central Alaska (Anchorage). Firewood heating...

  9. Wood products used for residential repair and remodeling in the United States, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. B. McKeever; R. G. Anderson

    Large amounts of lumber and wood panel products are used annually for the repair and remodeling of residential structures and properties in the United States. In response to the need by government and industry for detailed information on this important market for timber products, a study was conducted by the Timber Demand and Technology...

  10. Public participation GIS for improving wood burning emissions from residential heating and urban environmental management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Aparicio, Susana; Vogt, Matthias; Schneider, Philipp; Kahila-Tani, Maarit; Broberg, Anna

    2017-04-15

    A crowdsourcing study supported by a public participation GIS tool was designed and carried out in two Norwegian regions. The aim was to improve the knowledge about emissions from wood burning for residential heating in urban areas based on the collection of citizens' localized insights. We focus on three main issues: 1) type of dwelling and residential heating source; 2) wood consumption and type of wood appliances; and 3) citizens' perception of the urban environment. Our study shows the importance of wood burning for residential heating, and of the resulted particle emissions, in Norwegian urban areas. Citizens' localized insights on environmental perception highlight the areas in the city that require particular attention as part of clean air strategies. Information about environmental perception is combined with existing environmental data showing certain correlation. The results support the urban environmental management based on co-benefit approaches, achieving several outcomes from a single policy measure. Measures to reduce urban air pollution will have a positive impact on the citizens' environmental perception, and therefore on their quality of life, in addition to reducing the negative consequences of air pollution on human health. The characterization of residential heating by fuelwood is still a challenging activity. Our study shows the potential of a crowdsourcing method as means for bottom-up approaches designed to increase our knowledge on human activities at urban scale that result on emissions. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  11. A refinement of the potassium tracer method for residential wood smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calloway, C. P.; Li, S.; Buchanan, J. W.; Stevens, R. K.

    Potassium has been used as a tracer for the mass of fine particles emitted to the air from residential wood burning stoves and fireplaces. The technique involves measurement by x-ray fluorescence of the total K collected on fine particle filters. Since wind blown soil particles also contain K, a correction for this contribution is made based upon soil analysis or an assumed K/Fe ratio in local soil. K in excess of this ratio is considered to be from wood smoke. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate an alternative method for determining wood smoke K. The underlying assumption is that wood smoke K is water soluble but that K in crustal particles is in a mineralized form and only slightly water soluble. Results from analyses of particle samples indicate the two methods yield essentially the same amount of wood smoke K.

  12. Furniture Sales System Inamel Furniture

    OpenAIRE

    Jemmy Meikel Mandagi; Sahni D.P, SKom, MM Sahni D.P, SKom, MM

    2000-01-01

    Computerized systems furniture sales service on the "AMELFURNITURE" This will be very useful in the process of selling furniture. With the use of this system, the process of selling furniture on "AMELFURNITURE" would be better, orderly, effective and efficient. Errors that occur in Furniture sales process will be minimal anticipated to generate quality information for those who need it.

  13. Evaluation of various fire retardants for use in wood flour--polyethylene composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole M. Stark; Robert H. White; Scott A. Mueller; Tim A. Osswald

    2010-01-01

    Wood-plastic composites represent a growing class of materials used by the residential construction industry and the furniture industry. For some applications in these industries, the fire performance of the material must be known, and in some cases improved. However, the fire performance of wood-plastic composites is not well understood, and there is little...

  14. Marketing Hardwoods to Furniture Producers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven A. Sinclair; Robert J. Bush; Philip A. Araman

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses some of the many problems in developing marketing programs for small wood products manufacturers. It examines the problems of using price as a dominant means for getting and attracting customers. The marketing of hardwood lumber to furniture producers is then used as an example. Data from 36 furniture lumber buyers is presented to illustrate...

  15. 76 FR 10880 - Initiation of Administrative Review of the Antidumping Duty Order on Wooden Bedroom Furniture...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-28

    ... International (HK) Ltd.* Green River Wood (Dongguan) Ltd. Guangdong Gainwell Industrial Furniture Co., Ltd....* Zhangjiagang Daye Hotel Furniture Co., Ltd.* Zhangjiagang Zheng Yan Decoration Co., Ltd.* Zhangjiang Sunwin...

  16. Wood pellet use in Sweden. A systems approach to the residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinterbaeck, Johan

    2000-01-01

    This empirically based thesis deals with a biofuel market in a systems context with focus on Sweden. Fuel pellets is a new consumer market for wood products. Initially used mainly by large-scale heating plants, wood pellets expanded into the Swedish residential heating market in the mid 1990s. The overall aim of this work is to provide a deeper understanding of the system for small-scale use of densified wood fuels. The objective was to provide a mapping and logistic analysis of fuel and delivery chains primarily for wood pellets. The description includes both technical as well as economic and organisational aspects. The thesis in particular investigates (i) experience from practical densification operations in the past, (ii) wood pellet retailers in Sweden, (iii) wood pellet consumers in Austria, Sweden and the United States, (iv) imports of wood pellets, and (v) forecasting of pellet consumption and inventory management for wood pellet distributors. Previous international studies revealed that the availability of cheap raw materials for fuel production and the price and availability of the most important competing fuels: coal, oil and natural gas were important factors that have guided production and use of densified wood and bark fuels. A major network of wood pellet distributors was mapped. It was concluded from a survey to these retailers that the Swedish residential market was now firmly in place and that the price of wood pellets was competitive with prices of traditional national fuels. A majority of pellet users in Austria, Sweden and the United States were pleased with pellet heating. One way to improve pellet distribution systems would be to optimise inventory management. An internal model for optimising inventory management, Pell-Sim, was constructed. For Sweden, wood pellets in 1997 represented the second most traded biofuel assortment, with 4.35 PJ or 18% of the total biofuel imports. Contrary to trade with other biofuel assortments, wood pellet trade

  17. Model development for spatial variation of PM2.5 emissions from residential wood burning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yong Q, Tian; Peng Gong; Qian Yu; Radke, John D.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a preliminary research result of spatially quantifying and allocating the potential activity of residential wood burning (RWB) by using demographic, hypsographic, climatic and topographic information as independent variables. We also introduce the method for calculating PM 2.5 emission from residential wood combustion with the potential activity as primary variable. A linear regression model was generated to describe spatial and temporal distribution of the potential activity of wood burning as primary heating source. In order to improve the estimation, the classifications of urban, suburban and rural were redefined to meet the specifications of this application. Also, a unique way of defining forest accessibility is found useful in estimating the activity potential of RWB. The results suggest that the potential activity of wood burning is mostly determined by elevation of a location, forest accessibility, urban/non-urban position, climatic conditions and several demographic variables. The analysis results were validated using survey data collected through face-to-face and telephone interviews over the study area in central California. The linear regression model can explain approximately 86% of the variation of surveyed wood burning activity potential. The total PM 2.5 emitted from woodstoves and fireplaces is analyzed for the study region at county level. (Author)

  18. Domestic Wood Burning in a Residential Area: PM2.5 Trace Elements and Black Smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnar, P.; Gustafson, P.; Johannesson, S.; Barregaard, L.; Saellsten, G.; Boman, J.

    2005-01-01

    Indoor and outdoor levels of PM2.5 have been studied in a residential area in Hagfors, a small town in Sweden. The sampling took place during typical Swedish winter conditions with sub-zero temperatures and full snow cover between February 10th and Mars 6th, 2003. The area consists of single houses having different heating systems. Some of the houses are heated by burning wood; some use heat pumps while others use direct electrical heating. 13 houses burning wood in boilers or similar for heating and 10 houses heated by other means but situated in the same area were selected for this study. Only houses without tobacco smoke were selected since this is one of the major sources of indoor particles. The objectives of the study were to identify levels and differences in composition of aerosol particles outdoors and inside houses with boilers using wood as fuel and houses heated in other ways. For K, Ca, Mn, Zn and Rb significantly higher (p < 0.05) indoor concentration for wood burners were found. The elements most often referred to as markers for wood burning are K and Zn. In addition, Si, S, Cl, Br and Rb are also mentioned as markers (Hedberg et al., 2002, Moloi et al., 2003). Black smoke was linked to wood burning, although not fully significant (p-value 0.07), as seen in figure 1a. Within the wood-burning group, some houses have concentrations comparable to the concentrations in the houses where no wood is used, while the others have much higher concentrations. These houses also have higher concentrations of K compared to the other wood burners. The possible reasons are different types of wood burning appliances and their placement in the houses as well as possible leakage. Sulphur, although sometimes linked to wood burning, shows no relationship to wood burning in this study. In figure 1b it can be seen that the indoor concentrations of sulphur is clearly lower compared to outdoor concentrations and that the levels indoors do not differ between wood and non-wood

  19. Wood products and other building materials used in new residential construction in Canada, with comparison to previous studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe Elling; David B. McKeever

    2015-01-01

    New residential construction is a critical driver of the demand for lumber, structural panels and engineered wood products in Canada. For the period 2010 through 2013, residential construction accounted for roughly 23 percent of the lumber consumed in Canada and 47 percent of structural panel usage. Insufficient data concerning imports and exports prevent estimates of...

  20. Impact of wood combustion on particle levels in a residential area in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glasius, M.; Ketzel, M.; Wåhlin, P.

    2006-01-01

    The influence of residential wood-combustion on local air quality was studied during two periods in 2002 and 2003/04 in a small rural town with widespread use of wood combustion for heating. During one 6-week winter period, particle levels (PM2.5) in the residential area were about 4 μg m-3 higher...... than at a nearby background site. This was comparable to the local traffic contribution observed at a busy street (about 70,000 vehicles per day) in the city of Copenhagen. The diurnal variation in the residential area showed increased particle levels (PM2.5) in the evening and night as expected from...... local heating sources. Particle size distributions showed highest volume concentrations of particles with diameters of 400-500 nm, and the diurnal variation of particle volume was similar to PM2.5. The particle measurements were supported by measurements of combustion gases in both the residential area...

  1. VOC emissions from residential combustion of Southern and mid-European woods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evtyugina, Margarita; Alves, Célia; Calvo, Ana; Nunes, Teresa; Tarelho, Luís; Duarte, Márcio; Prozil, Sónia O.; Evtuguin, Dmitry V.; Pio, Casimiro

    2014-02-01

    Emissions of trace gases (carbon dioxide (CO2), carbon monoxide (CO), total hydrocarbons (THC)), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from combustion of European beech, Pyrenean oak and black poplar in a domestic woodstove and fireplace were studied. These woods are widely used as biofuel in residential combustion in Southern and mid-European countries. VOCs in the flue gases were collected in Tedlar bags, concentrated in sorbent tubes and analysed by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-flame ionisation detection (GC-FID). CO2 emissions ranged from 1415 ± 136 to 1879 ± 29 g kg-1 (dry basis). The highest emission factors for CO and THC, 115.8 ± 11.7 and 95.6 24.7 ± 6.3 g kg-1 (dry basis), respectively, were obtained during the combustion of black poplar in the fireplace. European beech presented the lowest CO and THC emission factors for both burning appliances. Significant differences in emissions of VOCs were observed among wood species burnt and combustion devices. In general the highest emission factors were obtained from the combustion of Pyrenean oak in the woodstove. Among the VOCs identified, benzene and related compounds were always the most abundant group, followed by oxygenated compounds and aliphatic hydrocarbons. The amount and the composition of emitted VOCs were strongly affected by the wood composition, the type of burning device and operating conditions. Emission data obtained in this work are useful for modelling the impact of residential wood combustion on air quality and tropospheric ozone formation.

  2. Oxidation of volatiles in residential wood burning equipment. Final technical report, September 1980-February 1984

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malte, P.C.; Thornton, M.M.; Kamber, P.D.

    1984-04-01

    The objectives of this project are to measure, through the use of laboratory combustors, those conditions which promote complete combustion of wood volatiles in residential wood burning equipment. The conditions of interest are combustion temperature, residence time, stoichiometry, and air mixing. The project objectives are met through two laboratory approaches: (1) model compound studies: in order to measure the overall rates of oxidative pyrolysis of biomass volatiles, and to determine the types of intermediate organic species which are likely to form as part of this process, model compounds have been reacted in a specialized jet-stirred reactor, which has been developed as part of this research. (2) high-intensity wood combustion: in order to study the clean combustion of wood, that is, to investigate the conceptual design features required for clean burning, and to ascertain the levels and types of pollutant and condensible species which are most difficult to oxidize, a high-intensity, research wood combustor has been developed and examined for the different phases of the wood burning cycle. Although the objectives of the project have been met, it has not been possible, because of support limitations, to thoroughly explore several interesting aspects which have arisen because of this research. For example, a third laboratory system in which wood pyrolysis gas is injected directly into the a well characterized reactor, so that the kinetics and mechanisms of the gas-phase reaction of the actual biomass volatiles can be studied, could not be thoroughly developed. Refinements in the high-intensity wood combustor, which would bring its design features closer to practicality for the industry, could not be considered. 32 references, 37 figures, 10 tables.

  3. Wood Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about wood dust, which can raise the risk of cancers of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity. High amounts of wood dust are produced in sawmills, and in the furniture-making, cabinet-making, and carpentry industries.

  4. Residential wood combustion technology review: Volume 1. Final technical report, July 1997--July 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houck, J.E.; Tiegs, P.E.

    1998-12-01

    The report gives results of a review of the current state-of-the-art of residential wood combustion (RWC). The key environmental parameter of concern was the air emission of particles. The technological status of all major RWC categories--cordwood stoves, fireplaces, masonry heaters, pettel stoves, and wood-fired central heating furnaces--was reviewed. Advances in technology achieved since the mid-1980s were the primary focus. Key findings of the review included: (1) the new source performance standard (NSPS) certification procedure only qualitatively predicts the level of emissions from wood heaters under actual use in homes; (2) woodstove durability varies with model, and a method to assess the durability problem is controversial; (3) nationally, the overwhelming majority of RWC air emissions are from noncertified devices (primarily from older noncertified woodstoves); (4) new technology appliances and fuels can reduce emissions significantly; (5) the International Organization for Standardization and EPA NSPS test procedures are quite dissimilar, and data generated by the two procedures would not be comparable; and (6) the effect of wood moisture and wood type on particulate emission appears to be real but less than an order of magnitude

  5. Residential wood combustion technology review: Volume 2 -- Appendices. Final report, July 1997--July 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houck, J.E.; Tiegs, P.E.

    1998-12-01

    The report gives results of a review of the current state-of-the-art of residential wood combustion (RWC). The key environmental parameter of concern was the air emission of particles. The technological status of all major RWC categories--cordwood stoves, fireplaces, masonry heaters, pettel stoves, and wood-fired central heating furnaces--was reviewed. Advances in technology achieved since the mid-1980s were the primary focus. Key findings of the review included: (1) the new source performance standard (NSPS) certification procedure only qualitatively predicts the level of emissions from wood heaters under actual use in homes; (2) woodstove durability varies with model, and a method to assess the durability problem is controversial; (3) nationally, the overwhelming majority of RWC air emissions are from noncertified devices (primarily from older noncertified woodstoves); (4) new technology appliances and fuels can reduce emissions significantly; (5) the International Organization for Standardization and EPA NSPS test procedures are quite dissimilar, and data generated by the two procedures would not be comparable; and (6) the effect of wood moisture and wood type on particulate emission appears to be real but less than an order of magnitude

  6. Analytical electron microscopy of combustion particles: a comparison of vehicle exhaust and residential wood smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kocbach, A.; Johansen, B.V.; Schwarze, P.E.; Namork, E.

    2005-01-01

    Particulate matter has been associated with a number of adverse health effects. Since combustion particles from vehicle exhaust and wood smoke are common constituents of ambient air, the morphology and elemental composition of particles from these two sources were analysed and compared using single particle analysis. Ambient air particles were collected in locations dominated by vehicle exhaust or residential wood smoke. To verify the source contributions to the ambient air samples, particles were collected directly from the combustion sources. All particulate samples were analysed on carbon extraction replica by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and X-ray microanalysis (XRMA). The particles were classified into four groups based on morphology and elemental composition. Carbon aggregates were the only particles identified to originate from combustion sources and accounted for more than 88% of the particle numbers in the ambient air samples from both sources. The carbon aggregates were therefore further analysed with respect to morphology and elemental composition on germanium extraction replica. Carbon aggregates from vehicle exhaust were characterised by higher levels of Si and Ca compared to wood smoke aggregates that contained higher levels of K. The S content in aggregates from both sources was probably caused by interaction with gases in the air. Furthermore, the diameters of primary particles from vehicle exhaust were significantly smaller (27±7 nm) than the diameters for wood smoke (38±11 nm). The observed differences in elemental profiles and primary particle diameters for vehicle exhaust and wood smoke may influence the health effects caused by these particles

  7. 78 FR 60844 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Partial Rescission of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-02

    ... Sanlong Wood Product Co., Ltd. Zhangjiagang Daye Hotel Furniture Co., Ltd. Zhangzhou Guohui Industrial...., Foshan Guanqiu Furniture Co., Ltd. Furnmart Ltd. Green River Wood (Dongguan) Ltd. Guangdong Sunwin Green...

  8. European wood pellet market integration - A study of the residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, Olle; Hillring, Bengt; Vinterbaeck, Johan

    2011-01-01

    The integration of European energy markets is a key goal of EU energy policy, and has also been the focal point of many scientific studies in recent years. International markets for coal, oil, natural gas and electricity have previously been investigated in order to determine the extent of the respective markets. This study enhances this field of research to bioenergy markets. Price series data and time series econometrics are used to determine whether residential sector wood pellet markets of Austria, Germany and Sweden are integrated. The results of the econometric tests show that the German and Austrian markets can be considered to be integrated, whereas the Swedish market is separate from the other two countries. Although increased internationalization of wood pellet markets is likely to contribute to European price convergence and market integration, this process is far from completed. (author)

  9. European wood pellet market integration - A study of the residential sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Olle; Hillring, Bengt; Vinterbaeck, Johan [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Energy and Technology P.O. Box 7032 SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2011-01-15

    The integration of European energy markets is a key goal of EU energy policy, and has also been the focal point of many scientific studies in recent years. International markets for coal, oil, natural gas and electricity have previously been investigated in order to determine the extent of the respective markets. This study enhances this field of research to bioenergy markets. Price series data and time series econometrics are used to determine whether residential sector wood pellet markets of Austria, Germany and Sweden are integrated. The results of the econometric tests show that the German and Austrian markets can be considered to be integrated, whereas the Swedish market is separate from the other two countries. Although increased internationalization of wood pellet markets is likely to contribute to European price convergence and market integration, this process is far from completed. (author)

  10. Physicochemical characterisation of combustion particles from vehicle exhaust and residential wood smoke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schwarze Per E

    2006-01-01

    vehicle exhaust and residential wood smoke differ in primary particle diameter, microstructure, and PAH content. Furthermore, the analysed samples seem suitable for assessing the influence of physicochemical characteristics of particles on biological responses.

  11. Chemical speciation of PM2.5 emissions from residential wood combustion and meat cooking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, J.; Zielinska, B.; Fujita, E.; Chow, J.; Watson, J.; Sagebiel, J.; Sheetz, L.; Batie, S.

    1998-01-01

    Residential wood combustion and meat cooking emissions were each analyzed to develop a chemical emissions profile. Samples were collected using a DRI-constructed dilution stack sampler equipped with a 2.5 mm particle selective cyclone. Emissions were diluted 30-100 times, cooled to ambient temperature, and were allowed 80 seconds for condensation prior to collection. Fireplace and wood-stove emissions testing was conducted at the DRI facilities. Wood type, wood moisture, burn rate, and fuel load were varied for different experiments. Meat emissions testing was conducted at the CE-CERT stationary emissions lab in Riverside, California. Meat type, fat content, and the cooking appliance used were changed in different tests. Fine particle and semi-volatile organic compounds were collected on filter/PUF/XAD/PUF cartridges. Inorganic samples were collected on Teflon and quartz filters, which were analyzed for mass by gravimetry, elements by x-ray fluorescence, ammonium by automated colorimetry, organic and elemental carbon by thermal/optical reflectance, as well as chloride, nitrate, and sulfate by ion chromatography. Analysis of organic species was conducted by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). These data have been utilized for constructing specific profiles for use in the Chemical Mass Balance model for apportionment of fine particle sources in the Denver, Colorado, region

  12. Furniture design

    CERN Document Server

    Smardzewski, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    Maximizing reader insights into the principles of designing furniture as wooden structures, this book discusses issues related to the history of furniture structures, their classification and characteristics, ergonomic approaches to anthropometric requirements and safety of use. It presents key methods and highlights common errors in designing the characteristics of the materials, components, joints and structures, as well as looking at the challenges regarding developing associated design documentation. Including analysis of how designers may go about calculating the stiffness and endurance of parts, joints and whole structures, the book analyzes questions regarding the loss of furniture stability and the resulting threats to health of the user, putting forward a concept of furniture design as an engineering processes. Creating an attractive, functional, ergonomic and safe piece of furniture is not only the fruit of the work of individual architects and artists, but requires an effort of many people working ...

  13. Residential environmental education meeting teachers' science needs and beyond: A Bradford Woods case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatzke, Jenna M.

    With the continued increase of environmental problems facing the world, the need for environmental education (EE) is greater than ever before. Residential EE centers offer unique opportunities that have the potential to increase EE in student education. The purpose of this study was to explore classroom teachers’ understandings and ideas about and what role residential EE programming and curricula play in their classroom curriculum. Using an embedded mixed methods instrumental case study design, this study worked with 58 classroom teachers attending Bradford Woods, a residential EE center. Data collection sources included an on-line survey, on-site trail observations, and semi-structured phone interviews. Results of the study indicated that teachers found multiple meanings in EE, relating the field to being about, from and in, and for the environment. Residential EE centers were seen to provide both social and academic benefits for students as well as to challenge teachers to take on new and varying roles. Results also linked connections between teachers’ values, beliefs and knowledge to their use of EE in their curriculum. Discussion and implications of the study focus on what overarching findings have been gained from the founding literature base. These findings include a detailed look at the complex role of the teacher in EE programming settings and a discussion on what little has changed in our understandings of the EE, residential EE center, and classroom milieu over the past few decades. Suggestions for future research are outlined based on these overarching findings. Finally, limitations of the study and main contributions to the research base are also presented.

  14. 2006 : Wood Used in Residential Repair and Remodeling U.S. and Canada, with Comparison to 1997 and 2003 : Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig Adair; David B. McKeever

    2009-01-01

    The repair and remodeling of residential units in both the United States and Canada is an important market for wood products. Many and varied repair and remodeling activities and projects are undertaken annually. Some require substantial amounts of wood products, some none at all. In 2006, about 28 percent of all solid wood products consumed in the United States and 31...

  15. Penggunaan Kayu Reklamasi untuk Furniture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oktavianus Marti Nangoy

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Our everyday activities cannot be separated from the use of furniture, especially the indoor activities. We use a bed to sleep, sitting in a chair, or other activities. Various designs of furniture made to adapt human activities. But have we ever thought about the materials used for the furniture? Wood is a common material used in furniture. This article is made to encourage designers being responsible towards living environment. They are charged to love nature and realize that their participation in defining natural preservation is huge. Design is the starter of eco living and all designed stuffs and then well produced from choosing material until its effects in the future, because everything will directly affect ourselves and environment.  

  16. Source apportionment of PM2.5 at multiple Northwest U.S. sites: Assessing regional winter wood smoke impacts from residential wood combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotchenruther, Robert A.

    2016-10-01

    Wood smoke from residential wood combustion is a significant source of elevated PM2.5 in many communities across the Northwest U.S. Accurate representation of residential wood combustion in source-oriented regional scale air quality models is challenging because of multiple uncertainties. As an alternative to source-oriented source apportionment, this work provides, through receptor-oriented source apportionment, an assessment of winter residential wood combustion impacts at multiple Northwest U.S. locations. Source apportionment was performed on chemically speciated PM2.5 from 19 monitoring sites using the Positive Matrix Factorization (PMF) receptor model. Each site was modeled independently, but a common data preparation and modeling protocol was used so that results were as comparable as possible across sites. Model solutions had from 4 to 8 PMF factors, depending on the site. PMF factors at each site were associated with a source classification (e.g., primary wood smoke), a dominant chemical composition (e.g., ammonium nitrate), or were some mixture. 15 different sources or chemical compositions were identified as contributing to PM2.5 across the 19 sites. The 6 most common were; aged wood smoke and secondary organic carbon, motor vehicles, primary wood smoke, ammonium nitrate, ammonium sulfate, and fugitive dust. Wood smoke was identified at every site, with both aged and primary wood smoke identified at most sites. Wood smoke contributions to PM2.5 were averaged for the two winter months of December and January, the months when wood smoke in the Northwest U.S. is mainly from residential wood combustion. The total contribution of residential wood combustion, that from primary plus aged smoke, ranged from 11.4% to 92.7% of average December and January PM2.5 depending on the site, with the highest percent contributions occurring in smaller towns that have fewer expected sources of winter PM2.5. Receptor modeling at multiple sites, such as that conducted in this

  17. Chemical source characterization of residential wood combustion emissions in Denver, Colorado; Bakersfield, California; and Mammoth Lakes, California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houck, J.E.; Goulet, J.M.; Chow, J.C.; Watson, J.G.

    1989-01-01

    The chemical composition of residential wood combustion particulate emissions was determined for fireplaces and woodstoves. Burn rates, burn patterns, wood burning appliances, and cordwood types characteristic of Denver, Colorado; Bakersfield, California; and Mammoth Lakes, California, were used during sample collection. Samples were collected using a dilution/cooling system to ensure that condensible compounds were captured. Analyses for 44 chemical species were conducted. Source profiles for use in chemical mass balance (CMB) modeling were calculated from the analytical data. The principal chemical species comprising the profiles were organic compounds and elemental carbon. The minor chemical species were sulfur, chlorine, potassium, sodium, calcium, zinc, nitrate, and ammonium. Virtually all potassium was in a water-soluble form, and sulfur emissions between fireplaces and woodstoves were noted. Area-specific source profiles for fireplaces, woodstoves, and overall residential wood combustion are presented

  18. 75 FR 5952 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-05

    ...\\ Metal furniture parts and unfinished furniture parts made of wood products (as defined above) that are... essential character of wooden bedroom furniture in an unassembled, incomplete, or unfinished form. Such... New Materials Co., Ltd.) Classic Furniture Global Co., Ltd. Der Cheng Wooden Works of Factory Dong...

  19. The greenhouse gas and energy impacts of using wood instead of alternatives in residential construction in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upton, Brad; Miner, Reid; Spinney, Mike; Heath, Linda S.

    2008-01-01

    Data developed by the Consortium for Research on Renewable Industrial Materials were used to estimate savings of greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption associated with use of wood-based building materials in residential construction in the United States. Results indicate that houses with wood-based wall systems require 15-16% less total energy for non-heating/cooling purposes than thermally comparable houses employing alternative steel- or concrete-based building systems. Results for non-renewable energy consumption are essentially the same as those for total energy, reflecting the fact that most of the displaced energy is in fossil fuels. Over a 100-year period, net greenhouse gas emissions associated with wood-based houses are 20-50% lower than emissions associated with thermally comparable houses employing steel- or concrete-based building systems. Assuming 1.5 million single-family housing starts per year, the difference between wood and non-wood building systems represents about 9.6 Mt of CO 2 equivalents per year. The corresponding energy benefit associated with wood-based building materials is approximately 132 PJ year -1 . These estimates represent about 22% of embodied energy and 27% of embodied greenhouse gas emissions in the residential sector of the US economy. The results of the analysis are very sensitive to assumptions and uncertainties regarding the fate of forestland that is taken out of wood production due to reduced demand for wood, the continued production of co-products where demand for wood products is reduced, and the rate at which carbon accumulates in forests

  20. 77 FR 52311 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Partial Rescission of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-29

    ... Yihua Timber Industry Co., Ltd. Zhang Zhou Sanlong Wood Product Co., Ltd. Zhangjiagang Daye Hotel... Furniture Co., Ltd. Gainwell Industries Limited. Gotop Global Inc. Gotop Global Ltd. Green River Wood (Dongguan) Ltd. Guangdong Gainwell Industrial Furniture Co., Ltd. Guangdong Sunwin Green Furniture Industry...

  1. Integration of a wood pellet burner and a Stirling engine to produce residential heat and power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardozo, Evelyn; Erlich, Catharina; Malmquist, Anders; Alejo, Lucio

    2014-01-01

    The integration a Stirling engine with a pellet burner is a promising alternative to produce heat and power for residential use. In this context, this study is focused on the experimental evaluation of the integration of a 20 kW th wood pellet burner and a 1 kW e Stirling engine. The thermal power not absorbed by the engine is used to produce hot water. The evaluation highlights the effects of pellet type, combustion chamber length and cycling operation on the Stirling engine temperatures and thermal power absorbed. The results show that the position of the Stirling engine is highly relevant in order to utilize as much as possible of the radiative heat from the burner. Within this study, only a 5 cm distance change between the Stirling engine and the pellet burner could result in an increase of almost 100 °C in the hot side of the engine. However, at a larger distance, the temperature of the hot side is almost unchanged suggesting dominating convective heat transfer from the hot flue gas. Ash accumulation decreases the temperature of the hot side of the engine after some cycles of operation when a commercial pellet burner is integrated. The temperature ratio, which is the relation between the minimum and maximum temperatures of the engine, decreases when using Ø8 mm wood pellets in comparison to Ø6 mm pellets due to higher measured temperatures on the hot side of the engine. Therefore, the amount of heat supplied to the engine is increased for Ø8 mm wood pellets. The effectiveness of the engine regenerator is increased at higher pressures. The relation between temperature of the hot side end and thermal power absorbed by the Stirling engine is nearly linear between 500 °C and 660 °C. Higher pressure inside the Stirling engine has a positive effect on the thermal power output. Both the chemical and thermal losses increase somewhat when integrating a Stirling engine in comparison to a stand-alone boiler for only heat production. The overall efficiency

  2. Effect of combustion condition on cytotoxic and inflammatory activity of residential wood combustion particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalava, Pasi I.; Salonen, Raimo O.; Nuutinen, Kati; Pennanen, Arto S.; Happo, Mikko S.; Tissari, Jarkko; Frey, Anna; Hillamo, Risto; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta

    2010-05-01

    Residential heating is an important local source of fine particles and may cause significant exposure and health effects in populations. We investigated the cytotoxic and inflammatory activity of particulate emissions from normal (NC) and smouldering (SC) combustion in one masonry heater. The PM 1-0.2 and PM 0.2 samples were collected from the dilution tunnel with a high-volume cascade impactor (HVCI). Mouse RAW 264.7 macrophages were exposed to the PM-samples for 24 h. Inflammatory mediators, (IL-6, TNFα and MIP-2), and cytotoxicity (MTT-test), were measured. Furthermore, apoptosis and cell cycle of macrophages were analyzed. The HVCI particulate samples were characterized for ions, elements and PAH compounds. Assays of elemental and organic carbon were conducted from parallel low volume samples. All the samples displayed mostly dose-dependent inflammatory and cytotoxic activity. SC samples were more potent than NC samples at inducing cytotoxicity and MIP-2 production, while the order of potency was reversed in TNFα production. SC-PM 1-0.2 sample was a significantly more potent inducer of apoptosis than the respective NC sample. After adjustment for the relative toxicity with emission factor (mg MJ -1), the SC-PM emissions had clearly higher inflammatory and cytotoxic potential than the NC-PM emissions. Thus, operational practice in batch burning of wood and the resultant combustion condition clearly affect the toxic potential of particulate emissions.

  3. Online molecular characterization of fine particulate matter in Port Angeles, WA: Evidence for a major impact from residential wood smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaston, Cassandra J.; Lopez-Hilfiker, Felipe D.; Whybrew, Lauren E.; Hadley, Odelle; McNair, Fran; Gao, Honglian; Jaffe, Daniel A.; Thornton, Joel A.

    2016-08-01

    We present on-line molecular composition measurements of wintertime particulate matter (PM) during 2014 using an iodide-adduct high-resolution, time-of-flight chemical ionization mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-CIMS) coupled to a Filter Inlet for Gases and AEROsols (FIGAERO). These measurements were part of an intensive effort to characterize PM in the region with a focus on ultrafine particle sources. The technique was used to detect and quantify different classes of wood burning tracers, including levoglucosan, methoxyphenols, and nitrocatechols, among other compounds in near real-time. During the campaign, particulate mass concentrations of compounds with the same molecular composition as levoglucosan ranged from 0.002 to 19 μg/m3 with a median mass concentration of 0.9 μg/m3. Wood burning markers, in general, showed a strong diurnal pattern peaking at night and in the early morning. This diurnal profile combined with cold, stagnant conditions, wind directions from predominantly residential areas, and observations of lower combustion efficiency at night support residential wood burning as a dominant source of wintertime PM in Port Angeles. This finding has implications for improving wintertime air quality in the region by encouraging the use of high efficiency wood-burning stoves or other cleaner home heating options throughout the relevant domain.

  4. Jepara Indonesia Furniture

    OpenAIRE

    romanzick

    2016-01-01

    Jepara Indonesia Furniture A wide choice of Indonesian furniture companies provide free business listings to all types of furniture also for outlets and stores. Each section is accessible that contains a comprehensive list of our range of furniture details information and full campaign. We provided a platform create various products along with featured inspiration section related products, services, accessories. Indonesia Furniture Teak Garden Furniture It is bringing customers distinctive as...

  5. Effect of Thermal Storage on the Performance of a Wood Pellet-fired Residential Boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Butcher

    2017-08-31

    Interest in the direct use of biomass for thermal applications as a renewable technology is increasing as is also focus on air pollutant emissions from these sources and methods to minimize the impact. This work has focused on wood pellet-fired residential boilers, which are the cleanest fuel in this category. In the residential application the load varies strongly over the course of a year and a high fraction of the load is typically under 15% of the maximum boiler capacity. Thermal storage can be used even with boilers which have modulation capacity typically to 30% of the boiler maximum. One common pellet boiler was tested at full load and also at the minimum load used in the U.S. certification testing (15%). In these tests the load was steady over the test period. Testing was also done with an emulated load profile for a home in Albany, N.Y. on a typical January, March, and April day. In this case the load imposed on the boiler varied hourly under computer control, based on the modeled load for the example case used. The boiler used has a nominal output of 25 kW and a common mixed hardwood/softwood commercial pellet was used. Moisture content was 3.77%. A dilution tunnel approach was used for the measurement of particulate emissions, in accordance with U.S. certification testing requirements. The test results showed that the use of storage strongly reduces cycling rates under part load conditions. The transients which occur as these boilers cycle contribute to increased particulate emissions and reduced efficiency. The time period of a full cycle at a given load condition can be increased by increasing the storage tank volume and/or increasing the control differential range. It was shown that increasing the period strongly increased the measured efficiency and reduced the particulate emission (relative to the no storage case). The impact was most significant at the low load levels. Storage tank heat loss is shown to be a significant factor in thermal efficiency

  6. Use of residential wood heating in a context of climate change: a population survey in Québec (Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valois Pierre

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Wood heating is recommended in several countries as a climate change (CC adaptation measure, mainly to increase the autonomy of households during power outages due to extreme climatic events. The aim of this study was to examine various perceptions and individual characteristics associated with wood heating through a survey about CC adaptations. Methods A telephone survey (n = 2,545 of adults living in the southern part of the province of Québec (Canada was conducted in the early fall season of 2005. The questionnaire used closed questions and measured the respondents' beliefs and current adaptations about CC. Calibration weighting was used to adjust the data analysis for the respondent's age and language under stratified sampling based on health regions. Results More than three out of four respondents had access to a single source of energy at home, which was mainly electricity; 22.2% combined two sources or more; 18.5% heated with wood occasionally or daily during the winter. The prevalence of wood heating was higher in the peripheral regions than in the more urban regions, where there was a higher proportion of respondents living in apartments. The prevalence was also higher with participants completely disagreeing (38.5% with the eventual prohibition of wood heating when there is smog in winter, compared to respondents somewhat disagreeing (24.2% or agreeing (somewhat: 17.5%; completely: 10.4% with the adoption of this strategy. It appears that the perception of living in a region susceptible to winter smog, smog warnings in the media, or the belief in the human contribution to CC, did not influence significantly wood heating practices. Conclusion Increased residential wood heating could very well become a maladaptation to climate change, given its known consequences on winter smog and respiratory health. It would thus be appropriate to implement a long-term national program on improved and controlled residential wood

  7. Spent CCA treated wood from residential decks can be a resource for reuse and recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L Smith; Philip A. Araman; David Bailey; Matthew F. Winn

    2005-01-01

    The volume of CCA treated wood being disposed of in landfills is growing at an alarming rate. In order to reduce the demand on landfills and timber harvest, more environmentally responsible alternatives for spent CCA treated wood have to be addressed. The objective of this study was to determine feasible products that can be produced from CCA treated wood....

  8. Physical and chemical evaluation of furniture waste briquettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Ana Isabel; Font, Rafael; Conesa, Juan A

    2016-03-01

    Furniture waste is mainly composed of wood and upholstery foam (mostly polyurethane foam). Both of these have a high calorific value, therefore, energy recovery would be an appropriate process to manage these wastes. Nevertheless, the drawback is that the energy content of these wastes is limited due to their low density mainly that of upholstery foam. Densification of separate foam presents difficulties due to its elastic character. The significance of this work lies in obtaining densified material by co-densification of furniture wood waste and polyurethane foam waste. Densification of furniture wood and the co-densification of furniture wood waste with polyurethane foam have been studied. On the one hand, the parameters that have an effect on the quality of the furniture waste briquettes have been analysed, i.e., moisture content, compaction pressure, presence of lignin, etc. The maximum weight percentage of polyurethane foam that can be added with furniture wood waste to obtain durable briquettes and the optimal moisture were determined. On the other hand, some parameters were analysed in order to evaluate the possible effect on the combustion. The chemical composition of waste wood was compared with untreated wood biomass; the higher nitrogen content and the concentration of some metals were the most important differences, with a significant difference of Ti content. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Identifying future competitive business strategies for the U.S. furniture industry: Benchmarking and paradigm shifts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert Schuler; Urs Buehlmann

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes benchmarking activities undertaken to provide a basis for comparing the U.S. wood furniture industry with other nations that have a globally competitive furniture manufacturing industry. The second part of this paper outlines and discusses strategies that have the potential to help the U.S. furniture industry survive and thrive in a global business...

  10. How do retailers rate the United States and Canada as furniture sources compared to China?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs Buehlmann; Matthew Bumgardner; Mary Frye; Torsten Lihra

    2008-01-01

    During the past decade, the U.S. wood household furniture industry has lost a significant share of its domestic market to imported furniture. This market share loss has been widely discussed and analyzed, largely from a manufacturing perspective. A relatively unexplored dimension of household furniture importing is the perspective of the retailer. Retailers play a...

  11. CIFAC '92: First International Symposium on Computers in Furniture and Cabinet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janice K. Wiedenbeck

    1992-01-01

    (Book Review) The First International Symposium on Computers in Furniture and Cabinet Manufacturing was sponsored by the Wood Machining Institute in cooperation with Furniture Design and Manufacturing Magazine. The symposium was designed to ãprovide an international forum for the exchange of the latest information on the use of computers in furniture and cabinet...

  12. 77 FR 12235 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-29

    ...) Ltd.* Gotop Global Inc. Gotop Global Ltd. Green River Wood (Dongguan) Ltd. Guangdong Gainwell Industrial Furniture Co., Ltd. Guangdong Sunwin Green Furniture Industry Group Co., Ltd. Guangzhou Maria Yee....* Zhangjiagang Daye Hotel Furniture Co., Ltd.* Zhangjiagang Zheng Yan Decoration Co., Ltd.* Zhangjiang Sunwin...

  13. Evaluation of Gas, Oil and Wood Pellet Fueled Residential Heating System Emissions Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, R.

    2009-12-01

    This study has measured the emissions from a wide range of heating equipment burning different fuels including several liquid fuel options, utility supplied natural gas and wood pellet resources. The major effort was placed on generating a database for the mass emission rate of fine particulates (PM 2.5) for the various fuel types studied. The fine particulates or PM 2.5 (less than 2.5 microns in size) were measured using a dilution tunnel technique following the method described in US EPA CTM-039. The PM 2.5 emission results are expressed in several units for the benefit of scientists, engineers and administrators. The measurements of gaseous emissions of O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO, NO{sub x} and SO{sub 2} were made using a combustion analyzer based on electrochemical cells These measurements are presented for each of the residential heating systems tested. This analyzer also provides a steady state efficiency based on stack gas and temperature measurements and these values are included in the report. The gaseous results are within the ranges expected from prior emission studies with the enhancement of expanding these measurements to fuels not available to earlier researchers. Based on measured excess air levels and ultimate analysis of the fuel's chemical composition the gaseous emission results are as expected and fall within the range provided for emission factors contained in the US-EPA AP 42, Emission Factors Volume I, Fifth Edition. Since there were no unexpected findings in these gaseous measurements, the bulk of the report is centered on the emissions of fine particulates, or PM 2.5. The fine particulate (PM 2.5) results for the liquid fuel fired heating systems indicate a very strong linear relationship between the fine particulate emissions and the sulfur content of the liquid fuels being studied. This is illustrated by the plot contained in the first figure on the next page which clearly illustrates the linear relationship between the measured mass of

  14. Air pollution from residential wood combustion in a Danish village. Measuring campaign and analysis of results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waahlin, P.; Roerdam Olesen, H.; Bossi, R.; Stubkjaer, J.

    2010-05-15

    A campaign took place in the winter 2006/2007 comprising measurements of many air pollution components at two sites: a wood smoke exposed site within the village Slagslunde, and a background site 500 m outside of the village. The report describes the campaign and its results. A central result is a so-called 'wood smoke source profile', which relates several measures of wood smoke pollution to each other. This is based on a 'cleaned' data set, for which the effect of other sources than wood smoke was small. The wood smoke profile links the measures PM2.5, particle volume, soot, monosaccharide anhydrides (levoglucosan and mannosan) and different PAHs to each other. Particle number N does not have a close link to the other measures. (author)

  15. PENGARUH UMUR POHON, BONITA DAN POSISI AKSIAL BATANG TERHADAP STRUKTUR MAKROSKOPIS DAN KUALITAS KAYU JATI SEBAGAI BAHAN FURNITUR (Effect of Tree Age, Site Quality Index and Trunk Axial Position on Macroscopic Structure and Quality of Teak Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yustinus Suranto

    2015-03-01

    is an alternative solution of limited raw materials faced by furniture industry. Young wood tends to have a low-quality wood. One element for measuring wood quality is wood macroscopic structure properties. This study was aimed to determine the effect of tree age, site quality index and axial stem position on wood structures and wood quality. Thirty-six young teak trees were harvested on forest areas of Kendal Forest District, Central Java Province. Three disks were taken from each trunk, namely from the butt, middle and upper parts. Heartwood proportion and annual ring dimensions were measured based on natural color difference by using millimeter grid apparatus. Data were analyzed by using variance analysis arranged in blocked factorial and further testing were performed by using HSD Duncan. Wood quality was analyzed using determinant method which elaborated based on Z norm curve. Results showed that interaction of three factors did not affect on heart-wood proportion and growth ring dimensions. Interaction of age classes and site quality index influence significantly on heart-wood proportion and growth ring dimensions. Stem axial position significantly affects on heart-wood proportion and very significantly effect on growth ring dimensions. The lower wood position, the higher heart-wood proportion and the wider growth ring dimensions. Interaction of three factors namely class age V, site quality index 4 and middle trunk position has a highest wood quality, namely class 2, but interaction of age class V, site quality index 3 and top trunk has the lowest one, namely class 4. The use of wood-based quality will maximize the value and increase the product lifespan, thereby reducing the intensity of logging and become more environmental friendly.

  16. Early Impacts of Residential Development on Wood Thrushes in an Urbanizing Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    L. E. Friesen; E. D. Cheskey; M. D. Cadman; V. E. Martin; R. J. MacKay

    2005-01-01

    Environmental protection policies sometimes protect forests along an advancing suburban front although many of the forests may be brought into close proximity to residential housing. Research suggests that even when forests are physically preserved, their bird communities are simplified as the surroundings become urbanized. However, little is known of the time required...

  17. Residential Tornado Safe Rooms from Commodity Wood Products: Wall Development and Impact Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. Falk; James J. Bridwell; John C. Hermanson

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, tornadoes cause significant damage and result in many injuries and deaths. Although the development and use of tornado safe rooms and shelters have helped reduce the human toll associated with these events, the cost of these structures is often too high for many that could benefit from their use. The development of a residential tornado safe room...

  18. Residential tornado safe room from commodity wood products – design and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. Falk; James J. Bridwell

    2018-01-01

    In the United States, tornadoes cause significant damage and result in many injuries and deaths. Although the development and use of tornado safe rooms have helped decrease the human toll associated with these events, the cost of these structures is often too high for many that could benefit from their use. The development of a nonproprietary residential tornado safe...

  19. Investigation on the Scratch Strength of Clear Paints Used in Furniture Industries on the Wood Species Beech, Elm, Alder and Spruce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ghofrani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available In This research, the scratch strength (Cross-Cut Test of clear paints (nitrocellulose lacquers and acid catalyst lacquers of wood species Beech, Elm, Alder and spruce were studied as a function of moisture content (MC of the samples. For this purpose, lumbers (550×110×12 mm were cut from sapwood in tangential surfaces and were air dried for one month according to wood drying procedures. Then, for pre-conditioning of moisture content, at the levels of 8%, 12% and 15%, the samples were placed in three clima rooms. Then, finish applied and strength tests were performed. The results revealed that for acid catalyst lacquers the highest scratch strength (10.4% belongs to Elm wood with 8% moisture content, and the lowest scratch strength (53.6% belongs to Spruce wood with nitrocellulose lacquers having 15% moisture content.

  20. Retene Emission from Residential Solid Fuels in China and Evaluation of Retene as a Unique Marker for Soft Wood Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Guofeng; Tao, Shu; Wei, Siye; Zhang, Yanyan; Wang, Rong; Wang, Bin; Li, Wei; Shen, Huizhong; Huang, Ye; Yang, Yifeng; Wang, Wei; Wang, Xilong; Massey Simonich, Staci L.

    2012-01-01

    Retene (1-methyl-7-isopropylphenanthrene) is often used as a marker for softwood combustion and for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) source apportionment. The emission factors of retene (EFRET) from 11 crop residues, 27 firewood and 5 coals were measured using traditional rural Chinese stoves. Retene was measured in combustion emissions from all of the residential fuels tested and EFRET varied significantly among the fuels due to the differences in fuel properties and combustion conditions. EFRET for pine (0.34±0.08 mg/kg) and larch (0.29±0.22 mg/kg) were significantly higher than those of other wood types, including fir and cypress (0.081±0.058 mg/kg). However, EFRET for crop residues varied from 0.048±0.008 to 0.37±0.14 mg/kg and were not significantly lower than those for softwood (0.074±0.026 to 0.34±0.08 mg/kg). The EFRET for coal were very high and ranged from 2.2±1.5 (anthracite briquette) to 187±113 mg/kg (raw bituminous chunk). EFRET was positively correlated with EFs of co-emitted particulate matter (EFPM) and phenanthrene (EFPHE) for crop residue and coal, but not for wood. In addition, the ratios of EFPHE/EFRET and EFPM/EFRET for coals were much lower than those for crop residues and wood. These data suggest that retene is not a unique PAH marker for softwood combustion and that coal combustion, in particular, should be taken into account when retene is used for PAH source apportionment. PMID:22452486

  1. Residential Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde; Matsufuji, Y.

    2011-01-01

    are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing residential waste is faced with the problem that many residences already divert some waste away from the official collection systems, for example performing home composting of vegetable waste and garden waste, having their bundled newspaper picked up by the scouts...... twice a year or bringing their used furniture to the flea markets organized by charity clubs. Thus, much of the data available on residential waste represents collected waste and not necessarily all generated waste. The latter can only be characterized by careful studies directly at the source...

  2. Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Unterrainer, Walter

    2014-01-01

    come from? How is it harvested? How is it manufactured and treated ? How are the buildings detailed and protected against weather during construction to keep them dry and make them long-life ? In a period of climate change, forests are the last lungs of the planet to sequestrate CO2. Their global size......Wood – a sustainable building material ? For thousands of years and all over the planet, wood has been used as a building material and exciting architecture has been created in wood. The fantastic structural, physical and aesthetic properties of the material as well as the fact that wood...... is a renewable resource makes it predestinated for what is considered ´sustainable architecture´. But the reality is less linear and there are serious traps: In fact the lecture shows by examples that it is much easier to build very unsustainable buildings in wood than the other way round! Where does the wood...

  3. Air quality and residential wood combustion - application of the model system SIMAIRrwc for some Swedish municipalities; Luftkvalitet och smaaskalig biobraensleeldning. Tillaempningar av SIMAIRved foer naagra kommuner

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Omstedt, Gunnar; Andersson, Stefan; Johansson, Christer; Loefgren, Bengt-Erik

    2008-11-15

    SIMAIRrwc is a Web based evaluation tool for meeting the EU directive on air pollution limits in residential areas using wood combustion. The background is a four-year research program (2001-2004) called Biomass Combustion Health and Environment. Some conclusions from this program were that emissions from small scale wood combustion can influence human health mainly due to high emitting old wood stoves during cold weather conditions and that the air quality in such areas can improve significantly if old wood stoves were replaced by modern wood boilers attached to a storage tank or with a pellet boiler. SIMAIRrwc is based on the same principles as SIMAIRroad, which is a Web based evaluation tool for road traffic i.e. coupled model system using different models on local, urban and regional geographical scales, best available emission data, but at the same time presented in a very simplified way. In this project SIMAIRrwc has been applied in five different Swedish municipalities. The aim has been to apply and improve the model in cooperation with the municipalities. The conclusions from the project are: Small scale wood combustions in residential areas are local problems which sometimes include only a few houses and/or wood-burners. Air quality problems related to the EU directive are mainly due to particles. Combinations of residential areas with wood combustion and emissions from nearby dense traffic roads might give rise to bad air quality. Actions require knowledge about individual equipment which needs information from the local chimney sweeps. The best way to identify problem areas is to use model calculations. If model calculations indicate risks of exceeding air quality limits, then new calculations should be made with improved input data taking into account for example information of district heating or other installations that can effect the emissions. Before actions are taken it may also be useful to make measurements. The measurement site can then be

  4. Nighttime residential wood burning evidenced from an indirect method for estimating real-time concentration of particulate organic matter (POM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sciare, J.; Sarda-Esteve, R.; Favez, O.; Cachier, H.; Aymoz, G.; Laj, P.

    2008-01-01

    Real-time analyzers of selected chemical components (sulfate, nitrate, Black Carbon) and integrative aerosol parameters (particulate matter and light scattering coefficient) were implemented for a 2-week campaign (November-December 2005) in a suburban area of Clermont-Ferrand (France) in order to document fast changes in the chemical composition of submicron aerosols. Measurements of particulate organic matter (POM) were not available in the field but were indirectly estimated from time-resolved (3-min) reconstruction of the light scattering coefficient. This methodology offered the opportunity to investigate almost real-time and artifact-free POM concentrations even at low concentrations (typically below 0.1 mu g m(-3)). The overall uncertainties associated with this POM calculation were of the order of 20%, which are comparable to those commonly referred in literature for POM calculation or measurements. A chemical mass balance (CMB) of PM1 was performed using the derived POM concentrations and showed a very good correlation (slope = 0.93; r(2) = 0.91, N = 663) with real-time PM1 measurements obtained from R and P TEOM-FDMS, demonstrating the consistency of our approach. Important diurnal variations were observed in POM concentrations, with a dominant contribution of POM from fossil fuel origin during daytime and a dominant contribution of POM from residential wood burning at night. POM was calculated to contribute as much as 70% of PM1 during our study, pointing out the major role of carbonaceous aerosols at this period of the year at our residential area. (authors)

  5. Aproveitamento de resíduos de painéis de madeira gerados pela indústria moveleira na produção de pequenos objetos Small objetcs manufactured with wood panel residues generated by rhe furniture industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Barbosa de Abreu

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Os painéis reconstituídos à base de madeira ganharam espaço antes ocupado pela madeira maciça, o que tem gerado volume expressivo de resíduos. A indústria moveleira contribui para a geração desses resíduos, que se apresentam como alternativa viável para a exploração de sua aplicação na produção artesanal de pequenos objetos. Este trabalho teve por objetivo produzir pequenos objetos com painéis e com mistura de resíduos de painéis de madeira, a fim de comparar suas qualidades. A partir de 10 projetos gráficos, três artesãos confeccionaram 10 pequenos objetos, utilizando painéis de MDF (Medium Density Fiberboard, OSB (Oriented Strand Board e compensado. Cada artesão produziu nove exemplares de cada objeto. Um quarto artesão confeccionou os mesmos objetos com resíduos de três empresas do polo moveleiro da cidade de Ubá, MG, com três repetições, sendo comparados os atributos de qualidade dos objetos. Concluiu-se que todos os painéis são adequados para a confecção dos objetos e alguns se destacam em relação a outros, conforme o atributo avaliado. Os objetos confeccionados com a mistura de resíduos de painéis de madeira tiveram acabamento uniforme e não apresentaram diferenças significativas em relação aos produzidos com painéis com relação aos atributos funcionalidade, peso, proporção e simetria. A mistura de resíduos de diferentes painéis influenciou negativamente a avaliação dos atributos acabamento, beleza e cor. Um objeto produzido a partir de resíduos do mesmo painel pode ser mais harmonioso e atrativo. É tecnicamente viável a produção de pequenos objetos a partir de resíduos de painéis de madeira vindos de indústrias moveleiras.Wood residue panels have been used in substitution of solid wood. As a consequence, the volume of residues has been increasing day-by-day. The furniture industries are the major generators of these residues. Their use as raw material for the production of

  6. Influence of firebed temperature on inorganic particle emissions in a residential wood pellet boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehrig, Matthias; Jaeger, Dirk; Pelz, Stefan K.; Weissinger, Alexander; Groll, Andreas; Thorwarth, Harald; Haslinger, Walter

    2016-07-01

    The temperature-dependent release of inorganic elements is the first step of the main formation pathway of particle emissions in automatically fired biomass burners. To investigate this step, a residential pellet boiler with an underfeed-burner was equipped with a direct firebed cooling. This test setup enabled decreased firebed temperatures without affecting further parameters like air flow rates or oxygen content in the firebed. A reduction of particle emissions in PM1-fraction at activated firebed cooling was found by impactor measurement and by optical particle counter. The affected particles were found in the size range <0.3 μm and have been composed mainly of potassium chloride (KCl). The chemical analysis of PM1 and boiler ash showed no statistically significant differences due to the firebed cooling. Therefore, our results indicate that the direct firebed cooling influenced the release of potassium (K) without affecting other chemical reactions.

  7. Fellin Furniture - disainitud kasutamiseks

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Viljandis asuvast mööbliettevõttest Fellinn Furniture ja seal valmistatavast mööblist. Kollektsiooni algsed loojad on disainerid Sixten Heidmets ja Sirli Ehari. Disainis on kasutatud elemente, mis võimaldavad toodete väljanägemist kergesti muuta ja hõlpsasti ruumis paigutada. Valmistatakse ka uusi tooteid, mille disainimisele on kaasa aidanud kogu Fellin Furniture meeskond

  8. Optical Properties of Wintertime Aerosols from Residential Wood Burning in Fresno, CA: Results from DISCOVER-AQ 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaolu; Kim, Hwajin; Parworth, Caroline L; Young, Dominique E; Zhang, Qi; Metcalf, Andrew R; Cappa, Christopher D

    2016-02-16

    The optical properties, composition and sources of the wintertime aerosols in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) were characterized through measurements made in Fresno, CA during the 2013 DISCOVER-AQ campaign. PM2.5 extinction and absorption coefficients were measured at 405, 532, and 870 nm along with refractory black carbon (rBC) size distributions and concentrations. BC absorption enhancements (Eabs) were measured using two methods, a thermodenuder and mass absorption coefficient method, which agreed well. Relatively large diurnal variations in the Eabs at 405 nm were observed, likely reflecting substantial nighttime emissions of wood burning organic aerosols (OA) from local residential heating. Comparably small diurnal variations and absolute nighttime values of Eabs were observed at the other wavelengths, suggesting limited mixing-driven enhancement. Positive matrix factorization analysis of OA mass spectra from an aerosol mass spectrometer resolved two types of biomass burning OA, which appeared to have different chemical composition and absorptivity. Brown carbon (BrC) absorption was estimated to contribute up to 30% to the total absorption at 405 nm at night but was negligible (mixing state and the distribution of coating thicknesses.

  9. Furniture industry management by applying SCM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Azizi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to use supply chain management in a wood furniture company and find its effect on the management indices of that company. The supply chain is a complex system consisting three or more commercial units which directly include at least one connected product procedure, financial service, and/or information from one source to a customer. In fact, in every company and factory, a cycle is carried out from raw material producing stage to product delivery to final customer. To be more precise, this cycle itself includes different rings such as provider, producer, and customer. Actually, in creating present procedures, time factor should be reduced to satisfy the customer more. In this study, data connected to a wood furniture company were provided through supply chain management model. Likewise, optimized program was offered using GAMS programming software. Considering the acquired results, the use of this model can revolutionize the wood furniture industry of Iran, regarding competitive features. As a result, it develops the aforementioned industry.

  10. Finishes for Wood Decks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Knaebe

    2013-01-01

    Wood decks have become an important part of residential construction. Wood decks can add versatile living space to a home and, with minimal maintenance, provide decades of use. However, wood decks are exposed to high levels of stress from severe weather conditions that shrink and swell the wood. Without proper maintenance, wood decks can develop problems such as checks...

  11. Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    David W. Green; Robert H. White; Antoni TenWolde; William Simpson; Joseph Murphy; Robert J. Ross; Roland Hernandez; Stan T. Lebow

    2006-01-01

    Wood is a naturally formed organic material consisting essentially of elongated tubular elements called cells arranged in a parallel manner for the most part. These cells vary in dimensions and wall thickness with position in the tree, age, conditions of growth, and kind of tree. The walls of the cells are formed principally of chain molecules of cellulose, polymerized...

  12. Wood wastes: Uses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cipro, A.

    1993-01-01

    The 1,500 industrial firms manufacturing furniture in the Italian Province of Treviso can generate up to 190,000 tonnes of wood wastes annually. In line with the energy conservation-environmental protection measures contained in Italian Law No. 475/88, this paper indicates convenient uses for these wood wastes - as a raw material for fibreboards or as a fuel to be used in the furniture manufacturing plants themselves and in kilns producing lime. Reference is made to the wood wastes gasification/power generation system being developed by ENEA (the Italian Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment)

  13. U.S. Competitiveness Study: How Furniture and Cabinet Manufacturers Compare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urs Buehlmann; Matthew Bumgardner; Al Schuler; Rich Christianson

    2003-01-01

    A disturbing 37.2%, of the 341 manufacturing executives participating in the U.S. Wood Competitiveness Survey either strongly agreed or agreed "that by the end of the decade, little will remain of domestic wood furniture and other wood products manufacturing in the United States."

  14. KITCHEN ISLAND FURNITURE DESIGN FOR RESIDENTIAL HOUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braileanu Patricia Isabela

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In terms of spatial configuration, kitchens design is related to the number of work fronts, shapes and their arrangement in the assembly, storage and distribution areas, as well as the location of the dining place. This paper focuses upon designing a prototype by taking into account the kitchen geometry, as well as different materials and their properties, thus providing an optimum combination of materials likely to ensure a long lifespan of the product at a minimum cost.

  15. Furniture injuries in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Jin H; Adams, Susan; Holland, Andrew J A

    2009-09-01

    To determine the incidence, type and severity of furniture-related injuries in children in the Sydney region. Retrospective analysis of presentations to the emergency departments of two paediatric tertiary hospitals in Sydney over a 4-year period from January 2000 to December 2003 with furniture-related injuries. Deaths of children because of furniture-related injuries reported to the Coroner, from 2000-2002, were also reviewed. The main outcome measures were circumstances of injury, type and number of injuries, morbidity, and mortality. 52 children presented with furniture-related injuries. The median age was 2.5 years (range 9 months-15 years), with a male-to-female ratio of 3:2. Falling televisions accounted for 22 (42%) of the injuries. Median Injury Severity Score was 1 (range 1-25). One child died. The most common regions injured were the limbs and the head. Thirty-one children (60%) required medical imaging, 28 (54%) required admission to hospital and 6 were allowed home in under 12 h. Of the 22 patients admitted for longer than 12 h, 14% required intensive care. Median length of stay was 1 day (range 0-15 days). Eighteen patients (35%) suffered scarring or long-term limitations as a result of their injuries. From 2000 to 2002 there were four additional deaths in NSW because of furniture-related injuries, two because of a falling television. Furniture-related injuries represent a cause of serious trauma and death in Australian children. There remains a need for the stability and security of televisions and large furniture items to be improved.

  16. Field Measurement of Emission factors of PM, EC, OC, Parent, Nitro- and Oxy- Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons for Residential Briquette, Coal Cake, and Wood in Rural Shanxi, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    SHEN, Guofeng; TAO, Shu; WEI, Siye; CHEN, Yuanchen; ZHANG, Yanyan; SHEN, Huizhong; HUANG, Ye; ZHU, Dan; YUAN, Chenyi; WANG, Haochen; Wang, Yafei; PEI, Lijun; LIAO, YiLan; DUAN, Yonghong; WANG, Bin; WANG, Rong; Lv, Yan; LI, Wei; WANG, Xilong; ZHENG, Xiaoying

    2015-01-01

    Air pollutants from residential solid fuel combustion are attracting growing public concern. Field measured emission factors (EFs) of various air pollutants for solid fuels are close to the reality and urgently needed for better emission estimations. In this study, emission factors of particulate matter (PM), organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and various polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from residential combustions of coal briquette, coal cake, and wood were measured in rural Heshun County, China. The measured EFs of PM, OC, and EC were 8.1–8.5, 2.2–3.6, 0.91–1.6 g/kg for the wood burnt in a simple metal stove, 0.54–0.64, 0.13–0.14, 0.040–0.0041 g/kg for the briquette burned in an improved stove with a chimney, and 3.2–8.5, 0.38–0.58, 0.022–0.052 g/kg for the homemade coal cake combusted in a brick stove with a flue, respectively. EFs of 28 parent PAHs, 4 oxygenated PAHs and 9 nitro-PAHs were 182–297, 7.8–10, 0.14–0.55 mg/kg for the wood, 14–16, 1.7–2.6, 0.64–0.83 mg/kg for the briquette, and 168–223, 4.7–9.5, 0.16–2.4 mg/kg for the coal cake, respectively. Emissions from the wood and coal cake combustions were much higher than those for the coal briquette, especially true for high molecular weight PAHs. Most EFs measured in the field were higher than those measured in stove combustions under laboratory conditions. PMID:23419187

  17. Progressive technologies in furniture design

    OpenAIRE

    Šebková, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Šebková, M. Progressive technologies in furniture design. Diploma thesis, Brno, Mendel University in Brno, 2014 Diploma thesis 'Progressive technologies in furniture design' is focused on the use of modern technologies in furniture production. The theoretical part explains the basic terms, technology and material options. It focuses mainly on the production of 3D printed furniture and possibilities of virtual testing, measurements, scanning and rapid prototyping. Practical part of diploma the...

  18. Flexible Classroom Furniture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim Hassell,

    2011-01-01

    Classroom design for the 21st-century learning environment should accommodate a variety of learning skills and needs. The space should be large enough so it can be configured to accommodate a number of learning activities. This also includes furniture that provides flexibility and accommodates collaboration and interactive work among students and…

  19. 76 FR 54794 - Klaussner Furniture Industries, Inc., Plant #3, Asheboro, NC; Klaussner Furniture Industries, Inc...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-02

    ...,989B] Klaussner Furniture Industries, Inc., Plant 3, Asheboro, NC; Klaussner Furniture Industries, Inc... of Klaussner Furniture Industries, Inc., Milford, IA; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To... for Worker Adjustment Assistance on August 26, 2009, applicable to workers of Klaussner Furniture...

  20. Chemical composition and speciation of particulate organic matter from modern residential small-scale wood combustion appliances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czech, Hendryk; Miersch, Toni; Orasche, Jürgen; Abbaszade, Gülcin; Sippula, Olli; Tissari, Jarkko; Michalke, Bernhard; Schnelle-Kreis, Jürgen; Streibel, Thorsten; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2018-01-15

    Combustion technologies of small-scale wood combustion appliances are continuously developed decrease emissions of various pollutants and increase energy conversion. One strategy to reduce emissions is the implementation of air staging technology in secondary air supply, which became an established technique for modern wood combustion appliances. On that account, emissions from a modern masonry heater fuelled with three types of common logwood (beech, birch and spruce) and a modern pellet boiler fuelled with commercial softwood pellets were investigated, which refer to representative combustion appliances in northern Europe In particular, emphasis was put on the organic constituents of PM2.5, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), oxygenated PAHs (OPAHs) and phenolic species, by targeted and non-targeted mass spectrometric analysis techniques. Compared to conventional wood stoves and pellet boilers, organic emissions from the modern appliances were reduced by at least one order of magnitude, but to a different extent for single species. Hence, characteristic ratios of emission constituents and emission profiles for wood combustion identification and speciation do not hold for this type of advanced combustion technology. Additionally, an overall substantial reduction of typical wood combustion markers, such as phenolic species and anhydrous sugars, were observed. Finally, it was found that slow ignition of log woods changes the distribution of characteristic resin acids and phytosterols as well as their thermal alteration products, which are used as markers for specific wood types. Our results should be considered for wood combustion identification in positive matrix factorisation or chemical mass balance in northern Europe. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Decline in the U.S. furniture industry: a case study of the impacts to the hardwood lumber supply chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shawn T. Grushecky; Urs Buehlmann; Al Schuler; William Luppold; Ed Cesa

    2006-01-01

    Traditionally, the wood household furniture industry has accounted for a sizeable portion of total hardwood lumber use in the United States. However, for more than a decade, imports have gained an increasing share of the hardwood furniture market, and lumber consumption by this industry has declined dramatically in the last 5 years. We used a case study methodology to...

  2. Furniture Firm Van Den Berghe-Pauvers: Fully-fledged Partner in the Postwar Promotion of Modern Design in Belgium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flore, F.M.W.

    2013-01-01

    After the Second World War, the Belgian furniture industry responded slowly to the international developments in the field of modern design. For many years, it remained largely focused on the use of solid wood, traditional craftsmanship, and the production of "style furniture" - a term that refers

  3. Evaluating selected demographic factors related to consumer preferences for furniture from commercial and from underutilized species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David Nicholls; Matthew Bumgardner

    2007-01-01

    This technical note describes consumer preferences within selected demographic categories in two major Pacific Northwest markets for six domestic wood species. These woods were considered for construction of four furniture pieces. Chi-square tests were performed to determine species preferences based on gender, age, and income. Age and income were statistically...

  4. Characteristics and availability of commercially important woods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regis B. Miller

    1999-01-01

    Throughout history, the unique characteristics and comparative abundance of wood have made it a natural material for homes and other structures, furniture, tools, vehicles, and decorative objects. Today, for the same reasons, wood is prized for a multitude of uses. All wood is composed of cellulose, lignin, hemicelluloses, and minor amounts (5% to 10%) of extraneous...

  5. Evaluation of Methods for Physical Characterization of the Fine Particle Emissions from Two Residential Wood Combustion Appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    The fine particulate matter (PM) emissions from a U. S. certified non-catalytic wood stove and a zero clearance fireplace burning Quercus rubra L. (northern red oak) and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas fir) cordwood each at two different moisture levels were determined. Emission t...

  6. Residential space heating with wood burning stoves. Energy efficiency and indoor climate; Boligopvarmning ved braendefyring. Energieffektivitet og indeklima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, Ole Michael; Afshari, A.; Bergsoee, N.C.; Carvalho, R. [Miljoestyrelsen, Copenhagen (Denmark); Aalborg Univ.. Statens Byggeforskningsinstitut, Aalborg (Denmark))

    2012-11-01

    Two issues turn up concerning how to use wood-burning stoves in modern homes. The first is whether wood-burning stoves in future may still act as a genuine heat source, given that new and refurbished single-family houses retain the heat much better than older ones and therefore need less and less energy for space heating. The second issue is whether it will still be possible to use wood-burning stoves in modern houses where the air exchange is controlled by mechanical ventilation or possibly heat recovery. It is a question whether firing techniques can be developed that will work in airtight houses with mechanical ventilation and negative pressure, so that harmful particle emissions can be avoided. To illustrate the first issue, a field study was designed to look carefully at seven modern wood-burning stoves that were set up in six new houses and one older house and investigated, both in terms of firing and heat release. As a background for this part of the study, a heat balance calculation was made for each house. The question is, whether wood-burning stoves will also in the future have a role to play as a heating source. Modern houses grow ever tighter and only need to be supplied with a small quantity of heat. The new Danish Buildings Requirement, 2010 has resulted in a further reduction of 25 % of the energy demand, including the energy supply for heating. However, the new requirements imply that the heating season eventually become so short that a traditional central heating installation becomes superfluous. This means that by using the small amounts of wood cut in gardens and hedgerows of the neighbourhood, a wood-burning stove will, in principle, cover the heating demand. Therefore, the question is rather whether a wood-burning stove is manufactured that can successfully be adapted to new houses. As a consequence of this development, future stoves must be further scaled down in order to meet the heating demand of a modern low-energy house and the stoves must

  7. Wood preservative testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca Ibach; Stan T. Lebow

    2012-01-01

    Most wood species used in commercial and residential construction have little natural biological durability and will suffer from biodeterioration when exposed to moisture. Historically, this problem has been overcome by treating wood for outdoor use with toxic wood preservatives. As societal acceptance of chemical use changes, there is continual pressure to develop and...

  8. Emission of formaldehyde from furniture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Helle Vibeke; Klinke, Helene B.; Funch, Lis Winther

    The emission of formaldehyde from 20 pieces of furniture, representing a variety of types, was measured in climate chambers. Most tests show low emissions but certain scenarios of furnishing, including furniture with large surface areas in relation to room volume can emit formaldehyde resulting...

  9. Investigation of Miter Corner Joint Strength of Case Furniture from Particleboard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdas NORVYDAS

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Most pieces of case furniture (kitchen and bathroom furniture, cabinets, wardrobes, tables and etc. are made of 18 mm thick wood particle boards finished with various coatings. This three-layered constructional material is obtained by bonding wood particles of different fractions with synthetic resins using heating. The exploitation duration and quality of case furniture is determined by the mechanical properties of wood particle boards and the construction of joints of wood-based panels. On a frequent basis, pieces of case furniture with non-dismantable and dismantable construction are joined by using multidowel glued joints and cam connecting fittings intended for furniture, respectively. Wood-based panels can be joined with mitre joints whose mechanical properties have not undergone testing and comparison with regular joints when applying insertable wooden dowels or furniture connecting fittings. During the testing of particle board properties it was established that joining wood-based panels in this way ensures most efficient use of mechanical characteristics of the particleboard. In addition to the properties of the mitre joint, the tests also allowed determining the bending strength, tensile strength and bonding strength of the constructional material, and providing an original method for testing board properties, which can be successfully applied to the prediction of properties of the mitre joint. Tests were performed by using a universal tensile testing machine P-0.5. Joints were bonded by applying PVA dispersion. The surface of boards was veneered by using mahogany veneer and urea formaldehyde resin. It was found that mitre joints of wood particle boards can withstand loads that are higher from 2 to 4 times, in comparison to glued doweled joints or joints constructed with cam connecting fittings.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.18.4.3095

  10. Estimated health impact of a shift from light fuel to residential wood-burning in Upper Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haluza, Daniela; Kaiser, August; Moshammer, Hanns; Flandorfer, Claudia; Kundi, Michael; Neuberger, Manfred

    2012-07-01

    The dependency on carbon-based fossil energy and growing awareness of climate change issues has induced ambitious policy initiatives to promote renewable energy sources for indoor heating. Combustion of regionally available material such as wood is considered a carbon-neutral alternative for oil and gas, but unregulated revival of wood stoves may cause detrimental health effects. For the prognosis of the health impact of air pollution due to the use of wood stoves, Upper Austria served for a case study. On the basis of recent measurements of particulate matter fuel oil by either fossil gas or biomass, and for scenario 3, replacement of light fuel oil by biomass only. Compared with the current exposure from scenario 1, the increased annual mean PM10 levels are estimated to lead to 101 (95% CI 56;146) and 174 (95% CI 92;257) additional deaths among 1.4 million inhabitants per year for scenarios 2 and 3, respectively. Without adequate strategies for reducing the emissions of domestic heating facilities, replacement of fossil energy sources could lead to an increased health risk.

  11. 41 CFR 101-25.404 - Furniture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Furniture. 101-25.404...-25.404 Furniture. Furniture (office, household and quarters, and institutional) shall not be replaced... which rehabilitation of the furniture at 75 percent or less of the cost of a new item would not extend...

  12. Response of furniture factory workers to work-related airborne allergens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skórska, Czesława; Krysińska-Traczyk, Ewa; Milanowski, Janusz; Cholewa, Grazyna; Sitkowska, Jolanta; Góra, Anna; Dutkiewicz, Jacek

    2002-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the reactivity of furniture factory workers to microbial allergens associated with wood dust. Allergological examinations by skin and precipitin tests were performed in 48 workers employed in a factory producing furniture from fibreboards and chipboards, and in 32 healthy urban dwellers not exposed to organic dusts (referents). The skin test was performed by the intradermal method with the saline extracts of the cultures of 3 microbial species (Rahnella sp., Arthrobacter globiformis, Aspergillus fumigatus) associated with wood dust. Skin reactions were recorded after 20 minutes, 8 hours and 24 hours and graded 1-4, depending on the diameter of the reaction. The agar-gel test for the presence of precipitins in serum was performed with the extracts of 15 microbial isolates. The furniture factory workers showed a high skin response to the extracts of environmental microbes. The frequency of early grade 2 reactions (diameter 10 mm) to the extract of Rahnella sp. was 64.6% among furniture workers, being significantly higher (p furniture workers were also found with the extracts of A. globiformis and A. fumigatus (52.1% and 62.5%, respectively). The frequencies of grade 2 delayed (after 8 h) and late (after 24 h) reactions to Rahnella sp. in furniture workers were non-specifically high (97.9%/93.7%) while the response rates to A. globiformis and A. fumigatus were much lower (10.4%/25.0%, and 4.2%/37.5%, respectively). In agar-gel test for detection of precipitins, in most cases very low percentages of positive reactions (0-2.1%) were noted in furniture factory workers. The only exception was a high percentage of positive reactions (27.1%) to the antigen of Pseudomonas maltophilia, which was significantly greater in furniture workers compared to the reference group (p furniture industry, which may increase a potential risk of work-related disease in this occupational group.

  13. Eco-efficiency Analysis of Furniture Product Using Life Cycle Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinawati, Dyah Ika; Sriyanto; Sari, Diana Puspita; Prayodha, Andana Cantya

    2018-02-01

    Furniture is one of Indonesia's main commodities strategically role in economic growth and employment in Indonesia. In their production process there many wastes resulted, such as such as sawdust, cuttings - pieces of wood, components that do not conform to specifications and the edges of wood from a log. Contrast with requirement of timber for furniture industries, availability of raw material sources decrease because of limited forest areas. Beside that, using electricity and chemical material in furniture production process have impact to environment. This study aim to assess the eco-cost and eco-efficiency ratio of the product so strategic recommendations to improve the eco-efficiency of products can be designed. The results of data processing showed the environmental costs of the furniture production process amount Rp 30.887.84. Eco-efficiency index of furniture products studied was 4,79 with the eco-efficiency ratio of 79,12%. This result means that the measured furniture products already profitable and sustainable, as well as its production process is already fairly efficient. However, improved performance of the production process can still be done to improve the eco-efficiency by minimizing the use of raw materials.

  14. Multilevel model of safety climate for furniture industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Matilde A; Arezes, Pedro M; Leão, Celina P

    2015-01-01

    Furniture companies can analyze their safety status using quantitative measures. However, the data needed are not always available and the number of accidents is under-reported. Safety climate scales may be an alternative. However, there are no validated Portuguese scales that account for the specific attributes of the furniture sector. The current study aims to develop and validate an instrument that uses a multilevel structure to measure the safety climate of the Portuguese furniture industry. The Safety Climate in Wood Industries (SCWI) model was developed and applied to the safety climate analysis using three different scales: organizational, group and individual. A multilevel exploratory factor analysis was performed to analyze the factorial structure. The studied companies' safety conditions were also analyzed. Different factorial structures were found between and within levels. In general, the results show the presence of a group-level safety climate. The scores of safety climates are directly and positively related to companies' safety conditions; the organizational scale is the one that best reflects the actual safety conditions. The SCWI instrument allows for the identification of different safety climates in groups that comprise the same furniture company and it seems to reflect those groups' safety conditions. The study also demonstrates the need for a multilevel analysis of the studied instrument.

  15. Evaluation of methods for the physical characterization of the fine particle emissions from two residential wood combustion appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsey, John S.; Kariher, Peter H.; Dong, Yuanji

    The fine particle emissions from a U. S. certified non-catalytic wood stove and a zero-clearance fireplace burning Quercus rubra L. (northern red oak) and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas fir) cordwood each at two different moisture levels were determined. Emission testing was performed using both time-integrated and continuous instrumentation for total particle mass, particle number, particle size distribution, and fixed combustion gases using an atmospheric wind tunnel, full-flow laboratory dilution tunnel, and dilution stack sampler with a comparison made between the three dilution systems and two sampling filter types. The total mass emission factors (EFs) for all dilution systems and filter media are extremely variable ranging from fireplace emissions burning wet oak averaged 11 g kg -1. A substantial number of ultrafine particles in the accumulation size range were also observed during all tests as determined by an Electrical Low Pressure Impactor (ELPI) and Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer. The PM-2.5 (particles ≤2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter) fractions determined from the ELPI electrometer data ranged from 93 to 98% (mass) depending on appliance type as reported previously by Hays et al. (Aerosol Science, 34, 1061, 2003).

  16. Optical Properties and Mixing State of Aerosols from Residential Wood Burning and Vehicle Emissions in Central and Southern California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, X.; Cappa, C. D.; Collier, S.; Zhang, Q.; Williams, L. R.; Lee, A.; Abbatt, J.; Russell, L. M.; Liu, J.; Chen, C. L.; Betha, R.

    2015-12-01

    Light-absorbing materials such as black carbon (BC) and brown carbon (BrC) in atmospheric aerosols play important roles in regulating the earth's radiative budget and climate. However, the representations of BC and BrC in state-of-the-art climate models remain highly uncertain, in part due to the poor understanding of their microphysical and optical properties. Direct observations and characterizations of the mixing state and absorption enhancement of ambient aerosols could provide invaluable constraints for current model representations of aerosol radiative effects. Here, we will discuss results from measurements of aerosol light absorption and absorption enhancement (Eabs), using a thermodenuder-absorption method, made during two recent field studies in central and southern California. The winter study took place in Dec/Jan of 2014/2015 in Fresno, CA. This region is severely impacted by particulate matter from local and regional residential biomass burning. The summer study took place in July 2015 in Fontana, CA, a region ~80 km downwind of Los Angeles and strongly impacted by vehicular emissions, and thus provides a sharp contrast to the Fresno study. Eabs of BC particles due to the "lensing" effect from coatings to BC core and/or the presence of BrC will be quantified and compared between the two studies. Additionally, the chemical composition of bulk and the BC-containing particles are determined via a HR-ToF-AMS and a SP-AMS, respectively. Variations in the composition and mixing state of the ambient particles and how these affect the observed Eabs will be examined. The overall measurements suggest a relatively small role for lensing-induced absorption enhancements for ambient particles in these regions.

  17. Household furniture tip-over deaths of young children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Barbara C; Harding, Brett E

    2011-07-01

    The potential for the injury or death of a child resulting from the tip-over of a piece of household furniture or a domestic appliance has not been previously well recognized. We reviewed nine accidental deaths of young children that resulted from avoidable residential hazards and/or lapses in supervision of the children by their caregivers. The offending household items included televisions, bedroom dressers, a kitchen stove, and a lounge chair. The causes of death were mechanical asphyxia, blunt trauma, and combined blunt head trauma and asphyxia. All of the deaths could have been prevented by appropriate anchoring of the piece of furniture and/or closer supervision of the child. A thorough multidisciplinary investigation is essential in establishing the cause and manner of death in such cases and in identifying risk factors that may aid in the prevention of future childhood deaths. © 2011 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  18. Avaliação de resíduos de painéis de madeira gerados por indústrias moveleiras para aproveitamento na confecção de pequenos objetos: estudo de caso Evaluation of residues of wood boards generated by furniture industries for their utilization in the production of small objects: study of case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Barbosa de Abreu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A indústria moveleira produz uma quantidade de resíduos que, normalmente, é descartada no meio ambiente ou utilizada como combustível em caldeiras e similares, ou apenas queimada. Alternativas para utilização desses resíduos têm sido alvo de pesquisas, destacando-se a confecção de pequenos objetos, na forma de artesanato. Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar os resíduos de indústrias do pólo moveleiro de Ubá/MG. No levantamento quantitativo, constatou-se que as empresas geraram resíduos dos mesmos tipos de painéis de madeira. Os resíduos mais comuns foram de aglomerado e MDF (Medium Density Fiber. Observou-se grande variabilidade das dimensões desses resíduos, principalmente em sua largura. Concluiu-se que alguns resíduos não apresentaram dimensões adequadas para a confecção de determinados objetos e que se torna necessária uma seleção prévia desses resíduos para direcioná-los a trabalhos mais minuciosos, de forma a viabilizar a sua utilização.The furniture industry generates an amount of residues, which, normally, is discarded in the environment or destined to steam production in boilers. The handmade production of small wood board objects is an outstanding alternative to take advantage of these residues. The general aim of this study was to evaluate residues in furniture industries located at the pole of Ubá/MG. Through the survey and the analysis of the data, one established that the industries generate residues from the same kind of wood board. The most common residues were of particleboard and MDF (Medium Density Fiber. One observed a great diversity of residue dimensions, mainly in width. One concluded that some residues did not present adequate dimensions for the manufacturing of some objects and that there is a necessity of previous residues selection, in order to destine them to more detailed works and make possible their use.

  19. Spatial and temporal price variations of sawn wood utilized for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    O Y Ogunsanwo

    sawn timber to the gross in-efficiency of sawn-wood pricing should also be prevented. Keywords: Sawn-wood ... Thus the furniture industry is an important sector of the Nigeria economy in terms of annual wood ... pricing system in Nigeria is inefficient; while the forest product market is bereft of good performance due to the ...

  20. 75 FR 38127 - Sherrill Furniture, Hickory White Furniture Division Hickory, NC; Including Workers of Hickory...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-64,867] Sherrill Furniture, Hickory White Furniture Division Hickory, NC; Including Workers of Hickory White Upholstery High Point, NC in Support of Sherrill Furniture Hickory White Furniture Division Hickory, NC; Amended Certification...

  1. Furniture Is Key to Classroom Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oates, Rita

    2000-01-01

    Explains how flexibility and allowing for furniture to be rearranged are essential in creating a better learning environment. The benefits of involving the users in furniture selection and placement and who should make the final decisions are addressed. (GR)

  2. 47 CFR 32.2122 - Furniture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Furniture. 32.2122 Section 32.2122... FOR TELECOMMUNICATIONS COMPANIES Instructions for Balance Sheet Accounts § 32.2122 Furniture. This account shall include the original cost of furniture in offices, storerooms, shops, and all other quarters...

  3. Library furniture: selection and acquisition

    CERN Document Server

    Chopra, M

    2002-01-01

    Highlights the necessity for the provision of adequate, comfortable and utility based library furniture for its users in a well planned university library building. Says that it should be durable, functional, attractive and should be built according to accepted standards. Various types of furniture required in the libraries with their specifications, namely book racks, catalogue cabinets, library chairs, reading room tables, circulation counter, charging trays, periodical display racks, book trolleys and atlas stands have been studied in detail. Concludes with the suggestion that durability, sturdiness, design and comfort factors should be borne in mind for furnishing a university library. (6 refs).

  4. Value Criteria for School Furniture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellman, Walter

    2012-01-01

    Making furniture decisions can involve many factors, and they vary from institution to institution. For fixtures, furnishings and equipment, comparing initial cost with the cost of ownership over a life cycle can be more challenging. It may be the functionality of the furnishings that provides the greatest return on investment. In this article,…

  5. Classroom Furniture: The Mod Squad

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raths, David

    2012-01-01

    This is the first article in a six-part series on the elements of a collaborative classroom: furniture, social media, video/web conferencing tools, collaborative software, interactive devices, and mobile devices. With most universities facing tight budgets, convincing administrators to invest in expensive new classrooms is a challenge. Many higher…

  6. Learning From the Furniture Scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvejsel, Marie Frier; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2018-01-01

    Given its proximity to the human body, the furniture scale holds a particular potential in grasping the fundamental aesthetic potential of architecture to address its inhabitants by means of spatial ‘gestures’. Likewise, it holds a technical germ in realizing this potential given its immediate ta...

  7. Applications of Mechatronics in Seating Furniture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hynek Maňák

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mechatronics is gradually being used in different fields of the production process and final products. In the field of home seating furniture, it has not been formally declared as such yet. The purpose of further development of seating furniture is to improve its ergonomic parameters, to improve user comfort in controlling and using seating furniture or to provide new additional functions of seating furniture. Application of mechatronic principles can be presumed within the framework of this development. An analysis of the current state of reclining seating furniture, which uses mechanical and electromechanical positioning mechanisms, is conducted in order to formulate possible fields of applying mechatronics. The analysis defines individual ergonomic parameters which are influenced in reclining of seating furniture. This analysis is used as a basis for formulating a hypothesis describing potential development fields of applying mechatronics in home seating furniture.

  8. Nature of unresolved complex mixture in size-distributed emissions from residential wood combustion as measured by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Michael D.; Smith, N. Dean; Dong, Yuanji

    2004-08-01

    Unresolved complex mixture (UCM) is an analytical artifact of gas chromatographs of combustion source-related fine aerosol extracts. In this study the UCM is examined in size-resolved fine aerosol emissions from residential wood combustion. The aerosols are sorted by size in an electrical low-pressure impactor (ELPI) and subsequently analyzed by thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD/GC/MS). A semiquantitative system for predicting the branched alkane, cycloalkane, alkylbenzene, C3-, C4-, C5-alkylbenzene, methylnaphthalene, C3-, C4-, C5-alkylnaphthalene, methylphenanthrene C2-, C3-alkylphenanthrene, and dibenzothiophene concentrations in the UCM is introduced. Analysis by TD/GS/MS detects UCM on each ELPI stage for all six combustion tests. The UCM baseline among the different fuel types is variable. In particular, the UCM of Pseudotsuga sp. is enriched in later-eluting compounds of lower volatility. A high level of reproducibility is achieved in determining UCM areas. UCM fractions (UCM ion area/total extracted ion chromatograph area) by individual ELPI stage return a mean relative standard deviation of 19.1% over the entire combustion test set, indicating a highly consistent UCM fraction across the ELPI size boundaries. Among the molecular ions investigated, branched alkane (m/z 57) and dibenzothiophene (m/z 212 and 226) constituents are most abundant in UCM emissions from RWC, collectively accounting for 64-95% of the targeted chemical species. The total UCM emissions span 446-756 mg/kg of dry biomass burned and correspond to an upper limit of 7.1% of the PM2.5 mass. The UCM emissions are primarily accumulation mode (0.1 μm ≤ aerodynamic diameter (da) ≤ 1 μm), with a geometric mean diameter (dg) range of 120.3-518.4 nm. UCM in PM2.5 is chemically asymmetric (shifted to finer da), typically clustering at da ≤ 1 μm. Measurable shifts in dg and changes in distribution widths (σg) on an intratest basis suggest that the particle density

  9. Wood Technology: Techniques, Processes, and Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oatman, Olan

    1975-01-01

    Seven areas of wood technology illustrates applicable techniques, processes, and products for an industrial arts woodworking curriculum. They are: wood lamination; PEG (polyethylene glycol) diffusion processes; wood flour and/or particle molding; production product of industry; WPC (wood-plastic-composition) process; residential construction; and…

  10. Investigating the Effective Index on Customers Choice in Buying Furniture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Rangavar

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The competitive world today, with increasing customers satisfaction and expanding the definition of hosting and its direct connection with quality of products is essential. Thus not only the current customers stay fixed but also it increases. The purpose of this study was to investigate and ranking the crucial indicators that influence the choice of furniture by customers. Because of this, the studied indexes are classified in 6 group: quality, beauty, design, creating a suitable atmosphere for selling the goods, selling conditions and advertising. Population consisted of three major commercial areas in Tehran (Delawaran, Hassan Abad and Yaftabad. Statistical sample consisted a number of 100 people. A questionnaire was developed to gather data. Reliability of the questionnaires has been approved through Cronbach's Alpha coefficient (0.921. Investigation of effective indexes was done by chi-square method and in order to final ranking the indexes, friedman analyses have been used. The results obtained of ranking showed the chief factor in customers choice is under category of beauty due to this elegancy role in customers point of view. After elegancy, according to the classified elements studied in this research, raw material in making furniture, wood production’s price, ergonomy, customers satisfaction for his last purchase and immediate delivery, respectively, are the most important effective index in buying furniture by consumer.

  11. The Asian Wood Pellet Markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph A. Roos; Allen Brackley

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the three major wood pellet markets in Asia: China, Japan, and South Korea. In contrast to the United States, where most wood pellets are used for residential heating with pellet stoves, a majority of the wood pellets in Asia are used for co-firing at coal-fired power plants. Our analysis indicated that Japan is the largest importer of wood pellets...

  12. 2006 : Wood Products Used in New Residential Construction U.S. and Canada, with Comparisons to 1995, 1998 and 2003 : Executive Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig Adair; David B. McKeever

    2009-01-01

    The construction of new single family, multifamily, and manufactured housing is an important market for wood products in both the United States and Canada. Annual wood products consumption is dependent on many factors, including the number of new units started, the size of units started, architectural characteristics, and consumer preferences. In 2006, about 39 percent...

  13. Determining the effective indices on export development of Iran’s office furniture thereby analytical hierarchy process (AHP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Alizadeh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Furniture industry is one of the most important employment and wealth productive industries, and also one major category in developing countries. This study aimed on determining the effective indices on export development of office furniture throughout the analytical hierarchy process (AHP and also by group decision. For this, imports and exports of office furniture were determined through visiting the custom office of Islamic Republic of Iran. By then, after initial studies, furniture industry and relevant experts were interviewed to recognize the effective indices on export development, and specified indices were categorized on six main groups and forty-eight sub-index. After receiving the comments of experts, degree of importance of indices and sub-indices determined thereby Expert Choice software. Results showed that raw material and product has been chosen among the major indices. Among the 48 influential sub-indices also product designing, guaranty and costumer services, quality control, custom tariffs, and strategic marketing had highest value-weighted priorities in export development of office furniture, respectively. Regarding to government’s policies and decisions in wood raw materials extent, monetary and banking system and marketing infrastructures, to maintain the productivity competitiveness of Iran’s furniture industry in first step, and to achieve to the export markets in second step, full cooperation of government with furniture industry is necessary provision for participating of this industry in global markets.

  14. ORGANIZING AND TAILORING OF URBAN FURNITURE

    OpenAIRE

    PARYABI, Abbas

    2015-01-01

    Abstract. At the space between buildings and structures, some supplementary elements are required to organize urban life. These components encompass urban furniture and adjust movement, stationary state, recreation and anxiety in the city and enliven it. Urban furniture is considered as the constituents of urban space where quantity and quality, beauty, comfort, durability and location play a fundamental role to reach a beautiful and healthy city. The furniture includes diverse elements inclu...

  15. 76 FR 5840 - Progressive Furniture, Inc.; a Subsidiary of Sauder Furniture, Claremont, North Carolina; Notice...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-73,756] Progressive Furniture, Inc.; a Subsidiary of Sauder Furniture, Claremont, North Carolina; Notice of Revised Determination on... Reconsideration applicable to workers and former workers of Progressive Furniture, Inc., a Subsidiary of Sauder...

  16. How the user can influence particulate emissions from residential wood and pellet stoves: Emission factors for different fuels and burning conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fachinger, Friederike; Drewnick, Frank; Gieré, Reto; Borrmann, Stephan

    2017-06-01

    For a common household wood stove and a pellet stove we investigated the dependence of emission factors for various gaseous and particulate pollutants on burning phase, burning condition, and fuel. Ideal and non-ideal burning conditions (dried wood, under- and overload, small logs, logs with bark, excess air) were used. We tested 11 hardwood species (apple, ash, bangkirai, birch, beech, cherry, hickory, oak, olive, plum, sugar maple), 4 softwood species (Douglas fir, pine, spruce, spruce/fir), treated softwood, beech and oak wood briquettes, paper briquettes, brown coal, wood chips, and herbaceous species (miscanthus, Chinese silver grass) as fuel. Particle composition (black carbon, non-refractory, and some semi-refractory species) was measured continuously. Repeatability was shown to be better for the pellet stove than for the wood stove. It was shown that the user has a strong influence on wood stove emission behavior both by selection of the fuel and of the burning conditions: Combustion efficiency was found to be low at both very low and very high burn rates, and influenced particle properties such as particle number, mass, and organic content in a complex way. No marked differences were found for the emissions from different wood species. For non-woody fuels, much higher emission factors could be observed (up to five-fold increase). Strongest enhancement of emission factors was found for burning of small or dried logs (up to six-fold), and usage of excess air (two- to three-fold). Real world pellet stove emissions can be expected to be much closer to laboratory-derived emission factors than wood stove emissions, due to lower dependence on user operation.

  17. The Level of Utilization of Secondary Timber Species among Furniture Producers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Antwi-Boasiako

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Inadequate supply of wood raw material is one of the major obstacles for the global furniture industry’s growth. Several secondary timbers/Lesser-Utilized-Species (LUS that could substitute the scarce traditional timbers for furniture production exist in tropical forests. However, the industry continuously faces persistent timber shortages. The extent to which manufacturers utilize LUS as alternatives is unclear, which this study sought to ascertain. Materials and Methods: Data were collected from 300 Timber Firms from Ghana primarily through questionnaires using the stratified random sampling technique. Results: Continuous decline and non-availability of preferred traditional timbers and competition from imported furniture were the main challenges confronting the furniture industry. Data obtained indicated that most manufacturers (85% hardly use any LUS; 44% of these mentioned lack of information on their properties and prospective uses and 32% attributed it to non-availability on the domestic timber markets. However, 22% of these producers rely on traditionally ‘well-known’ timbers (e.g. mixed red wood, Guarea cedrata and Tectona grandis owing to their strength properties, 20% due to their strength and durability and 14% because of their strength and aesthetic properties. Many LUS (with prospects for furniture-making available in great quantities in many tropical forests could substitute the over-dependent timbers. However, information on their properties and uses are hardly available to local producers, which affects their popularity among timber suppliers and manufacturers. Conclusion: To improve on the level of utilization of secondary timbers, wood workers must be supplied with comprehensive information about their properties and economic values. This will contribute to reducing pressure on the primary timbers, ensuring consistent supply of timber and keeping the sector operational.

  18. (JASR) VOL. 10, No. 2, 2010 1 UTILIZATION TREND OF WOOD ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    oma

    Note: Kha = (Khaya), Cor = (Cordia), Man = (Mansonia), Anin = (Aningeria),. Gme = (Gmelina). Figure 7: Wood utilization for different furniture types by Large Scale. Furniture Factories. CONCLUSION. The irregularity obtained in the utilization pattern of Mansonia, Khaya, Cordia coupled with the low utilization of Teak over a ...

  19. Cleaner Production Applied in a Small Furniture Industry in Brazil: Addressing Focused Changes in Design to Reduce Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Mario Gutiérrez Aguilar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The wood industry is known for being among the biggest resource consumers, having a relatively low yield. The wood furniture industry as part of the wood industry also remains a big generator of residues and a big consumer of resources. Diverse solutions and technologies have been developed to deal with the residues generated, but those technologies are mostly applied at the end of the production chain with limited results. Cleaner production represents a program based on continuous strategies applied to a more sustainable use of materials and energy, minimizing waste and pollution. This paper presents a case study of a cleaner production program developed in a small furniture industry in Salvador de Bahia, Brazil, applying the concepts of cleaner production with parameters of ecodesign developed for the furniture industry. The object of study was the production of a wooden chair made from eucalyptus wood. The application of the cleaner production program and ecodesign parameters allowed a detailed characterization of the waste, resulting in opportunities for a reduction of the use of raw material by 30%, a reduction in waste by 49% and allowing a reduction in energy by 36% due to simplification of the productive process. Among the strategies applied were reshaping pieces, redesigning, and the substitution of materials. The results suggest that despite the existence of more complex environmental methods and approaches, the application of cleaner production plus ecodesign parameters could be more achievable for micro and small furniture industries.

  20. Furniture Design Decision-Making Constructs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Jo Ann Asher; Davis, Leslie L.

    1988-01-01

    This study examined the underlying constructs that influence criteria used to determine furniture design preferences and significant relationships between the self-conceptual personality trait of self-monitoring and furniture preferences. Traditional style was perceived as more aesthetically pleasing and contemporary style as more prestigious by…

  1. The embedded knowledge in furniture types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Gier, Nicolai; Overbye, Jens; Olesen, Christian Holmsted

    2013-01-01

    , based on the history of design and the development of Danish furniture that the study of historical furniture types and their development is used as a specific approach to innovation. A methodological approach based on the acknowledgment of tradition and the notion that good works are based on and refer...

  2. Geração de resíduos de madeira e derivados da indústria moveleira em função das variáveis de produção Generation of wood waste and derivatives on furniture industry related to production's variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Éverton Hillig

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Os processos produtivos da cadeia madeira-móveis geram quantidades significativas de resíduos de madeira, os quais nem sempre têm uma destinação correta. O potencial de aproveitamento destes resíduos é significativo, quer seja como matéria-prima secundária, quer seja pelo seu potencial energético. O gerenciamento dos resíduos é um dos desafios à gestão e ao desempenho ambiental das empresas. Neste trabalho, utilizou-se a análise multivariada, com extração de componentes principais, para analisar os carregamentos de cada variável original e identificar as principais variáveis que apresentam similaridades em relação à geração de resíduos. As variáveis de produção consideradas foram: quantidade de matéria-prima consumida, número de colaboradores, número de máquinas, consumo de energia e consumo de água. Por meio de regressão linear, utilizando o método stepwise, foram obtidas as equações de estimativa dos resíduos em função das variáveis de produção originais, resultando na quantidade de resíduo gerado por classe de matéria-prima, para determinada empresa ou determinado município pesquisado. A estimativa de geração foi aplicada ao Pólo Moveleiro da Serra Gaúcha/RS.The production processes of furniture industry generate significant amounts of wood waste, which has not always a correct destination. The potential for exploitation of these residues is significant, whether as secondary raw material, whether by its energy potential. The management of this waste is one of the challenges for the management and environmental performance of companies. This work used multivariate analysis with the extraction of key components, to analyze the load of each original variable and identify key variables that have similarities in relation to the waste generation. The variables of production considered was: quantity of raw materials consumed, number of employees, number of machines, energy consumption and water

  3. Generation and Recovery of Solid Wood Waste in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bob Falk; David McKeever

    2012-01-01

    North America has a vast system of hardwood and softwood forests, and the wood harvested from this resource is widely used in many applications. These include lumber and other building materials, furniture, crating, containers, pallets and other consumer goods. This wide array of wood products generates not only a large amount of industrial wood by-product during the...

  4. Consumer Behaviour Model on the Furniture Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEDNÁRIK, Éva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This study introduces the furniture purchasing behaviour model. The study describes thebehaviour model and characteristics of decision making and the environmental factors affecting theindividuals besides emphasising the family character of furniture purchase. We introduce a chapterfrom the primary research verifying the model that analyses the validity of customer behaviour trendsdefined as elements of the impersonal environment on the furniture market. We touch on our lifestylebased segmentation model which is elaborated in our work in detail. The method of primary researchis quantitative, personal interview. While working out our research model we applied a method thatenables multi-level cross-section and cohort analyses. Our work has verified the need for trendresearches on the furniture market so we suggest the construction and the near-future launch of a trendresearch system consisting of several modules that reveals the specific factors on the furniture marketbesides verifying the validity of general behaviour trends.

  5. PERCEPTION, AESTHETICS AND USE OF URBAN FURNITURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naiana Maura John

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Proposal: This paper discusses the importance of environmental perception approach to a more qualified design and location of urban furniture. Considering that the quality of the design and the performance of public spaces are related to the fulfillment of users’ needs, it’s important to study how users perceive the urban furniture. Methods: The discussion deals with issues related to aesthetic and functional needs of users of urban spaces. Regarding aesthetics, aspects such as order and complexity are discussed. Moreover, issues related to functionality of urban furniture and their impact on the use of public spaces are considered. Findings: it is expected to contribute to the discussion about the importance of urban furniture design and location to satisfy users’ needs. Originality/value: Contribution to research on quality of urban furniture and space.

  6. Domestic competitiveness in secondary wood industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew Bumgardner; Urs Buehlmann; Albert Schuler; Rich Christianson

    2004-01-01

    As imports capture a substantial portion of the domestic wood furniture market, there is much speculation and concern as to the future of this and related industries. This study sought to obtain an industry perspective of trends in domestic manufacturing and importing, and to identify factors that might enhance domestic competitiveness. A mail survey was conducted...

  7. Durability of wood-plastic composite lumber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach

    2010-01-01

    Wood-plastic composite (WPC) lumber has been marketed as a low-maintenance, high-durability product. Retail sales in the United States were slightly less than $1 billion in 2008. Applications include docking, railing, windows, doors, fencing, siding, moldings, landscape timbers, car interior parts, and furniture. The majority of these products are used outdoors and...

  8. Analysis of U.S. household wood energy consumption: 1967-2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nianfu. Song; Francisco X. Aguilar; Stephen R. Shifley; Michael E. Goerndt

    2012-01-01

    The residential sector consumes about 23% of the energy derived from wood (wood energy) in the U.S. An estimated error correction model with data from 1967 to 2009 suggests that residential wood energy consumption has declined by an average 3% per year in response to technological progress, urbanization, accessibility of non-wood energy, and other factors associated...

  9. 46 CFR 169.323 - Furniture and furnishings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Furniture and furnishings. 169.323 Section 169.323... Construction and Arrangement Living Spaces § 169.323 Furniture and furnishings. Each sailing school vessel... furniture must be constructed of noncombustible material. Upholstery and padding used in furniture must be...

  10. Heuristics for container loading of furniture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egeblad, Jens; Garavelli, Claudio; Lisi, Stefano

    2010-01-01

    We consider a container loading problem that occurs at a typical furniture manufacturer. Each furniture item has an associated profit. Given container dimensions and a set of furniture items, the problem is to determine a subset of items with maximal profit sum that is loadable in the container....... In the studied company, the problem arises hundreds of times daily during transport planning. Instances may contain more than one hundred different items with irregular shapes. To solve this complex problem we apply a set of heuristics successively that each solve one part of the problem. Large items...

  11. WOOD STOVE EMISSIONS: PARTICLE SIZE AND CHEMICAL COMPOSITION

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report summarizes wood stove particle size and chemical composition data gathered to date. [NOTE: In 1995, EPA estimated that residential wood combustion (RWC), including fireplaces, accounted for a significant fraction of national particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter...

  12. Tisettanta case study: the interoperation of furniture production companies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarilli, Fabrizio; Spreafico, Alberto

    This chapter presents the Tisettanta case study, focusing on the definition of the possible innovations that ICT technologies can bring to the Italian wood-furniture industry. This sector is characterized by industrial clusters composed mainly of a few large companies with international brand reputations and a large base of SMEs that manufacture finished products or are specialized in the production of single components/processes (such as the Brianza cluster, where Tisettanta operates). In this particular business ecosystem, ICT technologies can bring relevant support and improvements to the supply chain process, where collaborations between enterprises are put into action through the exchange of business documents such as orders, order confirmation, bills of lading, invoices, etc. The analysis methodology adopted in the Tisettanta case study refers to the TEKNE Methodology of Change (see Chapter 2), which defines a framework for supporting firms in the adoption of the Internetworked Enterprise organizational paradigm.

  13. Apply Woods Model in the Predictions of Ambient Air Particles and Metallic Elements (Mn, Fe, Zn, Cr, and Cu at Industrial, Suburban/Coastal, and Residential Sampling Sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guor-Cheng Fang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose for this study was to monitor ambient air particles and metallic elements (Mn, Fe, Zn, Cr, and Cu in total suspended particulates (TSPs concentration, dry deposition at three characteristic sampling sites of central Taiwan. Additionally, the calculated/measured dry deposition flux ratios of ambient air particles and metallic elements were calculated with Woods models at these three characteristic sampling sites during years of 2009-2010. As for ambient air particles, the results indicated that the Woods model generated the most accurate dry deposition prediction results when particle size was 18 μm in this study. The results also indicated that the Woods model exhibited better dry deposition prediction performance when the particle size was greater than 10 μm for the ambient air metallic elements in this study. Finally, as for Quan-xing sampling site, the main sources were many industrial factories under process around these regions and were severely polluted areas. In addition, the highest average dry deposition for Mn, Fe, Zn, and Cu species occurred at Bei-shi sampling site, and the main sources were the nearby science park, fossil fuel combustion, and Taichung thermal power plant (TTPP. Additionally, as for He-mei sampling site, the main sources were subjected to traffic mobile emissions.

  14. Open Plan Furniture: An Investigation and Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keiser, Hugh M.

    1974-01-01

    In attempting to select an open plan furniture system for a client, architects compiled data on available systems, then set up a test area where the systems could be used and evaluated by the personnel. (Author)

  15. PERCEPTION, AESTHETICS AND USE OF URBAN FURNITURE

    OpenAIRE

    Naiana Maura John; Antonio Tarcísio da Luz Reis

    2010-01-01

    Proposal: This paper discusses the importance of environmental perception approach to a more qualified design and location of urban furniture. Considering that the quality of the design and the performance of public spaces are related to the fulfillment of users’ needs, it’s important to study how users perceive the urban furniture. Methods: The discussion deals with issues related to aesthetic and functional needs of users of urban spaces. Regarding aesthetics, aspects such as order and ...

  16. Mobile application for a direct furniture sale

    OpenAIRE

    Barbič, Janez

    2014-01-01

    The goal of the thesis is to produce a system for ordering furniture through mobile applications on the Android platform. The result of practical work is a prototype of a web service and mobile application. The application is designed for any Android powered device. The Android application allows customers to order furniture with the help of mobile application. The customer takes pictures of a room and completes a questionnaire about the room and sends both to the company. C...

  17. Business plan for a Chinese furniture company

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Haodi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract As a popular consumable, marketing costs of furniture are directly related to the benefits of manufacturing enterprise. Nowadays, most furniture manufacturing enterprises still adopt the traditional marketing strategy, which is single-directional, indirect and hierarchical strategy. It is not only difficult to meet the various and individual customers needs but also expensive for enterprises to exploit the market. Meanwhile, it prevents enterprises from following the market needs....

  18. Sales Application Online of Design Furniture on Mitra Karya Furniture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maimunah

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The development of the business world characterized by the increasing number of established companies, both of which are engaged in industry, trade and services. The role of computers use in a company or organization is not a layman anymore but is a must. With the computerized system in the company or organization, all the processes ranging from data processing to making reports and another important documents can be neatly arranged so that can facilitate the process of data storage and retrieval. The sales processing system are running still manually. They are still using flyers to find consumers so that ineffective and inefficient. The sales program is the design research proposed of information systems. By utilizing the technology of computer and internet in order word is to try making the facility of sales better. By creating an online sales system to make the working process does not spread the time so that the sale can run well and be good service. The designs created by using Dreamweaver CS5 and using the MySQL for database so the database stored neatly. The main function of the online sales system is to assist in facilitating the resources to get the latest product sales at MitraKarsa Furniture, so that the customer can buy the latest products easily, anytime and anywhere they want to.

  19. Energy from wood - an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nussbaumer, T.

    2000-01-01

    The present publication is the introduction to a series of papers on fundamentals and applications of wood energy. It summarizes figures and data of the actual situation of fuel wood utilization in Switzerland and its potential for the future. Further, the advantages of bio-energy are discussed and the possibilities of funding for bio-energy in Switzerland are described. Wood contributes with 2.5% to the total energy demand in Switzerland nowadays. However, the utilization of wood energy can be more than doubled, which is one of the targets of the Swiss energy policy. The supply chains for the different types of fuel wood are described and specifications and prices of log wood, forestry wood chips and wood residues are presented. The main applications of wood energy are residential heating with manually operated wood boilers and stoves, on the one hand, and heat production with automatic wood furnaces in industry and communities, on the other hand. Automatic furnaces have been promoted in the past ten years and hence they contribute nowadays with more than 50% to the energy supply from wood with a further growing share. As an assistance for further information, a list of institutions and addresses in the field of wood energy in Switzerland is given in the paper. (author)

  20. Predictors of monoterpene exposure in the Danish furniture industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagström, Katja; Jacobsen, Gitte; Sigsgaard, Torben; Schaumburg, Inger; Erlandsen, Mogens; Schlunssen, Vivi

    2012-04-01

    Individuals who work with pine in the furniture industry may be exposed to monoterpenes, the most abundant of which are α-pinene, β-pinene, and Δ(3)-carene. Monoterpenes are suspected to cause dermatitis and to harm the respiratory system. An understanding of the predictors of monoterpene exposure is therefore important in preventing these adverse effects. These predictors may include general characteristics of the work environment and specific work operations. We sought to assess the extent to which workers are exposed to monoterpenes and to identify possible predictors of monoterpene exposure in the pine furniture industry in Denmark. Passive measurements of the levels of selected monoterpenes (α-pinene, β-pinene, and Δ(3)-carene) were performed on 161 subjects from 17 pine furniture factories in Viborg County, Denmark; one sample was acquired from each worker. Additionally, wood dust samples were collected from 145 workers. Data on potential predictors of exposure were acquired over the course of the day on which the exposure measurements were recorded and could be assigned to one of four hierarchic ordered levels: worker, machine, department, and factory. In addition to univariate analyses, a mixed model was used to account for imbalances within the data and random variation with each of the hierarchically ordered levels. The geometric mean (GM) monoterpene content observed over the 161 measurements was 7.8 mg m(-3) [geometric standard deviation (GSD): 2.4]; the GM wood dust level over 145 measurements was 0.58 mg m(-3) (GSD: 1.49). None of the measured samples exceeded the occupational exposure limit for terpenes in Denmark (25 ppm, 150 mg m(-3)). In the univariate analyses, half of the predictors tested were found to be significant; the multivariate model indicated that only three of the potential predictors were significant. These were the recirculation of air in rooms used for the processing of wood (a factory level predictor), the presence of a

  1. AN ASSESMENT OF CURRENT EMPLOYMENT NEEDS IN THE ROMANIAN FURNITURE INDUSTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristinel Petrişor CONSTANTIN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of an exploratory survey among Romanian companies from the furniture industry. The study aimed to identify: (1 respondents’ opinions regarding the main competences that a candidate needs to prove in order to be hired; (2 attitudes regarding the competences of the graduates from the Wood Engineering Faculty, Transilvania University of Brasov; and (3 main current employment needs of Romanian furniture industry. The results indicated that the highest importance in the selection of employees is given to transversal competences such as: orientation to quality; learning capacity; and availability for self-development, team working; and involvement in meeting customers’ requirements. The interviewed representatives of the studied companies mainly need skilled workers in the furniture industry but also engineers able to manage the company’s processes, or to design certain processes and products. The results of the present study may be used by the Wood Engineering Faculty in their attempt to adapt the academic curriculum and course contents; and give their graduates a chance to acquire relevant competences which may enhance their employability.

  2. Health effects assessment of exposure to particles from wood smoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, Elsa; Dybdahl, M. (Technical Univ. of Denmark, National Food Institute, Dept. of Toxicology and Risk Assessment, Soeborg (Denmark)); Larsen, Poul Bo (Danish Environmental Protection Agency, Copenhagen (Denmark))

    2008-07-01

    The number of residential wood burning devices has increased in Denmark during the latest years and it has been estimated that there in 2005 were about 551,000 wood stoves and about 48,000 wood boilers in Denmark. This has resulted in an increased exposure of the general Danish population to pollutants associated with residential wood smoke. New Danish monitoring results on particulate matter (PM) in ambient air have shown elevated PM levels in areas with many wood stoves, particularly during wintertime when wood burning is common. Due to the size distribution of wood smoke particles essentially all will be contained in the PM{sub 2.5} fraction. It has been estimated that about 17,665 tonnes PM{sub 2.5} per year (2005) in Denmark come from residential wood combustion. Therefore, there is an increasing concern that adverse human health effects might be associated with the increased exposure to residential wood smoke. This project has been set up in order to review the scientific literature concerning adverse health effects of pollutants associated with residential wood smoke with the main focus on particulate matter and to quantify and evaluate, if possible, the impact on human health of the increased exposure to particles in residential wood smoke. (au)

  3. THE MARKETING SERVICES ON THE FURNITURE MARKET

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviu MEGHIŞAN

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The distribution of furniture has seen profound changes leading to accelerations of the dynamics of the competition environment, these changes being influenced, among other things, by the diversification of offer comprising new services. Today it seems essential to consider the distribution of furniture as an “industry that creates utility”. Indeed, the consumer is analyzed not only as a function of product characteristics, but as a set of utilities and advantages that distributions propose in their strategies of associated services. The services appear, in the same time, as variables which are applied by the distributor in his strategy to differentiate themselves and as utilities associated to the product, utilities which the consumer - as “problem-solver” - integrates in his decision making process. The consumer buys not just a simple product (furniture, but a global product which includes a sum of jointed attributes and utilities (proximity, product line, point of sale concept, information, warranty, etc.. This paper analyzes the services offer from the distribution of furniture as a method to solve the problems of furniture buyer. From this perspective the paper takes into consideration the various profiles of buying behavior, makes a critical analysis of the structure of services involved, defines a new structure of services based on the phases of buying behavior process.

  4. [METHODS OF MODELING TEMPERATURE REGIMES IN TESTS OF POLYMER CONTAINING BUILDING MATERIALS AND FURNITURE FOR HOMES AND PUBLIC BUILDINGS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubova, G P; Chubirko, M I; Obolonskiy, M F; Khrapov, R Yu; Kamenev, V I

    2015-01-01

    This article is devoted to the modeling of temperature conditions in performance of research of polymer containing building materials and furniture. The authors draw attention to the different conditions of modeling used in the existing guidance documents, and provide a unified approach to this problem, namely in the performance of the study to use the temperature regime, which corresponds to the maximum value of the optimum temperature range for residential and industrial premises.

  5. Outdoor Furniture, Artwork, Fences, and Play Equipment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark T. Knaebe

    2013-01-01

    Wood exposed outdoors can last for centuries. What kind of wood you choose and how you protect it can make a big difference in how long the wood lasts. Two conditions influence the service life of outdoor wood: weathering and decay.

  6. Cigarette Fires Involving Upholstered Furniture in Residences: The Role that Smokers, Smoker Behavior, and Fire Standard Compliant Cigarettes Play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butry, David T; Thomas, Douglas S

    2017-05-01

    Residential structure fires pose a significant risk to life and property. A major source of these fires is the ignition of upholstered furniture by cigarettes. It has long been established that cigarettes and other lighted tobacco products could ignite upholstered furniture and were a leading cause of fire deaths in residences. In recent years, states have adopted fire standard compliant cigarettes ('FSC cigarettes') that are made with a wrapping paper that contains regularly spaced bands, which increases the likelihood of self-extinguishment. This paper measures the effectiveness of FSC cigarettes on the number of residential fires involving upholstered furniture, and the resulting fatalities, injuries, and extent of flame spread, while accounting for the under-reporting of fire incidents. In total, four models were estimated using fire department data from 2002 to 2011. The results provide evidence that FSC cigarettes, on average, reduced the number of residential fires by 45 %, reduced fatalities by 23 %, and extent of flame spread by 27 % in 2011. No effect on injuries was found. Within each state, effectiveness is moderated by the number of smokers and their consumption patterns. In general, FSC cigarettes are more effective in places with a large smoking population who engage in heavier smoking. There is a very limited effect on the lightest of smokers, suggesting behavioral differences between heavy and light smokers that influence fire risk.

  7. 75 FR 21657 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-26

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-1058 (Review)] Wooden Bedroom Furniture... review concerning the antidumping duty order on wooden bedroom furniture from China. SUMMARY: The... order on wooden bedroom furniture from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of...

  8. 75 FR 80528 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-1058 (Review)] Wooden Bedroom Furniture... furniture from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury to an industry... Publication 4203 (December 2010), entitled Wooden Bedroom Furniture from China: Investigation No. 731-TA-1058...

  9. 48 CFR 908.7104 - Office furniture and furnishings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Office furniture and furnishings. 908.7104 Section 908.7104 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY COMPETITION... furniture and furnishings. Acquisitions of office furniture and furnishings by DOE offices shall be in...

  10. 75 FR 14469 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-25

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [Investigation No. 731-TA-1058 (Review)] Wooden Bedroom Furniture... furniture from China. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it will proceed with a full review... revocation of the antidumping duty order on wooden bedroom furniture from China would be likely to lead to...

  11. 46 CFR 72.05-55 - Furniture and furnishings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Furniture and furnishings. 72.05-55 Section 72.05-55... ARRANGEMENT Structural Fire Protection § 72.05-55 Furniture and furnishings. (a) For the purpose of this... case furniture such as desks, wardrobes, dressing tables, bureaus, dressers, etc., shall be constructed...

  12. 47 CFR 32.6122 - Furniture and artworks expense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Furniture and artworks expense. 32.6122 Section 32.6122 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES... Furniture and artworks expense. This account shall include expenses associated with furniture and artworks. ...

  13. 17 CFR 256.308 - Office furniture and equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Office furniture and equipment... UTILITY HOLDING COMPANY ACT OF 1935 Service Company Property Accounts § 256.308 Office furniture and equipment. This account shall include the cost of office furniture and equipment owned by the service...

  14. Evaluation of consumers' choice of wooden dining furniture in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Evaluation of consumers' choice of wooden dining furniture in Southwestern Nigeria: A market strategy for furniture manufacturers and marketers. ... The study recommended increase use of durable Lesser Used Species (LUS) of trees for producing dining furniture and location of showrooms to target high income earners.

  15. HEURISTIC SCHEDULING IN A NIGERIA FURNITURE SHOP

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NIJOTECH

    heuristic scheduling Job Shop situations. The furniture shop ... The job flow diagram is schematically presented in figure. 1. Not every order needs processing in all work centres. If a Job does not require shaping then the processing time of .... Anude. 31. Figure 3: Variation of MINF with decreasing shop load for the four rules ...

  16. Anthropometric evaluation for primary school furniture design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Joanne W Y; Wong, Thomas K S

    2007-03-01

    Musculoskeletal symptoms are one of the top ten health problems among schoolchildren in Hong Kong. Whether or not these symptoms are related to school furniture has yet to be determined and published data on furniture size are lacking. The purpose of the study was to determine whether the design of furniture in schools is appropriate for children's anthropometry. A total of 214 volunteer subjects were recruited. This constituted 90% of the total number of primary 5 and 6 students in the studied school (i.e. those aged 10 and 13 years). The data collected included demographic information, data on perceived health and posture and body and furniture measurements. The girls' BMI was lower than that of the boys. The girls had longer lower limbs and wider hip breadth measurements in the standing position. This was similar in the sitting position. Almost none of the subjects had a chair with an appropriate seat height. Seat depth was found appropriate for large groups of students whether or not a large or small chair was used. Recommendations on the sizes of chairs and desks for boys and girls are discussed.

  17. Furniture Rack Corrosion Coupon Surveillance - 2012 Update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mickalonis, J. I.; Murphy, T. R.; Berry, C. J.

    2012-01-01

    Under the L Basin corrosion surveillance program furniture rack coupons immersed for 14 years (FY2009 coupons) and 16 years (FY2011 coupons) were analyzed and the results trended with coupons exposed for shorter times. In addition, a section harvested from an actual furniture rack that was immersed for 14 years was analyzed for pitting in the weld and heat-affected-zone (HAZ) regions. The L Basin operations maintained very good water quality over the entire immersion period for these samples. These results for FY2009 and FY2011 coupons showed that the average pit depths for the 6061 and 6063 base metal are 1 and 2 mils, respectively, while those for the weld and HAZ are 3 and 4 mils, respectively. The results for the weld and HAZ regions are similar to coupons removed during the period of FY2003 to FY2007. These similarities indicate that the pit development occurred quickly followed by slow kinetics of increase in pit depth. For the actual furniture rack sample average pits of 5 and 2 mils were measured for the HAZ and weld, respectively. These results demonstrate that pitting corrosion of the aluminum furniture racks used to support the spent fuel occurs in waters of good quality. The corrosion kinetics or pit depth growth rate is much less that 1 mil/year, and would not impact long-term use of this material system for fuel storage racks in L Basin if good water quality is maintained

  18. Furniture and Equipment in Learning Spaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holder, Anna

    2015-01-01

    in the community or neighborhood, questions of sustainability, flexible spaces for learning, suitable furniture, processes of participation in the design, learning outside of the classroom, landscape design, the opportunities in and challenges for special schools, schools in the urban fabric, and the role of new...

  19. Ergonomically Adjustable School Furniture for Male Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saleh, Khalid S.; Ramadan, Mohamed Z.; Al-Ashaikh, Riyad A.

    2013-01-01

    The need for adjustability in school furniture, in order to accommodate the variation in anthropometric measures of different genders, cultures and ages is becoming increasingly important. Four chair-table combinations, different in dimensions, with adjustable chair seating heights and table heights were designed, manufactured and distributed to…

  20. Furniture Rack Corrosion Coupon Surveillance - 2012 Update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickalonis, J. I.; Murphy, T. R.; Berry, C. J.

    2012-10-01

    Under the L Basin corrosion surveillance program furniture rack coupons immersed for 14 years (FY2009 coupons) and 16 years (FY2011 coupons) were analyzed and the results trended with coupons exposed for shorter times. In addition, a section harvested from an actual furniture rack that was immersed for 14 years was analyzed for pitting in the weld and heat-affected-zone (HAZ) regions. The L Basin operations maintained very good water quality over the entire immersion period for these samples. These results for FY2009 and FY2011 coupons showed that the average pit depths for the 6061 and 6063 base metal are 1 and 2 mils, respectively, while those for the weld and HAZ are 3 and 4 mils, respectively. The results for the weld and HAZ regions are similar to coupons removed during the period of FY2003 to FY2007. These similarities indicate that the pit development occurred quickly followed by slow kinetics of increase in pit depth. For the actual furniture rack sample average pits of 5 and 2 mils were measured for the HAZ and weld, respectively. These results demonstrate that pitting corrosion of the aluminum furniture racks used to support the spent fuel occurs in waters of good quality. The corrosion kinetics or pit depth growth rate is much less that 1 mil/year, and would not impact long-term use of this material system for fuel storage racks in L Basin if good water quality is maintained.

  1. 137Cs content in spruce wood in the Czech Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rulik, P.; Pfeiferova, V.

    2008-01-01

    The results of a survey of spruce wood contamination in the Czech Republic are presented. Fifty-one samples covering the country were taken during 2003-2004. The mean activity concentration in the dry wood is 4 Bq/kg, the maximum is 50 Bq/kg. The estimated effective dose to a person living in a flat with wooden furniture/boarding is negligible (not exceeding tenths of μSv/year). (orig.)

  2. Species selection in secondary wood products: perspectives from different consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott A. Bowe; Matthew S. Bumgardner; Matthew S. Bumgardner

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated adult consumer perceptions of several wood species to determine if word-based and appearance-based evaluations differed. The research replicated a 2001 study by the authors, which used undergraduate college students as a proxy for older and more experienced adult furniture consumers. The literature is somewhat inconclusive concerning the extent...

  3. Radiographic testing of wood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterloh, K.; Zscherpel, U.; Raedel, C.; Weidemann, G.; Meinel, D.; Goebbels, J.; Ewert, U.; Hasenstab, A.; Buecherl, T.

    2007-01-01

    Wood is an old and established consumption and construction material. It is still the most common material for constructing furniture, roofs, playgrounds and mine supports. In contrast to steel and concrete, wood warns of extreme loads by creaking. Its mechanical stability is more influenced by decay than by peripheral cracks. While external cracks are visible, internal decay by fungus growth is undetectable from outside. This may be a safety problem in supporting structures. The best analysis of the internal structure is provided by computed tomography, but this is also the most complex method, much more so than simple radiographic testing. However, the latter is made inaccurate by scattered radiation resulting from internal moisture. With the image processing options of digital radiographic techniques, the structural information can be separated effectively from noise. In contrast to X-ray and gamma radiography, neutron radiography provides information on the spatial distribution of moisture. In healthy wood, water is conducted in the sapwood while the hardwood is dry. Moisture in hardwood is caused by infestations, e.g. fungus growth. The contribution presents a comparative analysis of the available radiographic methods. (orig.)

  4. The impact of co-combustion of polyethylene plastics and wood in a small residential boiler on emissions of gaseous pollutants, particulate matter, PAHs and 1,3,5- triphenylbenzene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomsej, Tomas; Horak, Jiri; Tomsejova, Sarka; Krpec, Kamil; Klanova, Jana; Dej, Milan; Hopan, Frantisek

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this study was to simulate a banned but widely spread practice of co-combustion of plastic with wood in a small residential boiler and to quantify its impact on emissions of gaseous pollutants, particulate matter (PM), polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 1,3,5-triphenylbenzene (135TPB), a new tracer of polyethylene plastic combustion. Supermarket polyethylene shopping bags (PE) and polyethylene terephthalate bottles (PET) were burnt as supplementary fuels with beech logs (BL) in an old-type 20 kW over-fire boiler both at a nominal and reduced heat output. An impact of co-combustion was more pronounced at the nominal heat output: an increase in emissions of PM, total organic carbon (TOC), toxic equivalent (TEQ) of 7 carcinogenic PAHs (c-PAHs) and a higher ratio of c-PAHs TEQ in particulate phase was observed during co-combustion of both plastics. 135TPB was found in emissions from both plastics both at a nominal and reduced output. In contrast to findings reported in the literature, 135TPB was a dominant compound detected by mass spectrometry on m/z 306 exclusively in emissions from co-combustion of PE. Surprisingly, six other even more abundant compounds of unknown identity were found on this m/z in emissions from co-combustion of PET. One of these unknown compounds was identified as p-quaterphenyl (pQ). Principal component analysis revealed strong correlation among 135TPB, pQ and five unknown compounds. pQ seems to be suitable tracers of polyethylene terephthalate plastic co-combustion, while 135TPB proved its suitability to be an all-purpose tracer of polyethylene plastics combustion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Wood flour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig M. Clemons; Daniel F. Caufield

    2005-01-01

    The term “wood flour” is somewhat ambiguous. Reineke states that the term wood flour “is applied somewhat loosely to wood reduced to finely divided particles approximating those of cereal flours in size, appearance, and texture”. Though its definition is imprecise, the term wood flour is in common use. Practically speaking, wood flour usually refers to wood particles...

  6. Evaluation of the impact of furniture on communications performance for ubiquitous deployment of Wireless Sensor Networks in smart homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleda, Andrés L; Jara, Antonio J; Maestre, Rafael; Santa, Guadalupe; Gómez Skarmeta, Antonio F

    2012-01-01

    The extensions of the environment with the integration of sensing systems in any space, in conjunction with ubiquitous computing are enabling the so-called Smart Space Sensor Networks. This new generation of networks are offering full connectivity with any object, through the Internet of Things (IoT) and/or the Web, i.e., the Web of Things. These connectivity capabilities are making it feasible to sense the behaviours of people at home and act accordingly. These sensing systems must be integrated within typical elements found at home such as furniture. For that reason, this work considers furniture as an interesting element for the transparent location of sensors. Furniture is a ubiquitous object, i.e., it can be found everywhere at home or the office, and it can integrate and hide the sensors of a network. This work addresses the lack of an exhaustive study of the effect of furniture on signal losses. In addition an easy-to-use tool for estimating the robustness of the communication channel among the sensor nodes and gateways is proposed. Specifically, the losses in a sensor network signal due to the materials found within the communication link are evaluated. Then, this work proposes a software tool that gathers the obtained results and is capable of evaluating the impact of a given set of materials on the communications. This tool also provides a mechanism to optimize the sensor network deployments during the definition of smart spaces. Specifically, it provides information such as: maximum distances between sensor nodes, most suitable type of furniture to integrate sensors, or battery life of sensor nodes. This tool has been validated empirically in the lab, and it is currently being used by several enterprise partners of the Technological Centre of Furniture and Wood in the southeast of Spain.

  7. Evaluation of the Impact of Furniture on Communications Performance for Ubiquitous Deployment of Wireless Sensor Networks in Smart Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bleda, Andrés L.; Jara, Antonio J.; Maestre, Rafael; Santa, Guadalupe; Gómez Skarmeta, Antonio F.

    2012-01-01

    The extensions of the environment with the integration of sensing systems in any space, in conjunction with ubiquitous computing are enabling the so-called Smart Space Sensor Networks. This new generation of networks are offering full connectivity with any object, through the Internet of Things (IoT) and/or the Web, i.e., the Web of Things. These connectivity capabilities are making it feasible to sense the behaviours of people at home and act accordingly. These sensing systems must be integrated within typical elements found at home such as furniture. For that reason, this work considers furniture as an interesting element for the transparent location of sensors. Furniture is a ubiquitous object, i.e., it can be found everywhere at home or the office, and it can integrate and hide the sensors of a network. This work addresses the lack of an exhaustive study of the effect of furniture on signal losses. In addition an easy-to-use tool for estimating the robustness of the communication channel among the sensor nodes and gateways is proposed. Specifically, the losses in a sensor network signal due to the materials found within the communication link are evaluated. Then, this work proposes a software tool that gathers the obtained results and is capable of evaluating the impact of a given set of materials on the communications. This tool also provides a mechanism to optimize the sensor network deployments during the definition of smart spaces. Specifically, it provides information such as: maximum distances between sensor nodes, most suitable type of furniture to integrate sensors, or battery life of sensor nodes. This tool has been validated empirically in the lab, and it is currently being used by several enterprise partners of the Technological Centre of Furniture and Wood in the southeast of Spain. PMID:22778653

  8. Evaluation of the Impact of Furniture on Communications Performance for Ubiquitous Deployment of Wireless Sensor Networks in Smart Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio F. Gómez Skarmeta

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The extensions of the environment with the integration of sensing systems in any space, in conjunction with ubiquitous computing are enabling the so-called Smart Space Sensor Networks. This new generation of networks are offering full connectivity with any object, through the Internet of Things (IoT and/or the Web, i.e., the Web of Things. These connectivity capabilities are making it feasible to sense the behaviours of people at home and act accordingly. These sensing systems must be integrated within typical elements found at home such as furniture. For that reason, this work considers furniture as an interesting element for the transparent location of sensors. Furniture is a ubiquitous object, i.e., it can be found everywhere at home or the office, and it can integrate and hide the sensors of a network. This work addresses the lack of an exhaustive study of the effect of furniture on signal losses. In addition an easy-to-use tool for estimating the robustness of the communication channel among the sensor nodes and gateways is proposed. Specifically, the losses in a sensor network signal due to the materials found within the communication link are evaluated. Then, this work proposes a software tool that gathers the obtained results and is capable of evaluating the impact of a given set of materials on the communications. This tool also provides a mechanism to optimize the sensor network deployments during the definition of smart spaces. Specifically, it provides information such as: maximum distances between sensor nodes, most suitable type of furniture to integrate sensors, or battery life of sensor nodes. This tool has been validated empirically in the lab, and it is currently being used by several enterprise partners of the Technological Centre of Furniture and Wood in the southeast of Spain.

  9. Eighteenth Century Technological Efficiency: the reuse of Brazilian Sugar Chest Wood in Portuguese cabinet manufacture

    OpenAIRE

    Bernal, Rocio Astrid; Valente, Adelina; Pissarra, José

    2011-01-01

    We studied decorative Portuguese furniture from the 18th century Clérigos Church in Porto, to identify the woods used, to analyze their possible origin and understand the criteria for wood choice, according to sample location. We identified wood from Acacia sp., Castanea sativa, Couratari sp. and Dalbergia nigra. D. nigra, Acacia sp. and Couratari sp. may have arrived from Brazil, according to their natural distribution and the Portuguese colonial routes; C. sativa was abundant...

  10. Wood Shakes and Shingles for Roof Applications: Tips for Longer Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark T. Knaebe

    2013-01-01

    Many wood shakes and shingles have been replaced by composition or asphalt-based shingles. Nevertheless, wood shakes and shingles are still widely used on commercial structures and residential houses.

  11. Assessment of noise in furniture factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Petusk Filipe

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Work safety is of great importance in all industrial activities. The Norm NR15 of the Brazilian law determines that the work environment be tailored to employees to minimize biological, ergonomic, physical, chemical risks and accidents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the exposure of intermittent noise in a daily dose to workers in furniture factories. Measurements were made with a sound level meter and dosimeter in a workday of eight hours in 14 furniture factories located in the South of Minas Gerais. Noise values ranged from 66.0 to 117.4 dB(A. At a dose of 8 working hours it was observed that the values exceed the tolerance limit of a unit, being from 2.76 to 30.52 for minimum and maximum units, respectively. Both noises and daily doses were superior than the values set by the NR-15-Annex 01 (BRASIL, 2008.

  12. Realization of FRC interior and exterior furniture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Šonka, Š.; Frantová, M.; Štemberk, P.; Havrda, J.; Janouch, P.

    2017-09-01

    This article deals with the implementation of fibre reinforced concrete for interior and exterior furniture. The use of fibre reinforced concrete for non-traditional and small structures brings some specifics in design and realization. These are, in particular, the design of a suitable mixture, the choice of the shape of the structure in relation to the technological possibilities of realization, the static effects and finally the actual production of the element.

  13. Lumber attributes, characteristics, and species preferences as indicated by secondary wood products firms in the continental United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Nicholls; Joseph. Roos

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate selected lumber attributes, species preferences, and lumber use properties among secondary wood manufacturers in the United States. Our sample included producers of kitchen cabinets, furniture, doors, windows, and molded products who attended regional and national wood manufacturing events. More than 51% of respondents had...

  14. Return on equity of furniture industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Štěpánek

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Economic efficiency of the furniture production is closely associated with high input costs. Despite the fact that the material makes up 80% of total costs, there were 7,908 active furniture manufacturing companies in 2011 in the Czech Republic and they generated sales of nearly 30,812,199 thousand with an added value of CZK 9,592,032 thousands CZK and employed nearly 22,000 people. The aim of this paper is to assess the development of economic efficiency ratio indicator using return on equity (ROE hereinafter. The evaluation method was developed using statistical methods. The sample included 107 enterprises with more than 50 employees. For each company of the sample the ROE ratio was calculated and descriptive statistics and correlation analysis followed. Average ROE was 3.54% and the median was 3.3% in 2011. ROE of the sample in 2011 decreased compared to the base year 2007, which was the peak of the economic boom, the arithmetic average decreased by 74.68% and a median decrease was 63.7%. The linear trend of the sample and of the entire manufacturing industry had almost identical falling course of ROE development unlike the furniture industry in the Czech Republic. When using correlation analysis the tightness was in the arithmetic average of 30.42% and the tightness of the median was 39.00%.

  15. METHODS FOR DETERMINING THE AESTHETIC APPEAL OF FURNITURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mária Réka ANTAL

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The world of furniture market is getting more and more complex than it was before. In recent years the habits of buying furniture have changed. The fabrication of individual pieces of furniture is increasingly coming to the front. A personal contact is being established between the customer and the furniture, which is a relationship of one product to one customer. In order to satisfy the individual demands, higher prices and higher quality are needed. The competition is beginning at the market and emotion plays an important role in it. Therefore, functionality and aesthetic functions, determinative forms, fashionable style play a very important role in furniture design and production. Some methods are presented such as RMQD or FMEA used for determining aesthetics of furniture.

  16. Semantic Labelling of Road Furniture in Mobile Laser Scanning Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F.; Oude Elberink, S.; Vosselman, G.

    2017-09-01

    Road furniture semantic labelling is vital for large scale mapping and autonomous driving systems. Much research has been investigated on road furniture interpretation in both 2D images and 3D point clouds. Precise interpretation of road furniture in mobile laser scanning data still remains unexplored. In this paper, a novel method is proposed to interpret road furniture based on their logical relations and functionalities. Our work represents the most detailed interpretation of road furniture in mobile laser scanning data. 93.3 % of poles are correctly extracted and all of them are correctly recognised. 94.3 % of street light heads are detected and 76.9 % of them are correctly identified. Despite errors arising from the recognition of other components, our framework provides a promising solution to automatically map road furniture at a detailed level in urban environments.

  17. SEMANTIC LABELLING OF ROAD FURNITURE IN MOBILE LASER SCANNING DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Li

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Road furniture semantic labelling is vital for large scale mapping and autonomous driving systems. Much research has been investigated on road furniture interpretation in both 2D images and 3D point clouds. Precise interpretation of road furniture in mobile laser scanning data still remains unexplored. In this paper, a novel method is proposed to interpret road furniture based on their logical relations and functionalities. Our work represents the most detailed interpretation of road furniture in mobile laser scanning data. 93.3 % of poles are correctly extracted and all of them are correctly recognised. 94.3 % of street light heads are detected and 76.9 % of them are correctly identified. Despite errors arising from the recognition of other components, our framework provides a promising solution to automatically map road furniture at a detailed level in urban environments.

  18. The Influence of Furniture on Air Velocity in a Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, J. R.; Nielsen, Peter V.; Svidt, Kjeld

    Using isothermal full-scale experiments and 3-dimensional CFD simulations it is investigated how normal office furniture influences the air movements in a mixing ventilated room. Two different types of inlets are used in the experiments and a set-up with normal office furniture is made. The set......-up is simulated with one of the inlets where a volume resistance represents the furniture....

  19. Aim for Wow-ability when Selecting Student Center Furniture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Jill M.

    2003-01-01

    Advises colleges to keep in mind several qualities when purchasing furniture for student centers: durability, cleanability, repairability, flexibility, storability, credibility, sustainability, comfort, affordability, and "wowability." (EV)

  20. Competing Explanations in the Evolution of the Danish Furniture Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John

    -undamaged Danish industry’s opportunistic exploitation of recovering European Post-War furniture markets. Second, the apparent prominence of particle board manufacture in today’s industry is a Danish specialisation with its origin in the 1950s growth event. Third, while there is much evidence that IKEA became...... an important buyer for Danish furniture in the 1960-1992 period and credibly aided the attainment of economies of scale in some furniture suppliers, there is no evidence that IKEA demand aided either the growth of the industry or particle board furniture manufacture in Denmark. Fourth, given the high growth...

  1. 76 FR 11426 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status Klaussner Home Furnishings (Upholstered Furniture) Asheboro...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... Status Klaussner Home Furnishings (Upholstered Furniture) Asheboro and Candor, NC Pursuant to its... upholstered furniture manufacturing facilities of Klaussner Home Furnishings located in Asheboro and Candor... to the manufacture of upholstered furniture at the Klaussner Home Furnishings facilities located in...

  2. Evaluating spent CCA residential decks for second-life products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert Smith; David Bailey; Phil Araman

    2003-01-01

    The amount of CCA treated wood being removed from spent residential decks is increasing at a tremendous rate. While most spent CCA treated wood is being disposed in landfills, further useful and environmentally beneficial alternatives have to be met. This research estimated the percentage of recoverable lumber from spent CCA decks that can be recycled into other usable...

  3. Knot detection in X-ray images of wood planks using dictionary learning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansson, Nils Mattias; Enescu, Alexandru; Brandt, Sami Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    This paper considers a novel application of x-ray imaging of planks, for the purpose of detecting knots in high quality furniture wood. X-ray imaging allows the detection of knots invisible from the surface to conventional cameras. Our approach is based on texture analysis, or more specifically, ......, discriminative dictionary learning. Experiments show that the knot detection and segmentation can be accurately performed by our approach. This is a promising result and can be directly applied in industrial processing of furniture wood....

  4. Statistical process control for residential treated wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patricia K. Lebow; Timothy M. Young; Stan Lebow

    2017-01-01

    This paper is the first stage of a study that attempts to improve the process of manufacturing treated lumber through the use of statistical process control (SPC). Analysis of industrial and auditing agency data sets revealed there are differences between the industry and agency probability density functions (pdf) for normalized retention data. Resampling of batches of...

  5. The Business of: School Furniture: Innovative Designs for Tomorrow's Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacey, Kylie

    2013-01-01

    As instruction shifts to a learner-centric, individualized approach with a focus on small group activities, heavy furniture that small hands cannot move on their own have become less desirable. The most popular pieces are lightweight, portable, and colorful. The Smith System furniture company encourages schools to select chairs and desks in their…

  6. Prevent Tipping Furniture from Injuring or Killing Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this! Home » Health Tips » Child Emergencies Prevent Tipping Furniture from Injuring or Killing Young Children The nation’s ... a child — killed by a piece of a furniture, appliance or a television falling on them. “It ...

  7. The structural analysis of small and medium size furniture ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-17

    Dec 17, 2008 ... Bartin University, Faculty of Forestry, Department of Forest Industrial Engineering, Bartin, 74100, Turkey. Accepted 20 October, 2008 ... furniture enterprises in Turkish furniture industry was carried out. The questions asked to .... despite these negative indicators and development trend goes on-as a result of ...

  8. Wood preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebecca E. Ibach

    2003-01-01

    When wood is exposed to various environmental conditions, many degradation reactions (biological, ultraviolet, mechanical, moisture, and chemical) can occur. To protect wood from biological degradation, chemical preservatives are applied by nonpressure or pressure treatment. Penetration and retention of a chemical depend upon the wood species and the amount of...

  9. Mechanical and chemical properties of CCA-treated lumber removed from spent residential decks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert L. Smith; David Bailey; Philip A. Araman

    2007-01-01

    The amount of chromated copper arsenate (CCA)- treated wood being removed from spent residential decks is increasing at a tremendous rate. While most spent CCA-treated wood is being disposed in landfills, further useful and environmentally beneficial alternatives have to be met. If the volume of CCA-treated wood reaching landfills continues to rise, stricter disposal...

  10. Assessing the global warming potential of wooden products from the furniture sector to improve their ecodesign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez-Garcia, Sara, E-mail: sara.gonzalez@usc.es [Division of Biology, Department of Life Sciences, Sir Alexander Fleming Building, Imperial College of London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782- Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Gasol, Carles M.; Lozano, Raul Garcia [Inedit Innovacio, Carretera de Cabrils, km 2 -IRTA-, 08348 Cabrils, Barcelona (Spain); SosteniPrA - UAB-IRTA, Institute of Environmental Science and Technology (ICTA), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Moreira, Ma Teresa [Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782- Santiago de Compostela (Spain); Gabarrell, Xavier; Rieradevall i Pons, Joan [SosteniPrA (UAB-IRTA), Institute of Environmental Science and Technology (ICTA), Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona UAB, 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Department of Chemical Engineering, Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (UAB), 08193 Bellaterra, Barcelona (Spain); Feijoo, Gumersindo [Department of Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, University of Santiago de Compostela, 15782- Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2011-12-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the global warming potential of several wood products as an environmental criterion for their ecodesign. Two methodologies were combined: the quantification of greenhouse gas emissions (equivalent CO{sub 2}) of several representative wood based products from the furniture sector and the integration of environmental aspects into product design. The products under assessment were classified in two groups: indoor products and outdoor products, depending on their location. 'Indoor products' included a convertible cot/bed, a kitchen cabinet, an office table, a living room furniture, a headboard, youth room accessories and a wine crate, while the 'Outdoor products' analysed were a ventilated wooden wall and a wooden playground. Spanish wood processing companies located in Galicia (NW Spain) and Catalonia (NE Spain) were analysed in detail. The life cycle of each product was carried out from a cradle-to-gate perspective according to Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology, using global warming potential as the selected impact category. According to the results, metals, boards and energy use appeared to be the most contributing elements to the environmental impact of the different products under assessment, with total contributions ranging from 40% to 90%. Furthermore, eco-design strategies were proposed by means of the methodology known as Design for the Environment (DfE). Improvement strategies viable for implementation in the short term were considered and analysed in detail, accounting for remarkable reductions in the equivalent CO{sub 2} emissions (up to 60%). These strategies would be focused on the use of renewable energies such as photovoltaic cells, the promotion of national fibres or changes in the materials used. Other alternatives to be implemented in the long term can be of potential interest for future developments.

  11. Assessing the global warming potential of wooden products from the furniture sector to improve their ecodesign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-García, Sara; Gasol, Carles M; Lozano, Raúl García; Moreira, María Teresa; Gabarrell, Xavier; Rieradevall i Pons, Joan; Feijoo, Gumersindo

    2011-12-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the global warming potential of several wood products as an environmental criterion for their ecodesign. Two methodologies were combined: the quantification of greenhouse gas emissions (equivalent CO(2)) of several representative wood based products from the furniture sector and the integration of environmental aspects into product design. The products under assessment were classified in two groups: indoor products and outdoor products, depending on their location. "Indoor products" included a convertible cot/bed, a kitchen cabinet, an office table, a living room furniture, a headboard, youth room accessories and a wine crate, while the "Outdoor products" analysed were a ventilated wooden wall and a wooden playground. Spanish wood processing companies located in Galicia (NW Spain) and Catalonia (NE Spain) were analysed in detail. The life cycle of each product was carried out from a cradle-to-gate perspective according to Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology, using global warming potential as the selected impact category. According to the results, metals, boards and energy use appeared to be the most contributing elements to the environmental impact of the different products under assessment, with total contributions ranging from 40% to 90%. Furthermore, eco-design strategies were proposed by means of the methodology known as Design for the Environment (DfE). Improvement strategies viable for implementation in the short term were considered and analysed in detail, accounting for remarkable reductions in the equivalent CO(2) emissions (up to 60%). These strategies would be focused on the use of renewable energies such as photovoltaic cells, the promotion of national fibres or changes in the materials used. Other alternatives to be implemented in the long term can be of potential interest for future developments. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Assessing the global warming potential of wooden products from the furniture sector to improve their ecodesign

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González-García, Sara; Gasol, Carles M.; Lozano, Raúl García; Moreira, Ma Teresa; Gabarrell, Xavier; Rieradevall i Pons, Joan; Feijoo, Gumersindo

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of this study was to determine the global warming potential of several wood products as an environmental criterion for their ecodesign. Two methodologies were combined: the quantification of greenhouse gas emissions (equivalent CO 2 ) of several representative wood based products from the furniture sector and the integration of environmental aspects into product design. The products under assessment were classified in two groups: indoor products and outdoor products, depending on their location. “Indoor products” included a convertible cot/bed, a kitchen cabinet, an office table, a living room furniture, a headboard, youth room accessories and a wine crate, while the “Outdoor products” analysed were a ventilated wooden wall and a wooden playground. Spanish wood processing companies located in Galicia (NW Spain) and Catalonia (NE Spain) were analysed in detail. The life cycle of each product was carried out from a cradle-to-gate perspective according to Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology, using global warming potential as the selected impact category. According to the results, metals, boards and energy use appeared to be the most contributing elements to the environmental impact of the different products under assessment, with total contributions ranging from 40% to 90%. Furthermore, eco-design strategies were proposed by means of the methodology known as Design for the Environment (DfE). Improvement strategies viable for implementation in the short term were considered and analysed in detail, accounting for remarkable reductions in the equivalent CO 2 emissions (up to 60%). These strategies would be focused on the use of renewable energies such as photovoltaic cells, the promotion of national fibres or changes in the materials used. Other alternatives to be implemented in the long term can be of potential interest for future developments.

  13. Does Saudi school furniture meet ergonomics requirements?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramadan, Mohamed Zaki

    2011-01-01

    The goal of this research was to study the effect of adjustable imported desk and chair combinations available in the market on student performance. Six sets of chairs and tables within three different activities (reading, writing, and looking to the blackboard) were the independent variables. Evaluation of back force at 5th lumbar vertebrae and the 1st sacrum (L5/S1), subjective measures of discomfort, and the mismatch between student body dimension and classroom furniture analysis were measured. A total of 124 young male students (first through sixth-grade) participated in this experiment. The results revealed too low or too high chair and table heights relative to the students' body dimensions increased the stresses acting at L5/S1 as well as discomfort ratings. This study indicated there was a high level of body mismatch in desk-chair combinations even with the adjustable imported furniture available in the local market. Anthropometric data of Saudi students should be collected from different regions in the Kingdom and then design and development of desk-chair combinations could follow the development of a standard procedure to adapt to the needs of Saudi school children.

  14. Analysis of black japanned furniture by XRF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Felix, Valter de S.; Oliveira, Ana L.C. de; Freitas, Renato P.

    2017-01-01

    Currently, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is the most employed technique to characterize Cultural Heritage artifacts. The increasing use of this technique in this research field is due to technological developments that occurred during the last decade, which enabled the construction of easy to handle, XRF portable systems that allow fast, non-destructive and in situ analyses. One of the most common applications of XRF is the characterization of inorganic pigments in works of art, polychrome sculptures, etc. The information obtained in this type of analysis is essential for a better knowledge of the history of the work of art and for restorers and conservators who can choose better intervention methods. In this paper, a European black Japanned furniture dated between the eighteenth and the nineteenth centuries was analyzed by XRF. The analyses were carried out in situ using a portable XRF system, Tracer IV model from Bruker, which has a Rh anode. The analyses allowed concluding that the pigments in the polychrome are: lamp black, vermilion, brown ochre, Prussian blue and green earth. In addition to the polychrome in high relief, the furniture has golden regions where gold was identified mixed with lead-based historical pigments. The results obtained, besides helping to confirm the authenticity of the artifact, were also useful for restorers to choose suitable methods to intervene the work of art, which has recently undergone restoration. (author)

  15. Analysis of black japanned furniture by XRF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felix, Valter de S.; Oliveira, Ana L.C. de; Freitas, Renato P., E-mail: valter.felix@ifrj.edu.br, E-mail: renato.freitas@ifrj.edu.br, E-mail: annalecastro@hotmail.com [Instituto Federal do Rio de Janeiro (LISCOMP/IFRJ-CPAR), Paracambi, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentação e Simulação Computacional; Pereira, Marcelo O.; Carvalho, Cristiano S.; Silva, Fabricio L., E-mail: marcelocefetrj@gmail.com [Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica Celso Suckow da Fonseca (CEFET), Nova Iguaçu, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    Currently, X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is the most employed technique to characterize Cultural Heritage artifacts. The increasing use of this technique in this research field is due to technological developments that occurred during the last decade, which enabled the construction of easy to handle, XRF portable systems that allow fast, non-destructive and in situ analyses. One of the most common applications of XRF is the characterization of inorganic pigments in works of art, polychrome sculptures, etc. The information obtained in this type of analysis is essential for a better knowledge of the history of the work of art and for restorers and conservators who can choose better intervention methods. In this paper, a European black Japanned furniture dated between the eighteenth and the nineteenth centuries was analyzed by XRF. The analyses were carried out in situ using a portable XRF system, Tracer IV model from Bruker, which has a Rh anode. The analyses allowed concluding that the pigments in the polychrome are: lamp black, vermilion, brown ochre, Prussian blue and green earth. In addition to the polychrome in high relief, the furniture has golden regions where gold was identified mixed with lead-based historical pigments. The results obtained, besides helping to confirm the authenticity of the artifact, were also useful for restorers to choose suitable methods to intervene the work of art, which has recently undergone restoration. (author)

  16. Effect of non-tariff barriers on secondary processed wood product trade: New Zealand exports to the United States, China and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    James A. Turner; Joseph Buongiorno; Shushuai Zhu; Frances Maplesden

    2008-01-01

    Secondary processed wood products - builder's carpentry and joinery, moldings and millwork, wooden furniture, and prefabricated buildings - have grown significantly in importance in the global trade of wood products. At the same time there has been increased use of non-tariff barriers to restrict their trade.  These barriers could have an important impact on the...

  17. Wood pellets : a worldwide fuel commodity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melin, S.

    2005-01-01

    Aspects of the wood pellet industry were discussed in this PowerPoint presentation. Details of wood pellets specifications were presented, and the wood pellet manufacturing process was outlined. An overview of research and development activities for wood pellets was presented, and issues concerning quality control were discussed. A chart of the effective calorific value of various fuels was provided. Data for wood pellet mill production in Canada, the United States and the European Union were provided, and various markets for Canadian wood pellets were evaluated. Residential sales as well as Canadian overseas exports were reviewed. Production revenues for British Columbia and Alberta were provided. Wood pellet heat and electricity production were discussed with reference to prefabricated boilers, stoves and fireplaces. Consumption rates, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and fuel ratios for wood pellets and fossil fuels were compared. Price regulating policies for electricity and fossil fuels have prevented the domestic expansion of the wood pellet industry. There are currently no incentives for advanced biomass combustion to enter British Columbia markets, and this has led to the export of wood pellets. It was concluded that climate change mitigation policies will be a driving force behind market expansion for wood pellets. tabs., figs

  18. 41 CFR 101-26.505-1 - Description of office and household furniture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... household furniture. 101-26.505-1 Section 101-26.505-1 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal... household furniture. (a) Office furniture is equipment normally associated with occupancy or use in such... sections and cabinets, office safes, security cabinets, chairs, and davenports. (b) Household furniture is...

  19. 75 FR 9581 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture from the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-03

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-890] Wooden Bedroom Furniture... shipper review of the antidumping duty order on wooden bedroom furniture from the People's Republic of... Equipment Co., Ltd. (``Zhejiang Tianyi'') and Rise Furniture Co., Ltd. (``Rise Furniture'').\\1\\ On December...

  20. Mismatch between classroom furniture and anthropometric measures in Chilean schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellucci, H I; Arezes, P M; Viviani, C A

    2010-07-01

    Children spend about five hours per day sitting down while doing their school work. Considering this as well as the potential inadequate use of school furniture, it is likely that some anatomical-functional changes and problems in the learning process may occur. The aim of this study was to compare furniture sizes within three different schools with the anthropometric characteristics of Chilean students in the Valparaíso region, in order to evaluate the potential mismatch between them. The sample consisted of 195 volunteer students (94 male, 101 female) of the 8th grade, ranging from 12.5 to 14.5 years of age from 3 different schools. Regarding the methodology, 6 anthropometric measures (Stature, Popliteal height, Buttock-popliteal length, Elbow height while sitting, Hip width, Thigh thickness and Subscapular height) were gathered, as well as 8 dimensions from the school furniture. For the evaluation of classroom furniture a match criterion equation was defined. After considering the existing classroom furniture dimensions in each match criterion equation, the anthropometric characteristics of the considered population were compared in order to determine the mismatch between them. Results indicated that seat height, which should be considered as the starting point for the design of classroom furniture, was appropriate for students' popliteal height in only 14% of the 2 out of the 3 schools, and 28% in the third. Seat to desk height was too high and mismatched 99% of the students in one school and 100% in the others. Therefore, it was possible to conclude that the classroom's furniture was inadequate in almost all the analyzed cases and subjects. It is possible that the high mismatch percentage found between furniture and students' anthropometry can be associated to the fact that the acquisition and selection of the furniture was made without any ergonomic concern or criteria. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Projected wood energy impact on US forest wood resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skog, K.E. [USDA Forest Service, Madison, WI (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The USDA Forest Service has developed long-term projections of wood energy use as part of a 1993 assessment of demand for and supply of resources from forest and range lands in the United States. To assess the impact of wood energy demand on timber resources, a market equilibrium model based on linear programming was developed to project residential, industrial, commercial, and utility wood energy use from various wood energy sources: roundwood from various land sources, primary wood products mill residue, other wood residue, and black liquor. Baseline projections are driven by projected price of fossil fuels compared to price of wood fuels and the projected increase in total energy use in various end uses. Wood energy use is projected to increase from 2.67 quad in 1986 to 3.5 quad in 2030 and 3.7 quad in 2040. This is less than the DOE National Energy Strategy projection of 5.5 quad in 2030. Wood energy from forest sources (roundwood) is projected to increase from 3.1 billion (10{sup 9}) ft{sup 3} in 1986 to 4.4. billion ft{sup 3} in 2030 and 4.8 billion ft{sup 3} in 2040 (88, 124 and 136 million m{sup 3}, respectively). This rate of increase of roundwood use for fuel -- 0.8 percent per year -- is virtually the same as the projected increase rate for roundwood for pulpwood. Pulpwood roundwood is projected to increase from 4.2 billion ft{sup 3} in 1986 to 6.0 billion ft{sup 3} in 2030 and 6.4 billion ft{sup 3} in 2040 (119, 170 and 183 million m{sup 3}, respectively).

  2. Gathering structured reflection in the furniture business by Trend Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frei, Andrea Erika; Eriksen, Kaare Riise

    2015-01-01

    Setting up the direction for new product designs in the furniture business can be more or less structured and in many situations the idea for new design concepts, constructions, details, coloring or choice of material are directed by random input from retailers or external designers or from study...... at an international furniture fair. The experiment was developed and carried out by design engineering students and design researchers in collaboration with a furniture manufacturer and the results and methodology are presented and discussed in this paper....

  3. Proxemic Transitions: Designing Shape-Changing Furniture for Informal Meetings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Jens Emil; Korsgaard, Henrik; Petersen, Marianne Graves

    2017-01-01

    Shape-changing interfaces is an emerging field in HCI that explores the qualities of physically dynamic artifacts. At furniture-scale such dynamic artifacts have the potential of changing the ways we collaborate and engage with spaces. In- formed by theories of proxemics, empirical studies...... of informal meetings and design work with shape-changing furniture, we develop the notion of proxemic transitions. We present three design aspects of proxemic transitions: transition speed, step- wise reconfiguration, and situational flexibility. The design aspects focus on how to balance between physical...... between a table and a board surface. These contributions outline important aspects to consider when designing shape-changing furniture....

  4. Wood composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lars Berglund; Roger M. Rowell

    2005-01-01

    A composite can be defined as two or more elements held together by a matrix. By this definition, what we call “solid wood” is a composite. Solid wood is a three-dimensional composite composed of cellulose, hemicelluloses and lignin (with smaller amounts of inorganics and extractives), held together by a lignin matrix. The advantages of developing wood composites are (...

  5. Energy wood. Part 2b: Wood pellets and pellet space-heating systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nussbaumer, T.

    2002-01-01

    The paper gives an overview on pellet utilization including all relevant process steps: Potential and properties of saw dust as raw material, pellet production with drying and pelletizing, standardization of wood pellets, storage and handling of pellets, combustion of wood pellets in stoves and boilers and applications for residential heating. In comparison to other wood fuels, wood pellets show several advantages: Low water content and high heating value, high energy density, and homogeneous properties thus enabling stationary combustion conditions. However, quality control is needed to ensure constant properties of the pellets and to avoid the utilization of contaminated raw materials for the pellet production. Typical data of efficiencies and emissions of pellet stoves and boilers are given and a life cycle analysis (LCA) of wood pellets in comparison to log wood and wood chips is described. The LCA shows that wood pellets are advantageous thanks to relatively low emissions. Hence, the utilization of wood pellet is proposed as a complementary technology to the combustion of wood chips and log wood. Finally, typical fuel cost of wood pellets in Switzerland are given and compared with light fuel oil. (author)

  6. Using of new functional elements of furniture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav Svoboda

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with using of new functional elements of furniture. The aim of the work was to design and to produce simple, light and comfortable armchair which could be supplemented with an inner replaceable element. Thanks of interposition of this component in to the basic armchair corpus it could be achieved different materials stiffness of sitting according to the specific user’s needs (e.g. according to orthopedic needs of the user. Next advantages are various coloration and creative style so it could be easily evocated the atmosphere not only of routine but also of festive sitting according to user’s images, emotional moods or reconciliation with the interior.

  7. [Consensus on safe infant's furniture: brief version].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Several products that are used for support, transportation or recreation in infants and children can cause non intentional injuries. This consensus tries to provide pediatricians and families with the necessary elements to recognize and choose safe infant's furniture. A group of 24 experts developed a consensus according to Delphi's method, which consists in successiverounds of questions. Recommendations are supported with bibliography. Infant walkers are not recommended, as they are considered useless and dangerous. Guidelines are given to choose appropriate child restraint systems, when and how to use them, and how to install them in a safe way. Injuries and prevention measures related to strollers, high chairs, cribs and bunk beds are described. Risks and the way to avoid them are diagrammed in figures that can be used to transmit recommendations to families. Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría.

  8. Wood Products Consumption for Industrial Markets in the United States, Testing a New Research Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig Adair; David B. McKeever

    2013-01-01

    In early 2012, APA-The Engineered Wood Association conducted studies of three industries: institutional furniture, motor homes, and travel trailers and campers. The survey procedure was the same as that used by APA for many years. Lists of individual manufacturers were purchased, a telephone interviewing company was hired to administer a questionnaire, and APA...

  9. DEMONSTRATION OF A NO-VOC/NO-HAP WOOD KITCHEN CABINET COATING SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of the development and demonstration of a no-VOC (volatile organic compound)/no-HAP (hazardous air pollutant) wood furniture coating system at two cabinet manufacturing plants: one in Portland, OR, and the other in Redwood City, CA. Technology transfer ef...

  10. Strength and durability of one-part polyurethane adhesive bonds to wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    C. B. Vick; E. A. Okkonen

    1998-01-01

    One-part polyurethane wood adhesives comprise a new class of general purpose consumer products. Manufacturersa claims of waterproof bonds brought many inquiries to the Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) from users constructing aircraft, boats, lawn furniture, and other laminated materials for outdoor use. Although FPL has technical information on several types of...

  11. How to improve the performance of UV cured wood coatings?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariane Poitoux

    2007-01-01

    Adhesion, scratch and wear resistance are key properties for industrial wood coatings, both for furniture and parquet flooring. Different techniques can be used to evaluate the performances of a coating and results can be strongly affected only by changing the measuring tool used. This paper will explain the different methods available to assess the adhesion, the scratch and wear resistance and their relevancy. The role played by the different oligomers and monomers will be shown, as the impact of the photoinitiator package. (Author)

  12. Anthropometric measurements for ergonomic design of students’ furniture in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Wilson Taifa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents anthropometric measurements regarding engineering students in India. Health survey (ergonomic assessment was carried out to know the health status of all students who have been using poorly designed furniture. The data were measured with the help of various tools. After data collection and analysis, authors came up with exhaustive dimensions for designing adjustable classrooms furniture. Dimensions recommended include; bench surface height, bench depth and width, back rest width and height, backrest angle, desk height, desk depth, width, and desk angle. Therefore, an implementation of these data will help to create comfortability, safety, well-being, suitability, reduce Musculoskeletal disorders, and improve performance of students in terms of attentiveness. Also, it is highly recommended to consider requirements from students in designing classrooms furniture and conduct seminar or workshop to educate students regarding the negative impact towards adapting poor posture in the long usage of classrooms furniture.

  13. About furniture. Before and after Ptolomaeus Philadelphos' pavilion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Calandra

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available The furniture is of primary importance towards the canopies definition, more than the architectonic structure: they  contribute, in fact, in creating and organizing the spaces, so that there is almost no distinction between furniture and structure, as it is possible to observe in the ancient sources of different periods (Herodotus, Euripides, Julius Caesar, Plutarchus, Athenaeus: the pavilions of Xerxes at Plataia, of Ion at Delphi, of Alexander after the Issa battle and at Susa, of Pompey at Pharsalos, as well as the Ptolomaeus's canopy at Alexandria. At the same time, the furniture language is studied, signifying the power and the force of the sovereign through the luxurious materials and surprising the spectators.      At the end, some hypotheses on the final destination of the furniture, after dismantling the Ptolomaeus' canopy, equiped for one year.

  14. Audit Sistem Informasi Akuntansi Siklus Pengeluaran pada PT. Lagio Furniture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aries Wicaksono

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Rapid technological developments make the whole thing easier. Many companies also take advantage of these technological developments. Similarly, the corporate accounting system that uses the benefits of information technology in the form of Accounting Information Systems (AIS. PT. Lagio Furniture is amanufacturing company that produces furniture for the premium class. Information system is an important part that helps the company's operations become more effective and efficient, therefore it is important for information systems running properly.This research aimed to audit the general control and applications control on the expenditure cycle accounting information system at PT. Lagio Furniture. This type of audit is audit around the computer. And then also collecting data through observation and interviews with relevant parties. Results of thereserarch is the expenditure cycle accounting information system at PT. Lagio Furniture was good. But there is still need to be improved in the control plan security, operational management control, and control inputs.

  15. Health effects assessment of exposure to particles from wood smoke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Elsa

    2007-01-01

    in relation to residential wood combustion indicate a consistent relationship between PM and increased incidences for different health endpoints. Overall, an increased risk of adverse respiratory health effects was associated with an increase in ambient PM of about 10 mg/m3. The health impact of PM from wood...... in Denmark in selected residential areas with different kinds of heating, the annual average PM2.5 exposure from wood smoke can be estimated at 0.4–2 mg/m3 as a preliminary estimate for the whole Danish population. Epidemiological studies evaluating adverse health effects from ambient air pollution...

  16. Preliminary studies of Brazilian wood using different radioisotopic sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Gilberto; Silva, Leonardo Gondim de Andrade e

    2013-01-01

    Due to availability and particular features, wood was one of the first materials used by mankind with a wide variety of applications. It can be used as raw material for paper and cellulose manufacturing; in industries such as chemical, naval, furniture, sports goods, toys, and musical instrument; in building construction and in the distribution of electric energy. Wood has been widely researched; therefore, wood researchers know that several aspects such as temperature, latitude, longitude, altitude, sunlight, soil, and rainfall index interfere with the growth of trees. This behavior explains why average physical-chemical properties are important when wood is studied. The majority of researchers consider density to be the most important wood property because of its straight relationship with the physical and mechanical properties of wood. There are three types of wood density: basic, apparent and green. The apparent density was used here at 12% of moisture content. In this study, four different types of wood were used: 'freijo', 'jequetiba', 'muiracatiara' and 'ipe'. For wood density determination by non-conventional method, Am-241, Ba-133 and Cs-137 radioisotopic sources; a NaI scintillation detector and a counter were used. The results demonstrated this technique to be quick and accurate. By considering the nuclear parameters obtained as half value layers and linear absorption coefficients, Cs-137 radioisotopic source demonstrated to be the best option to be used for inspection of the physical integrity of electric wooden poles and live trees for future works. (author)

  17. TUNG OIL AND LINSEED OIL AS TRADITIONAL FINISHING MATERIALS IMPORTANT FOR FURNITURE CONSERVATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin You LIU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Tung oil and linseed oil are two representative traditional drying oils wich were commonly employed, for centuries, for wood finishing. Therefore, their study in terms of properties, chemical structure features and alterations by ageing is important for furniture conservation. This paper focusses on some comparative properties of Tung oil and linseed oil as wood finishing materials. For this purpose, test wooden samples of Chinese walnut (Juglans mandshurica Maxim. were coated with these materials by manual traditional techniques. Solids content of the oils was determined in order to approximate the thickness of the resulting film. The colour change brought about by coating of wood surfaces with these oils was measured in the CIELab system. Furthermore, an accelerated artificial ageing test under the action of temperature (100°C was performed in order to evaluate and compare the ageing resistance of the two types of oils. Ageing phenomena were investigated by colour measurements and FTIR - ATR spectrometry. Both uncoated and oils coated wood surfaces suffered colour changes observed as darkening and colour shade shifting to red and yellow, but these were obviously more evident for the oil coated samples. The overal colour changes were maximum for the samples finished with linseed oil, while tung oil semmed to be more resistant. FTIR investigations for two types of oils highlighted similarities and differences in their chemical composition, curing and aspects of the thermally induced ageing mechanism. The later proved to be mainly an oxidative degradation process leading to formation of free fatty acids and other carbonyl containing compounds, as suggested by the broader carbonyl (1740 cm-1 and hydroxyl bands (3400 cm-1 .

  18. Wood preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin Archer; Stan Lebow

    2006-01-01

    Wood preservation can be interpreted to mean protection from fire, chemical degradation, mechanical wear, weathering, as well as biological attack. In this chapter, the term preservation is applied more restrictively to protection from biological hazards.

  19. Marketing Strategy Formulation for the Introduction of Eukula Strato German Wood Finishes in Local Market of Emerging Indian Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suraj Kushe Shekhar

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Wood finishing relates to the process of embellishing or protecting the surface of the wood. The paper aimed at formulating a marketing strategy for introducing water borne German based Wood Finishes named Eukula Strato into local market of northern Kerala, India. Multiple cross sectional descriptive research with judgmental sampling technique elicited responses from Finishers, Furniture manufacturers and Interior designers. Findings revealed that Eukula Strato had a distinct advantage when compared to any other Wood Finish that was available in the local market. Findings and suggestions were reported as per 4P’s of marketing mix. Percentage analysis, Chi square analysis etc were used to interpret the results

  20. In individual or collective dwellings, wood-fuel: an enthusiastic market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2007-01-01

    The wood-fuel market benefits from the present day development of renewable energy sources, both in the individual residential sector where wood-fuel is becoming a main space-heating solution and not only an auxiliary one, and in the collective residential, tertiary and industrial sectors where more than 1850 wood-burning facilities have been implemented in 6 years under the impulse of the wood-fuel development plan. Sales have raised by 40% in the residential sector in 2006 and a 50% increase of renewable energy sources is expected in the heat generation sector from now to 2010. This article presents the main trends of the French wood-fuel market and the existing offer of wood-fuel boilers. (J.S.)

  1. [Allergic contact dermatitis from colophony and turpentine in resins of untreated pine wood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Booken, D; Velten, F W; Utikal, J; Goerdt, S; Bayerl, C

    2006-11-01

    Pine wood is one of the most used raw products in furniture manufacturing in Europe. High concentrations of colophony and turpentine can be extracted from pine resins. A 45-year-old woman developed a contact dermatitis of the face and hands due to a sensitization to colophony and turpentine after she had bought untreated pine chairs. The increased use of untreated pine in the furniture industry might result in an increase of colophony and turpentine-induced contact allergies. Therefore, the slogan "untreated=harmless" should be considered critically in such cases.

  2. P.E.I. wood fuel survey, 1990-91

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-04-01

    In 1991 a wood fuel survey of 450 randomly selected households, representing 1% of the total number of households in Prince Edward Island, was conducted. The survey indicated that 49.8% of the households burned wood, up from 42.1% of households in the 1988-1989 survey. The wood burning households consumed an average of 4.92 cords of wood, consistent with the 4.90 cords in the 1989 survey. The total residential wood consumption was estimated at ca 100,377 cords, an increase from the 89,000 cords used in 1988-89. Wood cutters represented 23.4% of respondents, with buyers representing 25.4% of respondents. The wood burning appliances used by the respondents were: airtight wood stove 39.9%, wood furnace 22.5%, kitchen wood stove 15.7%, combined wood/oil furnace 8.9%, Franklin/non-airtight 4.4%, Kemac unit 4.4%, fireplace insert 3.1%, and open fireplace 1%. The most frequent response among rural wood users cited price as an advantage of wood fuel, while the most frequent response of urban users cited the quality of the heat. 9 figs., 47 tabs

  3. School furniture match to students' anthropometry in the Gaza Strip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agha, Salah R

    2010-03-01

    This study aimed at comparing primary school students' anthropometry to the dimensions of school furniture and determining whether the furniture used matches the students' anthropometry. A sample of 600 male students, whose ages were between 6 and 11 years, from five primary schools in the Gaza Strip governorates participated in the study. Several students' body dimensions were measured. The dimensions measured included elbow-seat height, shoulder height, knee height, popliteal height and buttock-popliteal length. Measurements of the dimensions of the classroom furniture indicated that there was a considerable mismatch between the students' body dimensions and the classroom furniture. The mismatches in seat height, seat depth and desk height occurred for 99% of the students, while the mismatch for the back rest height was only 35%. Two design specifications were proposed in order to decrease the mismatch percentage based on the data obtained. The two proposed designs showed a considerable improvement in the match percentages as compared to the existing design. STATEMENT OF RELEVANCE: Having identified mismatches between the dimensions of the school furniture used in primary schools in the Gaza Strip, two new design specifications are proposed and shown to improve match with the students' anthropometric dimensions. The findings of the study are also an important addition to local knowledge on school children's anthropometry.

  4. Wood handbook : wood as an engineering material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert J. Ross; Forest Products Laboratory. USDA Forest Service.

    2010-01-01

    Summarizes information on wood as an engineering material. Presents properties of wood and wood-based products of particular concern to the architect and engineer. Includes discussion of designing with wood and wood-based products along with some pertinent uses.

  5. Wood biomass use in Slovenia and new challenges for the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krajnc, N.

    2005-01-01

    In the last decades, wood has been substituted by other materials in many fields of utilization (construction, furniture, energy production). In Slovenia, which is markedly wooded, the process of substituting wood as a raw material started later but has been rather intense in the last twenty years. Substitution of wood in industry and in energy production has several consequences. Among the most distinctive ones are pollution of environment because of increased utilization of fossil fuels, and low realization of cut in forests. In this article we would like to present wood biomass use in Slovenia and some actions which were taken on both micro and macro level in last few years to overcome social and economical barriers for enlarge use of wood biomass.(author)

  6. The Influence of Office Furniture on the Air Movement in a Mixing Ventilated Room

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, June Richther

    Isothermal and thermal experiments and simulations form the basis of the investigations in this thesis. It is mainly the isothermal case that is studied. The examinations concern how normal office furniture influences the air movements in a mixing ventilated room. Especially, the jet under...... whereas the two last-mentioned inlets are simulated 3-dimensional. In the isothermal simulations a furniture volume is used to represent the physical furniture and in the thermal case a furniture volume together with a volume source is used. The investigations of the isothermal experiments and simulations...... show that the jet under the ceiling is insignificantly influenced by the normal office furniture. The maximum velocity in the occupied zone is reduced by the furniture and this reduction is dependent on the total length of the furniture in the main flow direction. When the total length of the furniture...

  7. The effect of secular trends in the classroom furniture mismatch: support for continuous update of school furniture standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellucci, H I; Arezes, P M; Molenbroek, J F M; Viviani, C

    2015-01-01

    In order to create safer schools, the Chilean authorities published a Standard regarding school furniture dimensions. The aims of this study are twofold: to verify the existence of positive secular trend within the Chilean student population and to evaluate the potential mismatch between the anthropometric characteristics and the school furniture dimensions defined by the mentioned standard. The sample consists of 3078 subjects. Eight anthropometric measures were gathered, together with six furniture dimensions from the mentioned standard. There is an average increase for some dimensions within the Chilean student population over the past two decades. Accordingly, almost 18% of the students will find the seat height to be too high. Seat depth will be considered as being too shallow for 42.8% of the students. It can be concluded that the Chilean student population has increased in stature, which supports the need to revise and update the data from the mentioned Standard. Positive secular trend resulted in high levels of mismatch if furniture is selected according to the current Chilean Standard which uses data collected more than 20 years ago. This study shows that school furniture standards need to be updated over time.

  8. Furniture firms shuns CSL for EMS program expansion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deans, B

    1982-05-31

    The R.B. Furniture Company's disappointment in its 10 CSL Industries Inc. energy-management systems is responsible for a decision to install Trimax Controls in the remaining 67 stores. At issue are CSL's service policy of using independent installers and service contractors as well as technical problems with the equipment, although R.B. Furniture concedes it had a 2.5-year payback, a 20% drop in electricity consumption, and generally reliable performance of the CSL system. A CSL official claims its higher equipment costs are the real reason. Interviews with CSL and R.B. Furniture Co. representatives explore the attitudes and problems of both firms. The Trimex system includes a three-year warranty. (DCK)

  9. Musculoskeletal risk assessment in small furniture manufacturing workshops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nejad, Naser Hashemi; Choobineh, Alireza; Rahimifard, Hoda; Haidari, Hamid Reza; Tabatabaei, Sayed Hamid Reza

    2013-01-01

    In Iran, furniture is mainly manufactured in small workshops, where most activities are performed manually. This study was conducted among workers of furniture workshops to determine prevalence of musculoskeletal symptoms and to assess ergonomic working conditions to identify major risk factors associated with musculoskeletal symptoms. In this study, 410 randomly selected furniture workers participated. The Nordic questionnaire and an ergonomics checklist consisting of 6 sections were used as data collection tools. An index was calculated for each section of the checklist. Action categories indicating the priority of corrective measures were also defined. The highest prevalence of symptoms was reported in the knees (39%), lower back (35.6%) and wrists/hands (29.5%). It was found that manual material handling, poor workstation design and awkward working postures were associated with the reported symptoms in these regions (OR 1.77-4.52). Poor general working conditions and work organization showed association as well. Any interventional measures should focus on these areas.

  10. 41 CFR 109-25.104 - Acquisition of office furniture and office machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... furniture and office machines. 109-25.104 Section 109-25.104 Public Contracts and Property Management... furniture and office machines. DOE offices and designated contractors shall make the determination as to whether requirements can be met through the utilization of DOE owned furniture and office machines. ...

  11. 18 CFR 367.3910 - Account 391, Office furniture and equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... furniture and equipment. 367.3910 Section 367.3910 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY... GAS ACT Service Company Property Chart of Accounts § 367.3910 Account 391, Office furniture and equipment. (a) This account must include the cost of office furniture and equipment owned by the service...

  12. 76 FR 13667 - Commercial Furniture Group, Inc., Formerly Known as Falcon Products, Inc., Shelby Williams, Howe...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-14

    ... Furniture Group, Inc., Formerly Known as Falcon Products, Inc., Shelby Williams, Howe and Thonet, Including On-Site Leased Workers From Staffing Solutions, Morristown, TN, and Commercial Furniture Group, Inc... Commercial Furniture Group, Inc., including on-site leased workers from Staffing Solutions, Morristown...

  13. 41 CFR 101-26.505-7 - GSA assistance in selection of furniture and furnishings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... selection of furniture and furnishings. 101-26.505-7 Section 101-26.505-7 Public Contracts and Property... selection of furniture and furnishings. The Customer Service Representative in each GSA regional office will... of office and household furniture and furnishings available through the GSA purchase program. (See...

  14. 41 CFR 101-25.302 - Office furniture, furnishings, and equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Office furniture...-GENERAL 25.3-Use Standards § 101-25.302 Office furniture, furnishings, and equipment. (a) Each executive agency shall establish criteria for the use of office furniture, furnishings, and equipment. Such...

  15. 41 CFR 101-26.505 - Office and household furniture and furnishings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... furniture and furnishings. 101-26.505 Section 101-26.505 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal...-PROCUREMENT SOURCES AND PROGRAM 26.5-GSA Procurement Programs § 101-26.505 Office and household furniture and furnishings. Requirements for new office and household furniture and furnishings as described in this § 101-26...

  16. 75 FR 77664 - Vaughan Furniture Company, Galax, VA; Notice of Affirmative Determination Regarding Application...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-74,551] Vaughan Furniture Company... former workers of Vaughn Furniture Company, Galax, Virginia (subject firm). The determination was issued... furniture production at foreign facilities. The initial investigation resulted in a negative determination...

  17. 78 FR 8493 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-06

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-890] Wooden Bedroom Furniture... conducting an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on wooden bedroom furniture (``WBF'') from... furniture, subject to certain exceptions.\\1\\ Imports of subject merchandise are currently classified under...

  18. 78 FR 13626 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Administrative Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-890] Wooden Bedroom Furniture... bedroom furniture from the People's Republic of China (``PRC''). The anniversary month of this order is... administrative review of the antidumping duty order on wooden bedroom furniture from the PRC covering multiple...

  19. 78 FR 17140 - Upholstered Furniture Fire Safety Technology; Meeting and Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... Furniture Fire Safety Technology; Meeting and Request for Comments AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety... Commission (CPSC, Commission, or we) is announcing its intent to hold a meeting on upholstered furniture fire... http://www.cpsc.gov/meetingsignup.html and click on the link titled, ``Upholstered Furniture Fire...

  20. 75 FR 72794 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-890] Wooden Bedroom Furniture... three new shipper reviews of the antidumping duty order on wooden bedroom furniture from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') covering sales of subject merchandise made by Dongguan Huansheng Furniture Co...

  1. 76 FR 57713 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-890] Wooden Bedroom Furniture... antidumping duty administrative review of wooden bedroom furniture from the People's Republic of China (``PRC... Final Results to correct certain ministerial errors. \\1\\ See Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's...

  2. 48 CFR 52.247-11 - Net Weight-Household Goods or Office Furniture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... or Office Furniture. 52.247-11 Section 52.247-11 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Provisions and Clauses 52.247-11 Net Weight—Household Goods or Office Furniture. As prescribed in 47.207-4(b... Weight—Household Goods or Office Furniture (APR 1984) (a) Net weight—full loads. The net weight of the...

  3. 41 CFR 109-25.302 - Office furniture, furnishings, and equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Office furniture... SUPPLY AND PROCUREMENT 25-GENERAL 25.3-Use Standards § 109-25.302 Office furniture, furnishings, and... contractors shall establish criteria for the use of office furniture, furnishings, and equipment. ...

  4. 76 FR 14101 - Commercial Furniture Group, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Staffing Solutions...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-15

    ... Furniture Group, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Staffing Solutions; Morristown, TN; Commercial Furniture Group, Inc., Chicago, IL; Amended Certification Regarding Eligibility To Apply for Worker... Adjustment Assistance on May 5, 2010, applicable to workers of Commercial Furniture Group, Inc., including on...

  5. School Furniture Development: An Evaluation. Educational Studies and Documents No. 16.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scriven (F.B.) and Associates, London (England).

    Unesco is playing an increasingly important role in helping developing countries adapt school furniture in line with educational methods and goals. This publication includes an independent evaluation of Unesco's school furniture projects in Sri Lanka and Tunisia. For purposes of comparison, evaluation of a furniture project carried out by the…

  6. 76 FR 65684 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-24

    ... Order in Part, 72 FR 948 (January 9, 2007). \\23\\ Metal furniture parts and unfinished furniture parts... unassembled, incomplete, or unfinished form. Such parts are usually classified under HTSUS subheadings 9403.90... Co., Ltd. Der Cheng Furniture Co., Ltd. Der Cheng Wooden Works Dong Guan Golden Fortune Houseware Co...

  7. 77 FR 1456 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Rescission of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-10

    ... wooden bedroom furniture. Wooden bedroom furniture is generally, but not exclusively, designed... doors for storing clothing. The piece can either include drawers or be designed as a large box... cabinets, credenzas, and bookcases; (4) dining room or kitchen furniture such as dining tables, chairs...

  8. Viceregal furniture from Oaxaca carried out in zumaque. The marquetry of Villa Alta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corrales, Juan Manuel

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available During the Viceregal period, the Mexican region of Oaxaca was a major furniture production center. Among the diverse Oaxacan works those executed in a technique specific to the mountain region commonly known as zumaque stand out. These pieces made in the Villa Alta de San Ildefonso during the 17th to 19th centuries are limited to certain types of civil furniture: writing desks, papeleras, little desks and chests for female use, coffers, little chests and boxes. This article offers the most recent and complete research on the subject and deals with the problematic terminology, the origins of this production center, the diverse construction and decorative techniques utilized and the analytic study of the wood and fillers employed.La región mexicana de Oaxaca, durante el periodo virreinal, fue un gran centro productor de muebles. De entre los diversos trabajos oaxaqueños destacan los realizados con una técnica particular de la zona serrana denominada, comúnmente, zumaque. Estas producciones realizadas en la Villa Alta de San Ildefonso, entre los siglos XVII al XIX, se limitan exclusivamente a ciertas tipologías de muebles civiles; escritorios, papeleras, escritorillos o arquillas de estrado, arcas, arquetas y cajas. Este artículo presenta la investigación más reciente y completa sobre el tema adentrándose en la problemática terminológica, los orígenes del centro productor, las diversas técnicas constructivas y decorativas empleadas así como el estudio analítico de sus maderas y la pasta de relleno.

  9. Wood as an adherend

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryan H. River; Charles B. Vick; Robert H. Gillespie

    1991-01-01

    Wood is a porous, permeable, hygroscopic, orthotropic, biological composite material of extreme chemical diversity and physical intricacy. Table 1.1 provides an overview of the may variables, including wood variables, that bear on the bonding and performance of wood in wood joints and wood-based materials. Of particular note is the fact that wood properties vary...

  10. THE DIFFERENCE OF MACHINING PROPERTIES OF TIMO (Timonius sericeus (Desf K. Schum. And KABESAK WOOD (Acacia leucophloea (Roxb. Willd. FROM EAST NUSA TENGGARA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heny Rianawati

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Machining properties is one of the parameters to determine the quality of the wood. Tests on machining properties of wood are important to know the easiness level of workmanship as raw materials of furniture industry, construction wood and other wood products. This research was aimed at determining the difference of machining properties between timo wood (Timonius sericeus (Desf K. Schum. and kabesak wood (Acacia leucophloea (Roxb. Willd. from the village of Reknamo, Kupang district, East Nusa Tenggara. Testing procedures were based on ASTM D1666 including: planning, shaping, sanding, drilling and turning. The observation of qualities of the machining were done visually by calculating the percentage of defects that arise on the surface of the samples after the machining process, then the qualities were classified into five quality classes. The results showed that the machining properties of timo wood and kabesak wood were very good and belonging to the quality of class I. The significant difference between the machining properties of both the timbers is in the sanding properties, where the average free defect of sanding timo wood is 85% while kabesak wood is 84.5%. Both timo and kabesak wood are suitable as raw material, for the variety of furniture and molding products.

  11. Rethinking the design of the furniture rough mill

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles J. Gatchell; Charles J. Gatchell

    1987-01-01

    This paper discusses the crosscut-first rough mill with emphasis on the effects of lumber quality, cutting bills, and operator efficiency on yields. Adding a gang-rip-first option is recommended, which will use more of the lower grades of lumber while meeting the needs of the furniture and cabinet industries. Current research that indicates why gang ripping to glueline...

  12. Case Study: Match between School Furniture dimensions and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The design of tools, equipment, machines, furniture, clothing and facility layout depends on the principles of anthropometry. This is to reduce accident and overuse syndromes in order to promote productivity as well as safety and wellbeing. Meanwhile the anthropometry data are not readily available. This study examined ...

  13. Ergonomic Based Design and Survey of Elementary School Furniture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maheshwar; Jawalkar, Chandrashekhar S.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the ergonomic aspects in designing and prototyping of desks cum chairs used in elementary schools. The procedures adopted for the assessment included: the study of existing school furniture, design analysis and development of prototypes. The design approach proposed a series of adjustable desks and chairs developed in terms of…

  14. Flooring-systems and their interaction with furniture and humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frier, Christian; Pedersen, Lars; Andersen, Lars Vabbersgaard

    2017-01-01

    of computations. Passive humans and/or furniture are often present on a floor. Typically, these masses and their way of interacting with the floor mass are ignored in predictions of vibrational behaviour of the flooring system. Utilizing a shell finite-element model, the paper explores and quantifies how non...

  15. Macroergonomic analysis of an assembly sector of a furniture company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cristiane, A A Z; Danielle, M D; Vanessa, C B

    2012-01-01

    From of Macroergonomic Analysis of Work were diagnosed the main ergonomics demands in a furniture company in the city of Cambé, Paraná. Through this method we could identify the most problematic points of the analyzed environment for posterior solutions of improvement with the objective of increasing the working and psychological quality of the employees, motivating their good performance and satisfaction.

  16. [Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from large furniture].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka-Kagawa, Toshiko; Furuta, Mitsuko; Shibatsuji, Masayoshi; Jinno, Hideto; Nishimura, Tetsuji

    2011-01-01

    Indoor air pollution by volatile organic compounds (VOCs), which may cause a hazardous influence on human being such as sick building (sick house) syndrome, has become a serious problem. In this study, VOCs emitted from nine pieces of home furniture, three sets of dining tables, three sets of chest of drawers and three sofas, were analyzed as potential sources of indoor air pollution by large chamber test method (JIS A 1911). Based on the emission rates of total VOC (TVOC), the impacts on the indoor TVOC was estimated by the sample model with a volume of 20 m3 and ventilation frequency of 0.5 times/h. The estimated TVOC increment values were exceeded the provisional target value for indoor air (400 microg/m3) in three sets of dining tables, one set of chest of drawer and one sofa. The estimated increment of formaldehyde were exceeded the guideline value (100 microg/m3) in one set of dining table, two sets of chest of drawers and one sofa. These results revealed that VOC emissions from furniture may influence significantly indoor air quality. Also, in this study, to establish the alternative method for large chamber test methods, emission rates from representative three parts of furniture unit were evaluated using the small chamber and emission rate from full-sized furniture was predicted. Emission rates of TVOC and formaldehyde predicted by small chamber test were 3-46% and 6-252% of the data obtained using large chamber test, respectively.

  17. Evaluation of consumers' choice of wooden dining furniture in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-05-24

    May 24, 2010 ... furniture in Southwestern Nigeria: A market strategy for ... these have important marketing implications for forest ... market implications. Fifteen respondents were randomly selected from the private organizations in each of the selected Local. Government Areas (LGAs) and interviewed between July and.

  18. Assessment of office furniture and knowledge of work ergonomics ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Poor posture when maintained for a long period can result in musculoskeletal injuries and deformities. Aims: This study aimed at investigating the knowledge of work ergonomics among bank workers, and the ergonomic compliance of office furniture used in some banks, in Enugu metropolis. Methods: This is a ...

  19. Sustainable Furniture that Grows with End-Users

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, T.; Verploegen, K.; Grösser, S.N.; Rhijn, G. van

    2017-01-01

    Economically and environmentally it might be more responsible or even feasible to combine products and services to elongate product lifetime. Gispen, a major office furniture producer in the Netherlands, has embraced circular economic principles to create new business, extend product life time and

  20. A chemometric investigation of aromatic emission profiles from a marine engine in comparison with residential wood combustion and road traffic: Implications for source apportionment inside and outside sulphur emission control areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czech, Hendryk; Stengel, Benjamin; Adam, Thomas; Sklorz, Martin; Streibel, Thorsten; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2017-10-01

    Ship emissions are known to cause severe impacts on human health, but are less restricted than land-based emissions. A regulation to improve air quality in coastal regions and frequented waterways is the limitation of fuel sulphur content to 0.1% in sulphur emission control areas (SECAs), which has caused a switch from heavy fuel oil (HFO) towards diesel-like marine gas oil (MGO) or marine diesel oil (MDO). The fraction of aromatic organic vapours in the exhaust from a marine engine, operating on HFO and MGO, was investigated by resonance-enhanced multi-photon ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (REMPI-TOFMS). MGO with fuel sulphur content (FSC) below 0.1% and HFO with an average FSC of 2.7% denote representative marine fuels inside and outside SECAs, respectively. The obtained emission spectra were combined with data of previous REMPI-TOFMS studies of combustion engines and wood combustion in statistical analyses to derive marker substances for ship emissions inside and outside SECAs. A diagnostic ratio of C2-naphthalenes to methyl-naphthalenes was found to hold for a good discriminator between ship emissions on the one hand and road traffic and wood combustion on the other hand. Furthermore, random REMPI spectra from all emission sources were mixed with different proportions in a simulation to create a model based on partial least square (PLS) regression for the prediction of ship contribution to aromatic organic vapours. We point out that in particular PAHs with higher degree of alkylation are significant markers for primary ship emissions which may support source apportionment studies inside and outside SECAs to assess the benefits of fuel sulphur content regulation on air quality.

  1. Regulation of air pollution from wood-burning stoves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørner, Thomas Bue; Brandt, Jørgen; Hansen, Lars Gårn

    Air pollution is a major global challenge. Emissions from residential wood-burning stoves make a surprisingly large contribution to total air pollution related health costs. In Denmark, emissions from wood-burning stoves are calculated to cause almost 400 premature deaths each year within Denmark...... and additionally about 300 premature deaths in other parts of Europe. In this article, we present an integrated assessment of the net social benefit of different schemes for regulating wood-burning stoves including bans and taxes. The assessment uses high resolution air pollution emission inventory......, and atmospheric dispersion and exposure models to estimate the health effects of imposing regulations on residential wood-burning. This is combined with an economic stove investment and use model to simulate reactions to regulations and evaluate compliance costs. We find that there are large net welfare gains...

  2. Tropical wood resistance to the West Indian drywood termite Cryptotermes brevis: If termites can't chew….

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosme, Lírio; Haro, Marcelo M; Guedes, Nelsa Maria P; Della Lucia, Terezinha Maria C; Guedes, Raul Narciso C

    2018-04-01

    The importance and impact of invasive species are usually considered based on their economic implications, particularly the direct damage that they cause. The West Indian drywood termite Cryptotermes brevis (Walker) is an example and is a concern in structural lumber, furniture, and other wood products. Despite its importance, its tropical wood preferences and the wood physical characteristics contributing to resistance have not been investigated to date. Here, we developed wood testing units to allow the X-ray recording of termite colonization and then subsequently tested tropical wood resistance to the termite through free-choice and no-choice bioassays using these wood testing units. The relevance of wood density and hardness as determinants of such resistance was also tested, as was termite mandible wear. The wood testing units used allowed the assessment of the termite infestation and wood area loss, enabling subsequent choice bioassays to be performed. While pine (Pinus sp.), jequitiba (Cariniana sp.) and angelim (Hymenolobium petraenum) exhibited the heaviest losses and highest infestations; cumaru (Dipteryx odorata), guariuba (Clarisia racemosa), and purpleheart (Peltogyne sp.) showed the lowest losses and infestations; courbaril (Hymenaea courbaril), eucalyptus (Eucalyptus sp.), and tatajuba (Bagassa guianensis) exhibited intermediary results. Wood hardness and in particular wood density were key determinants of wood resistance to the termites, which exhibited lower infestations associated with greater mandible wear when infesting harder high-density wood. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Wood pellets : is it a reliable, sustainable, green energy option?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaan, J.

    2006-01-01

    The Wood Pellet Association of Canada was formerly called the BC Pellet Fuel Manufacturers Association, and was renamed and re-organized in January 2006. The association serves as an advocate for the wood pellet industry in addition to conducting research projects. This power point presentation presented an overview of the wood pellet industry in North America and Europe. Canada's 23 pellet plants currently produce just over 1,000,000 tons of wood pellets annually. Pellet producers in the United States produce approximately 800,000 tons annually for the residential bagged market. There are currently 240 pellet plants in Europe, and district heating is the largest growth market for wood pellets in Europe. British Columbia (BC) pellet producers will ship 450,000 tons to European power plants in 2005. Wood pellet specifications were presented, with details of calorific values, moisture and ash contents. An outline of wood pellet production processes was provided. New pellet plants currently under construction were reviewed. Domestic, North American and overseas exports were discussed, along with production estimates for BC for the next 5 years. A chart of world production and consumption of wood pellets between 2000 to 2010 was presented. North American wood pellet technologies were described. The impact of the pine beetle infestation in BC on the wood pellet industry was evaluated, and a worldwide wood pellet production growth forecast was presented. Issues concerning off-gassing, emissions, and torrifracation were also discussed. tabs., figs

  4. Preliminary survey report: control technology for formaldehyde emissions at Baker Furniture Company, Mocksville, North Carolina, September 2, 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortimer, V.D.

    1983-07-28

    An on-site visit was made to the Baker Furniture Company, Mocksville, North Carolina to observe the processes and associated controls for veneering wood panels using heated platen presses. The facility manufactured furniture and produced veneered panels. For flat panels, the hot-press process was used exclusively. There was some radiofrequency (RF) laminating of small parts and frames. Less than 5,000 square feet of panels were produced per day. The veneer department consisted of 35 workers, eight assigned to the hot press operation. For most applications, a urea/formaldehyde resin was used as the adhesive. There were canopy hoods over the feed-through press and the shuttle press. General ventilation was provided mainly by open doors and an extensive local exhaust ventilation for controlling sawdust. Formaldehyde concentrations ranging from less than 1 part per million (ppm) to between 1 and 2 ppm were noted around the feed-through press in the morning. Concentrations of 1 to 3 ppm were noted at the glue mixing station, loading platform, and unloading area in the afternoon. The general airflow through the space between the press and face of the canopy appeared to carry some emission into the work place. The author notes that this facility offers the opportunity to study a canopy hood over a feed-through press, but the low production rate may preclude an accurate evaluation of control-system effectiveness.

  5. Significance of wood extractives for wood bonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roffael, Edmone

    2016-02-01

    Wood contains primary extractives, which are present in all woods, and secondary extractives, which are confined in certain wood species. Extractives in wood play a major role in wood-bonding processes, as they can contribute to or determine the bonding relevant properties of wood such as acidity and wettability. Therefore, extractives play an immanent role in bonding of wood chips and wood fibres with common synthetic adhesives such as urea-formaldehyde-resins (UF-resins) and phenol-formaldehyde-resins (PF-resins). Extractives of high acidity accelerate the curing of acid curing UF-resins and decelerate bonding with alkaline hardening PF-resins. Water-soluble extractives like free sugars are detrimental for bonding of wood with cement. Polyphenolic extractives (tannins) can be used as a binder in the wood-based industry. Additionally, extractives in wood can react with formaldehyde and reduce the formaldehyde emission of wood-based panels. Moreover, some wood extractives are volatile organic compounds (VOC) and insofar also relevant to the emission of VOC from wood and wood-based panels.

  6. An assessment of management practices of wood and wood-related wastes in the urban environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-02-01

    The US Environmental Protection Agency estimates that yard waste{sup 1} accounts for approximately 16% of the municipal solid waste (MSW) stream (US EPA, 1994). Until recently, specific data and related information on this component of the (MSW) stream has been limited. The purposes of this study, phase two of the three-phase assessment of urban wood waste issues, are to assess and describe current alternatives to landfills for urban wood waste management; provide guidance on the management of urban wood waste to organizations that produce or manage wood waste; and clarify state regulatory and policy positions affecting these organizations. For this study, urban wood waste is defined as solid waste generated by tree and landscape maintenance services (public and private). Urban wood waste includes the following materials: unchipped mixed wood, unchipped logs, and unchipped tops and brush; clearing and grubbing waste; fall leaves and grass clippings; and chips and whole stumps. Construction and demolition debris and consumer-generated yard waste are not included in this study. Generators of urban wood waste include various organizations; municipal, county, and commercial tree care divisions; nurseries, orchards, and golf courses; municipal park and recreation departments; and electric and telephone utility power line maintenance, excavator and land clearance, and landscape organizations. (1) US EPA defines yard waste as ''yard trimmings'' which includes ''grass, leaves and tree brush trimmings from residential, institutional, and commercial sources.''

  7. Indoor air pollution caused by wood-burning in Brazilian and Danish dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo; Jensen, Ole Michael; da Cruz Tarelho, Luís António

    2013-01-01

    Residential wood-burning is considered by the scientific community as the 4th major cause of deaths in the developing countries due to the indoor air contamination and a cause of regional air pollution in the northern countries. In the first case, wood is being used by low income people that stil...

  8. An investigation into the potential of ionic silver as a wood preservative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benjamin Dorau; Rachel Arango; Frederick Green

    2004-01-01

    On December 3 1, 2003, the wood preservation industry, in conjunction with the Environmental Protection Agency, voluntarily phased out the use of chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated lumber for residential applications. This ended over 25 years of CCA as the predominant wood preservative in the United States. The first generation of replacement preservatives,...

  9. SCALE AND RELATIONSHIP ANALYSIS FOR TURKISH FURNITURE SECTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Bahattin DALGAKIRAN

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to develop a scale for the existing problems in the furniture industry and to analyze the relevance of the developed scale factors within the framework of supply chain management. In the study, literature research was done and the competition elements used in the furniture sector were determined. These identified elements were updated by using Delphi technique and a questionnare form was prepared. Factor analysis was performed with the data obtained in response to the responses given to the sector authorities. 16 elements were analyzed under three main factors; supply chain management, environment factor and innovative factor. Then, regression analysis was carried out to elaborate the relations among these three factors. 64% of supply chain management is explained by environmental elements and 23% by innovative elements. All of the hypotheses developed in the study were accepted.

  10. Evaluation of Airborne MDF Dust Concentration in Furniture Factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renilson Luiz Teixeira

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT High concentrations of airborne dust are observed during the cutting of medium density fiberboard (MDF boards. This dust, at first considered just uncomfortable for workers, may be harmful to their health. The objective of this work was to evaluate the concentration of airborne dust during the cutting of medium density fiberboard (MDF. The experiment was developed in the MDF cutting sector of three furniture factories located in the city of Lavras/MG. The results showed that the mean concentrations of total dust suspended in these three furniture factories were above the tolerance limit set by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH, giving evidence of a serious problem in these companies related to this type of risk agent.

  11. AN INVESTIGATION ON THE CUSTOMER RELATIONSHIP MANAGEMENT IN FURNITURE STORES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İlker Akyüz

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The most valuable thing for corporations is customers in today’s competitive environment. The evaluation obtained with suitable methodology is important vitally in the success of customer relationship management systems applied for the continuous customer satisfaction and devotion. Continuous customer satisfaction, development of communication skills with customers, caring with customers’ desires and compliments before and after sale just in sale time, development of the quality of services being offered to the customers is dependent on the determining customer problems closely and giving customer focused services. In this study, it was tried to reveal the customer relationship management, communication with customer, customer focused sale offered before, after and just in sale time in some furniture stores located in Trabzon. It was found that the furniture stores in Trabzon have been generally trying to give customer focused sale services

  12. EVALUATION OF STREET FURNITURE ACCORDING TO BASIC DESIGN PRINCIPLES

    OpenAIRE

    GHORAB, Peyman; YÜCEL CAYMAZ, Gökçen Firdevs

    2014-01-01

    In the urban context, it is important to create more comfortable and livable environments with proper planning, design and application. Because aesthetic considerations are of more importance today, designing urban furniture to give a more beautiful appearance to cities is of high priority; designers and those working in related disciplines must be careful to observe these principles throughout the design process. This paper describes research conducted to review the aesthetic principles invo...

  13. Use of Augmented Reality in the furniture industry

    OpenAIRE

    Carvalho, Elizabeth, Simão; Maçães, Gustavo; Brito, Paulo; Varajão, Isabel; Sousa, Nuno

    2011-01-01

    The architects conceive the interior visual aspect of a house based on sketches and drawings. These drawing schemes are perfectly understandable by technicians that are responsible for their implementation, but to the client, most of the time, they seem somewhat unrealistic and ungraspable in terms of visual model. This issue is especially sensitive when the inner components are actually pieces of different kinds of furniture and other decoration stuff. The ideal situatio...

  14. Preliminary studies of Brazilian wood using different radioisotopic sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carvalho, Gilberto; Silva, Leonardo Gondim de Andrade e, E-mail: gcarval@ipen.br, E-mail: ftgasilva@gmail.com [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    Due to availability and particular features, wood was one of the first materials used by mankind with a wide variety of applications. It can be used as raw material for paper and cellulose manufacturing; in industries such as chemical, naval, furniture, sports goods, toys, and musical instrument; in building construction and in the distribution of electric energy. Wood has been widely researched; therefore, wood researchers know that several aspects such as temperature, latitude, longitude, altitude, sunlight, soil, and rainfall index interfere with the growth of trees. This behavior explains why average physical-chemical properties are important when wood is studied. The majority of researchers consider density to be the most important wood property because of its straight relationship with the physical and mechanical properties of wood. There are three types of wood density: basic, apparent and green. The apparent density was used here at 12% of moisture content. In this study, four different types of wood were used: 'freijo', 'jequetiba', 'muiracatiara' and 'ipe'. For wood density determination by non-conventional method, Am-241, Ba-133 and Cs-137 radioisotopic sources; a NaI scintillation detector and a counter were used. The results demonstrated this technique to be quick and accurate. By considering the nuclear parameters obtained as half value layers and linear absorption coefficients, Cs-137 radioisotopic source demonstrated to be the best option to be used for inspection of the physical integrity of electric wooden poles and live trees for future works. (author)

  15. Residential firewood use in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipfert, F W; Dungan, J L

    1983-03-25

    An empirical relation between residential firewood use and population density was developed from survey data for 64 counties in New England and was corroborated by data from other states. The results indicate that usage is concentrated in urbanized areas of the Northeast and north central states and that about 9.0 to 11.0 percent of U.S. space heating input is from firewood. No constraints due to the supply of wood were apparent in 1978-1979. These findings have implications for effects on air quality.

  16. Solid wood timber products consumption in major end uses in the United States, 1950-2009 : a technical document supporting the Forest Service 2010 RPA assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    David B. McKeever; James L. Howard

    2011-01-01

    Solid wood timber products provide important raw materials to the construction, manufacturing, and shipping sectors of the U.S. economy. Nearly all new single-family houses and low-rise multifamily residential structures are wood framed and sheathed. Large amounts of solid wood timber products are also used in the construction of new nonresidential buildings, and in...

  17. Analisis Praktik Corporate Social Responsibility Perusahaan Furniture di Kabupaten Jepara

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Nahar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Corporate social responsibility (CSR is a transparent business practices, which are based on ethical values, with particular attention to employees, communities and the environment, and designed to meet the wishes of the shareholders and the public in general. Effort to understand and analyze the practice of CSR in a company is interesting, considering the practice of CSR is not a uniform practice and its implementation is highly dependent on the unique characteristics inherent in the company. The purpose of this study is to investigate to find out the practice of Corporate Social Responsibility by furniture companies in Jepara. Data collection methods used in this study were interviews, direct observation, and analysis of company documents. Data were analyzed by triangulation and interpretation. From the research conducted it can be concluded that the comapany’s motivation in implementing CSR undertaken by the company from Jepara regency furniture is the company’s commitment and enhance the reputation of the company. While the practice of CSR that have been made furniture enterprises in Jepara regency consists of several fields, namely a. economy, including internal and external sectors. Internal sector is focused on training programs for employees. The external sector was focused on facilitating the community development patterns, community groups, and cooperatives. b. Social areas, including the provision of public facilities (infrastructure development, social welfare, education and sports. c. Environment areas, including sustainable water supply.

  18. Intensity of rivalry in Czech furniture production industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucie Špačková

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on furniture production industry in the Czech Republic and evaluates the influence of competition forces within this industry. These forces have a direct impact on success of competitive strategies of the firms. Furniture production industry is a typical branch occupied by numerous small and medium-sized firms. Small firms aim on satisfying domestic (or rather local demand, medium-sized and big firms are much more aiming on exports. The methodical sources for evaluation of rivalry represent particular influences defined by Porter in his model of five competitive forces. Main influences identified by Porter, which are increasing the intensity of competition in the furniture production industry in the Czech Republic include low industry concentration, relatively low diversity of competitors, decline in sales, low (or none switching costs, and existing excessive capacity within the industry. Further development will be most significantly influenced by a growing concentration of the bigger Czech producers on domestic market and overall economic development.

  19. Choosing Wood Burning Appliances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Information to assist consumers in choosing a wood burning appliance, including types of appliances, the differences between certified and non-certified appliances, and alternative wood heating options.

  20. Carbon Capturing Potential of Wood Substitution in Domestic and Office Furniture in India

    OpenAIRE

    Vinod Kumar Yadav; Jyoti Deoli

    2014-01-01

    The changes in temperature have been attributed to increasing concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide and other green house gases in the atmosphere and major concerned at present. Greenhouse gases naturally act as a blanket “known as Greenhouse Effect” of the Earth and facilitate for maintaining about 33 degrees Celsius temperature. Over the past century, the Earth‟s temperature has increased by about 0.50 degrees Celsius. The carbon concentration in the atmosphere may be ...

  1. Use of wood for space heating: Analysis of Hood River Conservation project submetered homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, B.; White, D.L.

    1987-09-01

    This report analyzes wood use in the 100 homes that had wood channel submeters installed as part of the Hood River Conservation project. In addition to wood heat output data, data were also available on electricity use, house characteristics, household demographics, and weatherization measures installed. The data indicate that in wood using homes, space heat produced by wood burning is approximately twice as much as provided by electricity. Woodusers tend to have larger homes and families, and use wood for strictly economic reasons. Patterns of wood and electricity use for space heating do not vary much by day of week, but are strongly correlated with outdoor temperatures. The large residential demand for wood may present difficult power planning problems for the Bonneville Power Administration if households suddenly switch back to electricity. However, conservation programs provide Bonneville benefits by dampening the magnitude of any potential swings.

  2. Perancangan Furnitur Berbahan Olahan Rotan Berbasis Smart Living Untuk Apartemen SOHO

    OpenAIRE

    Adi Santosa, Michael Pratama Kurniawan

    2016-01-01

    Limited land space in the urban areas drives citizens shifting into vertical housing solution, especially SOHO apartments. Advance technology development supports this new lifestyle trend by enables people work wherever and whenever desire without physical presents in the office. With this kind of lifestyle and way of working, the need of technology-based furniture is highly increasing or also called innovative furniture. The design of the furniture will be aimed for the American who are in t...

  3. Wood fuel markets in Northern Europe. Price formation and internationalization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Olle

    2012-07-01

    High fossil fuel prices and ambitions to reduce greenhouse gas emissions have increased demand for renewable energy and are changing wood fuel market structures. Wood fuels are to a rapidly growing degree used in industrial proportions and traded in commercial markets. Wood fuels are seen as a key component to achieve policy goals related to climate change, especially in the EU. In the six papers that form the basis for this thesis, prices of wood fuels in Northern Europe are analyzed by means of time series analysis to increase understanding about the factors that govern market development. In Paper I, it is found that whereas the Austrian and German residential-quality wood pellet markets are integrated, Sweden is a separate market. The conclusion from Paper II is that despite a long history of trade in wood fuels between Estonia and Sweden, the two markets cannot be considered integrated. The results from Paper III indicate that refined and unrefined wood fuels should be seen as two separate markets, and that forest chips prices follow different trajectories depending on whether they are used in district heating or in forest industries. In Paper IV, it is acknowledged that although high and volatile oil prices are an important driver for the growth in demand for wood fuels, no significant spillover from oil price developments into Swedish wood fuel prices could be discerned in the time period 1993-2010. In Paper V, the conclusion is that prices of industrial roundwood and unrefined wood fuels followed a common trend in Sweden in the first decade of the 21st century. Paper VI shows that there is a significantly higher level of market maturity and internationalization in the Danish wood pellet market compared to the wood chip market in the country. In conclusion, this thesis uncovers some of the mechanisms that affect wood fuel markets, including the differences between unrefined wood fuels - such as wood chips - and the dynamic market for wood pellets. Whereas

  4. Street furniture concept in Pasar Buah and Bukit Gundaling Based on place identity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginting, Nurlisa; Vinky Rahman, N.; Delianur Nasution, Achmad; Nawawiy Loebis, M.; Sinaga, Fitri A.

    2018-03-01

    Tourism is one of the largest sources of the foreign exchange for a country, that encourage many developers to develop it. Karo District located in the province of North Sumatera, Indonesia, which has many tourist destinations with natural and cultural resources, including Pasar Buah and Bukit Gundaling. To develop Tourism, one of way is with increasing place identity in tourist destinations. Unfortunately, place identity in Pasar Buah and Bukit Gundaling are still lacking, so it needs improvement, one of that is the Street furniture in Pasar Buah and Bukit Gundaling. This study aims to design the concept of the Street furniture planning in Pasar Buah and Bukit Gundaling. The method used is a qualitative method, that is design street furniture using five groups elements of street furniture: decorative element, service furniture, trade furniture, signaling furniture, and advertisement furniture. The result of this study is the concept of the design street furniture of Pasar Buah and Bukit Gundaling, which can use to improve place identity in tourism of Karo District.

  5. The Application of Industry 4.0 in Customized Furniture Manufacturing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Lin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In the background of industrial 4.0, this paper analyzes the developmental road about customized furniture factory. Based on the concepts and features of industry 4.0, this paper analyzes the composition of the customized furniture factory, the main operation system and the operation process of the intelligent customized furniture factory. In order to achieve efficient and accurate production targets, intelligent customized furniture factory should be set up through the establishment of cyber physical system( CPS to cover the intelligent network.

  6. Measure Guideline. Wood Window Repair, Rehabilitation, and Replacement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, P. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States); Eng, P. [Building Science Corporation, Somerville, MA (United States)

    2012-12-01

    This measure guideline provides information and guidance on rehabilitating, retrofitting, and replacing existing window assemblies in residential construction. The intent is to provide information regarding means and methods to improve the energy and comfort performance of existing wood window assemblies in a way that takes into consideration component durability, in-service operation, and long term performance of the strategies.

  7. Inventory of usage pattern for wood burning appliances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, David; Joeborn, Inger; Sjoedin, Aake; Munkhammar, Inger; Gustavsson, Lennart

    2005-02-01

    The Swedish Environmental Research Institute (IVL) in co-operation with the Swedish National Testing and Research Institute (SP) and Statistics Sweden (SCB) have investigated the use of domestic wood burning for wood stoves and open fireplaces. The results from a closer examination of existing national energy statistics for residential heating has enabled a division of the average consumption of firewood for each house by the category 'fireplace for open fire' and 'tiled stove/heating stove/fireplace for wood'. The estimation of emissions can therefore be improved by differentiating emission factors for different wood stoves and open fireplaces. Today, only one emission factor is used. An insight into general firing procedures, wood storage routines etc. was investigated using a questionnaire for the Teleborg area of the city Vaexjoe. The results of this study provide a foundation for further work, which will subsequently enable improvements for emission inventories on small-scale biomass combustion from household appliances

  8. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Fine Particulate Matter Emitted from Burning Kerosene, Liquid Petroleum Gas, and Wood Fuels in Household Cookstoves

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study measured polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) composition in particulate matter emissions from residential cookstoves. A variety of fuel and cookstove combinations were examined, including: (i) liquid petroleum gas (LPG), (ii) kerosene in a wick stove, (iii) wood (10%...

  9. Processing of the wood angelim pedra (Hymenolobium petraeum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adjenane Corrêa Taques

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to verify the behavior of wood Angelim stone (Hymenolobium petraeum Ducke submitted to the machining process. The study was developed in a carpentry shop in the city of Alta Floresta-MT. 36 boards with dimensions of 150 cm x 13.5 cm x 2.5 cm, length, width and thickness were randomly selected respectively for machining tests. The tests were developed according to the machinability of equipment used by the furniture industry, planing, sanding, drill and split by nail. 8 boards of wood in the stack were selected randomly to determine the moisture, according to 7190 (ABNT, 1997. The notes used for evaluation of defects resulting in the wood during the machining processes were assigned according to ASTM D 1666 (1987. It was observed that the type of angelim stone showed excellent performance in grinding tests, no scratch on the surface piece a of the burring parts and the parts free from defects, with the burning of wood. In cracking test for nail had a good performance, because it showed cracks with the insertion of the nail and planing test a regular performance, with pullout grain, surface arrepiamento and pullout chip. Wood Angelim stone responds with quality to the machining processes in planing, sanding, drill and split by nail.

  10. Greater utilization of wood residue fuels through improved financial planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billings, C.D.; Ziemke, M.C.; Stanford, R.

    1991-01-01

    Recent events have focused attention on the promotion of greater utilization of biomass fuel. Considerations include the need to reduce increases in global warming and also to improve ground level air quality by limiting the use of fossil fuels. However, despite all these important environmentally related considerations, economics remains the most important factor in the decision process used to determine the feasibility of using available renewable fuels instead of more convenient fossil fuels. In many areas of the Southeast, this decision process involves choosing between wood residue fuels such as bark, sawdust and shavings and presently plentiful natural gas. The primary candidate users of wood residue fuels are industries that use large amounts of heat and electric power and are located near centers of activity in the forest products industry such as sawmills, veneer mills and furniture factories. Given that such facilities both produce wood residues and need large amounts of heat and electricity, it is understandable that these firms are often major users of wood-fired furnaces and boilers. The authors have observed that poor or incomplete financial planning by the subject firms is a major barrier to economic utilization of inexpensive and widely available renewable fuels. In this paper, the authors suggest that wider usage of improved financial planning could double the present modest annual incidence of new commercial wood-fueled installation

  11. Manufacture of wood/plastic composites by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwamoto, Takeo

    1976-01-01

    The manufacture and use of wood/plastic composite (WPC) as an example of wood matrix and wood sawdust/plastic composites (SDP) as an example of plastic matrix are reviewed. The raw material for WPC are mostly vinyl monomers, particularly methyl methacrylate and styrene. The reaction in WPC polymerization is radical polymerization. Researches on the radiation sources mostly resulted in gamma-ray. Electron beam can be applied only to thin products. The future use of WPC may be for furnitures, sporting goods, decorative parts and the like. Vital study on the reduction of manufacturing costs is required, for example, the improvement of reaction and the adoption of continuous process must be considered. The raw materials for SDP are wood sawdust, vinyl monomer (mostly methyl methacrylate) and resins. Electron beam accelerators are the most preferable radiation source because of its high efficiency and safe operation. SDP shows good forming property. The most preferable use of SDP is as interior materials for prefabricated houses, for example, opening frames for bath rooms. Some combination of the technologies of wood engineering, chemical engineering and radiation engineering must be established to develop and maintain the demands. The present radiation sources are forced to grow to large scale industrially, but the establishment of radiation source technology which can be enlarged stepwise is important to keep pace with the development. (Iwakiri, K.)

  12. Experimental Investigation of Moisture Driven Fracture in Solid Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Finn; Ormarsson, Sigurdur; Olesen, John Forbes

    2010-01-01

    , early in the drying process and close again later in the process. It can be difficult to see the closed cracks with visual grading. This may result in too high grading of the damaged material which may cause problems for customers such as building and furniture industries. Moisture content (MC) in green...... wood varies within the cross section of a timber log. The MC of heartwood, for example, is considerable lower than the MC of sapwood. Shrinkage starts at different times within different parts of the cross section, which results in a complex state of strains and stresses. The moisture related crack...... of a finite element model to evaluate the various couplings in the hygro-mechanical problem that govern moisture driven cracking in wood....

  13. Wood Species Recognition System

    OpenAIRE

    Bremananth R; Nithya B; Saipriya R

    2009-01-01

    The proposed system identifies the species of the wood using the textural features present in its barks. Each species of a wood has its own unique patterns in its bark, which enabled the proposed system to identify it accurately. Automatic wood recognition system has not yet been well established mainly due to lack of research in this area and the difficulty in obtaining the wood database. In our work, a wood recognition system has been designed based on pre-processing te...

  14. Inventory of contaminants in waste wood; Inventering av foeroreningar i returtrae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jermer, Joeran; Ekvall, Annika; Tullin, Claes [Swedish National Testing and Research Inst., Boraas (Sweden)

    2001-03-01

    problems. Metal objects of zinc, brass and aluminium are considered to be particularly troublesome as they may plug primary air openings. PVC residues may cause considerably higher levels of chlorine in waste wood. Chemical analyses indicate that the distribution in levels of impurities varies a lot between deliveries of waste wood. Difficulties to take representative samples probably contribute to this. The knowledge of the contents of different types of waste wood (surface treated wood, preservative-treated, panels, furniture etc) in the waste wood flow is only fragmentary. Most certainly, surface treated (painted, stained etc) wood constitute the highest proportion. Preservative-treated wood, with the exception of railway sleepers and poles, is estimated to constitute approximately 5% of the waste wood flow in Sweden today and the next 25-30 years. The study has confirmed previous studies that waste wood contains a substantial proportion of fine fraction. 25-40% of the waste wood passed a sieve with a mesh size of 4 mm at screening trials. Chemical analyses indicated that the fine fraction will be the main contributor to contaminants of potassium, chlorine, sodium, zinc and lead. Further studies are suggested to focus on sorting, preparation, classification and quality assurance of waste wood.

  15. Ergonomic suitability of kitchen furniture regarding height accessibility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrovatin, Jasna; Prekrat, Silvana; Oblak, Leon; Ravnik, David

    2015-03-01

    It is possible to significantly ease kitchen chores with properly sized and appropriately arranged cupboards. In designing kitchen furniture and the optimal depth and the height of storage capacities, accessibility should be taken into consideration. It is known that the optimal storage zone is between 800 and 1100 mm and that there is reduced visibility and accessibility at the level between 1400 and 1700 mm, which is even more prominent for the elderly. This suggests that wall cabinets are not recommended for the elderly. The aim of this study was to determine to what extent kitchens manufactured by Slovenian furniture manufacturers are suitable for users of different age groups with regard to the accessibility of goods stored in the cupboards. Furthermore, based on the measurement analysis, recommendations are provided for designing kitchen furniture that would meet the needs of the elderly. The study, carried out using a computer simulation model, analyzed the products of three Slovenian kitchen manufacturers. The cross section of accessibility in the wall cabinets was determined for different age groups of men and women. The results show that the efficacy of the volume in wall cabinets higher than 600 mm, in comparison to places where objects are easily reachable, is 30% lower for women, thus indicating the inefficiency of storage space in wall cabinets. In terms of accessibility, existing kitchens are not optimal for the elderly, and a model with a deeper worktop and wall cabinets lowered onto the worktop is proposed. Accessibility in such wall cabinets is increased by up to 70% if the body is moved forward by 30°.

  16. Removal or transport of office furniture and PCs

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2008-01-01

    The TS/FM Group wishes to remind users that requests for the removal or transport of office furniture must be made using the EDH ‘Transport request’ form. Please select the "Removals" category from the drop-down menu to indicate the nature of the request. Requests for the transport of PCs from your office to Bldg. 513 or back must also be made using the EDH ‘Transport request’ form. In this case select the "PC transport" category from the drop-down menu. TS/FM Group Tel. 160239

  17. Establishing an online store in the furniture retail business : Case study of Lähdesmäki Oy

    OpenAIRE

    Kareno, Justus

    2013-01-01

    This thesis describes the process of establishing an online store for a Finnish furniture retailer. The development of electronic commerce as a means of business is introduced as the force driving furniture retailers to establish an online presence. The theory of electronic commerce is presented and analyzed in terms of differences compared to sales via a conventional store. The development of electronic furniture retailing is analyzed by researching furniture retailers in Finland and th...

  18. 75 FR 9869 - Initiation of Administrative Review of the Antidumping Duty Order on Wooden Bedroom Furniture...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-04

    ... on the Department's service list. \\1\\ Producers or exporters may also fulfill this requirement by... Faith Limited * Brother Furniture Manufacture Co., Ltd. * C.F. Kent Co., Inc. C.F. Kent Hospitality, Inc... Hospitality Product Mfg., Co., Ltd. Shanghai Jian Pu Export & Import Co., Ltd.* Shanghai Kent Furniture Co...

  19. 41 CFR 101-25.104 - Acquisition of office furniture and office machines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... furniture and office machines. 101-25.104 Section 101-25.104 Public Contracts and Property Management... PROCUREMENT 25-GENERAL 25.1-General Policies § 101-25.104 Acquisition of office furniture and office machines... machines. The acquisition of new items shall be limited to those requirements which are considered...

  20. Classroom furniture and anthropometric characteristics of Iranian high school students: proposed dimensions based on anthropometric data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dianat, Iman; Karimi, Mohammad Ali; Asl Hashemi, Ahmad; Bahrampour, Samira

    2013-01-01

    The study evaluated the potential mismatch between classroom furniture dimensions and anthropometric characteristics of 978 Iranian high school students (498 girls, 480 boys), aged 15-18 years. Nine anthropometric measurements (stature, sitting height, sitting shoulder height, popliteal height, hip breadth, elbow-seat height, buttock-popliteal length, buttock-knee length and thigh clearance) and five dimensions from the existing classroom furniture were measured and then compared together (using match criterion equations) to identify any potential mismatch between them. The results indicated a considerable mismatch between body dimensions of the students and the existing classroom furniture, with seat height (60.9%), seat width (54.7%) and desktop height (51.7%) being the furniture dimensions with a higher level of mismatch. The levels of mismatch varied between the high-school grade levels and between genders, indicating their special requirements and possible problems. The proposed dimensions of the classroom furniture more appropriate for the students were given. This additional information on students' anthropometry can be used by local furniture industries as a starting point for designing more appropriate furniture for school children, or used by schools to aid in furniture selection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  1. Opportunities for development of local forest markets: the case of Amish furniture manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matt Bumgardner; Gary Graham; Charles. Goebel

    2012-01-01

    A dramatic decline in the production of hardwood furniture in the United States has had profound impacts on employment and hardwood markets. Against this backdrop, the Amish-based furniture manufacturing cluster in Ohio has expanded and hardwood lumber consumption by the cluster is significant. Recent research suggests that 71 percent of firms in the cluster expanded...

  2. How clustering dynamics influence lumber utilization patterns in the Amish-based furniture industry in Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew S. Bumgardner; Gary W. Graham; P. Charles Goebel; Robert L. Romig

    2011-01-01

    Preliminary studies have suggested that the Amish-based furniture and related products manufacturing cluster located in and around Holmes County, Ohio, uses sizeable quantities of hardwood lumber. The number of firms within the cluster has grown even as the broader domestic furniture manufacturing sector has contracted. The present study was undertaken in 2008 (spring/...

  3. Retouching without Touching : Creating the illusion of recoloured furniture through light projection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Adrichem, F.; van Bommel, M.; Vasques Dias, M.

    2017-01-01

    In this article an alternative method for recolouring discoloured furniture is presented. The focus is on two discoloured pieces of furniture: an Amsterdam School buffet and a Rococo marquetry commode that both have lost their bright colours due to fading (figures 1, 2). The buffet was dyed with a

  4. The Potential of Computer Controlled Optimizing Equipment in the Wooden Furniture Industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. Edward Thomas; Urs Buehlmann; Urs Buehlmann

    2003-01-01

    The goal of the wooden furniture industry is to convert lumber into parts by using the most efficient and cost effective processing methods. The key steps in processing lumber arc removing the regions that contain unacceptable defects or character marks and cutting the remaining areas to the widths and lengths of needed parts. Such equipment has been used in furniture...

  5. Energy from wood - an overview; Holzenergie, Uebersicht - Energie du bois, apercu du bois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nussbaumer, T. [Verenum, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2000-07-01

    The present publication is the introduction to a series of papers on fundamentals and applications of wood energy. It summarizes figures and data of the actual situation of fuel wood utilization in Switzerland and its potential for the future. Further, the advantages of bio-energy are discussed and the possibilities of funding for bio-energy in Switzerland are described. Wood contributes with 2.5% to the total energy demand in Switzerland nowadays. However, the utilization of wood energy can be more than doubled, which is one of the targets of the Swiss energy policy. The supply chains for the different types of fuel wood are described and specifications and prices of log wood, forestry wood chips and wood residues are presented. The main applications of wood energy are residential heating with manually operated wood boilers and stoves, on the one hand, and heat production with automatic wood furnaces in industry and communities, on the other hand. Automatic furnaces have been promoted in the past ten years and hence they contribute nowadays with more than 50% to the energy supply from wood with a further growing share. As an assistance for further information, a list of institutions and addresses in the field of wood energy in Switzerland is given in the paper. (author)

  6. A fugacity-based indoor residential pesticide fate model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Deborah H.; Furtaw, Edward J.; McKone, Thomas E.

    2002-06-01

    Dermal and non-dietary pathways are potentially significant exposure pathways to pesticides used in residences. Exposure pathways include dermal contact with residues on surfaces, ingestion from hand- and object-to-mouth activities, and absorption of pesticides into food. A limited amount of data has been collected on pesticide concentrations in various residential compartments following an application. But models are needed to interpret this data and make predictions about other pesticides based on chemical properties. In this paper, we propose a mass-balance compartment model based on fugacity principles. We include air (both gas phase and aerosols), carpet, smooth flooring, and walls as model compartments. Pesticide concentrations on furniture and toys, and in food, are being added to the model as data becomes available. We determine the compartmental fugacity capacity and mass transfer-rate coefficient for wallboard as an example. We also present the framework and equations needed for a dynamic mass-balance model.

  7. Use of insulating concrete forms in residential housing construction.

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Dan C.

    2000-01-01

    The use of Insulated Concrete Forms (ICFs) represents a viable alternative construction method to conventional wood framing in today's residential housing marketplace. The Partnership for Advancing Housing Technology, a joint Government-private venture, will further propel the advancement of ICF construction. The National Evaluation Service is currently standardizing the ICF industry building requirements for inclusion in model building codes. There are three types of ICF building units and f...

  8. 78 FR 17183 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Court Decision Not in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-890] Wooden Bedroom Furniture...\\ excludes Legacy Classic Furniture, Inc.'s (``Legacy'') Heritage Court Bench pursuant to the CIT's remand order in Legacy Classic Furniture v. United States, Court No. 10-00352, Slip Op. 12-121 (September 19...

  9. 76 FR 34043 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Extension of the Time Limit for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-890] Wooden Bedroom Furniture... an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on wooden bedroom furniture from the People's... Administrative Review of the Antidumping Duty Order on Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of...

  10. 75 FR 52716 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Preliminary Results of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-890] Wooden Bedroom Furniture... antidumping duty order on wooden bedroom furniture from the People's Republic of China. See Wooden Bedroom Furniture from the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New Shipper Reviews, 75 FR...

  11. 76 FR 41215 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Extension of the Time Limit for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-13

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-890] Wooden Bedroom Furniture... of an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on wooden bedroom furniture from the People... of Administrative Review of the Antidumping Duty Order on Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's...

  12. 78 FR 13322 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-890] Wooden Bedroom Furniture... new shipper review of the antidumping duty order on wooden bedroom furniture from the People's... bedroom furniture from the PRC was published on January 4, 2005. See Notice of Amended Final Determination...

  13. 75 FR 29313 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture from the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-890] Wooden Bedroom Furniture... antidumping duty order on wooden bedroom furniture (WBF) from the People's Republic of China (PRC), covering the period January 1, 2009 through December 31, 2009. See Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's...

  14. 75 FR 339 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Rescission of Antidumping Duty New...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-890] Wooden Bedroom Furniture..., 2010. SUMMARY: In response to a request from Rise Furniture Co., Ltd. (``Rise''), the Department of... wooden bedroom furniture from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') covering the period January 1...

  15. 75 FR 30064 - Stanley Furniture Company, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Ameristaff Employment and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-72,861] Stanley Furniture Company... subject firm. The workers are engaged in activities related to the production of household furniture and... follows: All workers of Stanley Furniture Company, Inc., Stanleytown, Virginia, who became totally or...

  16. 75 FR 63440 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Correction to Notice of Extension...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-890] Wooden Bedroom Furniture... antidumping new shipper review of wooden bedroom furniture from the People's Republic of China for the period January 1, 2009, through December 31, 2009. See Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of...

  17. 75 FR 29516 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture from the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for Final...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-890] Wooden Bedroom Furniture... antidumping duty order on wooden bedroom furniture from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') covering.... (``Zhejiang Tianyi'') for the period January 1, 2009 through June 30, 2009. See Wooden Bedroom Furniture from...

  18. 76 FR 10557 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-890] Wooden Bedroom Furniture... shipper review of the antidumping duty order on wooden bedroom furniture from the People's Republic of... bedroom furniture from the PRC was published on January 4, 2005. See Notice of Amended Final [[Page 10558...

  19. 78 FR 72862 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Court Decision Not in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-890] Wooden Bedroom Furniture... weighted average margin applied to the mandatory respondent, Dalian Huafeng Furniture Group Co., Ltd.... (``Nanhai'') and Dongguan Liaobushangdun Huada Furniture Factory and Great Rich (HK) Enterprise Co., Ltd...

  20. 75 FR 72788 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Amended Final Results Pursuant to a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-26

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-890] Wooden Bedroom Furniture... Ten Furniture Co., Ltd. (``Bon Ten'') pursuant to 19 CFR 351.214(j) and 19 CFR 351.213(d)(3).\\1\\ The... furniture (``WBF'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') to reflect the Department's...

  1. 75 FR 56059 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Extension of the Time Limit for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-15

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-890] Wooden Bedroom Furniture... an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on wooden bedroom furniture from the People's... Furniture From the People's Republic of China, 75 FR 9869 (March 4, 2010). The period of review is January 1...

  2. 75 FR 10214 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture from the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-05

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-890] Wooden Bedroom Furniture... reviews of the antidumping duty order on wooden bedroom furniture from the People's Republic of China... respectively. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Background The antidumping duty order on wooden bedroom furniture from...

  3. 77 FR 9623 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Extension of Time Limit for the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-890] Wooden Bedroom Furniture... initiation of an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on wooden bedroom furniture from the... of Administrative Review of the Antidumping Duty Order on Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's...

  4. 75 FR 59208 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Court Decision Not in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-890] Wooden Bedroom Furniture... antidumping duty order on wooden bedroom furniture (``WBF'') from the People's Republic of China (``PRC... Bon Ten Furniture Co., Ltd. v. United States, Court No. 09-00396: Final Results of Redetermination...

  5. 78 FR 35249 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-890] Wooden Bedroom Furniture... administrative review (``AR'') of wooden bedroom furniture from the People's Republic of China (``PRC'') covering... listed below in the ``Final Results of Review'' section of this notice. \\1\\ See Wooden Bedroom Furniture...

  6. 76 FR 11425 - Grant of Authority for Subzone Status; Max Home, LLC (Upholstered Furniture); Fulton and Iuka, MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-02

    ... Status; Max Home, LLC (Upholstered Furniture); Fulton and Iuka, MS Pursuant to its authority under the... application to the Board for authority to establish a special-purpose subzone at the upholstered furniture... to the manufacture of upholstered furniture at the Max Home, LLC facilities located in Fulton and...

  7. 76 FR 54208 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Initiation of Antidumping Duty New...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-31

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-890] Wooden Bedroom Furniture... shipper review of the antidumping duty order on wooden bedroom furniture from the People's Republic of...: Background The antidumping duty order on wooden bedroom furniture from the PRC was published on January 4...

  8. 77 FR 18206 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Second Extension of the Time Limit...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE International Trade Administration [A-570-890] Wooden Bedroom Furniture... initiation of an administrative review of the antidumping duty order on wooden bedroom furniture from the... Furniture From the People's Republic of China, 76 FR 10880 (February 28, 2011). \\2\\ See Wooden Bedroom...

  9. 75 FR 50992 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Final Rescission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... Order in Part, 72 FR 948 (January 9, 2007). \\29\\ Metal furniture parts and unfinished furniture parts... unassembled, incomplete, or unfinished form. Such parts are usually classified under the Harmonized Tariff... Co., Ltd.) Classic Furniture Global Co., Ltd. Der Cheng Wooden Works of Factory Dong Guan Golden...

  10. 77 FR 51754 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Final Results and Final Rescission...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-27

    ... bedroom furniture. Wooden bedroom furniture is generally, but not exclusively, designed, manufactured, and... for storing clothing. The piece can either include drawers or be designed as a large box incorporating... cabinets, credenzas, and bookcases; (4) dining room or kitchen furniture such as dining tables, chairs...

  11. 75 FR 44764 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture from the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    ... wooden bedroom furniture. Wooden bedroom furniture is generally, but not exclusively, designed... designed as a large box incorporating a lid. \\11\\ A door chest is typically a chest with hinged doors to... cabinets, filing cabinets, credenzas, and bookcases; (4) dining room or kitchen furniture such as dining...

  12. BASIC PROPERTIES IN RELATION TO DRYING PROPERTIES OF THREE WOOD SPECIES FROM INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efrida Basri

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to investigate basic and drying properties of three wood species from Indonesia, i.e. kuda (Lannea coromandelica Merr., waru (Hibiscus tiliaceus L. and mindi besar (Melia dubia Cav.. The basic properties include density, shrinkages, modulus of rupture (MOR, compression parallel to grain (C//, wood strength and anatomical structures. Meanwhile, the drying properties included drying time and drying defects. The initial-final temperature and humidity for each species was based on defects that resulted from high temperature drying trial. The results showed that the drying properties were significantly affected by wood anatomical structure. The initial-final drybulb temperature and wetbulb depression   for kuda wood are 50 -70ºC and 3-30ºC respectively, while the corresponding figures for waru wood are 65-80ºC and 6-30ºC, and for mindi besar wood are 55-80ºC and 4-30ºC. These drying schedules, however, still need further trial prior to their implementation in the factory-scale operation. All wood species studied have density and considerable strength recommended in their use for light medium construction purposes. Mindi besar wood has decorative appearance so it is suitable for furniture.

  13. Age trends and within-site effects in wood density and radial growth in Quercus faginea mature trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicelina B. Sousa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study: This paper aims to valorize the wood of Quercus faginea Lam. for high quality end uses (e.g. furniture by studying growth and quality properties using mature trees. Age trends in tree-ring width and wood density are shown and the main factors responsible for variations in tree-ring width and wood density within and between trees are investigated. Area of study: The study site is in the center of Portugal within the natural species distribution area.Material and methods: Radial samples from ten mature trees were collected at 6 heights (from base to 9.7 m and prepared for X-ray microdensity.Main results: Wood density showed high values, ranging from 0.868 g/cm3 to 0.957 g/cm3. Wood density decreased from pith to bark and with stem height. Cambial age showed a linear relationship with wood density and most of the variation in wood is explained by age. Intra-ring and axial within-tree homogeneity was good.Research highlights: Mature trees of Q. faginea showed high wood density and a high potential for high quality end uses, comparable to other oaks. Wood density is influenced by cambial age and tree-ring width. Wood quality may be improved by tree growth rates adjustment e.g. through an adequate tree stand density (e.g. thinning operations. 

  14. Age trends and within-site effects in wood density and radial growth in Quercus faginea mature trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, V.B.; Louzada, J.L.; Pereira, H.

    2016-07-01

    Aim of study: This paper aims to valorize the wood of Quercus faginea Lam. for high quality end uses (e.g. furniture) by studying growth and quality properties using mature trees. Age trends in tree-ring width and wood density are shown and the main factors responsible for variations in tree-ring width and wood density within and between trees are investigated. Area of study: The study site is in the center of Portugal within the natural species distribution area. Material and methods: Radial samples from ten mature trees were collected at 6 heights (from base to 9.7 m) and prepared for X-ray microdensity. Main results: Wood density showed high values, ranging from 0.868 g/cm3 to 0.957 g/cm3. Wood density decreased from pith to bark and with stem height. Cambial age showed a linear relationship with wood density and most of the variation in wood is explained by age. Intra-ring and axial within-tree homogeneity was good. Research highlights: Mature trees of Q. faginea showed high wood density and a high potential for high quality end uses, comparable to other oaks. Wood density is influenced by cambial age and tree-ring width. Wood quality may be improved by tree growth rates adjustment e.g. through an adequate tree stand density (e.g. thinning operations). (Author)

  15. Intelligent Furniture Design in the Elderly Based on the Cognitive Situation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu Xinhui

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the present situation of Chinese elderly furniture and the elderly has cognitive characteristics that consciousness experiences and recognitions recede, cognitive fuzzy from Information processing. Expounds the elderly intelligent furniture design elements: functional elements required the elderly furniture is easy and simple to handle; Size and shape elements should be biased towards low, light type, reduce multifunction or fold function; colour collocation should use low lightness and low purity natural materials; Emotional elements design should meet the demand of the elderly social emotion. Introduction of intelligent furniture make up the cognitive decline in the elderly, Furniture judge the elderly demand by the inductor, Supplement by hardware control module to solve the special needs of the elderly life. Build design thinking based on the cognitive process and explore the elderly intelligent furniture design. This paper discusses the design process, for example and concludes the design rules: 1.The Operating Experience Pleasure. It is the height matching of user expectation and furniture function. Pleasure in the design of the operating parts mainly embodies in two aspects. Firstly, the Fitts Law; Secondly, it’s The Movement Optimization. 2.”Unconscious” Design. Intelligent furniture need to delete unnecessary operation module, make it easy to understand, furniture function and cognitive scene match with each other. 3. Modularity Design. Modularization can indirectly regulate the scale and specification of the design. Under the premise of individual character, customization, the compression of the cost, Designer should make the elderly intelligent furniture consistent with the user action.4.Design Consistency. The consistency principle reflected in the appearance, color and operation way consistency.

  16. Analysis of Value Chain Governance: Scenarios to Develop Small-Scale Furniture Producers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rika Harini Irawati

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Furniture industry had shown a long chain of production to consumption, from raw material producers (tree growers, semi-finished producers, finished product producers, and retailers to exporters. Jepara as a centre furniture industry in Indonesia incorporates around 15,000 business units and provide livelihoods to approximately 170,000 workers. This sector contributes about 27% of Jepara‘s people domestic income. Small and medium furniture enterprises (SMEs have significant roles in the furniture industry as production structures are characterized by them. Power and information imbalance throughout the furniture value chain have resulted in problems of uneven distribution of gains among actors of the industry. SME furniture producers have experienced an unfair value added distribution. Hence, development of SMEs is important for strengthening the industry and expected to result in a portion of value added distribution to them.  We are trying to develop scenarios for SME improvement in the furniture industry in Jepara by identifying their problems and implementing Value Chain Analysis (VCA. VCA is an approach to describe SME producer relations with other actors in the industry and the governance type of their relations. Data is collected by interviewing selected SMEs from the association of small scale producers in Jepara to get detailed maps of their value chain. The research will produce future scenarios and intervention points to improve small-scale producer sustainability and better value added distribution among furniture actors. The scenarios will not only benefit selected producers but also the furniture industry of Jepara, and can be adopted for similar industries throughout Indonesia and abroad. Keywords: furniture, value chain, governance, scenario, small-scale

  17. Classroom furniture design--correlation of pupil and chair dimensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domljan, Danijela; Grbac, Ivica; Hadina, Julijana

    2008-03-01

    The present study aimed at determining the relationship of anthropometric dimensions of pupils from grades 1 to 8 in primary school with the dimensions of school chairs. Two dimensions of the chairs in daily use were evaluated to ascertain whether the fit is sufficient and the effect on pupils' sitting posture. The work included a sample of 556 pupils from three primary schools in Zagreb, Croatia and two types of furniture. Dimensions of school chairs were compared with three anthropometric variables of the pupils. Descriptive statistics were analysed for all variables. These study results have shown that furniture of appropriate dimensions is not available to a large number of students in Croatia. Currently supplied classroom equipment is provided in only two sizes and does not fit the users. It is recommended that task chairs may be acceptable if they are issued in four heights or individually adjustable chairs be introduced in Croatian schools. Furthermore it is strongly recommended that schools actively promote appropriate active sitting behaviour.

  18. OFFICE FURNITURE DESIGN SET: SINTEX (1965-1977

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aida Puente Toraño

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Litton Industries decided to establish one of its divisions in Northern Spain in 1965 called Litton-Cole. They chose Asturias to set up a factory intended to manufacture office furniture with a metallic component. The region had the potential to develop this kind of product due to its industrial base. It was easy to be provided with materials like steel, but above all a specialized workforce from Asturias’ Arms Industry. In the context of Spanish sixties José Antonio Menéndez Hevia was in charge of designing several banks and other public commercial establishments. Due to his connection with the Asturian banking sector, he had the opportunity to design office furniture set for Cole Steel. Cole Steel was the commercial name for the Asturian factory. Menéndez Hevia designed a very thorough set with almost twenty possible combinations that was commercialized under the name of Sintex. The series was successful on a national scale which was aimed at furnishing bank branch offices, but it was also exported to countries like Italy. Thousands of units were sold as part of one of the few Spanish design products manufactured in series at that time. The factory was closed in 1977, but in the general background of Spanish industrial design this series was forgotten, being part of our usual anonymous design history.

  19. Laser machining wood composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vladimir Barnekov; Henry A. Huber; Charles W. McMillin

    1989-01-01

    This practical, nonstatistical experiment using commercial equipment demonstrated that nominal 3/4-inch compositep anelsf or furniture consisting of a particleboard core,h igh density melamine crossbands, and walnut veneer face plies can be cut with a carbon dioxide/airjet-assisted laser to produce surfaces with minimal nonparallelism and char compared to previous...

  20. Empirically Derived Strength of Residential Roof Structures for Solar Installations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, Stephen F.; Sanchez, Alfred; Campos, Ivan A.; Gerstle, Walter H.

    2014-12-01

    Engineering certification for the installation of solar photovoltaic (PV) modules on wood roofs is often denied because existing wood roofs do not meet structural design codes. This work is intended to show that many roofs are actually sufficiently strong given the conservatism in codes, documented allowable strengths, roof structure system effects, and beam composite action produced by joist-sheathing interaction. This report provides results from a testing program to provide actual load carrying capacity of residential rooftops. The results reveal that the actual load carrying capacity of structural members and systems tested are significantly stronger than allowable loads provided by the International Residential Code (IRC 2009) and the national structural code found in Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures (ASCE 7-10). Engineering analysis of residential rooftops typically ignores the system affects and beam composite action in determining rooftop stresses given a potential PV installation. This extreme conservatism combined with conservatism in codes and published allowable stress values for roof building materials (NDS 2012) lead to the perception that well built homes may not have adequate load bearing capacity to enable a rooftop PV installation. However, based on the test results presented in this report of residential rooftop structural systems, the actual load bearing capacity is several times higher than published values (NDS 2012).

  1. In-home performance of residential cordwood stoves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houck, J.E.; Barnett, S.G.; Roholt, R.B.

    1991-01-01

    The air quality impacts of residential cordwood stoves have been of concern to regulators, energy planners, and members of the woodstove industry. In addition, the reliability of laboratory certification emission values in predicting 'real world' emissions has been questioned. In response to these concerns, particulate emissions from residential cordwood stoves under actual in-home use have been measured for 5 heating seasons as part of 12 separate studies in Oregon, New York, Vermont, and the Yukon Territory. Monitoring was conducted using an automated emission sampler (AES) system. The system has been deployed in nearly 100 individual homes. Typically, emissions from several 1-week-long integrated sampling periods over the course of the heating season were measured with the AES system at each home. Particulate emission rates in grams of particles per hour of stove operation, grams of particles per kilogram of dry wood burned, and grams of particles per million Joules were calculated. Ancillary data provided by the studies included wood burn rates, homeowner wood loading patterns, wood moisture content and species, hours of operation of auxiliary heating appliances in the study homes, room ambient, flue gas, catalyst, and pre-catalyst temperatures, and hours of catalyst operation. Conventional stoves, high-technology non-catalytic stoves, catalytic stoves, and stoves equipped with retrofit catalytic devices have been studied. In addition to the 12 cordwood stove studies, the AES system has been used in 2 pellet stove studies and 1 fireplace study

  2. Wood's lamp examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003386.htm Wood lamp examination To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. A Wood lamp examination is a test that uses ultraviolet ( ...

  3. Wood's lamp illumination (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Wood's lamp emits ultraviolet light and can be a diagnostic aid in determining if someone has a fungal ... is an infection on the area where the Wood's lamp is illuminating, the area will fluoresce. Normally ...

  4. Wood-plastic combination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaudy, R.

    1978-02-01

    A review on wood-plastic combinations is given including the production (wood and plastic component, radiation hardening, curing), the obtained properties, present applications and prospects for the future of these materials. (author)

  5. Mechanics of Wood Machining

    CERN Document Server

    Csanády, Etele

    2013-01-01

    Wood is one of the most valuable materials for mankind, and since our earliest days wood materials have been widely used. Today we have modern woodworking machine and tools; however, the raw wood materials available are continuously declining. Therefore we are forced to use this precious material more economically, reducing waste wherever possible. This new textbook on the “Mechanics of Wood Machining” combines the quantitative, mathematical analysis of the mechanisms of wood processing with practical recommendations and solutions. Bringing together materials from many sources, the book contains new theoretical and experimental approaches and offers a clear and systematic overview of the theory of wood cutting, thermal loading in wood-cutting tools, dynamic behaviour of tool and work piece, optimum choice of operational parameters and energy consumption, the wear process of the tools, and the general regularities of wood surface roughness. Diagrams are provided for the quick estimation of various process ...

  6. In want of measurements of air pollution from wood smoke

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf; Czeskleba-Dupont, Solveig

    2007-01-01

    In many residential areas woodstoves and fireplace inserts have become very popular in the past ten years - even as primary heating technology. Especially asthmatic people experience wood smoke as strongly bothering. The smoke from neighbouring chimneys enters houses through windows, systems...... of ventilation and fine cracks in the outer walls. In the night people can not air the bedrooms without getting the rooms filled with wood smoke. Until now the regulations of wood smoke have been ineffective. - It would be a great step forward, if local authorities and smoke affected people could have effective......, handy measuring instruments at their disposal, so that the inconvenience from smoke could be analytically documented. The contribution details arguments on serious wood smoke pollution, health problems and  regulations  needed.  Local measurements should be promoted  regarding air pollution from...

  7. Non_standard Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin

    . Using parametric design tools and computer controlled production facilities Copenhagens Centre for IT and Architecture undertook a practice based research into performance based non-standard element design and mass customization techniques. In close cooperation with wood construction software......, but the integration of traditional wood craft techniques. The extensive use of self adjusting, load bearing wood-wood joints contributed to ease in production and assembly of a performance based architecture....

  8. Spatial emission modelling for residential wood combustion in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plejdrup, Marlene Schmidt; Nielsen, Ole-Kenneth; Brandt, Jørgen

    2016-01-01

    model with the developed weighting factors (76 ton PM2.5) is in good agreement with the case study (95 ton PM2.5), and that the new model has improved the spatial emission distribution significantly compared to the previous model (284 ton PM2.5). Additionally, a sensitivity analysis was done...

  9. Wood ERGO Good. Ergonomía para mejorar el trabajo en el sector de la madera y el mueble

    OpenAIRE

    Castelló Mercé, Purificación; Piedrabuena Cuesta, Alicia; FERRERAS REMESAL, ALBERTO; López Urueña, Alejandro; Oltra Pastor, Alfonso; Ruiz Folgado, Raquel; Vivas Broseta, María José; Valero Martínez, Marta

    2013-01-01

    [EN] The aim of Wood Ergo Good is to report of the existing ergonomic risks in workplaces of the wood and furniture industry, as well as of the more suitable prevention measurements. This iniciative, financed by the Fundación para la Prevención de Riesgos Laborales (2011 official announcement for assignment of resources, number of the project IS-0125/2011), has been promoted by the Confederación Española de Empresarios de la Madera (CONFEMADERA), Federación Estat...

  10. Iron Stain on Wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mark Knaebe

    2013-01-01

    Iron stain, an unsightly blue–black or gray discoloration, can occur on nearly all woods. Oak, redwood, cypress, and cedar are particularly prone to iron stain because these woods contain large amounts of tannin-like extractives. The discoloration is caused by a chemical reaction between extractives in the wood and iron in steel products, such as nails, screws, and...

  11. Wood thermoplastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel F. Caulfield; Craig Clemons; Roger M. Rowell

    2010-01-01

    The wood industry can expand into new sustainable markets with the formation of a new class of composites with the marriage of the wood industry and the plastics industry. The wood component, usually a flour or fiber, is combined with a thermoplastic to form an extrudable, injectable or thermoformable composite that can be used in many non-structural applications....

  12. Wood Formation in Trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanie Mauriat; Gregoire Le Provost; Phillippe Rozenberg; Sylvain Delzon; Nathalie Breda; Bruno Clair; Catherine Coutand; Jean-Christoph Domec; Thierry Fourcaud; Jacqueline Grima-Pettenati; Raul Herrera; Jean-Charles Leple; Nicolas Richet; Jean-Francois Trontin; Christophe Plomion

    2014-01-01

    Among the ecosystem services provided by forests, wood provisioning takes a central position. Wood and derived products have played a critical role in the evolution of human kind and demand for raw material is increasing in a foreseeable future. Wood is used for energy production, construction and a wide variety of products for which different properties are required....

  13. Request for wood samples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    NN,

    1977-01-01

    In recent years the wood collection at the Rijksherbarium was greatly expanded following a renewed interest in wood anatomy as an aid for solving classification problems. Staff members of the Rijksherbarium added to the collection by taking interesting wood samples with them from their expeditions

  14. DESAIN DAN IMPLEMENTASI AUGMENTED REALITY BERBASIS WEB PADA APLIKASI FURNITURE SHOPPING MANAGER SEBAGAI ALAT BANTU BELANJA ONLINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basworo Ardi Pramono

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Dalam penulisan jurnal ini akan dibahas mengenai pengembangan aplikasi Furniture Shopping Manager (FSM sebagai suatu alat bantu yang dapat dimanfaatkan oleh para pemilik situs atau toko furniture secara online dalam menjual produknya.  FSM dirancang sebagai sebuah aplikasi berbasis web yang terintegrasi ke dalam suatu situs belanja online dengan fitur-fitur yang diharapkan dapat memberikan pengalaman yang baru, unik dan menarik dalam kegiatan belanja furniture online.   Aplikasi FSM dikembangkan dengan mengimplementasikan beberapa komponen  teknologi utama yaitu Augmented Reality (AR, engine 3D ke dalam aplikasi.  Keseluruhan komponen tersebut dirancang agar dapat  menghadirkan suasana belanja yang menarik di hadapan user secara digital. Dengan demikian user dapat mencoba apakah furniture yang di beli cocok dengan ruangan. Dengan menggunakan FSM, user dapat mencoba model 3D furniture, memilih model furniture hingga mengambil foto ruangannya dengan hasil visualisasi model furniture 3D yang disukai untuk selanjutnya dapat disimpan.

  15. Analisis Strategi Pemasaran Usaha Jasa Bersama Furniture Jalan Setia Budi Medan

    OpenAIRE

    Silitonga, Natasya Meylani

    2014-01-01

    A thesis is called “Analysis of the strategy marketing Usaha Jasa Bersama Furniture.” Thebackground of this research is the development of business furniture currently, fueled by rising consumption needs as well as the from the community. And this is heightened by the increasing number of housing are constructed, so that is an opportunity that is very large in proportion to the business of furniture.With the increasing number of competitors, then many consumers, to be able to draw an underta...

  16. ASPECTS REGARDING WOOD WELDING IN THE CONTEXT OF APPLICABILITY IN THE LEAST DEVELOPED COUNTRIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona-Elena DUMITRAȘCU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Furniture, as traditional sector in Romania, is one of the few areas that bring profit. It is a field that contributes to the economical competitiveness through the variety of products for import and export. In this context, joining wood is essential for the production of wood products. Therefore, knowing the environmentally-friendly methods for wood joints could lead to performance and progress. Welding technology of wood as an alternative method to bonding wood elements or wooden structures has not been addressed in Romania until now. The paper presents a review performed with the aim of contribute to the knowledge of this innovative technology, to show the problems and the possibilities, of least developed countries, to contribute at this area of reasearch. The general aim is to present the main methods and to analyze their advantages and disadvantages in the context of development in the least developed countries. The results showed that both methods, at low and hight temperature, has benefits but there are and some economic and knowledge barriers for extended the technology.The overall conclusion of this research is to find efficient solutions for wood welding in order to obtain new better and cleaner wood products

  17. Particulate and gaseous emissions from residential biomass combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boman, Christoffer

    2005-04-01

    Biomass is considered to be a sustainable energy source with significant potentials for replacing electricity and fossil fuels, not at least in the residential sector. However, present wood combustion is a major source of ambient concentrations of hydrocarbons (e.g. VOC and PAH) and particulate matter (PM) and exposure to these pollutants have been associated with adverse health effects. Increased focus on combustion related particulate emissions has been seen concerning the formation, characteristics and implications to human health. Upgraded biomass fuels (e.g. pellets) provide possibilities of more controlled and optimized combustion with less emission of products of incomplete combustion (PICs). For air quality and health impact assessments, regulatory standards and evaluations concerning residential biomass combustion, there is still a need for detailed emission characterization and quantification when using different fuels and combustion techniques. This thesis summarizes the results from seven different papers. The overall objective was to carefully and systematically study the emissions from residential biomass combustion with respect to: i) experimental characterization and quantification, ii) influences of fuel, appliance and operational variables and iii) aspects of ash and trace element transformations and aerosol formation. Special concern in the work was on sampling, quantification and characterization of particulate emissions using different appliances, fuels and operating procedures. An initial review of health effects showed epidemiological evidence of potential adverse effect from wood smoke exposure. A robust whole flow dilution sampling set-up for residential biomass appliances was then designed, constructed and evaluated, and subsequently used in the following emission studies. Extensive quantifications and characterizations of particulate and gases emissions were performed for residential wood and pellet appliances. Emission factor ranges for

  18. The furniture trade in Catalonia during the 18th century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piera Miquel, Mónica

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Through various types of documentation it is possible to determine the different methods of sale and consumption used in the internal furniture trade in Catalonia during the 18th century. The author offers information concerning the construction and commerce of pieces —new as well as second-hand ones— from the workshops of carpenters, and their prices. She also studies the major business of rentals offered by carpenters and secondhand dealers.

    A partir de documentación de distinta índole conocemos los diferentes sistemas de venta y consumo utilizados en el comercio interno de muebles en Cataluña durante el siglo XVIII. Ofrecemos informaciones sobre la construcción de piezas y sobre su comercio desde los talleres de carpinteros, tanto de obras nuevas como de segunda mano y sus precios. Igualmente, estudiamos el importante negocio de muebles de alquiler ofrecido por carpinteros y por ropavejeros.

  19. The perception of fear when using urban furniture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pizzato, Gabriela; Guimarães, Lia; Damo, Arlei

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a study on the perception of fear related to the use of three different types of urban furniture, qualitatively evaluated based on interviews while people were using them in the city of Porto Alegre, Brazil: the bus shelter, the playground, and the gymnastic equipment. The fear related to the lack of safety of the urban space was associated with the use of the three types of products. The fear experienced by the use of the playground and the bus shelter was related to the occurrence of accidents, since both products are often unsafe and do not fulfill ergonomic parameters. The fear experienced from the use of the gymnastic equipment is related to the possibility of incorrect use of the product and the occurrence of harassment. Both ergonomics and emotion are important aspects to be considered in design, in order to make the use of social/ collective products a pleasant experience.

  20. Economics of wood dust

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiser, J.A.

    1980-11-01

    This article reviews the economic effects of wood dust. The most important use of wood today is a fuel, and wood chips and shavings are sources of feedstock for boilers. Other uses include wood chips in the manufacture of particleboard, wood dust as bedding in riding stables and race tracks, as mulch for florists, and as an absorbent in the meat packing industry. The installation of dust collection systems is strongly urged as the consequences of inadequate collection include rapid machine wear, poor environmental conditions for workers, general interference with work, and its combustibility makes it a constant fire hazard.

  1. Floodplains and wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohl, Ellen

    2013-08-01

    Interactions between floodplains and wood date to the Carboniferous, when stable, multithread channel deposits appear with the evolution of tree-like plants. Foundational geologic texts, such as Lyell's, 1830Principles of Geology, describe floodplain-wood interactions, yet modern technical literature describes floodplain-wood interactions in detail for only a very limited range of environments. This likely reflects more than a century of deforestation, flow regulation, and channel engineering, including instream wood removal, which has resulted in severe wood depletion in most of the world's river networks. Instream wood affects floodplain form and process by altering flow resistance, conveyance and channel-floodplain connectivity, and influencing lateral and vertical accretion of floodplains. Instream wood reflects floodplain form and process as the floodplain influences wood recruitment via bank erosion and overbank flow, and wood transport and storage via floodplain effects on stage-discharge relations and flow resistance. Examining turnover times for instream wood at the reach scale in the context of a wood budget, floodplain characteristics influence fluvial transport and dynamics (wood recruitment), valley geometry (wood transport and storage), and hydraulics and river biota (wood decay and breakage). Accumulations of wood that vary from in situ jams and beaver dams in small channels to transport jams and log rafts in very large rivers can create stable, multithread channels and floodplain wetlands. Floodplain-wood interactions are best understood for a subset of small to medium-sized rivers in the temperate zone. We know little about these interactions on very large rivers, or on rivers in the tropical or boreal regions. This review suggests that most, if not all, channels and floodplains within forested catchments in the temperate zone historically had much greater wood loads and consequently much more obvious and important influences from wood than do

  2. Wood frame systems for wood homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Molina

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The use of constructive systems that combine strength, speed, with competitive differential techniques and mainly, compromising with the environment, is becoming more popular in Brazil. The constructive system in wood frame for houses of up to five stories is very interesting, because it is a light system, structured in reforested treated wood which allows the combination of several materials, besides allowing speed in the construction and total control of the expenses already in the project phase for being industrialized. The structural behavior of the wood frame is superior to the structural masonry in strength, thermal and acoustic comfort. However, in Brazil, the wood frame is still little known and used, due to lack of technical knowledge about the system, prejudice associated the bad use of the wood as construction material, or still, in some cases, lack of normalization. The aim of this manuscript consists of presenting the main technical characteristics and advantages of the constructive system in wood frame homes, approaching the main stages of the constructive process through examples, showing the materials used in the construction, in addition the main international normative recommendations of the project. Thus, this manuscript also hopes to contribute to the popularization of the wood frame system in Brazil, since it is a competitive, fast and ecologically correct system. Moreover, nowadays, an enormous effort of the technical, commercial and industrial section has been accomplished for the development of this system in the country.

  3. Wood production, wood technology, and biotechnological impacts.

    OpenAIRE

    2007-01-01

    In the year 2001, Prof. Dr. Ursula Kües was appointed at the Faculty of Forest Sciences and Forest Ecology of the Georg-August-University Göttingen to the chair Molecular Wood Biotechnology endowed by the Deutsche Bundesstiftung Umwelt (DBU). Her group studies higher fungi in basic and applied research. Research foci are on mushroom development and on fungal enzymes degrading wood and their applications in wood biotechnology. This book has been edited to thank the DBU for all support given to...

  4. Residential Mechanical Precooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, a. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This research conducted by the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team evaluated mechanical air conditioner pre-cooling strategies in homes throughout the United States. EnergyPlus modeling evaluated two homes with different performance characteristics in seven climates. Results are applicable to new construction homes and most existing homes built in the last 10 years, as well as fairly efficient retrofitted homes.

  5. Residential Solar Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulkerson, Dan

    This publication contains student and teacher instructional materials for a course in residential solar systems. The text is designed either as a basic solar course or as a supplement to extend student skills in areas such as architectural drafting, air conditioning and refrigeration, and plumbing. The materials are presented in four units…

  6. Factors affecting sodium hypochlorite extraction of CCA from treated wood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gezer, E D; Cooper, P A

    2009-12-01

    Significant amounts of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) treated wood products, such as utility poles and residential construction wood, remain in service. There is increasing public concern about environmental contamination from CCA-treated wood when it is removed from service for reuse or recycling, placed in landfills or burned in commercial incinerators. In this paper, we investigated the effects of time, temperature and sodium hypochlorite concentration on chromium oxidation and extraction of chromated copper arsenate from CCA-treated wood (Type C) removed from service. Of the conditions evaluated, reaction of milled wood with sodium hypochlorite for one hour at room temperature followed by heating at 75 degrees C for two hours gave the highest extraction efficiency. An average of 95% Cr, 99% Cu and 96% As could be removed from CCA-treated, milled wood by this process. Most of the extracted chromium was oxidized to the hexavalent state and could therefore be recycled in a CCA treating solution. Sodium hypochlorite extracting solutions could be reused several times to extract CCA components from additional treated wood samples.

  7. E3 Success Story - Getting Insight Into Our Organization and Processes at Beachley Furniture Co., Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beachley Furniture contacted the U.S. EPA to participate in the Green Suppliers Network (GSN) program which is a collaborative venture among industry, EPA, and the Manufacturing Extension Partnership (MEP) program.

  8. 76 FR 7534 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Preliminary Results of Antidumping...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-10

    ... International, Inc., Kimball Furniture Group, Inc. and Kimball Hospitality Inc., American of Martinsville, and... stated its intention to limit the number of Q&V questionnaires issued in the review based on CBP data for...

  9. Music life : creating and playing music at the living room using furniture as a media

    OpenAIRE

    Rodrigues, Gustavo Dore; 奥出, 直人

    2011-01-01

    Music Life is an application for the Media Furniture system that enables people to express themselves through music using furniture as a interface. In Brazilian culture live music inside the home during parties is a common and exciting situation where people bond by playing music. Music Life brings this experience of playing music together at home with high sound quality (timbre and pitch) without the years necessary for mastering an analog instrument. Using Design Thinking approach for innov...

  10. Spatial Determinants on Export marketing activity in Marshallian Districts: An investigation of the Danish Furniture Industry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Poul Houman

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the contribution is investigate the role of localised districts on the organisation of export activities in small and medium-sized furniture producers. To what extent do local environments influence the export activities taken on by firms?......The purpose of the contribution is investigate the role of localised districts on the organisation of export activities in small and medium-sized furniture producers. To what extent do local environments influence the export activities taken on by firms?...

  11. Evaluation of the match between anthropometric measures and school furniture dimensions in Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellucci, H I; Catalán, M; Arezes, P M; Molenbroek, J F M

    2015-01-01

    Students are exposed to the first systematic tasks or activities that a human being carries out in his/her life while at school. In this workplace situation, school furniture is a key factor for the adoption of proper body posture. The aim of this paper was to observe and determine the potential mismatch between school furniture dimensions and anthropometric characteristics of the students from the Valparaíso region of Chile. The sample consisted of 3,078 volunteer participants from 18 schools (public, semi-public, private). Eight anthropometric measures were gathered, together with six furniture dimensions. Mismatch analyses were carried out by using pre-defined mismatch criteria. Many different types of school furniture were presented at the schools. Also, a high level of mismatch was registered for seat height, desk height and seat-to-desk clearance. Finally, the analysis of all considered dimensions together showed that there was a high level of cumulative mismatch. It can be concluded that there were high levels of mismatch between the school furniture and student anthropometric characteristics and that this mismatch varied within the difference types of schools. This situation may have occurred because furniture acquisition was made without considering any ergonomic criteria.

  12. Applying different equations to evaluate the level of mismatch between students and school furniture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castellucci, H I; Arezes, P M; Molenbroek, J F M

    2014-07-01

    The mismatch between students and school furniture is likely to result in a number of negative effects, such as uncomfortable body posture, pain, and ultimately, it may also affect the learning process. This study's main aim is to review the literature describing the criteria equations for defining the mismatch between students and school furniture, to apply these equations to a specific sample and, based on the results, to propose a methodology to evaluate school furniture suitability. The literature review comprises one publications database, which was used to identify the studies carried out in the field of the abovementioned mismatch. The sample used for testing the different equations was composed of 2261 volunteer subjects from 14 schools. Fifteen studies were found to meet the criteria of this review and 21 equations to test 6 furniture dimensions were identified. Regarding seat height, there are considerable differences between the two most frequently used equations. Although seat to desk clearance was evaluated by knee height, this condition seems to be based on the false assumption that students are sitting on a chair with a proper seat height. Finally, the proposed methodology for suitability evaluation of school furniture should allow for a more reliable analysis of school furniture. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd and The Ergonomics Society. All rights reserved.

  13. Importance of Logistics Processes for Customer Service and Firm Performance: Evidence from Furniture Industry of Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imran Qadir

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: This study examines the relationship between logistics processes, customer service and firm performance in the furniture industry of Pakistan. Motivation: Furniture industry in Pakistan comprises small and medium enterprises wherein production is mainly labor intensive. Therefore, the current study also investigates the mediating role of manufacturing flexibility for the relationship of logistics processes and customer service. The paper applies the logistics models developed by Bowesox (1974, Green et al.(2008, and Tracey (1998 to furniture industry. Idea: The core idea of the paper is to measure the effects of logistics process on customer service and the performance of furniture manufacturing firms. The study takes the logistics process as an independent variable, the customer service as the first dependent variable and manufacturing performance as a moderating variable. Data: Primary data on logistics, customer service, manufacturing flexibility and firm performance were conveniently collected through a questionnaire from owners/managers of 61 furniture manufacturing firms. Tool: Descriptive statistics, correlation and regression analyses were run to draw the results. Findings: Logistics processes positively affect customer service and firm performance. Customer service also exerts a positive effect on firm performance while the moderating role of manufacturing flexibility was not supported for the relationship of logistics processes and customer service. Contribution: Through efficiency in logistics processes, furniture manufacturing firms can serve customers in a superior way to ultimately achieve improved firm performance. The framework being restricted to efficiency of logistics processes only constitutes an important limitation of the study.

  14. Contributions to the deployment of furniture in pole central region Tocantins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge D’ Ambros

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was developed in the central region of Tocantins, for the identification and analysis of positive factors, weaknesses, opportunities and threats associated with the furniture supply chain in order to continue the formation of the regional furniture pole. To achieve this objective the methodology used was to listen to local actors and experts in the furniture segment. Seventy-five local actors among industry officials, academic institutions and university representatives were interviewed. They pointed out and analyzed the main points related to the economic, social, political and environmental contributions stemming from the creation of a pole in the region. The tool used was the SWOT Analysis associated with the Method of Judges, and then the variables were subjected to Principal Component Analysis - PCA. The SWOT Matrix proved to be adequate and effective to be used as diagnostic tool along with local actors. The examination of all the factors associated with local furniture production chain helped to understand the activity and indicate actions that affect this arrangement and that will bring economic, social and environmental benefits. According to the experts, the establishment of a furniture industry in the region will favor the employment and income creation, local and regional sustainable development, improvements in business management, raise the standard of quality and productivity of the local furniture industry and improve the quality of population standard of living.

  15. Urban Wood Waste Resource Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiltsee, G.

    1998-11-20

    This study collected and analyzed data on urban wood waste resources in 30 randomly selected metropolitan areas in the United States. Three major categories wood wastes disposed with, or recovered from, the municipal solid waste stream; industrial wood wastes such as wood scraps and sawdust from pallet recycling, woodworking shops, and lumberyards; and wood in construction/demolition and land clearing debris.

  16. Factors affecting wood energy consumption by U.S. households

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nianfu Song; Francisco X. Aguilar; Stephen R. Shifley; Michael E. Goerndt

    2012-01-01

    About 23% of energy derived from woody sources in the U.S. was consumed by households, of which 70% was used by households in rural areas in 2005. We investigated factors affecting household-level wood energy consumption in the four continental U.S. regions using data from the U.S. Residential Energy Consumption Survey. To account for a large number of zero...

  17. Anatomical and chemical properties and density of Coffea arabica L. wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Aparecida Pereira

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The state of Minas Gerais is the largest producer of coffee in Brazil and the amount of residue in crops seems adequate to support production of solid wood products of Coffea arabica L., which is currently used for energy purposes or remains in the area. This activity adds insignificant value the coffee products and release CO2, which has harmful effects to the environment. This study was conducted with the aim of characterizing technologically Coffea arabica L. wood to enhance its use in furniture, to characterize its anatomical, chemical and wood basic density. The density showed an average of 0.608g.cm-3. The anatomical analysis showed distinct growth layers, semiporosos vessels with simple perforation plates. The axial parenchyma is apotracheal and diffuse in the aggregate with heterogeneous rays, not laminated and fiber libriformes not septate with bordered pits distinct. The chemical content of extract in hot and cold water were respectively 6.1% and 9.6%. The ash content was found to be 0.68%. Data were comparable to those of mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla and Piptadenia peregrina Benth, (angico-vermelho used for the production of furniture.

  18. BROMINATION OF 4-VINYLCYCLOHEXANE AND APPLYING THE RESULTING PRODUCT TO IMPROVE THE FLAME RETARDANT PROPERTIES OF WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. S. Nikulina

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the demand for timber is increasing. Wood and products on its basis are considered to be the most popular in the construction industry, furniture industry, as building materials and other However, along with the positive features of this material there are also negative factors, which include low resistance to biological degradation, high temperature, resistance. Wood and materials based on it are the most flammable, and fire safety is characterized by the velocity of propagation of fire on the wooden structure. He is able to destroy it in a matter of minutes. So the wooden house elements must be protected from fire. It was therefore necessary for the fire protection of wood. It is in the handling of wood with flame retardants. Basic fire fighting methods is the impregnation of wood antipyrene composition, painting fire paint and constructive ways - insulation of timber, non-combustible compositions which can resist the fire. In the work of brominated 4-vinylcyclohexane formed as a by-product in the petrochemical industry, in chloroform synthesized compound with bromine 62-64 % and the possibility of using this product to get antiferromag composition. It is established that the application for the protective treatment of wood synthesized flame retardant has shown that this product can be used for the protective treatment of natural wood to make it flame retardant properties. Use as antiperiodic compositions bromodomain based products 4-vinylcyclohexane allows to obtain images of wood first group of flame retardant efficiency.

  19. Chapter 9: Wood Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco X. Aguilar; Karen Abt; Branko Glavonjic; Eugene Lopatin; Warren  Mabee

    2016-01-01

    The availabilty of information on wood energy continues to improve, particularly for commoditized woodfuels.  Wood energy consumption and production vary in the UNECE region because demand is strngly affected by weather and the prices of competing energy sources.  There has been an increase in wood energy in the power-and-heat sector in the EU28 and North American...

  20. Complex geometries in wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Riiber Nielsen, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The versatility of wood constructions and traditional wood joints for the production of non standard elements was in focus of a design based research. Herein we established a seamless process from digital design to fabrication. A first research phase centered on the development of a robust...... parametric model and a generic design language a later explored the possibilities to construct complex shaped geometries with self registering joints on modern wood crafting machines. The research was carried out as collaboration with industrial partners....

  1. Complex geometries in wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tamke, Martin; Ramsgaard Thomsen, Mette; Riiber Nielsen, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    The versatility of wood constructions and traditional wood joints for the production of non standard elements was in focus of a design based research. Herein we established a seamless process from digital design to fabrication. A first research phase centered on the development of a robust parame...... parametric model and a generic design language a later explored the possibilities to construct complex shaped geometries with self registering joints on modern wood crafting machines. The research was carried out as collaboration with industrial partners....

  2. Cutter usage management for rubberwood furniture part machining process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusit Thammasang

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research work was to improve cutter usage management of a vertical-shaft cutting machine for rubberwood furniture industry. The milling cutter used consists of six-straight teeth mounted on the vertical-shaft of a milling machine. A pre-cut rubberwood specimen had the height of 40 mm and outer curve length of 330 mm. The steps of study were (1 studying the current cutter usage management of a factory through studying the important factors of current manually cutting such as specimen feed, cut depth, and cutting speed. (2 Developing the process for improvement of cutter usage management via studying sanding time and roughness after sanding with the coarse and fine size grits of sand paper number 100 and 180, respectively which the furniture factories normally apply; setting-up the surface roughness requirement for a cut-part application; studying a suitable cutting condition for part machining by controlling the cutting factors, and also determining the tool life that provided the cut-surface roughness equivalent to the roughness sanded by the sand paper number 100; and finally, developing the method for improvement.The study found that (1 the specimen feed had a significant effect on tool life. The higher feed caused a decreased tool life and an increased cut surface roughness; (2 the cutter was used to cut the specimen until the cut surface of specimen was torn grain or specimen could not be machined. Consequently, all the cut specimens had to be sanded by coarse and fine sanding, and the total time was 16.2 sec/piece; and (3 the method developed was setting the tool life which was equal to the accumulated machining time performing the cut-surface roughness of 8 μm equivalent to the roughness sanded by using the size grit number of 100. It could eliminate coarse sanding operation. Therefore, the total sanding time remarkably decreased from the existing 16.2 sec/piece to 6.1 sec/piece or 62.2 % reduction of existing time.

  3. Randomised controlled trial comparing two school furniture configurations in the printing performance of young children with cerebral palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Stephen E; Rigby, Patricia J; Campbell, Kent A

    2010-08-01

    This randomised controlled trial compared the same-session effects of two different school furniture configurations on printing legibility. A total of 30 school-age children with ambulatory cerebral palsy participated in this study. Each child provided one near-point printing sample of up to 34 letters while positioned on Mandal-type specialty school furniture and on standard school furniture. An assessor who was unaware of the intervention assignment scored printing errors. No significant difference in legibility score mean values between the interventions was detected and the effect size was small. Compared with standard school furniture, the use of specialty school furniture did not lead to immediate gains in printing legibility and other printing performance areas for children with cerebral palsy. Further study of the influence of functional abilities, other contextual factors and the longer-term use of school furniture on handwriting performance is recommended.

  4. Guidelines for residential commissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wray, Craig P.; Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.

    2003-01-31

    Currently, houses do not perform optimally or even as many codes and forecasts predict, largely because they are field assembled and there is no consistent process to identify problems or to correct them. Residential commissioning is a solution to this problem. This guide is the culmination of a 30-month project that began in September 1999. The ultimate objective of the project is to increase the number of houses that undergo commissioning, which will improve the quality, comfort, and safety of homes for California citizens. The project goal is to lay the groundwork for a residential commissioning industry in California focused on end-use energy and non-energy issues. As such, we intend this guide to be a beginning and not an end. Our intent is that the guide will lead to the programmatic integration of commissioning with other building industry processes, which in turn will provide more value to a single site visit for people such as home energy auditors and raters, home inspectors, and building performance contractors. Project work to support the development of this guide includes: a literature review and annotated bibliography, which facilitates access to 469 documents related to residential commissioning published over the past 20 years (Wray et al. 2000), an analysis of the potential benefits one can realistically expect from commissioning new and existing California houses (Matson et al. 2002), and an assessment of 107 diagnostic tools for evaluating residential commissioning metrics (Wray et al. 2002). In this guide, we describe the issues that non-experts should consider in developing a commissioning program to achieve the benefits we have identified. We do this by providing specific recommendations about: how to structure the commissioning process, which diagnostics to use, and how to use them to commission new and existing houses. Using examples, we also demonstrate the potential benefits of applying the recommended whole-house commissioning approach to

  5. Detailed residential electric determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-06-01

    Data on residential loads has been collected from four residences in real time. The data, measured at 5-second intervals for 53 days of continuous operation, were statistically characterized. An algorithm was developed and incorporated into the modeling code SOLCEL. Performance simulations with SOLCEL using these data as well as previous data collected over longer time intervals indicate that no significant errors in system value are introduced through the use of long-term average data.

  6. Wood pellet seminar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aarniala, M.; Puhakka, A.

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the wood pellet seminar, arranged by OPET Finland and North Karelia Polytechnic, was to deliver information on wood pellets, pellet burners and boilers, heating systems and building, as well as on the activities of wood energy advisors. The first day of the seminar consisted of presentations of equipment and products, and of advisory desks for builders. The second day of the seminar consisted of presentations held by wood pellet experts. Pellet markets, the economy and production, the development of the pellet markets and their problems (in Austria), the economy of heating of real estates by different fuel alternatives, the production, delivery and marketing of wood pellets, the utilization of wood pellet in different utilization sites, the use of wood pellets in detached houses, pellet burners and fireplaces, and conversion of communal real estate houses to use wood pellets were discussed in the presentations. The presentations held in the third day discussed the utilization of wood pellets in power plants, the regional promotion of the production and the use of pellets. The seminar consisted also of visits to pellet manufacturing plant and two pellet burning heating plants

  7. Moisture Transport in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    2005-01-01

    Modelling of moisture transport in wood is of great importance as most mechanical and physical properties of wood depend on moisture content. Moisture transport in porous materials is often described by Ficks second law, but several observations indicate that this does not apply very well to wood....... Recently at the Technical University of Denmark, Department of Civil Engineering, a new model for moisture transport in wood has been developed. The model divides the transport into two phases, namely water vapour in the cell lumens and bound water in the cell walls....

  8. Oxidative Stress, DNA Damage, and Inflammation Induced by Ambient Air and Wood Smoke Particulate Matter in Human A549 and THP-1 Cell Lines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danielsen, Pernille Høgh; Møller, Peter; Jensen, Keld Alstrup

    2011-01-01

    Combustion of biomass and wood for residential heating and/or cooking contributes substantially to both ambient air and indoor levels of particulate matter (PM). Toxicological characterization of ambient air PM, especially related to traffic, is well advanced, whereas the toxicology of wood smoke...

  9. DESAIN DAN IMPLEMENTASI AUGMENTED REALITY BERBASIS WEB PADA APLIKASI FURNITURE SHOPPING MANAGER SEBAGAI ALAT BANTU BELANJA ONLINE

    OpenAIRE

    Basworo Ardi Pramono

    2012-01-01

    Dalam penulisan jurnal ini akan dibahas mengenai pengembangan aplikasi Furniture Shopping Manager (FSM) sebagai suatu alat bantu yang dapat dimanfaatkan oleh para pemilik situs atau toko furniture secara online dalam menjual produknya.  FSM dirancang sebagai sebuah aplikasi berbasis web yang terintegrasi ke dalam suatu situs belanja online dengan fitur-fitur yang diharapkan dapat memberikan pengalaman yang baru, unik dan menarik dalam kegiatan belanja furniture online.   Aplikasi FSM dike...

  10. Desain Dan Implementasi Augmented Reality Berbasis Web Pada Aplikasi Furniture Shopping Manager Sebagai Alat Bantu Belanja Online

    OpenAIRE

    Pramono, Basworo Ardi

    2012-01-01

    Dalam penulisan jurnal ini akan dibahas mengenai pengembangan aplikasi Furniture Shopping Manager (FSM) sebagai suatu alat bantu yang dapat dimanfaatkan oleh para pemilik situs atau toko furniture secara online dalam menjual produknya. FSM dirancang sebagai sebuah aplikasi berbasis web yang terintegrasi ke dalam suatu situs belanja online dengan fitur-fitur yang diharapkan dapat memberikan pengalaman yang baru, unik dan menarik dalam kegiatan belanja furniture online. Aplikasi FSM dikembang...

  11. Impact of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) in wood mulch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Timothy G; Solo-Gabriele, Helena; Tolaymat, Thabet; Stook, Kristin

    2003-06-20

    The production of landscape mulch is a major market for the recycling of yard trash and waste wood. When wood recovered from construction and demolition (C&D) debris is used as mulch, it sometimes contains chromated copper arsenate (CCA)-treated wood. The presence of CCA-treated wood may cause some potential environmental problems as a result of the chromium, copper, and arsenic present. Research was performed to examine the leachability of the three metals from a variety of processed wood mixtures in Florida. The mixtures tested included mixed wood from C&D debris recycling facilities and mulch purchased from retail outlets. The synthetic precipitation leaching procedure (SPLP) was performed to examine the leaching of chromium, copper and arsenic. Results were compared to Florida's groundwater cleanup target levels (GWCTLs). Eighteen of the 22 samples collected from C&D debris processing facilities leached arsenic at concentrations greater than Florida's GWCTL of 50 microg/l. The mean leachable arsenic concentration for the C&D debris samples was 153 microg/l with a maximum of 558 microg/l. One of the colored mulch samples purchased from a retail outlet leached arsenic above 50 microg/l, while purchased mulch samples derived from virgin materials did not leach detectable arsenic (<5 microg/l). A mass balance approach was used to compute the potential metal concentrations (mg/kg) that would result from CCA-treated wood being present in wood mulch. Less than 0.1% CCA-treated wood would cause a mulch to exceed Florida's residential clean soil guideline for arsenic (0.8 mg/kg).

  12. Shellac/nanoparticles dispersions as protective materials for wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weththimuni, Maduka L.; Capsoni, Doretta; Malagodi, Marco; Milanese, Chiara; Licchelli, Maurizio

    2016-12-01

    Wood is a natural material that finds numerous and widespread applications, but is subject to different decay processes. Surface coating is the most common method used to protect wood against deterioration and to improve and stabilize its distinctive appearance. Shellac is a natural resin that has been widely used as a protective material for wooden artefacts (e.g. furniture, musical instruments), due to its excellent properties. Nevertheless, diffusion of shellac-based varnishes has significantly declined during the last decades, because of some limitations such as the softness of the coating, photo-degradation, and sensitivity to alcoholic solvents and to pH variations. In the present study, different inorganic nanoparticles were dispersed into dewaxed natural shellac and the resulting materials were investigated even after application on wood specimens in order to assess variations of the coating properties. Analyses performed by a variety of experimental techniques have shown that dispersed nanoparticles do not significantly affect some distinctive and desirable features of the shellac varnish such as chromatic aspect, film-forming ability, water repellence, and adhesion. On the other hand, the obtained results suggested that some weak points of the coating, such as low hardness and poor resistance to UV-induced ageing, can be improved by adding ZrO2 and ZnO nanoparticles, respectively.

  13. Biodegradation of Phenolic Compounds in Creosote Treated Wood Waste by a Composting Microbial Culture Augmented with the Fungus Thermoascus aurantiacus

    OpenAIRE

    Abdel E. Ghaly; Bopeng Zhang; Deepika Dave

    2011-01-01

    Problem statement: Creosote is used as a wood preservative and water proof agent in railway sleepers, utility poles, buildings foundations and fences and garden furniture. It is a mixture of over 300 hydrocarbons which include 75% polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, 2-17% phenolic compounds and 10-18% heterocyclic organic compounds. Exposure to creosote may result in several health problems including damage to kidney, liver, eyes and skin. Potential contamination of soil and water exist from cr...

  14. Effectiveness of the cigarette ignition propensity standard in preventing unintentional residential fires in Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, Hillel R; Christiani, David C; Orav, E John; Dockery, Douglas W; Connolly, Gregory N

    2014-04-01

    We evaluated the Massachusetts Fire Safe Cigarette Law's (FSCL's) effectiveness in preventing residential fires. We examined unintentional residential fires reported to the Massachusetts Fire Incident Reporting System from 2004 to 2010. We analyzed FSCL effect on the likelihood of cigarette- versus noncigarette-caused fires and effect modification by fire scenario factors by using an interrupted time series regression model. We analyzed the effect of FSCL on monthly fire rates with Poisson regression. Cigarettes caused 1629 unintentional residential fires during the study period. The FSCL was associated with a 28% (95% confidence interval = 12%, 41%) reduction in the odds of cigarette- versus noncigarette-caused fires, although not in analyses restricted to casualty fires, with smaller sample size. The largest reductions were among fires in which human factors were involved; that were first ignited on furniture, bedding, or soft goods; that occurred in living areas; or that occurred in the summer or winter. The FSCL appears to have decreased the likelihood of cigarette-caused residential fires, particularly in scenarios for which the ignition propensity standard was developed. Current standards should be adopted, and the need for strengthening should be considered.

  15. STRATEGI PENINGKATAN DAYA SAING INDUSTRI FURNITURE ROTAN INDONESIA DI KAWASAN ASEAN DAN TIONGKOK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudi Eko Setyawan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Competitiveness of a country’s export commodities is one of the indicators used to measure its economic progress. This study aims to analyze the competitiveness of Indonesian rattan furniture in China and the ASEAN region, along with the influencing factors and to conclude appropriate strategies to improve its competitiveness. The analysis was conducted by utilizing Diamond's Porter, Normalized Revealed Comparative Advantage (NRCA, and panel data regression. The results showed that the competitiveness of Indonesian rattan furniture in the ASEAN region and China, in the period of 2001 to 2014, is fluctuated with small level of competitiveness. This notion can be seen from all of the positive NRCA index values. In the Fixed Effects Model (FEM, the independent variables that significantly influence NRCA include the export prices and volumes, global prices of rattan furniture and raw rattan, the number of rattan industries, production of real rattan, production value of rattan, investment of rattan industry, direct labor of rattan industry, interest rate of Bank loans, implementation of ACFTA and violation policy of raw and semi-finished rattan exports. To increase the competitiveness of Indonesian rattan furniture, the government is urged to establish a development or training center for the innovative designs and improvement of quality standard of Indonesian rattan furniture. This is also supported by a guarantee of rattan raw material availability and technological improvement of rattan processing industry. Thus, the third step to perform is the improvement of infrastructure and distribution chain, improvement of market information systems, and strengthening of brand image of rattan furniture in Indonesia.Keywords:  competitiveness of rattan furniture, diamond's porter, normalized revealed comparative advantage, fixed effect model ABSTRAKDaya saing komoditas ekspor negara merupakan salah satu indikator yang digunakan untuk mengukur kemajuan

  16. Comparative analysis on the adoption of innovation in furniture companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Reinaldo Hermes Petter

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify factors categorical adoption of innovation in three main groups: in products, processes and administrative procedures in a group of micro and small enterprises in the furniture sector, located in the middle western state of Santa Catarina. In particular, the study sought to compare the data of a survey conducted by SEBRAE (2009 observed the same factors present innovation in micro and small businesses scattered throughout the Brazilian territory, in order to compare the national stage for the adoption of innovation in relation the scenario presented by the companies studied in this research. Data collection took place by means of a questionnaire consisting of multiple choice closed questions related to the three aforementioned groups of innovation, which was answered by managers of the constituent companies of the group studied. As a result of this research, it was found that the adoption of innovation in product development is the most important aspect in the surveyed companies. It was also found that they seek to adopt the innovation with the objective of entering new markets. However, the main difficulty in adopting innovation were identified lack of skilled labor, shortage and / or lack of access to technology and financial difficulties. Compared to general adoption of innovation by micro and small enterprises studied by SEBRAE (2009, the studied firms have a tendency to develop in the same direction.

  17. The study of postural workload in assembly of furniture upholstery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Lasota Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The productivity of the workers is affected by the Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WRMSDs which common cause of health problems, sick leave and it can result in decreased quality of work and increased absenteeism. The objective of this study is to evaluate and investigate the postural workload of sewing machine operators in the assembly of upholstery in furniture factory by using the Ovako Working Posture Analysing System (OWAS with sampling. The results indicated that posture code 2111 (back code: 2 – bent forward; arms code: 1 – both below the shoulder joint; legs code: 1 – sitting position; load code: – 1 less than 10 kg was the most common working posture rating 38.1%; 63.9% of positions displayed non-neutral back postures and 52% received harmful action categories. The performed assembly tasks have an influence on harmless and harmful action categories. This study is crucial on assembly, and in the future work allows develop a framework for assessment the physical risk of WRMSDs in assembly.

  18. Guided exploration of physically valid shapes for furniture design

    KAUST Repository

    Umetani, Nobuyuki

    2012-07-01

    Geometric modeling and the physical validity of shapes are traditionally considered independently. This makes creating aesthetically pleasing yet physically valid models challenging. We propose an interactive design framework for efficient and intuitive exploration of geometrically and physically valid shapes. During any geometric editing operation, the proposed system continuously visualizes the valid range of the parameter being edited. When one or more constraints are violated after an operation, the system generates multiple suggestions involving both discrete and continuous changes to restore validity. Each suggestion also comes with an editing mode that simultaneously adjusts multiple parameters in a coordinated way to maintain validity. Thus, while the user focuses on the aesthetic aspects of the design, our computational design framework helps to achieve physical realizability by providing active guidance to the user. We demonstrate our framework on plankbased furniture design with nail-joint and frictional constraints. We use our system to design a range of examples, conduct a user study, and also fabricate a physical prototype to test the validity and usefulness of the system. © 2012 ACM 0730-0301/2012/08- ART86.

  19. Effects ok ikea's entry into a furniture production cluster

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasco Eiriz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The entry of a multinational into a cluster, a geographic agglomeration in a given place or region of predominantly small and medium enterprises specialized in a given industry or related industries, impacts the incumbent in the cluster. Aiming to identify the main effects of a multinational entry on the firms’ strategy in a cluster, it was analyzed the entry of IKEA, a Swedish multinational, into the cluster of furniture production in Paços de Ferreira and Paredes, in Portugal. In this study, the data collection technique to access primary data was a survey. The sample has small enterprises, which is similar to the structure of firms in the studied cluster. Results show that more than half the sample thinks that the entry of the multinational had not affected them. However, the firms that acknowledge a significant impact, assess that impact as negative. The competitiveness factors that have improved more significantly after IKEA’s entry were new product development and exporting strategies. The main responses of incumbent firms to the multinational entry were internationalization and the development of generic strategies of differentiation and focus based on differentiation.

  20. Production and characterization of activated carbon from wood wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, A. P.; Giraldo, S.; Ulloa, M.; Flórez, E.; Y Acelas, N.

    2017-12-01

    Cedarwood (Cedrela Angustifolia) and teak (Tectona Grandis) woods are typically used for furniture manufacture because they have high durability, are light and easy to work. During these manufacturing process, large amount of these wastes is generated causing disposal environmental problems. In this paper, the residual wastes (sawdust) of Cedar (C) and Teak (T) are transformed into an activated material. The chemical composition of both biomass (C and T) was determinate by TGA (Thermogravimetric Analysis). Activated materials were characterized in surface area following the BET (Brunauer, Emmett and Teller) method, morphology using SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) and to know their functional groups a FTIR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy) analysis was done. Their adsorption capacity was evaluated by removal of Methylene Blue (MB) and Congo Red (CR) from aqueous solutions.

  1. DEVELOPMENT OF WOOD-BASED PRODUCTS WORLDWIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius C. BARBU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The tendency in recent decades for manufacturing plants of semi-finished products such as composite panels, has been to invest in order to achieve high production capacities (>2,000 m³/day for panels and >3,000 t/day for paper with one line. The trend of concentrating the primary processing capacities and manufacturing wood-based panels will continue for the next few years not only in Europe but in North and South America as well. The ten largest panel manufacturers had a combined manufacturing capacity that exceeded a third of the worldwide production capacity. The financial crisis that started in 2008 has caused the closure of a large number of factories especially in North America and Central Europe. Small- and medium-sized producers will only survive if they will continue to specialize in the manufacture of panel types and sizes (niche products that are “unprofitable” for mega-groups. The installed production capacity worldwide of all wood-based composite panels combined (includes PY, PB, MDF, OSB rose by more than 2.5 times between 1980 and 2005 (225 mil.m³, and continues to increase despite the crises reaching approx. 300 mil.m³ in 2013. The forecast for the coming years varies greatly from continent to continent. In North America and Central Europe, both a consolidation of the available production capacities and the closure of less efficient older lines are expected. The lowest point of the effect of the financial crisis on the building industry seems to have been overcome. The furniture production companies will continue to move from one continent and region to another.

  2. Processing bulk natural wood into a high-performance structural material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jianwei; Chen, Chaoji; Zhu, Shuze; Zhu, Mingwei; Dai, Jiaqi; Ray, Upamanyu; Li, Yiju; Kuang, Yudi; Li, Yongfeng; Quispe, Nelson; Yao, Yonggang; Gong, Amy; Leiste, Ulrich H.; Bruck, Hugh A.; Zhu, J. Y.; Vellore, Azhar; Li, Heng; Minus, Marilyn L.; Jia, Zheng; Martini, Ashlie; Li, Teng; Hu, Liangbing

    2018-02-01

    Synthetic structural materials with exceptional mechanical performance suffer from either large weight and adverse environmental impact (for example, steels and alloys) or complex manufacturing processes and thus high cost (for example, polymer-based and biomimetic composites). Natural wood is a low-cost and abundant material and has been used for millennia as a structural material for building and furniture construction. However, the mechanical performance of natural wood (its strength and toughness) is unsatisfactory for many advanced engineering structures and applications. Pre-treatment with steam, heat, ammonia or cold rolling followed by densification has led to the enhanced mechanical performance of natural wood. However, the existing methods result in incomplete densification and lack dimensional stability, particularly in response to humid environments, and wood treated in these ways can expand and weaken. Here we report a simple and effective strategy to transform bulk natural wood directly into a high-performance structural material with a more than tenfold increase in strength, toughness and ballistic resistance and with greater dimensional stability. Our two-step process involves the partial removal of lignin and hemicellulose from the natural wood via a boiling process in an aqueous mixture of NaOH and Na2SO3 followed by hot-pressing, leading to the total collapse of cell walls and the complete densification of the natural wood with highly aligned cellulose nanofibres. This strategy is shown to be universally effective for various species of wood. Our processed wood has a specific strength higher than that of most structural metals and alloys, making it a low-cost, high-performance, lightweight alternative.

  3. Ergonomic suitability of educational furniture and possible health implications in a university setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odunaiya, Nse A; Owonuwa, Dolapo D; Oguntibeju, Oluwafemi O

    2014-01-01

    Ergonomically unsuitable school furniture is frequently considered one of the major causes of severe posture problems in adulthood. This study was designed to determine the ergonomic suitability of educational furniture in the lecture theaters at the University of Ibadan to serve as a case study. Sample of convenience was used to select participants for this study. The lecture theaters were selected based on their capacity, design, and dimension. A total of 240 students (120 males and 120 females) participated in this study. The ergonomic suitability of lecture theaters was determined by analyzing the mismatches between student anthropometric dimensions and furniture dimensions, and also by analyzing the design and orientation of the lecture theaters. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistics of mean, standard deviation, range, and median. The results showed that there was a significant difference in height between males and females but no significant difference between other anthropometric variables measured. About 20% of the participants had a fitting seat height, while seat height was unsuitable for the remaining 80.4%. On the other hand, 23.3% had a fitting seat depth, while it was unsuitable for 76.7% of the participants, and 99.6% of the participants had fitting desk clearance but 0.4% found it unsuitable. A total of 25.8% of the participants had a fitting desk height, while 74.2% of the students found it unsuitable. It was concluded that the furniture in the lecture theaters at the university studied was not ergonomically suitable for the students. Hence it is recommended that further studies, including more universities across a wide spectrum of society, should be performed to determine the effect of furniture on student health, and the need to adopt the use of adjustable furniture in lecture theaters to prevent health hazards that may occur secondary to the use of unsuitable furniture. PMID:24511247

  4. Energy wood. Part 2b: Wood pellets and pellet space-heating systems; Holzenergie Teil 2b: Holzpellets und Pelletheizungen / Energie du bois Partie 2b: Granules de bois et installations de chauffage a granules de bois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nussbaumer, T. [Verenum, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2002-07-01

    The paper gives an overview on pellet utilization including all relevant process steps: Potential and properties of saw dust as raw material, pellet production with drying and pelletizing, standardization of wood pellets, storage and handling of pellets, combustion of wood pellets in stoves and boilers and applications for residential heating. In comparison to other wood fuels, wood pellets show several advantages: Low water content and high heating value, high energy density, and homogeneous properties thus enabling stationary combustion conditions. However, quality control is needed to ensure constant properties of the pellets and to avoid the utilization of contaminated raw materials for the pellet production. Typical data of efficiencies and emissions of pellet stoves and boilers are given and a life cycle analysis (LCA) of wood pellets in comparison to log wood and wood chips is described. The LCA shows that wood pellets are advantageous thanks to relatively low emissions. Hence, the utilization of wood pellet is proposed as a complementary technology to the combustion of wood chips and log wood. Finally, typical fuel cost of wood pellets in Switzerland are given and compared with light fuel oil. (author)

  5. 'Nothing works' in secure residential youth care?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souverein, F.A.; van der Helm, G.H.P.; Stams, G.J.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    A debate about the effectiveness of secure residential youth care is currently going on. While some continue to support secure residential youth care, others conclude that ‘nothing works’ in secure residential youth care, and argue that non-residential treatment is superior to secure residential

  6. The wood, renewable energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Acket, C.

    2006-12-01

    This document evaluates the french forest situation and its future. Indeed, the wood energy constitutes in France the first renewable energy after the hydraulic. It presents the today situation of the french forest providing statistical data, evaluation of the energy estimation, the carbon fixation, the resources, the perspectives wood energy for 2050, the biofuels and an economic analysis. (A.L.B.)

  7. Wood thermoplastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel F. Caulfield; Craig Clemons; Rodney E. Jacobson; Roger M. Rowell

    2005-01-01

    The term “wood-plastic composites” refers to any number of composites that contain wood (of any form) and either thermoset or thermoplastic polymers. Thermosets or thermoset polymers are plastics that, once cured, cannot be remelted by heating. These include cured resins, such as epoxies and phenolics, plastics with which the forest products industry is most familiar (...

  8. Wood supply and demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter J. Ince; David B. McKeever

    2011-01-01

    At times in history, there have been concerns that demand for wood (timber) would be greater than the ability to supply it, but that concern has recently dissipated. The wood supply and demand situation has changed because of market transitions, economic downturns, and continued forest growth. This article provides a concise overview of this change as it relates to the...

  9. Heat sterilization of wood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiping Wang

    2010-01-01

    Two important questions should be considered in heat sterilizing solid wood materials: First, what temperature–time regime is required to kill a particular pest? Second, how much time is required to heat the center of any wood configuration to the kill temperature? The entomology research on the first question has facilitated the development of international standards...

  10. Multifactorial antimicrobial wood protectants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert D. Coleman; Carol A. Clausen

    2008-01-01

    It is unlikely that a single antimicrobial compound, whether synthetic or natural, will provide the ‘magic bullet’ for eliminating multiple biological agents affecting wood products. Development of synergistic combinations of selected compounds, especially those derived from natural sources, is recognized as a promising approach to improved wood protection. Recent...

  11. Material model for wood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandhaas, C.; Van de Kuilen, J.W.G.

    2013-01-01

    Wood is highly anisotropic and shows ductile behaviour in compression and brittle behaviour in tension and shear where both failure modes can occur simultaneously. A 3D material model for wood based on the concepts of continuum damage mechanics was developed. A material subroutine containing the

  12. Economy of wood supply

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imponen, V.

    1993-01-01

    Research and development of wood fuels production was vigorous in the beginning of the 1980's. Techniques and working methods used in combined harvesting and transportation of energy and merchantable wood were developed in addition to separate energy wood delivery. After a ten year silent period the research on this field was started again. At present the underutilization of forest supplies and the environmental effects of energy production based on fossil fuels caused the rebeginning of the research. One alternative for reduction of the price of wood fuels at the utilization site is the integration of energy and merchantable wood deliveries together. Hence the harvesting and transportation devices can be operated effectively, and the organizational costs are decreased as well. The wood delivery costs consist of the stumpage price, the harvesting and transportation costs, and of general expenses. The stumpage price form the largest cost category (over 50 %) of the industrial merchantable wood delivery, and the harvesting and transportation costs in the case of thinningwood delivery. Forest transportation is the largest part of the delivery costs of logging residues. The general expenses, consisting of the management costs and the interest costs of the capital bound to the storages, form a remarkable cost category in delivery of low-rank wood for energy or conversion purposes. The costs caused by the harvesting of thinningwood, the logging residues, chipping and crushing, the lorry transportation are reviewed in this presentation

  13. Re-thinking residential mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ham, Maarten; Findlay, Allan M.

    2015-01-01

    While researchers are increasingly re-conceptualizing international migration, far less attention has been devoted to re-thinking short-distance residential mobility and immobility. In this paper we harness the life course approach to propose a new conceptual framework for residential mobility research. We contend that residential mobility and immobility should be re-conceptualized as relational practices that link lives through time and space while connecting people to structural conditions. Re-thinking and re-assessing residential mobility by exploiting new developments in longitudinal analysis will allow geographers to understand, critique and address pressing societal challenges. PMID:27330243

  14. Large-Scale Residential Demolition

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA provides resources for handling residential demolitions or renovations. This includes planning, handling harmful materials, recycling, funding, compliance assistance, good practices and regulations.

  15. Integrated Strip Foundation Systems for Small Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2010-01-01

    A prefabricated lightweight element was designed for a strip foundation that was used on site as the bases of two small residential buildings, in this case single-family houses; one was built with a double-brick exterior wall separated by mineral fiber insulation and the other was built with a wood......-stud exterior wall with mineral fiber insulation. The element was placed on a stable surface underneath the top soil layer, just 0.25 m below the finished ground surface. The prefabricated element was designed to comply with the requirements of a high energy-efficient performance stipulated in the new Danish...

  16. ASHRAE and residential ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max H.

    2003-10-01

    In the last quarter of a century, the western world has become increasingly aware of environmental threats to health and safety. During this period, people psychologically retreated away from outdoors hazards such as pesticides, smog, lead, oil spills, and dioxin to the seeming security of their homes. However, the indoor environment may not be healthier than the outdoor environment, as has become more apparent over the past few years with issues such as mold, formaldehyde, and sick-building syndrome. While the built human environment has changed substantially over the past 10,000 years, human biology has not; poor indoor air quality creates health risks and can be uncomfortable. The human race has found, over time, that it is essential to manage the indoor environments of their homes. ASHRAE has long been in the business of ventilation, but most of the focus of that effort has been in the area of commercial and institutional buildings. Residential ventilation was traditionally not a major concern because it was felt that, between operable windows and envelope leakage, people were getting enough outside air in their homes. In the quarter of a century since the first oil shock, houses have gotten much more energy efficient. At the same time, the kinds of materials and functions in houses changed in character in response to people's needs. People became more environmentally conscious and aware not only about the resources they were consuming but about the environment in which they lived. All of these factors contributed to an increasing level of public concern about residential indoor air quality and ventilation. Where once there was an easy feeling about the residential indoor environment, there is now a desire to define levels of acceptability and performance. Many institutions--both public and private--have interests in Indoor Air Quality (IAQ), but ASHRAE, as the professional society that has had ventilation as part of its mission for over 100 years, is the

  17. Urban furniture and user satisfaction: The example of Antalya - Gulluk avenue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rifat Olgun

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available From the time of the earliest settlement, right up to the present day, cities are in a state of constant change, effecting also their structural and botanical elements. This leads to the emergence of physical and emotional differences in the individuals residing in the city, which can be attributed both to the city as a whole, and in part to the furniture within it. The aim of this study is to determine the impact of the urban furniture in a city on the users from both aesthetic and functional perspectives, and the users’ expectations of these in reflecting the city’s identity. To this end, the urban furniture found in and around Gulluk Avenue in the province of Antalya has been analysed, based on the opinions of the users. An analysis of user data, garnered from the views and observations of members of the public, reveals only an average approval of the urban furniture among them. The study also revealsthat the number of waste bins, art objects and cover coats is considered to be insufficient; and more over, 58.6 percent of the users think that the existing urban furniture fails to embrace and represent the identity of the city.

  18. Bamboo as sustainable material for furniture design in disaster and remote areas in Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sofiana, Yunida; Wahidiyat, Mita; Caroline, Octaviana Sylvia

    2018-03-01

    Bamboo has been known as a sustainable material for architecture, but only used on a small scale for furniture. However, even though it a sustainable resource, many people considered Bamboo as outcast material for furniture because of its appearance. Evidently, the use of bamboo is often used to make simple tools with similar traditional designs for everyday life. The tradition of using bamboo was not further explored with respect to the ongoing development of creative design and function in the era of today’s modern technology. In retrospect to the above issues, this study is aimed to introduce the used of bamboo for material furniture in disaster and remote areas in Indonesia to increases their quality of life. It uses a research by a method of collecting data through surveys, literature review, interviews and training to determine the types of bamboo used for material furniture in disaster and remote territories. The results of this study is intended to show that the use of bamboo can be further developed into furniture for disaster and remote territory to create higher values of the products and increase the quality of life.

  19. Autonomy and Proximity in Household Heating Practices: the Case of Wood-Burning Stoves

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Kjerulf

    2008-01-01

    The use of wood burning stoves as a source of household heating is increasing in Denmark; a development that is causing considerable particle pollution in residential neighbourhoods. This article reports from a sociological study of stove users, the results of which is interpreted in relation to ...

  20. Natural durability of tropical and native woods against termite damage by Reticulitermes flavipes (Kollar)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachel A. Arango; Frederick Green; Kristina Hintz; Patricia K. Lebow; Regis B. Miller

    2006-01-01

    Environmental pressure has resulted in voluntary removal of chromated copper arsenate (CCA) from wood preservatives in residential applications in the United States. A new generation of copper organic preservatives was formulated as replacements, but these preservatives may not provide a permanent solution to all related problems. Some of these issues include concern...

  1. Developing estimates of potential demand for renewable wood energy products in Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen M. Brackley; Valerie A. Barber; Cassie Pinkel

    2010-01-01

    Goal three of the current U.S. Department of Agriculture, Forest Service strategy for improving the use of woody biomass is to help develop and expand markets for woody biomass products. This report is concerned with the existing volumes of renewable wood energy products (RWEP) that are currently used in Alaska and the potential demand for RWEP for residential and...

  2. Wood adhesives : vital for producing most wood products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charles R. Frihart

    2011-01-01

    A main route for the efficient utilization of wood resources is to reduce wood to small pieces and then bond them together (Frihart and Hunt 2010). Although humankind has been bonding wood since early Egyptian civilizations, the quality and quantity of bonded wood products has increased dramatically over the past 100 years with the development of new adhesives and...

  3. ANALISIS PENGUKURAN PRODUKTIVITAS PADA CV. CITRA JEPARA FURNITURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darminto Pujotomo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available CV. Citra Jepara adalah perusahaan furnitur ekspor. Pada masa itu, perusahaan hanya melihat level keuntungan untuk mengkaji perusahaan telah berjalan lebih baik atau kebalikannya. Hasil persepsi membuat perusahaan hanya sedikit memperhatikan efisiensi pemakaian sumber daya yang dimiliki (input sehingga perusahaan membutuhkan biaya besar untuk melakukan aktivitas perusahaan.Penelitian ini mempelajari evaluasi produktivitas perusahaan dan pengukuran serta hubungan antara level produktivitas dengan level profitabilitas (kemampuan perusahaan untuk menciptakan laba yang dapat dicapai oleh perusahaan.Hasil penelitian ini tentang pengukuran produktivitas parsial memperlihatkan level produktivitas berubah-ubah dan masih memerlukan usaha peningkatan produktivitas parsial terutama dalam pemakaian masing-masing input dengan efisien. Level Total Factor Productivity selama perioda pengukuran memperlihatkan level pertumbuhan positif. Ini melukiskan perusahaan sukses dalam mengelola input tenaga kerja dan modal kolektif yang dimiliki. Level Total Productivity selama perioda pengukuran menunjukkan level pertumbuhan yang berubah-ubah. Ini melukiskan perusahaan itu belum dapat mengelola input yang dimiliki keseluruhan dengan sukses. Untuk melukiskan hubungan antara produktivitas total dengan profitabilitas dari hasil penelitian bisa diketahui faktor produktivitas (0,998 mempunyai pengaruh lebih besar dibandingkan pemulihan harga (0,457 untuk peningkatan profitabilitas perusahaan selama kurun waktu satu tahun perioda pengukuran. Diperlukan usaha untuk meningkatkan profitabilitas perusahaan untuk periode mendatang disertai usaha untuk meningkatkan produktivitas yang memusatkan pada peningkatan produktivitas material dan produktivitas modal sebagai input yang sangat mempengaruhi profitabilitas perusahaan dengan cara berkelanjutkan dan berkesinambungan. Kata kunci: pengukuran evaluasi dan produktivitas, profitabilitas    CV. Citra Jepara is an export furniture

  4. Mechanical performance of wood plastic composites containing decayed wood

    OpenAIRE

    Ayrılmış, Nadir; Kaymakcı, Alperen; Güleç, Türker

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the potential use of the decayed wood in the manufacture of wood plastic composite (WPC) panel. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) sound wood and decayed wood (brown-rot fungi) were used as wood material. Three levels of 30%, 40%, and 50% of sound wood and decayed wood, based on the composition by weight, were mixed with the polypropylene with 3% (based on weight) maleic anhydride grafted PP (MAPP) as a coupling agent. The compound pellets were prepared from twin screw co-r...

  5. Cord Wood Testing in a Non-Catalytic Wood Stove

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, T. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Trojanowski, R. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Wei, G. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2014-06-30

    EPA Method 28 and the current wood stove regulations have been in-place since 1988. Recently, EPA proposed an update to the existing NSPS for wood stove regulations which includes a plan to transition from the current crib wood fuel to cord wood fuel for certification testing. Cord wood is seen as generally more representative of field conditions while the crib wood is seen as more repeatable. In any change of certification test fuel, there are questions about the impact on measured results and the correlation between tests with the two different fuels. The purpose of the work reported here is to provide data on the performance of a noncatalytic stove with cord wood. The stove selected has previously been certified with crib wood which provides a basis for comparison with cord wood. Overall, particulate emissions were found to be considerably higher with cord wood.

  6. Residential Mechanical Precooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, Alea [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States). Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI); Hoeschele, Marc [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States). Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI)

    2014-12-01

    Residential air conditioning (AC) represents a challenging load for many electric utilities with poor load factors. Mechanical precooling improves the load factor by shifting cooling operation from on-peak to off-peak hours. This provides benefits to utilities and the electricity grid, as well as to occupants who can take advantage of time-of-use (TOU) electricity rates. Performance benefits stem from reduced compressor cycling, and shifting condensing unit operation to earlier periods of the day when outdoor temperatures are more favorable to operational efficiency. Finding solutions that save energy and reduce demand on the electricity grid is an important national objective and supports key Building America goals. The Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team evaluated mechanical AC precooling strategies in homes throughout the United States. EnergyPlus modeling was used to evaluate two homes with different performance characteristics in seven climates. Results are applicable to new construction homes and most existing homes built in the last 10 years, as well as fairly efficient retrofitted homes. A successful off-peak AC strategy offers the potential for increased efficiency and improved occupant comfort, and promotes a more reliable and robust electricity grid. Demand response capabilities and further integration with photovoltaic TOU generation patterns provide additional opportunities to flatten loads and optimize grid impacts.

  7. Chapter 6: Wood energy and competing wood product markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenneth E. Skog; Robert C. Abt; Karen Abt

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the effect of expanding wood energy markets is important to all wood-dependent industries and to policymakers debating the implementation of public programs to support the expansion of wood energy generation. A key factor in determining the feasibility of wood energy projects (e.g. wood boiler or pellet plant) is the long-term (i.e. 20-30year) supply...

  8. Wood Stove Pollution in the Developed World: A Case to Raise Awareness Among Pediatricians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rokoff, Lisa B; Koutrakis, Petros; Garshick, Eric; Karagas, Margaret R; Oken, Emily; Gold, Diane R; Fleisch, Abby F

    2017-06-01

    Use of wood for residential heating is regaining popularity in developed countries. Currently, over 11 million US homes are heated with a wood stove. Although wood stoves reduce heating costs, wood smoke may adversely impact child health through the emission of gaseous and particulate air pollutants. Our purpose is to raise awareness of this environmental health issue among pediatricians. To summarize the state of the science, we performed a narrative review of articles published in PubMed and Web of Science. We identified 36 studies in developed countries that reported associations of household wood stove use and/or community wood smoke exposure with pediatric health outcomes. Studies primarily investigated respiratory outcomes, with no evaluation of cardiometabolic or neurocognitive health. Studies found community wood smoke exposure to be consistently associated with adverse pediatric respiratory health. Household wood stove use was less consistently associated with respiratory outcomes. However, studies of household wood stoves always relied on participant self-report of wood stove use, while studies of community wood smoke generally assessed air pollution exposure directly and more precisely in larger study populations. In most studies, important potential confounders, such as markers of socioeconomic status, were unaccounted for and may have biased results. We conclude that studies with improved exposure assessment, that measure and account for confounding, and that consider non-respiratory outcomes are needed. While awaiting additional data, pediatricians can refer patients to precautionary measures recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to mitigate exposure. These include replacing old appliances with EPA-certified stoves, properly maintaining the stove, and using only dry, well-seasoned wood. In addition, several studies have shown mechanical air filters to effectively reduce wood stove pollution exposure in affected homes and

  9. The wood pellet market in Austria: A structural market model analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kristöfel, Christa; Strasser, Christoph; Schmid, Erwin; Morawetz, Ulrich B.

    2016-01-01

    EU bioenergy policies and oil price hikes have resulted in a significant increase of installed pellet boilers for residential heating. Hence, European demand for wood pellets has been growing faster and more steadily than supply leading to rising market prices in recent years. This article presents an econometric analysis of demand and supply of wood pellets in the residential heating sector in Austria, one of the most dynamic markets for residential pellets. Annual and monthly time series data between 2000 and 2014 are used in a two-stage least-squares (2SLS) regression to estimate supply and demand elasticities of wood pellets. In all model specifications, pellets demand is found to be inelastic (from −0.66 to −0.76) and pellets supply unit-elastic (from 1.03 to 1.18). Thus, consumers are highly exposed to price changes resulting from supply shocks. Policies which support investments in pellet boilers will shift the demand of wood pellets and likely leading to higher prices for consumers. - Highlights: • Characterisation of the European pellet market. • A structural market model for wood pellets in Austria. • Estimation of supply and demand price elasticities using a two-stage least-squares (2SLS) regression. • Pellets demand is found to be inelastic and pellets supply unit-elastic in the short run. • Policies stimulating demand will likely increase pellet and sawmill by-product prices.

  10. Fatigue Damage in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clorius, Christian Odin; Pedersen, Martin Bo Uhre; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    1996-01-01

    An investigation of fatigue failure in wood subjected to load cycles in compression parallel to grain is presented. Fatigue failure is found to depend both on the total time under load and on the number of cycles.Recent accelerated fatigue research on wood is reviewed, and a discrepancy between...... to 10 Hz are used. The number of cycles to failure is found to be a poor measure of the fatigue performance of wood. Creep, maximum strain, stiffness and work are monitored throughout the fatigue tests. Accumulated creep is suggested identified with damage and a correlation between stiffness reduction...

  11. Proposal for the Award of a Blanket Order for the Supply of Office Furniture

    CERN Document Server

    1999-01-01

    This document concerns the award of a blanket order for the supply of office furniture. Following a market survey carried out among 87 firms in seventeen Member States, a call for tenders (IT-2590/SPL) was sent on 5 November 1998 to nine firms in four Member States. By the closing date, CERN had received seven tenders. The Finance Committee is invited to agree to the negotiation of a contract for the supply of office furniture with the company A+Z Bürosysteme (DE), the lowest bidder complying with the specification, up to a total amount of 1 600 000 Swiss francs, not subject to revision until 30 March 2000, for an initial period of three years, with an option to renew the contract for two further one-year periods. A+Z Bürosysteme has declared the following origin of the furniture covered by this adjudication proposal: DE - 90% and CH - 10%.

  12. Radiation technology in finishing process improves health, safety and environment (HSE) in the furniture manufacturing industry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Shakri Mat Seman

    1999-01-01

    In furniture manufacturing, processes like cross cutting, molding, planning, shaping, turning, assembling and finishing are involved. The most significant types of negative impact of these processes are such as dust emission, noise, hazardous work, health risk, emission of organic solvent, toxic chemicals emission and chemical waste. In the finishing process, a number of negative effects that will cause health, safety and environmental (HSE) performance. This article highlights the environmental problems in the furniture finishing processes and how the radiation technology can reduce these negative impacts. The drawbacks that hamper the manufacturers from adopting this technology are also discussed. The objective of the paper is to create the awareness among the industrialist and consumers on the HSE hazardous in furniture finishing and steps can be taken to improve

  13. Use of design as competitive advantage in the furniture industry at Santa Maria/RS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leoni Pentiado Godoy

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article shows the contribution of innovative and proactive professional design to increase the competitiveness of the supply chain sector. Thus, the question that motivates the study were: how the design as a strategy, aligned to quality, can act as a competitive to micro and small enterprise in the furniture sector? The study conducted individual interviews with furniture industry managers and used questionnaires to furniture consumers in Santa Maria, located in the center of Rio Grande do Sul State. The research has shown that the search for mechanisms that create competition between companies is increasingly intense and the race for innovative methods to achieve efficiency has great importance. The design adds value to product in terms of aesthetics, ergonomics, comfort and functionality, besides being a very important element in the rationalization of production

  14. 75 FR 69468 - Progressive Furniture, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Onin Staffing, a Subsidiary of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-73,756] Progressive Furniture, Inc., Including On-Site Leased Workers From Onin Staffing, a Subsidiary of Sauder Furniture, Claremont, NC; Notice of Affirmative Determination Regarding Application for Reconsideration On July 19, 2010...

  15. Perceptions of firms within a cluster regarding the cluster's function and success: Amish furniture manufacturing in Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew S. Bumgardner; Gary W. Graham; P. Charles Goebel; Robert L. Romig

    2011-01-01

    The Amish-based furniture manufacturing cluster in and around Holmes County, OH, is home to some 400 shops and has become an important regional driver of demand for hardwood products. The cluster has expanded even as the broader domestic furniture industry has declined. Clustering dynamics are seen as important to the success, but little information has been available...

  16. 75 FR 19364 - Wooden Bedroom Furniture From the People's Republic of China: Final Results of Expedited Sunset...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ... bedroom furniture is generally, but not exclusively, designed, manufactured, and offered for sale in... or be designed as a large box incorporating a lid. \\6\\ A door chest is typically a chest with hinged... cabinets, filing cabinets, credenzas, and bookcases; (4) dining room or kitchen furniture such as dining...

  17. A General Evaluation for Recycling Process of Impregnated Wood Removed From the Service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cihat Taşçıoğlu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Wood presevatives such as creosote, pentaclorophenol (PCP and chromated copper arsenate (CCA have been widely used over the years in order to extend wood products’ service life. CCA was known as most widely used wood preservative chemical in residendial and commercial applications world wide until 2004 volanteered phase out of the chemical from residential use bye the major manufacturers. Over the years CCA treated wood acuumulated in service reaching millions of cubic meters. But there is growing concern about the environmental impacts and increasing difficulty in disposing of treated wood products in many countries. Since disposal of CCA treated wood material poses greater problems than the other treated wood products due to heavy and toxic metal componets of CCA such as chromium and arsenic Traditional disposal methods like landfillig or incineration, both have negative environmental consequences. For that reason the increasing volume of CCA-treated wood products coming out of service requires alternative disposal methods and recycling techniques never tried before. The main purpose of this study, except for traditional methods like landfilling and incineration, is to evaluate the current alternative disposal and recycling methods for CCA treated wood removed from service.

  18. Life-cycle environmental performance of renewable building materials in the context of residential construction : phase II research report : an extension to the 2005 phase I research report. Module N, Life-cycle inventory of manufacturing prefinished engineered wood flooring in the eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Bergman; Scott A. Bowe

    2011-01-01

    This study summarizes the environmental performance of prefinished engineered wood flooring using life-cycle inventory (LCI) analysis. Using primary mill data gathered from manufacturers in the eastern United States and applying the methods found in Consortium for Research on Renewable Industrial Materials (CORRIM) Research Guidelines and International Organization of...

  19. IMPACT OF ECONOMIC CRISIS ON WOOD MARKETS (CONSUMPTION, PRODUCTION AND TRADE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria‐Loredana POPESCU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Global economic crisis represents one of the causes why wood consumption is increasing especially in countries less developed. In countries where governments couldn’t improve the quality of life and unemployment rate is higher, local communities devastate a lot of forestry. In last thirty years we saw a deforestation process at the global level related to land being converted to other uses: agriculture and urbanization, which represent a positive trend of a negative use. The statistics reveal, on one hand, an increasing demand for paper, paper products, wood products and wood energy. So this point is important to analyze: where wood came from and where it is going as either raw material or processed goods? For undeveloped countries, like Romania, it is easy to export primary wood product without evaluating the consequences. On the other hand, developed countries like Sweden export value added products which brig them higher value and profits and require greater manufacturing and marketing skills (case IKEA. For this, government policy could introduce trade barriers to decrease log consumption (like export taxes and simultaneously support furniture production and trade (e.g. export.

  20. Factors related to furniture anchoring: a method for reducing harm during earthquakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haraoka, Tomoko; Hayasaka, Shinya; Murata, Chiyoe; Yamaoka, Taiji; Ojima, Toshiyuki

    2013-02-01

    Fatalities and injuries during an earthquake can be reduced by taking preemptive measures before-hand, and furniture anchoring is an important safety measure for all residents. This study sought to clarify the factors associated with furniture anchoring within the home. A self-administered mail survey was completed from July to August 2010 by 3500 men and women between the ages of 20 and 69 years who were chosen at random from an official government resident registry of 2 cities in Japan. Of the 1729 valid responses, 37.1% reported furniture anchoring. An association with furniture anchoring was observed for having viewed earthquake intensity maps or damage predictions (odds ratio [OR] 1.92, 95% C1 1.54-2.39), expressing concern about a future earthquake (OR 2.07, 95% C1 1.36-3.15), feelings of urgency (OR 1.90, 95% CI 1.47-2.45), accuracy of the government disaster preparedness information (OR 1.68, 95% CI 1.17-2.42), knowledge of the meaning of emergency earthquake warnings (OR 1.67, 95% CI 1.12-2.48), and participation in voluntary disaster preparedness activities (OR 1.40, 95% C1 1.12-1.75). Furniture anchoring was found to be associated with risk awareness, risk perception, disaster preparedness information provided by government to residents, knowledge of earthquakes, participation in voluntary disaster preparedness activities, nonwooden structures, and marital status. An increase in furniture anchoring is important and can be achieved through education and training in daily life.