WorldWideScience

Sample records for residential wind generators

  1. Meeting residential space heating demand with wind-generated electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hughes, Larry

    2010-01-01

    Worldwide, many electricity suppliers are faced with the challenge of trying to integrate intermittent renewables, notably wind, into their energy mix to meet the needs of those services that require a continuous supply of electricity. Solutions to intermittency include the use of rapid-response backup generation and chemical or mechanical storage of electricity. Meanwhile, in many jurisdictions with lengthy heating seasons, finding secure and preferably environmentally benign supplies of energy for space heating is also becoming a significant challenge because of volatile energy markets. Most, if not all, electricity suppliers treat these twin challenges as separate issues: supply (integrating intermittent renewables) and demand (electric space heating). However, if space heating demand can be met from an intermittent supply of electricity, then both of these issues can be addressed simultaneously. One such approach is to use off-the-shelf electric thermal storage systems. This paper examines the potential of this approach by applying the output from a 5.15 MW wind farm to the residential heating demands of detached households in the Canadian province of Prince Edward Island. The paper shows that for the heating season considered, up to 500 households could have over 95 percent of their space heating demand met from the wind farm in question. The benefits as well as the limitations of the approach are discussed in detail. (author)

  2. Design of a DC-AC Link Converter for 500W Residential Wind Generator

    OpenAIRE

    Riza Muhida; Ahmad Firdaus A. Zaidi; Afzeri Tamsir; Rudi Irawan

    2012-01-01

     As one of alternative sources of renewable energy, wind energy has an excellence prospect in Indonesia, particularly in coastal and hilly areas which have potential wind to generate electricity for residential uses. There is urgent need to locally develop low cost inverter of wind generator system for residential use. Recent developments in power electronic converters and embedded computing allow improvement of power electronic converter devices that enable integration of microcontrollers in...

  3. Development of Microcontroller-Based Inverter Control Circuit for Residential Wind Generator Application

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Firdaus Ahmad Zaidi; Riza Muhida; Ahmad Mujahid Ahmad Zaidi; Sazali Yaacob; Nur Hidayah Ahmad Zaidi

    2011-01-01

    The current usage level of wind power as alternative source of energy in Malaysia is very low. Ironically, some areas particularly coastal area has steady wind energy supply that is potential to generate electricity for residential use. There is urgent need to locally develop the low cost wind turbine generator that has the capability to not only supply electricity to respective household but can be connected to power grid so that excess power could be sold back to the local utility company. ...

  4. Design of a DC-AC Link Converter for 500W Residential Wind Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riza Muhida

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available  As one of alternative sources of renewable energy, wind energy has an excellence prospect in Indonesia, particularly in coastal and hilly areas which have potential wind to generate electricity for residential uses. There is urgent need to locally develop low cost inverter of wind generator system for residential use. Recent developments in power electronic converters and embedded computing allow improvement of power electronic converter devices that enable integration of microcontrollers in its design. In this project, an inverter circuit with suitable control scheme design was developed. The circuit was to be used with a selected topology of Wind Energy Conversion System (WECS to convert electricity generated by a 500W direct-drive permanent magnet type wind generator which is typical for residential use. From single phase AC output of the generator, a rectifier circuit is designed to convert AC to DC voltage. Then a DC-DC boost converter is used to step up the voltage to a nominal DC voltage suitable for domestic use. The proposed inverter then will convert the DC voltage to sinusoidal AC. The duty cycle of sinusoidal Pulse-Width Modulated (SPWM signal controlling switches in the inverter was generated by a microcontroller. The lab-scale experimental rig involves simulation of wind generator by running a geared DC motor coupled with 500W wind generator where the prototype circuit was connected at the generator output. The experimental circuit produced single phase 240V sinusoidal AC voltage with frequency of 50Hz. Measured total harmonics distortion (THD of the voltage across load was 4.0% which is within the limit of 5% as recommended by IEEE Standard 519-1992.

  5. SIZING AND COSTING OPTIMISATION OF A TYPICAL WIND/PV HYBRID ELECTRICITY GENERATION SYSTEM FOR A TYPICAL RESIDENTIAL BUILDING IN URBAN ARMIDALE NSW, AUSTRALIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Maklad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the wind and solar electricity generation availability and potentiality for residential buildings in Armidale NSW, Australia. The main purpose of this study is to design an appropriate wind-PV hybrid system to cover the electricity consumption of typical residential buildings of various occupancy rates and relevant various average electrical daily consumption. In order to do achieve that, monthly average solar irradiance monthly average wind speed historical data observed at weather station belongs to the Australian bureau of meteorology in Armidale town over a fourteen years period from 1997–2010. Simulation of solar photovoltaic panels and wind turbines were conducted to obtain the optimal hybrid system sizing and best efficient with lowest cost. Correlations between the solar and wind power data were carried out on an hourly, daily, and monthly basis. It is shown that the hybrid system can be applied for the efficient and economic utilization of wind and solar renewable energy sources.

  6. Wind Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-01-01

    When Enerpro, Inc. president, Frank J. Bourbeau, attempted to file a patent on a system for synchronizing a wind generator to the electric utility grid, he discovered Marshall Space Flight Center's Frank Nola's power factor controller. Bourbeau advanced the technology and received a NASA license and a patent for his Auto Synchronous Controller (ASC). The ASC reduces generator "inrush current," which occurs when large generators are abruptly brought on line. It controls voltage so the generator is smoothly connected to the utility grid when it reaches its synchronous speed, protecting the components from inrush current damage. Generator efficiency is also increased in light winds by applying lower than rated voltage. Wind energy is utilized to drive turbines to generate electricity for utility companies.

  7. Techno-economic feasibility of hybrid diesel/PV/wind/battery electricity generation systems for non-residential large electricity consumers under southern Iran climate conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baneshi, Mehdi; Hadianfard, Farhad

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A hybrid electricity generation system for a large electricity consumer was studied. • The PV and wind electricity potentials under given climate conditions were evaluated. • Technical, economical, and environmental issues of different systems were discussed. • The optimum configuration of components was obtained. • The impacts of governmental incentives on economic viability of systems were examined. - Abstract: This paper aims to study the techno-economical parameters of a hybrid diesel/PV/wind/battery power generation system for a non-residential large electricity consumer in the south of Iran. As a case study, the feasibility of running a hybrid system to meet a non-residential community’s load demand of 9911 kWh daily average and 725 kW peak load demand was investigated. HOMER Pro software was used to model the operation of the system and to identify the appropriate configuration of it based on comparative technical, economical, and environmental analysis. Both stand alone and grid connected systems were modeled. The impacts of annual load growth and governmental energy policies such as providing low interest loan to renewable energy projects, carbon tax, and modifying the grid electricity price on viability of the system were discussed. Results show that for off-grid systems the cost of electricity (COE) and the renewable fraction of 9.3–12.6 ₵/kWh and 0–43.9%, respectively, are achieved with photovoltaic (PV) panel, wind turbine, and battery sizes of 0–1000 kW, 0–600 kW, and 1300 kWh, respectively. For on grid systems without battery storage the range of COE and renewable fraction are 5.7–8.4 ₵/kWh and 0–53%, respectively, for the same sizes of PV panel and wind turbine.

  8. Wind power. [electricity generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savino, J. M.

    1975-01-01

    A historical background on windmill use, the nature of wind, wind conversion system technology and requirements, the economics of wind power and comparisons with alternative systems, data needs, technology development needs, and an implementation plan for wind energy are presented. Considerable progress took place during the 1950's. Most of the modern windmills feature a wind turbine electricity generator located directly at the top of their rotor towers.

  9. Wind electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, M.K.; Wind, L.; Canter, B.; Moeller, T.

    2001-01-01

    The monthly statistics of wind electric power generation in Denmark are compiled from information given by the owners of the private wind turbines. For each wind turbine the name of the site and of the type of turbine is given, and the power generation data are given for the month in question together with the total production in 1999 and 2000. Also the data of operation start are given. On the map of Denmark the sites of the wind turbines are marked. (CLS)

  10. Wind electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koch, M. K.; Wind, L.; Canter, B.; Moeller, T.

    2002-01-01

    The monthly statistics of wind electric power generation in Denmark are compiled from information given by the owners of the private wind turbines. For each wind turbine the name of the site and of the type of turbine is given, and the power generation data are given for the month in question together with the total production in 2000 and 2001. Also the data of operation start are given. On the map of Denmark the sites of the wind turbines are marked. (SM)

  11. Wind electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groening, B.; Koch, M.; Canter, B.; Moeller, T.

    1995-01-01

    The monthly statistics of wind electric power generation in Denmark are compiled from information given by the owners of private wind turbines. For each wind turbine the name of the site and of the type of turbine is given, and the power generation data are given for the month in question together with the total production in 1988 and 1989. Also the data of operation start are given. On the map of Denmark the sites of the wind turbines are marked. The statistics for December 1994 comprise 2328 wind turbines

  12. Superconducting Wind Turbine Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunying Pan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy is well known as a renewable energy because its clean and less polluted characteristic, which is the foundation of development modern wind electricity. To find more efficient wind turbine is the focus of scientists around the world. Compared from conventional wind turbines, superconducting wind turbine generators have advantages at zero resistance, smaller size and lighter weight. Superconducting wind turbine will inevitably become the main trends in this area. This paper intends to introduce the basic concept and principle of superconductivity, and compare form traditional wind turbine to obtain superiority, then to summary three proposed machine concept.While superconductivity have difficulty  in modern technology and we also have proposed some challenges in achieving superconducting wind turbine finally.

  13. Wind power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1999-01-01

    The monthly statistics of wind electric power generation in Denmark are compiled from information given by the owners of private wind turbines. The data are arranged according to the size of the turbines. For each wind turbine the name of the site and type of turbine is given as well as the production during the last 3 months in 1998, and the total production in 1997 and 1998. Data on the operation is given

  14. Gearless wind power generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederlund, L.; Ridanpaeae, P.; Vihriaelae, H.; Peraelae, R. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Lab. of Electricity and Magnetism

    1998-12-31

    During the wind power generator project a design algorithm for a gearless permanent magnet generator with an axially orientated magnetic flux was developed and a 10 kW model machine was constructed. Utilising the test results a variable wind speed system of 100 kW was designed that incorporates a permanent magnet generator, a frequency converter and a fuzzy controller. This system produces about 5-15% more energy than existing types and stresses to the blades are minimised. The type of generator designed in the project represents in general a gearless solution for slow-speed electrical drives. (orig.)

  15. Linear wind generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozarov, A.; Petrov, O.; Antonov, J.; Sotirova, S.; Petrova, B.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the linear wind-power generator described in this article is to decrease the following disadvantages of the common wind-powered turbine: 1) large bending and twisting moments to the blades and the shaft, especially when strong winds and turbulence exist; 2) significant values of the natural oscillation period of the construction result in the possibility of occurrence of destroying resonance oscillations; 3) high velocity of the peripheral parts of the rotor creating a danger for birds; 4) difficulties, connected with the installation and the operation on the mountain ridges and passages where the wind energy potential is the largest. The working surfaces of the generator in questions driven by the wind are not connected with a joint shaft but each moves along a railway track with few oscillations. So the sizes of each component are small and their number can be rather large. The mechanical trajectory is not a circle but a closed outline in a vertical plain, which consists of two rectilinear sectors, one above the other, connected in their ends by semi-circumferences. The mechanical energy of each component turns into electrical on the principle of the linear electrical generator. A regulation is provided when the direction of the wind is perpendicular to the route. A possibility of effectiveness is shown through aiming of additional quantities of air to the movable components by static barriers

  16. Next Generation Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheraghi, S. Hossein [Western New England Univ., Springfield, MA (United States); Madden, Frank [FloDesign Wind Turbine Corp., Waltham, MA (United States)

    2012-09-01

    The goal of this collaborative effort between Western New England University's College of Engineering and FloDesign Wind Turbine (FDWT) Corporation to wok on a novel areodynamic concept that could potentially lead to the next generation of wind turbines. Analytical studies and early scale model tests of FDWT's Mixer/Ejector Wind Turbine (MEWT) concept, which exploits jet-age advanced fluid dynamics, indicate that the concept has the potential to significantly reduce the cost of electricity over conventional Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines while reducing land usage. This project involved the design, fabrication, and wind tunnel testing of components of MEWT to provide the research and engineering data necessary to validate the design iterations and optimize system performance. Based on these tests, a scale model prototype called Briza was designed, fabricated, installed and tested on a portable tower to investigate and improve the design system in real world conditions. The results of these scale prototype efforts were very promising and have contributed significantly to FDWT's ongoing development of a product scale wind turbine for deployment in multiple locations around the U.S. This research was mutually beneficial to Western New England University, FDWT, and the DOE by utilizing over 30 student interns and a number of faculty in all efforts. It brought real-world wind turbine experience into the classroom to further enhance the Green Engineering Program at WNEU. It also provided on-the-job training to many students, improving their future employment opportunities, while also providing valuable information to further advance FDWT's mixer-ejector wind turbine technology, creating opportunities for future project innovation and job creation.

  17. Profitability Analysis of Residential Wind Turbines with Battery Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Ying; Erdem, Ergin; Shi, Jing

    Residential wind turbines are often accompanied by an energy storage system for the off-the-grid users, instead of the on-the-grid users, to reduce the risk of black-out. In this paper, we argue that residential wind turbines with battery energy storage could actually be beneficial to the on-the-grid users as well in terms of monetary gain from differential pricing for buying electricity from the grid and the ability to sell electricity back to the grid. We develop a mixed-integer linear programming model to maximize the profit of a residential wind turbine system while meeting the daily household electricity consumption. A case study is designed to investigate the effects of differential pricing schemes and sell-back schemes on the economic output of a 2-kW wind turbine with lithium battery storage. Overall, based on the current settings in California, a residential wind turbine with battery storage carries more economical benefits than the wind turbine alone.

  18. Gearless wind power generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soederlund, L.; Ridanpaeae, P.; Vihriaelae, H.; Peraelae, R. [Tampere Univ. of Technology (Finland). Lab. of Electricity and Magnetism

    1998-10-01

    In the project a 100 kW axial flux permanent magnet wind power generator has been designed. The toroidal stator with air gap winding is placed between two rotating discs with permanent magnets. The magnet material is NdBFe due to its excellent magnetic properties compared to other materials. This type of topology enables a very large number of poles compared to conventional machine of the same size. A large number of poles is required to achieve a low rotational speed and consequently a direct driven system. The stator winding is formed by rectangular coils. The end winding is very short leading to small resistive losses. On the other hand, the absence of iron teeth causes eddy current losses in the conductors. These can be restricted to an acceptable level by keeping the wire diameter and flux density small. This means that the number of phases should be large. Several independent three phase systems may be used. The toothless stator also means that the iron losses are small and there exists no cogging torque

  19. A dynamic power management strategy of a grid connected hybrid generation system using wind, photovoltaic and Flywheel Energy Storage System in residential applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boukettaya, Ghada; Krichen, Lotfi

    2014-01-01

    A global supervisory strategy for a micro-grid power generation system that comprises wind and photovoltaic generation subsystems, a flywheel storage system, and domestic loads connected both to the hybrid power generators and to the grid, is developed in this paper. The objectives of the supervisor control are, firstly, to satisfy in most cases the load power demand and, secondly, to check storage and grid constraints to prevent blackout, to reduce energy costs and greenhouse gas emissions, and to extend the life of the flywheel. For these purposes, the supervisor determines online the operation mode of the different generation subsystems, switching from maximum power conversion to power regulation. Decision criteria for the supervisor based on actual variables are presented. Finally, the performance of the supervisor is extensively assessed through computer simulation using a comprehensive nonlinear model of the studied system. - Highlights: • We supervise a micro-grid power generation system with an objective to produce clipping grid consumption. • The supervisor switch online from maximum power conversion to power regulation. • We provide services both for domestic users and for the distribution network manager. • The developed algorithm is tested and validated for different scenarios

  20. Development of wind power generation in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhiquan, Y.; Yan, C.; Lijun, X.

    1995-01-01

    Present status and development of wind power generation in China is described in this paper. China is vast in territory with abundant wind resources. The exploitable wind energy in China is estimated up to 253,000 MW. At present, more than 150 thousand small WTGs of a total capacity of 17 MW are used to provide residential electricity uses in non-grid connected areas and 13 wind farms, with above 160 medium and large scale grid connected WTGs (50-500 kW) of a total capacity of 30 MW, have been constructed. At the same time, some progress has been made in the fields of nation-wide wind resource assessment, measurement technology of wind turbine performance, the assimilation of foreign wind turbine technology, grid connected WTG technology and the operation of wind farm etc. It is planned that the total installed capacity of WTGs will reach 1000 MW by the end of 2000. Wind power generation could be a part of electric power industry in China. (Author)

  1. Superconducting wind turbine generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Mijatovic, Nenad; Seiler, Eugen

    2010-01-01

    , the main challenge of the superconducting direct drive technology is to prove that the reliability is superior to the alternative drive trains based on gearboxes or permanent magnets. A strategy of successive testing of superconducting direct drive trains in real wind turbines of 10 kW, 100 kW, 1 MW and 10......We have examined the potential of 10 MW superconducting direct drive generators to enter the European offshore wind power market and estimated that the production of about 1200 superconducting turbines until 2030 would correspond to 10% of the EU offshore market. The expected properties of future...... offshore turbines of 8 and 10 MW have been determined from an up-scaling of an existing 5 MW turbine and the necessary properties of the superconducting drive train are discussed. We have found that the absence of the gear box is the main benefit and the reduced weight and size is secondary. However...

  2. Economic evaluation of small wind turbines and hybrid systems for residential use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predescu Mihail

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable electricity generating systems are gaining ground in residential sector for the purpose of diminishing the electricity bills or to reaching some degree of energy independence. The decision to invest in small wind turbines or hybrid energy generation technologies should be based on an economic estimation of money invested in such systems. Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE calculation for local technologies of choice for residential energy generation is a very meaningful figure for deciding whether the investment can bring financial satisfaction and for selecting which type of technology is the best suited for a specific location.

  3. Wind Generators and Market Power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Misir, Nihat

    price thresholds are significantly higher when the monopolist at the peakload level owns both types of generators. Furthermore, when producing electricity with the peakload generator, the monopolist can avoid facing prices below marginal cost by owning a certain share of the wind generators.......Electricity production from wind generators holds significant importance in European Union’s 20% renewable energy target by 2020. In this paper, I show that ownership of wind generators affects market outcomes by using both a Cournot oligopoly model and a real options model. In the Cournot...... oligopoly model, ownership of the wind generators by owners of fossil-fueled (peakload) generators decreases total peakload production and increases the market price. These effects increase with total wind generation and aggregate wind generator ownership. In the real options model, start up and shut down...

  4. Superconducting wind turbine generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrahamsen, A B; Seiler, E; Zirngibl, T; Andersen, N H; Mijatovic, N; Traeholt, C; Pedersen, N F; Oestergaard, J; Noergaard, P B

    2010-01-01

    We have examined the potential of 10 MW superconducting direct drive generators to enter the European offshore wind power market and estimated that the production of about 1200 superconducting turbines until 2030 would correspond to 10% of the EU offshore market. The expected properties of future offshore turbines of 8 and 10 MW have been determined from an up-scaling of an existing 5 MW turbine and the necessary properties of the superconducting drive train are discussed. We have found that the absence of the gear box is the main benefit and the reduced weight and size is secondary. However, the main challenge of the superconducting direct drive technology is to prove that the reliability is superior to the alternative drive trains based on gearboxes or permanent magnets. A strategy of successive testing of superconducting direct drive trains in real wind turbines of 10 kW, 100 kW, 1 MW and 10 MW is suggested to secure the accumulation of reliability experience. Finally, the quantities of high temperature superconducting tape needed for a 10 kW and an extreme high field 10 MW generator are found to be 7.5 km and 1500 km, respectively. A more realistic estimate is 200-300 km of tape per 10 MW generator and it is concluded that the present production capacity of coated conductors must be increased by a factor of 36 by 2020, resulting in a ten times lower price of the tape in order to reach a realistic price level for the superconducting drive train.

  5. FEASIBILITY OF WIND TO SERVE UPPER SKAGIT'S BOW HILL TRIBAL LANDS AND FEASIBILITY UPDATE FOR RESIDENTIAL RENEWABLE ENERGY.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    RICH, LAUREN

    2013-09-30

    A two year wind resource assessment was conducted to determine the feasibility of developing a community scale wind generation system for the Upper Skagit Indian Tribe's Bow Hill land base, and the project researched residential wind resource technologies to determine the feasibility of contributing renewable wind resource to the mix of energy options for our single and multi-family residential units.

  6. Generation of electricity by wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Golding, E W

    1976-01-01

    Information on wind power is presented concerning the history of windmills; estimation of the energy obtainable from the wind; wind characteristics and distribution; wind power sites; wind surveys; wind flow over hills; measurement of wind velocity; wind structure and its determination; wind data and energy estimation; testing of wind driven ac generators; wind-driven machines; propeller type windmills; plants for isolated premises and small communities; economy of wind power generation; construction costs for large wind-driven generators; relationship of wind power to other power sources; research and development; and international cooperation.

  7. Generators of Modern Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, various types of wind generator configurations, including power electronic grid interfaces, drive trains, are described The performance in power systems is briefed. Then the optimization of generator system is presented. Some investigation results are presented and discussed....

  8. Superconducting Wind Turbine Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijatovic, Nenad

    A HTS machine could be a way to address some of the technical barriers offshore wind energy is about to face. Due to the superior power density of HTS machines, this technology could become a milestone on which many, including the wind industry, will rely in the future. The work presented...... in this thesis is a part of a larger endeavor, the Superwind project that focused on identifying the potentials that HTS machines could offer to the wind industry and addressing some of the challenges in the process. In order to identify these challenges, I have design and constructed a HTS machine experimental...... setup which is made to serve as precursor, leading towards an optimized HTS machine concept proposed for wind turbines. In part, the work presented in this thesis will focus on the description of the experimental setup and reasoning behind the choices made during the design. The setup comprises from...

  9. Generation of electricity from wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debroy, S.K.; Behera, S.; Murty, J.S.

    1997-01-01

    Bulk power can be generated by using a chain of wind mills with the current level of technology. Wind turbine technology has improved considerably resulting in better efficiency, availability and capacity factor including a significant reduction in the cost of manufacture and installation

  10. Superconducting wind turbine generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijatovic, Nenad

    cryostat design, where a concept with 20 W of heat transfer is achieved. Following the setup description, the focus turns to the electromagnetic design of the HTS machine. Particularly, an approach to increase the performance of HTS coils and the influence of the armature reaction to the HTS field winding...... magnetic characteristic with respect to the critical current. I have showed that the potential for the reduction of HTS conductor can be significant, if the coils are placed strategically, whereby the coils wound with BSCCO performed 40% better depending on the placement in the field winding. The 2G coils...... were less sensitive to the placement which made them particularly useful for high magnetic field regions in the eld winding. The second design approach proposed and tested was to use multiple current supplies which allowed each coil to operate close to its critical current. I have demonstrated...

  11. Day-ahead stochastic economic dispatch of wind integrated power system considering demand response of residential hybrid energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Yibo; Xu, Jian; Sun, Yuanzhang; Wei, Congying; Wang, Jing; Ke, Deping; Li, Xiong; Yang, Jun; Peng, Xiaotao; Tang, Bowen

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Improving the utilization of wind power by the demand response of residential hybrid energy system. • An optimal scheduling of home energy management system integrating micro-CHP. • The scattered response capability of consumers is aggregated by demand bidding curve. • A stochastic day-ahead economic dispatch model considering demand response and wind power. - Abstract: As the installed capacity of wind power is growing, the stochastic variability of wind power leads to the mismatch of demand and generated power. Employing the regulating capability of demand to improve the utilization of wind power has become a new research direction. Meanwhile, the micro combined heat and power (micro-CHP) allows residential consumers to choose whether generating electricity by themselves or purchasing from the utility company, which forms a residential hybrid energy system. However, the impact of the demand response with hybrid energy system contained micro-CHP on the large-scale wind power utilization has not been analyzed quantitatively. This paper proposes an operation optimization model of the residential hybrid energy system based on price response, integrating micro-CHP and smart appliances intelligently. Moreover, a novel load aggregation method is adopted to centralize scattered response capability of residential load. At the power grid level, a day-ahead stochastic economic dispatch model considering demand response and wind power is constructed. Furthermore, simulation is conducted respectively on the modified 6-bus system and IEEE 118-bus system. The results show that with the method proposed, the wind power curtailment of the system decreases by 78% in 6-bus system. In the meantime, the energy costs of residential consumers and the operating costs of the power system reduced by 10.7% and 11.7% in 118-bus system, respectively.

  12. Magnet Free Generators - 3rd Generation Wind Turbine Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bogi Bech; Mijatovic, Nenad; Henriksen, Matthew Lee

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an introduction to superconducting wind turbine generators, which are often referred to as 3rd generation wind turbine generators. Advantages and challenges of superconducting generators are presented with particular focus on possible weight and efficiency improvements. A comp...

  13. Offshore wind generators: realization?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roche, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    The author discusses the French legal context for the different aspects of the development of offshore wind farms in France: procedures related to electricity production installations (authorization or tender like what has been done for six sites), other administrative authorizations, and connection to the grid. Then, she addresses the various constraints: environmental, social and technical constraints (protected marine areas, constraints related to the tendering process), coast planning documents, tax policy. She finally discusses the installation dismantling

  14. 77 FR 24505 - Hazard Mitigation Assistance for Wind Retrofit Projects for Existing Residential Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ...] Hazard Mitigation Assistance for Wind Retrofit Projects for Existing Residential Buildings AGENCY... for Wind Retrofit Projects for Existing Residential Buildings. DATES: Comments must be received by... must include the agency name and docket ID. Regardless of the method used for submitting comments or...

  15. Determining the impact of wind on system costs via the temporal patterns of load and wind generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, Clay D.; Gotham, Douglas J.; Preckel, Paul V.; Liu, Andrew L.

    2013-01-01

    Ambitious targets have been set for expanding electricity generation from renewable sources, including wind. Expanding wind power impacts needs for other electricity generating resources. As states plan for increasing levels of wind generation in their portfolio of generation resources it is important to consider how this intermittent resource impacts the need for other generation resources. A case study for Indiana estimates the value of wind capacity and demonstrates how to optimize its level and the levels of other generation resources. Changes are driven by temporal patterns of wind power output and load. System wide impacts are calculated for energy, capacity, and costs under multiple wind expansion scenarios which highlight the geographic characteristics of a systems portfolio of wind generation. The impacts of carbon prices, as proposed in the Bingaman Bill, are considered. Finally, calculations showing the effect increasing levels of wind generation will have on end use Indiana retail rates are included. - Highlights: • We estimate the value of wind capacity. • We determine wind generation's impact on the optimal mix of non-wind generation. • Optimal levels of wind and non-wind generation are determined. • We consider the impact of a carbon price on the optimal mix of resources. • The impact of additional wind capacity on Indiana residential rates is calculated

  16. Large superconducting wind turbine generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Magnusson, Niklas; Jensen, Bogi Bech

    2012-01-01

    and the rotation speed is lowered in order to limit the tip speed of the blades. The ability of superconducting materials to carry high current densities with very small losses might facilitate a new class of generators operating with an air gap flux density considerably higher than conventional generators...... and thereby having a smaller size and weight [1, 2]. A 5 MW superconducting wind turbine generator forms the basics for the feasibility considerations, particularly for the YBCO and MgB2 superconductors entering the commercial market. Initial results indicate that a 5 MW generator with an active weight of 34...

  17. An analysis of hybrid power generation systems for a residential load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceran Bartosz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an energetic and economical analysis of a hybrid power generation system (HPGS which utilises photovoltaic modules, wind turbines, fuel cells and an electrolyzer with hydrogen tank working as the energy storage. The analysis was carried out for three different residential loads, local solar radiation and local wind speed, based on the real measurement values. The analysis shows the optimal solution and the limits of the investment costs required for the system construction. The presented results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed approach, which could be assumed as a very useful tool in the design and analysis of a hybrid power generation system.

  18. Wind energy potential in Chile: Assessment of a small scale wind farm for residential clients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Becerra, Miguel; Morán, José; Jerez, Alejandro; Cepeda, Francisco; Valenzuela, Miguel

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • An assessment of a small scale wind farm was carried out. • Two Chilean locations were selected, which are geographically dissimilar. • The software tool selected for the project’s evaluation was HOMER. • All the project’s financial evaluations were negative. • Government policy tools and their applications were discussed. - Abstract: This work presents a techno-financial evaluation of two Chilean locations with promising wind potential: Laguna Verde placed in the central region of the country, and Porvenir in the southern region. A small scale wind farm was studied, considering a nominal electrical production capacity of 90 kW. This facility is comprised of three wind turbine models, all available in the national market. Currently, the tariff method used in Chile is the net billing scheme, where the energy bought and sold to the grid has different prices. The study is based on 300 hypothetical residential households. The software tool used to perform the assessment was the Hybrid Optimization of Multiple Energy Resources (HOMER). For all the scenarios the results showed a Net Present Cost (NPC), instead of a financial profit from the proposed projects. A sensitivity analysis was also carried out. From the group of variables studied, the NPC exhibited itself as more sensitive to the price of buying energy from the grid and to the annual average wind speed. Finally, a few government policies and their applications are discussed.

  19. Wind Generation Feasibility Study in Bethel, AK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tom Humphrey, YKHC; Lance Kincaid, EMCOR Energy & Technologies

    2004-07-31

    This report studies the wind resources in the Yukon-Kuskokwim Health Corporation (YKHC) region, located in southwestern Alaska, and the applicability of wind generation technologies to YKHC facilities.

  20. Decentralized/stand-alone hybrid Wind-Diesel power systems to meet residential loads of hot coastal regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elhadidy, M.A.; Shaahid, S.M.

    2005-01-01

    In view of rising costs, pollution and fears of exhaustion of oil and coal, governments around the world are encouraging to seek energy from renewable/sustainable energy sources such as wind. The utilization of energy from wind (since the oil embargo of the 1970s) is being widely disseminated for displacement of fossil fuel produced energy and to reduce atmospheric degradation. A system that consists of a wind turbine and Diesel genset is called a Wind-Diesel power system.The literature indicates that the commercial/residential buildings in Saudi Arabia consume an estimated 10-40% of the total electric energy generated. In the present study, the hourly mean wind-speed data of the period 1986-1997 recorded at the solar radiation and meteorological station, Dhahran (26 deg. 32'N, 50 deg. 13'E in the Eastern Coastal Region of Saudi Arabia), has been analyzed to investigate the potential of utilizing hybrid (Wind-Diesel) energy conversion systems to meet the load requirements of a hundred typical two bedroom residential buildings (with annual electrical energy demand of 3512 MWh). The long term monthly average wind speeds for Dhahran range from 4.2 to 6.4 m/s. The hybrid systems considered in the present case study consist of different combinations/clusters of 150 kW commercial wind machines supplemented with battery storage and Diesel back-up. The deficit energy generated by the Diesel generator (for different battery capacities) and the number of operational hours of the Diesel system to meet a specific annual electrical energy demand of 3512 MWh have also been presented. The evaluation of the hybrid system shows that with seven 150 kW wind energy conversion system (WECS) and one day of battery storage, the Diesel back-up system has to provide 21.6% of the load demand. Furthermore, with three days of battery storage, the Diesel back-up system has to provide 17.5% of the load demand. However, in the absence of battery storage, about 37% of the load needs to be

  1. Power and Energy Management with Battery Storage for a Hybrid Residential PV-Wind System – A Case Study for Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel-Ioan; Zaharof, Andreea; Iov, Florin

    2018-01-01

    The energy generation paradigm is shifting from centralized fossil-fuel-based generation to distributed-based renewable generation. Thus, hybrid residential energy systems based on wind turbines, PV panels and/or micro-turbines are gaining more and more terrain. Nevertheless, such a system needs...... to be coupled with an energy storage solution, most often a battery, in order to mitigate its power generation variability and to ensure a stable and reliable operation. In this work, two power and energy management strategies for a hybrid residential PV-wind system with battery energy storage were evaluated....... Simple but customized performance models for PV modules and a small wind turbine have been developed; furthermore the models have been parameterized based on real-life time-series for irradiance and wind speed, characteristic for a site in Denmark. The stress to which the battery was subjected, while...

  2. Conditional prediction intervals of wind power generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinson, Pierre; Kariniotakis, Georges

    2010-01-01

    A generic method for the providing of prediction intervals of wind power generation is described. Prediction intervals complement the more common wind power point forecasts, by giving a range of potential outcomes for a given probability, their so-called nominal coverage rate. Ideally they inform...... on the characteristics of prediction errors for providing conditional interval forecasts. By simultaneously generating prediction intervals with various nominal coverage rates, one obtains full predictive distributions of wind generation. Adapted resampling is applied here to the case of an onshore Danish wind farm...... to the case of a large number of wind farms in Europe and Australia among others is finally discussed....

  3. Flapping wing applied to wind generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colidiuc, Alexandra; Galetuse, Stelian; Suatean, Bogdan

    2012-11-01

    The new conditions at the international level for energy source distributions and the continuous increasing of energy consumption must lead to a new alternative resource with the condition of keeping the environment clean. This paper offers a new approach for a wind generator and is based on the theoretical aerodynamic model. This new model of wind generator helped me to test what influences would be if there will be a bird airfoil instead of a normal wind generator airfoil. The aim is to calculate the efficiency for the new model of wind generator. A representative direction for using the renewable energy is referred to the transformation of wind energy into electrical energy, with the help of wind turbines; the development of such systems lead to new solutions based on high efficiency, reduced costs and suitable to the implementation conditions.

  4. Class Generation for Numerical Wind Atlases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cutler, N.J.; Jørgensen, B.H.; Ersbøll, Bjarne Kjær

    2006-01-01

    A new optimised clustering method is presented for generating wind classes for mesoscale modelling to produce numerical wind atlases. It is compared with the existing method of dividing the data in 12 to 16 sectors, 3 to 7 wind-speed bins and dividing again according to the stability...... of the atmosphere. Wind atlases are typically produced using many years of on-site wind observations at many locations. Numerical wind atlases are the result of mesoscale model integrations based on synoptic scale wind climates and can be produced in a number of hours of computation. 40 years of twice daily NCEP...... adapting to the local topography. The purpose of forming classes is to minimise the computational time for the mesoscale model while still representing the synoptic climate features. Only tried briefly in the past, clustering has traits that can be used to improve the existing class generation method...

  5. Optimal Control of Wind Power Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawel Pijarski

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Power system control is a complex task, which is strongly related to the number and kind of generating units as well as to the applied technologies, such as conventional coal fired power plants or wind and photovoltaic farms. Fast development of wind generation that is considered as unstable generation sets new strong requirements concerning remote control and data hubs cooperating with SCADA systems. Considering specific nature of the wind power generation, the authors analyze the problem of optimal control for wind power generation in farms located over a selected remote-controlled part of the Operator grid under advantageous wind conditions. This article presents an original stepwise method for tracing power flows that makes possible to eliminate current (power overloading of power grid branches. Its core idea is to consider the discussed problem as an optimization task.

  6. Directly driven generators for wind power applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampola, P [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Lab. of Electromechanics

    1996-12-31

    The article deals with an analysis of directly driven, low-speed wind generators. The generators studied were a permanent-magnet synchronous machine and an asynchronous machine. The machines were compared with a typical generator of a wind power plant. The electromagnetic optimization of the machines was done by the finite element method. The rated power of the generators was 500 kW and the rotational speed was 40 rpm. (author)

  7. Directly driven generators for wind power applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lampola, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Espoo (Finland). Lab. of Electromechanics

    1995-12-31

    The article deals with an analysis of directly driven, low-speed wind generators. The generators studied were a permanent-magnet synchronous machine and an asynchronous machine. The machines were compared with a typical generator of a wind power plant. The electromagnetic optimization of the machines was done by the finite element method. The rated power of the generators was 500 kW and the rotational speed was 40 rpm. (author)

  8. Wind turbines - generating noise or electricity?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Russell, Eric

    1999-01-01

    Wind turbine technology has made great strides in the past few years. Annual energy output is up by two orders of magnitude and nacelle weight and noise has been halved. Computational fluid dynamics has paid a part in advancing knowledge of air flow and turbulence around wind generators. Current research is focused on how to increase turbine size and improve efficiency. A problem is that while larger wind turbines will produce cheaper electricity, the noise problem will mean that the number of acceptable sites will decrease. The biggest wind generators will need about 800 m clearance from the nearest house. (UK)

  9. Optimized power generation in offshore wind parks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oliveira Filho, J. de; Papp, Z.

    2011-01-01

    Electricity generation on offshore wind parks has an increasing economic importance - the European Commission foresees that 12% of the wind energy will be produced on offshore installations by 2020, and this share is likely to increase further in the following years. However, the continuously

  10. High-Altitude Wind Power Generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fagiano, L.; Milanese, M.; Piga, D.

    2010-01-01

    Abstract—The paper presents the innovative technology of highaltitude wind power generation, indicated as Kitenergy, which exploits the automatic flight of tethered airfoils (e.g., power kites) to extract energy from wind blowing between 200 and 800 m above the ground. The key points of this

  11. Integration of wind generation forecasts. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahlstrom, M.; Zavadil, B.; Jones, L.

    2005-01-01

    WindLogics is a company that specializes in atmospheric modelling, visualization and fine-scale forecasting systems for the wind power industry. A background of the organization was presented. The complexities of wind modelling were discussed. Issues concerning location and terrain, shear, diurnal and interannual variability were reviewed. It was suggested that wind power producers should aim to be mainstream, and that variability should be considered as intrinsic to fuel supply. Various utility operating impacts were outlined. Details of an Xcel NSP wind integration study were presented, as well as a studies conducted in New York state and Colorado. It was concluded that regulations and load following impacts with wind energy integration are modest. Overall impacts are dominated by costs incurred to accommodate wind generation variability and uncertainty in the day-ahead time frame. Cost impacts can be reduced with adjustments to operating strategies, improvements in wind forecasting and access to real-time markets. Details of WindLogic's wind energy forecast system were presented, as well as examples of day ahead and hour ahead forecasts and wind speed and power forecasts. Screenshots of control room integration, EMS integration and simulations were presented. Details of a utility-scale wind energy forecasting system funded by Xcel Renewable Development Fund (RDF) were also presented. The goal of the system was to optimize the way that wind forecast information is integrated into the control room environment. Project components were outlined. It was concluded that accurate day-ahead forecasting can lead to significant asset optimization. It was recommended that wind plants share data, and aim to resolve issues concerning grid codes and instrumentation. refs., tabs., figs

  12. Integrated Control for Small Power Wind Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongliang Liu

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available The control strategies of the small power wind generator are usually divided into the maximum power point tracking (MPPT case, which requires the wind generator produce power as much as possible, and the power limited control (PLC case that demands the wind generator produce a power level following the load requirement. Integration of these two operating cases responding to flexible and sophisticated power demands is the main topic of this article. A small power wind generator including the sluggish mechanical dynamic phenomenon, which uses the permanent magnet synchronous generator, is introduced to validate different control methods integrating MPPT and PLC cases and based on hysteresis control. It is a matter of an indirect power control method derived from three direct methods following perturb and observe principle as well as from a look-up table. To analyze and compare the proposed power control methods, which are implemented into an emulator of a small power wind generator, a power demand profile is used. This profile is randomly generated based on measured rapid wind velocity data. Analyzing experimental results, from the power viewpoint, all proposed methods reveal steady-state error with big amount of peak resulting from the nature of perturb and observe.

  13. Wind energy generation and pollution control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohibullah; Mohd Nishat Anwar

    2009-01-01

    Full text: In India, power generation from wind has emerged as one of the most successful programme. It is making meaningful contributions to the overall power requirements in some of the states. India is emerging as fifth nation in wind power generation. As per the projections made by Ministry of New and Renewable Energy, Govt. of India, 10 % of the total capacity of power generation will come from renewable energy sources by the year 2012. It is envisaged that 50 % of this capacity may come from wind power alone. The paper describes a WECS (Wind Energy Conversion Systems) structure implemented in the MATLAB-Simulink simulation environment by using the specialized PSB toolbox, designed for modeling and simulation of electrical equipment. A study is made to show effectiveness in pollution control. An analytical study is also made regarding the potential of wind energy in limiting the amount of green house gases added into the atmosphere per year in different states in India. The amount of green house gases which are saved in the process are calculated for nine wind potential sites in India. The amount of green house gases saved is considerable to reduce environmental pollution and saving in carbon credit. Approximately an amount of 70681 Euro per year may be saved if the scheme is implemented and use of wind energy known in India is fully utilized for power generation. (author)

  14. A preliminary impact assessment of typhoon wind risk of residential buildings in Japan under future climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nishijima, Kazuyoshi; Maruyama, Takashi; Graf, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    are that in the future (2075–2099) at most locations of Japan: (1) extreme wind events (10-minute sustained wind speed exceeding 30 m/s) are more likely to occur; (2) the median of the annual maximum wind speed decreases; (3) the expected number of damaged residential buildings decreases, assuming that the profile...

  15. Wind power plant for electricity generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landsiedel, E

    1978-11-09

    The invention concerns a wind power plant which rotates on a vertical axis and is suitable for the generation of electricity. This wind power machine with a vertical axis can be mounted at any height, so that it can catch the wind on the vertical axis of rotation. Further, it does not have to be turned into the direction of the wind and fixed. The purpose of the invention is to obtain equal load on the structure due to the vertical axis. The purpose of the invention is fulfilled by having the wind vanes fixed above one another from the bottom to the top in 6 different directions. The particular advantage of the invention lies in the fact that the auxiliary blades can bring the other blades to the operating position in good time, due to their particular method of fixing.

  16. Trends in Wind Turbine Generator Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Polinder, Henk; Ferreira, Jan Abraham; Jensen, Bogi Bech

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews the trends in wind turbine generator systems. After discussing some important requirements and basic relations, it describes the currently used systems: the constant speed system with squirrel-cage induction generator, and the three variable speed systems with doubly fed...... induction generator (DFIG), with gearbox and fully rated converter, and direct drive (DD). Then, possible future generator systems are reviewed. Hydraulic transmissions are significantly lighter than gearboxes and enable continuously variable transmission, but their efficiency is lower. A brushless DFIG...

  17. Wind Integration into Various Generation Mixtures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maddaloni, J.D.; Rowe, A.M.; Kooten, van G.C.

    2009-01-01

    A load balance model is used to quantify the economic and environmental effects of integrating wind power into three typical generation mixtures. System operating costs over a specified period are minimized by controlling the operating schedule of the existing power generating facilities for a range

  18. Grid code requirements for wind power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djagarov, N.; Filchev, S.; Grozdev, Z.; Bonev, M.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper production data of wind power in Europe and Bulgaria and plans for their development within 2030 are reviewed. The main characteristics of wind generators used in Bulgaria are listed. A review of the grid code in different European countries, which regulate the requirements for renewable sources, is made. European recommendations for requirements harmonization are analyzed. Suggestions for the Bulgarian gird code are made

  19. The Impact of Wind Power Projects on Residential Property Values in the United States: A Multi-Site Hedonic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoen, Ben; Wiser, Ryan; Cappers, Peter; Thayer, Mark; Sethi, Gautam

    2009-12-02

    With wind energy expanding rapidly in the U.S. and abroad, and with an increasing number of communities considering wind power development nearby, there is an urgent need to empirically investigate common community concerns about wind project development. The concern that property values will be adversely affected by wind energy facilities is commonly put forth by stakeholders. Although this concern is not unreasonable, given property value impacts that have been found near high voltage transmission lines and other electric generation facilities, the impacts of wind energy facilities on residential property values had not previously been investigated thoroughly. The present research collected data on almost 7,500 sales of singlefamily homes situated within 10 miles of 24 existing wind facilities in nine different U.S. states. The conclusions of the study are drawn from eight different hedonic pricing models, as well as both repeat sales and sales volume models. The various analyses are strongly consistent in that none of the models uncovers conclusive evidence of the existence of any widespread property value impacts that might be present in communities surrounding wind energy facilities. Specifically, neither the view of the wind facilities nor the distance of the home to those facilities is found to have any consistent, measurable, and statistically significant effect on home sales prices. Although the analysis cannot dismiss the possibility that individual homes or small numbers of homes have been or could be negatively impacted, it finds that if these impacts do exist, they are either too small and/or too infrequent to result in any widespread, statistically observable impact.

  20. Assessment of wind characteristics for energy generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koray Ulgen [Ege University, Izmir (Turkey). Solar Energy Institute; Asir Genc [Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey). Dept. of Statistics; Arif Hepbasli [Ege University, Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Galip Oturanc [Selcuk University, Konya (Turkey). Dept. of Mathematics

    2004-11-15

    Wind technology in Turkey has gained considerable maturity over the last five years, and wind energy projects are becoming commercially attractive in the country. In practice, it is essential to describe the variation of wind speeds for optimizing the design of the systems resulting in less energy generating costs. The wind variation for a typical site is usually described using the so-called Weibull distribution. In this study, the two Weibull parameters of the wind speed distribution function, the shape parameter k (dimensionless) and the scale parameter c (m/s), were computed from the wind speed data for Aksehir in Konya, located in Central Anatolia in Turkey (latitude: 38.35{sup o} and longitude: 31.42{sup o}). Wind data, consisting of hourly wind speed records over a 6 year period, 1997-2002, were obtained from the Aksehir State Meteorological Station. Based on the experimental data, it was found that the numerical values of both Weibull parameters (k and c) for Aksehir vary over a wide range. The yearly values of k range from 1.756 to 2.076, while those of c are in the range of 2.956 to 3.444. Average seasonal Weibull distributions for Aksehir are given. The wind speed distributions are represented by Weibull distribution and also by Rayleigh distribution with a special case of the Weibull distribution for k = 2. The Rayleigh distribution is found to be suitable to represent the actual probability of wind speed data for the site studied. (author)

  1. Development of methods for assessing the vulnerability of Australian residential building stock to severe wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wehner, Martin; Sandland, Carl; Edwards, Mark; Ginger, John; Holmes, John

    2010-01-01

    Knowledge of the degree of damage to residential structures expected from severe wind is used to study the benefits from adaptation strategies developed in response to expected changes in wind severity due to climate change. This study will inform government, the insurance industry and provide emergency services with estimates of expected damage. A series of heuristic wind vulnerability curves for Australian residential structures has been developed. In order to provide rigor to the heuristic curves and to enable quantitative assessment to be made of adaptation strategies, work has commenced to produce a simulation tool to quantitatively assess damage to buildings from severe wind. The simulation tool accounts for variability in wind profile, shielding, structural strength, pressure coefficients, building orientation, component self weights, debris damage and water ingress via a Monte Carlo approach. The software takes a component-based approach to modelling building vulnerability. It is based on the premise that overall building damage is strongly related to the failure of key components (i.e. connections). If these failures can be ascertained, and associated damage from debris and water penetration reliably estimated, scenarios of complete building damage can be assessed. This approach has been developed with varying degrees of rigor by researchers around the world and is best practice for the insurance industry.

  2. Synchronous generator wind energy conversion control system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medeiros, A.L.R. [Wind Energy Group, Recife (Brazil); Lima, A.M.N.; Jacobina, C.B.; Simoes, F.J. [DEE, Campina Grande (Brazil)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents the performance evaluation and the design of the control system of a WECS (Wind Energy Conversion System) that employs a synchronous generator based on its digital simulation. The WECS discussed in this paper is connected to the utility grid through two Pulse Width Modulated (PWM) power converters. The structure of the proposed WECS enables us to achieve high performance energy conversion by: (i) maximizing the wind energy capture and (ii) minimizing the reactive power flowing between the grid and the synchronous generator. 8 refs., 19 figs.

  3. Wind power, distrubted generation and transmission

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    the possibilities for integration of even more wind power using new power balancing strategies that exploit the possibilities given by the existence of CHP plants as well as the impact of heat pumps for district heating. The analyses demonstrate that it is possible to accommodate 50% or more wind power without......Denmark has the World?s highest penetration of wind power in electricity generation with a share of 15.0% of total domestic demand in 2002 (DEA, 2004). This is unevenly distributed in the two electricity systems of Denmark giving a share as high as 20.7% in Western Denmark in 2003 up from 18...... power balancing strategies are not applied, costly grid expansions will follow expansions in installed wind power capacity....

  4. Development of superconducting wind turbine generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bogi Bech; Mijatovic, Nenad; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the commercial activities in the field of superconducting machines, particularly superconducting wind turbine generators, are reviewed and presented. Superconducting generators have the potential to provide a compact and light weight drive train at high torques and slow rotational...... speeds, because high magnetic fields can be produced by coils with very little loss. Three different superconducting wind turbine generator topologies have been proposed by three different companies. One is based on low temperature superconductors; one is based on high temperature superconductors......; and one is a fully superconducting generator based on MgB2. It is concluded that there is large commercial interest in superconducting machines, with an increasing patenting activity. Such generators are, however, not without their challenges. The superconductors have to be cooled down to somewhere...

  5. Development of Superconducting Wind Turbine Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bogi Bech; Mijatovic, Nenad; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the commercial activities in the field of superconducting machines, particularly superconducting wind turbine generators, are reviewed and presented. Superconducting generators have the potential to provide a compact and light weight drive train at high torques and slow rotational...... speeds, because high magnetic fields can be produced by coils with very little loss. Three different superconducting wind turbine generator topologies have been proposed by three different companies. One is based on low temperature superconductors (LTS); one is based on high temperature superconductors...... (HTS); and one is a fully superconducting generator based on MgB2. It is concluded that there is large commercial interest in superconducting machines, with an increasing patenting activity. Such generators are however not without their challenges. The superconductors have to be cooled down...

  6. Microprocessor control of a wind turbine generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gnecco, A. J.; Whitehead, G. T.

    1978-01-01

    This paper describes a microprocessor based system used to control the unattended operation of a wind turbine generator. The turbine and its microcomputer system are fully described with special emphasis on the wide variety of tasks performed by the microprocessor for the safe and efficient operation of the turbine. The flexibility, cost and reliability of the microprocessor were major factors in its selection.

  7. Site-optimization of wind turbine generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, T.J. de; Thillerup, J. [Nordtank Energy Group, Richmond, VA (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The Danish Company Nordtank is one of the pioneers within the wind turbine industry. Since 1981 Nordtank has installed worldwide more than 2500 wind turbine generators with a total name plate capacity that is exceeding 450 MW. The opening up of new and widely divergent markets has demanded an extremely flexible approach towards wind turbine construction. The Nordtank product range has expanded considerable in recent years, with the main objective to develop wind energy conversion machines that can run profitable in any given case. This paper will describe site optimization of Nordtank wind turbines. Nordtank has developed a flexible design concept for its WTGs in the 500/750 kW range, in order to offer the optimal WTG solution for any given site and wind regime. Through this flexible design, the 500/750 turbine line can adjust the rotor diameter, tower height and many other components to optimally fit the turbine to each specific project. This design philosophy will be illustrated with some case histories of recently completed projects.

  8. Simulation of Small Wind Turbine Generation System Using Ring Winding Slotless PMSG by FEM

    OpenAIRE

    徳永, 翔平; 袈裟丸, 勝己; Tokunaga, Shohei; Kesamaru, Katsumi

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a novel small wind turbine generation system with ring winding slotless PMSG. To reduce cogging torque, ring winding PM generator is used for a wind turbine generator. Using finite element analysis, the characteristics of slotless PMSGs are elucidated and the dynamic performance of the proposed system with MPPT control is represented. In this paper, the constant wind test and the quasi-natural wind test are conducted. The results of these tests indicate the proposed syste...

  9. Generic model of a community-based microgrid integrating wind turbines, photovoltaics and CHP generations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Xiandong; Wang, Yifei; Qin, Jianrong

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Proposes a generic microgrid model comprising hybrid distributed generation units. ► Examines DG performance due to both environmental condition changes and electrical faults. ► Addresses island and grid connected modes of operation for DG units. ► We demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed residential microgrid system. - Abstract: Development and deployment of low-carbon energy technologies has been a national strategy of both the UK and China for a number of years, including the use of renewable generation technologies and the improvement of energy efficiency of operations and activities. The paper addresses several issues of generic importance to a residential microgrid system such as network modelling, advanced control and integration of intelligent monitoring techniques. The system, comprising representative distributed generation technologies of photovoltaics, wind turbines and combined heat and power, has been simulated by PSCAD/EMTDC under different operational scenarios. Studies include the effect of environmental condition changes, control systems and power electronics on wind turbines and PV cells, and the mixture of wind/solar/CHP energy generation under dominance of each technology. The performance and dynamics of the system are examined against symmetrical and asymmetrical electrical faults to seek an optimal isolation and restoration of the distributed generation unit from the connected grid system. Modelling these system interactions has demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed residential microgrid system

  10. The noise generated by wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2012-01-01

    Sound propagation damps down with distance and varies according to different parameters like wind direction and temperature. This article begins by recalling the basic physics of sound wave propagation and gives a list of common noises and corresponding decibels. The habitual noise of wind turbines 500 m away is 35 decibels which ranks it between a quiet bedroom (30 decibels) and a calm office (40 decibels). The question about whether wind turbines are a noise nuisance is all the more difficult as the feeling of a nuisance is so objective and personal. Any project of wind turbines requires a thorough study of its estimated acoustic impact. This study is a 3 step approach: first the initial noise environment is measured, secondly the propagation of the sound generated by the wind turbine farm is modelled and adequate mitigation measures are proposed to comply the law. The law stipulates that the increase of noise must be less than 5 db during daylight and less than 3 db during night. (A.C.)

  11. Feasibility of generating electricity for clinics using wind turbines

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Szewczuk, S

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available is small wind turbines used in residential settings that are installed using net metering to supply energy directly to the home. Excess energy is sold back to the supplying utility. Farm, business and small industrial wind applications are used..., businesses are not eligible for net metering applications thus the commercial loads must use most of the power from the turbine. “Small-scale” community wind is a system using wind turbines to power grid-connected loads such as schools, public lighting...

  12. Small wind turbine energy policies for residential and small business usage in Ontario, Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heagle, A.L.B.; Naterer, G.F.; Pope, K.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the social barriers, policies, and incentive programs for residential and small business small wind (RBSW) projects, particularly in Ontario, Canada, as well as comparisons with California, US, and the United Kingdom. The alignment between socio-political and community acceptance is considered for its impact on market acceptance of the technology. Barriers inhibiting social acceptance of RBSW projects include adequate capacity factor, cost effectiveness, wind variability, audio-esthetics impact, health and safety, procedural fairness, and transparency. A review of the policies for implementation of small wind projects in each location is presented. Strategies to overcome barriers to social acceptance are examined, along with recommendations for the increased implementation of RBSW projects worldwide. Recommendations to increase social acceptance and subsequent implementation of RBSW projects include the collaboration of government agencies, industry and community members, during RBSW implementation processes, and the provision of consistent, long-term, supportive policies and incentive programs for project owners. - Highlights: → This paper examines the social barriers, policies, and incentive programs for residential and small business small wind (RBSW) projects, particularly in Ontario, Canada, as well as comparisons with California, US, and the United Kingdom. → Barriers inhibiting social acceptance of RBSW projects include adequate capacity factor, cost effectiveness, wind variability, audio-esthetics impact, health and safety, procedural fairness, and transparency. → Recommendations to increase social acceptance and subsequent implementation of RBSW projects include the collaboration of government agencies, industry and community members, during RBSW implementation processes, and the provision of consistent, long-term, supportive policies and incentive programs for project owners.

  13. A study on evaluating the power generation of solar-wind hybrid systems in Izmir, Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulgen, K. [Ege Univ., Solar Energy Inst., Izmir (Turkey); Hepbasli, A. [Ege Univ., Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Izmir (Turkey)

    2003-03-15

    Turkey is abundant in terms of renewable energy resources. Residential and industrial utilization of solar energy started in the 1980s, while the first Build-Operate-Transfer (BOT) windmill park, located at Alacati, Izmir, was commissioned in 1998. Additionally, power generation through solar-wind hybrid systems has recently appeared on the Turkish market. This study investigates the wind and solar thermal power availability in Izmir, located in the western part of Turkey. Simple models were developed to determine wind, solar, and hybrid power resources per unit area. Experimental data, consisting of hourly records over a 5 yr period, 1995-1999, were measured in the Solar/Wind Meteorological Station of the Solar Energy Institute at Ege University. Correlations between solar and wind power data were carried out on an hourly, a daily, and a monthly basis. It can be concluded that possible applications of hybrid systems could be considered for the efficient utilization of these resources. (Author)

  14. Optimal allocation and sizing of PV/Wind/Split-diesel/Battery hybrid energy system for minimizing life cycle cost, carbon emission and dump energy of remote residential building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogunjuyigbe, A.S.O.; Ayodele, T.R.; Akinola, O.A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Genetic Algorithm is used for tri-objective design of hybrid energy system. • The objective is minimizing the Life Cycle Cost, CO_2 emissions and dump energy. • Small split diesel generators are used in place of big single diesel generator. • The split diesel generators are aggregable based on certain set of rules. • The proposed algorithm achieves the set objectives (LCC, CO_2 emission and dump). - Abstract: In this paper, a Genetic Algorithm (GA) is utilized to implement a tri-objective design of a grid independent PV/Wind/Split-diesel/Battery hybrid energy system for a typical residential building with the objective of minimizing the Life Cycle Cost (LCC), CO_2 emissions and dump energy. To achieve some of these objectives, small split Diesel generators are used in place of single big Diesel generator and are aggregable based on certain set of rules depending on available renewable energy resources and state of charge of the battery. The algorithm was utilized to study five scenarios (PV/Battery, Wind/Battery, Single big Diesel generator, aggregable 3-split Diesel generators, PV/Wind/Split-diesel/Battery) for a typical load profile of a residential house using typical wind and solar radiation data. The results obtained revealed that the PV/Wind/Split-diesel/Battery is the most attractive scenario (optimal) having LCC of $11,273, COE of 0.13 ($/kW h), net dump energy of 3 MW h, and net CO_2 emission of 13,273 kg. It offers 46%, 28%, 82% and 94% reduction in LCC, COE, CO_2 emission and dump energy respectively when compared to a single big Diesel generator scenario.

  15. Residential tornado safe room from commodity wood products – impact and wind pressure testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. Falk; James J. Bridwell; C. Adam Senalik; Marshall Begel

    2018-01-01

    A tornado safe room is a shelter designed to provide protection during a tornado and is specifically engineered to resist the high wind pressures and debris impact generated by these high wind events. The required performance criteria of these shelters has been established and is found in the International Code Council Standard for the Design and Construction of Storm...

  16. Operating of Small Wind Power Plants with Induction Generators

    OpenAIRE

    Jakub Nevrala; Stanislav Misak

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes different systems of small wind power plants with induction generators used in the Czech Republic. Problems of wind power plants running with induction generators are solved within partial target of the research project MSM 6198910007. For small wind power plants is used induction motor as a generator. Parameters of the name plate of motor must be resolved for generator running on measuring base. These generators are running as a separately working generators or generator...

  17. Modulated Field Synchronous Generator for Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petru Chioncel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a modern electromechanical conversion systemsolution as the modulated field synchronous generator, offering on theone hand, an output voltage with constant frequency in terms of speedvariation of the wind turbine and on the other hand an advantagepower / weight ratio due to the high frequency for which the magneticcircuit of the electric machine is sized. The mathematical model of the modulated field synchronous generator is implemented in MatLABmodeling language, highlighting the command structure on thetransistors bases of the inverter transistors, through which thefunctioning of the electric machine can be studied, especially in terms of the frequency of the delivered voltage.

  18. A Dynamic Wind Generation Model for Power Systems Studies

    OpenAIRE

    Estanqueiro, Ana

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, a wind park dynamic model is presented together with a base methodology for its application to power system studies. This detailed wind generation model addresses the wind turbine components and phenomena more relevant to characterize the power quality of a grid connected wind park, as well as the wind park response to the grid fast perturbations, e.g., low voltage ride through fault. The developed model was applied to the operating conditions of the selected sets of wind turbi...

  19. Discussion on mass concrete construction of wind turbine generator foundation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Liang; Wu, Chaoxiang; Yin, Xiaoyong

    2018-04-01

    Wind power is one of the main power sources currently. China has rich wind power resources, wind power plants are developed faster and faster. However, China wind power construction started late, which is lack of relevant experience technology. It is easy to produce quality problems. The key to the construction quality of wind power plant is the construction quality of mass concrete construction. Therefore, construction technology and quality control of wind turbine generator foundation mass concrete are discussed and analyzed in the paper.

  20. Meeting the Electrical Energy Needs of a Residential Building with a Wind-Photovoltaic Hybrid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hosein Mohammadnezami

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A complete hybrid system including a photovoltaic cell, a wind turbine, and battery is modeled to determine the best approach for sizing the system to meet the electrical energy needs of a residential building. In evaluating system performance, the city of Tehran is used as a case study. Matlab software is used for analyzing the data and optimizing the system for the given application. Further, the cost of the system design is investigated, and shows that the electrical cost of the hybrid system in Tehran is 0.62 US$/kWh, which is 78% less expensive than a wind turbine system and 34% less expensive than a photovoltaic system.

  1. A simplified approach to detect undervoltage tripping of wind generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigrist, Lukas; Rouco, Luis [Universidad Pontificia Comillas, Madrid (Spain). Inst. de Investigacion Tecnologica

    2012-07-01

    This paper proposes a simplified but fast approach based on a Norton equivalent of wind generators to detect undervoltage tripping of wind generators. This approach is successfully applied to a real wind farm. The relevant grid code requires the wind farm to withstand a voltage dip of 0% retained voltage. The ability of the wind generators to raise the voltage supplying reactive current and to avoid undervoltage tripping is investigated. The obtained results are also compared with the results obtained from detailed dynamic simulations, which make use of wind generator models complying with the relevant grid code. (orig.)

  2. Aggregated wind power generation probabilistic forecasting based on particle filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Pai; Guan, Xiaohong; Wu, Jiang

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A new method for probabilistic forecasting of aggregated wind power generation. • A dynamic system is established based on a numerical weather prediction model. • The new method handles the non-Gaussian and time-varying wind power uncertainties. • Particle filter is applied to forecast predictive densities of wind generation. - Abstract: Probability distribution of aggregated wind power generation in a region is one of important issues for power system daily operation. This paper presents a novel method to forecast the predictive densities of the aggregated wind power generation from several geographically distributed wind farms, considering the non-Gaussian and non-stationary characteristics in wind power uncertainties. Based on a mesoscale numerical weather prediction model, a dynamic system is established to formulate the relationship between the atmospheric and near-surface wind fields of geographically distributed wind farms. A recursively backtracking framework based on the particle filter is applied to estimate the atmospheric state with the near-surface wind power generation measurements, and to forecast the possible samples of the aggregated wind power generation. The predictive densities of the aggregated wind power generation are then estimated based on these predicted samples by a kernel density estimator. In case studies, the new method presented is tested on a 9 wind farms system in Midwestern United States. The testing results that the new method can provide competitive interval forecasts for the aggregated wind power generation with conventional statistical based models, which validates the effectiveness of the new method

  3. Methods and apparatus for cooling wind turbine generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salamah, Samir A [Niskayuna, NY; Gadre, Aniruddha Dattatraya [Rexford, NY; Garg, Jivtesh [Schenectady, NY; Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran [Niskayuna, NY; Jansen, Patrick Lee [Alplaus, NY; Carl, Jr., Ralph James

    2008-10-28

    A wind turbine generator includes a stator having a core and a plurality of stator windings circumferentially spaced about a generator longitudinal axis. A rotor is rotatable about the generator longitudinal axis, and the rotor includes a plurality of magnetic elements coupled to the rotor and cooperating with the stator windings. The magnetic elements are configured to generate a magnetic field and the stator windings are configured to interact with the magnetic field to generate a voltage in the stator windings. A heat pipe assembly thermally engaging one of the stator and the rotor to dissipate heat generated in the stator or rotor.

  4. design of a small scale wind generator for low wind speed areas

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    Most small scale level wind turbine generators are directly driven system, variable speed, and partially ... the best solutions for small-scale wind power plants. Low-speed multi-pole PM generators ..... Designs of the Same Magnet Structure for.

  5. The design of wind turbine for electrical power generation in Malaysian wind characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abas Ab Wahab; Chong Wen Thong

    2000-01-01

    The paper describes the study of a wind turbine for electrical power generation in Malaysia wind characteristics. In this research, the wind turbine is designs based on the local wind characteristics and tries to avoid the problems faced in the past (turbine design, access, manpower and technical). The new wind turbine rotor design for a medium speed wind speed turbine utilises the concept of open-close type of horizontal axis (up-wind) wind turbine is intended to widen the optimum performance range for electrical generation in Malaysia wind characteristics. The wind turbine has been designed to cut-in at a lower speed, and to provide the rotation speed that high enough to run a generator. The analysis and design of new low speed wind turbine blades and open-close turbine rotor and prediction of turbine performance are being detailed in this paper. (Author)

  6. Generating wind fluctuations for Large Eddy Simulation inflow boundary condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bekele, S.A.; Hangan, H.

    2004-01-01

    Large Eddy Simulation (LES) studies of flows over bluff bodies immersed in a boundary layer wind environment require instantaneous wind characteristics. The influences of the wind environment on the building pressure distribution are a well-established fact in the experimental study of wind engineering. Measured wind data of full or model scale are available only at a limited number of points. A method of obtaining instantaneous wind data at all mesh points of the inlet boundary for LES computation is necessary. Herein previous and new wind inflow generation techniques are presented. The generated wind data is then applied to a LES computation of a channel flow. The characteristics of the generated wind fluctuations in comparison to the measured data and the properties of the flow field computed from these two wind data are discussed. (author)

  7. Analysis of wind energy generation possibilities with various rotor types at disadvantageous wind condition zones

    OpenAIRE

    Bieniek Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    The paper describe possibilities of energy generation using various rotor types but especially with multi-blade wind engine operates in the areas with unfavourable wind condition. The paper presents also wind energy conversion estimation results presented based on proposed solution of multi-blade wind turbine of outer diameter of 4 m. Based on the wind distribution histogram from the disadvantage wind condition zones (city of Basel) and taking into account design and estimated operating index...

  8. Evaluation small scale, grid connected wind and solar distributed generation systems in Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naji, G. J.; Tahboub, K. K.; Jalham, I. S.

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, the potential of utilizing wind and solar Private Distributed Generation (PDG) for utility interactive systems is investigated for 11 selected stations (sites) in Jordan. Six customer categories are considered: residential, office, commercial mall, school, hospital and hotel. The main goal of this study was to evaluate the potential of utilizing different grid connected PDG under different conditions such as their location, size, served building category, number of people who share and own the equipment and system type whether wind, solar or hybrid based. It was found that solar systems are still not attractive for all location due to their associated high cost, while wind systems would vary widely depending on the customer category, location and the size of the equipment. Based on the Benefit to Cost ratio criterion, the most attractive sites for installing wind PDGS for residential communities are Ras Muneef, Mafraq, Aqaba, Irbid and H5, while it doesn't seem attractive at Amman,Shoubak, Ghor Essafi, Deir Alla, Maan and H4. On the other hand, the wind on-grid PDGS is very attractive at Ras Muneef, mafraq and Aqaba for commercial buildings, less attractive at H5 and irbid, while it's not attractive at the other sites. The attraction for hybrid PDG systems is closer to those of wind systems alone. (authors).

  9. Model 0A wind turbine generator FMEA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, William E.; Lalli, Vincent R.

    1989-01-01

    The results of Failure Modes and Effects Analysis (FMEA) conducted for the Wind Turbine Generators are presented. The FMEA was performed for the functional modes of each system, subsystem, or component. The single-point failures were eliminated for most of the systems. The blade system was the only exception. The qualitative probability of a blade separating was estimated at level D-remote. Many changes were made to the hardware as a result of this analysis. The most significant change was the addition of the safety system. Operational experience and need to improve machine availability have resulted in subsequent changes to the various systems which are also reflected in this FMEA.

  10. Generation Expansion Planning Considering Integrating Large-scale Wind Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chunyu; Ding, Yi; Østergaard, Jacob

    2013-01-01

    necessitated the inclusion of more innovative and sophisticated approaches in power system investment planning. A bi-level generation expansion planning approach considering large-scale wind generation was proposed in this paper. The first phase is investment decision, while the second phase is production...... optimization decision. A multi-objective PSO (MOPSO) algorithm was introduced to solve this optimization problem, which can accelerate the convergence and guarantee the diversity of Pareto-optimal front set as well. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed bi-level planning approach and the MOPSO...

  11. Structural Flexibility of Large Direct Drive Generators for Wind Turbines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shrestha, G.

    2013-01-01

    The trend in wind energy is towards large offshore wind farms. This trend has led to the demand for high reliability and large single unit wind turbines. Different energy conversion topologies such as multiple stage geared generators, single stage geared generators and gearless (direct drive)

  12. Interconnector capacity allocation in offshore grids with variable wind generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Sascha Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    the interconnector capacity should be allocated for wind generation and for international power trading. The main difficulty arises from the stochastic nature of wind generation: in a case with radial connections to the national coast, the wind park owner has the possibility of aggregating the offshore wind park....... It is concluded that treating offshore generation as a single price zone within the interconnector reduces the wind operator’s ability to pool it with other generation. Furthermore, a single offshore price zone between two markets will always receive the lower spot market price of the neighbouring zones, although...

  13. Wind hazard assessment for Point Lepreau Generating Station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mullin, D.; Moland, M.; Sciaudone, J.C.; Twisdale, L.A.; Vickery, P.J.; Mizzen, D.R.

    2015-01-01

    In response to the CNSC Fukushima Action Plan, NB Power has embarked on a wind hazard assessment for the Point Lepreau Generating Station site that incorporates the latest up to date wind information and modeling. The objective was to provide characterization of the wind hazard from all potential sources and estimate wind-driven missile fragilities and wind pressure fragilities for various structures, systems and components that would provide input to a possible high wind Probabilistic Safety Assessment. The paper will discuss the overall methodology used to assess hazards related to tornadoes, hurricanes and straight-line winds, and site walk-down and hazard/fragility results. (author)

  14. Wind Turbine Generator System Acoustic Noise Test Report for the Gaia Wind 11-kW Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huskey, A.

    2011-11-01

    This report details the acoustic noise test conducted on the Gaia-Wind 11-kW wind turbine at the National Wind Technology Center. The test turbine is a two- bladed, downwind wind turbine with a rated power of 11 kW. The test turbine was tested in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commission standard, IEC 61400-11 Ed 2.1 2006-11 Wind Turbine Generator Systems -- Part 11 Acoustic Noise Measurement Techniques.

  15. Design Optimization and Evaluation of Different Wind Generator Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Li, Hui

    2008-01-01

    . In this paper, seven variable speed constant frequency (VSCF) wind generator systems are investigated, namely permanent magnet synchronous generators with the direct-driven (PMSG_DD), the single-stage gearbox (PMSG_1G) and three-stage gearbox (PMSG_3G) concepts, doubly fed induction generators with the three......With rapid development of wind power technologies and significant growth of wind power capacity installed worldwide, various wind generator systems have been developed and built. The objective of this paper is to evaluate various wind generator systems by optimization designs and comparisons......-stage gearbox (DFIG_3G) and with the single-stage gearbox (DFIG_1G), the electricity excited synchronous generator with the direct-driven (EESG_DD), and the VSCF squirrel cage induction generator with the three-stage gearbox (SCIG_3G). Firstly, the design models of wind turbines, three/single stage gearbox...

  16. Wind turbine/generator set and method of making same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bevington, Christopher M.; Bywaters, Garrett L.; Coleman, Clint C.; Costin, Daniel P.; Danforth, William L.; Lynch, Jonathan A.; Rolland, Robert H.

    2013-06-04

    A wind turbine comprising an electrical generator that includes a rotor assembly. A wind rotor that includes a wind rotor hub is directly coupled to the rotor assembly via a simplified connection. The wind rotor and generator rotor assembly are rotatably mounted on a central spindle via a bearing assembly. The wind rotor hub includes an opening having a diameter larger than the outside diameter of the central spindle adjacent the bearing assembly so as to allow access to the bearing assembly from a cavity inside the wind rotor hub. The spindle is attached to a turret supported by a tower. Each of the spindle, turret and tower has an interior cavity that permits personnel to traverse therethrough to the cavity of the wind rotor hub. The wind turbine further includes a frictional braking system for slowing, stopping or keeping stopped the rotation of the wind rotor and rotor assembly.

  17. Steady State Shift Damage Localization in a Residential-Sized Wind Turbine Blade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvart, Morten Kusk; Sekjær, Claus; Bull, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    methodological premise is that of mapping a model-based damage distribution to experimental vibration features from the healthy and damaged states. Damage is then localized when a postulated damage distribution yields a, under ideal conditions, perfect mapping. The S3DL method relies on a theoretical model that......, in an experimental procedure with a plate-like structure, thus the present study serves to investigate the applicability of the method for more complex structures; in this case, a residential-sized wind turbine blade, which has been designed specifically for damage identification purposes. The blade consists of two...... parts that are bolted together along the leading and trailing edges, hence enabling introduction of stiffness-related damages by untightening a number of bolts. The paper studies two damage cases: failure of the trailing edge and a mass modification....

  18. Design Study of Fully Superconducting Wind Turbine Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Xiaowei (Andy); Mijatovic, Nenad; Jensen, Bogi Bech

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, two fully superconducting generators employing MgB2 armature winding, with YBCO and MgB2 field winding respectively, are presented and analyzed. The ac loss in armature winding is estimated, and a simple comparative study is carried out. The results show that both electromagnetic...... designs for fully superconducting generators are promising with respect to the power density. However, the cost of removing ac loss in armature winding is as high as $900 000. It is also noted that with the current price of YBCO tape, the generator employing MgB 2 field winding would have lower cost....

  19. Investigation of surge protective devices operation of a wind generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrov, D.; Vasileva, M.

    2008-01-01

    The interest to the investments in a wind energetics increases in the last years. The wind energetics is the fastest developing direction in the energetics in global scale. The wind energy is more attractive because its prices are lower in comparison of the other technologies for generating energy. The right choice of the surge protective devices has the important meaning on building and exploitation of the wind generators. The aim of this paper is investigation of the surge protective devices operation when they are installation to a wind generator. (authors)

  20. Power Quality Improvements in Wind Diesel Power Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omar Feddaoui

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Generation of electricity using diesel is costly for small remote isolated communities. At remote location electricity generation from renewable energy such as wind can help reduce the overall operating costs by reducing the fuel costs. However, the penetration of wind power into small diesel-based grids is limited because of its effect on power quality and reliability. This paper focuses on the combination of Wind Turbine and Diesel Generator systems for sustained power generation, to improve the power quality of wind generation system. The performances of the optimal control structure are assessed and discussed by means of a set of simulations.

  1. Design of High Performance Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Wind Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Yu Hsiao

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper is devoted to the analysis and design of high performance permanent-magnet synchronous wind generators (PSWGs. A systematic and sequential methodology for the design of PMSGs is proposed with a high performance wind generator as a design model. Aiming at high induced voltage, low harmonic distortion as well as high generator efficiency, optimal generator parameters such as pole-arc to pole-pitch ratio and stator-slot-shoes dimension, etc. are determined with the proposed technique using Maxwell 2-D, Matlab software and the Taguchi method. The proposed double three-phase and six-phase winding configurations, which consist of six windings in the stator, can provide evenly distributed current for versatile applications regarding the voltage and current demands for practical consideration. Specifically, windings are connected in series to increase the output voltage at low wind speed, and in parallel during high wind speed to generate electricity even when either one winding fails, thereby enhancing the reliability as well. A PMSG is designed and implemented based on the proposed method. When the simulation is performed with a 6 Ω load, the output power for the double three-phase winding and six-phase winding are correspondingly 10.64 and 11.13 kW. In addition, 24 Ω load experiments show that the efficiencies of double three-phase winding and six-phase winding are 96.56% and 98.54%, respectively, verifying the proposed high performance operation.

  2. Analysis of wind energy generation possibilities with various rotor types at disadvantageous wind condition zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieniek, Andrzej

    2017-10-01

    The paper describe possibilities of energy generation using various rotor types but especially with multi-blade wind engine operates in the areas with unfavourable wind condition. The paper presents also wind energy conversion estimation results presented based on proposed solution of multi-blade wind turbine of outer diameter of 4 m. Based on the wind distribution histogram from the disadvantage wind condition zones (city of Basel) and taking into account design and estimated operating indexes of the considered wind engine rotor an annual energy generation was estimated. Also theoretical energy generation using various types of wind turbines operates at disadvantage wind conditions zones were estimated and compared. The conducted analysis shows that introduction of multi-blade wind rotor instead of the most popular 3- blades or vertical axis rotors results of about 5% better energy generation. Simultaneously there are energy production also at very disadvantages wind condition at wind speed lower then 4 m s-1. Based on considered construction of multi-blade wind engine the rise of rotor mounting height from 10 to 30 m results with more then 300 % better results in terms of electric energy generation.

  3. Analysis of wind energy generation possibilities with various rotor types at disadvantageous wind condition zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bieniek Andrzej

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describe possibilities of energy generation using various rotor types but especially with multi-blade wind engine operates in the areas with unfavourable wind condition. The paper presents also wind energy conversion estimation results presented based on proposed solution of multi-blade wind turbine of outer diameter of 4 m. Based on the wind distribution histogram from the disadvantage wind condition zones (city of Basel and taking into account design and estimated operating indexes of the considered wind engine rotor an annual energy generation was estimated. Also theoretical energy generation using various types of wind turbines operates at disadvantage wind conditions zones were estimated and compared. The conducted analysis shows that introduction of multi-blade wind rotor instead of the most popular 3- blades or vertical axis rotors results of about 5% better energy generation. Simultaneously there are energy production also at very disadvantages wind condition at wind speed lower then 4 ms-1. Based on considered construction of multi-blade wind engine the rise of rotor mounting height from 10 to 30 m results with more then 300 % better results in terms of electric energy generation.

  4. Alternative methods of modeling wind generation using production costing models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milligan, M.R.; Pang, C.K.

    1996-08-01

    This paper examines the methods of incorporating wind generation in two production costing models: one is a load duration curve (LDC) based model and the other is a chronological-based model. These two models were used to evaluate the impacts of wind generation on two utility systems using actual collected wind data at two locations with high potential for wind generation. The results are sensitive to the selected wind data and the level of benefits of wind generation is sensitive to the load forecast. The total production cost over a year obtained by the chronological approach does not differ significantly from that of the LDC approach, though the chronological commitment of units is more realistic and more accurate. Chronological models provide the capability of answering important questions about wind resources which are difficult or impossible to address with LDC models

  5. Comparative life-cycle assessment of a small wind turbine for residential off-grid use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fleck, Brian; Huot, Marc

    2009-01-01

    As the popularity of renewable energy systems grows, small wind turbines are becoming a common choice for off-grid household power. However, the true benefits of such systems over the traditional internal combustion systems are unclear. This study employs a life-cycle assessment methodology in order to directly compare the environmental impacts, net-energy inputs, and life-cycle cost of two systems: a stand-alone small wind turbine system and a single-home diesel generator system. The primary focus for the investigation is the emission of greenhouse gases (GHG) including CO 2 , CH 4 , and N 2 O. These emissions are calculated over the life-cycle of the two systems which provide the same amount of energy to a small off-grid home over a twenty-year period. The results show a considerable environmental benefit for small-scale wind power. The wind generator system offered a 93% reduction of GHG emissions when compared to the diesel system. Furthermore, the diesel generator net-energy input was over 200 MW, while the wind system produced an electrical energy output greater than its net-energy input. Economically, the conclusions were less clear. The assumption was made that diesel fuel cost over the next twenty years was based on May 2008 prices, increasing only in proportion to inflation. As such, the net-present cost of the wind turbine system was 14% greater than the diesel system. However, a larger model wind turbine would likely benefit from the effects of the 'economy of scale,' producing superior results both economically and environmentally. (author)

  6. Design and development of direct drive generators for wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagrial, M.; Hellany, A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper discusses various options for wind generators in modern wind turbines without any gearbox. Various power converter configurations are also discussed. The design of modern and efficient variable speed generators is also proposed. The design of a novel permanent magnet generator is also given. (author)

  7. Assessment of wind power generation along the coast of Ghana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adaramola, Muyiwa S., E-mail: muyiwa.adaramola@umb.no [Department of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Ås (Norway); Agelin-Chaab, Martin [Department of Automotive, Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Oshawa, ON (Canada); Paul, Samuel S. [REHAU Industries, Winnipeg, Manitoba (Canada)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • The wind energy and its economic viability along the coastal region of Ghana are examined. • Wind resource along the coastal region of Ghana fall into Class 2 or less wind resource. • Wind turbine with rated speed from 9 to 11 m/s is suggested for wind power development. • The unit cost of wind generated electricity is found be between 0.0732 GH¢/kW h and 0.2905 GH¢/kW h. - Abstract: This study examined the wind energy potential and the economic viability of using wind turbine for electricity generation in selected locations along the coastal region of Ghana. The two-parameter Weibull probability density function was employed to analyze the wind speed data obtained from the Ghana Energy Commission. The energy output and unit cost of electricity generated from medium size commercial wind turbine models with rated powers ranging from 50 kW to 250 kW were determined. It was found that the wind resource along the coastal region of Ghana can be classified into Class 2 or less wind resource which indicate that this resource in this area is marginally suitable for large scale wind energy development or suitable for small scale applications and be useful as part of hybrid energy system. It was further observed that wind turbine with designed cut-in wind speed of less than 3 m/s and moderate rated wind speed between 9 and 11 m/s is more suitable for wind energy development along the coastal region of Ghana. Based on the selected wind turbine and assumptions used in this study, it was estimated that the unit cost of electricity varied between 0.0695 GH¢/kW h and 0.2817 GH¢/kW h.

  8. Assessment of wind power generation along the coast of Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adaramola, Muyiwa S.; Agelin-Chaab, Martin; Paul, Samuel S.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The wind energy and its economic viability along the coastal region of Ghana are examined. • Wind resource along the coastal region of Ghana fall into Class 2 or less wind resource. • Wind turbine with rated speed from 9 to 11 m/s is suggested for wind power development. • The unit cost of wind generated electricity is found be between 0.0732 GH¢/kW h and 0.2905 GH¢/kW h. - Abstract: This study examined the wind energy potential and the economic viability of using wind turbine for electricity generation in selected locations along the coastal region of Ghana. The two-parameter Weibull probability density function was employed to analyze the wind speed data obtained from the Ghana Energy Commission. The energy output and unit cost of electricity generated from medium size commercial wind turbine models with rated powers ranging from 50 kW to 250 kW were determined. It was found that the wind resource along the coastal region of Ghana can be classified into Class 2 or less wind resource which indicate that this resource in this area is marginally suitable for large scale wind energy development or suitable for small scale applications and be useful as part of hybrid energy system. It was further observed that wind turbine with designed cut-in wind speed of less than 3 m/s and moderate rated wind speed between 9 and 11 m/s is more suitable for wind energy development along the coastal region of Ghana. Based on the selected wind turbine and assumptions used in this study, it was estimated that the unit cost of electricity varied between 0.0695 GH¢/kW h and 0.2817 GH¢/kW h

  9. On the spatial hedging effectiveness of German wind power futures for wind power generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Troels Sønderby; Pircalabu, Anca

    2018-01-01

    The wind power futures recently introduced on the German market fill the gap of a standardized product that addresses directly the volume risk in wind power trading. While the German wind power futures entail risk-reducing benefits for wind power generators generally speaking, it remains unclear...... the extent of these benefits across wind farms with different geographical locations. In this paper, we consider the wind utilization at 31 different locations in Germany, and for each site, we propose a copula model for the joint behavior of the site-specific wind index and the overall German wind index....... Our results indicate that static mixture copulas are preferred to the stand-alone copula models usually employed in the economic literature. Further, we find evidence of asymmetric dependence and upper tail dependence. To quantify the benefits of wind power futures at each wind site, we perform...

  10. Assessment of Residential History Generation Using a Public-Record Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Wheeler

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In studies of disease with potential environmental risk factors, residential location is often used as a surrogate for unknown environmental exposures or as a basis for assigning environmental exposures. These studies most typically use the residential location at the time of diagnosis due to ease of collection. However, previous residential locations may be more useful for risk analysis because of population mobility and disease latency. When residential histories have not been collected in a study, it may be possible to generate them through public-record databases. In this study, we evaluated the ability of a public-records database from LexisNexis to provide residential histories for subjects in a geographically diverse cohort study. We calculated 11 performance metrics comparing study-collected addresses and two address retrieval services from LexisNexis. We found 77% and 90% match rates for city and state and 72% and 87% detailed address match rates with the basic and enhanced services, respectively. The enhanced LexisNexis service covered 86% of the time at residential addresses recorded in the study. The mean match rate for detailed address matches varied spatially over states. The results suggest that public record databases can be useful for reconstructing residential histories for subjects in epidemiologic studies.

  11. Exploring utility organization electricity generation, residential electricity consumption, and energy efficiency: A climatic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, Christopher A.; Feng, Song

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Study examined impact of electricity fuel sources and consumption on emissions. • 97.2% of variability in emissions explained by coal and residential electricity use. • Increasing cooling degree days significantly related to increased electricity use. • Effectiveness of state-level energy efficiency programs showed mixed results. - Abstract: This study examined the impact of electricity generation by fuel source type and electricity consumption on carbon emissions to assess the role of climatic variability and energy efficiency (EE) in the United States. Despite high levels of greenhouse gas emissions, residential electricity consumption continues to increase in the United States and fossil fuels are the primary fuel source of electricity generation. 97.2% of the variability in carbon emissions in the electricity industry was explained by electricity generation from coal and residential electricity consumption. The relationships between residential electricity consumption, short-term climatic variability, long-term climatic trends, short-term reduction in electricity from EE programs, and long-term trends in EE programs was examined. This is the first study of its nature to examine these relationships across the 48 contiguous United States. Inter-year and long-term trends in cooling degree days, or days above a baseline temperature, were the primary climatic drivers of residential electricity consumption. Cooling degree days increased across the majority of the United States during the study period, and shared a positive relationship with residential electricity consumption when findings were significant. The majority of electricity reduction from EE programs was negatively related to residential electricity consumption where findings were significant. However, the trend across the majority of states was a decrease in electricity reduction from EE while residential electricity consumption increased. States that successfully reduced consumption

  12. Trading wind generation from short-term probabilistic forecasts of wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinson, Pierre; Chevallier, Christophe; Kariniotakis, Georges

    2007-01-01

    Due to the fluctuating nature of the wind resource, a wind power producer participating in a liberalized electricity market is subject to penalties related to regulation costs. Accurate forecasts of wind generation are therefore paramount for reducing such penalties and thus maximizing revenue......, as well as on modeling of the sensitivity a wind power producer may have to regulation costs. The benefits resulting from the application of these strategies are clearly demonstrated on the test case of the participation of a multi-MW wind farm in the Dutch electricity market over a year....... participation. Such strategies permit to further increase revenues and thus enhance competitiveness of wind generation compared to other forms of dispatchable generation. This paper formulates a general methodology for deriving optimal bidding strategies based on probabilistic forecasts of wind generation...

  13. Stability improvement of induction generator-based wind turbine systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Hu, Y.; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2007-01-01

    The stability improvement of induction-generator-based wind turbine systems under power system fault conditions has been studied. Two types of generators are considered, namely rotor short-circuited induction generators and dynamic slip-controlled wound rotor induction generators. The factors...... affecting the stability are analysed. The characteristics of the induction-generator-based wind turbines are described, and possible methods of improving stability of the wind generators are discussed. The system modelling is presented, and then the discussed methods of improving stability are investigated...

  14. Wind Turbine Generator System Safety and Function Test Report for the Entegrity EW50 Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, J.; Huskey, A.; Jager, D.; Hur, J.

    2012-11-01

    This report summarizes the results of a safety and function test that NREL conducted on the Entegrity EW50 wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commissions' (IEC) standard, Wind Turbine Generator System Part 2: Design requirements for small wind turbines, IEC 61400-2 Ed.2.0, 2006-03.

  15. Hybrid biomass-wind power plant for reliable energy generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perez-Navarro, A.; Alfonso, D.; Alvarez, C.; Ibanez, F.; Sanchez, C.; Segura, I.

    2010-01-01

    Massive implementation of renewable energy resources is a key element to reduce CO 2 emissions associated to electricity generation. Wind resources can provide an important alternative to conventional electricity generation mainly based on fossil fuels. However, wind generators are greatly affected by the restrictive operating rules of electricity markets because, as wind is naturally variable, wind generators may have serious difficulties on submitting accurate generation schedules on a day ahead basis, and on complying with scheduled obligations in real-time operation. In this paper, an innovative system combining a biomass gasification power plant, a gas storage system and stand-by generators to stabilize a generic 40 MW wind park is proposed and evaluated with real data. The wind park power production model is based on real data about power production of a Spanish wind park and a probabilistic approach to quantify fluctuations and so, power compensation needs. The hybrid wind-biomass system is analysed to obtain main hybrid system design parameters. This hybrid system can mitigate wind prediction errors and so provide a predictable source of electricity. An entire year cycle of hourly power compensations needs has been simulated deducing storage capacity, extra power needs of the biomass power plant and stand-by generation capacity to assure power compensation during critical peak hours with acceptable reliability. (author)

  16. Stochastic generation of hourly wind speed time series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamshad, A.; Wan Mohd Ali Wan Hussin; Bawadi, M.A.; Mohd Sanusi, S.A.

    2006-01-01

    In the present study hourly wind speed data of Kuala Terengganu in Peninsular Malaysia are simulated by using transition matrix approach of Markovian process. The wind speed time series is divided into various states based on certain criteria. The next wind speed states are selected based on the previous states. The cumulative probability transition matrix has been formed in which each row ends with 1. Using the uniform random numbers between 0 and 1, a series of future states is generated. These states have been converted to the corresponding wind speed values using another uniform random number generator. The accuracy of the model has been determined by comparing the statistical characteristics such as average, standard deviation, root mean square error, probability density function and autocorrelation function of the generated data to those of the original data. The generated wind speed time series data is capable to preserve the wind speed characteristics of the observed data

  17. Wind Turbine Generator Efficiency Based on Powertrain Combination and Annual Power Generation Prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmyung Kim

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Wind turbine generators are eco-friendly generators that produce electric energy using wind energy. In this study, wind turbine generator efficiency is examined using a powertrain combination and annual power generation prediction, by employing an analysis model. Performance testing was conducted in order to analyze the efficiency of a hydraulic pump and a motor, which are key components, and so as to verify the analysis model. The annual wind speed occurrence frequency for the expected installation areas was used to predict the annual power generation of the wind turbine generators. It was found that the parallel combination of the induction motors exhibited a higher efficiency when the wind speed was low and the serial combination showed higher efficiency when wind speed was high. The results of predicting the annual power generation considering the regional characteristics showed that the power generation was the highest when the hydraulic motors were designed in parallel and the induction motors were designed in series.

  18. Low Cost Small Wind Turbine Generators for Developing Countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ani, S.O.

    2013-01-01

    Wind energy accounts for an increasing percentage of the energy supplied to the electricity network. Electricity generation from wind is now cheaper than other renewables and almost cost competitive with other conventional sources of electricity generation. However, this impressive growth is largely

  19. Reliability analysis of wind embedded power generation system for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper presents a method for Reliability Analysis of wind energy embedded in power generation system for Indian scenario. This is done by evaluating the reliability index, loss of load expectation, for the power generation system with and without integration of wind energy sources in the overall electric power system.

  20. Wind power generation and dispatch in competitive power markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Lisias

    Wind energy is currently the fastest growing type of renewable energy. The main motivation is led by more strict emission constraints and higher fuel prices. In addition, recent developments in wind turbine technology and financial incentives have made wind energy technically and economically viable almost anywhere. In restructured power systems, reliable and economical operation of power systems are the two main objectives for the ISO. The ability to control the output of wind turbines is limited and the capacity of a wind farm changes according to wind speeds. Since this type of generation has no production costs, all production is taken by the system. Although, insufficient operational planning of power systems considering wind generation could result in higher system operation costs and off-peak transmission congestions. In addition, a GENCO can participate in short-term power markets in restructured power systems. The goal of a GENCO is to sell energy in such a way that would maximize its profitability. However, due to market price fluctuations and wind forecasting errors, it is essential for the wind GENCO to keep its financial risk at an acceptable level when constituting market bidding strategies. This dissertation discusses assumptions, functions, and methodologies that optimize short-term operations of power systems considering wind energy, and that optimize bidding strategies for wind producers in short-term markets. This dissertation also discusses uncertainties associated with electricity market environment and wind power forecasting that can expose market participants to a significant risk level when managing the tradeoff between profitability and risk.

  1. Assessment of wind energy potential for electricity generation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wind energy is proposed as an alternative source of electricity to fossil fuel generators .... can be connected to the national grid line to supplement the shortfall that arises during the dry ... systems are environmentally friendly. By generating ...

  2. statistical analysis of wind speed for electrical power generation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    sites are suitable for the generation of electrical energy. Also, the results ... Nigerian Journal of Technology (NIJOTECH). Vol. 36, No. ... parameter in the wind-power generation system. ..... [3] A. Zaharim, A. M Razali, R. Z Abidin, and K Sopian,.

  3. Effect of fall wind on wind power generation; Furyoku hatsuden ni okeru dashikaze no koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagai, H [Nihon University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-11-25

    Wind conditions in Arakawa Town, Niigata Prefecture, were surveyed by anemometers and anemoscopes installed at 3 different points, and the data are analyzed to develop the prediction model for investigating possibility of introduction of wind mills there. Outlined herein is power generated by fall wind by comparing predicted power availability with the actual results. In order to investigate possibility of power generation by fall wind, the wind conditions and power availability are simulated using the observed wind condition data. Predicted wind velocity involves a large error at a point where frequency of prevailing wind direction is high, and direction in which average wind velocity is high coincides with direction in which land is slanted at a high slope. Fall wind occurs locally for geographical reasons. Location of the wind mill must be carefully considered, because it is complex, although potentially gives a larger quantity of power. A wind mill of 400kW can produce power of around 600MWh annually, when it is located at the suited site confirmed by the wind condition analysis results. 6 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Wind Turbine Power Curve Design for Optimal Power Generation in Wind Farms Considering Wake Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Tian

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In modern wind farms, maximum power point tracking (MPPT is widely implemented. Using the MPPT method, each individual wind turbine is controlled by its pitch angle and tip speed ratio to generate the maximum active power. In a wind farm, the upstream wind turbine may cause power loss to its downstream wind turbines due to the wake effect. According to the wake model, downstream power loss is also determined by the pitch angle and tip speed ratio of the upstream wind turbine. By optimizing the pitch angle and tip speed ratio of each wind turbine, the total active power of the wind farm can be increased. In this paper, the optimal pitch angle and tip speed ratio are selected for each wind turbine by the exhausted search. Considering the estimation error of the wake model, a solution to implement the optimized pitch angle and tip speed ratio is proposed, which is to generate the optimal control curves for each individual wind turbine off-line. In typical wind farms with regular layout, based on the detailed analysis of the influence of pitch angle and tip speed ratio on the total active power of the wind farm by the exhausted search, the optimization is simplified with the reduced computation complexity. By using the optimized control curves, the annual energy production (AEP is increased by 1.03% compared to using the MPPT method in a case-study of a typical eighty-turbine wind farm.

  5. Optimization of airborne wind energy generators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fagiano, L.; Milanese, M.; Piga, D.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents novel results related to an innovative airborne wind energy technology, named Kitenergy, for the conversion of high-altitude wind energy into electricity. The research activities carried out in the last five years, including theoretical analyses, numerical simulations, and

  6. Aerodynamical noise from wind turbine generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakobsen, J.; Andersen, B.

    1993-06-01

    Two extensive measurement series of noise from wind turbines have been made during different modifications of their rotors. One series focused on the influence from the tip shape on the noise, while the other series dealt with the influence from the trailing edge. The experimental layout for the two investigations was identical. The total A-weighted noise from the wind turbine was measured in 1/3 octave bands from 50 Hz to 10 kHz in 1-minute periods simultaneously with wind speed measurements. The microphone was mounted on a hard board on the ground about 40 m directly downwind of the wind turbine, and the wind speed meter was placed at the same distance upwind of the wind turbine 10 m above ground. Regression analysis was made between noise and wind speed in each 1/3 octave band to determine the spectrum at 8 m/s. During the measurements care was taken to avoid influence from background noise, and the influence from machinery noise was minimized and corrected for. Thus the results display the aerodynamic rotor noise from the wind turbines. By use of this measurement technique, the uncertainty has been reduced to 1.5 - 2 dB per 1/3 octave band in the relevant frequency range and to about 1 dB on the total A-weighted levels. (au) (10 refs.)

  7. Design evolution of large wind turbine generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spera, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    During the past five years, the goals of economy and reliability have led to a significant evolution in the basic design--both external and internal--of large wind turbine systems. To show the scope and nature of recent changes in wind turbine designs, development of three types are described: (1) system configuration developments; (2) computer code developments; and (3) blade technology developments.

  8. Photovoltaic electricity generation: Value for residential and commercial sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Ujjwal

    The photovoltaic (PV) industry in the US has seen an upsurge in recent years, and PV holds great promise as a renewable technology with no greenhouse gas emissions with its use. We aim to assess the value of PV based electricity for users in the residential and commercial sectors focusing on the financial impacts it has, which may not be greatly recognized. Specifically, we pursue two goals. First, the emerging 'renewable portfolio standard (RPS)' adopted in several states in the country has been a driving force for large scale PV deployment, but financial incentives offered to PV in different RPS states differ considerably. We use life cycle cost model to estimate the cost of PV based electricity for thirty-two RPS states in the country. Results indicate that the levelized cost of PV electricity is high (40 to 60 Cents/kWh). When the contribution of the financial incentives (along with the cost of energy saved) is taken into account, the cost of PV based electricity is negative in some RPS states such as California, New Jersey, New York, while for most of the RPS states the cost of PV electricity continues to remain high. In addition, the states with negative or low cost of PV electricity have been driving the PV diffusion in the residential sector. Therefore, a need to adjust the financial incentive structure in different RPS states is recommended for homogenous development of the residential PV market in the country. Second, we assess the value of the PV in reducing the highest peak load demand in commercial buildings and hence the high value demand charge. The Time-of-Use (TOU) based electricity tariff is widely used by electric utilities in the commercial sector. Energy and peak load are two important facets of the TOU tariff regime. Tools are well established to estimate the energy contribution from a PV system (installed in a commercial building), but not power output on a short time interval. A joint conditional probability model has been developed that

  9. SimWIND: A geospatial infrastructure model for optimizing wind power generation and transmission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phillips, Benjamin R.; Middleton, Richard S.

    2012-01-01

    Wind is a clean, enduring energy resource with the capacity to satisfy 20% or more of U.S. electricity demand. Presently, wind potential is limited by a paucity of electrical transmission lines and/or capacity between promising wind resources and primary load centers. We present the model SimWIND to address this shortfall. SimWIND is an integrated optimization model for the geospatial arrangement and cost minimization of wind-power generation–transmission–delivery infrastructure. Given a set of possible wind-farm sites, the model simultaneously determines (1) where and how much power to generate and (2) where to build new transmission infrastructure and with what capacity in order to minimize the cost for delivering a targeted amount of power to load. Costs and routing of transmission lines consider geographic and social constraints as well as electricity losses. We apply our model to the Electric Reliability Council of Texas (ERCOT) Interconnection, considering scenarios that deliver up to 20 GW of new wind power. We show that SimWIND could potentially reduce ERCOT's projected ∼$5B transmission network upgrade line length and associated costs by 50%. These results suggest that SimWIND's coupled generation–transmission–delivery modeling approach could play a critical role in enhancing planning efforts and reducing costs for wind energy integration. - Highlights: ► Wind power is limited by transmission capacity between resources and demands. ► SimWIND is a coupled generation-transmission-delivery model for wind infrastructure. ► The model minimizes costs considering realistic transmission routing and networking. ► We show that SimWIND could save 50% of $5B costs for expanding the Texas grid. ► Results suggest SimWIND may play a critical role in enhancings wind planning efforts.

  10. Wind Generation on Winnebago Tribal Lands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Multiple

    2009-09-30

    The Winnebago Wind Energy Study evaluated facility-scale, community-scale and commercial-scale wind development on Winnebago Tribal lands in northeastern Nebraska. The Winnebago Tribe of Nebraska has been pursuing wind development in various forms for nearly ten years. Wind monitoring utilizing loaned met towers from NREL took place during two different periods. From April 2001 to April 2002, a 20-meter met tower monitored wind data at the WinnaVegas Casino on the far eastern edge of the Winnebago reservation in Iowa. In late 2006, a 50-meter tower was installed, and subsequently monitored wind data at the WinnaVegas site from late 2006 through late 2008. Significant challenges with the NREL wind monitoring equipment limited the availability of valid data, but based on the available data, average wind speeds between 13.6 – 14.3 miles were indicated, reflecting a 2+/3- wind class. Based on the anticipated cost of energy produced by a WinnaVegas wind turbine, and the utility policies and rates in place at this time, a WinnaVegas wind project did not appear to make economic sense. However, if substantial grant funding were available for energy equipment at the casino site, and if either Woodbury REC backup rates were lower, or NIPCO was willing to pay more for wind power, a WinnaVegas wind project could be feasible. With funding remaining in the DOE-funded project budget,a number of other possible wind project locations on the Winnebago reservation were considered. in early 2009, a NPPD-owned met tower was installed at a site identified in the study pursuant to a verbal agreement with NPPD which provided for power from any ultimately developed project on the Western Winnebago site to be sold to NPPD. Results from the first seven months of wind monitoring at the Western Winnebago site were as expected at just over 7 meters per second at 50-meter tower height, reflecting Class 4 wind speeds, adequate for commercial development. If wind data collected in the remaining

  11. Modeling of wind turbines with doubly fed generator system

    CERN Document Server

    Fortmann, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Jens Fortmann describes the deduction of models for the grid integration of variable speed wind turbines and the reactive power control design of wind plants. The modeling part is intended as background to understand the theory, capabilities and limitations of the generic doubly fed generator and full converter wind turbine models described in the IEC 61400-27-1 and as 2nd generation WECC models that are used as standard library models of wind turbines for grid simulation software. Focus of the reactive power control part is a deduction of the origin and theory behind the reactive current requ

  12. Photovoltaic-wind hybrid autonomous generation systems in Mongolia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dei, Tsutomu; Ushiyama, Izumi

    2005-01-01

    Two hybrid stand-alone (autonomous) power systems, each with wind and PV generation, were studied as installed at health clinics in semi-desert and mountainous region in Mongolia. Meteorological and system operation parameters, including power output and the consumption of the system, were generally monitored by sophisticated monitoring. However, where wind and solar site information was lacking, justifiable estimates were made. The results show that there is a seasonal complementary relationship between wind and solar irradiation in Tarot Sum. The users understood the necessity of Demand Side Management of isolated wind-PV generation system through technology transfer seminars and actually executed DSM at both sites. (author)

  13. Heat generation by a wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Corten, G.P. [ECN Wind, Petten (Netherlands)

    2001-01-01

    It will be shown that an actuator disk operating in wind turbine mode extracts more energy from the fluid than can be transferred into useful energy. At the Lanchester-Betz limit the decrease of the kinetic energy in the wind is converted by 2 /3 into useful power and by 1 /3 into heat. Behind the wind turbine the outer flow and the flow that has passed the actuator disk will mix. In this process momentum is conserved but part of the kinetic energy will dissipate in heat via viscous shear. 7 refs.

  14. Capacity expansion model of wind power generation based on ELCC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bo; Zong, Jin; Wu, Shengyu

    2018-02-01

    Capacity expansion is an indispensable prerequisite for power system planning and construction. A reasonable, efficient and accurate capacity expansion model (CEM) is crucial to power system planning. In most current CEMs, the capacity of wind power generation is considered as boundary conditions instead of decision variables, which may lead to curtailment or over construction of flexible resource, especially at a high renewable energy penetration scenario. This paper proposed a wind power generation capacity value(CV) calculation method based on effective load-carrying capability, and a CEM that co-optimizes wind power generation and conventional power sources. Wind power generation is considered as decision variable in this model, and the model can accurately reflect the uncertainty nature of wind power.

  15. Economic Selection of Generators for a Wind Farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omid Alavi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The selection suitable generator for wind turbines will be done based on technical criteria and priorities of the project. In this paper, a method for determining the type of wind turbine generator with an example is explained. In the paper, for a 10kW wind turbine, two generators have been proposed. The first case is a squirrel-cage asynchronous generator coupled to the turbine through the gearbox and directly connected to three phase output. Other PM generators that are directly coupled to the turbine and it is connected to the grid using the inverter. The results show that according to wind conditions, a 10kW permanent magnet generator is more advantageous in terms of energy production.

  16. Wind Turbine Generator System Power Performance Test Report for the ARE442 Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van Dam, J.; Jager, D.

    2010-02-01

    This report summarizes the results of a power performance test that NREL conducted on the ARE 442 wind turbine. This test was conducted in accordance with the International Electrotechnical Commission's (IEC) standard, Wind Turbine Generator Systems Part 12: Power Performance Measurements of Electricity Producing Wind Turbines, IEC 61400-12-1 Ed.1.0, 2005-12. However, because the ARE 442 is a small turbine as defined by IEC, NREL also followed Annex H that applies to small wind turbines. In these summary results, wind speed is normalized to sea-level air density.

  17. Performance characteristics of aerodynamically optimum turbines for wind energy generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohrbach, C.; Worobel, R.

    1975-01-01

    This paper presents a brief discussion of the aerodynamic methodology for wind energy generator turbines, an approach to the design of aerodynamically optimum wind turbines covering a broad range of design parameters, some insight on the effect on performance of nonoptimum blade shapes which may represent lower fabrication costs, the annual wind turbine energy for a family of optimum wind turbines, and areas of needed research. On the basis of the investigation, it is concluded that optimum wind turbines show high performance over a wide range of design velocity ratios; that structural requirements impose constraints on blade geometry; that variable pitch wind turbines provide excellent power regulation and that annual energy output is insensitive to design rpm and solidity of optimum wind turbines.

  18. Market protocols in ERCOT and their effect on wind generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sioshansi, Ramteen; Hurlbut, David

    2010-01-01

    Integrating wind generation into power systems and wholesale electricity markets presents unique challenges due to the characteristics of wind power, including its limited dispatchability, variability in generation, difficulty in forecasting resource availability, and the geographic location of wind resources. Texas has had to deal with many of these issues beginning in 2002 when it restructured its electricity industry and introduced aggressive renewable portfolio standards that helped spur major investments in wind generation. In this paper we discuss the issues that have arisen in designing market protocols that take account of these special characteristics of wind generation and survey the regulatory and market rules that have been developed in Texas. We discuss the perverse incentives some of the rules gave wind generators to overschedule generation in order to receive balancing energy payments, and steps that have been taken to mitigate those incentive effects. Finally, we discuss more recent steps taken by the market operator and regulators to ensure transmission capacity is available for new wind generators that are expected to come online in the future.

  19. Arrangement for matching a wind rotor to an electrical generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beusse, H

    1978-04-06

    The invention concerns an arrangement for matching a wind power machine to an electrical generator, which feeds a consumer network. According to the invention first generator using the shaft horsepower of the wind power machine feeds an electric water, which is coupled to a second generator, whose power is taken to the consumer network. The output signal of a computer which has the annemometer feeding into it controls the excitation of the motor at sufficient wind speed, so that the speed of rotation of the second generator is practically constant, and a spted regulator takes excess energy via a controlled rectifier (thyristor) to a shunt circuit of the motor, if the wind power exceeds the load taken from the output of the second generator. As an extension of the arrangement according to the invention it is proposed to arrange a Diesel engine in the shaft of the second generator, which can be controlled at constant speed by the control device, so that it takes over the missing output if the wind power is less than the load at the generator output. Apart from this, it is proposed that the loading of the wind rotor should be controlled by the control device so that it only comes in if the wind rotor has reached a stable working point after accelerating on no load.

  20. Distributed generation in the Dutch LV network - self-supporting residential area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mes, M.; Vanalme, G.M.A.; Myrzik, J.M.A.; Bongaerts, M.; Verbong, G.P.J.; Kling, W.L.

    2008-01-01

    A self-supporting residential area is seen as an alternative operational approach of power supply in low voltage (LV) networks. The intention of the new approach is to exploit the advantages of distributed generation (DG) and avoid the difficulties, that come with DG when implemented in the

  1. Simulation of Lightning Overvoltage Distribution on Stator Windings of Wind Turbine Generators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Rong; LIU Xue-zhong; WANG Ying; LI Dan-dan

    2011-01-01

    This paper analyzes lightning surge on the stator windings of wind turbine generators. The path of lightning in the wind turbines was analyzed. An equivalent circuit model for megawatt direct-driven wind turbine system was developed, in which high-frequency distributed parameters of the blade conducts, tower, power cables and stator windings of generator were calculated based on finite element method, and the models of converter, grounding, loads, surge protection devices and power grid were established. The voltage distribution along stator windings, when struck by lightning with 10/350 ~ts wave form and different amplitude current between 50 kA and 200 kA, was simulated u- sing electro-magnetic transient analysis method. The simulated results show that the highest coil-to-core voltage peak appears on the last coil or near the neutral of stator windings, and the voltage distribution along the windings is non- uniform initially. The voltage drops of each coil fall from first to last coil, and the highest voltage drop appears on the first coil. The insulation damage may occur on the windings under lightning overvoltage. The surge arresters can re- strain the lightning surge in effect and protect the insulation. The coil-to-core voltage in the end of windings is nearly 19.5 kV under the 200 kA lightning current without surge arresters on the terminal of generator, but is only 2.7 kV with arresters.

  2. Performance evaluation of stand alone hybrid PV-wind generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasir, M. N. M.; Saharuddin, N. Z.; Sulaima, M. F.; Jali, Mohd Hafiz; Bukhari, W. M.; Bohari, Z. H.; Yahaya, M. S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the performance evaluation of standalone hybrid system on Photovoltaic (PV)-Wind generator at Faculty of Electrical Engineering (FKE), UTeM. The hybrid PV-Wind in UTeM system is combining wind turbine system with the solar system and the energy capacity of this hybrid system can generate up to charge the battery and supply the LED street lighting load. The purpose of this project is to evaluate the performance of PV-Wind hybrid generator. Solar radiation meter has been used to measure the solar radiation and anemometer has been used to measure the wind speed. The effectiveness of the PV-Wind system is based on the various data that has been collected and compared between them. The result shows that hybrid system has greater reliability. Based on the solar result, the correlation coefficient shows strong relationship between the two variables of radiation and current. The reading output current followed by fluctuate of solar radiation. However, the correlation coefficient is shows moderate relationship between the two variables of wind speed and voltage. Hence, the wind turbine system in FKE show does not operate consistently to produce energy source for this hybrid system compare to PV system. When the wind system does not fully operate due to inconsistent energy source, the other system which is PV will operate and supply the load for equilibrate the extra load demand

  3. Performance evaluation of stand alone hybrid PV-wind generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasir, M. N. M.; Saharuddin, N. Z.; Sulaima, M. F.; Jali, Mohd Hafiz; Bukhari, W. M.; Bohari, Z. H.; Yahaya, M. S.

    2015-05-01

    This paper presents the performance evaluation of standalone hybrid system on Photovoltaic (PV)-Wind generator at Faculty of Electrical Engineering (FKE), UTeM. The hybrid PV-Wind in UTeM system is combining wind turbine system with the solar system and the energy capacity of this hybrid system can generate up to charge the battery and supply the LED street lighting load. The purpose of this project is to evaluate the performance of PV-Wind hybrid generator. Solar radiation meter has been used to measure the solar radiation and anemometer has been used to measure the wind speed. The effectiveness of the PV-Wind system is based on the various data that has been collected and compared between them. The result shows that hybrid system has greater reliability. Based on the solar result, the correlation coefficient shows strong relationship between the two variables of radiation and current. The reading output current followed by fluctuate of solar radiation. However, the correlation coefficient is shows moderate relationship between the two variables of wind speed and voltage. Hence, the wind turbine system in FKE show does not operate consistently to produce energy source for this hybrid system compare to PV system. When the wind system does not fully operate due to inconsistent energy source, the other system which is PV will operate and supply the load for equilibrate the extra load demand.

  4. Performance evaluation of stand alone hybrid PV-wind generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasir, M. N. M.; Saharuddin, N. Z.; Sulaima, M. F.; Jali, Mohd Hafiz; Bukhari, W. M.; Bohari, Z. H. [Faculty of Electrical Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM), Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100 Melaka (Malaysia); Yahaya, M. S. [Faculty of Engineering Technology, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM), Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100 Melaka (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    This paper presents the performance evaluation of standalone hybrid system on Photovoltaic (PV)-Wind generator at Faculty of Electrical Engineering (FKE), UTeM. The hybrid PV-Wind in UTeM system is combining wind turbine system with the solar system and the energy capacity of this hybrid system can generate up to charge the battery and supply the LED street lighting load. The purpose of this project is to evaluate the performance of PV-Wind hybrid generator. Solar radiation meter has been used to measure the solar radiation and anemometer has been used to measure the wind speed. The effectiveness of the PV-Wind system is based on the various data that has been collected and compared between them. The result shows that hybrid system has greater reliability. Based on the solar result, the correlation coefficient shows strong relationship between the two variables of radiation and current. The reading output current followed by fluctuate of solar radiation. However, the correlation coefficient is shows moderate relationship between the two variables of wind speed and voltage. Hence, the wind turbine system in FKE show does not operate consistently to produce energy source for this hybrid system compare to PV system. When the wind system does not fully operate due to inconsistent energy source, the other system which is PV will operate and supply the load for equilibrate the extra load demand.

  5. Wind power: cost effective generation for the 1990s

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pedersen, T [Vestas Wind Systems A/S (Denmark)

    1989-01-01

    Wind power plants have been installed all over the world, notably in California and Denmark. Commercially available wind turbines today are rated from 50 KW to 1 MW with emphasis on the 1 MW range. As the fuel is ''free'' generating costs are identical to the capital, operation and maintenance costs of the plant. An estimate of the unit price of wind power generated electricity in Denmark is comparable to that generated by a coal fired plant. The main environmental impacts of a wind farm are considered. These are visual impact, noise emission, use of (agricultural) space and the impact on wildlife, mainly birds. Finally the installation of a wind farm and its connection to the grid are described. (3 figures, 1 table). (UK)

  6. Modeling and Parameter Estimation of a Small Wind Generation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Ramírez Gómez

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The modeling and parameter estimation of a small wind generation system is presented in this paper. The system consists of a wind turbine, a permanent magnet synchronous generator, a three phase rectifier, and a direct current load. In order to estimate the parameters wind speed data are registered in a weather station located in the Fraternidad Campus at ITM. Wind speed data were applied to a reference model programed with PSIM software. From that simulation, variables were registered to estimate the parameters. The wind generation system model together with the estimated parameters is an excellent representation of the detailed model, but the estimated model offers a higher flexibility than the programed model in PSIM software.

  7. Power Electronics for the Next Generation Wind Turbine System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke

    generation unit, are becoming crucial in the wind turbine system. The objective of this project is to study the power electronics technology used for the next generation wind turbines. Some emerging challenges as well as potentials like the cost of energy and reliability are going to be addressed. First...... conversion is pushed to multi-MW level with high power density requirement. It has also been revealed that thermal stress in the power semiconductors is closely related to many determining factors in the wind power application like the reliability, cost, power density, etc. therefore it is an important......The wind power generation has been steadily growing both for the total installed capacity and for the individual turbine size. Due to much more significant impacts to the power grid, the power electronics, which can change the behavior of wind turbines from an unregulated power source to an active...

  8. A methodology to generate statistically dependent wind speed scenarios

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, J.M.; Conejo, A.J. [Department of Electrical Engineering, Univ. Castilla - La Mancha, Campus Universitario s/n, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain); Minguez, R. [Environmental Hydraulics Institute ' ' IH Cantabria' ' , Univ. Cantabria, Avenida de los Castros s/n, 39005 Santander (Spain)

    2010-03-15

    Wind power - a renewable energy source increasingly attractive from an economic viewpoint - constitutes an electricity production alternative of growing relevance in current electric energy systems. However, wind power is an intermittent source that cannot be dispatched at the will of the producer. Modeling wind power production requires characterizing wind speed at the sites where the wind farms are located. The wind speed at a particular location can be described through a stochastic process that is spatially correlated with the stochastic processes describing wind speeds at other locations. This paper provides a methodology to characterize the stochastic processes pertaining to wind speed at different geographical locations via scenarios. Each one of these scenarios embodies time dependencies and is spatially dependent of the scenarios describing other wind stochastic processes. The scenarios generated by the proposed methodology are intended to be used within stochastic programming decision models to make informed decisions pertaining to wind power production. The methodology proposed is accurate in reproducing wind speed historical series as well as computationally efficient. A comprehensive case study is used to illustrate the capabilities of the proposed methodology. Appropriate conclusions are finally drawn. (author)

  9. A methodology to generate statistically dependent wind speed scenarios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morales, J.M.; Minguez, R.; Conejo, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Wind power - a renewable energy source increasingly attractive from an economic viewpoint - constitutes an electricity production alternative of growing relevance in current electric energy systems. However, wind power is an intermittent source that cannot be dispatched at the will of the producer. Modeling wind power production requires characterizing wind speed at the sites where the wind farms are located. The wind speed at a particular location can be described through a stochastic process that is spatially correlated with the stochastic processes describing wind speeds at other locations. This paper provides a methodology to characterize the stochastic processes pertaining to wind speed at different geographical locations via scenarios. Each one of these scenarios embodies time dependencies and is spatially dependent of the scenarios describing other wind stochastic processes. The scenarios generated by the proposed methodology are intended to be used within stochastic programming decision models to make informed decisions pertaining to wind power production. The methodology proposed is accurate in reproducing wind speed historical series as well as computationally efficient. A comprehensive case study is used to illustrate the capabilities of the proposed methodology. Appropriate conclusions are finally drawn.

  10. Power generation from wind turbines in a solar chimney

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foote, Tudor [Graduate Student, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University in St. Louis, Jolley Hall, Campus Box 1185, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, Missouri, 63130 (United States); Agarwal, Ramesh K. [William Palm Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University in St. Louis, Jolley Hall, Campus Box 1185, One Brookings Drive, St. Louis, Missouri, 63130 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Recent studies have shown that shrouded wind turbines can generate greater power compared to bare turbines. A solar chimney generates an upward draft of wind inside a tower and a shroud around the wind turbine. There are numerous empty silos on farms in the U.S. that can be converted to solar chimneys with minor modifications at modest cost. The objective of this study is to determine the potential of these silos/chimneys for generating wind power. The study is conducted through analytical/computational approach by employing the commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software. Computations are performed for five different geometric configurations consisting of a turbine, a cylindrical silo, and/or a venturi and/or a diffuser using the dimensions of typical silos and assuming Class 3 wind velocity. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations with the Boussinesq approximation and a two equation realizable {kappa}-{epsilon} model are employed in the calculations, and the turbine is modeled as an actuator disk. The power coefficient (Cp) and generated power are calculated for the five cases. Consistent with recent literature, it was found that the silos with diffusers increase the Cp beyond Betz’s limit significantly and thus the generated power. It should be noted that Cp is calculated by normalizing it by the turbine area swept by the wind. This study shows the potential of using abandoned silos in the mid-west and other parts of the country for localized wind power generation.

  11. Centralized electricity generation in offshore wind farms using hydraulic networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarquin Laguna, A.

    2017-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis explores a new way of generation, collection and transmission of wind energy inside a wind farm, in which the electrical conversion does not occur during any intermediate conversion step before the energy has reached the offshore central platform. A centralized

  12. Some answers to power generation lie blowing in the wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1975-10-02

    An assessment of wind power generation schemes by the Energy Technology Support Unit is reported. The capital cost of large, efficient windmills should be around 100--200 Pounds per installed kW and an optimum size for a single wind rotor would be 1 MW.

  13. Power Electronics for the Next Generation Wind Turbine System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke

    This book presents recent studies on the power electronics used for the next generation wind turbine system. Some criteria and tools for evaluating and improving the critical performances of the wind power converters have been proposed and established. The book addresses some emerging problems...

  14. Influence of winding construction on starter-generator thermal processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grachev, P. Yu; Bazarov, A. A.; Tabachinskiy, A. S.

    2018-01-01

    Dynamic processes in starter-generators features high winding are overcurrent. It can lead to insulation overheating and fault operation mode. For hybrid and electric vehicles, new high efficiency construction of induction machines windings is proposed. Stator thermal processes need be considered in the most difficult operation modes. The article describes construction features of new compact stator windings, electromagnetic and thermal models of processes in stator windings and explains the influence of innovative construction on thermal processes. Models are based on finite element method.

  15. Operating of Small Wind Power Plants with Induction Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jakub Nevrala

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes different systems of small wind power plants with induction generators used in the Czech Republic. Problems of wind power plants running with induction generators are solved within partial target of the research project MSM 6198910007. For small wind power plants is used induction motor as a generator. Parameters of the name plate of motor must be resolved for generator running on measuring base. These generators are running as a separately working generators or generators connected to the power grid. Methods of control these systems as a separately working, directly connecting to power grid, control by frequency converter and wiring by synchronous cascade are confronted on the measuring base too.

  16. Power Maximization Control of Variable Speed Wind Generation System Using Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Shigeo; Nakamura, Tomohiko; Takeda, Yoji

    This paper proposes the sensorless output power maximization control of the wind generation system. A permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) is used as a variable speed generator in the proposed system. The generator torque is suitably controlled according to the generator speed and thus the power from a wind turbine settles down on the maximum power point by the proposed MPPT control method, where the information of wind velocity is not required. Moreover, the maximum available generated power is obtained by the optimum current vector control. The current vector of PMSG is optimally controlled according to the generator speed and the required torque in order to minimize the losses of PMSG considering the voltage and current constraints. The proposed wind power generation system can be achieved without mechanical sensors such as a wind velocity detector and a position sensor. Several experimental results show the effectiveness of the proposed control method.

  17. Wind Power Generation in India: Evolution, Trends and Prospects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.F. Khan

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present context of shrinking conventional resources coupled with environmental perils, the wind power offers an attractive alternative. Wind power generation in India started way back in early 1980s with the installation of experimental wind turbines in western and southern states of Gujarat and Tamil Nadu. For first two decades of its existence until about 2000 the progress was slow but steady. In last one decade Indian wind electricity sector has grown at very rapid pace which has promoted the country to the fifth position as largest wind electric power generator and the third largest market in the world. The galvanization of wind sector has been achieved through some aggressive policy mechanisms and persistent support by government organizations such as MNRE and C-WET. This paper articulates the journey of Indian wind program right since its inception to the present trends and developments as well as the future prospects. Keywords: mnre, c-wet, renewable energy, wind power, wind turbines.

  18. Short circuit signatures from different wind turbine generator types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martinez, Jorge; Kjær, Philip C.; Rodriguez, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    Modern wind power plants are required and designed to ride through faults in the network, subjected to the fault clearance and following grid code demands. Beside voltage support during faults, the wind turbine fault current contribution is important to establish the correct settings for the relay...... of the protections. The following wind turbine generator during faults have been studied: (i) induction generator, (ii) induction generator with variable rotor resistance (iii) converter-fed rotor (often referred to as DFIG) and (iv) full scale converter. To make a clear comparison and performance analysis during...... faults, and the consequent effects on substation protections, the aforementioned configurations have been simulated using PSCAD/EMTDC, with the same power plant configuration, electrical grid and generator data. Additionally, a comparison of these wind turbine technologies with a conventional power plant...

  19. Minimisation of Generation Variability of a Group of Wind Plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dubravko Sabolić

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Minimisation of variability of energy delivered from a group of wind plants into the power system using portfolio theory approach was studied. One of the assumptions of that theory is Gaussian distribution of the sample, which is not satisfied in case of wind generation. Therefore, optimisation of a “portfolio” of plants with different goal functions was studied. It was supposed that a decision on distribution of a fixed amount of generation capacity to be installed among a set of geographical locations with known wind statistics is to be made with minimised variability of generation as a goal. In that way the statistical cancellation of variability would be used in the best possible manner. This article is a brief report on results of such an investigation. An example of nine locations in Croatia was used. These locations’ wind statistics are known from historic generation data.

  20. Hybrid system power generation'wind-photovoltaic' connected to the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hybrid system power generation'wind-photovoltaic' connected to the ... from Hybrid System, power delivered to or from grid and phase voltage of the inverter leg. ... Renewable Energy, Electrical Network 220 kV, Hybrid System, Solar, MPPT.

  1. Risk assessment of electric generation systems with high wind penetration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salgado Duarte, Yorlandys; Castillo Serpa, Alfredo M. del

    2017-01-01

    The research evaluates the risk function of an Electric Generation System (SGE) with high wind power penetration using the Sequential Monte Carlo Simulation (SMCS) method, which allows calculating indicators that characterize the performance of the SGE with expected average values. The research uses a Markov model of two states or four states according to the characteristics of the generator to simulate the instantaneous capacity. The primary sources of each conventional generator are assumed to be always available; however, wind power depends on the wind behavior in each analyzed region. In this research, the Chronological Series and Weibull models are used to model the wind behavior, and the analyzes are performed in the IEEE-RTS system. The work shows that the behavior of the probabilistic indicators used to analyze the static capacity of the SGE is determined by the model used to simulate the stochastic of the generators and by the primary energy source. (author)

  2. Superconducting generators for wind turbines: design considerations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mijatovic, Nenad; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Træholt, Chresten

    2010-01-01

    The harmonic content of high temperature superconductors (HTS) field winding in air-core high temperature superconducting synchronous machine (HTS SM) has been addressed in order to investigate tendency of HTS SM towards mechanical oscillation and additional loss caused by higher flux harmonic...

  3. The production of wind-generated electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-11-01

    After some key data on installed wind power and its evolution in the World (notably in China and in the USA), in European countries and in France, an overview of the sector economic evolution in France in terms of jobs in different fields (fabrication, electricity production, studies and installations), this publication comments the various benefits of wind energy and its necessary framework for a sane development. Strengths are discussed: a local and clean energy source, a predictable and manageable energy source, an increasing competitiveness. Issues to be considered are also discussed: control of acoustic and landscape impacts, protection of biodiversity, management of interactions with military, meteorological and civil aviation radars, a necessary more steady and coherent regulation. After a discussion of the possibilities offered by small wind energy installations (between 1 and 36 kW), actions undertaken by the ADEME are overviewed. A conclusion outlines the role of wind energy on the supply-demand balance in the French power system, its contribution to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, the positive environmental impact, the importance of societal appropriation, and the importance of developing this sector while keeping on reducing consumptions

  4. Optimal prediction intervals of wind power generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wan, Can; Wu, Zhao; Pinson, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    direct optimization of both the coverage probability and sharpness to ensure the quality. The proposed method does not involve the statistical inference or distribution assumption of forecasting errors needed in most existing methods. Case studies using real wind farm data from Australia have been...

  5. Fluctuations of offshore wind generation: Statistical modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinson, Pierre; Christensen, Lasse E.A.; Madsen, Henrik

    2007-01-01

    The magnitude of power fluctuations at large offshore wind farms has a significant impact on the control and management strategies of their power output. If focusing on the minute scale, one observes successive periods with smaller and larger power fluctuations. It seems that different regimes yi...

  6. Wind Turbine Contingency Control Through Generator De-Rating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Susan; Goebel, Kai; Balas, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Maximizing turbine up-time and reducing maintenance costs are key technology drivers for wind turbine operators. Components within wind turbines are subject to considerable stresses due to unpredictable environmental conditions resulting from rapidly changing local dynamics. In that context, systems health management has the aim to assess the state-of-health of components within a wind turbine, to estimate remaining life, and to aid in autonomous decision-making to minimize damage to the turbine. Advanced contingency control is one way to enable autonomous decision-making by providing the mechanism to enable safe and efficient turbine operation. The work reported herein explores the integration of condition monitoring of wind turbines with contingency control to balance the trade-offs between maintaining system health and energy capture. The contingency control involves de-rating the generator operating point to achieve reduced loads on the wind turbine. Results are demonstrated using a high fidelity simulator of a utility-scale wind turbine.

  7. Wind Velocity and Position Sensor-less Operation for PMSG Wind Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senjyu, Tomonobu; Tamaki, Satoshi; Urasaki, Naomitsu; Uezato, Katsumi; Funabashi, Toshihisa; Fujita, Hideki

    Electric power generation using non-conventional sources is receiving considerable attention throughout the world. Wind energy is one of the available non-conventional energy sources. Electrical power generation using wind energy is possible in two ways, viz. constant speed operation and variable speed operation using power electronic converters. Variable speed power generation is attractive, because maximum electric power can be generated at all wind velocities. However, this system requires a rotor speed sensor, for vector control purpose, which increases the cost of the system. To alleviate the need of rotor speed sensor in vector control, we propose a new sensor-less control of PMSG (Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator) based on the flux linkage. We can estimate the rotor position using the estimated flux linkage. We use a first-order lag compensator to obtain the flux linkage. Furthermore‚we estimate wind velocity and rotation speed using a observer. The effectiveness of the proposed method is demonstrated thorough simulation results.

  8. FEM Simulation of Small Wind Power Generating System Using PMSG

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesamaru, Katsumi; Ohno, Yoshihiro; Sonoda, Daisuke

    The paper describes a new approach to simulate the small wind power generating systems using PMSG, in which the output is connected to constant resistive load, such as heaters, through the rectifier and the dc chopper. The dynamics of the wind power generating system is presented, and it is shown by simulation results that this approach is useful for system dynamics, such as starting phenomena.

  9. Modeling and Simulation of Generator Side Converter of Doubly Fed Induction Generator-Based Wind Power Generation System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Guo, Yougui; Zeng, Ping; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2010-01-01

    A real wind power generation system is given in this paper. SVM control strategy and vector control is applied for generator side converter and doubly fed induction generator respectively. First the mathematical models of the wind turbine rotor, drive train, generator side converter are described...

  10. Exploration of dispatch model integrating wind generators and electric vehicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haque, A.N.M.M.; Ibn Saif, A.U.N.; Nguyen, P.H.; Torbaghan, S.S.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel business model for the BRPs is analyzed. • Imbalance cost of wind generation is considered in the UC-ED model. • Smart charging of EVs is included into the UC-ED problem to mitigate the imbalance cost. • Effects of smart charging on generation cost, CO 2 emissions and total network load are assessed. - Abstract: In recent years, the share of renewable energy sources (RES) in the electricity generation mix has been expanding rapidly. However, limited predictability of the RES poses challenges for traditional scheduling and dispatching mechanisms based on unit commitment (UC) and economic dispatch (ED). This paper presents an advanced UC-ED model to incorporate wind generators as RES-based units alongside conventional centralized generators. In the proposed UC-ED model, an imbalance cost is introduced reflecting the wind generation uncertainty along with the marginal generation cost. The proposed UC-ED model aims to utilize the flexibility of fleets of plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) to optimally compensate for the wind generation uncertainty. A case study with 15 conventional units and 3 wind farms along with a fixed-sized PEV fleet demonstrates that shifting of PEV fleets charging at times of high wind availability realizes generation cost savings. Nevertheless, the operational cost saving incurred by controlled charging appears to diminish when dispatched wind energy becomes considerably larger than the charging energy of PEV fleets. Further analysis of the results reveals that the effectiveness of PEV control strategy in terms of CO 2 emission reduction is strongly coupled with generation mix and the proposed control strategy is favored in cases where less pollutant-based plants like nuclear and hydro power are profoundly dominant.

  11. Different Models for Forecasting Wind Power Generation: Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Barbosa de Alencar

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Generation of electric energy through wind turbines is one of the practically inexhaustible alternatives of generation. It is considered a source of clean energy, but still needs a lot of research for the development of science and technologies that ensures uniformity in generation, providing a greater participation of this source in the energy matrix, since the wind presents abrupt variations in speed, density and other important variables. In wind-based electrical systems, it is essential to predict at least one day in advance the future values of wind behavior, in order to evaluate the availability of energy for the next period, which is relevant information in the dispatch of the generating units and in the control of the electrical system. This paper develops ultra-short, short, medium and long-term prediction models of wind speed, based on computational intelligence techniques, using artificial neural network models, Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA and hybrid models including forecasting using wavelets. For the application of the methodology, the meteorological variables of the database of the national organization system of environmental data (SONDA, Petrolina station, from 1 January 2004 to 31 March 2017, were used. A comparison among results by different used approaches is also done and it is also predicted the possibility of power and energy generation using a certain kind of wind generator.

  12. Environmental Impact Assessment of Wind Generators in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Lapčík

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The article summarizes author´s experience with environmental impact assessment in branch of wind generators. The introductorypart of paper describes legislative obligations of the Czech Republic in frame of fulfilling the European Union´s limits in branch ofrenewable energy resources utilization. Next part of paper deals with analysis of impacts of wind generators on the environment.The final part of paper deals with experience with implementation of the environmental impact assessment process (pursuant to the ActNo. 100/2001 Coll. in the field of wind power in the Czech Republic.

  13. Effects of distributing wind energy generation over Europe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giebel, G [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy and Atmospheric Physics Dept., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1999-03-01

    Using data from 60 meteorological stations distributed all over Europe in conjunction with the National Grid Model (NGM) from the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, the effects of the large-scale distribution of wind energy generation are studied. In some regions of Europe, wind energy already covers a significant proportion of the electricity demand. But the intermittence of the wind resource is always a limiting factor when penetration levels are high. Studies for single countries have shown that distributing the generation over a large area reduces the variability of the output and hence makes wind energy more appealing to utilities, since the stability requirement of the network are easier to fulfil. The data are analysed in terms of absolute highs and lows, temporal and spatial correlations. To assess the financial benefits, the NGM is used to evaluate the match of electricity demand and generation as well as the possibel savings of fossil fuel in an electricity grid incorporating various capacities of wind energy generation. To assess the value of wind energy on a trans-national scale, the European plant mix is modelled, and the NGM is used to simulate the scheduling of these plants in the presence of different penetrations of wind energy. (au) EU-JOULE-3. 11 refs.

  14. Renewable energy and sustainable communities: Alaska's wind generator experience†

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Steven Konkel

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Background . In 1984, the Alaska Department of Commerce and Economic Development (DCED issued the State's first inventory/economic assessment of wind generators, documenting installed wind generator capacity and the economics of replacing diesel-fuel-generated electricity. Alaska's wind generation capacity had grown from hundreds of installed kilowatts to over 15.3 megawatts (MW by January 2012. Method . This article reviews data and conclusions presented in “Alaska's Wind Energy Systems; Inventory and Economic Assessment” (1. (Alaska Department of Commerce and Economic Development, S. Konkel, 1984. It provides a foundation and baseline for understanding the development of this renewable energy source. Results . Today's technologies have evolved at an astonishing pace; a typical generator in an Alaska wind farm now is likely rated at 1.5-MW capacity, compared to the single-kilowatt (kW machines present in 1984. Installed capacity has mushroomed, illustrated by Unalakleet's 600-kW wind farm dwarfing the original three 10-kW machines included in the 1984 inventory. Kodiak Electric had three 1.5-MW turbines installed at Pillar Mountain in 2009, with three additional turbines of 4.5-MW capacity installed in 2012. Utilities now actively plan for wind generation and compete for state funding. Discussion . State of Alaska energy policy provides the context for energy project decision-making. Substantial renewable energy fund (REF awards – $202,000,000 to date for 227 REF projects in the first 5 cycles of funding – along with numerous energy conservation programs – are now in place. Increasing investment in wind is driven by multiple factors. Stakeholders have interests both in public policy and meeting private investment objectives. Wind generator investors should consider project economics and potential impacts of energy decisions on human health. Specifically this article considers: a. changing environmental conditions in remote Alaska

  15. Renewable energy and sustainable communities: Alaska's wind generator experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konkel, R Steven

    2013-01-01

    In 1984, the Alaska Department of Commerce and Economic Development (DCED) issued the State's first inventory/economic assessment of wind generators, documenting installed wind generator capacity and the economics of replacing diesel-fuel-generated electricity. Alaska's wind generation capacity had grown from hundreds of installed kilowatts to over 15.3 megawatts (MW) by January 2012. This article reviews data and conclusions presented in "Alaska's Wind Energy Systems; Inventory and Economic Assessment" (1). (Alaska Department of Commerce and Economic Development, S. Konkel, 1984). It provides a foundation and baseline for understanding the development of this renewable energy source. Today's technologies have evolved at an astonishing pace; a typical generator in an Alaska wind farm now is likely rated at 1.5-MW capacity, compared to the single-kilowatt (kW) machines present in 1984. Installed capacity has mushroomed, illustrated by Unalakleet's 600-kW wind farm dwarfing the original three 10-kW machines included in the 1984 inventory. Kodiak Electric had three 1.5-MW turbines installed at Pillar Mountain in 2009, with three additional turbines of 4.5-MW capacity installed in 2012. Utilities now actively plan for wind generation and compete for state funding. State of Alaska energy policy provides the context for energy project decision-making. Substantial renewable energy fund (REF) awards--$202,000,000 to date for 227 REF projects in the first 5 cycles of funding--along with numerous energy conservation programs--are now in place. Increasing investment in wind is driven by multiple factors. Stakeholders have interests both in public policy and meeting private investment objectives. Wind generator investors should consider project economics and potential impacts of energy decisions on human health. Specifically this article considers: changing environmental conditions in remote Alaska villages, impacts associated with climate change on human health, progress in

  16. Renewable energy and sustainable communities: Alaska's wind generator experience†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konkel, R. Steven

    2013-01-01

    Background In 1984, the Alaska Department of Commerce and Economic Development (DCED) issued the State's first inventory/economic assessment of wind generators, documenting installed wind generator capacity and the economics of replacing diesel-fuel-generated electricity. Alaska's wind generation capacity had grown from hundreds of installed kilowatts to over 15.3 megawatts (MW) by January 2012. Method This article reviews data and conclusions presented in “Alaska's Wind Energy Systems; Inventory and Economic Assessment” (1). (Alaska Department of Commerce and Economic Development, S. Konkel, 1984). It provides a foundation and baseline for understanding the development of this renewable energy source. Results Today's technologies have evolved at an astonishing pace; a typical generator in an Alaska wind farm now is likely rated at 1.5-MW capacity, compared to the single-kilowatt (kW) machines present in 1984. Installed capacity has mushroomed, illustrated by Unalakleet's 600-kW wind farm dwarfing the original three 10-kW machines included in the 1984 inventory. Kodiak Electric had three 1.5-MW turbines installed at Pillar Mountain in 2009, with three additional turbines of 4.5-MW capacity installed in 2012. Utilities now actively plan for wind generation and compete for state funding. Discussion State of Alaska energy policy provides the context for energy project decision-making. Substantial renewable energy fund (REF) awards – $202,000,000 to date for 227 REF projects in the first 5 cycles of funding – along with numerous energy conservation programs – are now in place. Increasing investment in wind is driven by multiple factors. Stakeholders have interests both in public policy and meeting private investment objectives. Wind generator investors should consider project economics and potential impacts of energy decisions on human health. Specifically this article considers:changing environmental conditions in remote Alaska villages,impacts associated

  17. Optimizing Wind And Hydropower Generation Within Realistic Reservoir Operating Policy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, T. M.; Clement, M. A.; Zagona, E. A.

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies have evaluated the benefits of utilizing the flexibility of hydropower systems to balance the variability and uncertainty of wind generation. However, previous hydropower and wind coordination studies have simplified non-power constraints on reservoir systems. For example, some studies have only included hydropower constraints on minimum and maximum storage volumes and minimum and maximum plant discharges. The methodology presented here utilizes the pre-emptive linear goal programming optimization solver in RiverWare to model hydropower operations with a set of prioritized policy constraints and objectives based on realistic policies that govern the operation of actual hydropower systems, including licensing constraints, environmental constraints, water management and power objectives. This approach accounts for the fact that not all policy constraints are of equal importance. For example target environmental flow levels may not be satisfied if it would require violating license minimum or maximum storages (pool elevations), but environmental flow constraints will be satisfied before optimizing power generation. Additionally, this work not only models the economic value of energy from the combined hydropower and wind system, it also captures the economic value of ancillary services provided by the hydropower resources. It is recognized that the increased variability and uncertainty inherent with increased wind penetration levels requires an increase in ancillary services. In regions with liberalized markets for ancillary services, a significant portion of hydropower revenue can result from providing ancillary services. Thus, ancillary services should be accounted for when determining the total value of a hydropower system integrated with wind generation. This research shows that the end value of integrated hydropower and wind generation is dependent on a number of factors that can vary by location. Wind factors include wind penetration level

  18. Generators for gearless wind energy converters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grauers, A. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Electric Power Engineering

    1996-12-01

    This paper discusses some design alternatives for directly driven generators, and one specific generator type is investigated for a wide range of rated power. First, the specification for a directly driven generator is presented, then different design alternatives are discussed. A radial-flux permanent magnet generator for frequency converter connection has been chosen for a more detailed investigation. The design, optimization and performance of that generator type are presented. Generators from 30 kW to 3 MW are designed and compared with conventional four-pole generators with gear. It is found that a directly driven generator can be more efficient than a conventional generator and gear and have a rather small diameter and a low active weight. 8 refs, 7 figs, 2 tabs

  19. Electricity generating system. [Wind/diesel/flywheel system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moody, R.L.

    1992-02-05

    An electricity generating system is described which includes a water tank with electric heating elements connected to the water cooling system of a diesel engine which is heated by excess output of the system. Power in excess of that required by a load which is generated by a wind turbine driven generator runs up a flywheel and further excess is absorbed in the tank. A fan associated with a radiator connected to the tank may be operated to dissipate further excess power. When the load requirements exceed the output of the generators linked to the wind turbine and the flywheel the engine operates a synchronous alternator. (author).

  20. Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator for large wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Busca, Cristian; Stan, Ana-Irina; Stanciu, Tiberiu

    2010-01-01

    Direct Torque Control (DTC) and Field Oriented Control (FOC) are the most dominant control strategies used in generators for wind turbines. In this paper both control methods were implemented on a Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG). The variable speed wind turbine with full scale power...... converter topology was chosen for design. Parameters from a 2 MW wind turbine were used for system modeling. All the components of the wind turbine system (WTS), except the DC-link and the grid site converter were implemented in MATLAB/Simulink. The pitch controller was used to limit the output power...... produced by the turbine. DTC and FOC strategies, using SVM were used to control the generator rotor speed. The performance of the two control strategies were compared after different tests have been carried out....

  1. Emergy-based sustainability evaluation of wind power generation systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Jin; Chen, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Emergy is used to quantify the sustainability level of wind farms. • A GHG-based indicator is incorporated into emergetic accounting. • Possible pathways to achieve sustainable wind farm management are analyzed. - Abstract: With large-scale commercialization of wind technology, one must investigate economical and sustainable wind resource utilization. In this paper, emergy analysis is used to quantify the environmental pressure, renewability, economic efficiency, and sustainability of a typical wind power system, considering the lifetime stages from extraction and processing of raw materials and resources to the final product (electricity) via material transportation, construction and operation. Possible pathways to achieve sustainable management of wind energy supply chain were also analyzed based on scenario analysis. Results show that wind power is a promising means of substituting traditional fossil fuel-based power generation systems, with the lowest transformity of 4.49 × 10"4 sej/J, smaller environmental loading ratio of 5.84, and lower greenhouse gas emission intensity of 0.56 kg/kWh. To shed light on potential pathways to achieve sustainable and low-carbon wind energy supply chain management and make informed choices, a sensitivity analysis was done by establishing scenarios from the perspectives of material recycling and technical development. Results suggest that using new materials of lower energy intensity or recycled materials in upstream wind turbine manufacturing and construction materials are the most effective measures.

  2. Neural network based control of Doubly Fed Induction Generator in wind power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbade, Swati A.; Kasliwal, Prabha

    2012-07-01

    To complement the other types of pollution-free generation wind energy is a viable option. Previously wind turbines were operated at constant speed. The evolution of technology related to wind systems industry leaded to the development of a generation of variable speed wind turbines that present many advantages compared to the fixed speed wind turbines. In this paper the phasor model of DFIG is used. This paper presents a study of a doubly fed induction generator driven by a wind turbine connected to the grid, and controlled by artificial neural network ANN controller. The behaviour of the system is shown with PI control, and then as controlled by ANN. The effectiveness of the artificial neural network controller is compared to that of a PI controller. The SIMULINK/MATLAB simulation for Doubly Fed Induction Generator and corresponding results and waveforms are displayed.

  3. Conceptual survey of Generators and Power Electronics for Wind Turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, L.H.; Helle, L.; Blaabjerg, F.; Ritchie, E.; Munk-Nielsen, S.; Bindner, H.; Soerensen, P.; Bak-Jensen, B.

    2001-12-01

    This report presents a survey on generator concepts and power electronic concepts for wind turbines. The report is aimed as a tool for decision-makers and development people with respect to wind turbine manufactures, utilities, and independent system operators as well as manufactures of generators and power electronics. The survey is focused on the electric development of wind turbines and it yields an overview on: State of the art on generators and power electronics; future concepts and technologies within generators and power electronics; market needs in the shape of requirements to the grid connection, and; consistent system solutions, plus an evaluation of these seen in the prospect of market needs. This survey on of generator and power electronic concepts was carried out in co-operation between Aalborg University and Risoe National Laboratory in the scope of the research programme Electric Design and Control. (au)

  4. Multi-objective Generation Expansion Planning for Integrating Largescale Wind Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Chunyu; Ding, Yi; Kang, Chongqing

    2013-01-01

    Due to the growth of energy consumption, the extensive use of conventional fossil fuels from the exhaustible resources and the environmental concerns, high penetration of renewable energy resources is considerably observed worldwide. Wind power generation is holding the first rank in terms...... of utilization and importance. In the last decade, the growth rate of the global installed wind capacity has been about 30% per annum. Denmark, Germany, and Spain are the first few countries generating 20% of their electricity from wind turbines....

  5. Synchrophasor Applications for Wind Power Generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Zhang, Y. C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Allen, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Singh, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gevorgian, V. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wan, Y. H. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-02-01

    The U.S. power industry is undertaking several initiatives that will improve the operations of the electric power grid. One of those is the implementation of wide-area measurements using phasor measurement units to dynamically monitor the operations and status of the network and provide advanced situational awareness and stability assessment. The overviews of synchrophasors and stability analyses in this report are intended to present the potential future applications of synchrophasors for power system operations under high penetrations of wind and other renewable energy sources.

  6. Estimation of construction and demolition waste volume generation in new residential buildings in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villoria Sáez, Paola; del Río Merino, Mercedes; Porras-Amores, César

    2012-02-01

    The management planning of construction and demolition (C&D) waste uses a single indicator which does not provide enough detailed information. Therefore the determination and implementation of other innovative and precise indicators should be determined. The aim of this research work is to improve existing C&D waste quantification tools in the construction of new residential buildings in Spain. For this purpose, several housing projects were studied to determine an estimation of C&D waste generated during their construction process. This paper determines the values of three indicators to estimate the generation of C&D waste in new residential buildings in Spain, itemizing types of waste and construction stages. The inclusion of two more accurate indicators, in addition to the global one commonly in use, provides a significant improvement in C&D waste quantification tools and management planning.

  7. Wind Generator & Biomass No-draft Gasification Hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hein, Matthew R.

    The premise of this research is that underutilized but vast intermittent renewable energy resources, such as wind, can become more market competitive by coupling with storable renewable energy sources, like biomass; thereby creating a firm capacity resource. Specifically, the Midwest state of South Dakota has immense wind energy potential that is not used because of economic and logistic barriers of electrical transmission or storage. Coupling the state's intermittent wind resource with another of the state's energy resources, cellulosic non-food biomass, by using a wind generator and no-draft biomass gasification hybrid system will result in a energy source that is both firm and storable. The average energy content of common biomass feedstock was determined, 14.8 MJ/kg (7.153 Btu/lb), along with the assumed typical biomass conversion efficiency of the no-draft gasifier, 65%, so that an average electrical energy round trip efficiency (RTE) of 214% can be expected (i.e. One unit of wind electrical energy can produce 2.14 kWh of electrical energy stored as syngas.) from a wind generator and no-draft biomass gasification system. Wind characteristics are site specific so this analysis utilizes a synthetic wind resource to represent a statistically sound gross representation of South Dakota's wind regime based on data from the Wind Resource Assessment Network (WRAN) locations. A synthetic wind turbine generated from common wind turbine power curves and scaled to 1-MW rated capacity was utilized for this analysis in order to remove equipment bias from the results. A standard 8,760-hour BIN Analysis model was constructed within HOMER, powerful simulation software developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to model the performance of renewable power systems. It was found that the optimum configuration on a per-megawatt-transmitted basis required a wind generator (wind farm) rated capacity of 3-MW with an anticipated annual biomass feedstock of 26,132 GJ

  8. Wind generator with electronic variable-speed drives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David, A.; Buchheit, N.; Jakobsen, H.

    1996-12-31

    Variable speed drives have been inserted between the network and the generator on certain recent wind power facilities. They have the following advantages: the drive allows the wind generator to operate at low speed with a significant reduction in acoustic noise, an important point if the facilities are sited near populated areas; the drive optimizes energy transfer, providing a gain of 4 to 10 %; the drive can possibly replace certain mechanical parts (the starting system and it in some cases, the reduction gear); the drive not only provides better transient management in relation to the network for less mechanical stress on the wind generator, it is also able to control reactive power. One commercial drive design sold by several manufacturers has already been installed on several wind generators with outputs of between 150 and 600 kw. In addition, such a solution is extremely well suited to mixed renewable energy systems. This design uses two inverse rectifier type converters and can therefore exchange energy in both directions. The equivalent drive with a single IGBT converter on the motor side and a diode converter on the network side is the solution most widely adopted throughout industry (with more than 50, 000 units installed in France per year). It still remains to be seen whether such a solution could be profitable in wind generator application (since the cost of the drive is quite high). This technical analysis is more destined for the converter-machine assembly specialists and is presented in this document, paying particular attention as it does to the modelling of the `wind energy - generator - drive - network` assembly, the associated drive command and control strategies and the simulations obtained during various transients. A 7.5 kW test bed has been installed in the Laboratoire d`Electronique de Puissance de Clamart, enabling tests to be carried out which emulate the operation of a wind generator.

  9. Offshore winds from a new generation of European satellites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badger, Merete; Karagali, Ioanna; Ahsbahs, Tobias Torben

    at sea. All are important for the planning, operation, and maintenance of offshore wind farms. Typical shortcomings of SAR-based wind fields include a low sampling frequency and a need for advanced data processing in order to retrieve the wind speed at 10 m above sea level. A new generation of European...... satellites and services could lower these barriers for applications in wind energy significantly. The Sentinel-1 A/B missions by the European Space Agency (ESA) deliver C-band SAR observations at an unprecedented coverage and spatial resolution. Over the seas of Europe, approximately 200 new acquisitions...... of Europe over time. The accuracy of this new product is currently under investigation. TerraSAR-X is an X-band SAR mission by the German Aerospace Center (DLR). It offers very high-resolution imagery, which may be used for detailed studies of e.g. wind farm wakes. TerraSAR-X imagery is acquired on...

  10. Low cost infrastructure solutions for small embedded wind generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robb, C.

    2003-07-01

    This report gives details of a project to demonstrate novel economic solutions to increase the potential for installing small-scale embedded wind generator systems at many UK sites which have so far been dismissed as too difficult. Details are given of the first phase of the study which examined current solutions to infrastructure problems and potential techniques. The use of drilled rock anchor foundations to minimise the need for delivery of ready-mix concrete to wind turbine sites, and the use of a winch and A-frame system for erecting a wind turbine to avoid the use of cranes are discussed. The demonstration of the installation of a 50kW wind turbine on the Isle of Luing in Scotland where there is no access for cranes or larger vehicles in the second phase of the project is described. The potential for the use of these techniques on larger wind turbines is considered.

  11. Probabilistic forecasting of wind power generation using extreme learning machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wan, Can; Xu, Zhao; Pinson, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    an extreme learning machine (ELM)-based probabilistic forecasting method for wind power generation. To account for the uncertainties in the forecasting results, several bootstrapmethods have been compared for modeling the regression uncertainty, based on which the pairs bootstrap method is identified......Accurate and reliable forecast of wind power is essential to power system operation and control. However, due to the nonstationarity of wind power series, traditional point forecasting can hardly be accurate, leading to increased uncertainties and risks for system operation. This paper proposes...... with the best performance. Consequently, a new method for prediction intervals formulation based on theELMand the pairs bootstrap is developed.Wind power forecasting has been conducted in different seasons using the proposed approach with the historical wind power time series as the inputs alone. The results...

  12. Optimization of power generation from shrouded wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foote, Tudor; Agarwal, Ramesh [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, Washington University in St. Louis (United States)

    2013-07-01

    In past several years, several studies have shown that the shrouded wind turbines can generate greater power compared to bare turbines. The objective of this study is to determine the potential of shrouded wind turbines for increased power generation by conducting numerical simulations. An analytical/computational study is performed by employing the well-known commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software FLUENT. An actuator disc model is used to model the turbine. The incompressible Navier-Stokes equations and a two equation realizable {kappa}-{epsilon} model are employed in the calculations. The power coefficient Cp and generated power are calculated for a large number of cases for horizontal axis wind turbines (HAWT) of various diameters and wind speeds for both bare and shrouded turbines. The design of the shroud is optimized by employing a single objective genetic algorithm; the objective being the maximization of the power coefficient Cp. It was found that the shroud indeed increases the Cp beyond the Betz’s limit significantly and as a result the generated power; this effect is consistent with that found in the recent literature that the shrouded wind-turbines can generate greater power than the bare turbines. The optimized shape of the shroud or diffuser further increases the generated power and Cp.

  13. Variable slip wind generator modeling for real-time simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gagnon, R.; Brochu, J.; Turmel, G. [Hydro-Quebec, Varennes, PQ (Canada). IREQ

    2006-07-01

    A model of a wind turbine using a variable slip wound-rotor induction machine was presented. The model was created as part of a library of generic wind generator models intended for wind integration studies. The stator winding of the wind generator was connected directly to the grid and the rotor was driven by the turbine through a drive train. The variable resistors was synthesized by an external resistor in parallel with a diode rectifier. A forced-commutated power electronic device (IGBT) was connected to the wound rotor by slip rings and brushes. Simulations were conducted in a Matlab/Simulink environment using SimPowerSystems blocks to model power systems elements and Simulink blocks to model the turbine, control system and drive train. Detailed descriptions of the turbine, the drive train and the control system were provided. The model's implementation in the simulator was also described. A case study demonstrating the real-time simulation of a wind generator connected at the distribution level of a power system was presented. Results of the case study were then compared with results obtained from the SimPowerSystems off-line simulation. Results showed good agreement between the waveforms, demonstrating the conformity of the real-time and the off-line simulations. The capability of Hypersim for real-time simulation of wind turbines with power electronic converters in a distribution network was demonstrated. It was concluded that hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation of wind turbine controllers for wind integration studies in power systems is now feasible. 5 refs., 1 tab., 6 figs.

  14. Design of a wind turbine-generator system considering the conformability to wind velocity fluctuations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakui, Tetsuya; Hashizume, Takumi; Outa, Eisuke

    1999-07-01

    The conformability of the rated power output of the wind turbine-generator system and of the wind turbine type to wind velocity fluctuations are investigated with a simulation model. The authors examine three types of wind turbines: the Darrieus-Savonius hybrid, the Darrieus proper and the Propeller. These systems are mainly operated at a constant tip speed ratio, which refers to a maximum power coefficient points. As a computed result of the net extracting power, the Darrieus turbine proper has little conformability to wind velocity fluctuations because of its output characteristics. As for the other turbines, large-scale systems do not always have an advantage over small-scale systems as the effect of its dynamic characteristics. Furthermore, it is confirmed that the net extracting power of the Propeller turbine, under wind direction fluctuation, is much reduced when compared with the hybrid wind turbine. Thus, the authors conclude that the appropriate rated power output of the system exists with relation to the wind turbine type for each wind condition.

  15. Model of analysis of maximum loads in wind generators produced by extreme winds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrera – Sánchez, Omar; Schellong, Wolfgang; González – Fernández, Vladimir

    2010-01-01

    The use of the wind energy by means of the wind turbines in areas of high risk of occurrence of Hurricanes comes being an important challenge for the designers of wind farm at world for some years. The wind generator is not usually designed to support this type of phenomena, for this reason the areas of high incidence of tropical hurricanes of the planning are excluded, that which, in occasions disables the use of this renewable source of energy totally, either because the country is very small, or because it coincides the area of more potential fully with that of high risk. To counteract this situation, a model of analysis of maxims loads has been elaborated taken place the extreme winds in wind turbines of great behavior. This model has the advantage of determining, in a chosen place, for the installation of a wind farm, the micro-areas with higher risk of wind loads above the acceptable for the standard classes of wind turbines. (author)

  16. Optimization of Multibrid Permanent-Magnet Wind Generator Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Li, H.; Polinder, H.

    2009-01-01

    and multibrid wind turbine configurations are obtained, and the suitable ranges of gear ratios for different power ratings are investigated. Finally, the detailed comparisons of themost cost-effective multibridPMgenerator system and the optimized direct-drive PM generator system are also presented and discussed....... The comparative results have shown that the multibrid wind turbine concept appears more cost-effective than the direct-drive concept.......This paper investigates the cost-effective ranges of gearbox ratios and power ratings of multibrid permanent-magnet (PM) wind generator systems by using a design optimization method. First, the analytical model of a multibrid wind turbine concept consisting of a single-stage gearbox and a three...

  17. Voltage Control in Wind Power Plants with Doubly Fed Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Jorge Martinez

    In this work, the process of designing a wind power plant composed of; doubly fed induction generators, a static compensator unit, mechanically switched capacitors and on-load tap changer, for voltage control is shown. The selected control structure is based on a decentralized system, since...... supplied by the doubly fed induction generator wind turbines is overcome by installing a reactive power compensator, i.e. a static compensator unit, which is coordinated with the plant control by a specific dispatcher. This dispatcher is set according to the result of the wind power plant load flow....... To release the operation of the converters during steady-state disturbances, mechanically switched capacitors are installed in the wind power plant, which due to their characteristics, they are appropriate for permanent disturbances compensation. The mechanically switched capacitors are controlled to allow...

  18. ANALYSING SOLAR-WIND HYBRID POWER GENERATING SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa ENGİN

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a solar-wind hybrid power generating, system that will be used for security lighting was designed. Hybrid system was installed and solar cells, wind turbine, battery bank, charge regulators and inverter performance values were measured through the whole year. Using measured values of overall system efficiency, reliability, demanded energy cost per kWh were calculated, and percentage of generated energy according to resources were defined. We also include in the paper a discussion of new strategies to improve hybrid power generating system performance and demanded energy cost per kWh.

  19. Conceptual survey of generators and power electronics for wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L.H.; Helle, L.; Blaabjerg, F.

    2002-01-01

    This report presents a survey on generator concepts and power electronic concepts for wind turbines. The report is aimed as a tool for decision-makers and development people with respect to wind turbine manufactures, utilities, and independent systemoperators as well as manufactures of generators...... and power electronics. The survey is focused on the electric development of wind turbines and it yields an overview on: - State of the art on generators and power electronics. - future concepts andtechnologies within generators and power electronics. - market needs in the shape of requirements to the grid...... connection, and - consistent system solutions, plus an evaluation of these seen in the prospect of market needs. This survey on of generatorand power electronic concepts was carried out in co-operation between Aalborg University and Risø National Laboratory in the scope of the research programme Electric...

  20. Smoothing Control of Wind Farm Output by Using Kinetic Energy of Variable Speed Wind Power Generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Daiki; Saitoh, Hiroumi

    This paper proposes a new control method for reducing fluctuation of power system frequency through smoothing active power output of wind farm. The proposal is based on the modulation of rotaional kinetic energy of variable speed wind power generators through power converters between permanent magnet synchronous generators (PMSG) and transmission lines. In this paper, the proposed control is called Fluctuation Absorption by Flywheel Characteristics control (FAFC). The FAFC can be easily implemented by adding wind farm output signal to Maximum Power Point Tracking control signal through a feedback control loop. In order to verify the effectiveness of the FAFC control, a simulation study was carried out. In the study, it was assumed that the wind farm consisting of PMSG type wind power generator and induction machine type wind power generaotors is connected with a power sysem. The results of the study show that the FAFC control is a useful method for reducing the impacts of wind farm output fluctuation on system frequency without additional devices such as secondary battery.

  1. Study on Micro Wind Generator System for Automobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimoto, Koji; Washizu, Shinsuke; Ichikawa, Tomohiko; Yukita, Kazuto; Goto, Yasuyuki; Ichiyanagi, Katsuhiro; Oshima, Takamitsu; Hayashi, Niichi; Tobi, Nobuo

    This paper proposes the micro wind generator system for automobile. This proposes system is composed of the deflector, the micro windmill, the generator, and electric storage device. Then, the effectiveness is confirmed from an examination using air blower. Therefore, new energy can be expected to be obtained by installing this system in the truck.

  2. Feasibility of wind power generation in Ghana | Ayensu | Journal of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    For payback period of 10 years, the projected cost of the energy produced by a single turbine was estimated to be GHC 0.30 (~ 20 cents) per kWh (compared to 14 cents/kWh for photovoltaic generation and 10 cents/kWh for solar thermal), which therefore makes large scale optimized wind power generation competitive in ...

  3. Reactive power management of power networks with wind generation

    CERN Document Server

    Amaris, Hortensia; Ortega, Carlos Alvarez

    2012-01-01

    As the energy sector shifts and changes to focus on renewable technologies, the optimization of wind power becomes a key practical issue. Reactive Power Management of Power Networks with Wind Generation brings into focus the development and application of advanced optimization techniques to the study, characterization, and assessment of voltage stability in power systems. Recent advances on reactive power management are reviewed with particular emphasis on the analysis and control of wind energy conversion systems and FACTS devices. Following an introduction, distinct chapters cover the 5 key

  4. Alliance created to study wind-generated power potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    Wind-generated power may get a boost from a new consortium of companies that have joined together to expand the potential across the country for this cheap, renewable energy source. Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation has announced that it will join with the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG ampersand E), the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and US Windpower, Inc., in developing an advanced, 33-meter, variable-speed wind turbine that reduced the cost and improves the power quality of wind energy. The majority of the estimated $20 million cost will be provided by US Windpower

  5. Hybrid Test Bed of Wind Electric Generator with Photovoltaic Panels

    OpenAIRE

    G.D.Anbarasi Jebaselvi; S.Paramasivam

    2014-01-01

    Driven by the increasing costs of power production and decreasing fossil fuel reserves with the addition of global environmental concerns, renewable energy is now becoming significant fraction of total electricity production in the world. Advancements in the field of wind electric generator technology and power electronics help to achieve rapid progress in hybrid power system which mainly involves wind, solar and diesel energy with a good battery back-up. Here the discussion brings about the ...

  6. Electric Generators and their Control for Large Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldea, Ion; Tutelea, Lucian; Rallabandi, Vandana

    2017-01-01

    induction generator, the cage rotor induction generator, and the synchronous generator with DC or permanent magnet excitation. The operating principle, performance, optimal design, and the modeling and control of the machine-side converter for each kind of generator are adressed and evaluated. In view......The electric generator and its power electronics interface for wind turbines (WTs) have evolved rapidly toward higher reliability and reduced cost of energy in the last 40 years. This chapter describes the up-to-date electric generators existing in the wind power industry, namely, the doubly fed...... of the fact that individual power rating of WTs has increased to around 10 MW, generator design and control technologies required to reach this power rating are discussed....

  7. Windmills: Ancestors of the wind power generation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cesare ROSSI; Flavio RUSSO; Sergio SAVINO

    2017-01-01

    A brief description of the windmills from the second millennium BC to the Renaissance is presented.This survey is a part of several studies conducted by the authors on technology in the ancient world.The windmills are the first motor,other than human muscles,and are the ancestors of the modem wind turbines.Some authors' virtual reconstructions of old windmills are also presented.The paper shows that the operating principle of many modem machines had already been conceived in the ancient times by using a technology that was more advanced than expected,but with two main differences,as follows:Similar tasks were accomplished by using much less energy;and the environmental impact was nil or very low.Modem designers should sometimes consider simplicity rather than the use of a large amount of energy.

  8. Windmills: Ancestors of the wind power generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossi, Cesare; Russo, Flavio; Savino, Sergio

    2017-09-01

    A brief description of the windmills from the second millennium BC to the Renaissance is presented. This survey is a part of several studies conducted by the authors on technology in the ancient world. The windmills are the first motor, other than human muscles, and are the ancestors of the modern wind turbines. Some authors' virtual reconstructions of old windmills are also presented. The paper shows that the operating principle of many modern machines had already been conceived in the ancient times by using a technology that was more advanced than expected, but with two main differences, as follows: Similar tasks were accomplished by using much less energy; and the environmental impact was nil or very low. Modern designers should sometimes consider simplicity rather than the use of a large amount of energy.

  9. Transmission cost minimization strategies for wind-electric generating facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, R. [Northern States Power Company, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    Integrating wind-electric generation facilities into existing power systems presents opportunities not encountered in conventional energy projects. Minimizing outlet cost requires probabilistic value-based analyses appropriately reflecting the wind facility`s operational characteristics. The wind resource`s intermittent nature permits relaxation of deterministic criteria addressing outlet configuration and capacity required relative to facility rating. Equivalent capacity ratings of wind generation facilities being a fraction of installed nameplate rating, outlet design studies contingency analyses can concentrate on this fractional value. Further, given its non-dispatchable, low capacity factor nature, a lower level of redundancy in outlet facilities is appropriate considering the trifling contribution to output unreliability. Further cost reduction opportunities arise from {open_quotes}wind speed/generator power output{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}wind speed/overhead conductor rating{close_quotes} functions` correlation. Proper analysis permits the correlation`s exploitation to safely increase line ratings. Lastly, poor correlation between output and utility load may permit use of smaller conductors, whose higher (mostly off-peak) losses are economically justifiable.

  10. Fuzzy logic controller versus classical logic controller for residential hybrid solar-wind-storage energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derrouazin, A., E-mail: derrsid@gmail.com [University Hassiba BenBouali of Chlef, LGEER,Chlef (Algeria); Université de Lorraine, LMOPS, EA 4423, 57070 Metz (France); CentraleSupélec, LMOPS, 57070 Metz (France); Aillerie, M., E-mail: aillerie@metz.supelec.fr; Charles, J. P. [Université de Lorraine, LMOPS, EA 4423, 57070 Metz (France); CentraleSupélec, LMOPS, 57070 Metz (France); Mekkakia-Maaza, N. [Université des sciences et de la Technologie d’Oran, Mohamed Boudiaf-USTO MB,LMSE, Oran Algérie (Algeria)

    2016-07-25

    Several researches for management of diverse hybrid energy systems and many techniques have been proposed for robustness, savings and environmental purpose. In this work we aim to make a comparative study between two supervision and control techniques: fuzzy and classic logics to manage the hybrid energy system applied for typical housing fed by solar and wind power, with rack of batteries for storage. The system is assisted by the electric grid during energy drop moments. A hydrogen production device is integrated into the system to retrieve surplus energy production from renewable sources for the household purposes, intending the maximum exploitation of these sources over years. The models have been achieved and generated signals for electronic switches command of proposed both techniques are presented and discussed in this paper.

  11. Fuzzy logic controller versus classical logic controller for residential hybrid solar-wind-storage energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrouazin, A.; Aillerie, M.; Charles, J. P.; Mekkakia-Maaza, N.

    2016-01-01

    Several researches for management of diverse hybrid energy systems and many techniques have been proposed for robustness, savings and environmental purpose. In this work we aim to make a comparative study between two supervision and control techniques: fuzzy and classic logics to manage the hybrid energy system applied for typical housing fed by solar and wind power, with rack of batteries for storage. The system is assisted by the electric grid during energy drop moments. A hydrogen production device is integrated into the system to retrieve surplus energy production from renewable sources for the household purposes, intending the maximum exploitation of these sources over years. The models have been achieved and generated signals for electronic switches command of proposed both techniques are presented and discussed in this paper.

  12. Comparison of superconducting generators and permanent magnet generators for 10-MW direct-drive wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Dong; Polinder, Henk; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech

    2016-01-01

    Large offshore direct-drive wind turbines of 10-MW power levels are being extensively proposed and studied because of a reduced cost of energy. Conventional permanent magnet generators currently dominating the direct-drive wind turbine market are still under consideration for such large wind...... turbines. In the meantime, superconducting generators (SCSGs) have been of particular interest to become a significant competitor because of their compactness and light weight. This paper compares the performance indicators of these two direct-drive generator types in the same 10-MW wind turbine under...... the same design and optimization method. Such comparisons will be interesting and insightful for commercialization of superconducting generators and for development of future wind energy industry, although SCSGs are still far from a high technology readiness level. The results show that the SCSGs may...

  13. Wind turbine integrated multipole permanent magnet generator (PMG)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilsboell, N.; Pinegin, A.; Goussarov, D.

    1996-01-01

    Designed permanent magnet generator (PMG - 20 kW) possesses a number of advantages: it makes possible to replace gearbox, the generator and possibly the hub of the wind turbine by combining wind rotor with external rotor of the generator; use of rare earth magnets Nd-Fe-B allows to reduce mass and dimensions of the generator; use of the PMG for wind turbines increases the reliability of the construction during the life time, comparing to the conventional design (gearbox, asynchronous generator). The test of the PMG -20 kW informs that design method, developed for calculation of multipole permanent magnet generators is correct in general and meets engineering requirements. The calculation uncertainty of the magnetic system and output characteristics does not exceed 2-3%. The test shows, that the maximum efficiency of the PGM - 20 kW with full load can be achieved as high as 90-91.5% and excels the efficiency of the traditional system `generator-gearbox` by 4-5.5%. Designing permanent magnet generator, it is recommended to take into account voltage stabilization (capacitance). Efficiency is expected to be higher, mass and production cost of the generator can be reduced by 25-30%. The frequency converter shall be used not only for control of rotational speed, but also to obtain sinusoidal capacitive current on the generator side. For PMG - 20 kW the angle between voltage and current should be within the range 0-23%. (au)

  14. 1 MVA HTS-2G Generator for Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovalev, K. L.; Poltavets, V. N.; Ilyasov, R. I.; Verzhbitsky, L. G.; Kozub, S. S.

    2017-10-01

    The calculation, design simulations and design performance of 1 MVA HTS-2G (second-generation high-temperature superconductor) Generator for Wind Turbines were done in 2013-2014 [1]. The results of manufacturing and testing of 1 MVA generator are presented in the article. HTS-2G field coils for the rotor were redesigned, fabricated and tested. The tests have shown critical current of the coils, 41-45 A (self field within the ferromagnetic core, T = 77 K), which corresponds to the current of short samples at self field. Application of the copper inner frame on the pole has improved internal cooling conditions of HTS coil windings and reduced the magnetic field in the area, thereby increased the critical current value. The original construction of the rotor with a rotating cryostat was developed, which decreases the thermal in-flow to the rotor. The stator of 1 MW HTS-2G generator has been manufactured. In order to improve the specific weight of the generator, the wave (harmonic drive) multiplier was used, which provides increasing RPM from 15 RPM up to 600 RPM. The total mass of the multiplier and generator is significantly smaller compared to traditional direct-drive wind turbines generators [2-7]. Parameters of the multiplier and generator were chosen based on the actual parameters of wind turbines, namely: 15 RPM, power is 1 MVA. The final test of the assembled synchronous generator with HTS-2G field coils for Wind Turbines with output power 1 MVA was completed during 2015.

  15. High Power Wind Generator Designs with Less or No PMs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boldea, Ion; Tutelea, Lucian; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    synchronous generators, by doubly-fed (wound rotor) induction and cage induction generators and by introducing new topologies with pertinent costs for high power (MW range) wind energy conversion units. The present overview attempts, based on recent grid specifications, an evaluation of commercial and novel...... considering the interaction with the PWM converter in terms of power/speed range, losses, kVA, and costs) rather than on the control issues which abound in literature, will be of use for future R&D efforts in wind energy conversion, storage and use.......The recent steep increase in high energy permanent magnet (PM) price (above 130$/kg and more) triggered already strong R&D efforts to develop wind generators with less PMs (less weight in NdFeB magnets/kW or the use of ferrite PMs) or fully without PMs. All these by optimizing existing dc excited...

  16. Variability in large-scale wind power generation: Variability in large-scale wind power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiviluoma, Juha [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo Finland; Holttinen, Hannele [VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, Espoo Finland; Weir, David [Energy Department, Norwegian Water Resources and Energy Directorate, Oslo Norway; Scharff, Richard [KTH Royal Institute of Technology, Electric Power Systems, Stockholm Sweden; Söder, Lennart [Royal Institute of Technology, Electric Power Systems, Stockholm Sweden; Menemenlis, Nickie [Institut de recherche Hydro-Québec, Montreal Canada; Cutululis, Nicolaos A. [DTU, Wind Energy, Roskilde Denmark; Danti Lopez, Irene [Electricity Research Centre, University College Dublin, Dublin Ireland; Lannoye, Eamonn [Electric Power Research Institute, Palo Alto California USA; Estanqueiro, Ana [LNEG, Laboratorio Nacional de Energia e Geologia, UESEO, Lisbon Spain; Gomez-Lazaro, Emilio [Renewable Energy Research Institute and DIEEAC/EDII-AB, Castilla-La Mancha University, Albacete Spain; Zhang, Qin [State Grid Corporation of China, Beijing China; Bai, Jianhua [State Grid Energy Research Institute Beijing, Beijing China; Wan, Yih-Huei [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Transmission and Grid Integration Group, Golden Colorado USA; Milligan, Michael [National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Transmission and Grid Integration Group, Golden Colorado USA

    2015-10-25

    The paper demonstrates the characteristics of wind power variability and net load variability in multiple power systems based on real data from multiple years. Demonstrated characteristics include probability distribution for different ramp durations, seasonal and diurnal variability and low net load events. The comparison shows regions with low variability (Sweden, Spain and Germany), medium variability (Portugal, Ireland, Finland and Denmark) and regions with higher variability (Quebec, Bonneville Power Administration and Electric Reliability Council of Texas in North America; Gansu, Jilin and Liaoning in China; and Norway and offshore wind power in Denmark). For regions with low variability, the maximum 1 h wind ramps are below 10% of nominal capacity, and for regions with high variability, they may be close to 30%. Wind power variability is mainly explained by the extent of geographical spread, but also higher capacity factor causes higher variability. It was also shown how wind power ramps are autocorrelated and dependent on the operating output level. When wind power was concentrated in smaller area, there were outliers with high changes in wind output, which were not present in large areas with well-dispersed wind power.

  17. Reducing storage of global wind ensembles with stochastic generators

    KAUST Repository

    Jeong, Jaehong

    2018-03-09

    Wind has the potential to make a significant contribution to future energy resources. Locating the sources of this renewable energy on a global scale is however extremely challenging, given the difficulty to store very large data sets generated by modern computer models. We propose a statistical model that aims at reproducing the data-generating mechanism of an ensemble of runs via a Stochastic Generator (SG) of global annual wind data. We introduce an evolutionary spectrum approach with spatially varying parameters based on large-scale geographical descriptors such as altitude to better account for different regimes across the Earth’s orography. We consider a multi-step conditional likelihood approach to estimate the parameters that explicitly accounts for nonstationary features while also balancing memory storage and distributed computation. We apply the proposed model to more than 18 million points of yearly global wind speed. The proposed SG requires orders of magnitude less storage for generating surrogate ensemble members from wind than does creating additional wind fields from the climate model, even if an effective lossy data compression algorithm is applied to the simulation output.

  18. Reducing storage of global wind ensembles with stochastic generators

    KAUST Repository

    Jeong, Jaehong; Castruccio, Stefano; Crippa, Paola; Genton, Marc G.

    2018-01-01

    Wind has the potential to make a significant contribution to future energy resources. Locating the sources of this renewable energy on a global scale is however extremely challenging, given the difficulty to store very large data sets generated by modern computer models. We propose a statistical model that aims at reproducing the data-generating mechanism of an ensemble of runs via a Stochastic Generator (SG) of global annual wind data. We introduce an evolutionary spectrum approach with spatially varying parameters based on large-scale geographical descriptors such as altitude to better account for different regimes across the Earth’s orography. We consider a multi-step conditional likelihood approach to estimate the parameters that explicitly accounts for nonstationary features while also balancing memory storage and distributed computation. We apply the proposed model to more than 18 million points of yearly global wind speed. The proposed SG requires orders of magnitude less storage for generating surrogate ensemble members from wind than does creating additional wind fields from the climate model, even if an effective lossy data compression algorithm is applied to the simulation output.

  19. Wind Generation Participation in Power System Frequency Response: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gevorgian, Vahan; Zhang, Yingchen

    2017-01-01

    The electrical frequency of an interconnected power system must be maintained close its nominal level at all times. Excessive under- and overfrequency excursions can lead to load shedding, instability, machine damage, and even blackouts. There is a rising concern in the electric power industry in recent years about the declining amount of inertia and primary frequency response (PFR) in many interconnections. This decline may continue due to increasing penetrations of inverter-coupled generation and the planned retirements of conventional thermal plants. Inverter-coupled variable wind generation is capable of contributing to PFR and inertia with a response that is different from that of conventional generation. It is not yet entirely understood how such a response will affect the system at different wind power penetration levels. The modeling work presented in this paper evaluates the impact of wind generation's provision of these active power control strategies on a large, synchronous interconnection. All simulations were conducted on the U.S. Western Interconnection with different levels of instantaneous wind power penetrations (up to 80%). The ability of wind power plants to provide PFR - and a combination of synthetic inertial response and PFR - significantly improved the frequency response performance of the system.

  20. Wind turbine power generation in the South Pennines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-10-01

    This document has been produced in response to emerging demands for locating wind farms in the South Pennines region in the United Kingdom region, the absence - as yet - of any national policy guidelines and a concern that a lack of protected landscape area status may lead to increased targeting of the area for wind farm developments. Increasingly, the rich heritage based landscape of the South Pennines is gaining recognition. It is important that the basic landscape resource is conserved and enhanced. Thus the need to clarify a set of relevant guidelines against which individual proposals may be considered. It is recommended that policies for dealing with demands for wind turbine developments are based upon an appreciation of the intrinsic character of the South Pennine landscape. Similarly, it is important that the consideration of guidelines is supported by information on how demands for wind generated power have evolved and why development pressures for wind farms are now emerging in the sub-region. The document is structured as follows: (1) Wind Power -Background; (2) Wind Power in the South Pennines - The Potential; (3) The South Pennines: Landscape Character; (4) Planning Policy Guidelines. (author)

  1. Wind Energy Facilities and Residential Properties: The Effect of Proximity and View on Sales Prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoen, Ben; Wiser, Ryan; Cappers, Peter; Thayer, Mark; Sethi, Gautam

    2010-04-01

    With an increasing number of communities considering nearby wind power developments, there is a need to empirically investigate community concerns about wind project development. One such concern is that property values may be adversely affected by wind energy facilities, and relatively little research exists on the subject. The present research investigates roughly 7,500 sales of single-family homes surrounding 24 existing U.S. wind facilities. Across four different hedonic models the results are consistent: neither the view of the wind facilities nor the distance of the home to those facilities is found to have a statistically significant effect on home sales prices.

  2. Wind energy research activities of the Dutch Electricity Generating Board

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halberg, N.

    1990-01-01

    The varying degrees of penetration of wind energy conversion systems (WECs) into the Dutch electricity generating system has been examined. A simulation has been carried out using wind data recorded at 6 sites spread across the area of interest in the Netherlands. The recorded wind data has been used in conjunction with a production costing model normally used by Sep (the Dutch Electricity Generating Board) for planning purposes. This model was modified to give a correct assessment of the quantity and value of fuel savings made by WECs. System studies were carried out for the year 2000 for zero wind penetration and for three distinctive penetration degrees of WECs, namely 5%, 10% and 15%. After incorporation of the WECS capacity, adjustments were made to the basic plant mix to allow the capacity credit WECs. Separate production cost simulations were executed for each distinct WECS capacity factor. Economic assessments were carried out using standard procedures. Except for the unpredictable development of fuel prices, the capital costs of the WECs proved to be the determinant for the economic viability of wind power. Significant improvements in costs and performance, as may be achieved through additional technological advances, are needed to made wind power competitive in widespread utility applications. (Author)

  3. Grid-connected inverter for wind power generation system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yong; RUAN Yi; SHEN Huan-qing; TANG Yan-yan; YANG Ying

    2009-01-01

    In wind power generation system the grid-connected inverter is an important section for energy conversion and transmission, of which the performance has a direct influence on the entire wind power generation system. The mathematical model of the grid-connected inverter is deduced firstly. Then, the space vector pulse width modulation (SVPWM) is analyzed. The power factor can be controlled close to unity, leading or lagging, which is realized based on PI-type current controller and grid voltage vector-oriented control. The control strategy is verified by the simulation and experimental results with a good sinusoidal current, a small harmonic component and a fast dynamic response.

  4. Estimating generation costs for wind power production in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benazet, J.F.; Probert, E.J.

    1997-01-01

    Wind power is being exploited in several European countries as one of a possible number of sources of renewable energy. However, in France there is a heavy reliance on nuclear and hydro-electric power and the potential of wind power as part of the energy mix has been virtually ignored. One of the reasons advanced for the under utilisation of this technology is that it is financially unattractive. In this paper the contribution which wind power could potentially make to overall power production levels in France is examined. A cost estimate model is developed which derives electricity generation costs and determines realistic levels of production for the future. The model automatically determines the associated number of wind turbines required and the geographical areas in which they should be located. (author)

  5. Testing of a direct drive generator for wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sondergaard, L.M. [Riso National Laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    The normal drive train of a wind turbine consists a gearbox and a 4 to 8 poles asynchronous generator. The gearbox is an expensive and unreliable components and this paper deals with testing of a direct drive synchronous generator for a gearless wind turbine. The Danish company Belt Electric has constructed and manufactured a 27 kW prototype radial flux PM-generator (DD600). They have used cheap hard ferrite magnets in the rotor of this PM-generator. This generator has been tested at Riso and the test results are investigated and analyzed in this paper. The tests have been done with three different load types (1: resistance; 2: diode rectifier, DC-capacitor, resistance; 3: AC-capacitor, diode rectifier, DC-capacitor, resistance). 1 ref., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  6. Fuzzy logic based variable speed wind generation system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simoes, M.G. [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. PMC - Mecatronica; Bose, B.K. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Electrical Engineering; Spiegel, Ronal J. [Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (United States). Air and Energy Engineering Research Lab.

    1996-12-31

    This work demonstrates the successful application of fuzzy logic to enhance the performance and control of a variable speed wind generation system. A maximum power point tracker control is performed with three fuzzy controllers, without wind velocity measurement, and robust to wind vortex and turbine torque ripple. A squirrel cage induction generator feeds the power to a double-sided PWM converter system which pumps the power to a utility grid or supplies to an autonomous system. The fuzzy logic controller FLC-1 searches on-line the generator speed so that the aerodynamic efficiency of the wind turbine is optimized. A second fuzzy controller FLC-2 programs the machine flux by on-line search so as to optimize the machine-converter system wind vortex. Detailed analysis and simulation studies were performed for development of the control strategy and fuzzy algorithms, and a DSP TMS320C30 based hardware with C control software was built for the performance evaluation of a laboratory experimental set-up. The theoretical development was fully validated and the system is ready to be reproduced in a higher power installation. (author) 7 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Maximum wind power plant generation by reducing the wake effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De-Prada-Gil, Mikel; Alías, César Guillén; Gomis-Bellmunt, Oriol; Sumper, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • To analyze the benefit of applying a new control strategy to maximise energy yield. • To operate some wind turbines at non-optimum points for reducing wake effects. • Single, partial and multiple wakes for any wind direction are taken into account. • Thrust coefficient is computed according to Blade Element Momentum (BEM) theory. - Abstract: This paper analyses, from a steady state point of view, the potential benefit of a Wind Power Plant (WPP) control strategy whose main objective is to maximise its total energy yield over its lifetime by taking into consideration that the wake effect within the WPP varies depending on the operation of each wind turbine. Unlike the conventional approach in which each wind turbine operation is optimised individually to maximise its own energy capture, the proposed control strategy aims to optimise the whole system by operating some wind turbines at sub-optimum points, so that the wake effect within the WPP is reduced and therefore the total power generation is maximised. The methodology used to assess the performance of both control approaches is presented and applied to two particular study cases. It contains a comprehensive wake model considering single, partial and multiple wake effects among turbines. The study also takes into account the Blade Element Momentum (BEM) theory to accurately compute both power and thrust coefficient of each wind turbine. The results suggest a good potential of the proposed concept, since an increase in the annual energy captured by the WPP from 1.86% up to 6.24% may be achieved (depending on the wind rose at the WPP location) by operating some specific wind turbines slightly away from their optimum point and reducing thus the wake effect

  8. Early stages of wind wave and drift current generation under non-stationary wind conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robles-Diaz, Lucia; Ocampo-Torres, Francisco J.; Branger, Hubert

    2016-04-01

    Generation and amplification mechanisms of ocean waves are well understood under constant wind speed or limited fetch conditions. Under these situations, the momentum and energy transfers from air to water are also quite well known. However during the wind field evolution over the ocean, we may observe sometime high wind acceleration/deceleration situations (e.g. Mexican Tehuano or Mediterranean Mistral wind systems). The evolution of wave systems under these conditions is not well understood. The purpose of these laboratory experiments is to better understand the early stages of water-waves and surface-drift currents under non-stationary wind conditions and to determine the balance between transfers creating waves and surface currents during non-equilibrium situations. The experiments were conducted in the Institut Pythéas wind-wave facility in Marseille-France. The wave tank is 40 m long, 2.7 m wide and 1 m deep. The air section is 50 m long, 3 m wide and 1.8 m height. We used 11 different resistive wave-gauges located along the tank. The momentum fluxes in the air column were estimated from single and X hot-film anemometer measurements. The sampling frequency for wind velocity and surface displacement measurements was 256 Hz. Water-current measurements were performed with a profiling velocimeter. This device measures the first 3.5 cm of the water column with a frequency rate of 100Hz. During the experiments, the wind intensity was abruptly modified with a constant acceleration and deceleration over time. We observed that wind drag coefficient values for accelerated wind periods are lower than the ones reported in previous studies for constant wind speed (Large and Pond 1981; Ocampo-Torres et al. 2010; Smith 1980; Yelland and Taylor 1996). This is probably because the turbulent boundary layer is not completely developed during the increasing-wind sequence. As it was reported in some theoretical studies (Miles 1957; Phillips 1957; Kahma and Donelan 1988), we

  9. Wind turbine generators having wind assisted cooling systems and cooling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagepalli, Bharat [Niskayuna, NY; Barnes, Gary R [Delanson, NY; Gadre, Aniruddha D [Rexford, NY; Jansen, Patrick L [Scotia, NY; Bouchard, Jr., Charles G.; Jarczynski, Emil D [Scotia, NY; Garg, Jivtesh [Cambridge, MA

    2008-09-23

    A wind generator includes: a nacelle; a hub carried by the nacelle and including at least a pair of wind turbine blades; and an electricity producing generator including a stator and a rotor carried by the nacelle. The rotor is connected to the hub and rotatable in response to wind acting on the blades to rotate the rotor relative to the stator to generate electricity. A cooling system is carried by the nacelle and includes at least one ambient air inlet port opening through a surface of the nacelle downstream of the hub and blades, and a duct for flowing air from the inlet port in a generally upstream direction toward the hub and in cooling relation to the stator.

  10. Issues and regulatory requirements for the connection of wind generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gimenez Alvarez, J.M. [National University of San Juan (Argentina)], E-mail: jgimenez@unsj.edu.ar; Gomez Targarona, J.C. [National University of Rio Cuarto, Cordoba (Argentina). Electric Power Systems Protection Institute (IPSEP)], E-mail: jcgomez@ing.unrc.edu.ar

    2009-07-01

    Pollution problems such as greenhouse effect as well as the high value and volatility of fuel prices have forced and accelerated the development and use of renewable energy sources. In this work a complete revision of wind generation is presented. In the first part a brief history of the wind energy developments is detailed. Next, some commentaries related to the present and future state are made. Then, a revision of the modern structures of wind generation is realized. In fourth place it is included a brief comparison between small and big size turbines. Then, different types of energy storage are mentioned. Finally regulatory aspects are discussed, respect to the treatment of the technical problems. (author)

  11. Wind Generators Test Bench. Optimal Design of PI Controller

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TUDORACHE, T.

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel and robust strategy for the optimal design of the drive system integrated in a wind generators test bench. The PI regulator coefficients used in control systems are usually computed based on simplified hypotheses and then tuned manually so as the system response meet certain specifications in terms of stability, accuracy and speed. The proposed methodology permits the automatic identification of PI regulator coefficients using intelligent optimization algorithms, the initial guess for the search procedure being determined based on particular simplified hypotheses. The proposed procedure can help the design engineers to drastically reduce the effort for finding the best PI regulator coefficients offering a range of feasible solutions depending on the imposed optimum criteria. The characteristics and performances of the optimization strategy are highlighted by using it for the design of a DC motor drive system used to simulate the wind prime mover integrated in a wind generators test bench.

  12. Output power control of two coupled wind generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Boukhelifa

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we are interested to the power control of two wind generators coupled to the network through power converters. Every energy chain conversion is composed of a wind turbine, a gearbox, a Double Fed Induction Generator (DFIG, two PWM converters and a DC bus. The power exchange and the DC voltage are controlled by the use of proportional integral correctors. For our study, initially we have modeled all the components of the one system energy conversion, and then we have simulated its behavior using Matlab/Simulink. In another part of this paper we present the analysis of the interaction and the powerflow between the two aerogenerators following a disturbance due to wind speed on every turbine. Also we have considered a connection fault to the DC bus. In each case the assessment of power brought into play is checked. Simulation tests are established.

  13. Wind Energy Facilities and Residential Properties: The Effect of Proximity and View on Sales Prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoen, Ben; Wiser, Ryan; Cappers, Peter; Thayer, Mark; Sethi, Gautam

    2010-04-01

    With wind energy expanding rapidly in the U.S. and abroad, and with an increasing number of communities considering nearby wind power developments, there is a need to empirically investigate community concerns about wind project development. One such concern is that property values may be adversely affected by wind energy facilities, and relatively little existing research exists on the subject. The present research is based on almost 7,500 sales of single-family homes situated within ten miles of 24 existing wind facilities in nine different U.S. states. The conclusions of the study are drawn from four different hedonic pricing models. The model results are consistent in that neither the view of the wind facilities nor the distance of the home to those facilities is found to have a statistically significant effect on home sales prices.

  14. Wind generation systems for remote communities: market assessment and guidelines for wind turbines selection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brothers, C.

    1993-06-01

    Wind technology and its market potential in remote communities of the Canadian North were discussed. These communities, unserviced by the main utility electricity grid, generate their own electricity using high quality, expensive diesel fuel to power diesel driven generators. The logistics of delivering fuel to these remote communities is an expensive operation. Wind resource in many of these communities is substantial and wind energy is seen as a prime candidate for supplying electricity to many potential sites in the Arctic and also areas in Quebec and Newfoundland. However, the severe service (i.e., cold climate, remote locations with limited facilities) requires special considerations to ensure that equipment installed performs reliably. This report described some demonstration projects in northern Canada over the last ten years, where an understanding of the special needs of wind turbines in remote areas has been developed. A guide which assessed the suitability of wind turbines for Arctic applications was included to assist organisations in preparing requirements to be used in acquiring wind turbines for use in cold regions. Refs., tabs., figs

  15. Floating wind generators offshore wind farm: Implications for structural loads and control actions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia, E.; Morant F, Quiles E.; Correcher, A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper describes the work currently carried out in the design of floating wind generators and their involvement in the future development of power generation in marine farms in depths exceeding 20 m. We discuss the main issues to be taken into account in the design of floating platforms, including the involvement of structural loads they bear. Also from a standpoint of control engineering are discussed strategies to reduce structural loads such a system to ensure adequate durability and therefore ensuring their economic viability. Finally, the abstract modeling tools for floating wind turbines that can be used in both structural design and the design of appropriate control algorithms

  16. Modelling wind speed parameters for computer generation of wind speed in Flanders. A case study using small wind turbines in an urban environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gay, Michael; Dessel, Michel van [Lessius Mechelen, Campus De Nayer (Belgium). Dept. of Applied Engineering; Driesen, Johan [Leuven Univ. (Belgium). Dept. of Electrical Engineering / ESAT

    2012-07-01

    The calculation of wind energy parameters is made for small wind turbines on moderate height in a suburban environment. After using the measured data, the same parameters were calculated using first order Markov chain computer generated data. Some characteristics of the wind and the wind power were preserved using Markov, other were not. (orig.)

  17. 77 FR 72439 - Residential, Business, and Wind and Solar Resource Leases on Indian Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... to streamline and expedite the leasing process, advance economic development, and spur renewable... entities; however, many tribes requested clarification regarding other taxation arising in the context of... residential, business, and WSR leasing subparts to subpart A. This section now addresses not only taxation of...

  18. Multi-Pole HTS Generators for Direct Drive Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Bogi Bech; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Seiler, Eugen

    or the performance of the coated conductor has to improve significantly (by a factor of 10 or more) in order for HTS generators to become feasible in direct drive offshore wind turbines. This price/performance improvement is not unrealistic in the coming decade. Additionally the reliability of such machines...

  19. Induction Generators for Direct-Drive Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Matthew Lee; Jensen, Bogi Bech

    2011-01-01

    This paper considers the use of a squirrel cage induction generator for a direct-drive wind turbine. Advantages of this topology include a simple/rugged construction, and no need for permanent magnets. A major focus of this paper is the choice of an appropriate pole number. An iterative, analytical...

  20. Simulations of wind turbine rotor with vortex generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Niels N.; Zahle, Frederik; Sørensen, Niels N.

    2016-01-01

    This work presents simulations of the DTU 10MW wind turbine rotor equipped with vortex generators (VGs) on the inner part of the blades. The objective is to study the influence of different VG configurations on rotor performance and in particular to investigate the radial dependence of VGs, i...

  1. Optimal Excitation Controller Design for Wind Turbine Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. K. Boglou

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available An optimal excitation controller design based on multirate-output controllers (MROCs having a multirate sampling mechanismwith different sampling period in each measured output of the system is presented. The proposed H∞ -control techniqueis applied to the discrete linear open-loop system model which represents a wind turbine generator supplying an infinite busthrough a transmission line.

  2. Phase spectral composition of wind generated ocean surface waves

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Varkey, M.J.

    A study of the composition of the phase spectra of wind generated ocean surface waves is carried out using wave records collected employing a ship borne wave recorder. It is found that the raw phase spectral estimates could be fitted by the Uniform...

  3. Computation of Superconducting Generators for Wind Turbine Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodriguez Zermeno, Victor Manuel

    The idea of introducing a superconducting generator for offshore wind turbine applications has received increasing support. It has been proposed as a way to meet energy market requirements and policies demanding clean energy sources in the near future. However, design considerations have to take......, to the actual generators in the KW (MW) class with an expected cross section in the order of decimeters (meters). This thesis work presents cumulative results intended to create a bottom-up model of a synchronous generator with superconducting rotor windings. In a first approach, multiscale meshes with large...... of the generator including ramp-up of rotor coils, load connection and change was simulated. Hence, transient hysteresis losses in the superconducting coils were computed. This allowed addressing several important design and performance issues such as critical current of the superconducting coils, electric load...

  4. Power fluctuations suppression of stand-alone hybrid generation combining solar photovoltaic/wind turbine and fuel cell systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Nabil A.; Miyatake, Masafumi; Al-Othman, A.K.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper a hybrid energy system combining variable speed wind turbine, solar photovoltaic and fuel cell generation systems is presented to supply continuous power to residential power applications as stand-alone loads. The wind and photovoltaic systems are used as main energy sources while the fuel cell is used as secondary or back-up energy source. Three individual dc-dc boost converters are used to control the power flow to the load. A simple and cost effective control with dc-dc converters is used for maximum power point tracking and hence maximum power extracting from the wind turbine and the solar photovoltaic systems. The hybrid system is sized to power a typical 2 kW/150 V dc load as telecommunication power plants or ac residential power applications in isolated islands continuously throughout the year. The results show that even when the sun and wind are not available; the system is reliable and available and it can supply high-quality power to the load. The simulation results which proved the accuracy of the proposed controllers are given to demonstrate the availability of the proposed system in this paper. Also, a complete description of the management and control system is presented

  5. Characteristics of Wind Generated Waves in the Delaware Estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J. L.; Ralston, D. K.; Geyer, W. R.; Chant, R. J.; Sommerfield, C. K.

    2016-02-01

    Coastal marshes provide important services for human uses such as fishery industry, recreation, ports and marine operations. Bombay Hook Wildlife Refuge, located along the western shore of the Delaware Estuary, has experienced substantial loss of salt marsh in recent decades. To evaluate the importance of different mechanisms which cause observed shoreline retreat, wave gauges were deployed along the dredged navigation channel and shoreline in the Delaware Estuary. A coupled wave and circulation modeling system (SWAN/ROMS) based on the most recent bathymetry (last updated 2013) is validated with waves observed during both calm and energetic conditions in November 2015. Simulation results based on different model parameterizations of whitecapping, bottom friction and the wind input source are compared. The tendency of observed wave steepness is more similar to a revised whitecapping source term [Westhuysen, 2007] than the default in SWAN model. Both model results and field data show that the generation/dissipation of waves in the Delaware estuary is determined by the local wind speed and channel depth. Whitecapping-induced energy dissipation is dominant in the channel, while dissipation due to bottom friction and depth-induced breaking become important on lateral shoals. To characterize the effects of wind fetch on waves in estuaries more generally, simulations with an idealized domain and varying wind conditions are compared and the results are expressed in terms of non-dimensional parameters. The simulations based on a 10m-depth uniform idealized channel show that the dissipation of waves is mainly controlled by whitecapping in all wind conditions. Under strong wind conditions (wind speed >10m/s) the effect of bottom friction becomes important so the simulated wave heights are no longer linearly correlated with wind speed.

  6. Feasibility study of 5MW superconducting wind turbine generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Jensen, Bogi Bech; Seiler, E.

    2011-01-01

    The feasibility of installing a direct drive superconducting generator in the 5MW reference offshore wind turbine of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has been examined. The engineering current densities Je obtained in a series of race track coils have been combined with magnetization...... measurements to estimate the properties of suitable field coils for a synchronous generator, which is more light weight than the conventional used combination of a gear box and a fast rotating generator. An analytical model and finite element simulations have been used to estimate the active mass of generators...

  7. Concentrated Windings in Compact Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generators: Managing Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Barré

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In electric power generation, customers want generators with high efficiency. Nowadays, modern turbo-generators have efficiencies greater than 98%. Although this amount should not be obtained for all kind of machines, efficiency will remain one of the main parameters for customer choice. Efficiency is also linked to the life of the machine: the higher the efficiency is, the longer the machine’s lifetime. During the past decade, new forms of energy production have appeared and generators have been developed to fit well into this market. For example, wind generators evolved towards permanent magnet generators having high polarity and running at low speed. Nevertheless, their structure is not fixed. An industrial company has built a prototype of such a generator which uses fractional-slot concentrated-windings (FSCW. This kind of winding is not the structure used by default in such electrical machines. Another field of interest is in autonomous generators which can be used on boats. Even if everyone has in mind large merchant ships, we must not forget smaller ships, such as fishing boats and short-range cruise ships, which spend the most of their time near the coast. This kind of ship does nothave large areas for installing the electric generation or the electric propulsion. It is the reason why, in this article, we focus on the efficiency of machines using fractional-slot concentrated-windings. In many publications which compare performances between distributed and concentrated windings, the result is almost the same. The efficiency of FSCW is not as high as the efficiency associated to the machines which are using distributed windings. Design methods have to be redrawn to integrate, as soon as possible, the loss mitigation in order to provide the best efficiency in power conversion. The following discussion, step by step, introduces the loss mitigation in every part of a machine using FSCW. To close the discussion, a design is produced and it

  8. French wind power generation programme EOLE 2005 - first results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laali, A.R. [Electricite de France (EDF), Chatou (France); Benard, M. [Electricite de France (EDF), Paris (France)

    1997-12-31

    EOLE 2005 has been launched in July 1996 by the French Ministry of Industry, Electricite de France and ADEME (Agency for Environment and Energy Management). The Ministries of Research and Environment are participating also in this programme. The purpose is to create an initial market in France for wind power generation in order to evaluate the cost-effectiveness and the competitiveness of the wind energy compared to other energy sources by 2005. The installed capacity will reach at least 250 MW and possibly 500 MW.

  9. Energy dissipation through wind-generated breaking waves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shuwen; CAO Ruixue; XIE Lingling

    2012-01-01

    Wave breaking is an important process that controls turbulence properties and fluxes of heat and mass in the upper oceanic layer.A model is described for energy dissipation per unit area at the ocean surface attributed to wind-generated breaking waves,in terms of ratio of energy dissipation to energy input,windgenerated wave spectrum,and wave growth rate.Also advanced is a vertical distribution model of turbulent kinetic energy,based on an exponential distribution method.The result shows that energy dissipation rate depends heavily on wind speed and sea state.Our results agree well with predictions of previous works.

  10. Wind energy-hydrogen storage hybrid power generation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenjei Yang; Orhan Aydin [University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering and Applied Mechanics

    2001-07-01

    In this theoretical investigation, a hybrid power generation system utilizing wind energy and hydrogen storage is presented. Firstly, the available wind energy is determined, which is followed by evaluating the efficiency of the wind energy conversion system. A revised model of windmill is proposed from which wind power density and electric power output are determined. When the load demand is less than the output of the generation, the excess electric power is relayed to the electrolytic cell where it is used to electrolyse the de-ionized water. Hydrogen thus produced can be stored as hydrogen compressed gas or liquid. Once the hydrogen is stored in an appropriate high-pressure vessel, it can be used in a combustion engine, fuel cell, or burned in a water-cooled burner to produce a very high-quality steam for space heating, or to drive a turbine to generate electric power. It can also be combined with organic materials to produce synthetic fuels. The conclusion is that the system produces no harmful waste and depletes no resources. Note that this system also works well with a solar collector instead of a windmill. (author)

  11. MPPT for PM wind generator using gradient approximation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hong, Y.-Y.; Lu, S.-D.; Chiou, C.-S.

    2009-01-01

    This paper applies new maximum-power-point tracking (MPPT) algorithms to a wind-turbine generator system (WTGS). In this paper, the WTGS is a direct-drive system and includes the wind-turbine, permanent-magnet (PM) synchronous generator, three-phase full bridge rectifier, buck-boost converter and load. The new MPPT method uses gradient approximation (GA) algorithm. Three methods based on GA for achieving MPPT are discussed in this paper: (1) full-sensor control with anemometer and tachometer, (2) rule-based method and (3) adaptive duty cycle method. The third method has merits of no PID parameters, proportional constant, anemometer, tachometer and characteristics of WTGS required. This method enables the permanent-magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) to operate at variable speeds to achieve good performance. Simulation results show that the tip-speed ratio (TSR) and power coefficient obtained by the adaptive duty cycle method with GA can be almost identical to the optimal values

  12. Small wind turbine purchasing guide : off-grid, residential, farm and small business applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2008-11-01

    Consumer interest in the environment and the economic advantages of using wind power are now driving interest in smaller wind turbines that range from micro battery-charging models to 300 kW tower-mounted turbines. Smaller turbines are also becoming increasingly accessible through major retail outlets. This guide discussed basic issues surrounding the purchasing, selection and installation of smaller wind turbines. Guidance related to site selection, permitting and approvals was provided, as well as recommendations related to maintenance and system performance. Information related to compliance, safety and setback and zoning restrictions was also presented. The guide was divided into 5 chapters: (1) an introduction to small wind turbines, (2) assessing site-specific expectations, (3) purchasing and permitting, (4) installation, operation and maintenance, and (6) a permitting checklist for small wind customers. Financial incentives for defraying the capital costs of small wind turbines were discussed, and guidance for determining electrical requirements was also provided. A glossary was included, as well as a list of local wind energy contractor and dealers. 3 tabs., 10 figs

  13. Coastal and offshore wind energy generation: is it environmentally benign?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, J. C.; Elliott, M.; Cutts, N. D.; Mander, L.; Mendao, V.; Perez-Dominguez, R.; Phelps, A. [Institute of Estuarine and Coastal Studies, University of Hull, Hull, HU6 7RX (United Kingdom); Wilson, J. C. [Amec, Booths Park, Chelford Road, Knutsford, Cheshire, WA16 8QZ (United Kingdom); Mendao, V. [Projecto Delfim, Centro Portugues de Estudo dos Mamiferos Marinhos, Rua Alto do Duque, 45, 1400-009 Lisboa (Portugal)

    2010-07-15

    Offshore and coastal wind power is one of the fastest growing industries in many areas, especially those with shallow coastal regions due to the preferable generation conditions available in the regions. As with any expanding industry, there are concerns regarding the potential environmental effects which may be caused by the installation of the offshore wind turbines and their associated infrastructure, including substations and subsea cables. These include the potential impacts on the biological, physical and human environments. This review discusses in detail the potential impacts arising from offshore wind farm construction, and how these may be quantified and addressed through the use of conceptual models. It concludes that while not environmentally benign, the environmental impacts are minor and can be mitigated through good siting practices. In addition, it suggests that there are opportunities for environmental benefits through habitat creation and conservation protection areas. (authors)

  14. Wind Energy Facilities and Residential Properties: The Effect of Proximity and View on Sales Prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Diego State University; Bard Center for Environmental Policy at Bard College; Hoen, Ben; Wiser, Ryan; Cappers, Peter; Thayer, Mark; Sethi, Gautam

    2011-06-23

    With increasing numbers of communities considering wind power developments, empirical investigations regarding related community concerns are needed. One such concern is that proximate property values may be adversely affected, yet relatively little research exists on the subject. The present research investigates roughly 7,500 sales of single-family homes surrounding 24 existing U.S. wind facilities. Across four different hedonic models, and a variety of robustness tests, the results are consistent: neither the view of the wind facilities nor the distance of the home to those facilities is found to have a statistically significant effect on sales prices, yet further research is warranted.

  15. Feasibility study of wind-generated electricity for rural applications in southwestern Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohring, G. W.

    The parameters associated with domestic production of wind generated electricity for direct use by small farms and rural homes in the southwestern Ohio region are discussed. The project involves direct utility interfaced electricity generation from a horizontal axis, down-wind, fixed pitch, wind powered induction generator system. Goals of the project are to determine: the ability to produce useful amounts of domestic wind generated electricity in the southwestern Ohio region; economic justification for domestic wind generated electrical production; and the potential of domestic wind generated electricity for reducing dependence on non-renewable energy resources in the southwestern Ohio region.

  16. Design Tool for Direct Drive Wind Turbine Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leban, Krisztina Monika

    . A comparison of the selected machine types in view of up-scaling to 20 [MW] was performed. As an example fitness criterion, the use of active materials for the generators was considered. Based on this, suggestions for 20 [MW] generators were made. The results are discussed and future work, directions......The current work offers a comparison of the proposed machine geometries for 6 [MW] direct drive wind generator candidates with the prospective of up scaling to 20MW. The suggestions are based on a design tool especially built for this investigation. The in-built flexibility of the design tool gives...

  17. Effect of wind turbine generator model and siting on wind power changes out of large WECS arrays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleuter, R. A.; Park, G. L.; Lotfalian, M.; Dorsey, J.; Shayanfar, H.

    1981-01-01

    Methods of reducing the WECS generation change through selection of the wind turbine model for each site, selection of an appropriate siting configuration, and wind array controls are discussed. An analysis of wind generation change from an echelon and a farm for passage of a thunderstorm is presented. Reduction of the wind generation change over ten minutes is shown to reduce the increase in spinning reserve, unloadable generation and load following requirements on unit commitment when significant WECS generation is present and the farm penetration constraint is satisfied. Controls on the blade pitch angle of all wind turbines in an array or a battery control are shown to reduce both the wind generation change out of an array and the effective farm penetration in anticipation of a storm so that the farm penetration constraint may be satisfied.

  18. Private wind powered electricity generators for industry in the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thabit, S. S.; Stark, J.

    This paper investigates the impact of the provisions of the new Energy Act, 1983 on industrial wind-powered private generators of electricity and the effects of published tariffs on various industrial working patterns. Up to 30 percent savings can be achieved in annual electricity bill costs for an industrial generator/user of electricity working a single daily shift, if located in a favorable, 7 m/s mean annual wind speed regime. Variation of the availability charge between Electricity Boards about a base value of 0.70 pounds sterling/kVA was found to have insignificant (+ or - 1.3 percent) impact on total electricity bill costs. It was also shown that for industrial users of electricity, the simpler two-rate purchase terms were commercially adequate when compared with the four-rate alternative where expensive metering becomes necessary.

  19. Optimized Generator Designs for the DTU 10-MW Offshore Wind Turbine using GeneratorSE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sethuraman, Latha; Maness, Michael; Dykes, Katherine

    2017-01-09

    Compared to land-based applications, offshore wind imposes challenges for the development of next generation wind turbine generator technology. Direct-drive generators are believed to offer high availability, efficiency, and reduced operation and maintenance requirements; however, previous research suggests difficulties in scaling to several megawatts or more in size. The resulting designs are excessively large and/or massive, which are major impediments to transportation logistics, especially for offshore applications. At the same time, geared wind turbines continue to sustain offshore market growth through relatively cheaper and lightweight generators. However, reliability issues associated with mechanical components in a geared system create significant operation and maintenance costs, and these costs make up a large portion of overall system costs offshore. Thus, direct-drive turbines are likely to outnumber their gear-driven counterparts for this market, and there is a need to review the costs or opportunities of building machines with different types of generators and examining their competitiveness at the sizes necessary for the next generation of offshore wind turbines. In this paper, we use GeneratorSE, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's newly developed systems engineering generator sizing tool to estimate mass, efficiency, and the costs of different generator technologies satisfying the electromagnetic, structural, and basic thermal design requirements for application in a very large-scale offshore wind turbine such as the Technical University of Denmark's (DTU) 10-MW reference wind turbine. For the DTU reference wind turbine, we use the previously mentioned criteria to optimize a direct-drive, radial flux, permanent-magnet synchronous generator; a direct-drive electrically excited synchronous generator; a medium-speed permanent-magnet generator; and a high-speed, doubly-fed induction generator. Preliminary analysis of leveled costs of

  20. Optimized Generator Designs for the DTU 10-MW Offshore Wind Turbine using GeneratorSE: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sethuraman, Latha; Maness, Michael; Dykes, Katherine

    2017-01-01

    Compared to land-based applications, offshore wind imposes challenges for the development of next generation wind turbine generator technology. Direct-drive generators are believed to offer high availability, efficiency, and reduced operation and maintenance requirements; however, previous research suggests difficulties in scaling to several megawatts or more in size. The resulting designs are excessively large and/or massive, which are major impediments to transportation logistics, especially for offshore applications. At the same time, geared wind turbines continue to sustain offshore market growth through relatively cheaper and lightweight generators. However, reliability issues associated with mechanical components in a geared system create significant operation and maintenance costs, and these costs make up a large portion of overall system costs offshore. Thus, direct-drive turbines are likely to outnumber their gear-driven counterparts for this market, and there is a need to review the costs or opportunities of building machines with different types of generators and examining their competitiveness at the sizes necessary for the next generation of offshore wind turbines. In this paper, we use GeneratorSE, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's newly developed systems engineering generator sizing tool to estimate mass, efficiency, and the costs of different generator technologies satisfying the electromagnetic, structural, and basic thermal design requirements for application in a very large-scale offshore wind turbine such as the Technical University of Denmark's (DTU) 10-MW reference wind turbine. For the DTU reference wind turbine, we use the previously mentioned criteria to optimize a direct-drive, radial flux, permanent-magnet synchronous generator; a direct-drive electrically excited synchronous generator; a medium-speed permanent-magnet generator; and a high-speed, doubly-fed induction generator. Preliminary analysis of leveled costs of

  1. What a Sudden Downpour Reveals About Wind Wave Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Cavaleri, Luigi

    2018-04-12

    We use our previous numerical and measuring experience and the evidence from a rather unique episode at sea to summarise our doubts on the present physical approach in wave modelling. The evidence strongly suggests that generation by wind and dissipation by white-capping have a different physics than presently considered. Most of all they should be viewed as part of a single physical process.

  2. What a Sudden Downpour Reveals About Wind Wave Generation

    KAUST Repository

    Cavaleri, Luigi; Baldock, Tom; Bertotti, Luciana; Langodan, Sabique; Olfateh, Mohammad; Pezzutto, Paolo

    2018-01-01

    We use our previous numerical and measuring experience and the evidence from a rather unique episode at sea to summarise our doubts on the present physical approach in wave modelling. The evidence strongly suggests that generation by wind and dissipation by white-capping have a different physics than presently considered. Most of all they should be viewed as part of a single physical process.

  3. Removable bearing arrangement for a wind turbine generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagepalli, Bharat Sampathkumaran; Jansen, Patrick Lee; Gadre, Aniruddha Dattatraya

    2010-06-15

    A wind generator having removable change-out bearings includes a rotor and a stator, locking bolts configured to lock the rotor and stator, a removable bearing sub-assembly having at least one shrunk-on bearing installed, and removable mounting bolts configured to engage the bearing sub-assembly and to allow the removable bearing sub-assembly to be removed when the removable mounting bolts are removed.

  4. Design of DOE facilities for wind-generated missiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuilanoff, G.; Drake, R.M.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents criteria and procedures for the design of structures and components for wind-generated missiles. Methods for determining missile-induced loading, calculated structural response, performance requirements, and design considerations are covered. The presented criteria is applicable to Safety-Related concrete buildings as a whole and to all their exposed external components including walls, roofs, and supporting structural systems and elements

  5. Lightweight MgB2 superconducting 10 MW wind generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marino, I.; Pujana, A.; Sarmiento, G.; Sanz, S.; Merino, J. M.; Tropeano, M.; Sun, J.; Canosa, T.

    2016-02-01

    The offshore wind market demands a higher power rate and more reliable turbines in order to optimize capital and operational costs. The state-of-the-art shows that both geared and direct-drive conventional generators are difficult to scale up to 10 MW and beyond due to their huge size and weight. Superconducting direct-drive wind generators are considered a promising solution to achieve lighter weight machines. This work presents an innovative 10 MW 8.1 rpm direct-drive partial superconducting generator using MgB2 wire for the field coils. It has a warm iron rotor configuration with the superconducting coils working at 20 K while the rotor core and the armature are at ambient temperature. A cooling system based on cryocoolers installed in the rotor extracts the heat from the superconducting coils by conduction. The generator's main parameters are compared against a permanent magnet reference machine, showing a significant weight and size reduction. The 10 MW superconducting generator concept will be experimentally validated with a small-scale magnetic machine, which has innovative components such as superconducting coils, modular cryostats and cooling systems, and will have similar size and characteristics as the 10 MW generator.

  6. Loss Minimizing Operation of Doubly Fed Induction Generator Based Wind Generation Systems Considering Reactive Power Provision

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baohua, Zhang; Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    The paper deals with control techniques for minimizing the operating loss of doubly fed induction generator based wind generation systems when providing reactive power. The proposed method achieves its goal through controlling the rotor side q-axis current in the synchronous reference frame...

  7. Vibration monitoring of large generator stator and-winding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duffeau, F.; Bernard, P.

    1999-01-01

    Large generators of French Nuclear Power plants are equipped with a standardised vibration monitoring system. The first aim of these new systems is to protect the machines by generating alarms in the control room when predefined vibration thresholds have been over-passed. Secondly, this specially designed instrumentation permits to create a National data base allowing to compare different generators of the same technology. Additionally, statistical methods have been developed in order to 'guess' vibration level at several locations of the stator end-windings, depending on the actual operating parameters of the generator, i.e. reactive and active power load. So this paper presents the general concept of the vibration monitoring of EDF large generator stators and deals with a new method to predict vibrations in different locations under control. (authors)

  8. Crowbar System in Doubly Fed Induction Wind Generators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurício B. C. Salles

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In the last 15 years, the use of doubly fed induction machines in modern variable-speed wind turbines has increased rapidly. This development has been driven by the cost reduction as well as the low-loss generation of Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistors (IGBT. According to new grid code requirements, wind turbines must remain connected to the grid during grid disturbances. Moreover, they must also contribute to voltage support during and after grid faults. The crowbar system is essential to avoid the disconnection of the doubly fed induction wind generators from the network during faults. The insertion of the crowbar in the rotor circuits for a short period of time enables a more efficient terminal voltage control. As a general rule, the activation and the deactivation of the crowbar system is based only on the DC-link voltage level of the back-to-back converters. In this context, the authors discuss the critical rotor speed to analyze the instability of doubly fed induction generators during grid faults.

  9. Probabilistic Forecast of Wind Power Generation by Stochastic Differential Equation Models

    KAUST Repository

    Elkantassi, Soumaya

    2017-01-01

    Reliable forecasting of wind power generation is crucial to optimal control of costs in generation of electricity with respect to the electricity demand. Here, we propose and analyze stochastic wind power forecast models described by parametrized

  10. A novel excitation assistance switched reluctance wind power generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiao; Park, Kiwoo; Chen, Zhe

    2014-01-01

    The high inductance of a general switched reluctance generator (SRG) may prevent the excitation of the magnetic field from being quickly established enough, which may further limit the output power of the SRG. A novel excitation assistance SRG (EASRG) for wind power generation is proposed...... in this paper to solve the above problem. C-shape stator cores are employed in a modular design concept for quick maintenance or replacement, and a ring-shape excitation assistant coil is sandwiched in the space between the modular stator cores. The magnetization and torque characteristics are simulated by 3-D...

  11. HTS technology - Generating the future of offshore wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Jens

    2010-09-15

    Superconductive generator design is going to become a real competitive alternative in the future. In general, superconductor design is the most competitive out of Direct Drive Systems and best fulfils the needs of the upcoming market - especially in the offshore market, where WECs with higher nominal power up to 10MW are required. Low weight, high reliability and the very good grid behaviour are the main advantages of the superconductor generator design and will lead to lower costs. The other systems are restricted to a smaller energy output range and / or onshore wind power production business.

  12. 5MW Direct Drive Wind Turbine Generator Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zaidi, Arsalan; Senn, Lucile; Ortega, Iratxe

    2012-01-01

    A 5MW direct drive offshore wind turbine generator was studied and simulated using Vector Fields OPERA. This software allows calculation of the flux density, force, torque, and eddy currents in the machine at different rotor positions. Based on the data obtained from the model, initial assumptions...... for the suitable machine are listed and the modelling process presented. The model of the generator was improved by changing design parameters, e.g the position of the magnets or fitting additional I-Cores, and analyse the effect of it....

  13. Fuzzy generation scheduling for a generation company (GenCo) with large scale wind farms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siahkali, H.; Vakilian, M.

    2010-01-01

    Wind power is a promising alternative in power generation because of its tremendous environmental and social benefits. Generation scheduling (GS) is more important in a power system integrating wind farms. Unlike conventional power generation sources, wind power generators supply intermittent power because of uncertainty in resource. This paper presents a fuzzy approach to the generation scheduling problem of a GenCo considering uncertainties in parameters or constraints such as load, reserve and available wind power generation. The modeling of constraints is an important issue in power system scheduling. A fuzzy optimization approach is an approach that can be used to obtain the generation scheduling under an uncertain environment. In this paper, a fuzzy optimization-based method is developed to solve power system GS problem with fuzzy objective and constraints. The crisp formulation of this GS problem is firstly defined and is rearranged by introduction of a membership function of some constraints and objective function. Then, this fuzzy optimization problem is converted to a crisp optimization and solved using GAMS software by mixed integer nonlinear programming. Employing the fuzzy optimization GS, it is expected that in practice a higher profit would be achieved in the operation and cost management of a real power system with large scale wind farms in different level of constraints' satisfaction. The proposed approach is applied to a sample system (including six conventional units and two wind farms) and the results are compared with the results of crisp solution. This approach is also applied to a larger test case to demonstrate the robustness of this fuzzy optimization method.

  14. Lightweight MgB2 superconducting 10 MW wind generator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, I; Pujana, A; Sarmiento, G; Sanz, S; Merino, J M; Tropeano, M; Sun, J; Canosa, T

    2016-01-01

    The offshore wind market demands a higher power rate and more reliable turbines in order to optimize capital and operational costs. The state-of-the-art shows that both geared and direct-drive conventional generators are difficult to scale up to 10 MW and beyond due to their huge size and weight. Superconducting direct-drive wind generators are considered a promising solution to achieve lighter weight machines. This work presents an innovative 10 MW 8.1 rpm direct-drive partial superconducting generator using MgB 2 wire for the field coils. It has a warm iron rotor configuration with the superconducting coils working at 20 K while the rotor core and the armature are at ambient temperature. A cooling system based on cryocoolers installed in the rotor extracts the heat from the superconducting coils by conduction. The generator’s main parameters are compared against a permanent magnet reference machine, showing a significant weight and size reduction. The 10 MW superconducting generator concept will be experimentally validated with a small-scale magnetic machine, which has innovative components such as superconducting coils, modular cryostats and cooling systems, and will have similar size and characteristics as the 10 MW generator. (paper)

  15. Ripple Field AC Losses in 10-MW Wind Turbine Generators With a MgB2 Superconducting Field Winding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Dong; Polinder, Henk; Magnusson, Niklas

    2016-01-01

    Superconducting (SC) synchronous generators are proposed as a promising candidate for 10-20-MW direct-drive wind turbines because they can have low weights and small sizes. A common way of designing an SC machine is to use SC wires with high current-carrying capability in the dc field winding...... and the ac armature winding is made with copper conductors. In such generators, the dc field winding is exposed to ac magnetic field ripples due to space harmonics from the armature. In generator design phases, the ac loss caused by these ripple fields needs to be evaluated to avoid local overheating...... and an excessive cooling budget. To determine the applicability of different design solutions in terms of ac losses, this paper estimates the ac loss level of 10-MW wind generator designs employing a MgB2 SC field winding. The effects on ac losses are compared between nonmagnetic and ferromagnetic teeth...

  16. Influence of the characteristic and installation site of wind generator on quantity of produced energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palge, V.; Lepa, J.; Tamm, T.

    2002-01-01

    In Estonia, especially in inland the wind speed is rather low. According to the Master thesis of Tonis Tamm the opportunities of use of several types of wind generators are analysed. It is found out, that the wind generator, beginning to produce energy at wind speed 2 m/s can in such conditions produce about four times more electricity energy than such having 'cut-in' wind speed 4 m/s. (author)

  17. Models for Numerical Evaluation of Variable Speed Different Wind Generator Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Hui; Chen, Zhe; Polinder, H.

    2007-01-01

    of different wind generator systems, the other presents the optimization results and evaluation of variable speed wind generator systems. In this report, firstly, it gives an overview of various wind generator topologies, including their advantages and disadvantages, market status and developing trends. Next...

  18. Wing/kite-based wind energy generation: An overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milanese, M.

    2013-06-01

    Several technologies, aimed at converting high-altitude wind into electricity, are actually being investigated by companies, research centers and universities worldwide, and the community of people working in this field has coined the term airborne wind energy (AWE) as a common umbrella for these concepts. Indeed, many basic ideas that are now being developed in the context of AWE were already present in patents and publications since the '70s. Then, these ideas remained somehow silent, until more recent years, when several research groups and companies started to carry out theoretical, numerical and experimental analyses, made possible by important advances in diverse fields like materials, aerodynamics, sensors, computation and control. In this lecture, the basic AWE concepts and results that have been up to date accomplished are overviewed, with a focus on a particular class of AWE generators, namely with flexible wings and ground level generators, and emphasis on optimization and control aspects. Finally, we delineate what challenges are still to be faced, in order to fully demonstrate the viability of airborne wind energy.

  19. Control of Next Generation Aircraft and Wind Turbines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Susan

    2010-01-01

    The first part of this talk will describe some of the exciting new next generation aircraft that NASA is proposing for the future. These aircraft are being designed to reduce aircraft fuel consumption and environmental impact. Reducing the aircraft weight is one approach that will be used to achieve these goals. A new control framework will be presented that enables lighter, more flexible aircraft to maintain aircraft handling qualities, while preventing the aircraft from exceeding structural load limits. The second part of the talk will give an overview of utility-scale wind turbines and their control. Results of collaboration with Dr. Balas will be presented, including new theory to adaptively control the turbine in the presence of structural modes, with the focus on the application of this theory to a high-fidelity simulation of a wind turbine.

  20. Most promising flexible generators for the wind dominated market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorushylo, I.; Keatley, P.; Hewitt, NJ

    2016-01-01

    The intermittent nature of wind power and other forms of variable renewable energy requires complementary dispatchable flexible generators in order to guarantee the efficient, reliable and secure operation of electricity systems. The most popular solution to date has been peaking plant, usually in the form of open-cycle-gas- turbines (OCGT). Energy storage technologies have so far been considered too expensive, however technology development, as well as challenging renewable targets could potentially make storage economically viable. Although new advanced flexible combined-cycle gas turbines (CCGT) have been developed by some manufacturers, they have not yet been investigated in electricity market models. This paper describes a techno-economic assessment of the most suitable flexible technologies for the wind-dominated all Ireland electricity market (the Single Electricity Market (SEM)). The analysis is conducted by considering the impact of a series of policy scenarios which are compared in an electricity market model. The comparison is quantified using three primary metrics: technical benefits to the system, economic advantages to the consumer and investment viability. Modelling results suggest that advanced CCGT and energy storage solutions are the most advantageous, however they need strong governmental support to attract potential investors and guarantee deployment in the market. - Highlights: •Future efficiency and stability of the wind dominated require flexible generators. •Energy storage systems are the most technically advantageous flexible generators. •The advanced flexible CCGT is the most efficient solution from an economic point of view. •Traditional peaking plants (OCGT) is the least advantageous flexible generator. •The governments will play a key role in integration of the flexible technologies.

  1. Doubly Fed Induction Generator Wind Turbines with Fuzzy Controller: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. S. Sathiyanarayanan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy is one of the extraordinary sources of renewable energy due to its clean character and free availability. With the increasing wind power penetration, the wind farms are directly influencing the power systems. The majority of wind farms are using variable speed wind turbines equipped with doubly fed induction generators (DFIG due to their advantages over other wind turbine generators (WTGs. Therefore, the analysis of wind power dynamics with the DFIG wind turbines has become a very important research issue, especially during transient faults. This paper presents fuzzy logic control of doubly fed induction generator (DFIG wind turbine in a sample power system. Fuzzy logic controller is applied to rotor side converter for active power control and voltage regulation of wind turbine.

  2. Doubly fed induction generator wind turbines with fuzzy controller: a survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathiyanarayanan, J S; Kumar, A Senthil

    2014-01-01

    Wind energy is one of the extraordinary sources of renewable energy due to its clean character and free availability. With the increasing wind power penetration, the wind farms are directly influencing the power systems. The majority of wind farms are using variable speed wind turbines equipped with doubly fed induction generators (DFIG) due to their advantages over other wind turbine generators (WTGs). Therefore, the analysis of wind power dynamics with the DFIG wind turbines has become a very important research issue, especially during transient faults. This paper presents fuzzy logic control of doubly fed induction generator (DFIG) wind turbine in a sample power system. Fuzzy logic controller is applied to rotor side converter for active power control and voltage regulation of wind turbine.

  3. Production patterns of packaging waste categories generated at typical Mediterranean residential building worksites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González Pericot, N., E-mail: natalia.gpericot@upm.es [Escuela Técnica Superior de Edificación, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Calle Juan de Herrera n°6, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Villoria Sáez, P., E-mail: paola.villoria@upm.es [Escuela Técnica Superior de Edificación, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Calle Juan de Herrera n°6, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Del Río Merino, M., E-mail: mercedes.delrio@upm.es [Escuela Técnica Superior de Edificación, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Calle Juan de Herrera n°6, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Liébana Carrasco, O., E-mail: oscar.liebana@uem.es [Escuela de Arquitectura, Universidad Europea de Madrid, Calle Tajo s/n, 28670 Villaviciosa de Odón (Spain)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • On-site segregation level: 1.80%; training and motivation strategies were not effective. • 70% Cardboard waste: from switches and sockets during the building services stage. • 40% Plastic waste: generated during structures and partition works due to palletizing. • >50% Wood packaging waste, basically pallets, generated during the envelope works. - Abstract: The construction sector is responsible for around 28% of the total waste volume generated in Europe, which exceeds the amount of household waste. This has led to an increase of different research studies focusing on construction waste quantification. However, within the research studies made, packaging waste has been analyzed to a limited extent. This article focuses on the packaging waste stream generated in the construction sector. To this purpose current on-site waste packaging management has been assessed by monitoring ten Mediterranean residential building works. The findings of the experimental data collection revealed that the incentive measures implemented by the construction company to improve on-site waste sorting failed to achieve the intended purpose, showing low segregation ratios. Subsequently, through an analytical study the generation patterns for packaging waste are established, leading to the identification of the prevailing kinds of packaging and the products responsible for their generation. Results indicate that plastic waste generation maintains a constant trend throughout the whole construction process, while cardboard becomes predominant towards the end of the construction works with switches and sockets from the electricity stage. Understanding the production patterns of packaging waste will be beneficial for adapting waste management strategies to the identified patterns for the specific nature of packaging waste within the context of construction worksites.

  4. Production patterns of packaging waste categories generated at typical Mediterranean residential building worksites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González Pericot, N.; Villoria Sáez, P.; Del Río Merino, M.; Liébana Carrasco, O.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • On-site segregation level: 1.80%; training and motivation strategies were not effective. • 70% Cardboard waste: from switches and sockets during the building services stage. • 40% Plastic waste: generated during structures and partition works due to palletizing. • >50% Wood packaging waste, basically pallets, generated during the envelope works. - Abstract: The construction sector is responsible for around 28% of the total waste volume generated in Europe, which exceeds the amount of household waste. This has led to an increase of different research studies focusing on construction waste quantification. However, within the research studies made, packaging waste has been analyzed to a limited extent. This article focuses on the packaging waste stream generated in the construction sector. To this purpose current on-site waste packaging management has been assessed by monitoring ten Mediterranean residential building works. The findings of the experimental data collection revealed that the incentive measures implemented by the construction company to improve on-site waste sorting failed to achieve the intended purpose, showing low segregation ratios. Subsequently, through an analytical study the generation patterns for packaging waste are established, leading to the identification of the prevailing kinds of packaging and the products responsible for their generation. Results indicate that plastic waste generation maintains a constant trend throughout the whole construction process, while cardboard becomes predominant towards the end of the construction works with switches and sockets from the electricity stage. Understanding the production patterns of packaging waste will be beneficial for adapting waste management strategies to the identified patterns for the specific nature of packaging waste within the context of construction worksites

  5. Wind power scenario generation through state-space specifications for uncertainty analysis of wind power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Díaz, Guzmán; Gómez-Aleixandre, Javier; Coto, José

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • State space representations for simulating wind power plant output are proposed. • The representation of wind speed in state space allows structural analysis. • The joint model incorporates the temporal and spatial dependence structure. • The models are easily integrable into a backward/forward sweep algorithm. • Results evidence the remarkable differences between joint and marginal models. - Abstract: This paper proposes the use of state space models to generate scenarios for the analysis of wind power plant (WPP) generation capabilities. The proposal is rooted on the advantages that state space models present for dealing with stochastic processes; mainly their structural definition and the use of Kalman filter to naturally tackle some involved operations. The specification proposed in this paper comprises a structured representation of individual Box–Jenkins models, with indications about further improvements that can be easily performed. These marginal models are combined to form a joint model in which the dependence structure is easily handled. Indications about the procedure to calibrate and check the model, as well as a validation of its statistical appropriateness, are provided. Application of the proposed state space models provides insight on the need to properly specify the structural dependence between wind speeds. In this paper the joint and marginal models are smoothly integrated into a backward–forward sweep algorithm to determine the performance indicators (voltages and powers) of a WPP through simulation. As a result, visibly heavy tails emerge in the generated power probability distribution through the use of the joint model—incorporating a detailed description of the dependence structure—in contrast with the normally distributed power yielded by the margin-based model.

  6. Feasibility Study of Standalone PV-Wind-Diesel Energy Systems for Coastal Residential Application in Pekan, Pahang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zailan Roziah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Techno economic study is feasible to optimize the usage of renewable energy components that targeting low cost of electricity generation system. The selected case study area is coastal area in Pekan, Pahang, Malaysia. The autonomous system designed in this study is hybrid standalone PV-wind-diesel energy system to fulfil a basic power demand of 20.1 kWh/day. Such power system was designed and optimized further to meet the power demand at a minimum cost of energy using energy optimization software, Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables (HOMER. The analysis focused on the operational characteristics and economics. The standalone PV-wind-diesel energy system has total net present cost about $61, 911 with cost of energy $0.66/kWh. Apparently, the generation of electricity from both wind turbine and PV can be inflated with the diesel generator. In comparison, return of investment (ROI value turned out lower for Feed in Tariff (FIT as compared to self-sustained house. Payback period also longer for FIT program that makes the selling back of electricity generated to Tenaga National Berhad (TNB is considered not favourable.

  7. Engineering handbook on the atmospheric environmental guidelines for use in wind turbine generator development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, W.; Long, B. H.; Turner, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    The guidelines are given in the form of design criteria relative to wind speed, wind shear, turbulence, wind direction, ice and snow loading, and other climatological parameters which include rain, hail, thermal effects, abrasive and corrosive effects, and humidity. This report is a presentation of design criteria in an engineering format which can be directly input to wind turbine generator design computations. Guidelines are also provided for developing specialized wind turbine generators or for designing wind turbine generators which are to be used in a special region of the United States.

  8. MPPT for PM wind generator using gradient approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Ying-Yi; Lu, Shiue-Der; Chiou, Ching-Sheng [Department of Electrical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, 200, Chung-Pei Road, Chung Li 320 (China)

    2009-01-15

    This paper applies new maximum-power-point tracking (MPPT) algorithms to a wind-turbine generator system (WTGS). In this paper, the WTGS is a direct-drive system and includes the wind-turbine, permanent-magnet (PM) synchronous generator, three-phase full bridge rectifier, buck-boost converter and load. The new MPPT method uses gradient approximation (GA) algorithm. Three methods based on GA for achieving MPPT are discussed in this paper: (1) full-sensor control with anemometer and tachometer, (2) rule-based method and (3) adaptive duty cycle method. The third method has merits of no PID parameters, proportional constant, anemometer, tachometer and characteristics of WTGS required. This method enables the permanent-magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) to operate at variable speeds to achieve good performance. Simulation results show that the tip-speed ratio (TSR) and power coefficient obtained by the adaptive duty cycle method with GA can be almost identical to the optimal values. (author)

  9. Induction generator-induction motor wind-powered pumping system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miranda, M.S.; Lyra, R.O.C.; Silva, S.R. [CPDEE - UFMG, Belo Horizonte (Brazil)

    1997-12-31

    The energy storage matter plays an important role in wind-electric conversion systems for isolated applications. Having that in mind, two different approaches can be basically considered: either the immediate conversion of the generated electric energy, as in a water pumping system or electric energy storage for later use, as in a battery charging system. Due to some features such as no need of an external reactive power source and, sometimes, a gearbox, permanent-magnet synchronous generators have been broadly used in low rated power isolated systems. Despite that, system performance can be affected when the generator is feeding an inductive load (e.g., an induction motor) under variable-speed-variable-frequency operational conditions. Since there is no effective flux control, motor overload may occur at high wind speeds. Thus, good system performance can be obtained through additional control devices which may increase system cost. Although being rugged and cheap, induction machines always work as a reactive power drain; therefore, they demand an external reactive power source. Considering that, reactive static compensators appear as an attractive alternative to the cost x performance problem. In addition to that, different control strategies can be used so that system performance can be improved.

  10. Sun, wind and electric generation; Sol, viento y generacion electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huacuz Villamar, Jorge M. [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    A description is made of the electric generation known as the photovoltaic-wind power hybrid systems at the generation station of X-Calak which is located in the zone known as Punta Herrero-X-Calak Corridor, in the Southern coast of the Quintana Roo State. This is a technology in development, in which the solar and the wind energy are combined, to offer an alternative of electric generation that can be economical, reliable and of low impact on the environment. Mention is made of the experiences gathered in this station as well as the results obtained [Espanol] Se describe la tecnologia de generacion electrica conocida como sistemas hibridos fotovoltaico-eolico en la planta generadora de X-Calak, la cual esta localizada en la zona conocida como el corredor Punta Herrero-X-Calak, en la costa sur del estado de Quintana Roo. Esta es una tecnologia en desarrollo, en donde se combina la energia solar y energia eolica, para ofrecer una alternativa de generacion electrica que pretende ser economica, confiable y de bajo impacto sobre el medio ambiente. Se mencionan las experiencias obtenidas en esta planta asi como los resultados obtenidos

  11. Sun, wind and electric generation; Sol, viento y generacion electrica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huacuz Villamar, Jorge M [Instituto de Investigaciones Electricas, Cuernavaca (Mexico)

    1996-12-31

    A description is made of the electric generation known as the photovoltaic-wind power hybrid systems at the generation station of X-Calak which is located in the zone known as Punta Herrero-X-Calak Corridor, in the Southern coast of the Quintana Roo State. This is a technology in development, in which the solar and the wind energy are combined, to offer an alternative of electric generation that can be economical, reliable and of low impact on the environment. Mention is made of the experiences gathered in this station as well as the results obtained [Espanol] Se describe la tecnologia de generacion electrica conocida como sistemas hibridos fotovoltaico-eolico en la planta generadora de X-Calak, la cual esta localizada en la zona conocida como el corredor Punta Herrero-X-Calak, en la costa sur del estado de Quintana Roo. Esta es una tecnologia en desarrollo, en donde se combina la energia solar y energia eolica, para ofrecer una alternativa de generacion electrica que pretende ser economica, confiable y de bajo impacto sobre el medio ambiente. Se mencionan las experiencias obtenidas en esta planta asi como los resultados obtenidos

  12. Dynamic evaluation of the levelized cost of wind power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Díaz, Guzmán; Gómez-Aleixandre, Javier; Coto, José

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Conventional levelized cost of energy is static and does not consider flexibility. • This paper defines a dynamic version by means of stochastic programming. • A penalty for early exercising is proposed to differentiate static and dynamic. • Results show the effects of feed-in tariff support in low wind sites. • Policy implications are derived on the basis of the static and dynamic measures. - Abstract: This paper discusses an alternative computation method of the levelized cost of energy of distributed wind power generators. Unlike in the conventional procedures, it includes time of commencement as an optimization variable. For that purpose, a methodology from Longstaff and Schwartz’s dynamic program for pricing financial American options is derived, which provides the ability to find the optimum time and value while coping with uncertainty revenues from energy sales and variable capital costs. The results obtained from the analysis of wind records of 50 sites entail that the conventional levelized cost of energy can be broken down into an optimum, minimum (time-dependent) value and a penalty for early exercising, which can be employed to define investment strategies and support policies

  13. Simulation of transcontinental wind and solar PV generation time series

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nuño Martinez, Edgar; Maule, Petr; Hahmann, Andrea N.

    2018-01-01

    to the technical characteristics of individual installations spread across large regions. The proposed methodology is validated using actual power data in Europe and can be applied to represent intermittent generation in network development plans, reliability and market studies, as well as operational guidelines.......The deployment of Renewable Energy Sources (RES) is driving modern power systems towards a fundamental green transition. In this regard, there is a need to develop models to accurately capture the variability of wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) power, at different geographical and temporal scales...

  14. Community Microgrid Based on Micro-Wind Generation System

    OpenAIRE

    Mariam, Lubna; Basu, Malabika; Conlon, Michael

    2013-01-01

    Penetration of renewable energy sources (such as solar/wind) are being explored mostly as micro power generation (μGen) or mega power plant system. In recent years, emphasis has been given on Microgrid (μGrid) systems because of their few advantages over μGen systems in terms of power quality, stability, reliability, economics etc. But the commercial installation of the μGrid system is not yet progressing significantly. This paper presents the techno-economic aspects of μGen and μGrid systems...

  15. Design Preliminaries for Direct Drive under Water Wind Turbine Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leban, Krisztina Monika; Ritchie, Ewen; Argeseanu, Alin

    2012-01-01

    This paper focuses on the preliminary design process of a 20 MW electric generator. The application calls for an offshore, vertical axis, direct drive wind turbine. Arguments for selecting the type of electric machine for the application are presented and discussed. Comparison criteria for deciding...... on a type of machine are listed. Additional constraints emerging from the direct drive, vertical axis concepts are considered. General rules and a preliminary algorithm are discussed for the machine selected to be most suitable for the imposed conditions....

  16. Modeling long correlation times using additive binary Markov chains: Applications to wind generation time series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Juliane; Zachow, Christopher; Witthaut, Dirk

    2018-03-01

    Wind power generation exhibits a strong temporal variability, which is crucial for system integration in highly renewable power systems. Different methods exist to simulate wind power generation but they often cannot represent the crucial temporal fluctuations properly. We apply the concept of additive binary Markov chains to model a wind generation time series consisting of two states: periods of high and low wind generation. The only input parameter for this model is the empirical autocorrelation function. The two-state model is readily extended to stochastically reproduce the actual generation per period. To evaluate the additive binary Markov chain method, we introduce a coarse model of the electric power system to derive backup and storage needs. We find that the temporal correlations of wind power generation, the backup need as a function of the storage capacity, and the resting time distribution of high and low wind events for different shares of wind generation can be reconstructed.

  17. Modeling long correlation times using additive binary Markov chains: Applications to wind generation time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Juliane; Zachow, Christopher; Witthaut, Dirk

    2018-03-01

    Wind power generation exhibits a strong temporal variability, which is crucial for system integration in highly renewable power systems. Different methods exist to simulate wind power generation but they often cannot represent the crucial temporal fluctuations properly. We apply the concept of additive binary Markov chains to model a wind generation time series consisting of two states: periods of high and low wind generation. The only input parameter for this model is the empirical autocorrelation function. The two-state model is readily extended to stochastically reproduce the actual generation per period. To evaluate the additive binary Markov chain method, we introduce a coarse model of the electric power system to derive backup and storage needs. We find that the temporal correlations of wind power generation, the backup need as a function of the storage capacity, and the resting time distribution of high and low wind events for different shares of wind generation can be reconstructed.

  18. High penetration wind generation impacts on spot prices in the Australian national electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cutler, Nicholas J.; Boerema, Nicholas D.; MacGill, Iain F.; Outhred, Hugh R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores wind power integration issues for the South Australian (SA) region of the Australian National Electricity Market (NEM) by assessing the interaction of regional wind generation, electricity demand and spot prices over 2 recent years of market operation. SA's wind energy penetration has recently surpassed 20% and it has only a limited interconnection with other regions of the NEM. As such, it represents an interesting example of high wind penetration in a gross wholesale pool market electricity industry. Our findings suggest that while electricity demand continues to have the greatest influence on spot prices in SA, wind generation levels have become a significant secondary influence, and there is an inverse relationship between wind generation and price. No clear relationship between wind generation and demand has been identified although some periods of extremely high demand may coincide with lower wind generation. Periods of high wind output are associated with generally lower market prices, and also appear to contribute to extreme negative price events. The results highlight the importance of electricity market and renewable policy design in facilitating economically efficient high wind penetrations. - Highlights: → In South Australia (SA) wind generation is having an influence on market prices. → Little or no correlation is found between wind generation and demand. → Wind farms in SA are receiving a lower average price than in other States. → The results highlight the importance of appropriate electricity market design.

  19. PREDICTION OF POWER GENERATION OF SMALL SCALE VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINE USING FUZZY LOGIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altab Hossain

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy from the wind turbine has been focused for the alternative source of power generation due to the following advances of the of the wind turbine. Firstly, the wind turbine is highly efficient and eco-friendly. Secondly, the turbine has the ability to response for the changeable power generation based on the wind velocity and structural framework. However, the competitive efficiency of the wind turbine is necessary to successfully alternate the conventional power sources. The most relevant factor which affects the overall efficiency of the wind turbine is the wind velocity and the relative turbine dimensions. Artificial intelligence systems are widely used technology that can learn from examples and are able to deal with non-linear problems. Compared with traditional approach, fuzzy logic approach is more efficient for the representation, manipulation and utilization. Therefore, the primary purpose of this work was to investigate the relationship between wind turbine power generation and wind velocity, and to illustrate how fuzzy expert system might play an important role in prediction of wind turbine power generation. The main purpose of the measurement over the small scaled prototype vertical axis wind turbine for the wind velocity is to predict the performance of full scaled H-type vertical axis wind turbine. Prediction of power generation at the different wind velocities has been tested at the Thermal Laboratory of Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Industri Selangor (UNISEL and results concerning the daily prediction have been obtained.

  20. PREDICTION OF POWER GENERATION OF SMALL SCALE VERTICAL AXIS WIND TURBINE USING FUZZY LOGIC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Altab Md. Hossain

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Renewable energy from the wind turbine has been focused for the alternative source of power generation due to the following advances of the of the wind turbine. Firstly, the wind turbine is highly efficient and eco-friendly. Secondly, the turbine has the ability to response for the changeable power generation based on the wind velocity and structural framework. However, the competitive efficiency of the wind turbine is necessary to successfully alternate the conventional power sources. The most relevant factor which affects the overall efficiency of the wind turbine is the wind velocity and the relative turbine dimensions. Artificial intelligence systems are widely used technology that can learn from examples and are able to deal with non-linear problems. Compared with traditional approach, fuzzy logic approach is more efficient for the representation, manipulation and utilization. Therefore, the primary purpose of this work was to investigate the relationship between wind turbine power generation and wind velocity, and to illustrate how fuzzy expert system might play an important role in prediction of wind turbine power generation. The main purpose of the measurement over the small scaled prototype vertical axis wind turbine for the wind velocity is to predict the performance of full scaled H-type vertical axis wind turbine. Prediction of power generation at the different wind velocities has been tested at the Thermal Laboratory of Faculty of Engineering, Universiti Industri Selangor (UNISEL and results concerning the daily prediction have been obtained.

  1. Multi input-output fuzzy logic smart controller for a residential hybrid solar-wind-storage energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrouazin, A.; Aillerie, M.; Mekkakia-Maaza, N.; Charles, J.-P.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We present a fuzzy smart controller for hybrid renewable and conventional energy system. • The rules are based on human intelligence and implemented in the smart controller. • Efficient tracking capability of the proposed controller is proofed in this paper by an example. • Excess produced renewable energy is converted to hydrogen for household use . • Considerable electric grid energy saving is highlighted in the proposed controller system. - Abstract: This study concerns the conception and development of an efficient multi input-output fuzzy logic smart controller, to manage the energy flux of a sustainable hybrid power system, based on renewable power sources, integrating solar panels and a wind turbine associated with storage, applied to a typical residential habitat. In the suggested topology, the energy surplus is redirected to an electrolysis system to produce hydrogen suitable for household utilities. To assume a constant access to electricity in case of consumption peak, connection to the grid is also considered as an exceptional rescue resource. The objective of the presented controller is to exploit instantaneously the produced renewable electric energy and insure savings of electric grid energy. The proposed multi input-output fuzzy logic smart controller has been achieved and verified, outcome switches command signals are discussed and the renewable energy system integration ratio is highlighted.

  2. Co-generation of hydrogen from nuclear and wind: the effect on costs of realistic variations in wind generation. Paper no. IGEC-1-094

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, A.I.; Duffey, R.B.

    2005-01-01

    Can electricity from high-capacity nuclear reactors be blended with the variable output of wind turbines to produce electrolytic hydrogen competitively? To be competitive with alternative sources, hydrogen produced by conventional electrolysis requires low-cost electricity (likely <2.5 cents US/kW.h). One approach is to operate interruptibly, allowing an installation to sell electricity when the grid price is high and to make hydrogen when it is low. Our previous studies show that this could be cost-competitive using nuclear power generator producing electricity around 3 cents US/kW.h. Although similar unit costs are projected for wind-generated electricity, idleness of the electrolysis facility due to the variability of wind-generated electricity imposes a significant cost penalty. This paper reports on ongoing work on the economics of blending electricity from nuclear and wind sources by using wind-generated power, when available, to augment the current through electrolysis equipment that is primarily nuclear-powered - a concept we call NuWind. A voltage penalty accompanies the higher current. A 10% increase in capital cost for electrolysis equipment to enable it to accommodate the higher rate of hydrogen generation is still substantially cheaper than the capital cost of wind-dedicated electrolysis. Real-time data for electricity costs have been combined with real-time wind variability. The variability in wind fields between sites was accommodated by assigning average wind speeds that produced an average electricity generation from wind of between 32 and 42% of peak capacity, which is typical of the expectations for superior wind-generation sites. (author)

  3. Distributed generation to reduce carbon dioxide emissions : a case study for residential sector in Oman

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Solanki, P.S. [Caledonian College of Engineering, Muscat (Oman); Mallela, V.S. [G. Narayanamma Inst. of Technology and Sciences Shaikpet, Hyderabad (India); Allan, M.; Zhou, C. [Glasgow Caledonian Univ., Glasgow, Scotland (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    This paper presented a case study undertaken in Oman involving the use of a proposed hybrid diesel-photovoltaic distributed power system to reduce carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. A model of the hybrid power system comprising a photovoltaic module, a diesel generator, and essential auxiliary devices was presented. Solar energy was selected for the Distributed Generation Technology (DGT) because Oman has an abundance of direct solar radiation. A typical house located in a remote area was considered to determine the potential greenhouse gas reduction and the economic feasibility when it is powered by the proposed hybrid system, the diesel system alone, and the main interconnected grid. The Hybrid Optimization Model for Electricity Renewables (HOMER) software was used for energy simulation, economic analysis, and the calculation of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The results of the simulation indicated that the proposed hybrid system would reduce CO{sub 2} emissions by 38 percent relative to the stand-alone diesel system and by 2.67 percent compared to the main grid. The hybrid system has lower operating costs and a lower per-unit energy cost than the diesel system, but the per-unit energy cost estimated for the main interconnected system is better. The latter system is less favourable for GHG emissions. Extending the hybrid system to the entire residential sector has the potential to substantially reduce GHG emissions. The proposed hybrid system is also a cost effective choice for remote locations. 18 refs., 8 tabs., 7 figs.

  4. Emission Rates of Multiple Air Pollutants Generated from Chinese Residential Cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Zhao, Yuejing; Zhao, Bin

    2018-02-06

    Household air pollution generated from cooking is severe, especially for Chinese-style cooking. We measured the emission rates of multiple air pollutants including fine particles (PM 2.5 ), ultrafine particles (UFPs), and volatile organic compounds (VOCs, including formaldehyde, benzene, and toluene) that were generated from typical Chinese cooking in a residential kitchen. The experiment was designed through five-factor and five-level orthogonal testing. The five key factors were cooking method, ingredient weight, type of meat, type of oil, and meat/vegetable ratio. The measured emission rates (mean value ± standard deviation) of PM 2.5 , UFPs, formaldehyde, total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs), benzene, and toluene were 2.056 ± 3.034 mg/min, 9.102 ± 6.909 × 10 12 #/min, 1.273 ± 0.736 mg/min, 1.349 ± 1.376 mg/min, 0.074 ± 0.039 mg/min, and 0.004 ± 0.004 mg/min. Cooking method was the most influencing factor for the emission rates of PM 2.5 , UFPs, formaldehyde, TVOCs, and benzene but not for toluene. Meanwhile, the emission rate of PM 2.5 was also significantly influenced by ingredient weight, type of meat, and meat/vegetable ratio. Exhausting the range hood decreased the emission rates by approximately 58%, with a corresponding air change rate of 21.38/h for the kitchen room.

  5. Model of a generator end-winding cage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leger, A.C.; Fanton, J.P.; Davies, C.

    1994-09-01

    This document presents some studies concerning the vibratory characterization of particular structures called: generator end-winding cages. These structures are mainly made up of the endings of armature windings. The question of their good mechanical behaviour is of prime importance, since they are submitted to high electromagnetic efforts during the different electrical ratings encountered during operation. The designer (GEC-Alsthom) and the user (EDF) have both undertaken numerical calculations in order to characterize a given machine, in this case a 600 MW bipolar generator; it appeared interesting to compare such calculations. The models realized respectively by GEC-Alsthom and EDF make use of different techniques and hypotheses. GEC-Alsthom represents the sets of rods and spacers by plates, which properties are determined by a pre-processor. The model is simplified to take into account the existing symmetries. It takes profit of previous experience and aims at a fast utilisation. The EDF model tends to allow a further comprehensive calculation, form the electromagnetic efforts to the determination of local stresses. The whole set of the constituting elements of the structure is modelled by beams, which leads to an important size for the model (21 000 degrees of freedom). The validation performed on the two models has been focused on the comparison between respective results and also with experimental results. Each model provides values for the first eigenfrequencies and the associated modes shapes. (authors). 3 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  6. Practical Application of Eddy Currents Generated by Wind

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dirba, I; Kleperis, J

    2011-01-01

    When a conductive material is subjected to time-varying magnetic fluxes, eddy (Foucault) currents are generated in it and magnetic field of opposite polarity as the applied one arises. Due to the internal resistance of the conductive material, the eddy currents will be dissipated into heat (Joule heating). Conventional domestic water heaters utilize gas burners or electric resistance heating elements to heat the water in the tank and substantial part of the energy to use for it is wasted. In this paper the origin of electromagnetic induction heat generated by wind turbine in special heat exchange camera connected to water boiler is discussed and material evaluation performed using mathematical modelling (comparing the 2D finite element model with analytical and numerical calculation results).

  7. Practical Application of Eddy Currents Generated by Wind

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirba, I.; Kleperis, J.

    2011-06-01

    When a conductive material is subjected to time-varying magnetic fluxes, eddy (Foucault) currents are generated in it and magnetic field of opposite polarity as the applied one arises. Due to the internal resistance of the conductive material, the eddy currents will be dissipated into heat (Joule heating). Conventional domestic water heaters utilize gas burners or electric resistance heating elements to heat the water in the tank and substantial part of the energy to use for it is wasted. In this paper the origin of electromagnetic induction heat generated by wind turbine in special heat exchange camera connected to water boiler is discussed and material evaluation performed using mathematical modelling (comparing the 2D finite element model with analytical and numerical calculation results).

  8. Practical Application of Eddy Currents Generated by Wind

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirba, I; Kleperis, J, E-mail: imants.dirba@gmail.com [Institute of Solid State Physics of University of Latvia, 8 Kengaraga Street, Riga, LV-1063 (Latvia)

    2011-06-23

    When a conductive material is subjected to time-varying magnetic fluxes, eddy (Foucault) currents are generated in it and magnetic field of opposite polarity as the applied one arises. Due to the internal resistance of the conductive material, the eddy currents will be dissipated into heat (Joule heating). Conventional domestic water heaters utilize gas burners or electric resistance heating elements to heat the water in the tank and substantial part of the energy to use for it is wasted. In this paper the origin of electromagnetic induction heat generated by wind turbine in special heat exchange camera connected to water boiler is discussed and material evaluation performed using mathematical modelling (comparing the 2D finite element model with analytical and numerical calculation results).

  9. Combined hydro-wind generation bids in a pool-based electricity market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angarita, Jorge L.; Usaola, Julio; Martinez-Crespo, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Present regulatory trends are promoting the direct participation of wind energy in electricity markets. The final result of these markets sets the production scheduling for the operation time, including a power commitment from the wind generators. However, wind resources are uncertain, and the final power delivered usually differs from the initial power committed. This imbalance produces an overcost in the system, which must be paid by those who produce it, e.g., wind generators among others. As a result, wind farm revenue decreases, but it could increase by allowing wind farms to submit their bids to the markets together with a hydro generating unit, which may easily modify its production according to the expected imbalance. This paper presents a stochastic optimization technique that maximizes the joint profit of hydro and wind generators in a pool-based electricity market, taking into account the uncertainty of wind power prediction. (author)

  10. Effect of operating methods of wind turbine generator system on net power extraction under wind velocity fluctuations in fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakui, Tetsuya; Yamaguchi, Kazuya; Hashizume, Takumi [Waseda Univ., Advanced Research Inst. for Science and Engineering, Tokyo (Japan); Outa, Eisuke [Waseda Univ., Mechanical Engineering Dept., Tokyo (Japan); Tanzawa, Yoshiaki [Nippon Inst. of Technology, Mechanical Engineering Dept., Saitama (Japan)

    1999-01-01

    The effect of how a wind turbine generator system is operated is discussed from the viewpoint of net power extraction with wind velocity fluctuation in relation to the scale and the dynamic behaviour of the system. On a wind turbine generator system consisting of a Darrieus-Savonius hybrid wind turbine, a load generator and a battery, we took up two operating methods: constant tip speed ratio operation for a stand-alone system (Scheme 1) and synchronous operation by connecting a grid (Scheme 2). With our simulation model, using the result of the net extracting power, we clarified that Scheme 1 is more effective than Scheme 2 for small-scale systems. Furthermore, in Scheme 1, the appropriate rated power output of the system under each wind condition can be confirmed. (Author)

  11. Effects of Wind Turbines Equipped with Doubly-fed Induction Generators on Distance Protection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays wind energy is the fastest growing renewable energy resource in the world. The problems of integrating wind farms are caused by changes of wind speed during a day. Moreover, the behaviors of wind turbines equipped with doubly-fed induction generators differ fundamentally from synchronous generators. Therefore, more considerations are needed to analyze the performances of the distance protection relays. The protection of a wind farm with distance relay is inspected. By changing the conditions of the wind farm, the characteristics of the distance relay are studied.

  12. Design and Implementation of the Permanent- Magnet Synchronous Generator Drive in Wind Generation Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Chih Chang

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The design and implementation of the permanent-magnet synchronous generator drive in wind generation systems is presented in this paper. The permanent-magnet synchronous generator (PMSG can converse the alternating current (AC power of the wind turbine to direct current (DC power. In this paper, the dynamic model of a PMSG is first introduced. The current controller is designed based on T-S fuzzy models of the PMSG. The stability of the proposed PMSG drive system is analyzed and proved. The proposed T-S fuzzy current control possesses a disturbance suppression ability. Compared with the traditional fuzzy logic system, its stability can be proved and verified. Finally, the control performance of the PMSG drive is verified by experimental results.

  13. Managing Wind-based Electricity Generation and Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yangfang

    Among the many issues that profoundly affect the world economy every day, energy is one of the most prominent. Countries such as the U.S. strive to reduce reliance on the import of fossil fuels, and to meet increasing electricity demand without harming the environment. Two of the most promising solutions for the energy issue are to rely on renewable energy, and to develop efficient electricity storage. Renewable energy---such as wind energy and solar energy---is free, abundant, and most importantly, does not exacerbate the global warming problem. However, most renewable energy is inherently intermittent and variable, and thus can benefit greatly from coupling with electricity storage, such as grid-level industrial batteries. Grid storage can also help match the supply and demand of an entire electricity market. In addition, electricity storage such as car batteries can help reduce dependence on oil, as it can enable the development of Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles, and Battery Electric Vehicles. This thesis focuses on understanding how to manage renewable energy and electricity storage properly together, and electricity storage alone. In Chapter 2, I study how to manage renewable energy, specifically wind energy. Managing wind energy is conceptually straightforward: generate and sell as much electricity as possible when prices are positive, and do nothing otherwise. However, this leads to curtailment when wind energy exceeds the transmission capacity, and possible revenue dilution when current prices are low but are expected to increase in the future. Electricity storage is being considered as a means to alleviate these problems, and also enables buying electricity from the market for later resale. But the presence of storage complicates the management of electricity generation from wind, and the value of storage for a wind-based generator is not entirely understood. I demonstrate that for such a combined generation and storage system the optimal policy does not

  14. Impact of wind generation on the operation and development of the UK electricity systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strbac, Goran; Shakoor, Anser; Pudjianto, Danny; Black, Mary; Bopp, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    Although penetration of wind generation may displace a significant amount of energy produced by large conventional plant, there are issues associated with the extent to which wind generation will be able to replace the capacity and flexibility of conventional generating plant. This is important since wind power is variable, so it will be necessary to retain a significant proportion of conventional plant to ensure security of supply especially under conditions of high demand and low wind. Hence, the capacity value of wind generation will be limited as it will not be possible to displace conventional generation capacity on a ''megawatt for megawatt'' basis. Wind power is variable and not easy to predict, hence various forms of additional reserves will be needed to maintain the balance between supply and demand at all times. Additionally, if the majority of wind generation plant is located in Scotland and the North of England, reinforcement of the transmission network will be needed to accommodate the increases in the north-south flow of electricity. In this paper an assessment of the costs and benefits of wind generation on the UK electricity system is carried out, assuming different levels of wind power capacity. Overall, it is concluded that the system will be able to accommodate significant increases in wind power generation with relatively small increases in overall costs of supply, about 5% of the current domestic electricity price in case of 20% energy produced by wind power. (author)

  15. Massive coordination of residential embedded electricity generation and demand response using the PowerMatcher approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamphuis, I.G.; Hommelberg, M.P.F.; Warmer, C.J.; Kok, J.K.

    2007-01-01

    Different driving forces push the electricity production towards decentralization. The projected increase of distributed power generation on the residential level with an increasing proportion of intermittent renewable energy resources poses problems for continuously matching the energy balance when coordination takes place centrally. On the other hand, new opportunities arise by intelligent clustering of generators and demand in so-called Virtual Power Plants. Part of the responsibility for new coordination mechanisms, then, has to be laid locally. To achieve this, the current electricity infrastructure is expected to evolve into a network of networks (including ICT (Information and Communication Technology)-networks), in which all system parts communicate with one another, are aware of each other's context and may influence each other. In this paper, a multi-agent systems approach, using price signal-vectors from an electronic market is presented as an appropriate technology needed for massive control and coordination tasks in these future electricity networks. The PowerMatcher, a market-based control concept for supply and demand matching (SDM) in electricity networks, is discussed. The results within a simulation study show the ability to raise the simultaneousness of electricity production and consumption within (local) control clusters with cogeneration and heat-pumps by exchanging price signals and coordinated allocation using market algorithms. The control concept, however, can also be applied in other business cases like reduction of imbalance cost in commercial portfolios or virtual power plant operators, utilizing distributed generators. Furthermore, a PowerMatcher-based field test configuration with 15 Stirling-engine powered micro-CHP's is described, which is currently in operation within a field test in the Netherlands

  16. Novel Design for a Wind Tunnel Vertical Gust Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Zachary; Jones, Anya; Hrynuk, John

    2017-11-01

    Gust response of MAVs is a fundamental problem for flight stability and control of such aircraft. Current knowledge about the gust response of these vehicles is limited and gust interaction often results in damage to vehicles. Studying isolated gust effects on simple airfoil models in a controlled environment is a necessity for the further development of MAV control laws. Gusts have typically been generated by oscillating an airfoil causing the shedding of vortices to propagate through the system. While effective, this method provides only a transient up and downdraft behavior with small changes in angle of attack, not suitable for studying MAV scale gust interactions. To study these interactions, a gust that creates a change in flow angle larger than the static stall angle of typical airfoils was developed. This work was done in a low speed, low turbulence wind tunnel at base operating speed of 1.5 m/s, generating a Reynolds number of 12,000 on a NACA 0012 wing. It describes the fundamental mechanisms of how this gust was generated and the results obtained from the gust generator. The gust, which can alter the flow field in less than 1 second, was characterized using PIV and the interactions with a stationary airfoil at several angles of attack are evaluated.

  17. Indices for planning wind power generation; Furyoku hatsuden no keikaku shihyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takeuchi, H

    1997-11-25

    Outlined herein are status of wind power generation development, indices for planning development, and actual development results. At present, wind power generates electric power of 6,781MW worldwide. USA has been rapidly developing wind power generation since enactment of the PURPA law, and accounted for 25% of the world output in the past. However, the county is recently unseated from the world top position by Germany, which has been extensively developing wind power generation since enactment of the EFL law to reach 1,799MW. In Japan, electric power companies, local governments and public institutions have been positively introducing wind mills since 1992, when Tohoku Electric Power Co. built Ryuhi Wind Park, now generating a total power of 15MW by 64 units located at 33 different points. According to the surveys by NEDO on wind conditions, there are a number of districts suited for wind mills in Hokkaido, Tohoku, Okinawa and sea areas in Honshu. The indices described herein for planning wind power generation include rotor diameter, tower height, speed of rotation, weight, power to be generated, utilization and service factors, noise level, and investment and running costs. In the present state of the development of wind power generation in Japan, development points are 33, generated ouptut 15,097kW and units 64. 14 figs.

  18. Estimation of wake propagation behind the rotors of wind-powered generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naumov, I. V.; Mikkelsen, Robert Flemming; Okulov, Valery

    2016-01-01

    . It is shown that the recovery of velocity of incident flow is faster than has been previously defined in the models of calculating the impact of wind electric power plants on the regional climate changes. Thus, existing wind loss calculated on the model of wake behind the wind-powered generator, adjusted......The objectives of this work are to develop the experimental model of wake behind the wind-power generator rotor to estimate its propagation distance and the impact on the average and pulsation characteristics of incident flow with the possibility of further use of these data in the calculation...... models of wind and climate changes in the regions and to determine the optimal operation of wind turbines. For experimental modeling, the laboratory model of wind-powered generator with a horizontal axis was used that operated as wind turbine in optimal mode. The kinematic characteristics of flow...

  19. A methodology for assessment of wind turbine noise generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, N. D.; Hemphill, R. R.; McKenna, H. E.

    1982-05-01

    An investigation of the sources of impulsive noise generated by the operation of the Mod 1 2 MW wind turbine was performed to establish criteria for assessing the noise-producing potential of other large wind turbines. Unsteady loading of the rotors was determined to be the cause of the sound pressure, which was generally below 100 Hz. Complaints originated from people in dwellings with a room with a window facing the machine. Indoor monitoring revealed pressure traces in the 31.5 Hz band with energy densities exceeding background by about 30 dB. It was concluded that the sound pressure was conveyed by the walls acting as a diaphragm. The induced vibration coupled with human body fundamental modes to produce a feeling of whole-body vibration. Spectral analyses were made of the vibration fields of the Mod 2, a 17 m Darrieus, and a Mod OA to allow comparison with the nuisance points of the Mod 1. Sound pressure levels were found at certain frequencies which would eliminate the occurrence of acoustic pollution.

  20. Challenges, problems and possible solutions in wind generator systems from the aspect of forecast, planning and delivery of wind energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giovski, Nikola

    2014-01-01

    The fundamental difficulties of integrating wind energy into the power system arise from its large temporal variability and limited predictability. That's why the integration of wind power presents major challenge for today's operating and planning practices of the power system operators. Accurate predictions of the possible wind power output, in time intervals relevant for creating schedules for production and exchange capacity, allows to system operators and dispatching personnel more efficient power system management. Despite the challenges and problems that arise due to integration of wind power into power systems, which need to be solved or reduced, wind power has its advantages that should be utilized. The effective integration of wind power plants into the transmission grid should allow them to represent the backbone of future energy systems. Modern wind generators represent production units that have the ability to participate in the management of energy systems e.g. in the regulation of frequency, voltage and other network operating requirements. This paper provides a brief overview of global experiences with the challenges, problems and possible solutions that appear in wind generator systems from the aspect of forecasting, planning and delivery of wind energy. (author)

  1. Assessing the impact of wind generation on wholesale prices and generator dispatch in the Australian National Electricity Market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forrest, Sam; MacGill, Iain

    2013-01-01

    Growing climate change and energy security concerns are driving major wind energy deployment in electricity industries around the world. Despite its many advantages, growing penetrations of this highly variable and somewhat unpredictable energy source pose new challenges for electricity industry operation. One issue receiving growing attention is the so-called ‘merit order effect’ of wind generation in wholesale electricity markets. Wind has very low operating costs and therefore tends to displace higher cost conventional generation from market dispatch, reducing both wholesale prices and conventional plant outputs. This paper extends the current literature on this effect through an empirical study employing a range of econometric techniques to quantify the impacts of growing wind penetrations in the Australian National Electricity Market (NEM). The results suggest that wind is having a marked impact on spot market prices and, while wind is primarily offsetting higher operating cost gas generation, it is now also significantly reducing dispatch of emissions intensive brown coal generation. Great care needs to be taken in extrapolating these results to longer-term implications, however, the study does propose a methodology for assessing this effect, highlights the impacts that wind is already having on NEM outcomes and suggests promising directions for future research. - Highlights: ► Proposes methodologies to estimate short run impact of wind on electricity markets. ► Quantifies the merit order effect of wind generation on wholesale spot price. ► Wind is found to be significantly effecting gas fired generation. ► Evidence is found for wind having a notable impact on baseload coal generation. ► Discusses the implications for development of wind generation in Australia

  2. Full-load converter connected asynchronous generators for MW class wind turbines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhmatov, Vladislav

    2005-06-15

    Wind turbines equipped with full-load converter-connected asynchronous generators are a known concept. These have rating up to hundreds of kW and are a feasible concept for MW class wind turbines and may have advantages when compared to conventional wind turbines with directly connected generators. The concept requires the use of full-scale frequency converters, but the mechanical gearbox is smaller than in conventional wind turbines of the same rating. Application of smaller gearbox may reduce the no-load losses in the wind turbines, which is why such wind turbines with converter connected generators may start operation at a smaller wind speed. Wind turbines equipped with such converted connected asynchronous generators are pitch-controlled and variable-speed. This allows better performance and control. The converter control may be applied to support the grid voltage at short-circuit faults and to improve the fault-ride-through capability of the wind turbines, which makes the concepts relevant for large wind farms. The Danish transmission system operator Energinet-DK has implemented the general model of wind turbines equipped with converter connected asynchronous generators with the simulation tool Powerfactory (DlgSilent). The article presents Energinet-DK's experience of modeling this feasible wind turbine concept. (Author)

  3. Design Optimization and Site Matching of Direct-Drive Permanent Magnet Wind Generator Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, H.; Chen, Zhe

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the possible site matching of the direct-drive wind turbine concepts based on the electromagnetic design optimization of permanent magnet (PM) generator systems. Firstly, the analytical models of a three-phase radial-flux PM generator with a back-to-back power converter...... of the maximum wind energy capture, the rotor diameter and the rated wind speed of a direct-drive wind turbine with the optimum PM generator are determined. The annual energy output (AEO) is also presented using the Weibull density function. Finally, the maximum AEO per cost (AEOPC) of the optimized wind...... are presented. The optimum design models of direct-drive PM wind generation system are developed with an improved genetic algorithm, and a 500-kW direct-drive PM generator for the minimal generator active material cost is compared to demonstrate the effectiveness of the design optimization. Forty-five PM...

  4. SOLAR WIND STRAHL BROADENING BY SELF-GENERATED PLASMA WAVES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavan, J.; Gaelzer, R. [UFPEL, Pelotas (Brazil); Vinas, A. F. [NASA GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Yoon, P. H. [IPST, UMD, College Park, MD (United States); Ziebell, L. F., E-mail: joel.pavan@ufpel.edu.br, E-mail: rudi@ufpel.edu.br, E-mail: adolfo.vinas@nasa.gov, E-mail: yoonp@umd.edu, E-mail: luiz.ziebell@ufrgs.br [UFRGS, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2013-06-01

    This Letter reports on the results of numerical simulations which may provide a possible explanation for the strahl broadening during quiet solar conditions. The relevant processes involved in the broadening are due to kinetic quasi-linear wave-particle interaction. Making use of static analytical electron distribution in an inhomogeneous field, it is found that self-generated electrostatic waves at the plasma frequency, i.e., Langmuir waves, are capable of scattering the strahl component, resulting in energy and pitch-angle diffusion that broadens its velocity distribution significantly. The present theoretical results provide an alternative or complementary explanation to the usual whistler diffusion scenario, suggesting that self-induced electrostatic waves at the plasma frequency might play a key role in broadening the solar wind strahl during quiet solar conditions.

  5. Wind up with continuous intra-day electricity markets? The integration of large-share wind power generation in Denmark

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karanfil, Fatih; Li, Yuanjing

    2015-01-01

    This paper suggests an innovative idea to examine the functionality of an electricity intra-day market by testing causality among its fundamental components. As fluctuations of poorly predicted wind power generation are challenging the stability of the current electricity system, an intra-day market design can play an important role in managing wind forecast errors. Using Danish and Nordic data, it investigates the main drivers of the price difference between the intra-day and day-ahead markets, and causality between wind forecast errors and their counterparts. Our results show that the wind and conventional generation forecast errors significantly cause the intra-day price to differ from the day-ahead price, and that the relative intra-day price decreases with the unexpected amount of wind generation. Cross-border electricity exchanges are found to be important to handle wind forecast errors. Additionally, some zonal differences with respect to both causality and impulse responses are detected. This paper provides the first evidence on the persuasive functioning of the intra-day market in the case of Denmark, whereby intermittent production deviations are effectively reduced, and wind forecast errors are jointly handled through the responses from demand, conventional generation, and intra-day international electricity trade. (authors)

  6. Assessing the value of wind generation in future carbon constrained electricity industries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vithayasrichareon, Peerapat; MacGill, Iain F.

    2013-01-01

    This paper employs a novel Monte-Carlo based generation portfolio assessment tool to explore the implications of increasing wind penetration and carbon prices within future electricity generation portfolios under considerable uncertainty. This tool combines optimal generation mix techniques with Monte Carlo simulation and portfolio analysis methods to determine expected overall generation costs, associated cost uncertainty and expected CO 2 emissions for different possible generation portfolios. A case study of an electricity industry with coal, Combined Cycle Gas Turbines (CCGT), Open Cycle Gas Turbines (OCGT) and wind generation options that faces uncertain future fossil-fuel prices, carbon pricing, electricity demand and plant construction costs is presented to illustrate some of the key issues associated with growing wind penetrations. The case study uses half-hourly demand and wind generation data from South Eastern Australia, and regional estimates of new-build plant costs and characteristics. Results suggest that although wind generation generally increases overall industry costs, it reduces associated cost uncertainties and CO 2 emissions. However, there are some cases in which wind generation can reduce the overall costs of generation portfolios. The extent to which wind penetration affects industry expected costs and uncertainties depends on the level of carbon price and the conventional technology mix in the portfolios. - Highlights: ► A probabilistic portfolio analysis tool to assess generation portfolios with wind power. ► Explore the impacts of wind penetrations and carbon prices under uncertainties. ► Wind generation increases overall portfolio costs but reduces cost risks and emissions. ► The value of wind power depends on the carbon price and the technology mix. ► Complex interactions between wind penetration level and carbon pricing.

  7. Is nuclear energy power generation more dangerous than power generation by wind and solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ding, Y

    1979-03-01

    Since the occurrence of the petroleum crisis, many countries have devoted a great deal of effort to search for substitute energy sources. Aside from nuclear energy, forms of power generation with wind, solar energy, and geothermal energy have all been actually adopted in one place or another. Most recently, a research report was published by the Canadian Bureau of Nuclear Energy Management stating that the use of wind and solar energy to generate electricity is much more dangerous than power generation with nuclear energy. When mining, transportation, machine manufacturing, etc. are included in the process of producing unit power, i.e. kilowatt/year, the data of various risks of death, injury, and diseases are computed in terms of man/day losses by the bureau. They indicate that of the ten forms of power generation, the danger is the least with natural gas, only about a 6 man/day, and nuclear energy is the next least dangerous, about 10 man/day. The danger of using temperature differential of sea water to generate electricity is about 25 man/day, and the most dangerous form of power generation is coal, amounting to three thousand man/day.

  8. OPERATING THE OIL PRODUCTION FACILITY WITH SOLAR AND WIND GENERATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius STAN

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present an analysis of theoretical concepts very common nowadays, photovoltaic and wind turbines, but also a practical part where I presented a hybrid (photovoltaic-wind to power a pump extraction cavitation progressive.

  9. Assessment and analysis of wind energy generation and power ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    time, a statistical analysis of wind characteristics and the extrapolation of weibull parameters are presented. Otherwise, the .... The wind speed probability density function. (PDF) can ... be adjusted using following expression [28, 30,. 31]:. (11).

  10. Understanding Dynamic Model Validation of a Wind Turbine Generator and a Wind Power Plant: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, Eduard; Zhang, Ying Chen; Gevorgian, Vahan; Kosterev, Dmitry

    2016-09-01

    Regional reliability organizations require power plants to validate the dynamic models that represent them to ensure that power systems studies are performed to the best representation of the components installed. In the process of validating a wind power plant (WPP), one must be cognizant of the parameter settings of the wind turbine generators (WTGs) and the operational settings of the WPP. Validating the dynamic model of a WPP is required to be performed periodically. This is because the control parameters of the WTGs and the other supporting components within a WPP may be modified to comply with new grid codes or upgrades to the WTG controller with new capabilities developed by the turbine manufacturers or requested by the plant owners or operators. The diversity within a WPP affects the way we represent it in a model. Diversity within a WPP may be found in the way the WTGs are controlled, the wind resource, the layout of the WPP (electrical diversity), and the type of WTGs used. Each group of WTGs constitutes a significant portion of the output power of the WPP, and their unique and salient behaviors should be represented individually. The objective of this paper is to illustrate the process of dynamic model validations of WTGs and WPPs, the available data recorded that must be screened before it is used for the dynamic validations, and the assumptions made in the dynamic models of the WTG and WPP that must be understood. Without understanding the correct process, the validations may lead to the wrong representations of the WTG and WPP modeled.

  11. Transient performances analysis of wind turbine system with induction generator including flux saturation and skin effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, H.; Zhao, B.; Han, L.

    2010-01-01

    In order to analyze correctly the effect of different models for induction generators on the transient performances of large wind power generation, Wind turbine driven squirrel cage induction generator (SCIG) models taking into account both main and leakage flux saturation and skin effect were...

  12. Study on transient stability of wind turbine with induction generator based on variable pitch control strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, B.; Li, H.; Han, L.

    2011-01-01

    In order to enhance and improve the transient stability of a grid-connected wind turbine generator system under the power grid fault, based on typical pitch control strategy of wind turbine, considering the wind turbine system oscillation caused by the drive-train shaft flexibility, Based on Matl...

  13. Complete methodology on generating realistic wind speed profiles based on measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavriluta, Catalin; Spataru, Sergiu; Mosincat, Ioan

    2012-01-01

    , wind modelling for medium and large time scales is poorly treated in the present literature. This paper presents methods for generating realistic wind speed profiles based on real measurements. The wind speed profile is divided in a low- frequency component (describing long term variations...

  14. 75 FR 57013 - Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status; Taloga Wind, LLC, Stephentown...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-17

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EG10-40-000, EG10-41-000, et al.] Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status; Taloga Wind, LLC, Stephentown...-000 Synergics Roth Rock Wind Energy, LLC EG10-49-000 Synergics Roth Rock North Wind Energy, LLC EG10...

  15. Performance of a 3 kW wind turbine generator with variable pitch control system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagai, Baku M.; Ameku, Kazumasa; Roy, Jitendro Nath

    2009-01-01

    A prototype 3 kW horizontal upwind type wind turbine generator of 4 m in diameter has been designed and examined under real wind conditions. The machine was designed based on the concept that even small wind turbines should have a variable pitch control system just as large wind turbines, especially in Japan where typhoons occur at least once a year. A characteristic of the machine is the use of a worm and gear system with a stepping motor installed in the center of the hub, and the rotational main shaft. The machine is constructed with no mechanical breaking system so as to avoid damage from strong winds. In a storm, the wind turbine is slowed down by adjusting the pitch angle and the maximum electrical load. Usually the machine is controlled at several stages depending on the rotational speed of the blades. Two control methods have been applied: the variable pitch angle, and regulation of the generator field current. The characteristics of the generator under each rotational speed and field current are first investigated in the laboratory. This paper describes the performances of the wind turbine in terms of the functions of wind turbine rotational speed, generated outputs, and its stability for wind speed changes. The expected performances of the machine have been confirmed under real wind conditions and compared with numerical simulation results. The wind turbine showed a power coefficient of 0.257 under the average wind speed of 7.3 m/s.

  16. Determination of recoverable wind energy for electricity generation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Utilization of renewable energy source, essentially the wind energy, has been growing rapidly in the whole world due to environmental pollution, consumption of the limited fossil fuels and global warming. Moreover, wind resource determination is a fundamental step in planning a wind energy project and exhaustive ...

  17. Assessment and analysis of wind energy generation and power ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study concerns the evaluation of wind power potential and the choice of a wind turbine to be installed near Rabah Bitat international airport of Annaba. Furthermore, the performances of power control of this turbine are developed. For this, the wind speed data measured by meteorological station of th e airport are used.

  18. Centralised control of wind farm with doubly-fed induction generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, A.D.; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Iov, F.

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an advanced wind farm controller for a wind farm made-up exclusively of doubly-fed generators. The overall aim of such controller is to enable the wind farms to behave as active controllable components in the power system. The attention is mainly drawn...... to the ability of the wind farm control strategy to regulate the wind farm power production to the reference power ordered by the system operators. The performance of the control strategy is assessed and discussed by means of normal operation simulations of a grid connected wind farm....

  19. Application of Boost Converter to Increase the Speed Range of Dual-stator Winding Induction Generator in Wind Power Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kavousi, Ayoub; Fathi, S. Hamid; Milimonfared, Jafar

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a topology using a Dual-stator Winding Induction Generator (DWIG) and a boost converter is proposed for the variable speed wind power application. At low rotor speeds, the generator saturation limits the voltage of the DWIG. Using a boost converter, higher DC voltage can be produced...... while the DWIG operates at Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) even at low speed and low voltage conditions. Semiconductor Excitation Controller (SEC) of the DWIG utilizes Control-Winding Voltage Oriented Control (CWVOC) method to adjust the voltage, considering V/f characteristics. For the proposed...... topology, the SEC capacity and the excitation capacitor is optimized by analyzing the SEC reactive current considering wind turbine power-speed curve, V/f strategy, and the generator parameters. The method shows that the per-unit capacity of the SEC can be limited to the inverse of DWIG magnetizing...

  20. Comparison of 10 MW superconducting generator topologies for direct-drive wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Dong; Polinder, Henk; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech

    2015-01-01

    Large wind turbines of 10 MW or higher power levels are desirable for reducing the cost of energy of offshore wind power conversion. Conventional wind generator systems will be costly if scaled up to 10 MW due to rather large size and weight. Direct drive superconducting generators have been...... magnetic field excitation allows for lightweight non-magnetic composite materials for machine cores instead of iron. A topology would probably not be a good option for an offshore wind turbine generator if it demands a far more expensive active material cost than others, even if it has other advantages...... proposed to address the problem with generator size, because the electrical machines with superconducting windings are capable of achieving a higher torque density of an electrical machine. However, the topology to be adopted for superconducting wind generators has not yet been settled, since the high...

  1. Effects of Capcitor Bank on Fault Ride Through Capibility of Induction Generator Based Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Y; Chen, Zhe

    2010-01-01

    power system stability and supply security. Some existing wind turbines are still based on fixed speed induction generators, the effects of capacitor bank on such generators are discussed in this paper. The simulation study shows the capacitor bank may costeffectively improve the dynamic performance......Wind turbine installation is increasing rapidly. In some networks, wind power penetration is significantly high and the performance of wind turbine plays an important role in power system operation and control. Especially, the behavior of wind turbines during a power system disturbance would affect...

  2. Adaptive Backstepping Control Based on Floating Offshore High Temperature Superconductor Generator for Wind Turbines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid development of offshore wind power, the doubly fed induction generator and permanent magnet synchronous generator cannot meet the increasing request of power capacity. Therefore, superconducting generator should be used instead of the traditional motor, which can improve generator efficiency, reduce the weight of wind turbines, and increase system reliability. This paper mainly focuses on nonlinear control in the offshore wind power system which is consisted of a wind turbine and a high temperature superconductor generator. The proposed control approach is based on the adaptive backstepping method. Its main purpose is to regulate the rotor speed and generator voltage, therefore, achieving the maximum power point tracking (MPPT, improving the efficiency of a wind turbine, and then enhancing the system’s stability and robustness under large disturbances. The control approach can ensure high precision of generator speed tracking, which is confirmed in both the theoretical analysis and numerical simulation.

  3. Evaluation of global onshore wind energy potential and generation costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yuyu; Luckow, Patrick; Smith, Steven J; Clarke, Leon

    2012-07-17

    In this study, we develop an updated global estimate of onshore wind energy potential using reanalysis wind speed data, along with updated wind turbine technology performance, land suitability factors, cost assumptions, and explicit consideration of transmission distance in the calculation of transmission costs. We find that wind has the potential to supply a significant portion of the world energy needs, although this potential varies substantially by region and with assumptions such as on what types of land can be used to site wind farms. Total global economic wind potential under central assumptions, that is, intermediate between optimistic and pessimistic, is estimated to be approximately 119.5 petawatt hours per year (13.6 TW) at less than 9 cents/kWh. A sensitivity analysis of eight key parameters is presented. Wind potential is sensitive to a number of input parameters, particularly wind speed (varying by -70% to +450% at less than 9 cents/kWh), land suitability (by -55% to +25%), turbine density (by -60% to +80%), and cost and financing options (by -20% to +200%), many of which have important policy implications. As a result of sensitivities studied here we suggest that further research intended to inform wind supply curve development focus not purely on physical science, such as better resolved wind maps, but also on these less well-defined factors, such as land-suitability, that will also have an impact on the long-term role of wind power.

  4. Stabilization of Wind Energy Conversion System with Hydrogen Generator by Using EDLC Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishido, Seiji; Takahashi, Rion; Murata, Toshiaki; Tamura, Junji; Sugimasa, Masatoshi; Komura, Akiyoshi; Futami, Motoo; Ichinose, Masaya; Ide, Kazumasa

    The spread of wind power generation is progressed hugely in recent years from a viewpoint of environmental problems including global warming. Though wind power is considered as a very prospective energy source, wind power fluctuation due to the random fluctuation of wind speed has still created some problems. Therefore, research has been performed how to smooth the wind power fluctuation. This paper proposes Energy Capacitor System (ECS) for the smoothing of wind power which consists of Electric Double-Layer Capacitor (EDLC) and power electronics devices and works as an electric power storage system. Moreover, hydrogen has received much attention in recent years from a viewpoint of exhaustion problem of fossil fuel. Therefore it is also proposed that a hydrogen generator is installed at the wind farm to generate hydrogen. In this paper, the effectiveness of the proposed system is verified by the simulation analyses using PSCAD/EMTDC.

  5. A methodology for generating a tailored implementation blueprint: an exemplar from a youth residential setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Cara C; Scott, Kelli; Marriott, Brigid R

    2018-05-16

    Tailored implementation approaches are touted as more likely to support the integration of evidence-based practices. However, to our knowledge, few methodologies for tailoring implementations exist. This manuscript will apply a model-driven, mixed methods approach to a needs assessment to identify the determinants of practice, and pilot a modified conjoint analysis method to generate an implementation blueprint using a case example of a cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) implementation in a youth residential center. Our proposed methodology contains five steps to address two goals: (1) identify the determinants of practice and (2) select and match implementation strategies to address the identified determinants (focusing on barriers). Participants in the case example included mental health therapists and operations staff in two programs of Wolverine Human Services. For step 1, the needs assessment, they completed surveys (clinician N = 10; operations staff N = 58; other N = 7) and participated in focus groups (clinician N = 15; operations staff N = 38) guided by the domains of the Framework for Diffusion [1]. For step 2, the research team conducted mixed methods analyses following the QUAN + QUAL structure for the purpose of convergence and expansion in a connecting process, revealing 76 unique barriers. Step 3 consisted of a modified conjoint analysis. For step 3a, agency administrators prioritized the identified barriers according to feasibility and importance. For step 3b, strategies were selected from a published compilation and rated for feasibility and likelihood of impacting CBT fidelity. For step 4, sociometric surveys informed implementation team member selection and a meeting was held to identify officers and clarify goals and responsibilities. For step 5, blueprints for each of pre-implementation, implementation, and sustainment phases were generated. Forty-five unique strategies were prioritized across the 5 years and three phases

  6. Stochastic Prediction of Wind Generating Resources Using the Enhanced Ensemble Model for Jeju Island’s Wind Farms in South Korea

    OpenAIRE

    Deockho Kim; Jin Hur

    2017-01-01

    Due to the intermittency of wind power generation, it is very hard to manage its system operation and planning. In order to incorporate higher wind power penetrations into power systems that maintain secure and economic power system operation, an accurate and efficient estimation of wind power outputs is needed. In this paper, we propose the stochastic prediction of wind generating resources using an enhanced ensemble model for Jeju Island’s wind farms in South Korea. When selecting the poten...

  7. Simulation of an offshore wind farm using fluid power for centralized electricity generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Jarquin Laguna

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A centralized approach for electricity generation within a wind farm is explored through the use of fluid power technology. This concept considers a new way of generation, collection and transmission of wind energy inside a wind farm, in which electrical conversion does not occur during any intermediate conversion step before the energy has reached the offshore central platform. A numerical model was developed to capture the relevant physics from the dynamic interaction between different turbines coupled to a common hydraulic network and controller. This paper presents a few examples of the time domain simulation results for a hypothetical hydraulic wind farm subject to turbulent wind conditions. The performance and operational parameters of individual turbines are compared with those of a reference wind farm based on conventional wind turbine generator technology using the same wind farm layout and environmental conditions. For the presented case studies, results indicate that the individual wind turbines are able to operate within operational limits. Despite the stochastic turbulent wind conditions and wake effects, the hydraulic wind farm is able to produce electricity with reasonable performance in both below and above rated conditions. With the current pressure control concept, a continuous operation of the hydraulic wind farm is shown including the full stop of one or more turbines.

  8. Residential Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde; Matsufuji, Y.

    2011-01-01

    are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing residential waste is faced with the problem that many residences already divert some waste away from the official collection systems, for example performing home composting of vegetable waste and garden waste, having their bundled newspaper picked up by the scouts...... twice a year or bringing their used furniture to the flea markets organized by charity clubs. Thus, much of the data available on residential waste represents collected waste and not necessarily all generated waste. The latter can only be characterized by careful studies directly at the source......, but such studies are very expensive if fair representation of both spatial and temporal variations should be obtained. In addition, onsite studies may affect the waste generation in the residence because of the increased focus on the issue. Residential waste is defined in different ways in different countries...

  9. Effects of Armature Winding Segmentation with Multiple Converters on the Short Circuit Torque of 10-MW Superconducting Wind Turbine Generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Dong; Polinder, Henk; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech

    2017-01-01

    Superconducting synchronous generators (SCSGs) are drawing more attention in large direct-drive wind turbine applications. Despite low weight and compactness, the short circuit torque of an SCSG may be too high for wind turbine constructions due to a large magnetic air gap of an SCSG. This paper...... aims at assessing the effects of armature winding segmentation on reducing the short circuit torque of 10-MW SCSGs. A concept of armature winding segmentation with multiple power electronic converters is presented. Four SCSG designs using different topologies are examined. Results show that armature...... winding segmentation effectively reduce the short circuit torque in all the four SCSG designs when one segment is shorted at the terminal....

  10. Variable speed wind turbine generator system with current controlled voltage source inverter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muyeen, S.M.; Al-Durra, Ahmed; Tamura, J.

    2011-01-01

    highlights: → Current controlled voltage source inverter scheme for wind power application. → Low voltage ride through of wind farm. → Variable speed wind turbine driven permanent magnet synchronous generator-operation and control. -- Abstract: The present popular trend of wind power generation is to use variable speed wind turbine (VSWT) driving a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG), wound field synchronous generator (WFSG) or permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG). Among them, stability analyses of DFIG type of VSWT have already been reported in many literatures. However, transient stability and low voltage ride through (LVRT) characteristics analyses for synchronous generator type of VSWT is not sufficient enough. This paper focuses on detailed LVRT characteristic analysis of variable speed wind turbine driving a PMSG (VSWT-PMSG) with current controlled voltage source inverter (CC-VSI). Modeling and suitable control strategies for overall system are developed to augment the low voltage ride through capability of variable speed wind generator, considering recent wind farm grid code. Both symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults are analyzed as network disturbances in this paper. The permanent fault due to unsuccessful reclosing of circuit breakers is taken into consideration, which is a salient feature of this study. Moreover, the dynamic characteristic is analyzed using real wind speed data measured in Hokkaido Island, Japan. The proposed control scheme is simulated by using the standard power system simulation package PSCAD/EMTDC and results are verified by comparing that of voltage controlled voltage source inverter scheme available in power system literature.

  11. Variable speed wind turbine generator system with current controlled voltage source inverter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muyeen, S.M., E-mail: muyeen0809@yahoo.co [Dept. of Electrical Engineering, Petroleum Institute, P.O. Box 2533, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Al-Durra, Ahmed [Dept. of Electrical Engineering, The Petroleum Institute, P.O. Box 2533, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Tamura, J. [Dept. of EEE, Kitami Institute of Technology, 165 Koen-cho, Kitami 090-8507 (Japan)

    2011-07-15

    highlights: {yields} Current controlled voltage source inverter scheme for wind power application. {yields} Low voltage ride through of wind farm. {yields} Variable speed wind turbine driven permanent magnet synchronous generator-operation and control. -- Abstract: The present popular trend of wind power generation is to use variable speed wind turbine (VSWT) driving a doubly fed induction generator (DFIG), wound field synchronous generator (WFSG) or permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG). Among them, stability analyses of DFIG type of VSWT have already been reported in many literatures. However, transient stability and low voltage ride through (LVRT) characteristics analyses for synchronous generator type of VSWT is not sufficient enough. This paper focuses on detailed LVRT characteristic analysis of variable speed wind turbine driving a PMSG (VSWT-PMSG) with current controlled voltage source inverter (CC-VSI). Modeling and suitable control strategies for overall system are developed to augment the low voltage ride through capability of variable speed wind generator, considering recent wind farm grid code. Both symmetrical and unsymmetrical faults are analyzed as network disturbances in this paper. The permanent fault due to unsuccessful reclosing of circuit breakers is taken into consideration, which is a salient feature of this study. Moreover, the dynamic characteristic is analyzed using real wind speed data measured in Hokkaido Island, Japan. The proposed control scheme is simulated by using the standard power system simulation package PSCAD/EMTDC and results are verified by comparing that of voltage controlled voltage source inverter scheme available in power system literature.

  12. Incorporation of a Wind Generator Model into a Dynamic Power Flow Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angeles-Camacho C.

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy is nowadays one of the most cost-effective and practical options for electric generation from renewable resources. However, increased penetration of wind generation causes the power networks to be more depend on, and vulnerable to, the varying wind speed. Modeling is a tool which can provide valuable information about the interaction between wind farms and the power network to which they are connected. This paper develops a realistic characterization of a wind generator. The wind generator model is incorporated into an algorithm to investigate its contribution to the stability of the power network in the time domain. The tool obtained is termed dynamic power flow. The wind generator model takes on account the wind speed and the reactive power consumption by induction generators. Dynamic power flow analysis is carried-out using real wind data at 10-minute time intervals collected for one meteorological station. The generation injected at one point into the network provides active power locally and is found to reduce global power losses. However, the power supplied is time-varying and causes fluctuations in voltage magnitude and power fl ows in transmission lines.

  13. Controller for a small induction-generator based wind-turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahshan, R.; Iqbal, M.T.; Mann, George K.I. [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, Memorial University of Newfoundland, St. John' s, Newfoundland (Canada)

    2008-04-15

    Design of a low-cost micro-controller for a small induction-generator based grid-connected wind-turbine is presented in this paper. The controller senses the parameters of the wind-turbine generator and the grid, and makes decisions about grid connection and disconnection. Low-cost instrumentation circuitry has been developed to measure the generator and grid parameters. Based on the measurement of voltage and frequency of the wind-turbine generator and the grid side, a control decision is taken to connect the system to the grid. The controller makes decision to disconnect the system from the grid based on the power flow measurement between the wind turbine and the grid. The power flow between wind turbine and the grid depends upon the availability of the wind. The prototype controller has been developed based on a micro-controller PIC16F877 and has been tested in the laboratory. (author)

  14. Output Power Control of Wind Turbine Generator by Pitch Angle Control using Minimum Variance Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senjyu, Tomonobu; Sakamoto, Ryosei; Urasaki, Naomitsu; Higa, Hiroki; Uezato, Katsumi; Funabashi, Toshihisa

    In recent years, there have been problems such as exhaustion of fossil fuels, e. g., coal and oil, and environmental pollution resulting from consumption. Effective utilization of renewable energies such as wind energy is expected instead of the fossil fuel. Wind energy is not constant and windmill output is proportional to the cube of wind speed, which cause the generated power of wind turbine generators (WTGs) to fluctuate. In order to reduce fluctuating components, there is a method to control pitch angle of blades of the windmill. In this paper, output power leveling of wind turbine generator by pitch angle control using an adaptive control is proposed. A self-tuning regulator is used in adaptive control. The control input is determined by the minimum variance control. It is possible to compensate control input to alleviate generating power fluctuation with using proposed controller. The simulation results with using actual detailed model for wind power system show effectiveness of the proposed controller.

  15. Composition Modeling and Equivalence of an Integrated Power Generation System of Wind, Photovoltaic and Energy Storage Unit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Haohuai; TANG Yong; HOU Junxian; ZOU Jiangfeng; LIANGShuang; SU Feng

    2011-01-01

    The characteristic of wind and solar generation is random and fluctuant. In order to improve their generation performance, the integrated power generation of wind, photovoltaic (PV) and energy storage is a focus in the study. In this paper,

  16. Next-generation heat pump systems in residential buildings and commercial premises; Naesta generations vaermepumpssystem i bostaeder och lokaler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haglund Stignor, Caroline; Lindahl, Markus; Alsbjer, Markus; Nordman, Roger; Rolfsman, Lennart; Axell, Monica

    2009-07-01

    Summarising, the following conclusions can be drawn from this work. - Installation of a heat pump system is a very efficient way of reducing a building's energy demand without making any greater changes to the building's climate screen, and can therefore assist Sweden's achievement of its energy efficiency improvement targets. - A new generation of cost-effective smaller heat pumps is needed for installation in new detached houses or those being renovated and upgraded. - There also seems to be an excellent market potential for heat pumps that are larger than has previously been common: there should be good prospects for selling them for use in apartment buildings and in commercial or similar premises. - Heat pump installations are particularly competitive in applications where there are simultaneous heating and cooling demands in the property, and also in those cases where heating is required for most of the year and cooling for some other part of the year. If these suggested system arrangements are to be fully realised, there will be a need for further research in certain cases. Particularly, there is a need for research and development of more efficient pumps, fans and speed-controlled compressors in order to get such products on to the market. Performance measurements and follow-up of real systems are needed in order to obtain a clear picture of the efficiency of both present-day and proposed systems. This knowledge is essential for further development of systems, not only for residential buildings but also, even more importantly, for commercial and similar premises. Actual heating and cooling requirements in different types of non-residential premises need to be known more accurately in order to decide how systems should be controlled in order to minimise total energy use. Much indicates that future detached houses will be more energy-efficient, which could have the undesirable result of greater use of direct electric heating, as the investment

  17. Generation of statistical scenarios of short-term wind power production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pinson, Pierre; Papaefthymiou, George; Klockl, Bernd

    2007-01-01

    Short-term (up to 2-3 days ahead) probabilistic forecasts of wind power provide forecast users with a paramount information on the uncertainty of expected wind generation. Whatever the type of these probabilistic forecasts, they are produced on a per horizon basis, and hence do not inform...... on the development of the forecast uncertainty through forecast series. This issue is addressed here by describing a method that permits to generate statistical scenarios of wind generation that accounts for the interdependence structure of prediction errors, in plus of respecting predictive distributions of wind...

  18. Control of variable speed wind turbine with doubly-fed induction generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, A.D.; Soerensen, P. [Risoe National Lab., Wind Energy Dept., Roskilde (Denmark); Iov, F.; Blaabjerg, F. [Aalborg Univ., Inst. of Energy Technology, Aalborg (Denmark)

    2004-07-01

    draIn this paper, a Control method suitable for a variable speed grid connected pitch-controlled wind turbine with doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG) is developed. The targets of the Control system are: 1) to Control the power drawn from the wind turbine in order to track the wind turbine optimum operation point 2) to limit the power in case of high wind speeds and 3) to Control the reactive power interchanged between the wind turbine generator and the grid. The considered configuration of DFIG is an induction generator with a wound rotor connected to the grid through a back-to-back power converter and a stator directly connected to the grid. The paper presents the overall Control system of the variable speed DFIG wind turbine, with focus on the Control strategies and algorithms applied at each hierarchical Control level of the wind turbine. There are two Control levels: a DFIG Control level and wind turbine Control level. The DFIG Control level contains a fast Control of the power converter and of the doubly-fed induction generator and it has as goal to Control the active and reactive power of the wind turbine independently. The wind turbine Control level supervises with Control signals both the DFIG Control level and the hydraulic pitch Control system of the wind turbine. The present Control method is designed for normal continuous operations. The variable speed/variable pitch wind turbine with doubly-fed induction generator is implemented in the dynamic power system simulation tool DIgSILENT, which makes possible to investigate the dynamic performance of gid-connected wind turbines as a part of realistic electrical grid models. Several significant simulation results are performed With the overall Control-implemented algorithm applied on a variable speed, variable pitch wind turbine model. (au)

  19. GeneratorSE: A Sizing Tool for Variable-Speed Wind Turbine Generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sethuraman, Latha [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dykes, Katherine L [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-22

    This report documents a set of analytical models employed by the optimization algorithms within the GeneratorSE framework. The initial values and boundary conditions employed for the generation of the various designs and initial estimates for basic design dimensions, masses, and efficiency for the four different models of generators are presented and compared with empirical data collected from previous studies and some existing commercial turbines. These models include designs applicable for variable-speed, high-torque application featuring direct-drive synchronous generators and low-torque application featuring induction generators. In all of the four models presented, the main focus of optimization is electromagnetic design with the exception of permanent-magnet and wire-wound synchronous generators, wherein the structural design is also optimized. Thermal design is accommodated in GeneratorSE as a secondary attribute by limiting the winding current densities to acceptable limits. A preliminary validation of electromagnetic design was carried out by comparing the optimized magnetic loading against those predicted by numerical simulation in FEMM4.2, a finite-element software for analyzing electromagnetic and thermal physics problems for electrical machines. For direct-drive synchronous generators, the analytical models for the structural design are validated by static structural analysis in ANSYS.

  20. The Modeling and Simulation of Thermal Analysis at Hydro Generator Stator Winding Insulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Raduca

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the modelling and simulation of thermal analysis at hydro generator stator winding. The winding stator is supplied at high voltage of 11 kV for high power hydro generator. To present the thermal analysis for stator winding is presented at supply of coil by 11 kV, when coil is heat and thermal transfer in insulation at ambient temperature.

  1. Overall control strategy of variable speed doubly-fed induction generator wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, A.D.; Iov, F.; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar

    2004-01-01

    The variable speed doubly-fed induction generator wind turbine is today the most widely used concept. The paper presents an overall control system of the variable speed DFIG wind turbine, with focus on the control strategies and algorithms applied at each hierarchical control level of the wind tu......-fed induction generator is implemented in the dynamic power system simulation tool DIgSILENT. Simulation results are performed and analyzed in different normal operating conditions....

  2. An optimal design of coreless direct-drive axial flux permanent magnet generator for wind turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, D; Ahmad, A

    2013-01-01

    Different types of generators are currently being used in wind power technology. The commonly used are induction generator (IG), doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG), electrically excited synchronous generator (EESG) and permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG). However, the use of PMSG is rapidly increasing because of advantages such as higher power density, better controllability and higher reliability. This paper presents an innovative design of a low-speed modular, direct-drive axial flux permanent magnet (AFPM) generator with coreless stator and rotor for a wind turbine power generation system that is developed using mathematical and analytical methods. This innovative design is implemented in MATLAB / Simulink environment using dynamic modelling techniques. The main focus of this research is to improve efficiency of the wind power generation system by investigating electromagnetic and structural features of AFPM generator during its operation in wind turbine. The design is validated by comparing its performance with standard models of existing wind power generators. The comparison results demonstrate that the proposed model for the wind power generator exhibits number of advantages such as improved efficiency with variable speed operation, higher energy yield, lighter weight and better wind power utilization.

  3. An optimal design of coreless direct-drive axial flux permanent magnet generator for wind turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, D.; Ahmad, A.

    2013-06-01

    Different types of generators are currently being used in wind power technology. The commonly used are induction generator (IG), doubly-fed induction generator (DFIG), electrically excited synchronous generator (EESG) and permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG). However, the use of PMSG is rapidly increasing because of advantages such as higher power density, better controllability and higher reliability. This paper presents an innovative design of a low-speed modular, direct-drive axial flux permanent magnet (AFPM) generator with coreless stator and rotor for a wind turbine power generation system that is developed using mathematical and analytical methods. This innovative design is implemented in MATLAB / Simulink environment using dynamic modelling techniques. The main focus of this research is to improve efficiency of the wind power generation system by investigating electromagnetic and structural features of AFPM generator during its operation in wind turbine. The design is validated by comparing its performance with standard models of existing wind power generators. The comparison results demonstrate that the proposed model for the wind power generator exhibits number of advantages such as improved efficiency with variable speed operation, higher energy yield, lighter weight and better wind power utilization.

  4. Turbulent wind field characterization and re-generation based on pitot tube measurements mounted on a wind turbine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads Mølgaard; Larsen, Torben J.; Aagaard Madsen, Helge

    2015-01-01

    models that compensate for axial and tangential induction, approximated by blade element momentum theory, radial expansion of the inflow, rotor tilt, dynamic and skew inflow, tip loss, as well as braking and circulation of the flow local to the airfoil. The wind speeds measured on the rotating blades...... the measured wind speeds at the recording position. In the theoretical part of this study a quite good agreement is seen between load sensors on a turbine model exposed to the reference and the re-generated turbulence field. Finally the method is applied to full scale measurements and reasonable wind shear...

  5. Improved cost of energy comparison of permanent magnet generators for large offshore wind turbines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hart, K.; McDonald, A.; Polinder, H.; Corr, E.; Carroll, J.

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates geared and direct-drive permanent magnet generators for a typical offshore wind turbine, providing a detailed comparison of various wind turbine drivetrain configurations in order to minimise the Cost of Energy. The permanent magnet generator topologies considered include a

  6. Short Circuits of a 10 MW High Temperature Superconducting Wind Turbine Generator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Song, X.; Polinder, H.; Liu, D.; Mijatovic, Nenad; Holbøll, Joachim; Jensen, Bogi Bech

    Direct drive high temperature superconducting (HTS) wind turbine generators have been proposed to tackle challenges for ever increasing wind turbine ratings. Due to smaller reactances in HTS generators, higher fault currents and larger transient torques could occur if sudden short circuits happen at

  7. Mod-5A wind turbine generator program design report. Volume 4: Drawings and specifications, book 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    The design, development and analysis of the 7.3 MW MOD-5A wind turbine generator is documented. There are four volumes. This volume contains the drawings and specifications that were developed in preparation for building the MOD-5A wind turbine generator. Detail drawings of several assemblies and subassemblies are given. This is the fifth book of volume 4.

  8. The viability of balancing wind generation with large scale energy storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyamdash, Batsaikhan; Denny, Eleanor; O'Malley, Mark

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of combining wind generation and dedicated large scale energy storage on the conventional thermal plant mix and the CO 2 emissions of a power system. Different strategies are proposed here in order to explore the best operational strategy for the wind and storage system in terms of its effect on the net load. Furthermore, the economic viability of combining wind and large scale storage is studied. The empirical application, using data for the Irish power system, shows that combined wind and storage reduces the participation of mid-merit plants and increases the participation of base-load plants. Moreover, storage negates some of the CO 2 emissions reduction of the wind generation. It was also found that the wind and storage output can significantly reduce the variability of the net load under certain operational strategies and the optimal strategy depends on the installed wind capacity. However, in the absence of any supporting mechanism none of the storage devices were economically viable when they were combined with the wind generation on the Irish power system. - Research Highlights: → Energy storage would displace the peaking and mid-merit plants generations by the base-load plants generations. Energy storage may negate the CO 2 emissions reduction that is due to the increased wind generations. →Energy storage reduces the variation of the net load. →Under certain market conditions, merchant type energy storage is not viable.

  9. Flicker study on variable speed wind turbines with doubly fed induction generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Tao; Chen, Zhe; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2005-01-01

    to a conclusion that the factors mentioned above have different influences on flicker emission compared with that in the case of the fixed speed wind turbine. Flicker mitigation is realized by output reactive power control of the variable speed wind turbine with doubly fed induction generator. Simulation results...... show the wind turbine output reactive power control provides an effective means for flicker mitigation regardless of mean wind speed, turbulence intensity and short circuit capacity ratio.......Grid connected wind turbines may produce flicker during continuous operation. This paper presents a simulation model of a MW-level variable speed wind turbine with a doubly fed induction generator developed in the simulation tool of PSCAD/EMTDC. Flicker emission of variable speed wind turbines...

  10. Short-term optimal wind power generation capacity in liberalized electricity markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsina, Fernando; Roescher, Mark; Larisson, Carlos; Garces, Francisco

    2007-01-01

    Mainly because of environmental concerns and fuel price uncertainties, considerable amounts of wind-based generation capacity are being added to some deregulated power systems. The rapid wind development registered in some countries has essentially been driven by strong subsidizing programs. Since wind investments are commonly isolated from market signals, installed wind capacity can be higher than optimal, leading to distortions of the power prices with a consequent loss of social welfare. In this work, the influence of wind generation on power prices in the framework of a liberalized electricity market has been assessed by means of stochastic simulation techniques. The developed methodology allows investigating the maximal wind capacity that would be profitably deployed if wind investments were subject to market conditions only. For this purpose, stochastic variables determining power prices are accurately modeled. A test system resembling the size and characteristics of the German power system has been selected for this study. The expected value of the optimal, short-term wind capacity is evaluated for a considerable number of random realizations of power prices. The impact of dispersing the wind capacity over statistical independent wind sites has also been evaluated. The simulation results reveal that fuel prices, installation and financing costs of wind investments are very influential parameters on the maximal wind capacity that might be accommodated in a market-based manner

  11. Short Circuits of a 10-MW High-Temperature Superconducting Wind Turbine Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Xiaowei (Andy); Liu, Dong; Polinder, Henk

    2017-01-01

    Direct Drive high-temperature superconducting (HTS) wind turbine generators have been proposed to tackle challenges for ever increasing wind turbine ratings. Due to smaller reactances in HTS generators, higher fault currents and larger transient torques could occur if sudden short circuits take...... place at generator terminals. In this paper, a finite element model that couples magnetic fields and the generator's equivalent circuits is developed to simulate short-circuit faults. Afterward, the model is used to study the transient performance of a 10-MW HTS wind turbine generator under four...... show that the short circuits pose great challenges to the generator, and careful consideration should be given to protect the generator. The findings presented in this paper would be beneficial to the design, operation and protection of an HTS wind turbine generator....

  12. Evaluation of wind energy investment interest and electricity generation cost analysis for Turkey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akdag, Seyit Ahmet; Gueler, Oender

    2010-01-01

    Turkey has remarkable wind energy potential, but its utilisation rate is very low. However, in 2007, energy investors applied to the Energy Market Regulatory Authority (EMRA) with 751 wind projects to obtain a 78180.2 MW wind power plant license. This paper first presents an overview of wind energy development in the world and then reviews related situations in Turkey. Second, to motivate the interest in wind energy investment, new wind power plant license applications in Turkey are analysed. Finally, wind electricity generation cost analyses were performed at 14 locations in Turkey. Capacity factors of investigated locations were calculated between 19.7% and 56.8%, and the production cost of electrical energy was between 1.73 and 4.99 cent/kW h for two different wind shear coefficients. (author)

  13. Half century of wind power generation memoir. Part 1; Furyoku hatsuden hanseiki sono omoide. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakata, H.

    1995-12-01

    This article may be deemed an autobiography of an individual on his development of wind power generation devices. The author began to be interested in electricity while he was a pupil of primary school and during his time of middle school student, when he walked against the strong wind on an embankment, he got an idea to utilize the wind power and succeeded to generate electricity with his handmade wind power generator using a bicycle generator. Afterwards he kept interested in devices utilizing the wind power, in 1973, energy saving was widely promoted due to the oil crises, and taking that opportunity, he established single-handedly a laboratory for development of utilization of the breeze power. Since his retirement from teaching profession in the spring of 1980, he has coped with earnestly the development of wind power generators. He acquired and installed various machine tools for metal works for generators and various machines for wood works for making propellers. In this article, wind power generators using bicycle generators (direct connection type and speed increasing type), small D.C. motors (motors for driving tape recorder, motors for automobile radiator and windshield wiper, etc.) and automobile generators (D.C. generators and alternators) are explained. 11 figs.

  14. A Framework for Understanding and Generating Integrated Solutions for Residential Peak Energy Demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buys, Laurie; Vine, Desley; Ledwich, Gerard; Bell, John; Mengersen, Kerrie; Morris, Peter; Lewis, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Supplying peak energy demand in a cost effective, reliable manner is a critical focus for utilities internationally. Successfully addressing peak energy concerns requires understanding of all the factors that affect electricity demand especially at peak times. This paper is based on past attempts of proposing models designed to aid our understanding of the influences on residential peak energy demand in a systematic and comprehensive way. Our model has been developed through a group model building process as a systems framework of the problem situation to model the complexity within and between systems and indicate how changes in one element might flow on to others. It is comprised of themes (social, technical and change management options) networked together in a way that captures their influence and association with each other and also their influence, association and impact on appliance usage and residential peak energy demand. The real value of the model is in creating awareness, understanding and insight into the complexity of residential peak energy demand and in working with this complexity to identify and integrate the social, technical and change management option themes and their impact on appliance usage and residential energy demand at peak times. PMID:25807384

  15. Hierarchical predictive control scheme for distributed energy storage integrated with residential demand and photovoltaic generation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lampropoulos, I.; Garoufalis, P.; van den Bosch, P.P.J.; Kling, W.L.

    2015-01-01

    A hierarchical control scheme is defined for the energy management of a battery energy storage system which is integrated in a low-voltage distribution grid with residential customers and photovoltaic installations. The scope is the economic optimisation of the integrated system by employing

  16. Three essays on the effect of wind generation on power system planning and operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Clay Duane

    While the benefits of wind generation are well known, some drawbacks are still being understood as wind power is integrated into the power grid at increasing levels. The primary difference between wind generation and other forms of generation is the intermittent, and somewhat unpredictable, aspect of this resource. The somewhat uncontrollable aspect of wind generation makes it important to consider the relationship between this resource and load, and also how the operation of other non-wind generation resources may be affected. The three essays that comprise this dissertation focus on these and other important issues related to wind generation; leading to an improved understanding of how to better plan for and utilize this resource. The first essay addresses the cost of increased levels of installed wind capacity from both a capacity planning and economic dispatch perspective to arrive at the total system cost of installing a unit of wind capacity. This total includes not only the cost of the wind turbine and associated infrastructure, but also the cost impact an additional unit of wind capacity has on the optimal mix and operation of other generating units in the electricity supply portfolio. The results of the model showed that for all wind expansion scenarios, wind capacity is not cost-effective regardless of the level of the wind production tax credit and carbon prices that were considered. Larger levels of installed wind capacity result in reduced variable cost, but this reduction is not able to offset increases in capital cost, as a unit of installed wind capacity does not result in an equal reduction in other non-wind capacity needs. The second essay develops a methodology to better handle unexpected short term fluctuations in wind generation within the existing power system. The methodology developed in this essay leads to lower expected costs by anticipating and planning for fluctuations in wind generation by focusing on key constraints in the system. The

  17. Stochastic model of wind-fuel cell for a semi-dispatchable power generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alvarez-Mendoza, Fernanda; Bacher, Peder; Madsen, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    electrolyte membrane fuel cell, which are embedded in one complete system with the wind power. This study uses historic wind speed data from Mexico; the forecasts are obtained using the recursive least square algorithm with a forgetting factor. The proposed approach provides probabilistic information......Hybrid systems are implemented to improve the efficiency of individual generation technologies by complementing each other. Intermittence is a challenge to overcome especially for renewable energy sources for electric generation, as in the case of wind power. This paper proposes a hybrid system...... for short-term wind power generation and electric generation as the outcome of the hybrid system. A method for a semi-dispatchable electric generation based on time series analysis is presented, and the implementation of wind power and polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell models controlled by a model...

  18. Potentiality of wind power generation along the Bangladesh coast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Md. Akramuzzaman; Chowdhury, K. M. Azam; Sen, Sukanta; Islam, Mohammad Masudul

    2017-12-01

    Nowadays Bangladesh is facing the problem with electricity as the production is less comparing to the demand. A significant amount of electricity is consumed in urban areas especially by industries whereas in rural or coastal areas most of the people are not having it. Around 40 millions of people living in the 724 km long coast in Bangladesh. Moreover, it is surprising that throughout the year there is sufficient wind blow in coastal areas by which we can produce a massive amount of electricity. However, day by day the utilization of wind energy is increasing in the world which reduces costs of renewable energy technology, improves efficiency. It would be a good alternative solution instead of dependency on natural gas. Wind energy is mainly potential in coastal and offshore areas with strong wind regimes. Wind energy is vital for ensuring a green energy for the future. The agricultural land of Bangladesh needs the supply of water at right time for better yielding. The installation of windmills will be very much convenient for operating the water supply pumps. This research highlights the possibility of wind energy and describes the necessary steps to implement and develop wind energy sector in Bangladesh by using other's successful ideas. Supportive policies, rules, and decree can be applied to make government, non-government organization, and donor organizations work together to develop wind energy sector in Bangladesh.

  19. Estonian company develops an enhanced wind power generator

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2010-01-01

    Eesti firmas Goliath Wind OÜ töötatakse välja uut tüüpi energiasäästlikku tuulegeneraatorit, mis võimaldaks tuuleenergia hinda alandada kuni viiendiku võrra. Vt. samas intervjuud Goliath Wind OÜ juhatuse liikme Lars Machiga

  20. Variability in large-scale wind power generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiviluoma, Juha; Holttinen, Hannele; Weir, David

    2016-01-01

    The paper demonstrates the characteristics of wind power variability and net load variability in multiple power systems based on real data from multiple years. Demonstrated characteristics include probability distribution for different ramp durations, seasonal and diurnal variability and low net ...... with well-dispersed wind power. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd....

  1. Statistical analysis of wind speed for electrical power generation in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Also, the results have shown that Jos, Kano and Minna fall in class 4 and therefore suitable for both off grid and grid connected modes. In addition, the effects of c and k parameters on the probability distribution functions have been presented. Keywords: Wind speed - probability - density function – wind energy conversion ...

  2. Stability Augmentation of Wind Farm using Variable Speed Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosyadi, Marwan; Muyeen, S. M.; Takahashi, Rion; Tamura, Junji

    This paper presents a new control strategy of variable speed permanent magnet wind generator for stability augmentation of wind farm including fixed speed wind turbine with Induction Generator (IG). A new control scheme is developed for two levels back-to-back converters of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator (PMSG), by which both active and reactive powers delivered to the grid can be controlled easily. To avoid the converter damage, the DC link protection controller is also proposed in order to protect the dc link circuit during fault condition. To evaluate the control capability of the proposed controllers, simulations are performed on two model systems composed of wind farms connected to an infinite bus. From transient and steady state analyses by using PSCAD/EMTDC, it is concluded that the proposed control scheme is very effective to improve the stability of wind farm for severe network disturbance and randomly fluctuating wind speed.

  3. Analysis and estimation of transient stability for a grid-connected wind turbine with induction generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, H.; Zhao, B.; Yang, C.

    2011-01-01

    based on normal form theory is proposed. The transient models of the wind turbine generation system including the flexible drive train model are derived based on the direct transient stability estimation method. A method of critical clearing time (CCT) calculation is developed for the transient......Increasing levels of wind energy in modern electrical power system is initiating a need for accurate analysis and estimation of transient stability of wind turbine generation systems. This paper investigates the transient behaviors and possible direct methods for transient stability evaluation...... of a grid-connected wind turbine with squirrel cage induction generator (SCIG). Firstly, by using an equivalent lump mass method, a three-mass wind turbine equivalent model is proposed considering both the blades and the shaft flexibility of the wind turbine drive train system. Combined with the detailed...

  4. Local inertial oscillations in the surface ocean generated by time-varying winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shengli; Polton, Jeff A.; Hu, Jianyu; Xing, Jiuxing

    2015-12-01

    A new relationship is presented to give a review study on the evolution of inertial oscillations in the surface ocean locally generated by time-varying wind stress. The inertial oscillation is expressed as the superposition of a previous oscillation and a newly generated oscillation, which depends upon the time-varying wind stress. This relationship is employed to investigate some idealized wind change events. For a wind series varying temporally with different rates, the induced inertial oscillation is dominated by the wind with the greatest variation. The resonant wind, which rotates anti-cyclonically at the local inertial frequency with time, produces maximal amplitude of inertial oscillations, which grows monotonically. For the wind rotating at non-inertial frequencies, the responses vary periodically, with wind injecting inertial energy when it is in phase with the currents, but removing inertial energy when it is out of phase. The wind rotating anti-cyclonically with time is much more favorable to generate inertial oscillations than the cyclonic rotating wind. The wind with a frequency closer to the inertial frequency generates stronger inertial oscillations. For a diurnal wind, the induced inertial oscillation is dependent on latitude and is most significant at 30 °. This relationship is also applied to examine idealized moving cyclones. The inertial oscillation is much stronger on the right-hand side of the cyclone path than on the left-hand side (in the northern hemisphere). This is due to the wind being anti-cyclonic with time on the right-hand side, but cyclonic on the other side. The inertial oscillation varies with the cyclone translation speed. The optimal translation speed generating the greatest inertial oscillations is 2 m/s at the latitude of 10 ° and gradually increases to 6 m/s at the latitude of 30 °.

  5. On the integration of wind generators on weak grids and island grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laverdure, N.

    2005-12-01

    Wind energy is now an energy that can not be ignored. Because of intrinsic characteristics (scattered primary energy, generators with different technologies, use of power electronics interface), wind energy system integration in distribution grids leads to real problems in terms of impacts. With recent standard changes, it is necessary to study the possibilities of each technology of wind turbines to answer or not to these new constraints. This PhD thesis focuses on a comparison of the main present wind turbines concerning three points of discussion: energy quality, fault ride through, ancillary services (voltage and frequency). It insists on the possibilities in terms of control laws for variable speed wind turbines. (author)

  6. Centralised power control of wind farm with doubly fed induction generators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, A.D.; Sørensen, Poul Ejnar; Iov, F.

    2006-01-01

    At the moment, the control ability of wind farms is a prime research concern for the grid integration of large wind farms, due to their required active role in the power system. This paper describes the on-going work of a research project, whose overall objective is to analyse and assess...... the possibilities for control of different wind farm concepts. The scope of this paper is the control of a wind farm made up exclusively of doubly fed induction generators. The paper addresses the design and implementation issues of such a controller and focuses on the ability of the wind farm control strategy...

  7. Power Control of Permanent Magnet Generator Based Variable Speed Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Fujin; Chen, Zhe

    2009-01-01

    When the wind power accounts for a large portion of the grid, it will be required to regulate the active power and reactive power. This paper investigates a MWlevel variable speed wind turbine with a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG). The power control capabilities of two kinds...... of control schemes conducted respectively on this wind turbine under two conditions, including rapid wind speed change and grids faults, are compared. The simulation study of the wind turbine system is conducted using PSCAD/EMTDC, and the results show the different power control capabilities of the two...

  8. Research highlights : study of the noise generated by heat pumps in residential areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousseau, J.

    2000-01-01

    Rising energy costs and aggressive marketing played a major role in the substantial increase in the number of domestic heat pumps installed. As a rule, heat pumps are connected to the heating and ventilation systems on the outside of the house. Whether the heat pump is equipped with an integrated compressor or not, it creates noise. The noise is generated by the powerful fan designed to cool all the coils, and also by the compressor itself and the circulation of the refrigerant gas. Some municipalities received so many complaints on this topic that they are considering adopting noise bylaws. The first objective of the research undertaken by Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation on heat pumps in residential areas was to analyze the noise pollution mode of commonly used heat pumps. A study of a simple noise reduction device was performed, and the extent to which it should be used. Finally, there had to be no reduction of the thermal capacities of the pumps. Phase 1 of the study took place between May and August 1990, in the area of Quebec City. A total of 125 heat pumps were identified. The four major manufacturers were Trane, Carrier, York, and Lennox. Initial sound pressure levels measurements were made at one metre from the unit, for 80 such units, respecting the ratio by brands in the sample of 125. A detailed global noise measurement determined the sound power of each pump. A detailed muffler feasibility study was then conducted, using a Trane heat pump. The results of the study indicated that heat pumps were a major source of continuous noise in low and mid-density areas. It was discovered that a noise attenuation device could always be built around heat pumps, which needed to be installed as close as possible to the casing of the heat pump. It is not possible to design a device to fit each and every heat pump, the design is specific to the dimensions and characteristics of each model of heat pump. The thermal performance of the pumps will not be affected by

  9. Short Circuits of a 10 MW High Temperature Superconducting Wind Turbine Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Xiaowei (Andy); Liu, Dong; Polinder, Henk

    2016-01-01

    Direct drive high temperature superconducting (HTS) wind turbine generators have been proposed to tackle challenges for ever increasing wind turbine ratings. Due to smaller reactances in HTS generators, higher fault currents and larger transient torques could occur if sudden short circuits happen...... at generator terminals. In this paper, a finite element model that couples magnetic fields and the generator’s equivalent circuits is developed to simulate short circuit faults. Afterwards, the model is used to study the transient performance of a 10 MW HTS wind turbine generator under four different short...... that the short circuits pose great challenges to the generator, and careful consideration should be given to protect the generator. The results presented in this paper would be beneficial to the design, operation and protection of an HTS wind turbine generator....

  10. Integration of wind power in the Danish generation system. EC wind power penetration study, phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-06-01

    The Commission of the European Communities has asked utilities in the member countries to carry out a coordinated study of the wind energy potential. The main objective is to show the consequences for the future electricity system when integrating wind power production covering 5, 10 or 15% of total demand. In addition to the best estimate scenario believed to be operational, some additional calculations have been carried out: wind power production as a negative load only (not operational for the total system); different levels of investment in wind farms. The methodology is based on the following steps: define a reference scenario for year 2000; define an alternative scenario with a certain amount of wind power production; calculate time-series for electrical load and district heating from combined heat/power production; calculate time-series for wind power production; make economic evaluation and sensitivity analysis; show environmental differences. Incorporation of wind power into the ELSAM power system, with the wind energy meeting, about 5% of demand will give rise to additional control capacity, or call for new contracts with neighbouring countries. The study includes estimated network investments. The simulations have been made with the SIM and SLUMP computer programmes. The economic analyses and the sensitivity analyses have been carried out using spreadsheets. The conclusion concerning profitability - based on the best estimate assumptions - is that the studied wind power scenarios are unprofitable. (EG)

  11. Advanced Wind Turbine Program Next Generation Turbine Development Project: June 17, 1997--April 30, 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GE Wind Energy, LLC

    2006-05-01

    This document reports the technical results of the Next Generation Turbine Development Project conducted by GE Wind Energy LLC. This project is jointly funded by GE and the U.S. Department of Energy's National Renewable Energy Laboratory.The goal of this project is for DOE to assist the U.S. wind industry in exploring new concepts and applications of cutting-edge technology in pursuit of the specific objective of developing a wind turbine that can generate electricity at a levelized cost of energy of $0.025/kWh at sites with an average wind speed of 15 mph (at 10 m height).

  12. Power train analysis for the DOE/NASA 100-kW wind turbine generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel, R. C.; Gold, H.; Wenzel, L. M.

    1978-01-01

    Progress in explaining variations of power experienced in the on-line operation of a 100 kW experimental wind turbine-generator is reported. Data are presented that show the oscillations tend to be characteristic of a wind-driven synchronous generator because of low torsional damping in the power train, resonances of its large structure, and excitation by unsteady and nonuniform wind flow. The report includes dynamic analysis of the drive-train torsion, the generator, passive driveline damping, and active pitch control as well as correlation with experimental recordings. The analysis assumes one machine on an infinite bus with constant generator-field excitation.

  13. Microgrid optimal scheduling considering impact of high penetration wind generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alanazi, Abdulaziz

    The objective of this thesis is to study the impact of high penetration wind energy in economic and reliable operation of microgrids. Wind power is variable, i.e., constantly changing, and nondispatchable, i.e., cannot be controlled by the microgrid controller. Thus an accurate forecasting of wind power is an essential task in order to study its impacts in microgrid operation. Two commonly used forecasting methods including Autoregressive Integrated Moving Average (ARIMA) and Artificial Neural Network (ANN) have been used in this thesis to improve the wind power forecasting. The forecasting error is calculated using a Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) and is improved using the ANN. The wind forecast is further used in the microgrid optimal scheduling problem. The microgrid optimal scheduling is performed by developing a viable model for security-constrained unit commitment (SCUC) based on mixed-integer linear programing (MILP) method. The proposed SCUC is solved for various wind penetration levels and the relationship between the total cost and the wind power penetration is found. In order to reduce microgrid power transfer fluctuations, an additional constraint is proposed and added to the SCUC formulation. The new constraint would control the time-based fluctuations. The impact of the constraint on microgrid SCUC results is tested and validated with numerical analysis. Finally, the applicability of proposed models is demonstrated through numerical simulations.

  14. Did accelerated depreciation result in lower generation efficiencies for wind plants in India: An empirical analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shrimali, Gireesh; Pusarla, Shreya; Trivedi, Saurabh

    2017-01-01

    India ranks fifth in wind energy installations in the world; with an installed wind capacity is 22 GW at the end of 2014. This has been made possible by a combination of federal financial incentives and state-level feed in tariffs. The federal policies are accelerated depreciation, which allows for higher depreciations in earlier years; and generation based incentive, which provides a premium for each unit of generation. Accelerated depreciation appears to be more effective from deployment and cost perspectives; whereas, generation based incentive is said to be more effective in incentivizing generation. In this paper, using multivariable linear regressions on a sample of approximately 40 wind plants, while controlling for wind regime and wind turbine technology, we investigate the incremental impact of generation based incentive compared to accelerated depreciation. We find that generation based incentive results in at least 3 percentage points higher plant load factors than accelerated depreciation. This indicates that, if higher generation is the goal of renewable policies, generation based incentive should be preferred to accelerated depreciation. This would be similar to the move from investment tax credit to production tax credit in the U.S. - Highlights: • We examine generation effectiveness of federal renewable policies in India. • We examine accelerated depreciation and generation based incentives. • We use a cross-sectional regression analysis on a sample of approx. 40 wind plants. • Generation based incentive results in 3 percentage points higher plant load factor.

  15. Simulating European wind power generation applying statistical downscaling to reanalysis data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    González-Aparicio, I.; Monforti, F.; Volker, P.; Zucker, A.; Careri, F.; Huld, T.; Badger, J.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Wind speed spatial resolution highly influences calculated wind power peaks and ramps. •Reduction of wind power generation uncertainties using statistical downscaling. •Publicly available dataset of wind power generation hourly time series at NUTS2. -- Abstract: The growing share of electricity production from solar and mainly wind resources constantly increases the stochastic nature of the power system. Modelling the high share of renewable energy sources – and in particular wind power – crucially depends on the adequate representation of the intermittency and characteristics of the wind resource which is related to the accuracy of the approach in converting wind speed data into power values. One of the main factors contributing to the uncertainty in these conversion methods is the selection of the spatial resolution. Although numerical weather prediction models can simulate wind speeds at higher spatial resolution (up to 1 × 1 km) than a reanalysis (generally, ranging from about 25 km to 70 km), they require high computational resources and massive storage systems: therefore, the most common alternative is to use the reanalysis data. However, local wind features could not be captured by the use of a reanalysis technique and could be translated into misinterpretations of the wind power peaks, ramping capacities, the behaviour of power prices, as well as bidding strategies for the electricity market. This study contributes to the understanding what is captured by different wind speeds spatial resolution datasets, the importance of using high resolution data for the conversion into power and the implications in power system analyses. It is proposed a methodology to increase the spatial resolution from a reanalysis. This study presents an open access renewable generation time series dataset for the EU-28 and neighbouring countries at hourly intervals and at different geographical aggregation levels (country, bidding zone and administrative

  16. Potential for increased wind-generated electricity utilization using heat pumps in urban areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waite, Michael; Modi, Vijay

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Large-scale wind power and increased electric heat pumps were evaluated. • A deterministic model of wind power and electricity demand was developed. • Sub-models for space heating and domestic hot water demand were developed. • Increased use of heat pumps can improve the viability of large-scale wind power. • Larger wind power capacity can meet a target utilization rate with more heat pumps. - Abstract: The U.S. has substantial wind power potential, but given wind’s intermittent availability and misalignment with electricity demand profiles, large-scale deployment of wind turbines could result in high electricity costs due to energy storage requirements or low utilization rates. While fuel switching and heat pumps have been proposed as greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and energy reduction strategies at the building scale, this paper shows that heat pump adoption could have additional system-wide benefits by increasing the utilization of wind-generated electricity. A model was developed to evaluate the effects of coupling large-scale wind power installations in New York State with increased use of electric heat pumps to meet a portion of space heating and domestic hot water (DHW) demands in New York City. The analysis showed significant increases in wind-generated electricity utilization with increased use of heat pumps, allowing for higher installed capacity of wind power. One scenario indicates that 78.5% annual wind-generated electricity utilization can be achieved with 3 GW of installed wind power capacity generated electricity equal to 20% of existing NYC annual electricity demand; if 20% of space heating and DHW demands are provided by heat pumps, the 78.5% utilization rate can be achieved with an increase of total wind power capacity to 5 GW. Therefore, this integrated supply–demand approach could provide additional system-wide emissions reductions

  17. Empirical Analysis of the Variability of Wind Generation in India: Implications for Grid Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phadke, Amol; Abhyankar, NIkit; Rao, Poorvi

    2014-06-17

    We analyze variability in load and wind generation in India to assess its implications for grid integration of large scale wind projects using actual wind generation and load data from two states in India, Karnataka and Tamil Nadu. We compare the largest variations in load and net load (load ?wind, i.e., load after integrating wind) that the generation fleet has to meet. In Tamil Nadu, where wind capacity is about 53percent of the peak demand, we find that the additional variation added due to wind over the current variation in load is modest; if wind penetration reaches 15percent and 30percent by energy, the additional hourly variation is less than 0.5percent and 4.5percent of the peak demand respectively for 99percent of the time. For wind penetration of 15percent by energy, Tamil Nadu system is found to be capable of meeting the additional ramping requirement for 98.8percent of the time. Potential higher uncertainty in net load compared to load is found to have limited impact on ramping capability requirements of the system if coal plants can me ramped down to 50percent of their capacity. Load and wind aggregation in Tamil Nadu and Karnataka is found to lower the variation by at least 20percent indicating the benefits geographic diversification. These findings suggest modest additional flexible capacity requirements and costs for absorbing variation in wind power and indicate that the potential capacity support (if wind does not generate enough during peak periods) may be the issue that has more bearing on the economics of integrating wind

  18. A Vertical-Axis Off-Grid Squirrel-Cage Induction Generator Wind Power System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peifeng Xu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to broaden the limited utilization range of wind power and improve the charging and discharging control performance of the storage battery in traditional small wind power generation systems, a wind power system based on a vertical-axis off-grid induction generator is proposed in this paper. The induction generator not only can run in a wide wind speed range but can also assist the vertical-axis wind turbine to realize self-starting at low wind speed. Combined with the maximum power point tracking method, the slip frequency control strategy is employed to regulate the pulse width modulation (PWM converter to control the output power of the proposed system when the wind speed and load change. The charge and discharge of the storage battery is realized by the segmented current-limiting control strategy by means of an electric power unloader device connected to the DC bus. All these implement a balanced and stable operation of the proposed power generation system. The experimental research on the 5.5 kW prototype system is developed, and the corresponding results verify the correctness and feasibility of the system design and control strategy. Some comparison experiments with a magnetic suspension permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG demonstrate the application prospect of the proposed vertical-axis off-grid induction generator wind power system.

  19. Two methods for estimating limits to large-scale wind power generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Lee M; Brunsell, Nathaniel A; Mechem, David B; Gans, Fabian; Monaghan, Andrew J; Vautard, Robert; Keith, David W; Kleidon, Axel

    2015-09-08

    Wind turbines remove kinetic energy from the atmospheric flow, which reduces wind speeds and limits generation rates of large wind farms. These interactions can be approximated using a vertical kinetic energy (VKE) flux method, which predicts that the maximum power generation potential is 26% of the instantaneous downward transport of kinetic energy using the preturbine climatology. We compare the energy flux method to the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) regional atmospheric model equipped with a wind turbine parameterization over a 10(5) km2 region in the central United States. The WRF simulations yield a maximum generation of 1.1 We⋅m(-2), whereas the VKE method predicts the time series while underestimating the maximum generation rate by about 50%. Because VKE derives the generation limit from the preturbine climatology, potential changes in the vertical kinetic energy flux from the free atmosphere are not considered. Such changes are important at night when WRF estimates are about twice the VKE value because wind turbines interact with the decoupled nocturnal low-level jet in this region. Daytime estimates agree better to 20% because the wind turbines induce comparatively small changes to the downward kinetic energy flux. This combination of downward transport limits and wind speed reductions explains why large-scale wind power generation in windy regions is limited to about 1 We⋅m(-2), with VKE capturing this combination in a comparatively simple way.

  20. Final Technical Report, Wind Generator Project (Ann Arbor)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geisler, Nathan [City of Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2017-03-20

    A Final Technical Report (57 pages) describing educational exhibits and devices focused on wind energy, and related outreach activities and programs. Project partnership includes the City of Ann Arbor, MI and the Ann Arbor Hands-on Museum, along with additional sub-recipients, and U.S. Department of Energy/Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). Report relays key milestones and sub-tasks as well as numerous graphics and images of five (5) transportable wind energy demonstration devices and five (5) wind energy exhibits designed and constructed between 2014 and 2016 for transport and use by the Ann Arbor Hands-on Museum.

  1. DC Linked Hybrid Generation System with an Energy Storage Device including a Photo-Voltaic Generation and a Gas Engine Cogeneration for Residential Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, Chienru; Miyake, Shota; Kakigano, Hiroaki; Miura, Yushi; Ise, Toshifumi; Momose, Toshinari; Hayakawa, Hideki

    For the past few years, a hybrid generation system including solar panel and gas cogeneration is being used for residential houses. Solar panels can generate electronic power at daytime; meanwhile, it cannot generate electronic power at night time. But the power consumption of residential houses usually peaks in the evening. The gas engine cogeneration system can generate electronic power without such a restriction, and it also can generate heat power to warm up house or to produce hot water. In this paper, we propose the solar panel and gas engine co-generation hybrid system with an energy storage device that is combined by dc bus. If a black out occurs, the system still can supply electronic power for special house loads. We propose the control scheme for the system which are related with the charging level of the energy storage device, the voltage of the utility grid which can be applied both grid connected and stand alone operation. Finally, we carried out some experiments to demonstrate the system operation and calculation for loss estimation.

  2. Generation management using batteries in wind farms: Economical and technical analysis for Spain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dufo-Lopez, Rodolfo; Bernal-Agustin, Jose L.; Dominguez-Navarro, Jose A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents an hourly management method for energy generated in grid-connected wind farms using battery storage (Wind-Batteries systems). The method proposed is analysed technically and economically. Electricity generation in wind farms does not usually coincide with the electrical demand curve. If the wind-power penetration becomes high in the Spanish electrical grid, energy management will become necessary for some wind farms. A method is proposed in this paper to adjust the generation curve to the demand curve by storing electrical energy in batteries during off-peak hours (low demand) and selling stored energy to the grid during peak hours (high demand). With the results obtained and reported in this paper, for a Wind-Batteries system to be economically as profitable as a Wind-Only system, the selling price of the energy provided by the batteries during peak hours should be between 22 and 66 c Euro /kWh, depending on the technology and cost of the batteries. Comparison with flexible thermal generation has been performed. Additionally, the results are compared with those obtained if using hydrogen (Wind-Hydrogen system, which uses an electrolyser, hydrogen tank, and fuel cell instead of batteries), concluding that the Wind-Batteries system is both economically and energetically far more suitable

  3. Assessment of U.S. Manufacturing Capability for Next-Generation Wind Turbine Drivetrains

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cotrell, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stelhy, T. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-09-01

    Robust U.S. wind turbine manufacturing capabilities and supply chains are important for the United States to reduce the cost of electricity generated from wind turbines. These capabilities and supply chains are also critical to the invention and commercialization of new wind turbine technologies while providing high-quality jobs. The development of advanced drivetrain technologies for windturbine applications is advancing the state of the art for drivetrain design by producing higher capacity and operating reliability than conventional drivetrains. Advanced drivetrain technologies such as medium-speed and direct-drive generators, silicon-carbide (SiC) IGBT-based power electronics, and high torque density speed increasers require different manufacturing and supply chaincapabilities that present both risks and opportunities for U.S. wind turbine manufacturers and the wind industry as a whole. The primary objective of this project is to assess how advanced drivetrain technologies and trends will impact U.S. wind turbine manufacturing and its supply chains. The U.S. Department of Energy and other industry participants will use the information from this study toidentify domestic manufacturing gaps, barriers, and opportunities for developing U.S. wind turbine manufacturing capabilities and supply chains for next-generation drivetrain technologies. This report also includes recommendations for prioritizing technology areas for possible investments by public, private, or nonprofit entities that will reduce the cost of wind-generated electricity. Suchinvestments foster opportunities to invent and commercialize new wind turbine technologies, and provide high-quality jobs in the United States.

  4. Power system reliability impacts of wind generation and operational reserve requirements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esteban Gil

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to its variability, wind generation integration presents a significant challenge to power system operators in order to maintain adequate reliability levels while ensuring least cost operation. This paper explores the trade-off between the benefits associated to a higher wind penetration and the additional operational reserve requirements that they impose. Such exploration is valued in terms of its effect on power system reliability, measured as an amount of unserved energy. The paper also focuses on how changing the Value of Lost Load (VoLL can be used to attain different reliability targets, and how wind power penetration and the diversity of the wind energy resource will impact quality of supply (in terms of instances of unserved energy. The evaluation of different penetrations of wind power generation, different wind speed profiles, wind resource diversity, and different operational reserve requirements, is conducted on the Chilean Northern Interconnected System (SING using statistical modeling of wind speed time series and computer simulation through a 24-hour ahead unit commitment algorithm and a Monte Carlo simulation scheme. Results for the SING suggest that while wind generation can significantly reduce generation costs, it can also imply higher security costs to reach acceptable reliability levels.

  5. Estimation of uncertainty of wind energy predictions with application to weather routing and wind power generation

    CERN Document Server

    Zastrau, David

    2017-01-01

    Wind drives in combination with weather routing can lower the fuel consumption of cargo ships significantly. For this reason, the author describes a mathematical method based on quantile regression for a probabilistic estimate of the wind propulsion force on a ship route.

  6. Coordinated Demand Response and Distributed Generation Management in Residential Smart Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Mokhtari, Ghassem; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2016-01-01

    potentials to increase the functionality of a typical demand-side management (DSM) strategy, and typical implementation of building-level DERs by integrating them into a cohesive, networked package that fully utilizes smart energy-efficient end-use devices, advanced building control/automation systems......Nowadays with the emerging of small-scale integrated energy systems (IESs) in form of residential smart microgrids (SMGs), a large portion of energy can be saved through coordinated scheduling of smart household devices and management of distributed energy resources (DERs). There are significant......, and an integrated communications architecture to efficiently manage energy and comfort at the end-use location. By the aid of such technologies, residential consumers have also the capability to mitigate their energy costs and satisfy their own requirements paying less attention to the configuration of the energy...

  7. An investigation of the levels of electromagnetic radiation generated by wind turbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morgan, C.A.

    1992-01-01

    The issue of electromagnetic interference is arising with some regularity as various wind energy projects throughout the UK reach the stage where local authority planning approval is sought. To many of the parties involved, wind turbines represent an unknown quantity and hence objections to their siting must be expected. Wind turbines may cause electromagnetic interference through two quite distinct processes. The first occurs when the wind turbine scatters electromagnetic signals passing through the area of the site and essentially, provides a second path between the transmitter and receiver of the signal. The second source of interference arises when signals generated within the wind turbine itself affect communications equipment or, indeed, any electronic circuitry. A case in point is a wind farm project under development by Bonython Estates of Cornwall. The aim of this project was to investigate the emissions from the wind turbines proposed for the Bonython development. This was achieved by means of field measurements on existing installations. (author)

  8. Investigation of slot discharge on a 239 MVA hydro generator stator winding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, S.; Hong, W. [BC Hydro and Power Authority, Vancouver, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    This paper discussed a slot discharge investigation conducted on a 239 MVA generator stator winding. The generator in which the winding was located had experienced core split distortion, stator winding phase-to-phase failures, winding failures during Hipot testing, and high partial discharge (PD) activity. The results of on-line PD testing data were evaluated. The stator winding was subjected to visual inspections, bar dissections, and failure mechanism analyses. Eleven winding bars were removed from the stator slots in order to assess groundwall insulation conditions and identify the cause of the slot discharge activity. It was determined that the root cause of the slot discharge was a loose, non-uniform bar in the slot. The vibrating bar caused the semi-conductive coating to wear out and degraded the armour tape. Results of the study demonstrated the importance of on-line PD monitoring for detecting slot PD activity. 4 refs., 3 tabs., 11 figs.

  9. ARIMA-Based Time Series Model of Stochastic Wind Power Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Peiyuan; Pedersen, Troels; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    This paper proposes a stochastic wind power model based on an autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA) process. The model takes into account the nonstationarity and physical limits of stochastic wind power generation. The model is constructed based on wind power measurement of one year from...... the Nysted offshore wind farm in Denmark. The proposed limited-ARIMA (LARIMA) model introduces a limiter and characterizes the stochastic wind power generation by mean level, temporal correlation and driving noise. The model is validated against the measurement in terms of temporal correlation...... and probability distribution. The LARIMA model outperforms a first-order transition matrix based discrete Markov model in terms of temporal correlation, probability distribution and model parameter number. The proposed LARIMA model is further extended to include the monthly variation of the stochastic wind power...

  10. Wind Turbine Generator Modeling and Simulation Where Rotational Speed is the Controlled Variable

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mihet-Popa, Lucian; Blaabjerg, Frede; Boldea, Ion

    2004-01-01

    the interaction between a wind turbine and the power system. The model is intended to simulate the behaviour of the wind turbine using induction generators both during normal operation. Sample simulation results for two induction generators (2/0.5 MW) validate the fundamental issues.......To optimise the power produced in a wind turbine, the speed of the turbine should vary with the wind speed. A simple control method is proposed that will allow an induction machine to run a turbine at its maximum power coefficient. Various types of power control strategies have been suggested...... for application in variable speed wind turbines. The usual strategy is to control the power or the torque acting on the wind turbine shafts. This paper presents an alternative control strategy, where the rotational speed is the controlled variable. The paper describes a model, which is being developed to simulate...

  11. Design of Electricity Markets for Efficient Balancing of Wind Power Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Scharff, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Deploying wind power to a larger extent is one solution to reduce negative environmental impacts of electric power supply. However, various challenges are connected with increasing wind power penetration levels. From the perspective of transmission system operators, this includes balancing of varying as well as - to some extent - uncertain generation levels. From the perspective of power generating companies, changes in the generation mix will affect the market's merit order and, hence, their...

  12. Design and fabrication of radial flux permanent magnet generator for wind turbine applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashraf, M.M.; Malik, T.N.; Zafar, S.; Raja, U.N.

    2013-01-01

    Presently alternate energy resources are replacing conventional energy sources to produce electrical power to minimize the usage of fossil fuels. Wind power is one of the potential alternate energy resources and is being exploited and deployed actively. The wind energy system is basically composed of two core components: wind turbine and electrical generator. This paper presents the design and fabrication of permanent magnet generator for direct drive wind turbine applications. Radial flux permanent magnet generator (RFPMG) producing three phase alternating current voltage has been designed subject to satisfying the features of low operating shaft speed, higher power density , higher current density, cost effectiveness and compact structure. RFPMG design focuses on usage of neodymium permanent magnets for excitation instead of electromagnets to minimize the excitation arrangement challenges and losses. A 300 W prototype RFPMG has been fabricated. The performance of the generator has been evaluated on specially designed wind tunnel. The generator is directly coupled with wind turbine shaft to eliminate the gearbox losses. No load and load tests show that the performance of the machine is up to the mark. The improved design parameters of power density and current density are 73.2 W/kg and 5.9 A/mm 2 respectively. The same machine output has been rectified using bridge rectifier for battery charging application. The desired output voltages are obtained at minimum shaft speed of the generator. Thus the design of generator confirms its application with small scale domestic wind turbines produci ng direct current supply. (author)

  13. Wind power integration into the automatic generation control of power systems with large-scale wind power

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Basit, Abdul; Hansen, Anca Daniela; Altin, Müfit

    2014-01-01

    Transmission system operators have an increased interest in the active participation of wind power plants (WPP) in the power balance control of power systems with large wind power penetration. The emphasis in this study is on the integration of WPPs into the automatic generation control (AGC......) of the power system. The present paper proposes a coordinated control strategy for the AGC between combined heat and power plants (CHPs) and WPPs to enhance the security and the reliability of a power system operation in the case of a large wind power penetration. The proposed strategy, described...... and exemplified for the future Danish power system, takes the hour-ahead regulating power plan for generation and power exchange with neighbouring power systems into account. The performance of the proposed strategy for coordinated secondary control is assessed and discussed by means of simulations for different...

  14. A device for regulating the field generated by a superconducting winding or the gradient of same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duret, Denis; Dunand, J.-J.

    1974-01-01

    Description is given of a stabilizing device which does not require the use of a specific solvent. Changes occurring in the field generated by the main winding and the correcting winding are transmitted by a superconducting unit to a quantum superconducting interferometer. An impedance measurement provides an error-signal, the latter being integrated for feeding the correcting winding. A form of embodiment relates to the regulation of a modulated field. This can be applied to nuclear magnetic resonance spectrometers [fr

  15. Assessing the Structural, Driver and Economic Impacts of Traffic Pole Mounted Wind Power Generator and Solar Panel Hybrid System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    This project evaluates the physical and economic feasibility of using existing traffic infrastructure to mount wind power : generators. Some possible places to mount a light weight wind generator and solar panel hybrid system are: i) Traffic : signal...

  16. Generation and Validation of Spatial Distribution of Hourly Wind Speed Time-Series using Machine Learning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veronesi, F; Grassi, S

    2016-01-01

    Wind resource assessment is a key aspect of wind farm planning since it allows to estimate the long term electricity production. Moreover, wind speed time-series at high resolution are helpful to estimate the temporal changes of the electricity generation and indispensable to design stand-alone systems, which are affected by the mismatch of supply and demand. In this work, we present a new generalized statistical methodology to generate the spatial distribution of wind speed time-series, using Switzerland as a case study. This research is based upon a machine learning model and demonstrates that statistical wind resource assessment can successfully be used for estimating wind speed time-series. In fact, this method is able to obtain reliable wind speed estimates and propagate all the sources of uncertainty (from the measurements to the mapping process) in an efficient way, i.e. minimizing computational time and load. This allows not only an accurate estimation, but the creation of precise confidence intervals to map the stochasticity of the wind resource for a particular site. The validation shows that machine learning can minimize the bias of the wind speed hourly estimates. Moreover, for each mapped location this method delivers not only the mean wind speed, but also its confidence interval, which are crucial data for planners. (paper)

  17. Simulation of an offshore wind farm using fluid power for centralized electricity generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarquin-Laguna, A

    2016-01-01

    A centralized approach for electricity generation within a wind farm is explored through the use of fluid power technology. This concept considers a new way of generation, collection and transmission of wind energy inside a wind farm, in which electrical conversion does not occur during any intermediate conversion step before the energy has reached the offshore central platform. A numerical model was developed to capture the relevant physics from the dynamic interaction between different turbines coupled to a common hydraulic network and controller. This paper presents two examples of the time-domain simulation results for an hypothetical hydraulic wind farm subject to turbulent wind conditions. The performance and operational parameters of individual turbines are compared with those of a reference wind farm with conventional technology turbines, using the same wind farm layout and environmental conditions. For the presented case study, results indicate that the individual wind turbines are able to operate within operational limits with the current pressure control concept. Despite the stochastic turbulent wind input and wake effects, the hydraulic wind farm is able to produce electricity with reasonable performance in both below and above rated conditions. (paper)

  18. Evaluating the Impacts of Real-Time Pricing on the Cost and Value of Wind Generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siohansi, Ramteen

    2010-01-01

    One of the costs associated with integrating wind generation into a power system is the cost of redispatching the system in real-time due to day-ahead wind resource forecast errors. One possible way of reducing these redispatch costs is to introduce demand response in the form of real-time pricing (RTP), which could allow electricity demand to respond to actual real-time wind resource availability using price signals. A day-ahead unit commitment model with day-ahead wind forecasts and a real-time dispatch model with actual wind resource availability is used to estimate system operations in a high wind penetration scenario. System operations are compared to a perfect foresight benchmark, in which actual wind resource availability is known day-ahead. The results show that wind integration costs with fixed demands can be high, both due to real-time redispatch costs and lost load. It is demonstrated that introducing RTP can reduce redispatch costs and eliminate loss of load events. Finally, social surplus with wind generation and RTP is compared to a system with neither and the results demonstrate that introducing wind and RTP into a market can result in superadditive surplus gains.

  19. Generation and Validation of Spatial Distribution of Hourly Wind Speed Time-Series using Machine Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veronesi, F.; Grassi, S.

    2016-09-01

    Wind resource assessment is a key aspect of wind farm planning since it allows to estimate the long term electricity production. Moreover, wind speed time-series at high resolution are helpful to estimate the temporal changes of the electricity generation and indispensable to design stand-alone systems, which are affected by the mismatch of supply and demand. In this work, we present a new generalized statistical methodology to generate the spatial distribution of wind speed time-series, using Switzerland as a case study. This research is based upon a machine learning model and demonstrates that statistical wind resource assessment can successfully be used for estimating wind speed time-series. In fact, this method is able to obtain reliable wind speed estimates and propagate all the sources of uncertainty (from the measurements to the mapping process) in an efficient way, i.e. minimizing computational time and load. This allows not only an accurate estimation, but the creation of precise confidence intervals to map the stochasticity of the wind resource for a particular site. The validation shows that machine learning can minimize the bias of the wind speed hourly estimates. Moreover, for each mapped location this method delivers not only the mean wind speed, but also its confidence interval, which are crucial data for planners.

  20. Low-Cost Superconducting Wire for Wind Generators: High Performance, Low Cost Superconducting Wires and Coils for High Power Wind Generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-01-01

    REACT Project: The University of Houston will develop a low-cost, high-current superconducting wire that could be used in high-power wind generators. Superconducting wire currently transports 600 times more electric current than a similarly sized copper wire, but is significantly more expensive. The University of Houston’s innovation is based on engineering nanoscale defects in the superconducting film. This could quadruple the current relative to today’s superconducting wires, supporting the same amount of current using 25% of the material. This would make wind generators lighter, more powerful and more efficient. The design could result in a several-fold reduction in wire costs and enable their commercial viability of high-power wind generators for use in offshore applications.

  1. Control of variable speed wind turbines with doubly-fed induction generators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, A.D.; Soerensen, P.; Iov, F.; Blaabjerg, F.

    2005-07-01

    The paper presents an overall control method for variable speed pitch controlled wind turbines with doubly-fed induction generators (DFIG). Emphasis is on control strategies and algorithms applied at each hierarchical control level of the wind turbine. The objectives of the control system are: 1) to control the power drawn from the wind turbine in order to track the wind turbine maximum power operation point, 2) to limit the power in case of large wind speeds, and 3) to control the reactive power interchanged between the wind turbine generator and the grid. The present control method is designed for normal continuous operations. The strongest feature of the implemented control method is that it allows the turbine to operate with the optimum power efficiency over a wide range of wind speeds. The model of the variable speed, variable pitch wind turbine with doubly-fed induction generator is implemented in the dynamic power system simulation tool DlgSILENT PowerFactory which allows investigation of the dynamic performance of grid-connected wind turbines within realistic electrical grid models. Simulation results are presented and analysed in different normal operating conditions. (author)

  2. Modeling and Comparison of Power Converters for Doubly Fed Induction Generators in Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helle, Lars

    on the generated power quality and controllability. A consequence of this increased focus has been an ever increased set of requirements formulated in national grid requirement. These requirements has forced wind turbines to evolve from a simple generator on a stick into complicated miniature power plants......During the last decades, renewable energy resources have become an ever increasing part of the world wide power generation and especially energy produced by wind turbines has captured a significant part of this power production. This large penetration of wind power has caused increased focus...... on the design engineers employed in the wind industry. Such a progress may force design engineers to adopt common practice from more or less related technologies rather than finding the optimum solution for the specific application. For instance when applying power electronic converters to wind turbines...

  3. A Statistical Model for Hourly Large-Scale Wind and Photovoltaic Generation in New Locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekstrom, Jussi; Koivisto, Matti Juhani; Mellin, Ilkka

    2017-01-01

    The analysis of large-scale wind and photovoltaic (PV) energy generation is of vital importance in power systems where their penetration is high. This paper presents a modular methodology to assess the power generation and volatility of a system consisting of both PV plants (PVPs) and wind power...... of new PVPs and WPPs in system planning. The model is verified against hourly measured wind speed and solar irradiance data from Finland. A case study assessing the impact of the geographical distribution of the PVPs and WPPs on aggregate power generation and its variability is presented....

  4. Optimization and comparison of superconducting generator topologies for a 10 MW wind turbine application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Dong; Polinder, Henk; Abrahamsen, Asger Bech

    2017-01-01

    A direct-drive superconducting generator (DDSCG) is proposed for 10 MW wind turbines in the INNWIND.EU project. To fit the generator into the "king-pin" conceptual nacelle design, the generator structure with inner stationary superconducting (SC) field winding and outer rotating copper armature...... winding is investigated in the first research phase. Since the cost is an important performance indicator for this application, this paper presents a method to minimize the active material cost of the "king-pin" fitted DDSCG. In this method a relatively fast optimization program is developed with 2D non...

  5. A Pole Pair Segment of a 2 MW High Temperature Superconducting Wind Turbine Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Xiaowei (Andy); Mijatovic, Nenad; Kellers, Jürgen

    2016-01-01

    A 2 MW high temperature superconducting (HTS) generator with 24 pole pairs has been designed for the wind turbine application. In order to identify potential challenges and obtain practical knowledge prior to production, a fullsize stationary experimental set-up, which is one pole pair segment...... generator and the set-up in terms of the flux density, the operating condition of the HTS winding, and the force-generation capability. Finite element (FE) software MagNet is used to carry out numerical simulations. The findings show that the HTS winding in the set-up is a good surrogate...

  6. National Renewable Energy Laboratory program on lightning risk and wind turbine generator protection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muljadi, E. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); McNiff, B. [McNiff Light Industry, Blue Hill, ME (United States)

    1997-12-31

    In the early development of wind turbine generators (WTG) in the United States, wind farms were primarily located in California where lightning activity is the lowest in the United States. As such, lightning protection for wind turbines was not considered to be a major issue for designers or wind farm operators. However, wind turbine installations are expanding into the Midwest, Southwest and other regions of the United States where lightning activity is significantly more intense and lightning damage to wind turbines is more common. There is a growing need, therefore, to better understand lightning activity on wind farms and to improve wind turbine lightning protection systems. In support of the U.S. Department of Energy/Electric Power Research Institute (DOE/EPRI) Utility Wind Turbine Verification Program (TVP), the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has recently begun to take steps to determine the extent of damage due to lightning and the effectiveness of various lightning protection techniques for wind power plants. Working through the TVP program, NREL will also perform outreach and education to (1) help manufacturers to provide equipment that is adequately designed to survive lightning, (2) make sure that operators are aware of effective safety procedures, and (3) help site designers and wind farm developers take the risk of lightning into account as effectively as possible.

  7. Loss evaluation and design optimisation for direct driven permanent magnet synchronous generators for wind power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Sandra; Bernhoff, Hans [Swedish Centre for Renewable Electric Energy Conversion, Division for Electricity, Department of Engineering Sciences, Uppsala University, Box 534, 751 21 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2011-01-15

    When designing a generator for a wind turbine it is important to adapt the generator to the source, i.e. the wind conditions at the specific site. Furthermore, the variable speed operation of the generator needs to be considered. In this paper, electromagnetic losses in direct driven permanent magnet synchronous generators are evaluated through simulations. Six different generators are compared to each other. The simulations are performed by using an electromagnetic model, solved in a finite element environment and a control model developed in MATLAB. It is shown that when designing a generator it is important to consider the statistical wind distribution, control system, and aerodynamic efficiency in order to evaluate the performance properly. In this paper, generators with high overload capability are studied since they are of interest for this specific application. It is shown that a generator optimised for a minimum of losses will have a high overload capability. (author)

  8. 75 FR 16827 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Granite Mountain Wind, LLC Wind Energy Generation Project...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-02

    ... 230 kV transmission system. Each wind turbine would have a pad-mounted transformer located beside the... Environmental Protection Agency publishes its Notice of Availability in the Federal Register. The BLM will..., as amended), sites associated with power generation or transmission not identified in the CDCA Plan...

  9. Benefit Evaluation of Wind Turbine Generators in Wind Farms Using Capacity-Factor Analysis and Economic-Cost Methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhe; Wang, L.; Yeh, T-H.

    2009-01-01

    Due to the recent price spike of the international oil and the concern of global warming, the development and deployment of renewable energy become one of the most important energy policies around the globe. Currently, there are different capacities and hub heights for commercial wind turbine gen...... height for WTGs that have been installed in Taiwan. Important outcomes affecting wind cost of energy in comparison with economic results using the proposed economic-analysis methods for different WFs are also presented.......Due to the recent price spike of the international oil and the concern of global warming, the development and deployment of renewable energy become one of the most important energy policies around the globe. Currently, there are different capacities and hub heights for commercial wind turbine...... generators (WTGs). To fully capture wind energy, different wind farms (WFs) should select adequate capacity of WTGs to effectively harvest wind energy and maximize their economic benefit. To establish selection criterion, this paper first derives the equations for capacity factor (CF) and pairing performance...

  10. Hybrid model predictive control of a residential HVAC system with on-site thermal energy generation and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorentini, Massimo; Wall, Josh; Ma, Zhenjun; Braslavsky, Julio H.; Cooper, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A comprehensive approach to managing thermal energy in residential buildings. • Solar-assisted HVAC system with on-site energy generation and storage. • Mixed logic-dynamical building model identified using experimental data. • Design and implementation of a logic-dynamical model predictive control strategy. • MPC applied to the Net-Zero Energy house winner of the Solar Decathlon China 2013. - Abstract: This paper describes the development, implementation and experimental investigation of a Hybrid Model Predictive Control (HMPC) strategy to control solar-assisted heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems with on-site thermal energy generation and storage. A comprehensive approach to the thermal energy management of a residential building is presented to optimise the scheduling of the available thermal energy resources to meet a comfort objective. The system has a hybrid nature with both continuous variables and discrete, logic-driven operating modes. The proposed control strategy is organized in two hierarchical levels. At the high-level, an HMPC controller with a 24-h prediction horizon and a 1-h control step is used to select the operating mode of the HVAC system. At the low-level, each operating mode is optimised using a 1-h rolling prediction horizon with a 5-min control step. The proposed control strategy has been practically implemented on the Building Management and Control System (BMCS) of a Net Zero-Energy Solar Decathlon house. This house features a sophisticated HVAC system comprising of an air-based photovoltaic thermal (PVT) collector and a phase change material (PCM) thermal storage integrated with the air-handling unit (AHU) of a ducted reverse-cycle heat pump system. The simulation and experimental results demonstrated the high performance achievable using an HMPC approach to optimising complex multimode HVAC systems in residential buildings, illustrating efficient selection of the appropriate operating modes

  11. Design study of coated conductor direct drive wind turbine generator for small scale demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Jensen, Bogi Bech

    2012-01-01

    We have investigated the properties of a superconducting direct drive generator suitable for demonstration in a small scale 11 kW wind turbine. The engineering current density of the superconducting field windings is based on properties of coated conductors wound into coils holding of the order 68...

  12. The Effect of Mounting Vortex Generators on the DTU 10MW Reference Wind Turbine Blade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skrzypinski, Witold Robert; Gaunaa, Mac; Bak, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current work is to analyze possible advantages of mounting Vortex Generators (VG's) on a wind turbine blade. Specifically, the project aims at investigating at which radial sections of the DTU 10 MW Reference Wind Turbine blade it is most beneficial to mount the VG's in order...

  13. Dynamic Model of a Wind Turbine for the Electric Energy Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José de Jesús Rubio

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel dynamic model is introduced for the modeling of the wind turbine behavior. The objective of the wind turbine is the electric energy generation. The analytic model has the characteristic that considers a rotatory tower. Experiments show the validity of the proposed method.

  14. A Fast Calculation Method for Analyzing the Effect of Wind Generation on ATC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A Armin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Wind energy penetration in power system has been increased very fast and large amount of capitals invested for wind farms all around the world. Meanwhile, in power systems with wind turbine generators (WTGs, the value of Available transfer capability (ATC is influenced by the probabilistic nature of the wind power. The Mont Carlo Simulation (MCS is the most common method to model the uncertainty of WTG. However, the MCS method suffers from low convergence rate. To overcome this shortcoming, the proposed technique in this paper uses a new formulation for solving ATC problem analytically. This lowers the computational burden of the ATC computation and hence results in increased convergence rate of the MCS. Using this fast technique to evaluate the ATC, wind generation and load correlation is required to get into modeling. A numerical method is presented to consider load and wind correlation. The proposed method is tested on the modified IEEE 118 bus to analyze the impacts of the WTGs on the ATC. The obtained results show that wind generation capacity and its correlation with system load has significant impacts on the network transfer capability. In other words, ATC probability distribution is sensitive to the wind generation capacity.

  15. Fluid power network for centralized electricity generation in offshore wind farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarquin-Laguna, A.

    2014-01-01

    An innovative and completely different wind-energy conversion system is studied where a centralized electricity generation within a wind farm is proposed by means of a hydraulic network. This paper presents the dynamic interaction of two turbines when they are coupled to the same hydraulic network.

  16. Dependability of wind energy generators with short-term energy storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, B

    1976-11-26

    Power fluctuations and power duration curves for wind energy generators, including energy storage facilities of a certain capacity, are compared to those of typical nuclear reactors. A storage system capable of delivering the yearly average power output for about 10 hours already makes the dependability of the wind energy system comparable to that of a typical nuclear plant.

  17. 76 FR 76153 - Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status; Caney River Wind Project, LLC...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-06

    ...] Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status; Caney River Wind Project, LLC, Mesquite Solar 1, LLC, Copper Crossing Solar LLC, Copper Mountain Solar 1, LLC, Pinnacle Wind, LLC, Bellevue... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket Nos. EG11-115-000, EG11-116-000...

  18. Status of the Southern California Edison Company 3 MW Wind Turbine Generator (WTG) demonstration project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheffler, R. L.

    1979-01-01

    To demonstrate the concept of utility scale electricity production from a high wind energy resource, a program was initiated to construct and test a 3 megawatt (3,000 kW) Schachle wind turbine generator near Palm Springs, California. The background and current status of this program are presented along with a summary of future planned program activities.

  19. Stochastic Prediction of Wind Generating Resources Using the Enhanced Ensemble Model for Jeju Island’s Wind Farms in South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deockho Kim

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to the intermittency of wind power generation, it is very hard to manage its system operation and planning. In order to incorporate higher wind power penetrations into power systems that maintain secure and economic power system operation, an accurate and efficient estimation of wind power outputs is needed. In this paper, we propose the stochastic prediction of wind generating resources using an enhanced ensemble model for Jeju Island’s wind farms in South Korea. When selecting the potential sites of wind farms, wind speed data at points of interest are not always available. We apply the Kriging method, which is one of spatial interpolation, to estimate wind speed at potential sites. We also consider a wind profile power law to correct wind speed along the turbine height and terrain characteristics. After that, we used estimated wind speed data to calculate wind power output and select the best wind farm sites using a Weibull distribution. Probability density function (PDF or cumulative density function (CDF is used to estimate the probability of wind speed. The wind speed data is classified along the manufacturer’s power curve data. Therefore, the probability of wind speed is also given in accordance with classified values. The average wind power output is estimated in the form of a confidence interval. The empirical data of meteorological towers from Jeju Island in Korea is used to interpolate the wind speed data spatially at potential sites. Finally, we propose the best wind farm site among the four potential wind farm sites.

  20. Model of a synthetic wind speed time series generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Negra, N.B.; Holmstrøm, O.; Bak-Jensen, B.

    2008-01-01

    is described and some statistical issues (seasonal characteristics, autocorrelation functions, average values and distribution functions) are used for verification. The output of the model has been designed as input for sequential Monte Carlo simulation; however, it is expected that it can be used for other...... of the main elements to consider for this purpose is the model of the wind speed that is usually required as input. Wind speed measurements may represent a solution for this problem, but, for techniques such as sequential Monte Carlo simulation, they have to be long enough in order to describe a wide range...

  1. Generation Ratio Availability Assessment of Electrical Systems for Offshore Wind Farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Menghua; Chen, Zhe; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2007-01-01

    An availability index, Generation Ratio Availability (GRA), is proposed to evaluate the electrical system of offshore wind farms (OWF). The GRA is the probability that at least a certain percent of wind power could be transferred to the grid system through the concerned electrical system. The GRA....... Comprehensive studies have been conducted to investigate the influence of the network design, component parameters, and wind-speed regimes on the GRA. The analysis presented in this paper is useful for both future wind farm planning and existing OWF evaluation....

  2. Wind energy as a potential generation source at Ras Benas, Egypt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, Ahmed Shata

    2010-01-01

    Analysis of the wind characteristics in Ras Benas city located on the east coast of Red Sea in Egypt using measured data (wind, pressure and temperature) and Weibull function were made. Statistical analysis model to evaluate the wind energy potential was introduced. According to the power calculations done for the site, the annual mean wind density is 315 kW/m 2 at a height of 70 m above ground level. This station has a huge wind energy potential for electricity generation, especially during spring and summer seasons, comparing with some European countries. In addition, the monthly wind turbine efficiency parameter (η monthly ) has been calculated by using a commercial wind turbine 1 MW with 70 m hub height to help designers and users in evaluating the potentialities and choosing the suitable wind turbine for the considered site. The use of wind turbine with capacity greater than 1000 kW at this station was recommended. Ras Benas station was selected to install 30 MW-wind farm consists of 20 commercial wind turbines (Nordex S 77) with hub heights and Rotor diameter were 100 and 77 m, respectively. This site has annual wind speed more than 9.8 m/s at 100 m height and enough area to locate these turbines. The estimated energy production using WASP Program of these wind farm was 130 GWh/year. Furthermore, the production costs was found 1.3EUR cent/kWh, which is a competition price at the wind energy world market. (author)

  3. Wind energy as a potential generation source at Ras Benas, Egypt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmed, Ahmed Shata [Physics Department, Faculty of Science in Port Said, Suez Canal University (Egypt)

    2010-10-15

    Analysis of the wind characteristics in Ras Benas city located on the east coast of Red Sea in Egypt using measured data (wind, pressure and temperature) and Weibull function were made. Statistical analysis model to evaluate the wind energy potential was introduced. According to the power calculations done for the site, the annual mean wind density is 315 kW/m{sup 2} at a height of 70 m above ground level. This station has a huge wind energy potential for electricity generation, especially during spring and summer seasons, comparing with some European countries. In addition, the monthly wind turbine efficiency parameter ({eta}{sub monthly}) has been calculated by using a commercial wind turbine 1 MW with 70 m hub height to help designers and users in evaluating the potentialities and choosing the suitable wind turbine for the considered site. The use of wind turbine with capacity greater than 1000 kW at this station was recommended. Ras Benas station was selected to install 30 MW-wind farm consists of 20 commercial wind turbines (Nordex S 77) with hub heights and Rotor diameter were 100 and 77 m, respectively. This site has annual wind speed more than 9.8 m/s at 100 m height and enough area to locate these turbines. The estimated energy production using WASP Program of these wind farm was 130 GWh/year. Furthermore, the production costs was found 1.3EUR cent/kWh, which is a competition price at the wind energy world market. (author)

  4. First and second order Markov chain models for synthetic generation of wind speed time series

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shamshad, A.; Bawadi, M.A.; Wan Hussin, W.M.A.; Majid, T.A.; Sanusi, S.A.M.

    2005-01-01

    Hourly wind speed time series data of two meteorological stations in Malaysia have been used for stochastic generation of wind speed data using the transition matrix approach of the Markov chain process. The transition probability matrices have been formed using two different approaches: the first approach involves the use of the first order transition probability matrix of a Markov chain, and the second involves the use of a second order transition probability matrix that uses the current and preceding values to describe the next wind speed value. The algorithm to generate the wind speed time series from the transition probability matrices is described. Uniform random number generators have been used for transition between successive time states and within state wind speed values. The ability of each approach to retain the statistical properties of the generated speed is compared with the observed ones. The main statistical properties used for this purpose are mean, standard deviation, median, percentiles, Weibull distribution parameters, autocorrelations and spectral density of wind speed values. The comparison of the observed wind speed and the synthetically generated ones shows that the statistical characteristics are satisfactorily preserved

  5. An investigation on the impacts of regulatory interventions on wind power expansion in generation planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alishahi, Ehsan; Moghaddam, Mohsen P.; Sheikh-El-Eslami, Mohammad K.

    2011-01-01

    Large integration of intermittent wind generation in power system has necessitated the inclusion of more innovative and sophisticated approaches in power system investment planning. This paper presents a novel framework on the basis of a combination of stochastic dynamic programming (SDP) algorithm and game theory to study the impacts of different regulatory interventions to promote wind power investment in generation expansion planning. In this study, regulatory policies include Feed-in-Tariff (FIT) incentive, quota and tradable green certificate. The intermittent nature and uncertainties of wind power generation will cause the investors encounter risk in their investment decisions. To overcome this problem, a novel model has been derived to study the regulatory impacts on wind generation expansion planning. In our approach, the probabilistic nature of wind generation is modeled. The model can calculate optimal investment strategies, in which the wind power uncertainty is included. This framework is implemented on a test system to illustrate the working of the proposed approach. The result shows that FITs are the most effective policy to encourage the rapid and sustained deployment of wind power. FITs can significantly reduce the risks of investing in renewable energy technologies and thus create conditions conducive to rapid market growth. - Highlights: → The impacts of regulatory policies to promote wind power investment are investigated. → These policies include Feed-in-Tariff (FIT), quota and tradable green certificate. → Result shows that FIT is an effective policy to motivate the rapid growth of wind power. → In quota, customers are forced to provide the quota decided by regulators from wind.

  6. A 100% renewable electricity generation system for New Zealand utilising hydro, wind, geothermal and biomass resources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mason, I.G.; Page, S.C.; Williamson, A.G.

    2010-01-01

    The New Zealand electricity generation system is dominated by hydro generation at approximately 60% of installed capacity between 2005 and 2007, augmented with approximately 32% fossil-fuelled generation, plus minor contributions from geothermal, wind and biomass resources. In order to explore the potential for a 100% renewable electricity generation system with substantially increased levels of wind penetration, fossil-fuelled electricity production was removed from an historic 3-year data set, and replaced by modelled electricity production from wind, geothermal and additional peaking options. Generation mixes comprising 53-60% hydro, 22-25% wind, 12-14% geothermal, 1% biomass and 0-12% additional peaking generation were found to be feasible on an energy and power basis, whilst maintaining net hydro storage. Wind capacity credits ranged from 47% to 105% depending upon the incorporation of demand management, and the manner of operation of the hydro system. Wind spillage was minimised, however, a degree of residual spillage was considered to be an inevitable part of incorporating non-dispatchable generation into a stand-alone grid system. Load shifting was shown to have considerable advantages over installation of new peaking plant. Application of the approach applied in this research to countries with different energy resource mixes is discussed, and options for further research are outlined.

  7. Arrangement for adapting a wind wheel to an electric power generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beusse, H

    1977-08-11

    The invention is concerned with a device for adapting a wind wheel to an electric power generator in such a way that the wind wheel will always be operated with a maximum performance coefficient, that another source of energy, e.g. a prime mover, can supply the power deficit if the wind power is not sufficient, and that the generator at the output of the facility is kept mains-synchronous of constant speed and constant voltage. According to the invention, the shaft power of the wind power engine is transmitted to a first generator driving an electromotor. The motor is coupled to a second generator feeding into a consumer grid. By means of an anemometer the excitation output of the motor is controled in such manner that the speed of the generator is practically constant-provided a sufficient supply of wind is available. On the shaft of the output generator a prinse mover, e.g. a Diesel engine, is mounted being controllable for contant speed by means of a controll device in such a way that the prime mover takes over the missing amount of power if the wind supply falls short of the power taken off at the generator output.

  8. Lewis Research Center studies of multiple large wind turbine generators on a utility network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, L. J.; Triezenberg, D. M.

    1979-01-01

    A NASA-Lewis program to study the anticipated performance of a wind turbine generator farm on an electric utility network is surveyed. The paper describes the approach of the Lewis Wind Energy Project Office to developing analysis capabilities in the area of wind turbine generator-utility network computer simulations. Attention is given to areas such as, the Lewis Purdue hybrid simulation, an independent stability study, DOE multiunit plant study, and the WEST simulator. Also covered are the Lewis mod-2 simulation including analog simulation of a two wind turbine system and comparison with Boeing simulation results, and gust response of a two machine model. Finally future work to be done is noted and it is concluded that the study shows little interaction between the generators and between the generators and the bus.

  9. Performance of Doubly-Fed Wind Power Generators During Voltage Dips

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aparicio, N.; Chen, Zhe; Beltran, H.

    The growing of wind generation in Spain has forced its Transmission System Operator (TSO) to release new requirements that establish the amount of reactive power that a wind turbine has to supply to the grid during a voltage dip. Wind turbines equipped with doubly-fed induction generators (DFIG......) can regulate easily the reactive power generated in steady state. However, difficulties appear when reactive power has to be generated during voltage dips. Simulations have been carried out in order to check whether DFIG wind turbines can fulfill the reactive power requirements. Protection system...... commonly employed with DFIG in order to achieve ride-through capabilities including crowbar plays an important role to meet the requirements together with grid-side converter. Resistance associated with the crowbar and its connection duration are crucial at the beginning of the fault. Grid-side converter...

  10. Adequacy of Frequency Reserves for High Wind Power Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Das, Kaushik; Litong-Palima, Marisciel; Maule, Petr

    2017-01-01

    In this article, a new methodology is developed to assess the adequacy of frequency reserves to handle power imbalances caused by wind power forecast errors. The goal of this methodology is to estimate the adequate volume and speed of activation of frequency reserves required to handle power...

  11. Performance analysis of voltage regulation in diesel-wind generation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2006-05-04

    May 4, 2006 ... living standard is raised the energy consumption is raised. ... In the world installed wind power capacity is increasing 30% per year. ... production of the electrical energy 2000 fuel mix is 0.572 kg of equivalent Co2 per kWh.

  12. Increasing power generation in horizontal axis wind turbines using optimized flow control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooney, John A., Jr.

    In order to effectively realize future goals for wind energy, the efficiency of wind turbines must increase beyond existing technology. One direct method for achieving increased efficiency is by improving the individual power generation characteristics of horizontal axis wind turbines. The potential for additional improvement by traditional approaches is diminishing rapidly however. As a result, a research program was undertaken to assess the potential of using distributed flow control to increase power generation. The overall objective was the development of validated aerodynamic simulations and flow control approaches to improve wind turbine power generation characteristics. BEM analysis was conducted for a general set of wind turbine models encompassing last, current, and next generation designs. This analysis indicated that rotor lift control applied in Region II of the turbine power curve would produce a notable increase in annual power generated. This was achieved by optimizing induction factors along the rotor blade for maximum power generation. In order to demonstrate this approach and other advanced concepts, the University of Notre Dame established the Laboratory for Enhanced Wind Energy Design (eWiND). This initiative includes a fully instrumented meteorological tower and two pitch-controlled wind turbines. The wind turbines are representative in their design and operation to larger multi-megawatt turbines, but of a scale that allows rotors to be easily instrumented and replaced to explore new design concepts. Baseline data detailing typical site conditions and turbine operation is presented. To realize optimized performance, lift control systems were designed and evaluated in CFD simulations coupled with shape optimization tools. These were integrated into a systematic design methodology involving BEM simulations, CFD simulations and shape optimization, and selected experimental validation. To refine and illustrate the proposed design methodology, a

  13. Universal Generating Function Based Probabilistic Production Simulation Approach Considering Wind Speed Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Due to the volatile and correlated nature of wind speed, a high share of wind power penetration poses challenges to power system production simulation. Existing power system probabilistic production simulation approaches are in short of considering the time-varying characteristics of wind power and load, as well as the correlation between wind speeds at the same time, which brings about some problems in planning and analysis for the power system with high wind power penetration. Based on universal generating function (UGF, this paper proposes a novel probabilistic production simulation approach considering wind speed correlation. UGF is utilized to develop the chronological models of wind power that characterizes wind speed correlation simultaneously, as well as the chronological models of conventional generation sources and load. The supply and demand are matched chronologically to not only obtain generation schedules, but also reliability indices both at each simulation interval and the whole period. The proposed approach has been tested on the improved IEEE-RTS 79 test system and is compared with the Monte Carlo approach and the sequence operation theory approach. The results verified the proposed approach with the merits of computation simplicity and accuracy.

  14. Data Mining Methods to Generate Severe Wind Gust Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subana Shanmuganathan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Gaining knowledge on weather patterns, trends and the influence of their extremes on various crop production yields and quality continues to be a quest by scientists, agriculturists, and managers. Precise and timely information aids decision-making, which is widely accepted as intrinsically necessary for increased production and improved quality. Studies in this research domain, especially those related to data mining and interpretation are being carried out by the authors and their colleagues. Some of this work that relates to data definition, description, analysis, and modelling is described in this paper. This includes studies that have evaluated extreme dry/wet weather events against reported yield at different scales in general. They indicate the effects of weather extremes such as prolonged high temperatures, heavy rainfall, and severe wind gusts. Occurrences of these events are among the main weather extremes that impact on many crops worldwide. Wind gusts are difficult to anticipate due to their rapid manifestation and yet can have catastrophic effects on crops and buildings. This paper examines the use of data mining methods to reveal patterns in the weather conditions, such as time of the day, month of the year, wind direction, speed, and severity using a data set from a single location. Case study data is used to provide examples of how the methods used can elicit meaningful information and depict it in a fashion usable for management decision making. Historical weather data acquired between 2008 and 2012 has been used for this study from telemetry devices installed in a vineyard in the north of New Zealand. The results show that using data mining techniques and the local weather conditions, such as relative pressure, temperature, wind direction and speed recorded at irregular intervals, can produce new knowledge relating to wind gust patterns for vineyard management decision making.

  15. An innovative medium speed wind turbine rotor blade design for low wind regime (electrical power generation)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abas Abd Wahab; Chong Wen Tong

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the preliminary study of a small-scale wind turbine rotor blade (a low wind speed region turbine). A new wind turbine rotor blade (AE2 blade) for stand alone system has been conceptualized, designed, constructed and tested. The system is a reduced size prototype (half-scaled) to develop an efficient (adapted to Malaysian wind conditions)and cost effective wind energy conversion system (WECS) with local design and production technique. The blades were constructed from aluminium sheet with metal blending technique. The layout and design of rotor blade, its innovative features and test results are presented. Results from indoor test showed that the advantages of AE2 blade in low speed, with the potential of further improvements. The best rotor efficiency, C P attained with simple AE2 blades rotor (number of blade = 3) was 37.3% (Betz efficiency = 63%) at tip speed ratio (TSR) = 3.6. From the fabrication works and indoor testing, the AE2 blade rotor has demonstrated its structural integrity (ease of assembly and transportation), simplicity, acceptable performance and low noise level. (Author)

  16. Optimal Sizing of Decentralized Photovoltaic Generation and Energy Storage Units for Malaysia Residential Household Using Iterative Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Hasimah Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available World’s fuel sources are decreasing, and global warming phenomena cause the necessity of urgent search for alternative energy sources. Photovoltaic generating system has a high potential, since it is clean, environmental friendly and secure energy sources. This paper presents an optimal sizing of decentralized photovoltaic system and electrical energy storage for a residential household using iterative method. The cost of energy, payback period, degree of autonomy and degree of own-consumption are defined as optimization parameters. A case study is conducted by employing Kuala Lumpur meteorological data, typical load profile from rural area in Malaysia, decentralized photovoltaic generation unit and electrical storage and it is analyzed in hourly basis. An iterative method is used with photovoltaic array variable from 0.1kW to 4.0kW and storage system variable from 50Ah to 400Ah was performed to determine the optimal design for the proposed system.

  17. Wind energy sector in British Columbia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    British Columbia (BC) possesses significant wind energy resources, and many wind energy projects are currently in the planning phase or are already under construction. Wind power policies in the province have been designed to ensure the secure and orderly development of the wind power industry. Policies in the province include a 10-year exemption from participation rents for new projects as well as a policy that has established the maximum permissible noise levels for wind farms located near residential properties. BC's wind power development plan forms part of the province's aim to become electricity self-sufficient by 2016 while ensuring that clean or renewable energy generation accounts for at least 90 per cent of total generation. This guide provided an outline of the province's wind energy sector, and provided a listing of selected wind power operators. Details of new wind power projects were also presented. 11 fig.

  18. Wind energy generation for electric power production, preliminary studies. Part I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, A

    1976-03-01

    Studies of wind power generation done by SAAB-Scania during 1975 are described. The project deals with generation of electricity for delivery to the transmission system. Both plants with horizontal axis and plants with vertical axis have been studied. A projected pilot plant with a rotor of 18 meter and an effect of 50 kW at 10 m/s wind velocity is described. Suggestions are made for a continuation of the project.

  19. Rating Requirements of the UPQC to Integrate the FSIG Type Wind Generation to the Grid

    OpenAIRE

    Jayanti, N.; Basu, Malabika; Conlon, Michael; Gaughan, Kevin

    2009-01-01

    The ability of wind generation to remain connected to the grid in the event of system faults and dynamic reactive power compensation are two aspects of grid integration, which have received particular attention. The wind driven, fixed-speed induction generator (FSIG) on its own fails to fulfil these requirements of grid integration. The application of a unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) to overcome the grid integration problems of the FSIG is investigated. The role of the UPQC in enhan...

  20. Dynamic Protective Control Strategy for Distributed Generation System with Fixed-speed Wind Turbines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of induction generator based fixed-speed wind turbines (FSWT) are investigated. The impacts of different execution time in protective operations are studied under different fauit duration and various wind velocity situations, e.g. , FSWT stabilities of load shedding in distribution systems. Based on this research, a dynamic protective control strategy for a distributed generation system (DGS) with FSWT is proposed. Finally, simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the strategy.

  1. The Relationship Between Electricity Price and Wind Power Generation in Danish Electricity Markets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Weihao; Chen, Zhe; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2010-01-01

    of competitive electricity markets in some ways, is chosen as the studied power system. The relationship between the electricity price (both the spot price and the regulation price) and the wind power generation in an electricity market is investigated in this paper. The spot price, the down regulation price...... and the up regulation price generally decreases when the wind power penetration in the power system increases. The statistical characteristics of the spot price for different wind power penetration are analyzed. The findings of this paper may be useful for wind power generation companies to make the optimal...... bidding strategy and may be also useful for the optimal operation of modern power systems with high wind power penetrations....

  2. Condition monitoring of a wind turbine doubly-fed induction generator through current signature analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artigao, Estefania; Honrubia-Escribano, Andres; Gomez-Lazaro, Emilio

    2017-11-01

    Operation and maintenance (O&M) of wind turbines is recently becoming the spotlight in the wind energy sector. While wind turbine power capacities continue to increase and new offshore developments are being installed, O&M costs keep raising. With the objective of reducing such costs, the new trends are moving from corrective and preventive maintenance toward predictive actions. In this scenario, condition monitoring (CM) has been identified as the key to achieve this goal. The induction generator of a wind turbine is a major contributor to failure rates and downtime where doubly-fed induction generators (DFIG) are the dominant technology employed in variable speed wind turbines. The current work presents the analysis of an in-service DFIG. A one-year measurement campaign has been used to perform the study. Several signal processing techniques have been applied and the optimal method for CM has been identified. A diagnosis has been reached, the DFIG under study shows potential gearbox damage.

  3. Fast simulation of wind generation for frequency stability analysis in island power systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conroy, James [EirGrid, Dublin (Ireland)

    2010-07-01

    Frequency stability is a major issue for power system planning and operation in an island power system such as Ireland. As increasing amounts of variable speed wind generation are added to the system, this issue becomes more prominent, as variable speed wind generation does not provide an inherent inertial response. This lack of an inertial response means that simplified models for variable speed wind farms can be used for investigating frequency stability. EirGrid uses DIgSILENT Power Factory (as well as other software tools) to investigate frequency stability. In PowerFactory, an automation program has been created to convert detailed wind farm representation (as necessary for other types of analysis) to negative load models for frequency stability analysis. The advantage of this approach is much-improved simulation speed without loss of accuracy. This approach can also be to study future wind energy targets, and long-term simulation of voltage stability. (orig.)

  4. Overall control strategy of variable speed doubly-fed induction generator wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hansen, Anca D.; Soerensen, Poul [Risoe National Laboratory, Roskilde (Denmark). Wind Energy Dept.; Iov, Florin; Blaabjerg, Frede [Aalborg Univ. (Denmark). Inst. of Energy Technology

    2004-07-01

    The variable speed doubly-fed induction generator wind turbine is today the most widely used concept. The paper presents an overall control system of the variable speed DFIG wind turbine, with focus on the control strategies and algorithms applied at each hierarchical control level of the wind turbine. The present control method is designed for normal continuous operations. The strongest feature of the implemented control method is that it allows the turbine to operate with the optimum power efficiency over a wider range of wind speeds. The variable speed/variable pitch wind turbine with doubly-fed induction generator is implemented in the dynamic power system simulation tool DIgSILENT. Simulation results are performed and analyzed in different normal operating conditions.

  5. A 2MW 6-phase BLDC Generator Developed from a PM Synchronous Generator for Wind Energy Application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Zhuihui; Chen, Zhe; Liu, Xiao

    2014-01-01

    rectifier is adopted. The cases the with different loads are studied. The finite element simulation shows the developed BLDC generator is better than the PMSM generator in terms of DC voltage ripple and torque ripple. Furthermore, the volume of the BLDC generator is smaller, despite of more permanent magnet......In the direct drive wind turbine application, a PMSM generator often works together with a diode rectifier, which connects to a boost converter. In this paper, a six-phase BLDC generator is developed from the prototype design of three-phase permanent magnet synchronous generator. The diode...... is required. The efficiencies and the costs are also compared. As the result shows, BLDC generators connected with the diode rectifiers are good candidates for direct drive wind turbines....

  6. 75 FR 11530 - Crystal Lake Wind III, LLC, et al.; Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Crystal Lake Wind III, LLC, et al.; Notice of Effectiveness of Exempt Wholesale Generator Status March 4, 2010. Docket Nos. Crystal Lake Wind III, LLC EG10-6-000 GardenGarden Wind, LLC EG10-7-000 Star Point Wind Project LLC EG10-8-000...

  7. Wind Energy Management System EMS Integration Project: Incorporating Wind Generation and Load Forecast Uncertainties into Power Grid Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Huang, Zhenyu; Etingov, Pavel V.; Ma, Jian; Guttromson, Ross T.; Subbarao, Krishnappa; Chakrabarti, Bhujanga B.

    2010-01-01

    The power system balancing process, which includes the scheduling, real time dispatch (load following) and regulation processes, is traditionally based on deterministic models. Since the conventional generation needs time to be committed and dispatched to a desired megawatt level, the scheduling and load following processes use load and wind and solar power production forecasts to achieve future balance between the conventional generation and energy storage on the one side, and system load, intermittent resources (such as wind and solar generation), and scheduled interchange on the other side. Although in real life the forecasting procedures imply some uncertainty around the load and wind/solar forecasts (caused by forecast errors), only their mean values are actually used in the generation dispatch and commitment procedures. Since the actual load and intermittent generation can deviate from their forecasts, it becomes increasingly unclear (especially, with the increasing penetration of renewable resources) whether the system would be actually able to meet the conventional generation requirements within the look-ahead horizon, what the additional balancing efforts would be needed as we get closer to the real time, and what additional costs would be incurred by those needs. To improve the system control performance characteristics, maintain system reliability, and minimize expenses related to the system balancing functions, it becomes necessary to incorporate the predicted uncertainty ranges into the scheduling, load following, and, in some extent, into the regulation processes. It is also important to address the uncertainty problem comprehensively by including all sources of uncertainty (load, intermittent generation, generators’ forced outages, etc.) into consideration. All aspects of uncertainty such as the imbalance size (which is the same as capacity needed to mitigate the imbalance) and generation ramping requirement must be taken into account. The latter

  8. Unit commitment with wind power generation: integrating wind forecast uncertainty and stochastic programming.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Constantinescu, E. M.; Zavala, V. M.; Rocklin, M.; Lee, S.; Anitescu, M. (Mathematics and Computer Science); (Univ. of Chicago); (New York Univ.)

    2009-10-09

    We present a computational framework for integrating the state-of-the-art Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model in stochastic unit commitment/energy dispatch formulations that account for wind power uncertainty. We first enhance the WRF model with adjoint sensitivity analysis capabilities and a sampling technique implemented in a distributed-memory parallel computing architecture. We use these capabilities through an ensemble approach to model the uncertainty of the forecast errors. The wind power realizations are exploited through a closed-loop stochastic unit commitment/energy dispatch formulation. We discuss computational issues arising in the implementation of the framework. In addition, we validate the framework using real wind speed data obtained from a set of meteorological stations. We also build a simulated power system to demonstrate the developments.

  9. Predictive control of a chaotic permanent magnet synchronous generator in a wind turbine system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Messadi, Manal; Mellit, Adel; Kemih, Karim; Ghanes, Malek

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates how to address the chaos problem in a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) in a wind turbine system. Predictive control approach is proposed to suppress chaotic behavior and make operating stable; the advantage of this method is that it can only be applied to one state of the wind turbine system. The use of the genetic algorithms to estimate the optimal parameter values of the wind turbine leads to maximization of the power generation. Moreover, some simulation results are included to visualize the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method. (paper)

  10. Predictive control of a chaotic permanent magnet synchronous generator in a wind turbine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manal, Messadi; Adel, Mellit; Karim, Kemih; Malek, Ghanes

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates how to address the chaos problem in a permanent magnet synchronous generator (PMSG) in a wind turbine system. Predictive control approach is proposed to suppress chaotic behavior and make operating stable; the advantage of this method is that it can only be applied to one state of the wind turbine system. The use of the genetic algorithms to estimate the optimal parameter values of the wind turbine leads to maximization of the power generation. Moreover, some simulation results are included to visualize the effectiveness and robustness of the proposed method. Project supported by the CMEP-TASSILI Project (Grant No. 14MDU920).

  11. Performance Analysis of Doubly Excited Brushless Generator with Outer Rotor for Wind Power Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingchao Zhang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel doubly excited brushless generator (DEBG with outer radial laminated magnetic barrier rotor (RLMB-rotor for wind power application was designed and analyzed. The DEBG has 10 rotor pole numbers with outer rotor. Its performance is investigated using the 2D transient finite element method. The magnetic fields, torque capability, end winding voltage characteristics, radial magnetic force and energy efficiency were analyzed. All studies in this paper show that the simplicity, reliability, high efficiency and low vibration and noise of the DEBG with outer rotor are attractive for variable speed constant frequency (VSCF wind power generation system.

  12. A Pole Pair Segment of a 2-MW High-Temperature Superconducting Wind Turbine Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Song, Xiaowei (Andy); Mijatovic, Nenad; Kellers, Jürgen

    2017-01-01

    A 2-MW high-temperature superconducting (HTS) generator with 24 pole pairs has been designed for the wind turbine application. In order to identify potential challenges and obtain practical knowledge prior to production, a full-size stationary experimental setup, which is one pole pair segment...... and the setup in terms of the flux density, the operating condition of the HTS winding, and the force-generation capability. Finite element (FE) software MagNet is used to carry out numerical simulations. The findings show that the HTS winding in the setup is a good surrogate for these that would be used...

  13. Probabilistic Forecast of Wind Power Generation by Stochastic Differential Equation Models

    KAUST Repository

    Elkantassi, Soumaya

    2017-04-01

    Reliable forecasting of wind power generation is crucial to optimal control of costs in generation of electricity with respect to the electricity demand. Here, we propose and analyze stochastic wind power forecast models described by parametrized stochastic differential equations, which introduce appropriate fluctuations in numerical forecast outputs. We use an approximate maximum likelihood method to infer the model parameters taking into account the time correlated sets of data. Furthermore, we study the validity and sensitivity of the parameters for each model. We applied our models to Uruguayan wind power production as determined by historical data and corresponding numerical forecasts for the period of March 1 to May 31, 2016.

  14. Status of the technology development of large scale HTS generators for wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, T. D.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, D. J.; Boo, C. J.; Kim, H. M. [Jeju National University, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-06-15

    Large wind turbine generators with high temperature superconductors (HTS) are in incessant development because of their advantages such as weight and volume reduction and the increased efficiency compared with conventional technologies. In addition, nowadays the wind turbine market is growing in a function of time, increasing the capacity and energy production of the wind farms installed and increasing the electrical power for the electrical generators installed. As a consequence, it is raising the wind power energy contribution for the global electricity demand. In this study, a forecast of wind energy development will be firstly emphasized, then it continue presenting a recent status of the technology development of large scale HTSG for wind power followed by an explanation of HTS wire trend, cryogenics cooling systems concept, HTS magnets field coil stability and other technological parts for optimization of HTS generator design-operating temperature, design topology, field coil shape and level cost of energy, as well. Finally, the most relevant projects and designs of HTS generators specifically for offshore wind power systems are also mentioned in this study.

  15. Design of a 3 kW wind turbine generator with thin airfoil blades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ameku, Kazumasa; Nagai, Baku M.; Roy, Jitendro Nath [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University of the Ryukyus, 1 Senbaru, Nishihara-cho, Okinawa 903-0213 (Japan)

    2008-09-15

    Three blades of a 3 kW prototype wind turbine generator were designed with thin airfoil and a tip speed ratio of 3. The wind turbine has been controlled via two control methods: the variable pitch angle and by regulation of the field current of the generator and examined under real wind conditions. The characteristics of the thin airfoil, called ''Seven arcs thin airfoil'' named so because the airfoil is composed of seven circular arcs, are analyzed with the airfoil design and analysis program XFOIL. The thin airfoil blade is designed and calculated by blade element and momentum theory. The performance characteristics of the machine such as rotational speed, generator output as well as stability for wind speed changes are described. In the case of average wind speeds of 10 m/s and a maximum of 19 m/s, the automatically controlled wind turbine ran safely through rough wind conditions and showed an average generator output of 1105 W and a power coefficient 0.14. (author)

  16. Status of the technology development of large scale HTS generators for wind turbine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, T. D.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, D. J.; Boo, C. J.; Kim, H. M.

    2015-01-01

    Large wind turbine generators with high temperature superconductors (HTS) are in incessant development because of their advantages such as weight and volume reduction and the increased efficiency compared with conventional technologies. In addition, nowadays the wind turbine market is growing in a function of time, increasing the capacity and energy production of the wind farms installed and increasing the electrical power for the electrical generators installed. As a consequence, it is raising the wind power energy contribution for the global electricity demand. In this study, a forecast of wind energy development will be firstly emphasized, then it continue presenting a recent status of the technology development of large scale HTSG for wind power followed by an explanation of HTS wire trend, cryogenics cooling systems concept, HTS magnets field coil stability and other technological parts for optimization of HTS generator design-operating temperature, design topology, field coil shape and level cost of energy, as well. Finally, the most relevant projects and designs of HTS generators specifically for offshore wind power systems are also mentioned in this study

  17. Wind Turbine Generator System Acoustic Noise Test Report for the ARE 442 Wind Turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huskey, A.; van Dam, J.

    2010-11-01

    This test was conducted on the ARE 442 as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Independent Testing project. This project was established to help reduce the barriers of wind energy expansion by providing independent testing results for small turbines. In total, five turbines are being tested at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) as a part of this project. Acoustic noise testing is one of up to five tests that may be performed on the turbines, including duration, safety and function, power performance, and power quality tests. The acoustic noise test was conducted to the IEC 61400-11 Edition 2.1.

  18. Small distributed generation versus centralised supply: a social cost-benefit analysis in the residential and service sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulli, Francesco

    2006-01-01

    This paper aims at measuring the social benefits of small CHP distributed generation (DG) in the residential and service sectors. We do this by comparing the social costs of decentralised and centralised supplies, simulating 'ideal' situations in which any source of allocative inefficiencies is eliminated. This comparison focuses on assessing internal and external costs. The internal costs are calculated by simulating the optimal prices of the electricity and gas inputs. The external costs are estimated by using and elaborating the results of the dissemination process of the ExternE project, one of the most recent and accurate methodologies in this field. The analysis takes into account the main sources of uncertainty about the parameter values, including uncertainty about external cost estimations. Despite these sources of uncertainty, the paper concludes that centralised supply is still preferable to small DG. In fact, the overall range of DG social competitiveness is restricted, even considering further remarkable improvements in DG electrical efficiency and investment costs. The results are particularly unfavourable for the residential sector, whereas, in the service sector, the performance of DG technologies is slightly better

  19. Wind power integration into the automatic generation control of power systems with large-scale wind power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Basit

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Transmission system operators have an increased interest in the active participation of wind power plants (WPP in the power balance control of power systems with large wind power penetration. The emphasis in this study is on the integration of WPPs into the automatic generation control (AGC of the power system. The present paper proposes a coordinated control strategy for the AGC between combined heat and power plants (CHPs and WPPs to enhance the security and the reliability of a power system operation in the case of a large wind power penetration. The proposed strategy, described and exemplified for the future Danish power system, takes the hour-ahead regulating power plan for generation and power exchange with neighbouring power systems into account. The performance of the proposed strategy for coordinated secondary control is assessed and discussed by means of simulations for different possible future scenarios, when wind power production in the power system is high and conventional production from CHPs is at a minimum level. The investigation results of the proposed control strategy have shown that the WPPs can actively help the AGC, and reduce the real-time power imbalance in the power system, by down regulating their production when CHPs are unable to provide the required response.

  20. Integration of permanent magnet synchronous generator wind turbines into power grid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abedini, Asghar

    The world is seeing an ever-increasing demand for electrical energy. The future growth of electrical power generation needs to be a mix of technologies including fossil fuels, hydro, nuclear, wind, and solar. The federal and state energy agencies have taken several proactive steps to increase the share of renewable energy in the total generated electrical power. In 2005, 11.1% of the total 1060 GW electricity generation capacity was from Renewable Energy Sources (RES) in the US. The power capacity portfolio included 9.2% from hydroelectric, 0.87% from wind, and 0.7% from biomass. Other renewable power capacity included 2.8 GW of geothermal, 0.4 GW of solar thermal, and 0.2 GW of solar PV. Although the share of renewable energy sources is small compared with the total power capacity, they are experiencing a high and steady growth. The US is leading the world in wind energy growth with a 27% increase in 2006 and a projected 26% increase in 2007, according to the American Wind Energy Association (AWEA). The US Department of Energy benchmarked a goal to meet 5% of the nation's energy need by launching the Wind Powering America (WPA) program. Although renewable energy sources have many benefits, their utilization in the electrical grid does not come without cost. The higher penetration of RES has introduced many technical and non-technical challenges, including power quality, reliability, safety and protection, load management, grid interconnections and control, new regulations, and grid operation economics. RES such as wind and PV are also intermittent in nature. The energy from these sources is available as long as there is wind or sunlight. However, these are energies that are abundant in the world and the power generated from these sources is pollution free. Due to high price of foundation of wind farms, employing variable speed wind turbines to maximize the extracted energy from blowing wind is more beneficial. On the other hand, since wind power is intermittent

  1. Space-time trajectories of wind power generation: Parameterized precision matrices under a Gaussian copula approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tastu, Julija; Pinson, Pierre; Madsen, Henrik

    2015-01-01

    -correlations. Estimation is performed in a maximum likelihood framework. Based on a test case application in Denmark, with spatial dependencies over 15 areas and temporal ones for 43 hourly lead times (hence, for a dimension of n = 645), it is shown that accounting for space-time effects is crucial for generating skilful......Emphasis is placed on generating space-time trajectories of wind power generation, consisting of paths sampled from high-dimensional joint predictive densities, describing wind power generation at a number of contiguous locations and successive lead times. A modelling approach taking advantage...

  2. Dual stator winding variable speed asynchronous generator: optimal design and experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutelea, L N; Deaconu, S I; Popa, G N

    2015-01-01

    In the present paper is carried out a theoretical and experimental study of dual stator winding squirrel cage asynchronous generator (DSWA) behavior in the presence of saturation regime (non-sinusoidal) due to the variable speed operation. The main aims are the determination of the relations of calculating the equivalent parameters of the machine windings to optimal design using a Matlab code. Issue is limited to three phase range of double stator winding cage-induction generator of small sized powers, the most currently used in the small adjustable speed wind or hydro power plants. The tests were carried out using three-phase asynchronous generator having rated power of 6 [kVA]. (paper)

  3. Variable Speed Wind Turbine Based on Multiple Generators Drive-Train Configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Fujin; Chen, Zhe

    2010-01-01

    A variable speed wind turbine is presented in this paper, where multiple permanent magnet synchronous generators (MPMSGs) drive-train configuration is employed in the wind turbine. A cascaded multilevel converter interface based on the MPMSGs is developed to synthesize a desired high ac sinusoidal...... output voltage, which could be directly connected to the grids. What is more, such arrangement has been made so that the output ac voltage having a selected phase angle difference among the stator windings of multiple generators. A phase angle shift strategy is proposed in this paper, which effectively...... reduce the fluctuation of the electromagnetic torque sum and results in a good performance for the MPMSGs structure. The simulation study is conducted using PSCAD/EMTDC, and the results verify the feasibility of this variable speed wind turbine based on multiple generators drive-train configuration....

  4. Potential of MgB2 superconductors in direct drive generators for wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Abrahamsen, Asger Bech; Liu, Dong; Magnusson, Niklas

    2015-01-01

    Topologies of superconducting direct drive wind turbine generators are based on a combination of superconducting wires wound into field coils, copper armature windings, steel laminates to shape the magnetic flux density and finally structural materials as support. But what is the most optimal...... by using the current cost of 4 €/m for the MgB2 wire from Columbus Superconductors and also a possible future cost of 1 €/m if a superconducting offshore wind power capacity of 10 GW has been introduced by 2030 as suggested in a roadmap. The obtained topologies are compared to what is expected from...... a permanent magnet direct drive generators and the further development directions are discussed. Finally an experimental INNWIND.EU demonstration showing that the current commercial MgB2 wires can be wound into functional field coils for wind turbine generators is discussed....

  5. Background and system description of the Mod 1 wind turbine generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, E. H.

    1978-01-01

    The Mod-1 wind turbine considered is a large utility-class machine, operating in the high wind regime, which has the potential for generation of utility grade power at costs competitive with other alternative energy sources. A Mod-1 wind turbine generator (WTG) description is presented, taking into account the two variable-pitch steel blades of the rotor, the drive train, power generation/control, the Nacelle structure, and the yaw drive. The major surface elements of the WTG are the ground enclosure, the back-up battery system, the step-up transformer, elements of the data system, cabling, area lighting, and tower foundation. The final system weight (rotor, Nacelle, and tower) is expected to be about 650,000 pounds. The WTG will be capable of delivering 1800 kW to the utility grid in a wind-speed above 25 mph.

  6. The Impact of Wind Power Projects on Residential Property Values in the United States: A Multi-Site Hedonic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoen, Ben [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cappers, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Thayer, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sethi, Gautam [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2009-12-01

    This report uses statistical analysis to evaluate the impact of wind power projects on property values, and fails to uncovers conclusive evidence of the existence of any widespread property value impacts.

  7. Optimizing wind power generation while minimizing wildlife impacts in an urban area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gil Bohrer

    Full Text Available The location of a wind turbine is critical to its power output, which is strongly affected by the local wind field. Turbine operators typically seek locations with the best wind at the lowest level above ground since turbine height affects installation costs. In many urban applications, such as small-scale turbines owned by local communities or organizations, turbine placement is challenging because of limited available space and because the turbine often must be added without removing existing infrastructure, including buildings and trees. The need to minimize turbine hazard to wildlife compounds the challenge. We used an exclusion zone approach for turbine-placement optimization that incorporates spatially detailed maps of wind distribution and wildlife densities with power output predictions for the Ohio State University campus. We processed public GIS records and airborne lidar point-cloud data to develop a 3D map of all campus buildings and trees. High resolution large-eddy simulations and long-term wind climatology were combined to provide land-surface-affected 3D wind fields and the corresponding wind-power generation potential. This power prediction map was then combined with bird survey data. Our assessment predicts that exclusion of areas where bird numbers are highest will have modest effects on the availability of locations for power generation. The exclusion zone approach allows the incorporation of wildlife hazard in wind turbine siting and power output considerations in complex urban environments even when the quantitative interaction between wildlife behavior and turbine activity is unknown.

  8. Optimizing wind power generation while minimizing wildlife impacts in an urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohrer, Gil; Zhu, Kunpeng; Jones, Robert L; Curtis, Peter S

    2013-01-01

    The location of a wind turbine is critical to its power output, which is strongly affected by the local wind field. Turbine operators typically seek locations with the best wind at the lowest level above ground since turbine height affects installation costs. In many urban applications, such as small-scale turbines owned by local communities or organizations, turbine placement is challenging because of limited available space and because the turbine often must be added without removing existing infrastructure, including buildings and trees. The need to minimize turbine hazard to wildlife compounds the challenge. We used an exclusion zone approach for turbine-placement optimization that incorporates spatially detailed maps of wind distribution and wildlife densities with power output predictions for the Ohio State University campus. We processed public GIS records and airborne lidar point-cloud data to develop a 3D map of all campus buildings and trees. High resolution large-eddy simulations and long-term wind climatology were combined to provide land-surface-affected 3D wind fields and the corresponding wind-power generation potential. This power prediction map was then combined with bird survey data. Our assessment predicts that exclusion of areas where bird numbers are highest will have modest effects on the availability of locations for power generation. The exclusion zone approach allows the incorporation of wildlife hazard in wind turbine siting and power output considerations in complex urban environments even when the quantitative interaction between wildlife behavior and turbine activity is unknown.

  9. System Dynamics Simulation of Large-Scale Generation System for Designing Wind Power Policy in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linna Hou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the impacts of renewable energy policy on a large-scale power generation system, including thermal power, hydropower, and wind power generation. As one of the most important clean energy, wind energy has been rapidly developed in the world. But in recent years there is a serious waste of wind power equipment and investment in China leading to many problems in the industry from wind power planning to its integration. One way overcoming the difficulty is to analyze the influence of wind power policy on a generation system. This paper builds a system dynamics (SD model of energy generation to simulate the results of wind energy generation policies based on a complex system. And scenario analysis method is used to compare the effectiveness and efficiency of these policies. The case study shows that the combinations of lower portfolio goal and higher benchmark price and those of higher portfolio goal and lower benchmark price have large differences in both effectiveness and efficiency. On the other hand, the combinations of uniformly lower or higher portfolio goal and benchmark price have similar efficiency, but different effectiveness. Finally, an optimal policy combination can be chosen on the basis of policy analysis in the large-scale power system.

  10. Why is China’s wind power generation not living up to its potential?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huenteler, Joern; Tang, Tian; Chan, Gabriel; Diaz Anadon, Laura

    2018-04-01

    Following a decade of unprecedented investment, China now has the world’s largest installed base of wind power capacity. Yet, despite siting most wind farms in the wind-rich Northern and Western provinces, electricity generation from Chinese wind farms has not reached the performance benchmarks of the United States and many other advanced economies. This has resulted in lower environmental, economic, and health benefits than anticipated. We develop a framework to explain the performance of the Chinese and US wind sectors, accounting for a comprehensive set of driving factors. We apply this framework to a novel dataset of virtually all wind farms installed in China and the United States through the end of 2013. We first estimate the wind sector’s technical potential using a methodology that produces consistent estimates for both countries. We compare this potential to actual performance and find that Chinese wind farms generated electricity at 37%–45% of their annual technical potential during 2006–2013 compared to 54%–61% in the United States. Our findings underscore that the larger gap between actual performance and technical potential in China compared to the United States is significantly driven by delays in grid connection (14% of the gap) and curtailment due to constraints in grid management (10% of the gap), two challenges of China’s wind power expansion covered extensively in the literature. However, our findings show that China’s underperformance is also driven by suboptimal turbine model selection (31% of the gap), wind farm siting (23% of the gap), and turbine hub heights (6% of the gap)—factors that have received less attention in the literature and, crucially, are locked-in for the lifetime of wind farms. This suggests that besides addressing grid connection delays and curtailment, China will also need policy measures to address turbine siting and technology choices to achieve its national goals and increase utilization up to US levels.

  11. Influence of input data on airflow network accuracy in residential buildings with natural wind- and stack-driven ventilation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Krzysztof Arendt; Marek Krzaczek; Jacek Tejchman

    2017-01-01

    The airflow network (AFN) modeling approach provides an attractive balance between the accuracy and computational demand for naturally ventilated buildings. Its accuracy depends on input parameters such as wind pressure and opening discharge coefficients. In most cases, these parameters are obtained from secondary sources which are solely representative for very simplified buildings, i.e. for buildings without facade details. Although studies comparing wind pressure coefficients or discharge coefficients from different sources exist, the knowledge regarding the effect of input data on AFN is still poor. In this paper, the influence of wind pressure data on the accuracy of a coupled AFN-BES model for a real building with natural wind- and stack-driven ventilation was analyzed. The results of 8 computation cases with different wind pressure data from secondary sources were compared with the measured data. Both the indoor temperatures and the airflow were taken into account. The outcomes indicated that the source of wind pressure data had a significant influence on the model performance.

  12. Expanding photovoltaic penetration with residential distributed generation from hybrid solar photovoltaic and combined heat and power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    The recent development of small scale combined heat and power (CHP) systems has provided the opportunity for in-house power backup of residential-scale photovoltaic (PV) arrays. This paper investigates the potential of deploying a distributed network of PV + CHP hybrid systems in order to increase the PV penetration level in the U.S. The temporal distribution of solar flux, electrical and heating requirements for representative U.S. single family residences were analyzed and the results clearly show that hybridizing CHP with PV can enable additional PV deployment above what is possible with a conventional centralized electric generation system. The technical evolution of such PV + CHP hybrid systems was developed from the present (near market) technology through four generations, which enable high utilization rates of both PV-generated electricity and CHP-generated heat. A method to determine the maximum percent of PV-generated electricity on the grid without energy storage was derived and applied to an example area. The results show that a PV + CHP hybrid system not only has the potential to radically reduce energy waste in the status quo electrical and heating systems, but it also enables the share of solar PV to be expanded by about a factor of five. (author)

  13. WTG Energy Systems' MP1-200 200 kilowatt wind turbine generator. [a fixed pitch rotor configuration driving a synchronous generator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaulding, A. P., Jr.

    1979-01-01

    The preliminary design criteria of the MP1-200 wind turbine are given along with a brief description of the wind turbine generator. Performance and operational experience and cost factors are included. Recommendations for additional research are listed.

  14. Application of Portfolio Theory to Minimization of Generation Variability in a System with Wind plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabolic, D.

    2016-01-01

    This paper evaluates validity of modern portfolio theory (MPT) for planning of installation of new wind plants with the lowest possible generation variability for given expected yearly generation. Suppose a Planner had historic meteorological data on wind speeds at a finite number of locations over longer time periods, and that they were technically convertible to time series of forecasted generation powers per megawatt of installed capacity. Suppose further that she intended to upgrade existing system with certain fixed amount of new wind plant capacity. Then she would be able to allocate shares in that total capacity to the available locations in a way that suits her policy goals regarding relation between total expected annual generation and total variability of generation best. Minimization of variability is a legitimate policy goal because it increases total costs of energy supply, so that leaving generation to vary more than technically necessary is economically inefficient. This article focuses on applicability of portfolio theory to such a problem. In the presented research, measured 15-minute data of wind generation in existing Croatian wind plants were used.(author).

  15. The large-scale integration of wind generation: Impacts on price, reliability and dispatchable conventional suppliers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacCormack, John; Hollis, Aidan; Zareipour, Hamidreza; Rosehart, William

    2010-01-01

    This work examines the effects of large-scale integration of wind powered electricity generation in a deregulated energy-only market on loads (in terms of electricity prices and supply reliability) and dispatchable conventional power suppliers. Hourly models of wind generation time series, load and resultant residual demand are created. From these a non-chronological residual demand duration curve is developed that is combined with a probabilistic model of dispatchable conventional generator availability, a model of an energy-only market with a price cap, and a model of generator costs and dispatch behavior. A number of simulations are performed to evaluate the effect on electricity prices, overall reliability of supply, the ability of a dominant supplier acting strategically to profitably withhold supplies, and the fixed cost recovery of dispatchable conventional power suppliers at different levels of wind generation penetration. Medium and long term responses of the market and/or regulator in the long term are discussed.

  16. Wind Energy Study and Energy Cost of Wind Electricity Generation in Nigeria: Past and Recent Results and a Case Study for South West Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluseyi O. Ajayi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study assessed the wind energy potential of ten selected sites in the south western region of Nigeria and carried out a cost benefit analysis of wind power generation at those sites. Twenty four years’ (1987 to 2010 wind speed data at 10 m height obtained from the Nigerian meteorological agency were employed to classify the sites wind profiles for electricity generation. The energy cost analysis of generating wind electricity from the sites was also carried out. The outcome showed that sites in Lagos and Oyo States were adequately suited for large scale generation with average wind speeds ranged between 2.9 and 5.8 m/s. Those from other sites may be suitable for small scale generation or as wind farms, with several small turbines connected together, to generate large enough wind power. The turbine matching results shows that turbines cut-in and rated wind speeds of between 2.0 and 3.0 m/s, and between 10 and 12.0 m/s respectively will be very suited to all the sites, particularly those in locations outside Lagos and Oyo States. The energy cost analysis shows that generation cost can be as low as 0.02 €/kWh and as high as 5.03/kWh, depending on the turbine model employed.

  17. Analysis of Wind Speed Forecasting Error Effects on Automatic Generation Control Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Rajabi Mashhadi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this paper is to study statistical indices and evaluate AGC indices in power system which has large penetration of the WTGs. Increasing penetration of wind turbine generations, needs to study more about impacts of it on power system frequency control. Frequency control is changed with unbalancing real-time system generation and load . Also wind turbine generations have more fluctuations and make system more unbalance. Then AGC loop helps to adjust system frequency and the scheduled tie-line powers. The quality of AGC loop is measured by some indices. A good index is a proper measure shows the AGC performance just as the power system operates. One of well-known measures in literature which was introduced by NERC is Control Performance Standards(CPS. Previously it is claimed that a key factor in CPS index is related to standard deviation of generation error, installed power and frequency response. This paper focuses on impact of a several hours-ahead wind speed forecast error on this factor. Furthermore evaluation of conventional control performances in the power systems with large-scale wind turbine penetration is studied. Effects of wind speed standard deviation and also degree of wind farm penetration are analyzed and importance of mentioned factor are criticized. In addition, influence of mean wind speed forecast error on this factor is investigated. The study system is a two area system which there is significant wind farm in one of those. The results show that mean wind speed forecast error has considerable effect on AGC performance while the mentioned key factor is insensitive to this mean error.

  18. Wind Energy Management System Integration Project Incorporating Wind Generation and Load Forecast Uncertainties into Power Grid Operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Makarov, Yuri V.; Huang, Zhenyu; Etingov, Pavel V.; Ma, Jian; Guttromson, Ross T.; Subbarao, Krishnappa; Chakrabarti, Bhujanga B.

    2010-09-01

    The power system balancing process, which includes the scheduling, real time dispatch (load following) and regulation processes, is traditionally based on deterministic models. Since the conventional generation needs time to be committed and dispatched to a desired megawatt level, the scheduling and load following processes use load and wind power production forecasts to achieve future balance between the conventional generation and energy storage on the one side, and system load, intermittent resources (such as wind and solar generation) and scheduled interchange on the other side. Although in real life the forecasting procedures imply some uncertainty around the load and wind forecasts (caused by forecast errors), only their mean values are actually used in the generation dispatch and commitment procedures. Since the actual load and intermittent generation can deviate from their forecasts, it becomes increasingly unclear (especially, with the increasing penetration of renewable resources) whether the system would be actually able to meet the conventional generation requirements within the look-ahead horizon, what the additional balancing efforts would be needed as we get closer to the real time, and what additional costs would be incurred by those needs. In order to improve the system control performance characteristics, maintain system reliability, and minimize expenses related to the system balancing functions, it becomes necessary to incorporate the predicted uncertainty ranges into the scheduling, load following, and, in some extent, into the regulation processes. It is also important to address the uncertainty problem comprehensively, by including all sources of uncertainty (load, intermittent generation, generators’ forced outages, etc.) into consideration. All aspects of uncertainty such as the imbalance size (which is the same as capacity needed to mitigate the imbalance) and generation ramping requirement must be taken into account. The latter unique

  19. Study of Interdependence of Wind Generation Output and Potential PV Generation in the Area of ENERGA-OPERATOR SA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Bajor

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an analysis of the interdependence of wind generation output and photovoltaic generation potential in the ENERGA-OPERATOR SA grid. The first study of the interdependence of these two types of renewable sources’ generation outputs was carried out by the Gdańsk Branch of the Institute of Power Engineering in cooperation with ENERGA-OPERATOR in 2012. An important conclusion of the study was the need to repeat the analysis for a larger set of input data as the study covered the period of one year only, and for obvious reasons a limited number of wind farms. The present study’s inputs included a period of four years and more wind farms, due to the continuous connecting of new facilities to the grid. Thus, the results are characterized by a much higher level of credibility, and allow drawing mor correct conclusions regarding the analysed interdependence. The research on the interdependence of the annual wind generation output and potential generation from photovoltaic sources indicates that both generation types are characterized by mutual spatio-temporal dependency. In the study the relationship was quantified by evaluation of the maximum actual wind generation output in specific areas in the case of high PV generation output in a given area and vice versa. The results may allow for appropriate (i.e. substantiating the modelled operating conditions of the system in relation to reality consideration of both types of sources in various types of system analyses of their impact on the grid performance, such as interconnection studies for new sources and distribution grid development planning.

  20. Finnish workshop on the restoration of contaminated residential areas after a nuclear accident: strategy generation and impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammann, M.

    2006-01-01

    Scenario-focused workshops on the restoration of contaminated residential areas are planned in a number of European countries within the EVATECH project of the EU's Fifth Framework Programme. The intention is to identify factors driving decision-making, explore the kinds of strategies that might be appropriate, develop methods for stakeholder involvement, and reveal information needs. The scenario of the Finnish workshop is presented. A policy generation scheme is proposed that yields a manageable but feature-rich set of strategies that is not constraint by lack of feasibility, justification, or public acceptability. The scheme rests on the premise that the affected area is divided into zones according to the level of contamination and that clean-up actions are applied in any combination and in combination with relocation