WorldWideScience

Sample records for residential tap water

  1. Nickel in tap water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Klaus Ejner; Nielsen, G D; Flyvholm, Morten

    1983-01-01

    Nickel analyses of tap water from several sources in Copenhagen gave up to 490 X 10(-6) g X 1(-1) in the first 250 ml portions. Hot water gave higher values than cold water. After flushing for 5 min, low values were found. Considerable variation from time to time and from tap to tap was found...

  2. Tap water filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-02-01

    Moen PureTouch filters remove impurities from tap water without removing fluoride. These carbon block filters consist of finely powdered activated carbon that is combined with a plastic binder material and heated to form a hollow cylinder. The blocks are further wrapped with material to improve performance and reduce clogging. The filters are available with different filtering capabilities (Table 1). The filters mount in the faucet spout or under the sink.

  3. Radioactive substances in tap water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atsuumi, Ryo; Endo, Yoshihiko; Suzuki, Akihiko; Kannotou, Yasumitu; Nakada, Masahiro; Yabuuchi, Reiko

    2014-01-01

    A 9.0 magnitude (M) earthquake with an epicenter off the Sanriku coast occurred at 14: 46 on March 11, 2011. TEPCO Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (F-1 NPP) was struck by the earthquake and its resulting tsunami. Consequently a critical nuclear disaster developed, as a large quantity of radioactive materials was released due to a hydrogen blast. On March 16(th), 2011, radioiodine and radioactive cesium were detected at levels of 177 Bq/kg and 58 Bq/kg, respectively, in tap water in Fukushima city (about 62km northwest of TEPCO F-1 NPP). On March 20th, radioiodine was detected in tap water at a level of 965 Bq/kg, which is over the value-index of restrictions on food and drink intake (radioiodine 300 Bq/kg (infant intake 100 Bq/kg)) designated by the Nuclear Safety Commission. Therefore, intake restriction measures were taken regarding drinking water. After that, although the all intake restrictions were lifted, in order to confirm the safety of tap water, an inspection system was established to monitor all tap water in the prefecture. This system has confirmed that there has been no detection of radioiodine or radioactive cesium in tap water in the prefecture since May 5(th), 2011. Furthermore, radioactive strontium ((89) Sr, (90)Sr) and plutonium ((238)Pu, (239)Pu+(240)Pu) in tap water and the raw water supply were measured. As a result, (89) Sr, (238)Pu, (239)Pu+(240)Pu were undetectable and although (90)Sr was detected, its committed effective dose of 0.00017 mSv was much lower than the yearly 0.1 mSv of the World Health Organization guidelines for drinking water quality. In addition, the results did not show any deviations from past inspection results.

  4. Lead and tap water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water contaminated with lead ... The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) monitors drinking water in the United States. It requires water suppliers to produce annual water quality reports. These reports include information about lead amounts, and they ...

  5. Contamination Control and Monitoring of Tap Water as Fluid in Industrial Tap Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Adelstorp, Anders

    1998-01-01

    Presentation of results and methods addressed to contamination control and monitoring of tap water as fluid in tap water hydraulic systems.......Presentation of results and methods addressed to contamination control and monitoring of tap water as fluid in tap water hydraulic systems....

  6. BACTERIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF TAP WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Justyna Zamorska

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The most sensitive method of detecting contamination in water supply networks is microbiological testing. Microbiological water safety is evaluated mainly based on the results of traditional tests that rely on bacteria culturing on the so called bacterial growth mediums. Flow cytometry is a modern technology that has been used in microbiology only recently. The diagnostic method based on flow cytometry is much faster and more versatile. Microbiological quality testing was conducted in rzeszowski district, in the area of water network supplied by surface waters, and in the area of water network supplied by underground waters. The scope of the analysis of the microbiological quality of tap water was based on the determination of selected indicators of the sanitary condition of water ie; the total number of psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria on nutrient agar (reference called Agar A and additionally called agar supplemented with R, the number of coliforms and faecal streptococci. Determination of the total number of microorganisms by flow cytometry was performed using two dyes SYBR Green and iodide pyridine. Water from underground water intakes, not under the permanent control of microbial had worse microbiological parameters. Used new methods of microbiological assays showed greater amounts of microbiological contamination.

  7. Sinusitis from Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Tap Water

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2012-12-21

    Dr. Wellington S. Tichenor. Associate Clinical Professor of Medicine at New York Medical College and in private practice in Manhattan, New York, discusses his investigation of sinusitis from nontuberculous mycobacteria in tap water.  Created: 12/21/2012 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 12/31/2012.

  8. What's Wrong with the Tap? Examining Perceptions of Tap Water and Bottled Water at Purdue University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saylor, Amber; Prokopy, Linda Stalker; Amberg, Shannon

    2011-09-01

    The environmental impacts of bottled water prompted us to explore drinking water choices at Purdue University, located in West Lafayette, IN. A random sample of 2,045 Purdue University students, staff, and faculty was invited to participate in an online survey. The survey assessed current behaviors as well as perceived barriers and benefits to drinking tap water versus bottled water. 677 surveys were completed for a response rate of 33.1%. We then conducted qualitative interviews with a purposive sample of university undergraduates ( n = 21) to obtain contextual insights into the survey results and the beliefs of individuals with a variety of drinking water preferences. This study revealed that women drink disproportionately more bottled water then men while undergraduate students drink more than graduate students, staff and faculty. The study also uncovered a widespread belief that recycling eliminates the environmental impacts of bottled water. Important barriers to drinking tap water at Purdue include: perceived risks from tap water and the perceived safety of bottled water, preferring the taste of bottled water, and the convenience of drinking bottled water. The qualitative interviews revealed that drinking water choices can be influenced by several factors—especially whether individuals trust tap water to be clean—but involve varying levels of complexity. The implications of these results for social marketing strategies to promote tap water are discussed.

  9. BACTERIOLOGICAL QUALITY OF TAP WATER

    OpenAIRE

    Justyna Zamorska; Monika Zdeb; Dorota Papciak

    2016-01-01

    The most sensitive method of detecting contamination in water supply networks is microbiological testing. Microbiological water safety is evaluated mainly based on the results of traditional tests that rely on bacteria culturing on the so called bacterial growth mediums. Flow cytometry is a modern technology that has been used in microbiology only recently. The diagnostic method based on flow cytometry is much faster and more versatile. Microbiological quality testing was conducted in rzes...

  10. Chapter 13. Industrial Application of Tap Water Hydraulic Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Adelstorp, Anders

    1997-01-01

    Design and application of modern pure tap water components and systems in industries, in particular food processing industry.......Design and application of modern pure tap water components and systems in industries, in particular food processing industry....

  11. Chapter 12. Pure Tap Water Hydraulic Systems and Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Adelstorp, Anders

    1997-01-01

    Presentation of developed a modern pure tap water hydraulic components (Nessie), systems and industrial applications.......Presentation of developed a modern pure tap water hydraulic components (Nessie), systems and industrial applications....

  12. Multiplication of Legionella pneumophila in unsterilized tap water.

    OpenAIRE

    Yee, R B; Wadowsky, R M

    1982-01-01

    Naturally occurring Legionella pneumophila, an environmental isolate which had not been grown on artificial medium, was tested for the ability to multiply in tap water. A showerhead containing L. pneumophila and non-Legionellaceae bacteria was immersed in nonsterile tap water supplying this fixture. Also L. pneumophila and non-Legionellaceae bacteria were sedimented from tap water from a surgical intensive care unit. This bacterial suspension was inoculated into tap water from our laboratory....

  13. Drinking of tap water is smart, but how do it better? - A tap water quality research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mika, Anna; Sekuła, Klaudia; Dendys, Marta; Ptaszek, Weronika; Postawa, Adam

    2018-02-01

    Drinking tap water has recently become popular. It is a way to fight with the tons of garbage (disposable, plastic bottles). However, many people are afraid of water quality. The research was performed in December 2015 in Krakow, during one week. 56 samples were collected. The samples were taken in different times of the day and in the two types of building (old one with installation from the 80s and new one with installation built in past few years). Samples were taken by two qualified operators. The first sample was collected at the morning at 6 a.m., before anyone uses the tap. The second one after the tap was flushed and then the third one after 30 minutes stagnation. At the evening was taken one sample (after using the tap all day).The aim of the research was to check the quality of drinking water in the end-user. The results show that quality of tap water in Krakow is good, also in the end-user, but the concentration of chemical elements are changing during the flushing and using of the tap.

  14. Radiostrontium in milk and tap water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    The New York City sample is a monthly composite of pasteurized milk purchased daily at retail stores. During appropriate periods Sr-89, as well as Sr-90, has been analyzed in these milk samples. The monthly Sr-90 to calcium ratios for New York City since the inception of the sampling program are presented in the table on page C-3. These data are presented graphically in the figure on page C-4. Samples of New York City tap water are taken daily at EML so that by the end of the month, approximately 100 liters have been collected. The Sr-90 data since the inception of the program are presented in the table on page C-5. The available cesium-137 data expressed as the Cs-137 to Sr-90 ratio are given in the table on page C-6. A graphical presentation of the New York City Sr-90 data is shown in the figure on page C-7

  15. Performance evaluation of conventional and water saving taps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidar, A M; Memon, F A; Butler, D

    2016-01-15

    The rapid pace of urbanisation comes with considerable environmental implications including pressures on already stressed limited water resources. In urban areas, most of the water use is associated with water consumption in buildings. The second largest use of water is via taps. It is often assumed that water taps with low flow rates can contribute to reduced per capita water consumption. However, this is based on very little evidence. This paper presents the synthesis of a 13,000 high resolution observations made to investigate the actual water consumption of innovative (water saving) electronic taps and conventional mixer taps. High resolution flow-meters and data loggers were fitted into two washrooms in two different buildings of a higher education institution to record the water use through the basin taps. The recorded data provided information on duration, frequency of use and volume of water consumption per use. The data was helpful in identifying trends in hot and cold water use and therefore can be useful in estimating energy for producing hot water and associated greenhouse gas emissions. Analysis of the observed data suggests that the low flow taps have greater mean water consumption per event than the conventional taps and water consumption is more influenced by user behaviour rather than the technology. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  16. Water use and time analysis in ablution from taps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaied, Roubi A.

    2017-09-01

    There is a lack of water resources and an extreme use of potable water in our Arab region. Ablution from taps was studied since it is a repeated daily activity that consumes more water. Five different tap types are investigated for water consumption fashions including traditional mixing tap and automatic tap. Analyzing 100 experimental observations revealed that 22.7-28.8 % of ablution water is used for washing of feet and the largest water waste occurs during washing of face portions. Moreover, 30-47 % amount of water consumed in ablution from taps is wasted which can be saved if tap releases water only at moments of need. The push-type tap is being spread recently especially in airports. If it is intended for use in ablution facilities, batch duration and volume must be tuned. When each batch is 0.25 L of water and lasts for 3 s, 3 L are sufficient for one complete ablution in average which means considerable saving. A cost-benefit model is proposed for using different tap types and an economic feasibility study is performed on a case study. This analysis can help us to design better ablution systems.

  17. Hydraulic Systems with Tap Water versus Bio-oils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    1997-01-01

    Deals with the advantages of using pure tap water hydraulics versus bio-oils for suiteable applications. Focus is in particular on food processing industry.......Deals with the advantages of using pure tap water hydraulics versus bio-oils for suiteable applications. Focus is in particular on food processing industry....

  18. Tap Water Hydraulic Systems for Medium Power Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn; Adelstorp, Anders

    1998-01-01

    Presentation of new range of developed tap water hydraulic componets and applications for medium power up to 4 kW and 50 bar.......Presentation of new range of developed tap water hydraulic componets and applications for medium power up to 4 kW and 50 bar....

  19. The Danger of Using Tap Water with Contact Lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acanthamoeba is a microbe that is very common in tap water. It has two forms: the trophozoite and the cyst. These trophozoites and cysts can stick to the surface of your contact lenses and then infect your eye.

  20. Multiplication of Legionella pneumophila in unsterilized tap water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, R B; Wadowsky, R M

    1982-06-01

    Naturally occurring Legionella pneumophila, an environmental isolate which had not been grown on artificial medium, was tested for the ability to multiply in tap water. A showerhead containing L. pneumophila and non-Legionellaceae bacteria was immersed in nonsterile tap water supplying this fixture. Also L. pneumophila and non-Legionellaceae bacteria were sedimented from tap water from a surgical intensive care unit. This bacterial suspension was inoculated into tap water from our laboratory. The legionellae in both suspensions multiplied in the tap water at 32, 37, and 42 degrees C. The non-Legionellaceae bacteria multiplied at 25, 32, and 37 degrees C. A water sample which was collected from the bottom of a hot water tank was found to contain L. pneumophila and non-Legionellaceae bacteria. These legionellae also multiplied when the water sample was incubated at 37 degrees C. These results indicate that L. pneumophila may multiply in warm water environments such as hot water plumbing fixtures, hot water tanks, and cooling towers.

  1. Divergence of stable isotopes in tap water across China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Sihan; Hu, Hongchang; Tian, Fuqiang; Tie, Qiang; Wang, Lixin; Liu, Yaling; Shi, Chunxiang

    2017-03-02

    Stable isotopes in water (e.g., δ2H and δ18O) are important indicators of hydrological and ecological patterns and processes. Tap water can reflect integrated features of regional hydrological processes and human activities. China is a large country with significant meteorological and geographical variations. This report presents the first national-scale survey of Stable Isotopes in Tap Water (SITW) across China. 780 tap water samples have been collected from 95 cities across China from December 2014 to December 2015. (1) Results yielded the Tap Water Line in China is δ2H = 7.72 δ18O + 6.57 (r2 = 0.95). (2) SITW spatial distribution presents typical "continental effect". (3) SITW seasonal variations indicate clearly regional patterns but no trends at the national level. (4) SITW can be correlated in some parts with geographic or meteorological factors. This work presents the first SITW map in China, which sets up a benchmark for further stable isotopes research across China. This is a critical step toward monitoring and investigating water resources in climate-sensitive regions, so the human-hydrological system. These findings could be used in the future to establish water management strategies at a national or regional scale. Title: Divergence of stable isotopes in tap water across China Authors: Zhao, SH; Hu, HC; Tian, FQ; Tie, Q; Wang, LX; Liu, YL; Shi, CX Source: SCIENTIFIC REPORTS, 7 10.1038/srep43653 MAR 2 2017

  2. Phthalate occurrence in rivers and tap water from central Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez-Morueco, N; González-Alonso, S; Valcárcel, Y

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the presence and concentrations of the main phthalates in water from the Jarama and Manzanares rivers in the region of Madrid (RM, Central Spain), the most densely populated region of Spain, and to determine the possible oestrogenic activity based on found phthalate concentration. The presence of phthalates in major supply drinking water areas of the RM was also analysed, thus allowing a preliminary assessment of the health risks resulting from the concentrations obtained. The results of this study show the presence of the three (dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP) di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP)) of five phthalates studied (dimethyl phthalate (DMP), diethyl phthalate (DEP), di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), benzyl-butyl phthalate (BBP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP)). The DBP was found in both river and tap water samplers, whereas DMP and DEP were found in only drinking water samples. The DBP was found to make the highest average contribution to pollution in both river and tap water. The DEHP was not found in both the river and tap water because it is one of the most regulated phthalates. The highest phthalate contamination was found in the Manzanares river and in those areas that receive treated water from the Tagus river. The phthalates found in river and tap water in the RM do not represent a potential oestrogenic risk for the aquatic environment or humans. A preliminary risk assessment suggested that the risk of exposure to phthalates from tap water in this study is acceptable, although continuous monitoring of the presence of these substances in both drinking and river water should be undertaken to detect possible increases in their concentrations. This is the first study to analyse the presence of phthalates in both rivers and drinking water of the centre of Spain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Microbial Bioload of Some Tap Water Samples from Enugu, Enugu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacteriological screening on all sample groups indicated the presence of microorganism in tap water available in all eleven locations. Further characterization using biochemical methods revealed the absence of E. coli, and the presence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Shigella species and Salmonella species in sample ...

  4. Multiplication of Legionella spp. in tap water containing Hartmannella vermiformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadowsky, R M; Wilson, T M; Kapp, N J; West, A J; Kuchta, J M; States, S J; Dowling, J N; Yee, R B

    1991-07-01

    A model was developed to study the multiplication of various Legionella spp. in tap water containing Hartmannella vermiformis. Tap water cultures prepared with the following components were suitable for the multiplication studies: Legionella spp., 10(3) CFU/ml; H. vermiformis, 10(4.4) cysts per ml; and killed Pseudomonas paucimobilis, 10(9) cells per ml. Cocultures were incubated at 37 degrees C for at least 1 week. The following legionellae multiplied in tap water cocultures in each replicate experiment: L. bozemanii (WIGA strain), L. dumoffii (NY-23 and TX-KL strains), L. micdadei (two environmental strains), and L. pneumophila (six environmental strains and one clinical isolate). Growth yield values for these strains were 0.6 to 3.5 log CFU/ml. Legionellae which did not multiply in replicate cocultures included L. anisa (one strain), L. bozemanii (MI-15 strain), L. micdadei (a clinical isolate), L. longbeachae, (one strain), and L. pneumophila (Philadelphia 1 strain). L. gormanii and an environmental isolate of L. pneumophila multiplied in only one of three experiments. None of the legionellae multiplied in tap water containing only killed P. paucimobilis. The mean growth yield (+/- standard deviation) of H. vermiformis in the cocultures was 1.2 +/- 0.1 log units/ml. H. vermiformis supports multiplication of only particular strains of legionellae, some of which are from diverse origins.

  5. [Nitrate concentrations in tap water in Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitoria, Isidro; Maraver, Francisco; Sánchez-Valverde, Félix; Armijo, Francisco

    2015-01-01

    To determine nitrate concentrations in drinking water in a sample of Spanish cities. We used ion chromatography to analyze the nitrate concentrations of public drinking water in 108 Spanish municipalities with more than 50,000 inhabitants (supplying 21,290,707 potential individuals). The samples were collected between January and April 2012. The total number of samples tested was 324. The median nitrate concentration was 3.47 mg/L (range: 0.38-66.76; interquartile range: 4.51). The water from 94% of the municipalities contained less than 15 mg/L. The concentration was higher than 25mg/L in only 3 municipalities and was greater than 50mg/L in one. Nitrate levels in most public drinking water supplies in municipalities inhabited by almost half of the Spanish population are below 15 mg/L. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  6. Microbiological tap water profile of a medium-sized building and effect of water stagnation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipphaus, Patrick; Hammes, Frederik; Kötzsch, Stefan; Green, James; Gillespie, Simon; Nocker, Andreas

    2014-01-01

    Whereas microbiological quality of drinking water in water distribution systems is routinely monitored for reasons of legal compliance, microbial numbers in tap water are grossly understudied. Motivated by gross differences in water from private households, we applied in this study flow cytometry as a rapid analytical method to quantify microbial concentrations in water sampled at diverse taps in a medium size research building receiving chlorinated water. Taps differed considerably in frequency of usage and were located in laboratories, bathrooms, and a coffee kitchen. Substantial differences were observed between taps with concentrations (per mL) in the range from 6.29 x 10(3) to 7.74 x 10(5) for total cells and from 1.66 x 10(3) to 4.31 x 10(5) for intact cells. The percentage of intact cells varied between 7% and 96%. Water from taps with very infrequent use showed the highest bacterial numbers and the highest proportions of intact cells. Stagnation tended to increase microbial numbers in water from those taps which were otherwise frequently used. Microbial numbers in other taps that were rarely opened were not affected by stagnation as their water is probably mostly stagnant. For cold water taps, microbial numbers and the percentage of intact cells tended to decline with flushing with the greatest decline for taps used least frequently whereas microbial concentrations in water from hot water taps tended to be somewhat more stable. We conclude that microbiological water quality is mainly determined by building-specific parameters. Tap water profiling can provide valuable insight into plumbing system hygiene and maintenance.

  7. Evaluation on the Quality of Bangkok Tap Water with Other Drinking Purpose Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordach, A.; Chardwattananon, C.; Wongin, K.; Chayaput, B.; Wongpat, N.

    2018-02-01

    The concern of drinking purposed water quality in Bangkok, Nonthaburi, and Samutprakarn provinces has been a problem for over fifteen years. Metropolitan Water Works Authority (MWA) of Thailand is fully responsible for providing water supply to the mentioned areas. The objective of Drinkable Tap Water Project is to make people realize in quality of tap water. Communities, school, government agencies, hotels, hospitals, department stores, and other organizations are participating in this project. MWA have collected at least 3 samples of water from the corresponding places and the samples have to meet the World Health Organization (WHO) guidelines level. This study is to evaluate water quality of tap water, storage water, filtered water, and filtered water dispenser. The water samples from 2,354 attending places are collected and analyzed. From October 2011 to September 2016, MWA analyzed 32,711 samples. The analyzed water parameters are free residual chlorine, appearance color, turbidity, pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS), and pathogenic bacteria; E.coli. The results indicated that a number of tap water samples had the highest number compliance with WHO guidelines levels at 98.40%. The filtered water, filtered water dispenser, and storage water were received 96.71%, 95.63%, and 90.88%, respectively. However, the several samples fail to pass WHO guideline level because they were contaminated by E.coli. The result is that tap water has the highest score among other sources probably because tap water has chlorine for disinfection and always is monitored by professional team round-the-clock services compared to the other water sources with less maintenance or cleaning. Also, water quality reports are continuously sent to customers by mail addresses. Tap water quality data are shown on MWA websites and Facebook. All these steps of work should enhance the confidence of tap water quality.

  8. Evaluation on the Quality of Bangkok Tap Water with Other Drinking Purpose Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kordach A.

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The concern of drinking purposed water quality in Bangkok, Nonthaburi, and Samutprakarn provinces has been a problem for over fifteen years. Metropolitan Water Works Authority (MWA of Thailand is fully responsible for providing water supply to the mentioned areas. The objective of Drinkable Tap Water Project is to make people realize in quality of tap water. Communities, school, government agencies, hotels, hospitals, department stores, and other organizations are participating in this project. MWA have collected at least 3 samples of water from the corresponding places and the samples have to meet the World Health Organization (WHO guidelines level. This study is to evaluate water quality of tap water, storage water, filtered water, and filtered water dispenser. The water samples from 2,354 attending places are collected and analyzed. From October 2011 to September 2016, MWA analyzed 32,711 samples. The analyzed water parameters are free residual chlorine, appearance color, turbidity, pH, conductivity, total dissolved solids (TDS, and pathogenic bacteria; E.coli. The results indicated that a number of tap water samples had the highest number compliance with WHO guidelines levels at 98.40%. The filtered water, filtered water dispenser, and storage water were received 96.71%, 95.63%, and 90.88%, respectively. However, the several samples fail to pass WHO guideline level because they were contaminated by E.coli. The result is that tap water has the highest score among other sources probably because tap water has chlorine for disinfection and always is monitored by professional team round-the-clock services compared to the other water sources with less maintenance or cleaning. Also, water quality reports are continuously sent to customers by mail addresses. Tap water quality data are shown on MWA websites and Facebook. All these steps of work should enhance the confidence of tap water quality.

  9. 40 CFR 141.86 - Monitoring requirements for lead and copper in tap water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... copper in tap water. 141.86 Section 141.86 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... § 141.86 Monitoring requirements for lead and copper in tap water. (a) Sample site location. (1) By the... the water system can collect the number of lead and copper tap samples required in paragraph (c) of...

  10. Perceptions of Tap Water and School Water Fountains and Association with Intake of Plain Water and Sugar-Sweetened Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onufrak, Stephen J.; Park, Sohyun; Sharkey, Joseph R.; Merlo, Caitlin; Dean, Wesley R.; Sherry, Bettylou

    2014-01-01

    Background: Little is known regarding youth perceptions of tap water and school water fountains and how these relate to water and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake. Methods: We used national 2010 YouthStyles data to assess perceptions of tap water and school water fountains and associations with water and SSB intake. Results: Nearly 1 in 5…

  11. Bottled Water or Tap Water? A Comparative Study of Drinking Water Choices on University Campuses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neng Qian

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-regional comparative study was conducted to survey the drinking behaviors of university students, in Singapore, Hong Kong, and Macau. In particular, I tested students’ preference for bottled water over filtered tap water, in a context where the latter option is widely accessible, free of charge, and meets drinking standards. It was found that Singapore has a relatively low rate of bottled water consumption within the young population of university students, while in Hong Kong and Macau one-fourth of the students still drink bottled water more frequently than tap water. Using the Theory of Planned Behavior framework, the perceptions and factors that determine the choices were studied. In terms of determinants of the drinking water choices, “Safety and Hygiene” and “Convenience and Availability” ranked highest for all three regions. “Taste”, “Price”, and “Personal and Family Habits” were valued next by different subsamples. Respondents from Singapore rated relatively high in the accessibility of filtered tap water, safety of tap water transfer, and trust in government, and these factors are considerably significant in driving the result of having the lowest consumption of bottle water on campus. Gender and the behaviors of students who stay in campus dorms were also explored.

  12. MINERAL WATER FROM SUPERMARKET VS. TAP WATER. SOME CONSIDERATIONS RELATED TO INNOCUITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciprian – Nicolae POPA

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available 15 Romanian brands of mineral water were purchased from hypermarket. For each of the 15 mineral waters were determined the content of nitrates, nitrites and pH. The data obtained were compared with the content of nitrates, nitrites and pH of the tap water collected in 15 locations in Bucharest, according to data released by the Apa Nova operator. The results showed that the mean of tap water pH in Bucharest, although slightly higher than the tested mineral waters pH, did not differ significantly from the mean of mineral waters pH, being situated in the alkaline domain. The mean content of nitrates in tap water in Bucharest, did not differ significantly from that of the tested mineral waters (t = 0.811. Nitrates content of tap water in Bucharest was significantly distinct less, as the pH was higher (r = 0.68**. Basically, the change in pH by one unit, lowers the amount of nitrate by 46%. Bucharest tap water nitrites content was significantly lower than that of tested mineral waters (0.005 mg/l to 0.0124; t = 2.674*. Basically, Bucharest tap water contained up to 2.5 times less nitrites than the nitrites mean of tested mineral waters.

  13. Simulating Residential Water Demand and Water Pricing Issues

    OpenAIRE

    Phoebe Koundouri; Mavra Stithou; Philippos Melissourgos

    2013-01-01

    This chapter aims to simulate residential water demand in order to explore the importance of water for residential use. In addition, data on the water cost of supplying water in the residents of Asopos area from local distributors were collected. In order to capture the importance of water use specific parameters are examined and are used as indexes of water use. Some of these indexes are the population of the catchment, the number of households connected to the public water distribution syst...

  14. Contribution of radon in tap water to indoor radon concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gesell, T.F.; Prichard, H.M.

    1980-01-01

    The contribution of radon ( 222 Rn) in domestic water supplies to the concentration of 222 Rn in indoor atmospheres has been investigated and found to be significant for concentrations over a few thousand picocuries per liter in the water supply. A model predicting average indoor increments due to this source is presented and supported by a series of measurements made in the laboratory and in private homes in the vicinity of Houston, Texas. The efficiency with which radon is transferred from water to air was experimentally determined, and these efficiencies were combined with estimates of average indoor water use to produce a source term proportional to the concentration of 222 Rn in the tap water. The importance of the dwelling volume and the air change rate is discussed

  15. Quality comparison of tap water vs. bottled water in the industrial city of Yanbu (Saudi Arabia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Maqbool; Bajahlan, Ahmad S

    2009-12-01

    This study was conducted to compare the quality of bottled water with potabilized desalinated tap water. Fourteen brands of local and imported bottled water samples were collected from the local market and analyzed for physicochemical parameters in the Royal Commission Environmental Laboratory. Results were compared with 5-year continuous monitoring data of tap water from different locations in Madinat Yanbu Al-Sinaiyah (MYAS) including storage tanks of desalination plant. Results show that there was no significant difference in the quality of tap water and bottled water. Bacteriological test was never found positive in the 5-year data in tap water. Similarly, physicochemical analysis shows the persistent quality of tap water. Based on hardness analysis, bottled and tap water are categorized as soft water. Trihalomethanes (THMs) study also indicates that traces of disinfection by products (DBPs) are present in both tap and bottled water and are much less than the World Health Organization and Environmental Protection Agency maximum permissible limits. It is also important to note that the tap water distribution network in MAYS is a high-pressure recirculation network and there is no chance to grow bacteria in stagnant water in pipe lines or houses. Recently, the Royal Commission has replaced the whole drinking water network, which was made of asbestos-cemented pipes with glass-reinforced plastic (GRP) pipes, to avoid any asbestos contaminations. Based on these results, it is concluded that drinking water distributed in the city is of very good and persistent quality, comparable with bottled water. Continuous monitoring also guarantees the safe drinking water to the community. Hence, it is the responsibility of the Royal Commission to encourage the peoples in the city to drink tap water as it is as good as bottled water even better than some of the brands and is monitored regularly. It is also much cheaper compared to bottled water and is available round the clock

  16. Radiostrontium in milk and tap water. Appendix D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1981-01-01

    The New York City sample is a monthly composite of pasteurized milk purchased daily at retail stores. The monthly Sr-90 to calcium ratios for New York City since the inception of the sampling program in 1954 through the third quarter of 1980 are tabulated. Samples of New York City tap water are taken daily at EML so that by the end of the month, approximately 100 liters have been collected. The Sr-90 data since the inception of the program are presented. The available cesium-137 data expressed as the Cs-137 to Sr-90 ratio are given. A graphical presentation of the New York City Sr-90 data is also shown

  17. Zinc sacrificial anode behavior at elevated temperatures in sodium chloride and tap water environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Othman, Othman Mohsen

    2005-01-01

    Zinc sacrificial anode coupled to mild steel was tested in sodium chloride and tap water environments at elevated temperatures. The anode failed to protect the mild steel specimens in tap water environment at all temperatures specified for this study. This was partly due to the high resistivity of the medium. The temperature factor did not help to activate the anode in water tap medium. In sodium chloride environment the anode demonstrated good protection for steel cathodes. In tap water environment the anode weight loss was negligible. The zinc anode suffered intergranular corrosion in sodium chloride environment and this was noticed starting at 40 degree centigrade. In tap water environment the zinc anode demonstrated interesting behavior beyond 60 degree centigrade, that could be attributed to the phenomenon of reversal of potential at elevated temperatures. It also showed shallow pitting spots in tap water environment without any sign of intergranular corrosion. Zinc anodes would suffer intergranular corrosion at high temperatures. (author)

  18. Tap water nasal irrigation in adults with seasonal allergic rhinitis: a randomized double-blind study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Min; Fu, Xiaoyan; Deng, Wenting; Lai, Huangwen; Yang, Chuanhong

    2014-06-01

    Saline nasal irrigation is effective in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis, and sodium chloride itself has no antiallergic effects. The mechanism of saline nasal irrigation depends mainly on washing away allergens and inflammatory mediators induced by allergic reactions. Tap water has the same washing effects as saline. In this study, it was investigated if tap water nasal irrigation was effective in the treatment of seasonal allergic rhinitis. Sixty-four patients diagnosed with seasonal allergic rhinitis were enrolled. Patients were randomized to tap water nasal irrigation group and non-tap water nasal irrigation group for treatment. Patients of both groups were treated with desloratadine. Treatment outcomes were measured using allergic rhinitis Quality of Life (QoL) survey was completed at baseline and after 3 weeks of therapy. There were statistically significant differences in QoL scores between tap water nasal irrigation group and non-tap water nasal irrigation group. The tap water nasal irrigation group had better QoL scores than the non-tap water nasal irrigation group. Tap water nasal irrigation can be a valuable adjuvant therapy for patients with seasonal allergic rhinitis.

  19. DETERMINANTS OF RESIDENTIAL PER CAPITA WATER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This report presents the findings of the study on the determinants of residential per capita water demand of Makurdi metropolis in Benue State, Nigeria. Data for the study was obtained by the use of questionnaires, oral interviews and observations. The data was analyzed using SPSS. Twenty variables were considered in ...

  20. Tap water iontophoresis in the treatment of pediatric hyperhidrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagash, Haitham; McCaffrey, Sinead; Mellor, Katie; Roycroft, Agnes; Helbling, Ingrid

    2017-02-01

    The treatment options for localized hyperhidrosis include antiperspirants, anticholinergics, iontophoresis, botulinum toxin and surgery. Tap water iontophoresis (TWI) involves immersing the affected area in tap water and passing a small electrical current through the area. Our aim was to assess the success of this therapy in a pediatric cohort. Retrospective case note review of all patients younger than 18years who underwent TWI between 2002 and 2015. Demographic data, number of treatment sessions, side effects and overall success were analyzed. Individuals undergo 7 treatments over 4weeks. A positive outcome was determined as an improvement in symptoms. Pre- and posttreatment hyperhidrosis disease severity scale (HDSS) was measured. Data are presented as mean (range). Statistical analysis was by paired t-test. A P value of hyperhidrosis (PPH) was present in 39/43 (91%) patients. Axillary hyperhidrosis (AH) was present in 19/43 (44%) patients. All patients (with the exception of one) underwent 7 sessions (5-7). Side effects included paresthesia (88%), pruritus (26%), pain (26%), erythema (14%), dryness (12%) as well as vesicle formation and abrasions in one patient (2%). A positive outcome was found in 84% (36/43) of patients. There was a significant reduction in mean HDSS (pre 3.5 vs. post 2; P=0.0001). TWI is a safe and effective modality of treatment for both PPH and AH in the pediatric population, with minimal side effects. Pediatric surgeons should offer this treatment option before considering more invasive surgical procedures. IV: Retrospective study. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Water conservation in surgery: a comparison of two surgical scrub techniques demonstrating the amount of water saved using a 'taps on/taps off' technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petterwood, Joshua; Shridhar, Vivek

    2009-08-01

    Australia finds itself in the grip of its worst drought on record. The surgical profession has a responsibility to conserve water where possible. We tried to show how much water we saved through the simple measure of turning taps off while not in use during the surgical scrub. We conducted a prospective analysis of two different scrub techniques at the Gold Coast Hospital in Queensland, Australia. Ten participants completed two 5-min scrubs using standard 'elbow on' taps. In the first, they left the taps running throughout the scrub; in the second, they turned the taps on and off so that water ran only when rinsing the hands. Water was collected and the amount of time the hands spent under running water was recorded. Amount of water used during the surgical scrub. A mean of 15.5 L was used during the 'taps on' scrub, with participants spending a mean of 47 s rinsing the hands. During the 'taps on/off' scrub, participants used a mean of 4.5 L, spending 40 s rinsing the hands. This represents a water saving of 11 L or 71% for each scrub (P technique is a simple and effective way of conserving large amounts of water during the surgical scrub. The technique should be adopted as standard practice.

  2. Trihalomethane concentrations in tap water as determinant of bottled water use in the city of Barcelona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Font-Ribera, Laia; Cotta, Jordi Colomer; Gómez-Gutiérrez, Anna; Villanueva, Cristina M

    2017-08-01

    Bottled water consumption is increasing worldwide, despite its huge economic and environmental cost. We aim to describe personal and tap water quality determinants of bottled water use in the city of Barcelona. This cross-sectional study used data from the Health Survey of Barcelona in 2006 (N=5417 adults). The use of bottled water to drink and to cook was evaluated in relation to age, gender, educational level, district and levels of trihalomethanes (THMs), free chlorine, conductivity, chloride, sodium, pH, nitrate and aluminium in municipal tap water using Robust Poisson Regression. The prevalence of bottled water use to drink and cook was 53.9% and 6.7%, respectively. Chemical parameters in water had a large variability (interquartile range of THMs concentrations: 83.2-200.8μg/L) and were correlated between them, except aluminium. Drinking bottled water increased with educational level, while cooking with bottled water was higher among men than among women and decreased with age. After adjusting by these personal determinants, a dose-response relationship was found between concentrations of all chemicals except aluminium in tap water and bottled water use. The highest association was found for THMs, with a Prevalence Ratio of 2.00 (95%CI=1.86, 2.15) for drinking bottled water and 2.80 (95%CI=1.72, 4.58) for cooking with bottled water, among those with >150μg/L vs. tap water. More than half of Barcelona residents regularly drank bottled water, and the main determinant was the chemical composition of tap water, particularly THM level. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. The role of domestic tap water in Acanthamoeba contamination in contact lens storage cases in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Hae Jin

    2005-01-01

    A survey was carried out from August to December 2004 in Pusan, Korea to document the presence of free-living amoeba (FLA), including the genus Acanthamoeba, in both contact lens storage cases and domestic tap water. Acanthamoeba was isolated from 5 (4.2%) in 120 contact lens storage cases. Four house tap water samples from residents, whose contact lens storage cases had been contaminated by Acanthamoeba, were also found to be contaminated with Acanthamoeba. Therefore, the contamination rate of FLA and Acanthamoeba in domestic tap water was investigated in order to examine the role of domestic tap water in Acanthamoeba contamination of contact lens storage cases. FLA and Acanthamoeba were identified in 97 (46.8%) and 16 (7.7%) of the 207 domestic tap water samples, respectively. There were no significant differences between the contamination rates of FLA in tap water according to the filtration plant of origin. No FLA was detected in the tap water directly supplied by the water purification plants. Water storage tanks appear to promote FLA colonization, including Acanthamoeba, in domestic tap water. This increases the risk of Acanthamoeba contamination in contact lens storage cases as well as increasing the risk of Acanthamoeba keratitis. PMID:15951638

  4. Analysis of UV filters in tap water and other clean waters in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz-Cruz, M Silvia; Gago-Ferrero, Pablo; Llorca, Marta; Barceló, Damià

    2012-03-01

    The present paper describes the development of a method for the simultaneous determination of five hormonally active UV filters namely benzophenone-3 (BP3), 3-(4-methylbenzylidene) camphor (4MBC), 2-ethylhexyl 4-(dimethylamino) benzoate (OD-PABA), 2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxycinnamate (EHMC) and octocrylene (OC) by means of solid-phase extraction and gas chromatography-electron impact ionization-mass spectrometry. Under optimized conditions, this methodology achieved low method limits of detection (needed for clean waters, especially drinking water analysis), between 0.02 and 8.42 ng/L, and quantitative recovery rates higher than 73% in all cases. Inter- and intraday precision for all compounds were lower than 7% and 11%, respectively. The optimized methodology was applied to perform the first survey of UV absorbing compounds in tap water from the metropolitan area and the city of Barcelona (Catalonia, Spain). In addition, other types of clean water matrices (mineral bottled water, well water and tap water treated with an ion-exchange resin) were investigated as well. Results evidenced that all the UV filters investigated were detected in the water samples analyzed. The compounds most frequently found were EHMC and OC. Maximum concentrations reached in tap water were 290 (BP3), 35 (4MBC), 110 (OD-PABA), 260 (EHMC), and 170 ng/L (OC). This study constitutes the first evidence of the presence of UV filter residues in tap water in Europe.

  5. Risk Factors Associated with the Choice to Drink Bottled Water and Tap Water in Rural Saskatchewan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianne McLeod

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study investigated risk factors associated with choices to drink bottled water and tap water in rural Saskatchewan. Of 7,500 anonymous postal questionnaires mailed out, 2,065 responses were analyzed using generalized linear mixed models. Those who reported a water advisory (p < 0.001 or living in the area for £10 years (p = 0.01 were more likely to choose bottled water. Those who reported tap water was not safe to drink were more likely to choose bottled water, an effect greater for those who had no aesthetic complaints (p ≤ 0.001, while those with aesthetic complaints were more likely to choose bottled water if they believed the water was safe (p < 0.001. Respondents who treated their water and did not use a community supply were more likely to choose bottled water (p < 0.001, while those who did not treat their water were more likely to choose bottled water regardless of whether a community supply was used (p < 0.001. A similar pattern of risk factors was associated with a decreased likelihood of consuming tap water daily; however, the use of a community water supply was not significant. Understanding the factors involved in drinking water choices could inform public health education efforts regarding water management in rural areas.

  6. Hydrogen evolution on nickel electrode in synthetic tap water - alkaline solution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Petrov, Yanko; Schosger, Jean-Pierre; Stoynov, Zdravko; de Bruijn, Frank

    2011-01-01

    The effect of tap water contaminants on the kinetics of the hydrogen evolution reaction on a nickel electrode in 1 mol dm(-3) KOH was investigated by galvanostatic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy techniques. It was found that the tap water contaminants lead to an increase in

  7. Bottled, filtered, and tap water use in Latino and non-Latino children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, Wendy L; Knochel, Miguel L; Byington, Carrie L; Young, Paul C; Hoff, Charles J; Buchi, Karen F

    2007-05-01

    To describe bottled, filtered, and tap water consumption and fluoride use among pediatric patients; to analyze differences between ethnic and socioeconomic groups; and to describe the frequency of physician-parent discussions regarding water consumption. Convenience sample survey. An urban public health clinic. Parents attending a public health clinic. The primary outcome measure was the prevalence of tap, filtered, and bottled water use. The secondary outcome measures were supplemental fluoride use and the percentage of patients reporting discussions of water consumption with their physician. A total of 216 parents (80.5% Latino and 19.5% non-Latino) completed the survey. Of the parents, 30.1% never drank tap water and 41.2% never gave it to their children. Latino parents were less likely than non-Latino parents to drink tap water (odds ratio, 0.26; 95% confidence interval, 0.10-0.67) and less likely to give tap water to their children (odds ratio, 0.32; 95% confidence interval, 0.15-0.70). More Latinos believed that tap water would make them sick (odds ratio, 5.63; 95% confidence interval, 2.17-14.54). Approximately 40% of children who never drank tap water were not receiving fluoride supplements. Of the lowest-income families (water to their children. Of the parents surveyed, 82.5% reported that their child's physician had never discussed the type of water they should use. Many Latino families avoid drinking tap water because they fear it causes illness. Unnecessary use of bottled and filtered water is costly and may result in adverse dental health outcomes. Physicians should provide guidance to families regarding the safety, low cost, and dental health benefits of drinking tap water.

  8. Regional Assessment of Recharge Elevation of Tap Water Sources Using the Isoscape Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Yamanaka, Tsutomu; Yamada, Yuki

    2017-01-01

    The importance of mountains as “natural water towers” has been quantified by comparing water budgets in upstream (mountain) and downstream (lowland) areas, but their importance for tap water supplies has not been assessed. Here, we propose an isoscape approach to estimate the mean recharge elevation of tap water sources (rivers, reservoirs, springs, and wells) and apply it to a region in central Japan as a case study. Errors in the estimation of mean recharge elevation were estimated at 90–14...

  9. The occurrence of antibiotic resistance genes in tap water - a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siedlecka, Agata

    2018-02-01

    The study presents a review of the occurrence of genetic determinants of antibiotic resistance in tap water. The aim of this study was also to compare the applied methods for antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) investigations in tap water. As the concentration of ARGs in treated, drinking water is expected to be very low and may cause problems in a standard isolation procedure, the special emphasis is placed on the applied procedures of DNA extraction and their efficiency. The study presents the first attempts to obtain DNA directly from tap water. Further efforts must be put to determine the final amount of obtained DNA and the presence of chosen ARGs among the molecules.

  10. Fluoride Intake through Consumption of Tap Water and Bottled Water in Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herman van Oyen

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available There is a tendency to align higher levels of fluoride in natural mineral water with the existing higher levels in tap water. Treatment of natural mineral waters could harm the preservation of their natural character. In this study fluoride intake through bottled and tap water consumption in the Belgian adult population was assessed, taking into account regional differences. A deterministic approach was used whereby consumption quantities of tap water and different brands of bottled water were linked with their respective fluoride concentrations. Data from the national food consumption survey (2004 were used and the Nusser methodology was applied to obtain usual intake estimates. Mean intake of fluoride through total water consumption in Flanders was 1.4±0.7 mg/day (97.5th percentile: 3.1 mg/day, while in the Walloon region it was on average 0.9±0.6 mg/day (97.5th percentile: 2.4 mg/day. The probability of exceeding the UL of 7 mg per day via a normal diet was estimated to be low. Consequently, there is no need to revise the existing norms, but higher fluoride concentrations should be more clearly indicated on the labels. Reliable data about total dietary fluoride intake in children, including intake of fluoride via tooth paste and food supplements, are needed.

  11. Inorganic chemical quality of European tap-water: 2. Geographical distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flem, B.; Reimann, C.; Birke, M.; Banks, D.; Filzmoser, P.; Frengstad, B.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • European scale comparison of tap water. • 579 tap water samples have been analyses for more than 60 parameters. • Chemical geographical distribution. • Water treatment processes. • Importance of geology on tap water quality. - Abstract: 579 tap water samples were collected at the European scale and analysed at a single laboratory for more than 60 parameters. This dataset is analysed here in terms of the spatial and national distribution of the analysed inorganic chemical parameters. The distribution of most parameters is controlled by various artificial and natural factors (land use, distribution network, water source and treatment, geographical location and geology). The distribution of nitrate can be interpreted in terms of land use and climate. Water treatment affects the distribution of phosphorus in tap water; especially the policy of adding phosphate to potable water in the UK to suppress plumbosolvency. The distribution of alkalinity, Ca, Mg, Sr and Li appears to reflect both water source (low in surface waters) and the geological contrast between base-poor crystalline rock terrains and carbonate rich sedimentary rock. The Scandinavian nations’ tap water shows the highest concentrations of most of the rare earth elements, probably reflecting their geological availability and mobility in low pH raw water sources. The distribution of fluoride, uranium and arsenic also appear to exhibit geological and source (groundwater versus surface water) controls. Hungary returns several high As results, which may reflect As-rich reducing groundwaters of the Pannonian basin. Much Estonian tap water reflects a very specific hydrochemical environment, namely Palaeozoic near-coastal aquifers, which yield deep, reducing or saline groundwater (possibly influenced by marine intrusion), enriched in Ba, B, Br − , Cl − , Eu, F − , I, Li, K, Mn and Na

  12. Yeasts and filamentous fungi in bottled mineral water and tap water from municipal supplies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Ueda Yamaguchi

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to analyse the occurrence of yeasts and filamentous fungi in drinking water as well as to investigate their correlation with the indicator bacteria of faecal pollution. Yeasts were detected in 36.6% and 11.6% of the bottled mineral on water dispensers and tap water samples from municipal system, respectively. Twenty-one (35.0% of bottled mineral water and two (3.3% of tap water samples were positive for filamentous fungi. For bottled mineral water 12 (20.0% of 60 samples were positive for total coliform, compared with 3(5.0%out of 60 samples from tap water. The mineral water from dispensers was more contaminated than tap water. Strains belonging to the genera Candida identified to the species level were C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata and C. albicans. Thus, bottled mineral water from water dispensers and tap water could be considered a possible transmission route for filamentous fungi and yeasts, and could constitute a potential health hazard, mainly to immunocompromised indivuals.O principal objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar a prevalência de leveduras e fungos filamentosos em água potável, bem como investigar suas correlações com bactérias indicadoras de contaminação fecal. Leveduras foram detectadas em 36,6% e 11,6% das amostras de água mineral de garrafão em dispensadores de água e água de torneira do sistema municipal, respectivamente. Vinte e uma (35,5% das amostras de água mineral de garrafão e duas (3,3% das amostras de água de torneira foram positivas para fungos filamentosos. Para água mineral de garrafão, 12 (20.0% das 60 amostras foram positivas para coliforme total, comparado com 3 (5.0% das 60 amostras de água de torneira. A água coletada de garrafões de água mineral dos dispensadores foi marcadamente mais contaminada que as amostras de água de torneira. Candida spp identificadas ao nível de espécie foram C. parapsilosis, C. glabrata e C. albicans. Como está sendo

  13. Potable water use of residential consumers in the Cape Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The potable water use recorded by 3 579 residential consumer water meters in Cape Town, South Africa, was analysed as part of this research. The focus was on selected residential properties in serviced areas, with additional private access to groundwater as a supplementary household water source. Private consumers ...

  14. Residential hot water distribution systems: Roundtablesession

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, James D.; Klein, Gary; Springer, David; Howard, Bion D.

    2002-08-01

    Residential building practice currently ignores the lossesof energy and water caused by the poor design of hot water systems. Theselosses include: combustion and standby losses from water heaters, thewaste of water (and energy) while waiting for hot water to get to thepoint of use; the wasted heat as water cools down in the distributionsystem after a draw; heat losses from recirculation systems and thediscarded warmth of waste water as it runs down the drain. Severaltechnologies are available that save energy (and water) by reducing theselosses or by passively recovering heat from wastewater streams and othersources. Energy savings from some individual technologies are reported tobe as much as 30 percent. Savings calculations of prototype systemsincluding bundles of technologies have been reported above 50 percent.This roundtable session will describe the current practices, summarizethe results of past and ongoing studies, discuss ways to think about hotwater system efficiency, and point to areas of future study. We will alsorecommend further steps to reduce unnecessary losses from hot waterdistribution systems.

  15. Impacts of Water Quality on Residential Water Heating Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2013-11-01

    Water heating is a ubiquitous energy use in all residential housing, accounting for 17.7% of residential energy use (EIA 2012). Today, there are many efficient water heating options available for every fuel type, from electric and gas to more unconventional fuel types like propane, solar, and fuel oil. Which water heating option is the best choice for a given household will depend on a number of factors, including average daily hot water use (total gallons per day), hot water draw patterns (close together or spread out), the hot water distribution system (compact or distributed), installation constraints (such as space, electrical service, or venting accommodations) and fuel-type availability and cost. While in general more efficient water heaters are more expensive than conventional water heating technologies, the savings in energy use and, thus, utility bills can recoup the additional upfront investment and make an efficient water heater a good investment over time in most situations, although the specific payback period for a given installation will vary widely. However, the expected lifetime of a water heater in a given installation can dramatically influence the cost effectiveness and savings potential of a water heater and should be considered, along with water use characteristics, fuel availability and cost, and specific home characteristics when selecting the optimum water heating equipment for a particular installation. This report provides recommendations for selecting and maintaining water heating equipment based on local water quality characteristics.

  16. Perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs) in mineral water and tap water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellrich, Vanessa; Brunn, Hubertus; Stahl, Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    The aims of the present study were to determine PFAS (perfluoroalkyl and polyfluoroalkyl substances) concentrations in various sources of water intended for human consumption, use these data to calculate the possible uptake via water as well as to estimate the water related health risk to consumers. A total of 177 water samples (119 mineral waters, 26 tap water samples, 18 spring water samples and 14 raw (untreated) water samples) were analyzed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for the presence of 10 or 19 PFASs, respectively. PFAS concentrations above the limit of detection of 1 ng/L were found in 52% of all samples. Short-chain PFASs with less than 8 carbon atoms were responsible for 58% of the total PFAS contamination. The highest concentration (sum of PFASs) of 42.7 ng/L was detected in tap water. The calculated maximum uptake of both components for which a tolerable daily intake (TDI) level exists were 0.17 ng/kg bodyweight/day for PFOS (perfluorooctane sulfonic acid) and 0.21 ng/kg bodyweight/day for PFOA (perfluorooctane carboxylic acid). In regard to the model calculations made here (TDI for adults and for infants), the uptake of PFOS and PFOA via consumption of water can be considered negligible. Supplemental materials are available for this article. Go to the publisher's online edition of Journal of Environmental Science and Health, Part A to view the supplemental file.

  17. Genotypic diversity and antibiotic resistance in Sphingomonadaceae isolated from hospital tap water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narciso-da-Rocha, Carlos; Vaz-Moreira, Ivone; Manaia, Célia M

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to infer about the modes and extent of dispersion of Sphingomonadaceae via tap water. Sphingomonadaceae isolated from tap water samples in different places of a hospital were compared, based on intra-species genetic variability and antibiotic resistance phenotypes. These isolates were also compared with others isolated before from houses and dental chairs, served by the same municipal water supply system. Sphingomonadaceae from hospital tap water comprised members of the genera Sphingomonas, Sphingobium, Novosphingobium and Blastomonas. In general, distinct genotypes of Sphingomonadaceae were detected in different hospital areas and in tap water outside the hospital, suggesting these bacteria are not persistent or widespread in the urban water distribution system. Possible intrinsic antibiotic resistance, observed in most or all members of the family or of a genus, was observed for colistin in Sphingomonadaceae, aminoglycosides in the genus Blastomonas and beta-lactams in the genus Sphingobium. Possible acquired resistance phenotypes, not common to all members of a given species, comprised fluoroquinolones, cephalosporins and sulphonamides. Although the potential of Sphingomonadaceae as opportunistic pathogens may be low, the capacity of these bacteria to thrive in water supply systems, combined with the intrinsic or acquired antibiotic resistance, may raise the risk associated with their occurrence in hospital tap water. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Longitudinal and Source-to-Tap New Orleans, LA, U.S.A. Drinking Water Microbiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hull, Natalie M; Holinger, Eric P; Ross, Kimberly A; Robertson, Charles E; Harris, J Kirk; Stevens, Mark J; Pace, Norman R

    2017-04-18

    The two municipal drinking water systems of New Orleans, LA, U.S.A. were sampled to compare the microbiology of independent systems that treat the same surface water from the Mississippi River. To better understand temporal trends and sources of microbiology delivered to taps, these treatment plants and distribution systems were subjected to source-to-tap sampling over four years. Both plants employ traditional treatment by chloramination, applied during or after settling, followed by filtration before distribution in a warm, low water age system. Longitudinal samples indicated microbiology to have stability both spatially and temporally, and between treatment plants and distribution systems. Disinfection had the greatest impact on microbial composition, which was further refined by filtration and influenced by distribution and premise plumbing. Actinobacteria spp. exhibited trends with treatment. In particular, Mycobacterium spp., very low in finished waters, occurred idiosyncratically at high levels in some tap waters, indicating distribution and/or premise plumbing as main contributors of mycobacteria. Legionella spp., another genus containing potential opportunistic pathogens, also occurred ubiquitously. Source water microbiology was most divergent from tap water, and each step of treatment brought samples more closely similar to tap waters.

  19. Investigation of Natural Radioactivity in the Tap and Spring Water in Yaounde Town, Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lydie, R.M.; Hakam, O.K.; Choukri, A.; Lydie, R.M.; Hakam, O.K.; Choukri, A.

    2013-01-01

    The natural radionuclide concentrations in the tap and springs water in Yaounde town, capital of Cameroon with a population of 3.5 million inhabitants were estimated by gamma spectrometry, using both well calibrated Canberra NaI(Tl) and HPGe detector systems. Tap water samples were collected during the dry and the rainy seasons, respectively in December 2002 and July 2003 and spring water samples were collected in August 2010. The radionuclides observed with regularity belonged to the series decay naturally occurring radionuclides headed by 238 U and 232 Th as well as the non-series nuclide 40 K. Assuming an individual daily consumption of 1 litre of water, the average annual intake for these populations is 3821 Bq/y for tap water and 1161 Bq/y for spring water.

  20. Evaluating a Tap Water Contamination Incident Attributed to Oil Contamination by Nontargeted Screening Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Beili; Wan, Yi; Zheng, Guomao; Hu, Jianying

    2016-03-15

    The present study applied nontargeted screening techniques as a novel approach to evaluate the tap water samples collected during the "4.11" tap water pollution incident occurred on April 11, 2014 in Lanzhou in west China. Multivariate analysis (PCA and OPLS-DA) of about 3000 chemical features obtained in extracts of tap water samples by ultrahigh-pressure liquid chromatography quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-QTOF-MS) analysis showed significantly different chemical profiles in tap water from pollution regions versus reference regions during the event. These different chemical profiles in samples from different regions were not observed in samples collected during the nonpollution period. The compounds responsible for the differences in profiles between regions were identified as naphthenic acids (NAs) and oxidized NAs (oxy-NAs) after the sample extracts underwent bromination to explore saturations, dansylation to identify hydroxylations and corresponding MS/MS mode analysis. A consistent finding was further observed in the targeted analysis of NA mixtures, demonstrating that the Lanzhou "4.11" tap water pollution incident could be attributed to oil spill pollution, and NA mixtures would be a marker for oil contamination. Such evaluations can help to rapidly discriminate pollution sources in accidental pollution events and contribute to regular water monitoring management of water safety issues.

  1. The occurrence of Aeromonas in drinking water, tap water and the Porsuk River

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Merih Kivanc

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of Aeromonas spp. in the Porsuk River, public drinking water and tap water in the City of Eskisehir (Turkey was monitored. Fresh water samples were collected from several sampling sites during a period of one year. Total 102 typical colonies of Aeromonas spp. were submitted to biochemical tests for species differentiation and of 60 isolates were confirmed by biochemical tests. Further identifications of isolates were carried out first with the VITEK system (BioMe˜rieux and then selected isolates from different phenotypes (VITEK types were identified using the DuPont Qualicon RiboPrinter® system. Aeromonas spp. was detected only in the samples from the Porsuk River. According to the results obtained with the VITEK system, our isolates were 13% Aeromonas hydrophila, 37% Aeromonas caviae, 35% Pseudomonas putida, and 15% Pseudomonas acidovorans. In addition Pseudomonas sp., Pseudomonas maltophila, Aeromonas salmonicida, Aeromonas hydrophila, and Aeromonas media species were determined using the RiboPrinter® system. The samples taken from the Porsuk River were found to contain very diverse Aeromonas populations that can pose a risk for the residents of the city. On the other hand, drinking water and tap water of the City are free from Aeromonas pathogens and seem to be reliable water sources for the community.

  2. Disparity in disinfection byproducts concentration between hot and cold tap water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Boning; Reckhow, David A

    2015-03-01

    The quality of water entering a distribution system may differ substantially from the quality at the point of exposure to the consumer. This study investigated temporal variations in the levels of regulated and non-regulated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in cold and hot tap water in a home on a medium-sized municipal water system. In addition, samples were collected directly from the water plant with some being held in accordance with a simulated distribution system (SDS) test protocol. The location for this work was a system in western Massachusetts, USA that uses free chlorine as a final disinfectant. Very little short term variability of DBPs at the point of entry (POE) was observed. The concentration of DBPs in the time-variable SDS test was similar to concentrations in the cold water tap. For most DBPs, the concentrations continued to increase as the cold water tap sample was held for the time-variable SDS incubation period. However, the impact of heating on DBP levels was compound specific. For example, the concentrations of trihalomethanes (THMs), dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) and chloropicrin (CP) were substantially higher in the hot water tap than in the cold water time-variable SDS samples. In contrast, the concentration of trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) was lower in the heated hot tap water, but about equal to that observed in the cold tap water. The situation was more pronounced for dichloroacetonitrile (DCAN), bromodichloroacetic acid (BDCAA), bromochloroacetic acid (BCAA) and 1,1,1-trichloropropanone (TCP), which all showed lower concentrations in the hot water then in either of the cold water samples (instantaneous or time-variable SDS). The latter was viewed as a clear indication of thermally-induced decomposition. The ratio of unknown total organic halide (UTOX) to TOX was substantially lower in the hot tap water as the THM to TOX ratio became correspondingly larger. The results of this study show that DBP exposure in the home is not well represented by

  3. Determination of four fluoroquinolone antibiotics in tap water in Guangzhou and Macao

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yiruhan; Wang Qiaojun; Mo Cehui; Li Yanwen; Gao Peng; Tai Yiping; Zhang Yan; Ruan Zhili; Xu Jiawei

    2010-01-01

    Four fluoroquinolone antibiotics (norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, lomefloxacin, and enrofloxacin) in tap water in Guangzhou and Macao were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography fluorescence detection. The results showed that all target antibiotics were detected in high rate both in Guangzhou (77.5%) and Macao (100%), ranging from 1.0 to 679.7 ng/L (SD ≤ 37.6) in Guangzhou, and from 2.0 to 37.0 ng/L (SD ≤ 2.5) in Macao. The fluoroquinolone antibiotics pollution in tap water widely distributes in Guangzhou and Macao. In addition, the effect of rainfall on concentration of fluoroquinolone antibiotics in south China was also investigated. Our result indicates that the antibiotic concentration in tap water in Guangzhou tends to obviously reduce at the beginning of rainy season, even decreases below the limit of quantification immediately. Thus, it was clarified that the heavy rain in south China has the function of reducing the fluoroquinolone antibiotics concentrations in tap water. - The antibiotics were detected in the tap water in Guangzhou and Macao using our developed method for fluoresence detection with high performance liquid chromatography

  4. Determination of four fluoroquinolone antibiotics in tap water in Guangzhou and Macao

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yiruhan; Wang Qiaojun [Department of Environmental Engineering, Jinan University, Huangpudadaoxi 601, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Mo Cehui, E-mail: tchmo@jnu.edu.c [Department of Environmental Engineering, Jinan University, Huangpudadaoxi 601, Guangzhou 510632 (China); Li Yanwen; Gao Peng; Tai Yiping; Zhang Yan; Ruan Zhili; Xu Jiawei [Department of Environmental Engineering, Jinan University, Huangpudadaoxi 601, Guangzhou 510632 (China)

    2010-07-15

    Four fluoroquinolone antibiotics (norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, lomefloxacin, and enrofloxacin) in tap water in Guangzhou and Macao were analyzed using high performance liquid chromatography fluorescence detection. The results showed that all target antibiotics were detected in high rate both in Guangzhou (77.5%) and Macao (100%), ranging from 1.0 to 679.7 ng/L (SD {<=} 37.6) in Guangzhou, and from 2.0 to 37.0 ng/L (SD {<=} 2.5) in Macao. The fluoroquinolone antibiotics pollution in tap water widely distributes in Guangzhou and Macao. In addition, the effect of rainfall on concentration of fluoroquinolone antibiotics in south China was also investigated. Our result indicates that the antibiotic concentration in tap water in Guangzhou tends to obviously reduce at the beginning of rainy season, even decreases below the limit of quantification immediately. Thus, it was clarified that the heavy rain in south China has the function of reducing the fluoroquinolone antibiotics concentrations in tap water. - The antibiotics were detected in the tap water in Guangzhou and Macao using our developed method for fluoresence detection with high performance liquid chromatography

  5. Tap Water Versus Sterile Normal Saline in Wound Swabbing: A Double-Blind Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Mun Che; Cheung, Kin; Leung, Polly

    2016-01-01

    The use of tap water as a wound-cleansing agent is becoming more common in clinical practice, especially in community settings. The aim of this study was to test whether there are differences in wound infection and wound healing rates when wounds are cleansed with tap water or sterile normal saline. Double-blinded randomized controlled trial. Subjects were recruited from the community nursing service of a local hospital in Hong Kong. The target sample included subjects who were aged 18 years or more, and receiving chronic or acute wound care treatment. Subjects were randomly assigned to wound cleansing with tap water (experimental group) or sterile normal saline (control group). Wound assessment was conducted at each home visit, and an assessment of wound size was conducted once a week. The main outcome measures, occurrence of a wound infection and wound healing, were assessed over a period of 6 weeks. Twenty-two subjects (11 subjects in each group) with 30 wounds participated in the study; 16 wounds were managed with tap water cleansing and 14 were randomly allocated to management with the sterile normal saline group. Analysis revealed no significant difference between the experimental and control groups in the proportions of wound infection and wound healing. Study findings indicate that tap water is a safe alternative to sterile normal saline for wound cleansing in a community setting.

  6. The occurrence of antibiotic resistance genes in tap water – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siedlecka Agata

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The study presents a review of the occurrence of genetic determinants of antibiotic resistance in tap water. The aim of this study was also to compare the applied methods for antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs investigations in tap water. As the concentration of ARGs in treated, drinking water is expected to be very low and may cause problems in a standard isolation procedure, the special emphasis is placed on the applied procedures of DNA extraction and their efficiency. The study presents the first attempts to obtain DNA directly from tap water. Further efforts must be put to determine the final amount of obtained DNA and the presence of chosen ARGs among the molecules.

  7. Levels of major and trace elements, including rare earth elements, and ²³⁸U in Croatian tap waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiket, Željka; Rožmarić, Martina; Krmpotić, Matea; Benedik, Ljudmila

    2015-05-01

    Concentrations of 46 elements, including major, trace, and rare earth elements, and (238)U in Croatian tap waters were investigated. Selected sampling locations include tap waters from various hydrogeological regions, i.e., different types of aquifers, providing insight into the range of concentrations of studied elements and (238)U activity concentrations in Croatian tap waters. Obtained concentrations were compared with the Croatian maximum contaminant levels for trace elements in water intended for human consumption, as well as WHO and EPA drinking water standards. Concentrations in all analyzed tap waters were found in accordance with Croatian regulations, except tap water from Šibenik in which manganese in concentration above maximum permissible concentration (MPC) was measured. Furthermore, in tap water from Osijek, levels of arsenic exceeded the WHO guidelines and EPA regulations. In general, investigated tap waters were found to vary considerably in concentrations of studied elements, including (238)U activity concentrations. Causes of variability were further explored using statistical methods. Composition of studied tap waters was found to be predominately influenced by hydrogeological characteristics of the aquifer, at regional and local level, the existing redox conditions, and the household plumbing system. Rare earth element data, including abundances and fractionation patterns, complemented the characterization and facilitated the interpretation of factors affecting the composition of the analyzed tap waters.

  8. Tests of some methods to remove I-131 from contaminated tap water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo

    2011-01-01

    Following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, iodine-131 concentrations in tap water higher than 100 Bq L -1 were reported by several local governments in the Kanto Plain in March 2011. To remove iodine-131 from tap water, five methods were tested in this study, that is, (1) boiling, (2) adding charcoals from oak or bamboo, (3) activated charcoals, (4) water purifiers, and (5) reverse osmosis (RO) treatments. Boiling was shown to be not effective in removing iodine-131 from tap water; indeed even higher concentrations may result from the liquid-volume reduction accompanying this process. Adding charcoals and activated charcoal treatment could not remove iodine-131, because no reduction of iodine-131 was observed in tap water samples after these treatments. Only limited effect was found with water purifiers with first several portions; no effect was expected with further water treatment. On the other hand, the RO showed high iodine-131 removal percentage of more than 95%, although the method needs about 5-10 L water to obtain 1 L of RO treated water. (author)

  9. Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in the Pra and Kakum River basins and associated tap water in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Essumang, David K; Eshun, Albert; Hogarh, Jonathan N; Bentum, John K; Adjei, Joseph K; Negishi, Junya; Nakamichi, Shihori; Habibullah-Al-Mamun, Md; Masunaga, Shigeki

    2017-02-01

    Perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) are persistent environmental pollutants that have been detected in various media including human serum. Due to concerns regarding their bioaccumulation and possible negative health effects, an understanding of routes of human exposure is necessary. PFAAs are recalcitrant in many water treatment processes, making drinking water a potential source of human exposure. This study presents the first report on contamination from PFAAs in river and drinking water in Ghana. The targeted PFAAs were perfluoroalkyl carboxylic acids (PFCAs) with C 4-14 carbon chain and perfluoroalkane sulphonic acids (PFSAs) with C 6, 8, 10 . Five PFAA congeners - PFOA, PFOS, PFHxA, PFDA and PFPeA - were commonly detected in river and tap water. The mean concentrations of ∑PFAAs in the Kakum and Pra Rivers were 281 and 398ng/L, while tap water (supplied from the treatment of water from those rivers) contained concentrations of 197 and 200ng/L, respectively. PFOA and PFOS constituted about 99% of the ∑PFAAs. The risk quotient (RQ) attributed to drinking of tap water was estimated at 1.01 and 1.74 for PFOA and PFOS, respectively. For a country that has not produced these compounds, the RQs were unexpectedly high, raising concerns particularly about contamination from such emerging pollutants in local water sources. The study revealed limitations of local tap water treatment in getting rid of these emerging pollutants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Tapping Alternatives: The Benefits of Managing Urban Water Demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziegielewski, Benedykt; Baumann, Duane D.

    1992-01-01

    Presents the California plan for water demand management. Water conservation techniques are used to balance demand with supply. Discusses the implementation process: (1) water-use and service area analysis; (2) water-use forecasts; (3) benefit-cost analysis; (4) and development of a long-term water management plan. (17 references) (MCO)

  11. Sociodemographic characteristics and beverage intake of children who drink tap water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Anisha I; Shapiro, Daniel J; Wang, Y Claire; Cabana, Michael D

    2013-07-01

    Tap water provides a calorie-free, no-cost, environmentally friendly beverage option, yet only some youth drink it. To examine sociodemographic characteristics, weight status, and beverage intake of those aged 1-19 years who drink tap water. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey data (2005-2010) were used to examine factors associated with tap water consumption. A comparison was made of beverage intake among tap water consumers and nonconsumers, by age, race/ethnicity, and income. Tap water consumption was more prevalent among school-aged children (OR=1.85, 95% CI=1.47, 2.33, for those aged 6-11 years; OR=1.85, 95% CI=1.32, 2.59, for those aged 12-19 years) as compared to those aged 1-2 years. Tap water intake was less prevalent among girls/women (OR=0.76, 95% CI=0.64, 0.89); Mexican Americans (OR=0.32, 95% CI=0.23, 0.45); non-Hispanic blacks (OR=0.48, 95% CI=0.34, 0.67); and others (OR=0.50, 95% CI=0.36, 0.68) as compared to whites; Spanish speakers (OR=0.72, 95% CI=0.55, 0.95); and among referents with a lower than Grade-9 education (OR=0.52, 95% CI=0.31, 0.88); Grade 9-11 education (OR=0.50, 95% CI=0.32, 0.77); and high school/General Educational Development test completion (OR=0.50, 95% CI=0.33, 0.76), as compared to college graduates. Tap water consumers drank more fluid (52.5 vs 48.0 ounces, ptap water, and this finding is more pronounced among minorities. Sociodemographic disparities in tap water consumption may contribute to disparities in health outcomes. Improvements in drinking water infrastructure and culturally relevant promotion may help to address these issues. Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of American Journal of Preventive Medicine

  12. Assessment of drinking water quality at the tap using fluorescence spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heibati, Masoumeh; Stedmon, Colin A; Stenroth, Karolina

    2017-01-01

    Treated drinking water may become contaminated while travelling in the distribution system on the way to consumers. Elevated dissolved organic matter (DOM) at the tap relative to the water leaving the treatment plant is a potential indicator of contamination, and can be measured sensitively...

  13. Successful treatment of dyshidrotic hand eczema using tap water iontophoresis with pulsed direct current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odia, S; Vocks, E; Rakoski, J; Ring, J

    1996-11-01

    The efficacy of tap water iontophoresis in treating palmoplantar hyperhidrosis has been sufficiently documented and has led to its extensive use in clinical practice. In order to test the efficacy of this treatment modality in cases of dyshidrotic hand eczema, 20 patients were treated with tap water iontophoresis in addition to two-sided steroid-free topical therapy in a randomized half-side-study. A special score for dyshidrotic eczema including objective and subjective criteria was developed to document the success of the therapy. Only those sides treated with tap water iontophoresis showed significant improvement. This significant effect of iontophoresis indicates the efficacy of this treatment in cases of dyshidrotic hand eczema.

  14. Boiling of simulated tap water: effect on polar brominated disinfection byproducts, halogen speciation, and cytotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yang; Zhang, Xiangru; Wagner, Elizabeth D; Osiol, Jennifer; Plewa, Michael J

    2014-01-01

    Tap water typically contains numerous halogenated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) as a result of disinfection, especially of chlorination. Among halogenated DBPs, brominated ones are generally significantly more toxic than their chlorinated analogues. In this study, with the aid of ultra performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry by setting precursor ion scans of m/z 79/81, whole spectra of polar brominated DBPs in simulated tap water samples without and with boiling were revealed. Most polar brominated DBPs were thermally unstable and their levels were substantially reduced after boiling via decarboxylation or hydrolysis; the levels of a few aromatic brominated DBPs increased after boiling through decarboxylation of their precursors. A novel adsorption unit for volatile total organic halogen was designed, which enabled the evaluation of halogen speciation and mass balances in the simulated tap water samples during boiling. After boiling for 5 min, the overall level of brominated DBPs was reduced by 62.8%, of which 39.8% was volatilized and 23.0% was converted to bromide; the overall level of chlorinated DBPs was reduced by 61.1%, of which 44.4% was volatilized and 16.7% was converted to chloride; the overall level of halogenated DBPs was reduced by 62.3%. The simulated tap water sample without boiling was cytotoxic in a chronic (72 h) exposure to mammalian cells; this cytotoxicity was reduced by 76.9% after boiling for 5 min. The reduction in cytotoxicity corresponded with the reduction in overall halogenated DBPs. Thus, boiling of tap water can be regarded as a "detoxification" process and may reduce human exposure to halogenated DBPs through tap water ingestion.

  15. Tap water versus sterile saline solution in the colonisation of skin wounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resende, Margarida Mc; Rocha, Cleber A; Corrêa, Nely Fm; Veiga, Renato Rg; Passos, Sandro Jf; Novo, Neil F; Juliano, Yara; Damasceno, Carlos Av

    2016-08-01

    Irrigating wounds with tap water does not increase colonisation, but controlled studies are required for further evidence. Microbial colonisation was assessed in skin wounds, before and after irrigation with tap water, and was compared with irrigation using 0·9% sodium chloride sterile solution. The study included 120 subjects with chronic, traumatic, vascular, pressure or neuropathic wounds. A total of 60 wounds were randomly assigned to be irrigated with tap water (tap water group) and another 60 to be irrigated with 0·9% sodium chloride sterile solution (saline group), at a pressure of 0·46-0·54 PSI. Samples were collected from the centre of each wound using Levine's technique, before and after irrigation, and cultivated in thioglycollate, hypertonic mannitol agar, eosin methylene blue (EMB) agar, blood agar and Sabouraud agar at 37°C for 72 hours. There was concordance (kappa test) and discordance (McNemar test) regarding the count of positive and/or negative samples before and after irrigation in each group. The proportion of reduction of positive samples was similar for both groups in all cultures. Colony-forming unit count before and after irrigation was similar in both groups and in all cultures, except for the culture in hypertonic mannitol agar from the tap water group, for which the count was lower after irrigation (Wilcoxon z = 2·05, P = 0·041). It is concluded that skin wound irrigation with tap water leads to further reduction of Gram-positive bacteria compared with 0·9% sodium chloride sterile solution, with no difference in colonisation of haemolytic bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria and fungi. © 2015 Medicalhelplines.com Inc and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Bottled or tap? Testing perceptions about water in Lebanon and ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2016-06-09

    Jun 9, 2016 ... Researchers compared water quality available in two informal settlements in Lebanon and Jordan. Tests were conducted to compare water supplied by the municipality and bottled water. The results: tests showed that their quality is similar, although the brand of the bottled water and how it is stored affected ...

  17. Microprocessor controlled anodic stripping voltameter for trace metals analysis in tap water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clem, R.G.; Park, F.W.; Kirsten, F.A.; Phillips, S.L.; Binnall, E.P.

    1981-04-01

    The construction and use of a portable, microprocessor controlled anodic stripping voltameter for on-site simultaneous metal analysis of copper, lead and cadmium in tap water is discussed. The instrumental system is comprised of a programmable controller which permits keying in analytical parameters such as sparge time and plating time; a rotating cell for efficient oxygen removal and amalgam formation; and, a magnetic tape which can be used for data storage. Analysis time can be as short as 10 to 15 minutes. The stripping analysis is based on a pre-measurement step during which the metals from a water sample are concentrated into a thin mercury film by deposition from an acetate solution of pH 4.5. The concentrated metals are then electrochemically dissolved from the film by application of a linearly increasing anodic potential. Typical peak-shaped curves are obtained. The heights of these curves are related to the concentration of metals in the water by calibration data. Results of tap water analysis showed 3 +- 1 ..mu..g/L lead, 22 +- 0.3 ..mu..g/L copper, and less than 0.2 ..mu..g/L cadmium for a Berkeley, California tap water, and 1 to 1000 ..mu..g/L Cu, 1 to 2 ..mu..g/L Pb for ten samples of Seattle, Washington tap water. Recommendations are given for a next generation instrument system.

  18. Quality of Drinking Water Treated at Point of Use in Residential Healthcare Facilities for the Elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacchetti, Rossella; De Luca, Giovanna; Guberti, Emilia; Zanetti, Franca

    2015-09-09

    Municipal tap water is increasingly treated at the point of use (POU) to improve the acceptability and palatability of its taste. The aim of this study was to assess the bacteriologic and nutritional characteristics of tap water treated at the point of use in residential healthcare facilities for the elderly. Two types of POU devices were used: microfiltered water dispensers (MWDs) and reverse-osmosis water dispensers (ROWDs). All samples of water entering the devices and leaving them were tested for the bacteriological parameters set by Italian regulations for drinking water and for opportunistic pathogens associated with various infections in healthcare settings; in addition, the degree of mineralization of the water was assessed. The results revealed widespread bacterial contamination in the POU treatment devices, particularly from potentially pathogenic species. As expected, the use of ROWDs led to a decrease in the saline content of the water. In conclusion, the use of POU treatment in healthcare facilities for the elderly can be considered advisable only if the devices are constantly and carefully maintained.

  19. Cardiovascular and metabolic responses to tap water ingestion in young humans: does the water temperature matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girona, M; Grasser, E K; Dulloo, A G; Montani, J P

    2014-06-01

    Drinking water induces short-term cardiovascular and metabolic changes. These effects are considered to be triggered by gastric distension and osmotic factors, but little is known about the influence of water temperature. We determined, in a randomized crossover study, the acute cardiovascular and metabolic responses to 500 mL of tap water at 3 °C (cold), 22 °C (room) and 37 °C (body) in 12 young humans to ascertain an effect of water temperature. We measured continuous beat-to-beat haemodynamics, skin blood flux with laser-Doppler flowmetry and resting energy expenditure by indirect calorimetry starting with a 30-min baseline followed by a 4-min drink period and a subsequent 90-min post-drink observation. Ingestion of cold- and room-tempered water led to decreased heart rate (P body-tempered water. Drinking cold- and room-, but not body-tempered water, led to increased high frequency power of heart rate variability (P water increased energy expenditure over 90 min by 2.9% (P water to intra-abdominal temperature levels. Overall, ingestion of cold- and room-, but not body-tempered water reduced the workload to the heart through a reduction in heart rate and double product which could be mediated by an augmented cardiac vagal tone. © 2014 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Assessment of the radiological quality of tap waters 2008-2009

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caamano, Delphine; Tracol, Raphael; Guillotin, Laetitia; Jedor, Beatrice; Davezac, Henri; Loyen, Jeanne

    2011-06-01

    After a recall of the context (radioactivity, origin of natural radioactivity in waters, exposure of population to natural radioactivity and health impact, indicators of water radiological quality, presence of uranium in water), this document reports a study which is based on the health control of water radiological quality by regional health agencies, on the analysis of natural and artificial radionuclides, on a survey on tap water radiological quality performed in 2009 by regional health agencies, and on an inventory of results related to the presence of radon in water performed by the IRSN and these agencies. The obtained results are presented and discussed in terms of factors impacting the result representativeness, of generalisation of the implementation of a health control, of tap water radiological quality. It is outlined that the uranium-related chemical risk is higher than the radiological risk

  1. Tap water isotopes reveal the San Francisco Bay Area's plumbing and responses to a major drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipple, B. J.; Jameel, M. Y.; Chau, T. H.; Mancuso, C. J.; Bowen, G. J.; Dufour, A.; Chesson, L. A.; Ehleringer, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    Water availability and sustainability in the Western United States is a major flashpoint among expanding communities, growing industries, and productive agricultural lands. This issue came to a head in 2015 in the State of California, when the State mandated a 25% reduction in urban water use following a multi-year drought that significantly depleted water resources. The demands for and challenges in supplying water are only expected to intensify as climate perturbations, such as the 2012-2015 California Drought, become more common. As a consequence, there is an increased need to understand linkages between population centers, water transport and usage, and the impacts of climate change on water resources and infrastructure. To better understand these relationships within a megalopolis in the Western United States, we collected and analyzed 723 tap waters from the San Francisco Bay Area during seven collection campaigns across 21 months during 2013-2015. San Francisco Bay Area was selected as it has well-known water management strategies and its water resources were dramatically affected by the 2012-2105 drought. Consistent with known water management strategies and previous reports of tap water isotope values, we found large spatiotemporal variations in the δ2H and δ18O values of tap waters, indicative of complex water transport systems and municipality-scale management decisions. We observed δ2H and δ18O values of tap water consistent with waters originating from snowmelt from the Sierra Nevada Mountains, local precipitation, ground water, and partially evaporated reservoir sources. A cluster analysis of measured tap water data grouped waters from 43 static sampling sites that were associated with specific water utility providers within the San Francisco Bay Area and known management practices. Water management responses to the drought, such as source switching, bringing in new sources, and conservation, could be observed within the isotope data from each of

  2. Presence of water in residential environments - value for money?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kauko, T.J.; Goetgeluk, R.W.; Straub, A.; Priemus, H.

    2003-01-01

    The role of water in the locational bundle of residential value and choice determinants is multiple. Relevant attributes pertain to water quality, proximity and length of water frontage, view, size of water body, coastal development costs, and costs caused by flooding. They also pertain to different

  3. Spatial distribution of orofacial cleft defect births in Harris County, Texas, 1990 to 1994, and historical evidence for the presence of low-level radioactivity in tap water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cech, Irina; Burau, Keith D; Walston, Jane

    2007-06-01

    While both ionizing and nonionizing radiation are known to impair human reproductive capacity, the role of low-level domestic radiation continues to be an unsettled issue. We examined the geostatistical distribution (residential longitude and latitude) of orofacial cleft birth cases adjusted for the underlying population distribution. Furthermore, we examined the cleft birth rates enumerated by zip codes for possible associations with levels of radium and radon in drinking water. Cleft births and unaffected live births in Harris County, Texas, from 1990 to 1994, were geocoded by residential addresses and tested for spatial clusters using the space-time clustering program SaTScan. Historical sample data on local variations in water quality facilitated the assessment of the association of orofacial cleft defect births with low-level radiation exposure. A cluster of significantly greater than expected numbers of cleft defect births was identified in northwest Harris County, (relative risk = 3.0, P = 0.043), where the presence of elevated levels of radium (> 3 pCi/L) and radon (> 300 pCi/L) in the tap water has been known since the 1980s. Despite the ecological design of the study, lacking individual exposure measurements for cleft birth residences, there was strong suggestive evidence of an association between elevated radiation levels in tap water and elevated cleft birth prevalence rates by zip codes. Attention of physicians is invited to environmental causes as potential risk factors for orofacial cleft. This would aid in genetic counseling and the development of future preventive measures.

  4. Rapidly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria cultured from home tap and shower water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ingen, Jakko; Blaak, Hetty; de Beer, Jessica; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria; van Soolingen, Dick

    2010-09-01

    Tap and shower water at two locations in the Netherlands was examined for the presence of rapidly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria. Cultures yielded Mycobacterium peregrinum, M. salmoniphilum, M. llatzerense, M. septicum, and three potentially novel species, a distribution different from that in clinical samples.

  5. TIME TO PREGNANCY IN RELATION TO TOTAL TRIHALOMETHANE LEVELS IN TAP WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Time to pregnancy in relation to total trihalomethane levels in tap waterShanna H. Swan, Cuirong Ren, Gayle C. Windham, Laura Fenster, Kirsten Waller. (University of Missouri and California Department of Health Services). We have previously reported increased risks o...

  6. Tap water scalds among seniors and the elderly: socio-economics and implications for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alden, Nicole E; Bessey, Palmer Q; Rabbitts, Angela; Hyden, Philip J; Yurt, Roger W

    2007-08-01

    Tap water scalds among those >or=60 years old are often attributed to physical impairments with aging. This study assesses socio-economics associated with tap water scalds among seniors and the elderly. Charts of patients admitted to an urban Burn Center between 7/00 and 6/04 for treatment of tap water scalds were reviewed. Demographics, injury details, co-morbidities, surgical interventions/critical care requirements, length of stay (LOS), disposition and related economics were reviewed. During the study period, 68 patients >or=60 years were hospitalized for treatment of these scalds. Mean age and burn size were 78+/-1 years and 7+/-0.9% TBSA. Over 98% of patients were admitted with pre-existing co-morbidities; 60% required ICU care for 40+/-5 days; 22% required mechanical ventilation and 71% required surgery. LOS was 34+/-4 days. Most patients received government assistance income. Pre-injury, 32% resided alone. Post-injury, 10% of patients returned home alone; mortality was 22%. Per patient hospital costs approximated $113,000. These findings report that tap water scalds result in significant morbidity, mortality and health care costs for local seniors and the elderly. Socio-economic factors play a significant role in these injuries and must be assessed when planning prevention efforts.

  7. Abdominal tap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peritoneal tap; Paracentesis; Ascites - abdominal tap; Cirrhosis - abdominal tap; Malignant ascites - abdominal tap ... You then receive a local numbing medicine. The tap needle is inserted 1 to 2 inches (2. ...

  8. Water partnerships: IAEA regional projects for Africa TAP expertise

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boussaha, A.; Kastens, R.F.

    2000-01-01

    Issues of water scarcity are on the top of governmental agendas. The efforts of the IAEA's African Member States to address these issues rely upon increasingly complex requirements for analytical tools, technologies and institutional capacities. National programmes in water resources management are receiving growing attention and a large number of bilateral and multilateral development partners are actively involved in providing technical and financial support. Applications of nuclear techniques in the field of hydrology constitute important, and sometimes unique tools for obtaining critical information needed for water resources management. In most cases, isotope hydrology methodologies provide a qualitative definition or solution of the hydrological problem while in certain circumstances, quantification of hydrological parameters are enabled only by the application of these methodologies. Such information is essential for determining the long-term productive capacity of an aquifer, protecting vulnerable recharge areas from pollution, or limiting saltwater intrusion. Isotopes also provide useful data for constraining and validating groundwater models used for water management

  9. Tap Water Hydraulic Control Systems - Design and Industrial Applications. Chapter 7 in Advances in Hydraulic Control Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conrad, Finn

    Deals with development and design of modern tap water hydraulic components and systems, in particalar the Danfoss Nessie-family of components and systems working with pure tap water without any kind of additives. Typical industrial applications are presented and the perspectives of new industrial...

  10. Radiation hazards and lifetime risk assessment of tap water using liquid scintillation counting and high-resolution gamma spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Shboul, K F; Alali, A E; Batayneh, I M; Al-Khodire, H Y

    2017-11-01

    In this work, two complementary techniques, viz. liquid scintillation counting and high-resolution gamma spectrometry are utilized to analyze radionuclides concentrations in tap water of Irbid governorate, Jordan, and study their correlation. Gross alpha and gross beta concentrations, in the tap water samples collected from the nine districts of Irbid governorate, ranged from tap water samples, shows that the activity concentrations of 226 Ra, 232 Th, and 40 K ranged between tap water in drilled wells leads to higher levels of radioactivity concentrations beyond the international permissible limits. Furthermore, the average lifetime risk and annual effective dose received by age-grouped inhabitants due to direct and indirect tap water consumption are evaluated, where most of the received dose is attributed to 226 Ra. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Contribution of tap water to chlorate and perchlorate intake: a market basket study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asami, Mari; Yoshida, Nobue; Kosaka, Koji; Ohno, Koichi; Matsui, Yoshihiko

    2013-10-01

    The contributions of water to total levels of chlorate and perchlorate intake were determined using food and water samples from a market basket study from 10 locations in Japan between 2008 and 2009. Foods were categorized into 13 groups and analyzed along with tap water. The average total chlorate intake was 333 (min. 193-max. 486) μg/day for samples cooked with tap water. The contribution of tap water to total chlorate intake was as high as 47%-58%, although total chlorate intake was less than 32% of the tolerable daily intake, 1500 μg/day for body weight of 50 kg. For perchlorate, daily intake from water was 0.7 (0.1-4.4) μg/day, which is not high compared to the average total intake of 14 (2.5-84) μg/day, while the reference dose (RfD) is 35 μg/day and the provisional maximum tolerable daily intake (PMTDI) is 500 μg/day for body weight of 50 kg. The highest intake of perchlorate was 84 μg/day, where concentrations in foods were high, but not in water. The contribution of water to total perchlorate intake ranged from 0.5% to 22%, while the ratio of highest daily intake to RfD was 240% and that to PMTDI was 17%. Eight baby formulas were also tested--total chlorate and perchlorate intakes were 147 (42-332) μg/day and 1.11 (0.05-4.5) μg/day, respectively, for an ingestion volume of 1 L/day if prepared with tap water. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Bacterial Pathogens Associated with Tap and Well Waters in Lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results: Our finding revealed that all the well waters from the locations under study were contaminated with one or more of the following bacterial pathogens Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Salmonella typhi, Enterobacter aerogenes, Shigella dysenteriae, Proteus vulgaris and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, with E coli ...

  13. Spectrophotometric determination of iron (III) in tap water using 8 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl yemi

    2011-11-14

    Nov 14, 2011 ... Atomic absorption spectro- metry and inductively coupled with plasma spectrometry have also been applied for the determination of iron in water and other cations (Abollino et al., 1995). Iron has been separated by capillary isotachophoresis as an. EDTA complex for the simultaneous determination of.

  14. Optimization of Adenovirus 40 and 41 Recovery from Tap Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currently, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s Information Collection Rule (ICR) for the primary concentration of viruses from drinking and surface waters uses the 1MDS filter; however, a more cost effective option, the NanoCeram® filter, has been shown to recover comparab...

  15. Availability of clean tap water and medical services prevents the incidence of typhoid Fever.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Deog-Yong; Lee, Esther; Park, Hyemin; Kim, Seonghan

    2013-04-01

    In this study, the factors that induced a decrease in the incidence of typhoid fever were analyzed. Based on the study results, we propose a quantitative and concrete solution to reduce the incidence of typhoid fever. We analyzed the incidence and fatality rate of typhoid fever in Korea. Tap water service rate and the number of pharmacies, which affect the incidence rate of typhoid fever, were used as environmental factors. To prevent typhoid fever in the community, it is necessary to provide clean tap water service to 35.5% of the population, with an individual requiring 173 L of clean water daily. Appropriate access to clean water (51% service coverage, 307 L) helped the population to maintain individual hygiene and food safety practices, which brought about a decrease in the incidence of typhoid fever, and subsequently a decrease in fatality rate, which was achieved twice. During the 8-year study period, the fatality rate decreased to 1% when the population has access to proper medical service. The fatality rate was primarily affected by the availability of medical services as well as by the incidence of typhoid fever. However, an analysis of the study results showed that the incidence of typhoid fever was affected only by the availability of clean water through the tap water system.

  16. Pharmaceuticals in tap water: human health risk assessment and proposed monitoring framework in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Ho Wing; Jin, Ling; Wei, Si; Tsui, Mirabelle Mei Po; Zhou, Bingsheng; Jiao, Liping; Cheung, Pak Chuen; Chun, Yiu Kan; Murphy, Margaret Burkhardt; Lam, Paul Kwan Sing

    2013-07-01

    Pharmaceuticals are known to contaminate tap water worldwide, but the relevant human health risks have not been assessed in China. We monitored 32 pharmaceuticals in Chinese tap water and evaluated the life-long human health risks of exposure in order to provide information for future prioritization and risk management. We analyzed samples (n = 113) from 13 cities and compared detected concentrations with existing or newly-derived safety levels for assessing risk quotients (RQs) at different life stages, excluding the prenatal stage. We detected 17 pharmaceuticals in 89% of samples, with most detectable concentrations (92%) at risk levels, but 4 (i.e., dimetridazole, thiamphenicol, sulfamethazine, and clarithromycin) were found to have at least one life-stage RQ ≥ 0.01, especially for the infant and child life stages, and should be considered of high priority for management. We propose an indicator-based monitoring framework for providing information for source identification, water treatment effectiveness, and water safety management in China. Chinese tap water is an additional route of human exposure to pharmaceuticals, particularly for dimetridazole, although the risk to human health is low based on current toxicity data. Pharmaceutical detection and application of the proposed monitoring framework can be used for water source protection and risk management in China and elsewhere.

  17. Perceptions of Tap Water and School Water Fountains among Youth and Association with Intake of Plain Water and Sugar-Sweetened Beverages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onufrak, Stephen J; Park, Sohyun; Sharkey, Joseph R; Merlo, Caitlin; Dean, Wesley R.; Sherry, Bettylou

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Little is known regarding youth perceptions of tap water and school water fountains and how these relate to water and sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) intake. METHODS We used national 2010 YouthStyles data to assess perceptions of tap water and school water fountains and associations with water and SSB intake. RESULTS Nearly 1 in 5 participants disagreed their tap water was safe and nearly 2 in 5 disagreed school water fountains were clean and safe. Perceived tap water risk was more prevalent among non-Hispanic (NH) blacks (26.4%) and Hispanics (28.3%) compared to NH whites (14.7%, p tap water risk was not associated with SSB intake (odds ratio (OR) = 1.0, 95% CI: 0.6, 1.5) or water intake (OR = 1.4, 95% CI: 0.9, 2.1). Negative water fountain perceptions were associated with SSB intake only among Hispanics (race/ethnicity interaction p tap water and water fountains among youth are common and should be considered in efforts to provide water in schools. PMID:24443781

  18. The relationship of perceptions of tap water safety with intake of sugar-sweetened beverages and plain water among US adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onufrak, Stephen J; Park, Sohyun; Sharkey, Joseph R; Sherry, Bettylou

    2014-01-01

    Research is limited on whether mistrust of tap water discourages plain water intake and leads to a greater intake of sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB). The objective of the present study was to examine demographic differences in perceptions of tap water safety and determine if these perceptions are associated with intake of SSB and plain water. The study examined perceptions of tap water safety and their cross-sectional association with intake of SSB and plain water. Racial/ethnic differences in the associations of tap water perceptions with SSB and plain water intake were also examined. Nationally weighted data from the 2010 HealthStyles Survey (n 4184). US adults aged ≥18 years. Overall, 13·0 % of participants disagreed that their local tap water was safe to drink and 26·4 % of participants agreed that bottled water was safer than tap water. Both mistrust of tap water safety and favouring bottled water differed by region, age, race/ethnicity, income and education. The associations of tap water mistrust with intake of SSB and plain water were modified by race/ethnicity (P tap water was safe to drink were more likely to report low intake of plain water. The odds of consuming ≥1 SSB/d among Hispanics who mistrusted their local tap water was twice that of Hispanics who did not (OR = 2·0; 95 % CI 1·2, 3·3). Public health efforts to promote healthy beverages should recognize the potential impact of tap water perceptions on water and SSB intake among minority populations.

  19. Detection of Escherichia coli, Salmonella species, and Vibrio cholerae in tap water and bottled drinking water in Isfahan, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momtaz, Hassan; Dehkordi, Farhad Safarpoor; Rahimi, Ebrahim; Asgarifar, Amin

    2013-06-07

    The quality of drinking water has an important role in human infection and disease. This study was aimed at comparing polymerase chain reaction and culture in detecting Escherichia coli, Salmonella species and Vibrio cholera in tape water and bottled drinking water in various seasons in Isfahan province, Iran. A total of 448 water samples from tap water and bottled mineral water were taken over 6 months, from July 2010 to December 2010, and after filtration, samples were examined by culture and polymerase chain reaction methods for detection of Escherichia coli, Salmonella species, and Vibrio cholerae. The culture method showed that 34 (7.58%), 4 (0.89%) and 3 (0.66%) of all 448 water samples were positive for Escherichia coli, Salmonella species, and Vibrio cholera, respectively. The uidA gene from Escherichia coli, IpaB gene from Salmonella species, and epsM gene from Vibrio cholera were detected in 38 (26.38%), 5 (3.47%), and 3 (2.08%) of 144 tap-water samples, respectively. Escherichia coli was detected in 8 (2.63%) of 304 samples of bottled drinking water from 5 companies. The water of southern part of Isfahan and company 5 had the highest prevalence of bacteria. The Escherichia coli water contamination was significantly higher (P waters of southern part and tap waters of central part of Isfahan. This study showed that the polymerase chain reaction assays can be an extremely accurate, fast, safe, sensitive and specific approach to monitor drinking water quality from purification facilities and bottled water companies. Also, our study confirmed the presence of Escherichia coli, Salmonella species, and Vibrio cholerae as water-borne pathogens in tap water and bottled drinking water of Isfahan, Iran. The present study showed the important public health problem in Isfahan, Iran.

  20. Susceptibility of Legionella pneumophila to chlorine in tap water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchta, J M; States, S J; McNamara, A M; Wadowsky, R M; Yee, R B

    1983-11-01

    A study was conducted to compare the susceptibility of legionellae and coliforms to disinfection by chlorine. The chlorine residuals used were similar to concentrations that might be found in the distribution systems of large public potable water supplies. The effects of various chlorine concentrations, temperatures, and pH levels were considered. A number of different Legionella strains, both environmental and clinical, were tested. The results indicate that legionellae are much more resistant to chlorine than are coliform bacteria. At 21 degrees C, pH 7.6, and 0.1 mg of free chlorine residual per liter, a 99% kill of L. pneumophila was achieved within 40 min, compared with less than 1 min for Escherichia coli. The observed resistance is enhanced as conditions for disinfection become less optimal. The required contact time for the removal of L. pneumophilia was twice as long at 4 degrees C than it was at 21 degrees C. These data suggest that legionellae can survive low levels of chlorine for relatively long periods of time.

  1. Estimating the Determinants of Residential Water Demand in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Romano

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the determinants of residential water demand for chief towns of every Italian province, in the period 2007–2009, using the linear mixed-effects model estimated with the restricted-maximum-likelihood method. Results confirmed that the applied tariff had a negative effect on residential water consumption and that it was a relevant driver of domestic water consumption. Moreover, income per capita had a positive effect on water consumption. Among measured climatic and geographical features, precipitation and altitude exerted a strongly significant negative effect on water consumption, while temperature did not influence water demand. Further, data show that small towns in terms of population served were characterized by lower levels of consumption. Water utilities ownership itself did not have a significant effect on water consumption but tariffs were significantly lower and residential water consumption was higher in towns where the water service was managed by publicly owned water utilities. However, further research is needed to gain a better understanding of the connection between ownership of water utilities and water prices and water consumption.

  2. Potable water use of residential consumers in the Cape Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-01-01

    Jan 1, 2016 ... The potable water use recorded by 3 579 residential consumer water meters in Cape Town, South Africa, was analysed as part of this ..... class (m2). Number of records in stand size class. Actual AADD of stands with GAPs. (L/stand∙day). Estimated AADD as per guidelines. (L/stand∙day). Actual AADD.

  3. Reduction of FENOby tap water and carbonated water mouthwashes: magnitude and time course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassmann-Klee, Paul Guenther; Lindholm, Tuula; Metsälä, Markus; Halonen, Lauri; Sovijärvi, Anssi Raimo Antero; Piirilä, Päivi

    Fractional exhaled nitric oxide (F ENO ) assesses eosinophilic inflammation of the airways, but F ENO values are also influenced by oral nitric oxide (NO). The aim of this pilot study was to measure F ENO and compare the effect of two different mouthwashes on F ENO and analyse the duration of the effect. F ENO was measured in 12 randomized volunteers (healthy or asthmatic subjects) with a NIOX VERO® analyser at an expiratory flow rate of 50 mL/s. After a baseline measurement, a mouthwash was performed either with tap water or carbonated water and was measured during 20 min in 2 min intervals. The procedure was repeated with the other mouthwash. We found that both mouthwashes reduced F ENO immediately at the beginning compared to the baseline (p mouthwash effect lasted 12 min (p ranging from mouthwash reduced F ENO statistically significantly only for 2 min compared with the baseline. We conclude that a single carbonated water mouthwash can significantly reduce the oropharyngeal NO contribution during a 12 min time interval.

  4. Isolation and Identification of Free-Living Amoebae from Tap Water in Sivas, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kübra Açıkalın Coşkun

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work focuses on a local survey of free-living amoebae (FLA that cause opportunistic and nonopportunistic infections in humans. Determining the prevalence of FLA in water sources can shine a light on the need to prevent FLA related illnesses. A total of 150 samples of tap water were collected from six districts of Sivas province. The samples were filtered and seeded on nonnutrient agar containing Escherichia coli spread. Thirty-three (22% out of 150 samples were found to be positive for FLA. The FLA were identified by morphology and by PCR using 18S rDNA gene. The morphological analysis and partial sequencing of the 18S rDNA gene revealed the presence of three different species, Acanthamoeba castellanii, Acanthamoeba polyphaga, and Hartmannella vermiformis. Naegleria fowleri, Balamuthia mandrillaris, or Sappinia sp. was not isolated during the study. All A. castellanii and A. polyphaga sequence types were found to be genotype T4 that contains most of the pathogenic Acanthamoeba strains. The results indicated the occurrence and distribution of FLA species in tap water in these localities of Sivas, Turkey. Furthermore, the presence of temperature tolerant Acanthamoeba genotype T4 in tap water in the region must be taken into account for health risks.

  5. Evaluation of Tap Water Based on Sensor Array and Conducting Nanostructured Polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduarda Carvalho

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A sensor system, adapted to evaluate tap water, was fabricated and tested. Interdigitated  gold-coated microelectrodes were covered with various conducting polymers, single or mixed, under several different conditions. Polymer films were laid down by a  self-assembly technique and their impedance was analyzed over a range of frequencies from 1Hz to 1MHz. Samples collected from different localities at São Paulo state (Brazil were used. The results of sensorial system analyzed by Principal Component Analysis had allowed completing discrimination of tap water samples. Good discrimination between the sensors was observed when there was obtained a PCA with different samples, obtaining the total variance (PC1 = 62.03%; PC2 = 37.97% of the observations. The sensorial system based in global selectivity using interdigitated electrode and nanostruturated conducting polymers allowed a statistical discrimination of sample waters of different locations. The future expectations are the upgrading of the system and implementation of a monitoring of tap water systems based nanostructured sensors.

  6. Residential water demand with endogenous pricing: The Canadian Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaud, Arnaud; Renzetti, Steven; Villeneuve, Michel

    2005-11-01

    In this paper, we show that the rate structure endogeneity may result in a misspecification of the residential water demand function. We propose to solve this endogeneity problem by estimating a probabilistic model describing how water rates are chosen by local communities. This model is estimated on a sample of Canadian local communities. We first show that the pricing structure choice reflects efficiency considerations, equity concerns, and, in some cases, a strategy of price discrimination across consumers by Canadian communities. Hence estimating the residential water demand without taking into account the pricing structures' endogeneity leads to a biased estimation of price and income elasticities. We also demonstrate that the pricing structure per se plays a significant role in influencing price responsiveness of Canadian residential consumers.

  7. Low Contribution of PbO 2 -Coated Lead Service Lines to Water Lead Contamination at the Tap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Triantafyllidou, Simoni [Oak Ridge Institute; Schock, Michael R. [Water Supply; amp,; DeSantis, Michael K. [Oak Ridge Institute; White, Colin [Department; amp, Applied Science, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, Ohio 45221, United States

    2015-02-24

    To determine if residential water sampling corroborates the expectation that formation of stable PbO2 coatings on lead service lines (LSLs) provides an effective lead release control strategy, lead profile sampling was evaluated for eight home kitchen taps in three U.S. cities with observed PbO2-coated LSLs (Newport, Rhode Island; Cincinnati and Oakwood, Ohio). After various water standing times, these LSLs typically released similar or lower peak lead levels (1 to 18 μg/L) than the lead levels from the respective kitchen faucets (1 to 130 μg/L), and frequently 50–80% lower than the lead levels typically reported from Pb(II)-coated LSLs in comparable published sampling studies. Prolonged stagnation (10–101 h) at the Cincinnati sites produced varying results. One site showed minimal (0–4 μg/L) increase in lead release from the PbO2-coated LSL, and persistence of free chlorine residual. However, the other site showed up to a 3-fold increase proportional to standing time, with essentially full depletion of the chlorine residual. Overall, lead release was consistently much lower than that reported in studies of Pb(II)-coated LSL scales, suggesting that natural formation of PbO2 in LSLs is an effective lead “corrosion” control strategy.

  8. Defensive spending on tap water substitutes: the value of reducing perceived health risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, Diane P; Jahan, Nowshin

    2012-03-01

    We examine factors that explain consumer spending on tap water substitutes using information from a national survey undertaken with a representative set of Canadian respondents. We develop a model to predict the percentage of households that undertake such spending for the purpose of reducing perceived health risks from tap water consumption. Using results from the model we estimate the magnitude of defensive expenditures to be over half a billion dollars (2010 US$) per year for Canada, as a whole. This is equivalent to approximately $48 per household per year or about $19 per person per year. Residents of Ontario, the province in which an Escherichia coli incident took place in 2000, have the highest willingness-to-pay of approximately $60 per household per year.

  9. Haitian Tap-Taps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterling, Joan

    2011-01-01

    In the small island country of Haiti, colorful taxis transport the natives to the market. Although the taxis may be crowded with people, goods, and even livestock, it is considered a luxury to ride rather than go on foot. The children's picture book, "Tap-Tap," is a wonderful introduction to the culture of this land. The name…

  10. Exposure to arsenic in tap water and gestational diabetes: A French semi-ecological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marie, Cécile; Léger, Stéphanie; Guttmann, Aline; Rivière, Olivier; Marchiset, Nathalie; Lémery, Didier; Vendittelli, Françoise; Sauvant-Rochat, Marie-Pierre

    2018-02-01

    The increase in the prevalence of gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) and its consequences for mother and children prompts research on their risk factors including environmental factors. Studies on exposure to arsenic (As) in tap water and the risk of GDM have not provided conclusive evidence, particularly when levels of exposure were low (from 10 to 50µg As/L). The main objective of this study was to assess the association between exposure to As in tap water and the risk of GDM. A semi-ecological study was conducted from births recorded at the University Hospital of Clermont-Ferrand, France, in 2003, 2006 and 2010. Individual medical/obstetric data were available. As exposure was estimated from the concentrations of As measured during sanitary control of tap water supplied in the mothers' commune of residence (aggregate data). French guidelines for As in tap water were used to identify groups potentially exposed, designated "As +" (≥ 10µg As/L) and "As -" (< 10µg As/L). Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed. 5053 women (5.7% with a GDM) were included. Overall, women in the As + group had a higher risk of GDM than those in the As - group (adjusted OR = 1.62; 95%CI: 1.01-2.53). Stratified analysis of pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) showed a positive association only for obese or overweight women (adjusted OR = 2.30; 95%CI: 1.13-4.50). This French semi-ecological study provides additional arguments for an association between As exposure and the risk of GDM in particular in a context of low exposure. Further studies are needed to assess a potential interaction between As exposure and body mass index. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Availability of Clean Tap Water and Medical Services Prevents the Incidence of Typhoid Fever

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Deog-Yong; Lee, Esther; Park, HyeMin; Kim, SeongHan

    2013-01-01

    Objective: In this study, the factors that induced a decrease in the incidence of typhoid fever were analyzed. Based on the study results, we propose a quantitative and concrete solution to reduce the incidence of typhoid fever. Methods: We analyzed the incidence and fatality rate of typhoid fever in Korea. Tap water service rate and the number of pharmacies, which affect the incidence rate of typhoid fever, were used as environmental factors. Results: To prevent typhoid fever in the communit...

  12. Detection and Quantification of Legionella pneumophila from Water Systems in Kuwait Residential Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qadreyah A. Al-Matawah

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The prevalence of Legionella pneumophilia in water systems of residential facilities in Kuwait was performed during the period from November 2007 to November 2011. A total of 204 water samples collected from faucets and showerheads in bathrooms (n = 82, taps in kitchens (n = 51, and water tanks (n = 71, from different locations of residential facilities in Kuwait were screened for Legionella pneumophila by the standard culture method and by real time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Out of the 204 samples, 89 (43.6% samples were positive for Legionella spp., 48 (23.5% samples were detected by the standard culture method, and 85 (41.7% were detected by RT-PCR. Of the culture positive Legionella samples, counts ranged between 10 to 2250 CFU/L. Serological typing of 48 Legionella isolates revealed that 6 (12.5% of these isolates belonged to Legionella pneumophila serogroup 1, 37 (77.1% isolates to Legionella pneumophila serogroup 3, and 1 isolate each (2.1% belonged to serogroups 4, 7, and 10. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MICs of the 46 environmental L. pneumophila isolates against the 10 antimicrobials commonly used for Legionella infection treatments were determined. Rifampicin was found to be the most active against L. pneumophila serogroups isolates in vitro.

  13. Scenarios to decarbonize residential water heating in California

    OpenAIRE

    Raghavan, SV; Wei, M; Kammen, DM

    2017-01-01

    © 2017 Elsevier Ltd This paper presents the first detailed long-term stock turnover model to investigate scenarios to decarbonize the residential water heating sector in California, which is currently dominated by natural gas. We model a mix of water heating (WH) technologies including conventional and on-demand (tank-less) natural gas heating, electric resistance, existing electric heat pumps, advanced heat pumps with low global warming refrigerants and solar thermal water heaters. Technical...

  14. Spatial and statistical methods for correlating the interaction between groundwater contamination and tap water exposure in karst regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, I. Y.; Rivera, V. L.; Macchiavelli, R. E.; Torres Torres, N. I.

    2016-12-01

    Groundwater systems in karst regions are highly vulnerable to contamination and have an enormous capacity to store and rapidly convey pollutants to potential exposure zones over long periods of time. Contaminants in karst aquifers used for drinking water purposes can, therefore, enter distributions lines and the tap water point of use. This study applies spatial and statistical analytical methods to assess potential correlations between contaminants in a karst groundwater system in northern Puerto Rico and exposure in the tap water. It focuses on chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOC) and phthalates because of their ubiquitous presence in the environment and the potential public health impacts. The work integrates historical data collected from regulatory agencies and current field measurements involving groundwater and tap water sampling and analysis. Contaminant distributions and cluster analysis is performed with Geographic Information System technology. Correlations between detection frequencies and contaminants concentration in source groundwater and tap water point of use are assessed using Pearson's Chi Square and T-Test analysis. Although results indicate that correlations are contaminant-specific, detection frequencies are generally higher for total CVOC in groundwater than tap water samples, but greater for phthalates in tap water than groundwater samples. Spatial analysis shows widespread distribution of CVOC and phthalates in both groundwater and tap water, suggesting that contamination comes from multiple sources. Spatial correlation analysis indicates that association between tap water and groundwater contamination depends on the source and type of contaminants, spatial location, and time. Full description of the correlations may, however, need to take into consideration variable anthropogenic interventions.

  15. RESIDENTIAL EXPOSURE TO DRINKING WATER ARSENIC IN INNER MONGOLIA, CHINA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Residential exposure to drinking water arsenic in Inner Mongolia, ChinaZhixiong Ning1, Richard K. Kwok2, Zhiyi Liu1, Shiying Zhang1, Chenglong Ma1, Danelle T. Lobdell2, Michael Riediker3 and Judy L. Mumford21) Institute of Endemic Disease for Prevention and Treatment in I...

  16. Impact of a silver layer on the membrane of tap water filters on the microbiological quality of filtered water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vonberg, Ralf-Peter; Sohr, Dorit; Bruderek, Juliane; Gastmeier, Petra

    2008-10-08

    Bacteria in the hospital's drinking water system represent a risk for the acquisition of a nosocomial infection in the severely immunocompromised host. Terminal tap water filters may be used to prevent nosocomial Legionnaires' disease. We present data from water samples using an improved kind of tap water filters. In a blinded study on an intermediate care unit of the thoracic surgery department, a modified type of the Germlyser water filter (Aqua-Free Membrane Technology) with a newly-introduced silver layer on the filtration membrane was compared to its preceding type without such a layer on 15 water outlets. We determined growth of Legionella, other pathogenic bacteria, and the total heterotrophic plate count in unfiltered water and filtered water samples after filter usage intervals of 1 through 4 weeks. A total of 299 water samples were tested. Twenty-nine of the 60 unfiltered water samples contained Legionella of various serogroups (baseline value). In contrast, all samples filtered by the original water filter and all but one of the water samples filtered by the modified filter type remained Legionella-free. No other pathogenic bacteria were detected in any filtered sample. The total plate count in water samples increased during use of both kinds of filters over time. However, for the first 7 days of use, there were significantly fewer water samples containing >100 CFU per mL when using the new filter device compared with the older filters or taps with no filter. No advantage was seen thereafter. The use of this type of terminal water filter is an appropriate method to protect immunocompromised patients from water-borne pathogens such as Legionella.

  17. Impact of a silver layer on the membrane of tap water filters on the microbiological quality of filtered water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruderek Juliane

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Bacteria in the hospital's drinking water system represent a risk for the acquisition of a nosocomial infection in the severely immunocompromised host. Terminal tap water filters may be used to prevent nosocomial Legionnaires' disease. We present data from water samples using an improved kind of tap water filters. Methods In a blinded study on an intermediate care unit of the thoracic surgery department, a modified type of the Germlyser water filter (Aqua-Free Membrane Technology with a newly-introduced silver layer on the filtration membrane was compared to its preceding type without such a layer on 15 water outlets. We determined growth of Legionella, other pathogenic bacteria, and the total heterotrophic plate count in unfiltered water and filtered water samples after filter usage intervals of 1 through 4 weeks. Results A total of 299 water samples were tested. Twenty-nine of the 60 unfiltered water samples contained Legionella of various serogroups (baseline value. In contrast, all samples filtered by the original water filter and all but one of the water samples filtered by the modified filter type remained Legionella-free. No other pathogenic bacteria were detected in any filtered sample. The total plate count in water samples increased during use of both kinds of filters over time. However, for the first 7 days of use, there were significantly fewer water samples containing >100 CFU per mL when using the new filter device compared with the older filters or taps with no filter. No advantage was seen thereafter. Conclusion The use of this type of terminal water filter is an appropriate method to protect immunocompromised patients from water-borne pathogens such as Legionella.

  18. Evaluation of radon concentration in well and tap waters in Bursa (Turkey)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akar Tarim, U.; Gurler, O.; Akkaya, G.; Kilic, N.; Yalcin, S.; Kaynak, G.; Gundogdu, O.

    2012-01-01

    222 Rn measurements in water samples collected from 27 wells and 19 taps that were supplied from the investigated wells were conducted using the AlphaGUARD PQ 2000PRO radon gas analyser at sites across several geologic formations within the city of Bursa (Turkey). The measured radon concentrations ranged from 1.46 to 53.64 Bq l -1 for well water and from 0.91 to 12.58 Bq l -1 for tap water. Of the 27 sites sampled, only 7 had radon levels above the safe limit of 11.1 Bq l -1 recommended by the USEPA. In general, all determined concentrations were well below the 100 Bq l -1 revised reference level proposed by the European Union. These values of radon concentrations in water samples are compared with those reported from other countries. Doses resulting from the consumption of these waters were calculated. The minimum and the maximum annual mean effective doses due to 222 Rn intake through water consumption were 0.02 μSv a -1 and 1.11 μSv a -1 , respectively. (authors)

  19. Control of bacterial contamination of washbasin taps and output water using Ecasol: a one-year study.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Boyle, M A

    2012-04-01

    Contaminated washbasin taps and output water are an important source of bacteria that may cause nosocomial infection. A five-week pretreatment study of hot and cold water from 15 washbasin taps at Dublin Dental Hospital showed consistently heavy contamination by aerobic heterotrophic bacteria: mean bacterial counts of 482.5 [standard deviation (SD) 293] colony-forming units (cfu)\\/mL and 5022 (SD 4322) cfu\\/mL, respectively.

  20. Comparative analysis of the quality of drinking tap water in some areas of the Murmansk region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bеkreneva O. I.

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present work describes the microbiological research of drinkin g tap water quality of some settlements in the Murmansk region. The samples of drinking tap water have been selected and the microbiological indicators of thermotolerant coliform bacteria, common coliform bacteria, and total microbial number have been determined; the compliance of these indicators with the requirements of sanitary norms and rules has been also established. Determination of total microbial number has been carried out by the deep method, and levels of total and thermotolerant coliform bacteria – by the membrane filtration method. It has been shown that the content of microorganisms in drinking water sources depends on the season of the year. The greatest number of microorganisms in water is observed in spring and autumn p eriods of the year and is caused by floodwater and precipitation of water into the water intake system. The greates t number of microorganisms in water samples has been recorded in the town of Sputnik. The repeated inconsistency o f water quality with the requirements of normative and technical documentation has been identified. The prev alence of acute intestinal diseases among the population and the influence of water quality on this i ndicator have been estimated. The high incidence of intestinal infections in the town of Pechenga has been revealed, a few more prosperous for this indicator are the towns of Zaozersk and Sputnik. Recommendations for improvi ng the quality of drinking water treatment have been transferred to the services of central water supply and distributed among the population. After the implementation of the recommendations, the repeated tests have been performed, and some improvement of water quality has been stated.

  1. Microbial contamination of contact lens storage cases and domestic tap water of contact lens wearers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Üstüntürk, Miray; Zeybek, Zuhal

    2012-11-01

    Contact lenses have been widely used as an alternative to spectacles both in developed and developing countries. However, under certain circumstances, adverse responses can occur during contact lens wear and several microorganisms--including bacteria, fungi, and free living amoebae--can cause several eye infections in wearers. Extended wear of contact lenses is the major risk factor of eye infections such as microbial keratitis, besides contaminated contact lens storage case, contaminated lens care solutions, and inaccurate contact lens handling. In this study, we collected contact lens storage case and domestic tap water samples from 50 asymptomatic contact lens wearers. We determined that total aerobic mesophilic bacteria were isolated in 45 (90 %), Gram negative rod bacteria were isolated in 20 (40 %), Pseudomonas spp. were isolated in 2 (4 %) and fungi were isolated in 18 (36 %) out of 50 contact lens storage cases. Free living amoebae were not detected in investigated contact lens storage cases. At the same time, out of 50, total aerobic mesophilic bacteria were isolated in 34 (68 %), fungi were isolated in 15 (30 %) and free living amoebae were isolated in 15 (30 %) domestic tap water samples. No Gram-negative rod bacteria and Pseudomonas spp. were detected in investigated water samples. Two contact lens case samples and two tap water samples were excluded from the analysis for Pseudomonas spp. for technical reasons. According to our findings, inadequate contact lens maintenance during lens wear may result in the contamination of contact lens storage cases. This situation can lead to severe eye infections in contact lens wearers over time.

  2. Removal of Fe(II) from tap water by electrocoagulation technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, D.; Solanki, H.; Purkait, M.K.

    2008-01-01

    Electrocoagulation (EC) is a promising electrochemical technique for water treatment. In this work electrocoagulation (with aluminum as electrodes) was studied for iron Fe(II) removal from aqueous medium. Different concentration of Fe(II) solution in tap water was considered for the experiment. During EC process, various amorphous aluminum hydroxides complexes with high sorption capacity were formed. The removal of Fe(II) was consisted of two principal steps; (a) oxidation of Fe(II) to Fe(III) and (b) subsequent removal of Fe(III) by the freshly formed aluminum hydroxides complexes by adsorption/surface complexation followed by precipitation. Experiments were carried out with different current densities ranging from 0.01 to 0.04 A/m 2 . It was observed that the removal of Fe(II) increases with current densities. Inter electrode distance was varied from 0.005 to 0.02 m and was found that least inter electrode distance is suitable in order to achieve higher Fe(II) removal. Other parameters such as conductivity, pH and salt concentration were kept constant as per tap water quality. Satisfactory iron removal of around 99.2% was obtained at the end of 35 min of operation from the initial concentration of 25 mg/L Fe(II). Iron concentration in the solution was determined using Atomic absorption spectrophotometer. By products obtained from the electrocoagulation bath were analyzed by SEM image and corresponding elemental analysis (EDAX). Cost estimation for the electrocoagulation was adopted and explained well. Up to 15 mg/L of initial Fe(II) concentration, the optimum total cost was 6.05 US$/m 3 . The EC process for removing Fe(II) from tap water is expected to be adaptable for household use

  3. Indoor Heating Drives Water Bacterial Growth and Community Metabolic Profile Changes in Building Tap Pipes during the Winter Season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hai-Han; Chen, Sheng-Nan; Huang, Ting-Lin; Shang, Pan-Lu; Yang, Xiao; Ma, Wei-Xing

    2015-10-27

    The growth of the bacterial community harbored in indoor drinking water taps is regulated by external environmental factors, such as indoor temperature. However, the effect of indoor heating on bacterial regrowth associated with indoor drinking water taps is poorly understood. In the present work, flow cytometry and community-level sole-carbon-source utilization techniques were combined to explore the effects of indoor heating on water bacterial cell concentrations and community carbon metabolic profiles in building tap pipes during the winter season. The results showed that the temperature of water stagnated overnight ("before") in the indoor water pipes was 15-17 °C, and the water temperature decreased to 4-6 °C after flushing for 10 min ("flushed"). The highest bacterial cell number was observed in water stagnated overnight, and was 5-11 times higher than that of flushed water. Meanwhile, a significantly higher bacterial community metabolic activity (AWCD590nm) was also found in overnight stagnation water samples. The significant "flushed" and "taps" values indicated that the AWCD590nm, and bacterial cell number varied among the taps within the flushed group (p heating periods.

  4. PLASMA NA/K CHANGES AFTER GASTRIC LAVAGE WITH TAP WATER IN INGESTION POISONING PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K MONTAZERI

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Ingestion poisoning include 79% of all poisoning. Usually the first step in management of these patients is gastric lavage, which in most centers is done by tap water (exepct for children below 4 years old. Due to low Na and K of tap water and daily secretion of Na and K in stomach, one of the probable complications of this lavage is lasting the Na and K, and electrolyte imbalance in patients. Methods. This study was done on 100 poisoned patients undergone Gastric lavage. All of patients were more than 4 years old. Poisoning by toxin or drug contain sodium or potassium, cause to exclude patients from study. For all patients Na/K of plasma before and half hour after gastric lavage were measured. After gastric lavage, volume of lavage, Na/K of lavage liquid and Na/K of tap water were recorded. Results. The changes of plasma Na in all patients were from 7 mmol/lit increasing to 12 mmol/Lit decreasing, and for plasma K were from 1 mmol/lit increasing to 1.2 mmol/lit decreasing. Means changes of Na was 2.74 mmol/lit decreasing and mean change of K was 0.33 mmol/Lit. Decreasing in plasma electrolytes in patients with high volume of gastric lavage was predominant but this relation between. volume of lavage and changing of plasma electrolytes was not considerable. Also total Na and K excretion" in all volumes of lavage was nearly equal. Discussion. In patients without underlying disesae, plasma Na/K changes during gastric lavage is not considerable but in patients with underlying disease or old patients can lead to electrolytes disturbance and to be recommended in these patients plasma elcectrolytes to be measured.

  5. Treatment of primary hyperhidrosis with tap water iontophoresis in paediatric patients: a retrospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dogruk Kacar, Seval; Ozuguz, Pinar; Eroglu, Selma; Polat, Serap; Karaca, Semsettin

    2014-12-01

    Primary hyperhidrosis is an under-recognized condition in children and adolescents. Iontophoresis is the second line of treatment for palmoplantar hyperhidrosis following topical treatment. The studies evaluating the efficacy of iontophoresis in children are limited. We aimed to investigate the efficacy and reliability of tap water iontophoresis in children with primary hyperhidrosis. Twenty-one patients aged under 18 years, who received iontophoresis for primary palmoplantar hyperhidrosis, were included in the study. In our clinic, tap water iontophoresis was administered at regular intervals, starting with five times per week and decreased to once a week on fifth week. Then maintenance sessions once a week for 6 weeks are recommended. The presence of excessive sweating was scored by visual analogue scale (VAS): "0" as continuation of excessive sweating and "10" as the absence of excessive sweating. The demographic and clinical data were collected from files. Also, patients fulfilled a questionnaire for efficacy on follow-up visit. Nineteen patients completed the whole 21 sessions. The mean VAS score was 5.89 ± 1.49 at the end of the 15th session and 6.36 ± 2.06 at the end of the treatment. Side effects were well tolerated. Only seven patients were still free of excessive sweating on third months after treatment. The mean satisfaction score was 4.95 ± 2.38, as measured by VAS where 0 indicated dissatisfaction and 10 indicated high satisfaction. Tap water iontophoresis is an effective method of treatment for primary palmoplantar and axillary hyperhidrosis in paediatric patients. But there are still unanswered questions about the mechanism of action, ideal session intervals and protocols for maximum efficacy.

  6. Assessment of the Extraction Methods for Monitoring Phthalate Emerging Contaminants in Groundwater and Tap Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotto, I.; Padilla, I. Y.; De Jesús, N. H.; Torres, P. M.

    2015-12-01

    Trace organic contaminants such as phthalates, among other chemicals of emerging concerns, have not historically been considered as pollutants but are being detected in water, posing a potential risk to public health and the environment. One of the most common phthalates of particular concern is di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), a plasticizer normally found in plastics and consumer products, including: cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, medical devices, food packages, water bottles, and wiring cables. DEHP has been associated with preterm birth, a major cause of neonatal mortality and health complications. This study aims at monitoring the presence and concentration of DEHP and other phthalates in groundwater and tap water systems in Puerto Rico, which has one of the highest rates of preterm birth in the U.S. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) suggests a liquid-liquid extraction method that uses methylene chloride as the preferred organic solvent for the extractions. This work presents modified EPA methods that reduce the volume of sample and solvent used, lower the time of analysis, increase productivity, and decrease hazards and waste. Distribution coefficient of DEHP between methylene chloride and water are estimated and related to sample extraction efficiency. Research results indicate that DEHP is in fact distributed between water and methylene chloride with a distribution coefficient average value of 1.24. The study concludes that the sample and solvent volumes have influence on the efficiency but have not an effect on the distribution coefficient. The tests show higher extraction efficiencies for lower DEHP concentrations and higher extraction volumes. Results from the water analysis show presence of DEHP in 55% of groundwater and 44% of tap water samples, indicating a potential exposure through water.

  7. Growth-supporting activity for Legionella pneumophila in tap water cultures and implication of hartmannellid amoebae as growth factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wadowsky, R M; Butler, L J; Cook, M K; Verma, S M; Paul, M A; Fields, B S; Keleti, G; Sykora, J L; Yee, R B

    1988-11-01

    Photosynthetic cyanobacteria, heterotrophic bacteria, free-living amoebae, and ciliated protozoa may support growth of Legionella pneumophila. Studies were done with two tap water cultures (WS1 and WS2) containing L. pneumophila and associated microbiota to characterize growth-supporting activity and assess the relative importance of the microbiota in supporting multiplication of L. pneumophila. The water cultures were incubated in the dark at 35 degrees C. The growth-supporting factor(s) was separated from each culture by filtration through 1-micron-pore-size membrane filters. The retentate was then suspended in sterile tap water. Multiplication of L. pneumophila occurred when both the retentate suspension and the filtrate from either culture were inoculated into sterile tap water. L. pneumophila did not multiply in tap water inoculated with only the filtrate, even though filtration did not reduce the concentration of L. pneumophila or heterotrophic bacteria in either culture. Growth-supporting activity of the retentate suspension from WS1 was inactivated at 60 degrees C but unaffected at 0, 25, and 45 degrees C after 30-min incubations. Filtration experiments indicated that the growth-supporting factor(s) in WS1 was 2 to 5 micron in diameter. Ciliated protozoa were not detected in either culture. Hartmannellid amoebae were conclusively demonstrated in WS2 but not in WS1. L. pneumophila multiplied in tap water inoculated with the amoebae (10(3)/ml) and the 1-micron filtrate of WS2. No multiplication occurred in tap water inoculated with the filtrate only. Growth-supporting activity for L. pneumophila may be present in plumbing systems; hartmannellid amoebae appear to be important determinants of multiplication of L. pneumophila in some tap water cultures.

  8. Water heater temperature set point and water use patterns influence Legionella pneumophila and associated microorganisms at the tap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhoads, William J; Ji, Pan; Pruden, Amy; Edwards, Marc A

    2015-12-01

    Lowering water heater temperature set points and using less drinking water are common approaches to conserving water and energy; yet, there are discrepancies in past literature regarding the effects of water heater temperature and water use patterns on the occurrence of opportunistic pathogens, in particular Legionella pneumophila. Our objective was to conduct a controlled, replicated pilot-scale investigation to address this knowledge gap using continuously recirculating water heaters to examine five water heater set points (39-58 °C) under three water use conditions. We hypothesized that L. pneumophila levels at the tap depend on the collective influence of water heater temperature, flow frequency, and the resident plumbing ecology. We confirmed temperature setting to be a critical factor in suppressing L. pneumophila growth both in continuously recirculating hot water lines and at distal taps. For example, at 51 °C, planktonic L. pneumophila in recirculating lines was reduced by a factor of 28.7 compared to 39 °C and was prevented from re-colonizing biofilm. However, L. pneumophila still persisted up to 58 °C, with evidence that it was growing under the conditions of this study. Further, exposure to 51 °C water in a low-use tap appeared to optimally select for L. pneumophila (e.g., 125 times greater numbers than in high-use taps). We subsequently explored relationships among L. pneumophila and other ecologically relevant microbes, noting that elevated temperature did not have a general disinfecting effect in terms of total bacterial numbers. We documented the relationship between L. pneumophila and Legionella spp., and noted several instances of correlations with Vermamoeba vermiformis, and generally found that there is a dynamic relationship with this amoeba host over the range of temperatures and water use frequencies examined. Our study provides a new window of understanding into the microbial ecology of potable hot water systems and helps to resolve

  9. A study on the prevalence of Aeromonas spp. and its enterotoxin genes in samples of well water, tap water, and bottled water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hareesh Didugu

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of this work was to study the prevalence of Aeromonas spp. and its enterotoxin genes in various water sources. Materials and Methods: 125 samples (50 from well water, 50 from tap water, and 25 from bottled water were collected from various sources in and around Greater Hyderabad Municipal Corporation and examined for the presence of aeromonads by both cultural and polymerase chain reaction (PCR assay. Alkaline peptone water with ampicillin was used as enrichment. Aeromonas isolation medium and ampicillin dextrin agar were used as selective media. The boiling and snap chilling method was used for DNA extraction. Primers targeted against 16S rRNA, aer, and ast were used to identify aeromonads and its enterotoxins. Results: 48%, 18%, and 12% of well water, tap water, and bottled water samples were found positive by cultural assay with an overall prevalence of 28.8%. Aeromonads were detected in 32 % (52% in well water, 20% in tap water, and 16% in bottled water of samples by PCR assay. Aerolysin (aer gene was noticed in 34.6%, 20%, and 0% of well water, tap water, and bottled water samples, respectively, with an overall prevalence of 27.5%. Thermostable cytotonic enterotoxin (ast was observed in 37.5% (42.3% in well water, 30% in tap water, and 25% in bottled mineral water of samples. Conclusions: Presence of aeromonads and its toxin genes in various sources of water is of public health concern and emphasizes the need for necessary preventive measures to tackle the problem.

  10. The occurrence of Aeromonas spp. in the bottled mineral water, well water and tap water from the municipal supplies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise de Oliveira Scoaris

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study the occurrence of Aeromonas sp in the bottled mineral water, well water and tap water from the municipal supplies. Positive samples were found for Aeromonas spp. 12.7% from the mineral water, 8.3% from the artesian water and 6.5% from the tap water. The recovery of Aeromonas spp. was significantly higher in the bottled mineral and artesian water than in the tap water from municipal supplies. The occurrence of the Aeromonas spp. did not correlate significantly with the contamination indicator bacteria (i.e. total coliforms in the artesian water samples. However, a significant correlation was found between Aeromonas spp. and total coliforms in the both mineral water and tap water samples. The presence or absence of a correlation between the indicator bacteria and Aeromonas could reflect the occasional appearance of the pathogen in the drinking water and the different rates of survival and recovery of these agents compared with those fecal indicators. The finding that 41.6, 14.8 and 9.0 % of the artesian water, bottled mineral water and tap water, respectively, sampled in the current study failed to meet the Brazilian standard for total coliforms in the drinking water should therefore be of concern.A porcentagem de amostras positivas para Aeromonas foi de 12.7% para água mineral, 8.3% para água de poço artesiano e 6.5% para água do sistema público de abastecimento. O isolamento de Aeromonas spp. foi significativamente maior em água mineral e água de poço artesiano do que em água do sistema público. A ocorrência de Aeromonas spp. não teve correlação significativa com os indicadores de contaminação tradicionalmente utilizados (coliformes totais em amostras de água de poço artesiano. No entanto, esta correlação foi positiva e significativa em água mineral e água do sistema público. A presença ou ausência de correlação entre bactérias indicadoras e a presença de Aeromonas pode refletir o

  11. Spatial, seasonal, and source variability in the stable oxygen and hydrogen isotopic composition of tap waters throughout the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landwehr, Jurate M.; Coplen, Tyler B.; Stewart, David W.

    2013-01-01

    To assess spatial, seasonal, and source variability in stable isotopic composition of human drinking waters throughout the entire USA, we have constructed a database of δ18O and δ2H of US tap waters. An additional purpose was to create a publicly available dataset useful for evaluating the forensic applicability of these isotopes for human tissue source geolocation. Samples were obtained at 349 sites, from diverse population centres, grouped by surface hydrologic units for regional comparisons. Samples were taken concurrently during two contrasting seasons, summer and winter. Source supply (surface, groundwater, mixed, and cistern) and system (public and private) types were noted. The isotopic composition of tap waters exhibits large spatial and regional variation within each season as well as significant at-site differences between seasons at many locations, consistent with patterns found in environmental (river and precipitation) waters deriving from hydrologic processes influenced by geographic factors. However, anthropogenic factors, such as the population of a tap’s surrounding community and local availability from diverse sources, also influence the isotopic composition of tap waters. Even within a locale as small as a single metropolitan area, tap waters with greatly differing isotopic compositions can be found, so that tap water within a region may not exhibit the spatial or temporal coherence predicted for environmental water. Such heterogeneities can be confounding factors when attempting forensic inference of source water location, and they underscore the necessity of measurements, not just predictions, with which to characterize the isotopic composition of regional tap waters. Published 2013. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  12. Blood Lead Levels and Dental Caries in U.S. Children Who Do Not Drink Tap Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Anne E; Slade, Gary D

    2018-02-01

    This study's purpose is to determine whether nonconsumption of tap water is associated with lower prevalence of elevated blood lead levels and higher prevalence of dental caries in children and adolescents. Cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2005-2014 recorded drinking water source (n=15,604) and blood lead levels (n=12,373) for participants aged 2-19 years, and dental caries experience for the 2011-2014 subset (n=5,677). The threshold for elevated blood lead level was ≥3 μg/dL. A binary outcome indicated presence or absence of dental caries experience. Multivariable generalized linear models estimated adjusted prevalence ratios with 95% confidence limits. In analysis conducted in 2017, 15% of children and adolescents did not drink tap water, 3% had elevated blood lead levels ≥3 μg/dL, and 50% had dental caries experience. Children and adolescents who did not drink water were less likely than tap water drinkers to have an elevated blood lead level (adjusted prevalence ratios=0.62, 95% confidence limits=0.42, 0.90). Nonconsumers of tap water were more likely to have dental caries (adjusted prevalence ratios=1.13, 95% confidence limits=1.03, 1.23). Results persisted after adjustment for other covariates and using a higher threshold for elevated blood lead level. In this nationally representative U.S. survey, children and adolescents who did not drink tap water had lower prevalence of elevated blood lead levels and higher prevalence of dental caries than those who drank tap water. Copyright © 2018 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Pseudo-outbreak of Cupriavidus pauculus infection at an outpatient clinic related to rinsing culturette swabs in tap water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balada-Llasat, Joan-Miquel; Elkins, Camille; Swyers, Lettie; Bannerman, Tammy; Pancholi, Preeti

    2010-07-01

    Cupriavidus pauculus is a water microorganism rarely isolated from clinical specimens. We describe a pseudo-outbreak in which multiple strains that were associated with moistening of culturette swabs with tap water were isolated from a single clinic before collecting the patient specimen.

  14. The role of domestic tap water on Acanthamoeba keratitis in non-contact lens wearers and validation of laboratory methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koltas, Ismail Soner; Eroglu, Fadime; Erdem, Elif; Yagmur, Meltem; Tanır, Ferdi

    2015-09-01

    Acanthamoeba is increasingly recognized as an important cause of keratitis in non-contact lens wearers while contact lens wear is the leading risk factor for Acanthamoeba keratitis (AK). It is unlikely that the Acanthamoeba colonization is a feature which is effective only in patient's homes with infectious keratitis since the organism has been isolated from domestic tap water. Two hundred and thirty-one (231) corneal scrapings were taken from infectious keratitis cases, and four contact lens solutions and domestic tap waters were taken from 22 out of 44 AK-diagnosed patient's homes. Microscopic examination, culture, PCR, real-time PCR and DNA sequencing analyses were used for AK-diagnosed samples. The real-time PCR was the most sensitive (100 %) one among the methods used in diagnosis of AK. The 44 (19.0 %) out of 231 corneal scrapings, 4/4 (100 %) contact lens solution and 11/22 (50 %) of domestic tap water samples were found to be positive by real-time PCR for Acanthamoeba. A. griffini (T3), A. castellanii (T4) and A. jacobsi (T15) genotypes were obtained from corneal scrapings, contact lens solutions and domestic tap water samples taken from the patient's homes diagnosed with AK. The isolation of Acanthamoeba containing 6/22 (27.3 %) A. griffini (T3), 14/22 (63.6 %) A. castellanii (T4) and 2/22 (9.1 %) A. jacobsi (T15) from the domestic tap water outlets of 22 of 44 (50 %) of patient's homes revealed that is a significant source of these organisms. A. griffini (T3) and A. jacobsi (T15) genotypes have not been determined from AK cases in Turkey previously. Thus, we conclude that Acanthamoeba keratitis is associated with exposition of patients who has ocular trauma or ocular surface disease to domestic tap water in endemic or potentially endemic countries.

  15. Nitrotoga is selected over Nitrospira in newly assembled biofilm communities from a tap water source community at increased nitrite loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinnunen, Marta; Gülay, Arda; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    Community assembly is a central topic in microbial ecology: how do assembly processes interact and what is the relative contribution of stochasticity and determinism? Here, we exposed replicate flow-through biofilm systems, fed with nitrite-supplemented tap water, to continuous immigration from...... a source community, present in the tap water, to determine the extent of selection and neutral processes in newly assembled biofilm communities at both the community and the functional guild (of nitrite-oxidizing bacteria, NOB) levels. The community composition of biofilms assembled under low and high...

  16. Development of a coprecipitation system for the speciation/preconcentration of chromium in tap waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karatepe, Aslihan, E-mail: karatepea@gmail.com [Nevsehir University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Department of Chemistry, 50000 Nevsehir (Turkey); Korkmaz, Esra [Bozok University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Department of Chemistry, Yozgat (Turkey); Soylak, Mustafa [Erciyes University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Chemistry Department, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey); Elci, Latif [Pamukkale University, Faculty of Science and Arts, Department of Chemistry, 20020 Denizli (Turkey)

    2010-01-15

    A method for the speciation of chromium(III), chromium(VI) and determination of total chromium based on coprecipitation of chromium(III) with dysprosium hydroxide has been investigated and applied to tap water samples. Chromium(III) was quantitatively recovered by the presented method, while the recovery values for chromium(VI) was below 10%. The influences of analytical parameters including amount of dysprosium(III), pH, centrifugation speed and sample volume for the quantitative precipitation were examined. No interferic effects were observed from alkali, earth alkali and some transition metals for the analyte ions. The detection limits (k = 3, N = 15) were 0.65 {mu}g/L for chromium(III) and 0.78 {mu}g/L for chromium(VI). The validation of the presented method was checked by the analysis of certified reference materials.

  17. Development of a coprecipitation system for the speciation/preconcentration of chromium in tap waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karatepe, Aslihan; Korkmaz, Esra; Soylak, Mustafa; Elci, Latif

    2010-01-01

    A method for the speciation of chromium(III), chromium(VI) and determination of total chromium based on coprecipitation of chromium(III) with dysprosium hydroxide has been investigated and applied to tap water samples. Chromium(III) was quantitatively recovered by the presented method, while the recovery values for chromium(VI) was below 10%. The influences of analytical parameters including amount of dysprosium(III), pH, centrifugation speed and sample volume for the quantitative precipitation were examined. No interferic effects were observed from alkali, earth alkali and some transition metals for the analyte ions. The detection limits (k = 3, N = 15) were 0.65 μg/L for chromium(III) and 0.78 μg/L for chromium(VI). The validation of the presented method was checked by the analysis of certified reference materials.

  18. Forecasting HotWater Consumption in Residential Houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linas Gelažanskas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An increased number of intermittent renewables poses a threat to the system balance. As a result, new tools and concepts, like advanced demand-side management and smart grid technologies, are required for the demand to meet supply. There is a need for higher consumer awareness and automatic response to a shortage or surplus of electricity. The distributed water heater can be considered as one of the most energy-intensive devices, where its energy demand is shiftable in time without influencing the comfort level. Tailored hot water usage predictions and advanced control techniques could enable these devices to supply ancillary energy balancing services. The paper analyses a set of hot water consumption data from residential dwellings. This work is an important foundation for the development of a demand-side management strategy based on hot water consumption forecasting at the level of individual residential houses. Various forecasting models, such as exponential smoothing, seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average, seasonal decomposition and a combination of them, are fitted to test different prediction techniques. These models outperform the chosen benchmark models (mean, naive and seasonal naive and show better performance measure values. The results suggest that seasonal decomposition of the time series plays the most significant part in the accuracy of forecasting.

  19. [One-time effects of drinking mineral water and tap water enriched with silver nanoparticles on the biochemical markers of liver condition and metabolic parameters in healthy rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Efimenko, N V; Frolkov, V K; Kozlova, V V; Kaisinova, A S; Chalaya, E N

    2017-12-05

     The objective of the present research was to study the influence of tap water enriched with silver nanoparticles (NP) as well as that of «Krasnoarmeysky» and «Essentuki №17» mineral waters after their single administration through the oral gavage to the rats on the metabolism of carbohydrates and lipids, the biochemical markers of the liver condition, and the endocrine profile in the healthy animals.  The laboratory animals (130 male Wistar rats) were allocated to thirteen groups comprised of 10 rats each as follows: 1st group (n=10) intact animals, 2nd group (5 minutes after the administration of silver NP (n=10), 3rd group (15 minutes after the of silver NP), 4th group (60 minutes after the administration of silver NP), 5th group (n=10) (5 minutes after the introduction of the «Krasnoarmeysky» mineral water), 6th group (n=10) (15 min after the introduction of the «Krasnoarmeysky» mineral water), 7th group (n=10), (60 minutes after the introduction of the «Krasnoarmeysky» mineral water) 8th group (n=10) (5 minutes after the introduction of the «Essentuki № 17» mineral water), 9th group (n=10) (15 min after the introduction of the «Essentuki № 7» mineral water) , 10th group (n=10) (60 minutes after the introduction of the «Essentuki №17» mineral water), 11th group (n=10) (5 minutes after administration of tap water (control),12th group (n=10) (15 minutes after administration of tap water (control), and 13th (n=10) group 60 minutes after administration of tap water (control).  The study has demonstrated that the tap water enriched with silver nanoparticles similar to the mineral waters caused stress reactions that are inferior to those induced by «Essentuki №17» mineral water in terms of the magnitude; however, the effect provoked by the tap water was of longer duration. Moreover, the tap water enriched with silver nanoparticles stimulates prooxidant reactions, and inhibit the activity of antioxidant protection. Silver nanoparticles

  20. Isolation and identification of Acanthamoeba strains from soil and tap water in Yanji, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xuan, Yinghua; Shen, Yanqin; Ge, Yuxi; Yan, Gen; Zheng, Shanzi

    2017-06-30

    Members of the genus Acanthamoeba are widely distributed throughout the world, and some of them are considered pathogenic, as they are capable of causing corneal and central nervous system diseases. In this study, we isolated Acanthamoeba strains from soil and tap water in Yanji, China. We identified four strains of Acanthamoeba (CJY/S1, CJY/S2, CJY/S3, and CJY/W1) using mitochondrial DNA restriction fragment length polymorphism (mtDNA RFLP) analysis. Nuclear 18S rDNA sequences were used for phylogenetic analysis and species identification. Genotypic characterization of the isolates showed that they belonged to genotypes T4 (CJY/S1 and CJY/S2), T5 (CJY/S3), and T16 (CJY/W1). Sequence differences between CJY/S1 and Acanthamoeba castellanii Neff, CJY/S2 and Acanthamoeba KA/E7, and CJY/S3 and Acanthamoeba lenticulata 68-2 were 0.31, 0.2, and 0.26%, respectively. 18S ribosomal deoxyribonucleic acid (rDNA) of CJY/W1 had 99% sequence identity to that of Acanthamoeba sp. U/H-C1. Strains CJY/S1 and CJY/S2, isolated from soil, had similar mtDNA RFLP patterns, whereas strain CJY/W1, isolated from tap water, displayed a different pattern. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the identification of genotypes T4, T5, and T16 from environmental sources in Yanji, China.

  1. Estimation of the consumption of cold tap water for microbiological risk assessment: An overview of studies and statistical analysis of data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mons, M.N.; Wielen, J.M.L. van der; Blokker, E.J.M.; Sinclair, M.I.; Hulshof, K.F.A.M.; Dangendorf, F.; Hunter, P.R.; Medema, G.J.

    2007-01-01

    The volume of cold tap water consumed is an essential element in quantitative microbial risk assessment. This paper presents a review of tap water consumption studies. Study designs were evaluated and statistical distributions were fitted to water consumption data from The Netherlands, Great

  2. Persistence of antibiotic resistance genes and bacterial community changes in drinking water treatment system: From drinking water source to tap water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Hao-Chang; Liu, You-Sheng; Pan, Chang-Gui; Chen, Jun; He, Liang-Ying; Ying, Guang-Guo

    2018-03-01

    As emerging contaminants, antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) have become a public concern. This study aimed to investigate the occurrence and diversity of ARGs, and variation in the composition of bacterial communities in source water, drinking water treatment plants, and tap water in the Pearl River Delta region, South China. Various ARGs were present in the different types of water. Among the 27 target ARGs, floR and sul1 dominated in source water from three large rivers in the region. Pearson correlation analysis suggested that sul1, sul2, floR, and cmlA could be potential indicators for ARGs in water samples. The total abundance of the detected ARGs in tap water was much lower than that in source water. Sand filtration and sedimentation in drinking water treatment plants could effectively remove ARGs; in contrast, granular activated carbon filtration increased the abundance of ARGs. It was found that Pseudomonas may be involved in the proliferation and dissemination of ARGs in the studied drinking water treatment system. Bacteria and ARGs were still present in tap water after treatment, though they were significantly reduced. More research is needed to optimize the water treatment process for ARG removal. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Rate of Legionella pneumophila colonization in hospital hot water network after time flow taps installation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totaro, M; Valentini, P; Costa, A L; Giorgi, S; Casini, B; Baggiani, A

    2018-01-01

    In hospital water systems legionellae may be resistant to disinfectants in pipework, which is a problem particularly in areas where there is low flow or stagnation of water. We evaluated legionella colonization of a water network of an Italian hospital after time flow taps (TFTs) installation in proximity to dead legs. The water volume flushed was 64 L/day from May 2016, and 192 L/day from December 2016. Before TFTs installation, Legionella pneumophila sg2-14 was detected in all points (4 × 10 4  ± 3.1 × 10 4  cfu/L). All sites remained positive (2.9 × 10 4  ± 1.9 × 10 4  cfu/L) through November 2016. From December 2016 legionella persisted in one point only (2 × 10 2 to 6.8 × 10 3  cfu/L). TFTs with chemical disinfection may reduce legionella colonization associated with dead legs. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Disinfection of Mycobacterium avium subspecies hominissuis in drinking tap water using ultraviolet germicidal irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schiavano, Giuditta Fiorella; De Santi, Mauro; Sisti, Maurizio; Amagliani, Giulia; Brandi, Giorgio

    2017-09-13

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria are resistant to conventional water treatments, and are opportunistic human pathogen, particularly in hospitalized patients. The aim of this investigation was to assess the effectiveness of an ultraviolet UV-C lamp treatment against Mycobacterium avium subspecies hominissuis in drinking tap water. Ultraviolet treatments (0-192 mJ/cm 2 ) were performed using UV lamp immerged onto cylindrical glass tubes containing artificially contaminated water. The results showed that susceptibility to UV varied considerably according to the strains and the diameter of the tube. With a dose of 32 mJ/cm 2 , a significant inactivation (p < .05) of 3 log (99.9%) or more was obtained in only 5 of the 14 strains. To obtain a complete inactivation of all strains an irradiation of 192 mJ/cm 2 was needed, a dose that is much higher than the limits recommended by the international standards for UV disinfection of drinking water. In conclusion, it may be difficult to standardize a UV dose for the elimination of waterborne mycobacteria.

  5. Indoor Heating Drives Water Bacterial Growth and Community Metabolic Profile Changes in Building Tap Pipes during the Winter Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Han Zhang

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The growth of the bacterial community harbored in indoor drinking water taps is regulated by external environmental factors, such as indoor temperature. However, the effect of indoor heating on bacterial regrowth associated with indoor drinking water taps is poorly understood. In the present work, flow cytometry and community-level sole-carbon-source utilization techniques were combined to explore the effects of indoor heating on water bacterial cell concentrations and community carbon metabolic profiles in building tap pipes during the winter season. The results showed that the temperature of water stagnated overnight (“before” in the indoor water pipes was 15–17 °C, and the water temperature decreased to 4–6 °C after flushing for 10 min (“flushed”. The highest bacterial cell number was observed in water stagnated overnight, and was 5–11 times higher than that of flushed water. Meanwhile, a significantly higher bacterial community metabolic activity (AWCD590nm was also found in overnight stagnation water samples. The significant “flushed” and “taps” values indicated that the AWCD590nm, and bacterial cell number varied among the taps within the flushed group (p < 0.01. Heatmap fingerprints and principle component analyses (PCA revealed a significant discrimination bacterial community functional metabolic profiles in the water stagnated overnight and flushed water. Serine, threonine, glucose-phosphate, ketobutyric acid, phenylethylamine, glycerol, putrescine were significantly used by “before” water samples. The results suggested that water stagnated at higher temperature should be treated before drinking because of bacterial regrowth. The data from this work provides useful information on reasonable utilization of drinking water after stagnation in indoor pipes during indoor heating periods.

  6. Health improvement of domestic hot tap water supply Gusev, Kaliningrad Region, Russia. Make-up water tank project. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aagaard, Joergen

    1998-07-01

    This report describes the project `Health Improvement of Domestic Hot Tap Water Supply, Gusev, Kaliningrad, Russia`, which was carried out in the autumn of 1996 and financed by the Danish Environmental Protection Agency, the Danish Energy Agency and Gusev Municipality. The project proposal and application outlined the following objectives: Erection of system so that hot tap water, which is tapped directly from the district heating system, obtains an acceptable quality in health terms; Complete training and education, so that the plant can be operated and maintained by the power station`s staff and rehabilitation projects within supply of domestic water and district heating can be promoted to the greatest possible extent; Systems for heat treatment of make-up water were implemented in less than three months; The project was carried out in close Danish-Russian co-operation from the beginning of engineering to the commissioning and resulted in transfer and demonstration of know-how and technology; Information was recorded on the existing domestic water and heat supply systems as well as on the treatment of sewage, and recommendations for rehabilitation projects were made. Previously, when the temperature in the district heating system was relatively high, a heat treatment apparently took place in the district heating system. However, due to the current poor economic situation there are no means with which to buy the fuel quantities necessary to maintain the previously normal district heating temperature. In the new concept the cold make-up water is heated to >80 deg. C as required by the health authorities before it is led to the district heating return system and subsequently heated to the actual supply temperature of 50-60 deg. C. The energy consumption in the two concepts is approximately the same. A 1,000 m{sup 3} tank with heating coils was erected between the make-up water system and the district heating system. The tank should equalise the daily capacity

  7. Quantifying tap-to-household water quality deterioration in urban communities in Vellore, India: The impact of spatial assumptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcon Falconi, Tania M; Kulinkina, Alexandra V; Mohan, Venkata Raghava; Francis, Mark R; Kattula, Deepthi; Sarkar, Rajiv; Ward, Honorine; Kang, Gagandeep; Balraj, Vinohar; Naumova, Elena N

    2017-01-01

    Municipal water sources in India have been found to be highly contaminated, with further water quality deterioration occurring during household storage. Quantifying water quality deterioration requires knowledge about the exact source tap and length of water storage at the household, which is not usually known. This study presents a methodology to link source and household stored water, and explores the effects of spatial assumptions on the association between tap-to-household water quality deterioration and enteric infections in two semi-urban slums of Vellore, India. To determine a possible water source for each household sample, we paired household and tap samples collected on the same day using three spatial approaches implemented in GIS: minimum Euclidean distance; minimum network distance; and inverse network-distance weighted average. Logistic and Poisson regression models were used to determine associations between water quality deterioration and household-level characteristics, and between diarrheal cases and water quality deterioration. On average, 60% of households had higher fecal coliform concentrations in household samples than at source taps. Only the weighted average approach detected a higher risk of water quality deterioration for households that do not purify water and that have animals in the home (RR=1.50 [1.03, 2.18], p=0.033); and showed that households with water quality deterioration were more likely to report diarrheal cases (OR=3.08 [1.21, 8.18], p=0.02). Studies to assess contamination between source and household are rare due to methodological challenges and high costs associated with collecting paired samples. Our study demonstrated it is possible to derive useful spatial links between samples post hoc; and that the pairing approach affects the conclusions related to associations between enteric infections and water quality deterioration. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Geothermal brine well: Mile-deep drill hole may tap ore-bearing magmatic water and rocks Undergoing Metamorphism

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, D.E.; Anderson, E.T.; Grubbs, D.K.

    1963-01-01

    A deep geothermal well in California has tapped a very saline brine extraordinarily high in heavy metals and other rare elements; copper and silver are precipitated during brine production. Preliminary evidence suggests that the brine may be pure magmatic water and an active ore-forming solution. Metamorphism of relatively young rocks may also be occurring within accessible depths.

  9. 76 FR 63211 - Energy Efficiency Program: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... Efficiency Program: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, and Pool Heaters... residential water heaters, direct heating equipment, and pool heaters. This rulemaking is intended to fulfill... water heaters, possible clarifications and improvement of the direct heating equipment test procedures...

  10. 75 FR 52892 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-30

    ... for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, and Pool Heaters AGENCY: Office of Energy... ``Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products Other Than Automobiles,'' including residential water... energy consumption, and because off mode is not applicable to water heaters, no amendment is required...

  11. 77 FR 74559 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-17

    ... Energy (DOE) is amending its test procedures for residential water heaters, direct heating equipment (DHE... procedures for residential water heaters include a full- year accounting of energy use, both electricity and... water heaters already account for standby mode and off mode energy consumption. III. Discussion In the...

  12. Effective Dose Radon 222 of the Tap Water in Children and Adults People; Minab City, Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakhri, Yadolah; Kargosha, Morteza; Langarizadeh, Ghazaleh; Zandsalimi, Yahya; Rasouli Amirhajeloo, Leila; Moradi, Mahboobeh; Moradi, Bigard; Mirzaei, Maryam

    2015-09-01

    (222)Rn is a radioactive, odorless, and colorless element which has a half-life of 3.83 days. One of (222)Rn main resources are Groundwater (wells, springs, etc.). Hence, the use of groundwater with high concentration of (222)Rn can increase the risk of lung and stomach cancers. Concentration of (222)Rn in tap water of Minab city in two temperatures 5 and 15 ºC was measured by radon meter model RTM1668-2. The effective dose was calculated by equations proposed by UNSCEAR. Geometric mean concentration of (222)Rn in drinking water was found to be 0.78±0.06 and 0.46±0.04 Bq/l at 5 and 15 ̊C (p value<0.05), respectively. The effective doses were 0.006 and 0.003 mSv/y for adults, and 0.011 and 0.007 mSv/y for the children, respectively (p value<0.05). Besides, the effective dose for adult through inhaling (222)Rn at 5 and 15 ̊C were estimated 0.0021 and 0.0012mSv/y, respectively. Geometric mean concentration in (222)Rn drinking water and effective dose received from drinking water and inhalation of (222)Rn is lower than WHO and EPA standard limits. Increasing temperature of drinking water will decrease the effective dose received. Annual Effective dose received from inhalation and consumption of (222)Rn in drinking water in children is more than adults.

  13. Thermodynamic and structural studies of mixed monolayers: Mutual mixing of DPPC and DPPG with DoTAP at the air-water interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panda, Amiya Kumar, E-mail: akpanda1@yahoo.com [Department of Chemistry, University of North Bengal, Darjeeling-734 013, West Bengal (India); Vasilev, Krasimir [Mawson Institute for Advanced Manufacturing, Mawson Lakes, University of South Australia, SA-5095 (Australia); Orgeig, Sandra [Sansom Institute for Health Research and School of Pharmacy and Medical Sciences, University of South Australia, Adelaide, SA 5000 (Australia); Prestidge, Clive A. [Ian Wark Research Institute, University of South Australia, Mawson Lakes, SA 5095 (Australia)

    2010-05-10

    Phospholipid monomolecular films at the air-water interface are useful model membranes to understand miscibility among various components. Surface pressure ({pi})-area (A) isotherms of pure and mixed monolayers of dioleoyltrimethylammonium propane (DoTAP)-dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and DoTAP-dipalmitoyphosphatidylglycerol (DPPG) were constructed using a surface balance. DPPC and DPPG produced isotherms as expected and reported earlier. DoTAP, an unsaturated lipid, demonstrated a continuous {pi}-A isotherm. Associative interactions were identified in DPPC-DoTAP mixtures compared to the pure components, while DPPG-DoTAP mixtures showed repulsive interaction up to an equimolar ratio. Compression moduli of the monolayers revealed that DPPC-DoTAP mixtures had increasing stability with increasing surface pressure, but addition of DoTAP to DPPG showed instability at low and intermediate concentrations. In both cases increased stability was returned at higher X{sub DoTAP} values and surface pressures. Lipid monolayer film thickness values, determined on a gold coated glass substrate by surface plasmon resonance spectroscopy (SPR), indicated a systematic change in height profile for DPPC-DoTAP mixtures with increasing X{sub DoTAP}. However, DPPG-DoTAP mixed monolayer systems demonstrated a biphasic response. The SPR data were in excellent agreement with our interpretation of the structure of solid supported lipid monolayers.

  14. The impact of the hot tap water load pattern in the industrial hall on the energy yield from solar collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidorów-Kaprawyl, Natalia; Dudkiewicz, Edyta

    2017-11-01

    The systems using solar energy, popular in Poland, can be used to supply hot water for the installation used by employees of industrial halls. In manufacturing plants, employing a large number of people, the demand for hot water is practically constant throughout the year and is characterized by periodic use at the end of each work shift. Dynamics of the hot water consumption depends on the number of shifts as well as working days and holidays. Additionally the maximum hot tap water demand occurs in the whole period of installation operation. In polish climatic conditions the solar collectors' systems have the largest capacity in the summer, while in winter they need to be assisted. Beside that the supply of renewable energy is uneven and depends on weather conditions. In the paper the one-hour step analysis concerning the dependence of the load pattern of the hot tap water preparation system on the energy yield from solar collectors had been performed.

  15. Pollution by Nonylphenol in river, tap water, and aquatic in an acid rain-plagued city in southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, Yu; Jie, Zhou; Ya, Luo; Xuesong, Yang; Jing, Yang; Yu, Yang; Jiaqi, Yang; Jie, Xu

    2017-06-01

    Nonylphenol (NP) has provoked much environmental concern because of their weak estrogenic activities; however, few data are available on the environmental levels of the chemical in China. Environmental or river samples were assayed for NP by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique. The concentration for NP measured in Xiangjiang River, ranging from 0.174 to 3.411 μg/L with a mean value of 1.73 μg/L, was lower than the Water Quality Criteria for NP of the US (6.6 μg/L); however, the NP concentration was maintained at a higher level compare to the developed countries and other civil cities. NP concentration in downstream water was markedly higher than that both in midstream and upstream water. Tissue accumulation of NP was observed in aquatics. A ratio of mean concentration of NP in aquatic (chlamys farreri and hemiculter leucisculus) to that in river water was 241 and 1087, respectively. The presence of NP in tap water in two urban districts of Zunyi was common with a detectable rate reached 100.0%. Mean NP concentration in terminal tap water in Huichuan district was six times as high as Honghuagang district, which was above Standards for the Drinking Water Quality for Phenols of China (2 μg/L). The pollution of NP in Xiangjiang River, tap water, and aquatic in Zunyi belongs to moderate or severe level in the world.

  16. Occurrence, Source, and Human Infection Potential of Cryptosporidium and Giardia spp. in Source and Tap Water in Shanghai, China▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yaoyu; Zhao, Xukun; Chen, Jiaxu; Jin, Wei; Zhou, Xiaonong; Li, Na; Wang, Lin; Xiao, Lihua

    2011-01-01

    Genotyping studies on the source and human infection potential of Cryptosporidium oocysts in water have been almost exclusively conducted in industrialized nations. In this study, 50 source water samples and 30 tap water samples were collected in Shanghai, China, and analyzed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Method 1623. To find a cost-effective method to replace the filtration procedure, the water samples were also concentrated by calcium carbonate flocculation (CCF). Of the 50 source water samples, 32% were positive for Cryptosporidium and 18% for Giardia by Method 1623, whereas 22% were positive for Cryptosporidium and 10% for Giardia by microscopy of CCF concentrates. When CCF was combined with PCR for detection, the occurrence of Cryptosporidium (28%) was similar to that obtained by Method 1623. Genotyping of Cryptosporidium in 17 water samples identified the presence of C. andersoni in 14 water samples, C. suis in 7 water samples, C. baileyi in 2 water samples, C. meleagridis in 1 water sample, and C. hominis in 1 water sample. Therefore, farm animals, especially cattle and pigs, were the major sources of water contamination in Shanghai source water, and most oocysts found in source water in the area were not infectious to humans. Cryptosporidium oocysts were found in 2 of 30 tap water samples. The combined use of CCF for concentration and PCR for detection and genotyping provides a less expensive alternative to filtration and fluorescence microscopy for accurate assessment of Cryptosporidium contamination in water, although the results from this method are semiquantitative. PMID:21498768

  17. Disparities in plain, tap and bottled water consumption among US adults: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosinger, Asher Y; Herrick, Kirsten A; Wutich, Amber Y; Yoder, Jonathan S; Ogden, Cynthia L

    2018-02-01

    Differences in bottled v. tap water intake may provide insights into health disparities, like risk of dental caries and inadequate hydration. We examined differences in plain, tap and bottled water consumption among US adults by sociodemographic characteristics. Cross-sectional analysis. We used 24 h dietary recall data to test differences in percentage consuming the water sources and mean intake between groups using Wald tests and multiple logistic and linear regression models. National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES), 2007-2014. A nationally representative sample of 20 676 adults aged ≥20 years. In 2011-2014, 81·4 (se 0·6) % of adults drank plain water (sum of tap and bottled), 55·2 (se 1·4) % drank tap water and 33·4 (se 1·4) % drank bottled water on a given day. Adjusting for covariates, non-Hispanic (NH) Black and Hispanic adults had 0·44 (95 % CI 0·37, 0·53) and 0·55 (95 % CI 0·45, 0·66) times the odds of consuming tap water, and consumed B=-330 (se 45) ml and B=-180 (se 45) ml less tap water than NH White adults, respectively. NH Black, Hispanic and adults born outside the fifty US states or Washington, DC had 2·20 (95 % CI 1·79, 2·69), 2·37 (95 % CI 1·91, 2·94) and 1·46 (95 % CI 1·19, 1·79) times the odds of consuming bottled water than their NH White and US-born counterparts. In 2007-2010, water filtration was associated with higher odds of drinking plain and tap water. While most US adults consumed plain water, the source (i.e. tap or bottled) and amount differed by race/Hispanic origin, nativity status and education. Water filters may increase tap water consumption.

  18. Residential CO{sub 2} heat pump system for combined space heating and hot water heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stene, Joern

    2004-02-01

    the inlet water temperature for the Dh preheating gas cooler unit. The lower the inlet temperature, the higher the Cop. The CO{sub 2} system will therefore achieve the highest COP at low city water temperatures, and when there is negligible mixing and minimum conductive heat transfer between the hot and cold water in the DHW tank during the tapping and charging periods. (5) The COP for the integrated CO{sub 2} heat pump is generally more sensitive to variations in the compressor efficiency than that of conventional brine/water-to-water heat pump systems. It is therefore of particular importance to apply a high-efficiency compressor. (6) At each operating mode and temperature programme, there will be an optimum gas cooler (high-side) pressure that leads to a maximum COP for the integrated CO{sub 2} heat pump. However, at moderate DHW temperatures, the heat pump can be operated at constant high-side pressure in all heating modes with only a minor reduction in the COP. This is favourable, since it simplifies the operation of the system and reduces the first cost. (7) During operation in the combined heating mode, the COP for the integrated CO{sub 2} heat pump may be higher than in the DHW heating mode due to similar temperature approaches at the cold outlet of the gas coolers and lower optimum high-side pressure. The higher the DHW temperature, the larger the COP difference for the operating modes. (8) The integrated CO{sub 2} heat pump system will be more complex than the state-of-the art residential heat pump systems due to the requirement for a tripartite gas cooler, extra valves and tubing for by-pass of fluids, an inverter controlled pump in the DHW circuit as well as an especially designed DHW storage tank. The application of optimum high-side pressure control will further increase the technical and operational complexity of the system. (9) Conductive heat transfer between the DHW and the cold city water in the storage tank during the tapping and charging periods

  19. 76 FR 56347 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ... procedure for residential water heaters fully addresses standby mode and off mode energy consumption, this... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 [Docket No. EERE-2009-BT-TP-0013] RIN 1904-AB95 Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating...

  20. Irrigation of continent catheterizable ileal pouches: tap water can replace sterile solutions because it is safe, easy, and economical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Birkhäuser, Frédéric D; Zehnder, Pascal; Roth, Beat; Schürch, Leander; Ochsner, Katharina; Willener, Rita; Thalmann, George N; Burkhard, Fiona C; Studer, Urs E

    2011-04-01

    Continent catheterizable ileal pouches require regular irrigations to reduce the risk of bacteriuria and urinary tract infections (UTIs). Our aim was to compare the UTI rate, patient friendliness, and costs of standard sterile irrigation versus irrigation with tap water. Twenty-three patients participated in a prospective randomized two-arm crossover single-center trial. Aseptic intermittent self-catheterization (ISC) combined with sterile sodium chloride (NaCl) 0.9% irrigation was compared with clean ISC and irrigation with tap water (H(2)O) during two study periods of 90 d each. Patients underwent daily pouch irrigations with NaCl 0.9% solution or tap water. Urine nitrite dipstick tests were evaluated daily; urine culture (UC) and patient friendliness were evaluated monthly. Costs were documented. A total of 3916 study days with nitrite testing and irrigation were analyzed, 1876 (48%) in the NaCl arm and 2040 (52%) in the H(2)O arm. In the NaCl arm, 418 study days (22%) with nitrite-positive dipsticks were recorded, 219 d (11%) in the H(2)O arm, significantly fewer (p=0.01). Of the 149 UCs, 96 (64%) were positive, 48 in each arm, revealing a total of 16 different germs. All patients preferred the H(2)O method. Monthly costs were up to 20 times lower in the H(2)O arm. Pouch irrigation with sterile NaCl 0.9% solution and tap water had comparable rates of positive UC. Irrigation with tap water significantly lowered the incidence of nitrite-positive study days and was substantially less costly and more patient friendly than NaCl irrigation. We therefore recommend the use of tap water (or bottled water) instead of sterile NaCl 0.9% solution for daily irrigation of continent catheterizable ileal pouches. Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry, ACTRN12610000618055, http://www.ANZCTR.org.au/ACTRN12610000618055.aspx. Copyright © 2011 European Association of Urology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Tapping Into Water: Key Considerations for Achieving Excellence in School Drinking Water Access

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Kenneth; Hampton, Karla E.; Grumbach, Jacob M.; Braff-Guajardo, Ellen; Brindis, Claire D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. We examined free drinking water access in schools. Methods. We conducted cross-sectional interviews with administrators from 240 California public schools from May to November 2011 to examine the proportion of schools that met excellent water access criteria (i.e., location, density, type, maintenance, and appeal of water sources), school-level characteristics associated with excellent water access, and barriers to improvements. Results. No schools met all criteria for excellent water access. High schools and middle schools had lower fountain:student ratios than elementary schools (odds ratio [OR] = 0.06; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.02, 0.20; OR = 0.30, 95% CI = 0.12, 0.70). Rural schools were more likely to offer a nonfountain water source than city schools (OR = 5.0; 95% CI = 1.74, 14.70). Newer schools were more likely to maintain water sources than older schools (OR = 0.98; 95% CI = 0.97, 1.00). Schools that offered free water in food service areas increased from pre- to postimplementation of California’s school water policy (72%–83%; P water included cost of programs and other pressing concerns. Conclusions. Awareness of the benefits related to school drinking water provision and funding may help communities achieve excellence in drinking water access. PMID:24832141

  2. Tapping into water: key considerations for achieving excellence in school drinking water access.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Anisha I; Hecht, Kenneth; Hampton, Karla E; Grumbach, Jacob M; Braff-Guajardo, Ellen; Brindis, Claire D

    2014-07-01

    We examined free drinking water access in schools. We conducted cross-sectional interviews with administrators from 240 California public schools from May to November 2011 to examine the proportion of schools that met excellent water access criteria (i.e., location, density, type, maintenance, and appeal of water sources), school-level characteristics associated with excellent water access, and barriers to improvements. No schools met all criteria for excellent water access. High schools and middle schools had lower fountain:student ratios than elementary schools (odds ratio [OR] = 0.06; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.02, 0.20; OR = 0.30, 95% CI = 0.12, 0.70). Rural schools were more likely to offer a nonfountain water source than city schools (OR = 5.0; 95% CI = 1.74, 14.70). Newer schools were more likely to maintain water sources than older schools (OR = 0.98; 95% CI = 0.97, 1.00). Schools that offered free water in food service areas increased from pre- to postimplementation of California's school water policy (72%-83%; P improving school water included cost of programs and other pressing concerns. Awareness of the benefits related to school drinking water provision and funding may help communities achieve excellence in drinking water access.

  3. Development of a Certified Reference Material (NMIJ CRM 7203-a) for Elemental Analysis of Tap Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Yanbei; Narukawa, Tomohiro; Inagaki, Kazumi; Miyashita, Shin-Ichi; Kuroiwa, Takayoshi; Ariga, Tomoko; Kudo, Izumi; Koguchi, Masae; Heo, Sung Woo; Suh, Jung Ki; Lee, Kyoung-Seok; Yim, Yong-Hyeon; Lim, Youngran

    2017-01-01

    A certified reference material (CRM), NMIJ CRM 7203-a, was developed for the elemental analysis of tap water. At least two independent analytical methods were applied to characterize the certified value of each element. The elements certified in the present CRM were as follows: Al, As, B, Ca, Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, Ni, Pb, Rb, Sb, Se, Sr, and Zn. The certified value for each element was given as the (property value ± expanded uncertainty), with a coverage factor of 2 for the expanded uncertainty. The expanded uncertainties were estimated while considering the contribution of the analytical methods, the method-to-method variance, the sample homogeneity, the long-term stability, and the concentrations of the standard solutions for calibration. The concentration of Hg (0.39 μg kg -1 ) was given as the information value, since loss of Hg was observed when the sample was stored at room temperature and exposed to light. The certified values of selected elements were confirmed by a co-analysis carried out independently by the NMIJ (Japan) and the KRISS (Korea).

  4. Health risk assessment of trihalomethanes from tap water in Karachi, Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karim, Z.; Mumtaz, M.; Kamal, T.

    2011-01-01

    Risk assessment study of trihalomethanes (THMs) through different exposure pathways is based on the results of THMs concentration in tap water samples collected from various locations of Karachi city. The lifetime cancer risk and hazard index of each THM species were used to estimate the health risk from THM exposure through oral ingestion and dermal absorption. Exposure to CHCl/sub 3/ either through ingestion or dermal contact was found to be the most important pathway for cancer risks from THMs. It was also found that the residents of Karachi have a higher risk of cancer through oral ingestion than through the dermal absorption. The mean hazard index value of Total trihalomethanes (TTHMs) through oral ingestion and dermal absorption was calculated to be 8.84 X 10/sup -2/ and 4.39 X 10/sup -3/, respectively. The results of hazard index were found lower than unity, which did not indicate the non-cancer effects of THMs. On the basis of cancer risk analysis, it is expected that approximately 2 of the 18 million population of Karachi could get cancer each year due to exposure to the THMs. (author)

  5. Synergistic Effect of Molybdate and Monoethanolamine on Corrosion Inhibition of Ductile Cast Iron in Tap Water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, K. T.; Kim, Y. S. [Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of); Chang, H. Y.; Lim, B. T.; Park, H. B. [KEPCO Engineering and Construction Company, Gimcheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-02-15

    A synergistic effect was observed in the combination of nitrite and ethanolamines. Ethanolamine is one of the representative organic corrosion inhibitors and can be categorized as adsorption type. However, nitrosamines can form when amines mix with sodium nitrite. Since nitrosamine is a carcinogen, the co-addition of nitrite and ethanolamine will be not practical, and thus, a non-toxic combination of inhibitors shall be needed. In order to maximize the effect of monoethanolamine, we focused on the addition of molybdate. Molybdate has been used to alternate the addition of chromate, but it showed insufficient oxidizing power relative to corrosion inhibitors. This work evaluated the synergistic effect of the co-addition of molybdate and monoethanolamine, and its corrosion mechanism was elucidated. A high concentration of molybdate or monoethanolamine was needed to inhibit the corrosion of ductile cast iron in tap water, but in the case of the co-addition of molybdate and monoethanolamine, a synergistic effect was observed. This synergistic effect could be attributed to the molybdate that partly oxidizes the metallic surface and the monoethanolamine that is simultaneously adsorbed on the graphite surface. This adsorbed layer then acts as the barrier layer that mitigates galvanic corrosion between the graphite and the matrix.

  6. Reduction in pesticide residue levels in olives by ozonated and tap water treatments and their transfer into olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kırış, Sevilay; Velioglu, Yakup Sedat

    2016-01-01

    The effects of different wash times (2 and 5 min) with tap and ozonated water on the removal of nine pesticides from olives and the transfer ratios of these pesticides during olive oil production were determined. The reliability of the analytical methods was also tested. The applied methods of analysis were found to be suitable based on linearity, trueness, repeatability, selectivity and limit of quantification all the pesticides tested. All tap and ozonated water wash cycles removed a significant quantity of the pesticides from the olives, with a few exceptions. Generally, extending the wash time increased the pesticide reduction with ozonated water, but did not make significant differences with tap water. During olive oil processing, depending on the processing technique and physicochemical properties of the pesticides, eight of nine pesticides were concentrated into olive oil (processing factor > 1) with almost no significant difference between treatments. Imidacloprid did not pass into olive oil. Ozonated water wash for 5 min reduced chlorpyrifos, β-cyfluthrin, α-cypermethrin and imidacloprid contents by 38%, 50%, 55% and 61% respectively in olives.

  7. Enhanced chlorine resistance of tap water-adapted Legionella pneumophila as compared with agar medium-passaged strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuchta, J M; States, S J; McGlaughlin, J E; Overmeyer, J H; Wadowsky, R M; McNamara, A M; Wolford, R S; Yee, R B

    1985-07-01

    Previous studies have shown that bacteria maintained in a low-nutrient "natural" environment such as swimming pool water are much more resistant to disinfection by various chemical agents than strains maintained on rich media. In the present study a comparison was made of the chlorine (Cl2) susceptibility of hot-water tank isolates of Legionella pneumophila maintained in tap water and strains passaged on either nonselective buffered charcoal-yeast extract or selective differential glycine-vancomycin-polymyxin agar medium. Our earlier work has shown that environmental and clinical isolates of L. pneumophila maintained on agar medium are much more resistant to Cl2 than coliforms are. Under the present experimental conditions (21 degrees C, pH 7.6 to 8.0, and 0.25 mg of free residual Cl2 per liter, we found the tap water-maintained L. pneumophila strains to be even more resistant than the agar-passaged isolates. Under these conditions, 99% kill of tap water-maintained strains of L. pneumophila was usually achieved within 60 to 90 min compared with 10 min for agar-passaged strains. Samples from plumbing fixtures in a hospital yielded legionellae which were "super"-chlorine resistant when assayed under natural conditions. After one agar passage their resistance dropped to levels of comparable strains which had not been previously exposed to additional chlorination. These studies more closely approximate natural conditions than our previous work and show that tap water-maintained L. pneumophila is even more resistant to Cl2 than its already resistant agar medium-passaged counterpart.

  8. Estimating the frequency of tap-water exposures to Mycobacterium avium complex in the U.S. population with advanced AIDS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Glenn; Wright, J Michael; Boutin, Brenda; Swartout, Jeff; Rodgers, Pam; Niemuth, Nancy; Broder, Michael

    Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) is a group of ubiquitous and opportunistic bacterial pathogens included on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Drinking Water Contaminant Candidate List. The risk of contracting a disseminated MAC infection is primarily limited to the immunocompromised, including those with advanced acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). These infections likely result from exposures to MAC-contaminated tap water, food, or soil, although the epidemiologic evidence is insufficient to implicate a specific medium. The objective of this study was to assess tap water exposure to MAC in the U.S. population with advanced AIDS, defined here as having fewer than 100 CD4(+) cells/mm(3) of blood. Using limited data on the detection of MAC and self-reported post-tap treatment practices, two exposure models were developed to simulate the likelihood of exposure to MAC via tap water consumption in this sensitive population. The first model integrated data from studies that described sources of water for consumption and post-tap treatment rates in cohorts infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV(+)). The second model used data from a study that categorized the fraction of water intake consisting of tap water that was not further treated. Approximately 1500 individuals with advanced AIDS were estimated to ingest tap water with detectable concentrations of MAC organisms daily. Additional studies on tap-water use in U.S. HIV(+) populations are needed to confirm these findings. Longitudinal and cross-sectional studies on the occurrence of MAC in tap water, particularly in regions with large HIV(+)/AIDS populations, would help address some of the uncertainty in these exposure estimates.

  9. Fecal indicators and zoonotic pathogens in household drinking water taps fed from rainwater tanks in Southeast Queensland, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, W; Hodgers, L; Sidhu, J P S; Toze, S

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the microbiological quality of household tap water samples fed from rainwater tanks was assessed by monitoring the numbers of Escherichia coli bacteria and enterococci from 24 households in Southeast Queensland (SEQ), Australia. Quantitative PCR (qPCR) was also used for the quantitative detection of zoonotic pathogens in water samples from rainwater tanks and connected household taps. The numbers of zoonotic pathogens were also estimated in fecal samples from possums and various species of birds by using qPCR, as possums and birds are considered to be the potential sources of fecal contamination in roof-harvested rainwater (RHRW). Among the 24 households, 63% of rainwater tank and 58% of connected household tap water (CHTW) samples contained E. coli and exceeded Australian drinking water guidelines of rainwater tanks and 83% of CHTW samples also contained enterococci. In all, 21%, 4%, and 13% of rainwater tank samples contained Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., and Giardia lamblia, respectively. Similarly, 21% of rainwater tank and 13% of CHTW samples contained Campylobacter spp. and G. lamblia, respectively. The number of E. coli (P = 0.78), Enterococcus (P = 0.64), Campylobacter (P = 0.44), and G. lamblia (P = 0.50) cells in rainwater tanks did not differ significantly from the numbers observed in the CHTW samples. Among the 40 possum fecal samples tested, Campylobacter spp., Cryptosporidium parvum, and G. lamblia were detected in 60%, 13%, and 30% of samples, respectively. Among the 38 bird fecal samples tested, Campylobacter spp., Salmonella spp., C. parvum, and G. lamblia were detected in 24%, 11%, 5%, and 13% of the samples, respectively. Household tap water samples fed from rainwater tanks tested in the study appeared to be highly variable. Regular cleaning of roofs and gutters, along with pruning of overhanging tree branches, might also prove effective in reducing animal fecal contamination of rainwater tanks.

  10. Economics of Condensing Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters Potential in Residential Single Family Homes

    OpenAIRE

    Lekov, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Residential space and water heating accounts for over 90percent of total residential primary gas consumption in the United States. Condensing space and water heating equipment are 10-30percent more energy-efficient than conventional space and water heating. Currently, condensing gas furnaces represent 40 percent of shipments and are common in the Northern U.S. market. Meanwhile, manufacturers are planning to develop condensing gas storage water heaters to qualify for Energy Star? certificati...

  11. The Effect of Different Boiling and Filtering Devices on the Concentration of Disinfection By-Products in Tap Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glòria Carrasco-Turigas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Disinfection by-products (DBPs are ubiquitous contaminants in tap drinking water with the potential to produce adverse health effects. Filtering and boiling tap water can lead to changes in the DBP concentrations and modify the exposure through ingestion. Changes in the concentration of 4 individual trihalomethanes (THM4 (chloroform (TCM, bromodichloromethane (BDCM, dibromochloromethane (DBCM, and bromoform (TBM, MX, and bromate were tested when boiling and filtering high bromine-containing tap water from Barcelona. For filtering, we used a pitcher-type filter and a household reverse osmosis filter; for boiling, an electric kettle, a saucepan, and a microwave were used. Samples were taken before and after each treatment to determine the change in the DBP concentration. pH, conductivity, and free/total chlorine were also measured. A large decrease of THM4 (from 48% to 97% and MX concentrations was observed for all experiments. Bromine-containing trihalomethanes were mostly eliminated when filtering while chloroform when boiling. There was a large decrease in the concentration of bromate with reverse osmosis, but there was a little effect in the other experiments. These findings suggest that the exposure to THM4 and MX through ingestion is reduced when using these household appliances, while the decrease of bromate is device dependent. This needs to be considered in the exposure assessment of the epidemiological studies.

  12. The Effect of Different Boiling and Filtering Devices on the Concentration of Disinfection By-Products in Tap Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco-Turigas, Glòria; Villanueva, Cristina M.; Goñi, Fernando; Rantakokko, Panu; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J.

    2013-01-01

    Disinfection by-products (DBPs) are ubiquitous contaminants in tap drinking water with the potential to produce adverse health effects. Filtering and boiling tap water can lead to changes in the DBP concentrations and modify the exposure through ingestion. Changes in the concentration of 4 individual trihalomethanes (THM4) (chloroform (TCM), bromodichloromethane (BDCM), dibromochloromethane (DBCM), and bromoform (TBM)), MX, and bromate were tested when boiling and filtering high bromine-containing tap water from Barcelona. For filtering, we used a pitcher-type filter and a household reverse osmosis filter; for boiling, an electric kettle, a saucepan, and a microwave were used. Samples were taken before and after each treatment to determine the change in the DBP concentration. pH, conductivity, and free/total chlorine were also measured. A large decrease of THM4 (from 48% to 97%) and MX concentrations was observed for all experiments. Bromine-containing trihalomethanes were mostly eliminated when filtering while chloroform when boiling. There was a large decrease in the concentration of bromate with reverse osmosis, but there was a little effect in the other experiments. These findings suggest that the exposure to THM4 and MX through ingestion is reduced when using these household appliances, while the decrease of bromate is device dependent. This needs to be considered in the exposure assessment of the epidemiological studies. PMID:23476675

  13. Dichlorvos (DDVP residue removal from tomato by washing with tap and ozone water, a commercial detergent solution and ultrasonic cleaner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali HESHMATI

    Full Text Available Abstract Dichlorvos (DDVP is one of the most consumption chlorinated organophosphate insecticide used on tomato. The knowledge about the influence of postharvest household processes on the levels of DDVP residues in vegetables is required to estimate dietary exposure. In this study, the removal of sprayed dichlorvos (DDVP on tomato by washing with tap, ozonated water (in dosages of 2, 4 and 6 mg ozone/L, a commercial detergent solution (in concentration of 1, 2 and 3% and ultrasonic cleaner (with power of 100, 200 and 300 W was investigated. DDVP residue was determined by gas chromatography with electron capture detector. Washing processes led to the significant reduction of DDVP. The gradual increase in the percentage of the removal was observed due to increment of washing time, ozone dosage, and concentration of detergent solution as well as ultrasonic power. The maximum removal percentage of DDVP after 15 min of washing with tap and ozonated water, a detergent solution and ultrasonic cleaner was 30.7, 91.9, 70.7, and 88.9%, respectively. In general, results indicated washing with tap, ozonated water, a detergent solution and ultrasonic cleaning are effective methods for removal of DDVP from tomato and reduction of its dietary exposure without influence on product quality.

  14. Aspirin and paracetamol removal using a commercial micro-sized TiO2catalyst in deionized and tap water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi, Claudia L; Sacchi, Benedetta; Pirola, Carlo; Demartin, Francesco; Cerrato, Giuseppina; Morandi, Sara; Capucci, Valentino

    2017-05-01

    Micro-sized TiO 2 catalyst was employed to degrade pharmaceutical compounds, i.e. aspirin and paracetamol, two of the most widely used drugs, purchasable without prescription. Their active agents, acetylsalicylic acid and acetaminophen, are characterized by different substituent groups, linked to the aromatic ring, which affect both the photodegradation and mineralization processes. The experimental conditions highlight the relationship between the nature of the pristine molecules, their degradation mechanisms, their mutual interference and the water's role. The research started from model systems with a single pollutant to the mixture of them and finally by moving from deionized water to tap water.

  15. The evaluation of the classical Kirby-Bauer antibiogram method for the determination of antibiotic resistant microorganisms in tap water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siedlecka Agata

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Water supply systems are the main source of potable water for many inhabitants. The European Union and Polish laws demand high quality of tap water, but the aspect of antibiotic resistant bacteria (ARB is not mentioned. The special emphasis is placed on the presence of pathogenic microorganisms in water, determining by the presence of chosen indicators. Although these regulations provide quite good quality of drinking water, the neglect of resistance vectors could lead to a serious threat to human health. In this study the randomly chosen sample of water from the Wroclaw water supply system was tested in order to evaluate the usefulness of Kirby-Bauer antibiogram method for the assessment of the presence of ARB. The susceptibility testing with 6 chosen antibiotics was performed on bacterial strains isolated from the sample. The diameters of growth inhibition zones were measured and the preliminary identification of strains was carried out, including Gram staining and bacterial cellular morphologies assessments. Although full recognition of the drug resistance phenomenon demands the identification of bacterial species for the comparison with susceptibility testing guidelines, this preliminary research could answer the question, whether the Kirby-Bauer method is sufficient for investigations of ARB dwelling in Wroclaw tap water or the other solution should be applied.

  16. Spatio-temporal variation in the tap water isotope ratios of Salt Lake City: a novel indicator of urban water system structure and dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jameel, M. Y.; Bowen, G. J.

    2015-12-01

    Public water supply systems are the life-blood of urban areas. How we use urban water systems affects more than human health and well-being. Our water use can alter a city's energy balance, including how much solar energy is absorbed as heat or reflected back into space. The severity of these effects, and the need to better understand connections between climate, water extraction, water use, and water use impacts, is strongest in areas of climatic aridity and substantial land-use change, such as the rapidly urbanizing areas of Utah. We have gathered and analyzed stable water isotope data from a series of semi-annual hydrological surveys (spring and fall, 2013 and 2014) in urban tap water sampled across the Salt Lake Valley. Our study has led to four major findings thus far: 1) Clear and substantial variation in tap water isotopic composition in space and time that can be linked to different water sources and management practices within the urban area, 2) There is a strong correlation between the range of observed isotope values and the population of water districts, reflecting use of water from multiple local and non-local sources in districts with high water demand, 3) Water isotopes reflect significant and variable loss of water due to evaporation of surface water resources and 4) Overall, tap water contains lower concentrations of the heavy H and O isotopes than does precipitation within the basin, reflecting the connection between city water supplies and mountain water sources. Our results highlight the utility of isotopic data as an indicator of heterogeneities within urban water systems, management practices and their variation across a major metropolitan area, and effects of climate variability on urban water supplies

  17. Contamination of hospital tap water: the survival and persistence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on conventional and 'antimicrobial' outlet fittings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, C F; Moore, G; Thompson, K-A; Webb, J; Walker, J T

    2017-10-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections have been linked to contaminated hospital taps, highlighting the potential for tap outlet fittings (OF) to harbour biofilm. P. aeruginosa may be transferred to OFs via contaminated cleaning cloths. Suggested interventions include flushing regimens and alternative OF designs. To investigate the transfer of P. aeruginosa from a contaminated cleaning cloth to conventional and 'antimicrobial/antibiofilm' OFs and to determine whether this contamination persists and/or leads to contamination of tap water. Microfibre cloths contaminated with P. aeruginosa (10 8  cfu/mL) were used to wipe four different types of OF [one of conventional design (OF-A) and three marketed as 'antimicrobial' and/or 'antibiofilm' (OF- B, -C and -D)]. OFs were inserted into an experimental water distribution system for up to 24 h. Survival was assessed by culture. Single and multiple water samples were collected and cultured for P. aeruginosa. The median number of P. aeruginosa transferred from cloth to OF was 5.7 × 10 5  cfu (OF-A), 1.9 × 10 6  cfu (OF-B), 1.4 × 10 5  cfu (OF-C) and 2.9 × 10 6  cfu (OF-D). Numbers declined on all OFs during the 24 h period with log reductions ranging from 3.5 (OF-C) to 5.2 (OF-B; P > 0.05). All water samples delivered immediately after OF contamination contained P. aeruginosa at ≥10 cfu per 100 mL. Contamination of water delivered from OF-A persisted despite continued flushing. Water delivered from OF-B did not contain P. aeruginosa beyond the first flush. Contaminated cleaning cloths may transfer P. aeruginosa to OFs, leading to contamination of tap water. Although not removing the potential for contamination, 'antimicrobial/antibiofilm' OFs may prevent P. aeruginosa from continually contaminating water delivered from the outlet. Copyright © 2017 The Healthcare Infection Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Whole genome and transcriptome analyses of environmental antibiotic sensitive and multi-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolates exposed to waste water and tap water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Thomas; Armant, Olivier; Bretschneider, Nancy; Hahn, Alexander; Kirchen, Silke; Seifert, Martin; Dötsch, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    The fitness of sensitive and resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa in different aquatic environments depends on genetic capacities and transcriptional regulation. Therefore, an antibiotic-sensitive isolate PA30 and a multi-resistant isolate PA49 originating from waste waters were compared via whole genome and transcriptome Illumina sequencing after exposure to municipal waste water and tap water. A number of different genomic islands (e.g. PAGIs, PAPIs) were identified in the two environmental isolates beside the highly conserved core genome. Exposure to tap water and waste water exhibited similar transcriptional impacts on several gene clusters (antibiotic and metal resistance, genetic mobile elements, efflux pumps) in both environmental P. aeruginosa isolates. The MexCD-OprJ efflux pump was overexpressed in PA49 in response to waste water. The expression of resistance genes, genetic mobile elements in PA49 was independent from the water matrix. Consistently, the antibiotic sensitive strain PA30 did not show any difference in expression of the intrinsic resistance determinants and genetic mobile elements. Thus, the exposure of both isolates to polluted waste water and oligotrophic tap water resulted in similar expression profiles of mentioned genes. However, changes in environmental milieus resulted in rather unspecific transcriptional responses than selected and stimuli-specific gene regulation. © 2014 The Authors. Microbial Biotechnology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Society for Applied Microbiology.

  19. Selective solid phase extraction of lanthanides from tap and river waters with ion imprinted polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussa, Manel; Ndiaye, Massamba Mbacké; Pinta, Thomas; Pichon, Valérie; Vercouter, Thomas; Delaunay, Nathalie

    2017-04-22

    For the first time, an ion imprinted polymer (IIP) able to selectively extract simultaneously all the lanthanide ions was successfully synthesized in acetonitrile using Nd 3+ as a template ion, methacrylic acid as a complexing monomer, and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate as a cross-linker. A non-imprinted polymer (NIP) was synthesized under the same conditions as those of the IIP, but in the absence of the template ion. After the removal of the template ions, grounding and sieving, the IIP particles were packed in solid phase extraction (SPE) cartridges. The selectivity of the IIP was evaluated by comparing its behavior with the one of the NIP. Each SPE step (percolation, washing, and elution) was optimized in order to find the best compromise between the selectivity and the extraction recoveries. Using the optimized SPE conditions, the extraction recoveries of eight lanthanide ions representative of the lanthanide family were higher than 77% with an average value of 83% with the IIP, whereas, in the case of the NIP, they ranged between 14 and 36% and they were below 3% for the interfering ions from alkali, transition, and post-transition metal families with the IIP. A first evaluation of the reproducibility of the SPE profiles was carried out by performing statistical tests on the data obtained with several cartridges filled with particles obtained from two different IIP and NIP syntheses. Promising results were obtained. The specific capacity, i. e. the adsorption capacity of Nd 3+ ions by the specific cavities of the imprinted polymer, was about 9 mg of Nd 3+ per gram of IIP (60 μmol g -1 ), which is more than enough for the extraction of the lanthanide ions at trace levels. The breakthrough volume was about 1 mL per mg of IIP, leading to an enrichment factor of 15, which allows not only to selectively extract the lanthanides but also to concentrate them. Finally, the imprinted polymer was successfully used to selectively extract lanthanides from tap and

  20. The impact of the hot tap water load pattern in the industrial hall on the energy yield from solar collectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidorów-Kaprawyl Natalia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The systems using solar energy, popular in Poland, can be used to supply hot water for the installation used by employees of industrial halls. In manufacturing plants, employing a large number of people, the demand for hot water is practically constant throughout the year and is characterized by periodic use at the end of each work shift. Dynamics of the hot water consumption depends on the number of shifts as well as working days and holidays. Additionally the maximum hot tap water demand occurs in the whole period of installation operation. In polish climatic conditions the solar collectors’ systems have the largest capacity in the summer, while in winter they need to be assisted. Beside that the supply of renewable energy is uneven and depends on weather conditions. In the paper the one-hour step analysis concerning the dependence of the load pattern of the hot tap water preparation system on the energy yield from solar collectors had been performed.

  1. Price impact on urban residential water demand: A dynamic panel data approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    ArbuéS, Fernando; BarberáN, Ramón; Villanúa, Inmaculada

    2004-11-01

    In this paper, we formulate and estimate a model of residential water demand with the aim of evaluating the potential of pricing policies as a mechanism for managing residential water. The proposed econometric model offers a new perspective on urban water demand analysis by combining microlevel data with a dynamic panel data estimation procedure. The empirical application suggests that residential users are more responsive to a lagged average price specification. Another result of the estimated model is that price is a moderately effective tool in reducing residential water demand within the present range of prices, with the estimated values for income elasticity and "elasticity of consumption with respect to family size" reinforcing this conclusion.

  2. Occurrence of antidepressant residues in the sewage-impacted Vistula and Utrata rivers and in tap water in Warsaw (Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebułtowicz, Joanna; Nałęcz-Jawecki, Grzegorz

    2014-06-01

    Antidepressants, even at low concentrations, can reveal some adverse effects on aquatic life due to disturbing homeostasis throughout the central and peripheral nervous system both in vertebrates and invertebrates. To date there have not been any reports regarding the presence of these pharmaceuticals in surface and tap waters in Eastern Europe. Therefore the aim of this study was to determine the presence of 21 antidepressant pharmaceuticals at specific points of the main Polish river - the Vistula, a smaller river of the Warsaw region - the Utrata, as well as in tap water samples of Warsaw. Samples were collected twice at one month intervals and analysed using solid-phase extraction (SPE) technique coupled with the liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation-tandem mass spectrometer (LC-MS/MS) method operated under the multiple reaction monitoring mode (MRM). This is the first study where active compounds such as moclobemid or trazodone in the environment have been investigated. Environmental risk assessment of antidepressants in Poland was estimated on the basis of annuals sale data extracted from the NFZ (Narodowy Fundusz Zdrowia-National Health Service) base of reimbursed pharmaceuticals(1). Predicted environmental concentration (PEC) of target pharmaceuticals were compared with their measured concentration (MEC). Moreover, the application of the EMEA/CHMP guideline for environmental risk assessment of the antidepressants was discussed. The highest concentration of antidepressants was observed in the small river Utrata. In tap water only trace amounts of antidepressants including citalopram (up to 1.5ng/l), mianserin (up to 0.9ng/l), sertraline (water and the aquatic environment could have long-term effects even at low exposure level, especially since synergy amongst pharmaceutical pollutants may occur. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Responding to the Drought: A Spatial Statistical Approach to Investigating Residential Water Consumption in Fresno, California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hao Wang

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Using data from the 2015 Residential Water Consumption Survey, this study examines residential water-use behavior and attitudes after the recent drought in Fresno, California. Spatial autoregressive models of residential water consumption were estimated, accounting for the effects of social interactions in communities (i.e., neighborhood effects, while controlling for indoor and outdoor house attributes, economic conditions, and attitudes toward water uses. The findings show that the spatial autocorrelations do exist. This suggests that the neighborhood effects can be a useful lever to facilitate initiatives aiming at promoting community engagement on water-saving practices. The results also indicate that a larger house tends to incur more water use, so does the presence of pools. Using a drip irrigation system for watering the backyard can help reduce water consumption. Medium income families turn out to use the least amount of water among different income groups, suggesting that water-saving policies may yield different results among residents of various income levels. Interestingly, respondents who considered themselves heavy water users actually used less water. This implies that the awareness of water importance can significantly influence residents’ water-use behavior and therefore the promotion of a water-saving culture can help reduce residential water consumption.

  4. Data-driven behavioural modelling of residential water consumption to inform water demand management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giuliani, Matteo; Cominola, Andrea; Alshaf, Ahmad; Castelletti, Andrea; Anda, Martin

    2016-04-01

    The continuous expansion of urban areas worldwide is expected to highly increase residential water demand over the next few years, ultimately challenging the distribution and supply of drinking water. Several studies have recently demonstrated that actions focused only on the water supply side of the problem (e.g., augmenting existing water supply infrastructure) will likely fail to meet future demands, thus calling for the concurrent deployment of effective water demand management strategies (WDMS) to pursue water savings and conservation. However, to be effective WDMS do require a substantial understanding of water consumers' behaviors and consumption patterns at different spatial and temporal resolutions. Retrieving information on users' behaviors, as well as their explanatory and/or causal factors, is key to spot potential areas for targeting water saving efforts and to design user-tailored WDMS, such as education campaigns and personalized recommendations. In this work, we contribute a data-driven approach to identify household water users' consumption behavioural profiles and model their water use habits. State-of-the-art clustering methods are coupled with big data machine learning techniques with the aim of extracting dominant behaviors from a set of water consumption data collected at the household scale. This allows identifying heterogeneous groups of consumers from the studied sample and characterizing them with respect to several consumption features. Our approach is validated onto a real-world household water consumption dataset associated with a variety of demographic and psychographic user data and household attributes, collected in nine towns of the Pilbara and Kimberley Regions of Western Australia. Results show the effectiveness of the proposed method in capturing the influence of candidate determinants on residential water consumption profiles and in attaining sufficiently accurate predictions of users' consumption behaviors, ultimately providing

  5. When urban taps run dry: Sachet water consumption and health effects in low income neighborhoods of Accra, Ghana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoler, Justin; Fink, Günther; Weeks, John R.; Otoo, Richard Appiah; Ampofo, Joseph A.; Hill, Allan G.

    2011-01-01

    Intraurban differentials in safe drinking water in developing cities have been exacerbated by rapid population growth that exceeds expansion of local water infrastructure. In Accra, Ghana, municipal water is rationed to meet demand, and the gap in water services is increasingly being filled by private water vendors selling packaged “sachet” water. Sachets extend drinking water coverage deeper into low-income areas and alleviate the need for safe water storage, potentially introducing a health benefit over stored tap water. We explore correlates of using sachets as the primary drinking water source for 2,093 women in 37 census areas classified as slums by UN-Habitat, and links between sachet water and reported diarrhea episodes in a subset of 810 children under five. We find that neighborhood rationing exerts a strong effect on a household's likelihood of buying sachet water, and that sachet customers tend to be the poorest of the poor. Sachet use is also associated with higher levels of self-reported overall health in women, and lower likelihood of diarrhea in children. We conclude with implications for sachet regulation in Accra and other sub-Saharan cities facing drinking water shortages. PMID:22018970

  6. When urban taps run dry: sachet water consumption and health effects in low income neighborhoods of Accra, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoler, Justin; Fink, Günther; Weeks, John R; Otoo, Richard Appiah; Ampofo, Joseph A; Hill, Allan G

    2012-03-01

    Intraurban differentials in safe drinking water in developing cities have been exacerbated by rapid population growth that exceeds expansion of local water infrastructure. In Accra, Ghana, municipal water is rationed to meet demand, and the gap in water services is increasingly being filled by private water vendors selling packaged "sachet" water. Sachets extend drinking water coverage deeper into low-income areas and alleviate the need for safe water storage, potentially introducing a health benefit over stored tap water. We explore correlates of using sachets as the primary drinking water source for 2093 women in 37 census areas classified as slums by UN-Habitat, and links between sachet water and reported diarrhea episodes in a subset of 810 children under five. We find that neighborhood rationing exerts a strong effect on a household's likelihood of buying sachet water, and that sachet customers tend to be the poorest of the poor. Sachet use is also associated with higher levels of self-reported overall health in women, and lower likelihood of diarrhea in children. We conclude with implications for sachet regulation in Accra and other sub-Saharan cities facing drinking water shortages. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The first association of a primary amebic meningoencephalitis death with culturable Naegleria fowleri in tap water from a US treated public drinking water system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Jennifer R; Ratard, Raoult C; Hill, Vincent R; Sokol, Theresa; Causey, Jonathan Jake; Yoder, Jonathan S; Mirani, Gayatri; Mull, Bonnie; Mukerjee, Kimberly A; Narayanan, Jothikumar; Doucet, Meggie; Qvarnstrom, Yvonne; Poole, Charla N; Akingbola, Olugbenga A; Ritter, Jana M; Xiong, Zhenggang; da Silva, Alexandre J; Roellig, Dawn; Van Dyke, Russell B; Stern, Harlan; Xiao, Lihua; Beach, Michael J

    2015-04-15

    Naegleria fowleri is a climate-sensitive, thermophilic ameba found in warm, freshwater lakes and rivers. Primary amebic meningoencephalitis (PAM), which is almost universally fatal, occurs when N. fowleri-containing water enters the nose, typically during swimming, and migrates to the brain via the olfactory nerve. In August 2013, a 4-year-old boy died of meningoencephalitis of unknown etiology in a Louisiana hospital. Clinical and environmental testing and a case investigation were initiated to determine the cause of death and to identify potential exposures. Based on testing of cerebrospinal fluid and brain specimens, the child was diagnosed with PAM. His only reported water exposure was tap water; in particular, tap water that was used to supply water to a lawn water slide on which the child had played extensively prior to becoming ill. Water samples were collected from both the home and the water distribution system that supplied the home and tested; N. fowleri was identified in water samples from both the home and the water distribution system. This case is the first reported PAM death associated with culturable N. fowleri in tap water from a US treated drinking water system. This case occurred in the context of an expanding geographic range for PAM beyond southern states, with recent case reports from Minnesota, Kansas, and Indiana. This case also highlights the role of adequate disinfection throughout drinking water distribution systems and the importance of maintaining vigilance when operating drinking water systems using source waters with elevated temperatures. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  8. Neither hollow-fibre membrane filters nor activated-charcoal filters remove fluoride from fluoridated tap water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Hideki; Yaegaki, Ken; Tanaka, Tomoko; Sato, Tsutomu; Itai, Kazuyoshi; Imai, Toshio; Murata, Takatoshi; Herai, Mayumi

    2008-06-01

    Previous reports of the reduction of fluoride concentrations in fluoridated water by domestic water treatment systems have indicated that further supplementation with fluoride is required. However, the absorption of fluoride by filters has not yet been directly identified. If these filters do not absorb fluoride, further fluoride supplementation may increase fluorosis. In this study, we determined whether filtering systems absorb fluoride ions. We directly measured the amounts of fluoride absorbed by activated-carbon filters or hollow-fibre membrane filters using pyrohydrolysis of the filters and flow-injection analysis, the sensitivity of which is more than 100 times greater than that of conventional methods. We made fluoride solutions of pure or tap water and determined changes in fluoride concentration as a result of filtering with a fluoride electrode. Hollow-fibre membrane filters did not affect fluoride concentrations in the fluoridated water, but activated-carbon filters removed some fluoride, especially from the pure-water solution. Filtering a pure-water solution with a fluoride concentration of 0.8 mg F/L reduced the fluoride concentration until 210 L of the solution had been filtered. However, filtering a tap-water solution of 0.8 mg F/L reduced the fluoride concentration only until 8 L had been filtered. The concentration of absorbed fluoride in the filter at 10 L of filtration was 4.7 mg/kg activated carbon. Further fluoride supplementation of fluoridated water should not be necessary, regardless of whether an activated-carbon or hollow-fibre membrane filter is installed on a domestic water treatment system.

  9. Evaluation of on-line concentration coupled to liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for the quantification of neonicotinoids and fipronil in surface water and tap water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel-León, Juan Manuel; Duy, Sung Vo; Munoz, Gabriel; Amyot, Marc; Sauvé, Sébastien

    2018-03-05

    A study was initiated to investigate a fast and reliable method for the determination of selected systemic insecticides in water matrixes and to evaluate potential sources of bias in their analysis. Acetamiprid, clothianidin, desnitro-imidacloprid, dinotefuran, fipronil, imidacloprid, nitenpyram, thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam were amenable to analysis via on-line sample enrichment hyphenated to ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The selection of on-line solid-phase extraction parameters was dictated by a multicriterion desirability approach. A 2-mL on-line injection volume with a 1500 μL min -1 loading flow rate met the objectives sought in terms of chromatographic requirements, extraction efficiency, sensitivity, and precision. A total analysis time of 8 min per sample was obtained with method limits of detection in the range of 0.1-5 ng L -1 for the scope of targeted analytes. Automation at the sample concentration step yielded intraday and interday precisions in the range of 1-23 and 2-26%, respectively. Factors that could affect the whole method accuracy were further evaluated in matrix-specific experiments. The impact of the initial filtration step on analyte recovery was evaluated in ultra-pure water, tap water, and surface water. Out of the nine membranes tested, glass fiber filters and polyester filters appeared as the most appropriate materials. Sample storage stability was also investigated across the three matrix types; the targeted analytes displayed suitable stability during 28 days at either 4 °C or - 20 °C, with little deviations (± 10%) with respect to the initial T 0 concentration. Method applicability was demonstrated in a range of tap water and surface water samples from the province of Québec, Canada. Results from the present survey indicated a predominance of thiamethoxam (tap water and river water, respectively), clothianidin (tap water and river water, respectively), and imidacloprid (tap

  10. A simple optode based imaging technique to measure O2 distribution and dynamics in tap water biofilms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Staal, Marc Jaap; Prest, E.; Vrouwenvelder, H.

    2011-01-01

    window. The method is based on sequential imaging of the O2 dependent luminescence intensity, which are subsequently normalized with luminescent intensity images recorded under anoxic conditions. We present 2-dimensional O2 distribution images at the base of a tap water biofilm measured with the new...... ratiometric method and compare the results with O2 distribution images obtained in the same biofilm reactor with luminescence lifetime imaging. Using conventional digital cameras, such simple normalized luminescence intensity imaging can yield images of 2-dimensional O2 distributions with a high signal...

  11. Biofilm Composition and Threshold Concentration for Growth of Legionella pneumophila on Surfaces Exposed to Flowing Warm Tap Water without Disinfectant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Geo L.; Italiaander, Ronald; Veenendaal, Harm R.; Wullings, Bart A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Legionella pneumophila in potable water installations poses a potential health risk, but quantitative information about its replication in biofilms in relation to water quality is scarce. Therefore, biofilm formation on the surfaces of glass and chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) in contact with tap water at 34 to 39°C was investigated under controlled hydraulic conditions in a model system inoculated with biofilm-grown L. pneumophila. The biofilm on glass (average steady-state concentration, 23 ± 9 pg ATP cm−2) exposed to treated aerobic groundwater (0.3 mg C liter−1; 1 μg assimilable organic carbon [AOC] liter−1) did not support growth of the organism, which also disappeared from the biofilm on CPVC (49 ± 9 pg ATP cm−2) after initial growth. L. pneumophila attained a level of 4.3 log CFU cm−2 in the biofilms on glass (1,055 ± 225 pg ATP cm−2) and CPVC (2,755 ± 460 pg ATP cm−2) exposed to treated anaerobic groundwater (7.9 mg C liter−1; 10 μg AOC liter−1). An elevated biofilm concentration and growth of L. pneumophila were also observed with tap water from the laboratory. The Betaproteobacteria Piscinibacter and Methyloversatilis and amoeba-resisting Alphaproteobacteria predominated in the clones and isolates retrieved from the biofilms. In the biofilms, the Legionella colony count correlated significantly with the total cell count (TCC), heterotrophic plate count, ATP concentration, and presence of Vermamoeba vermiformis. This amoeba was rarely detected at biofilm concentrations of TCC = 1 × 106 to 2 × 106 cells cm−2) was derived for growth of L. pneumophila in biofilms. IMPORTANCE Legionella pneumophila is the etiologic agent in more than 10,000 cases of Legionnaires' disease that are reported annually worldwide and in most of the drinking water-associated disease outbreaks reported in the United States. The organism proliferates in biofilms on surfaces exposed to warm water in engineered freshwater installations. An

  12. Removal of 16 pesticide residues from strawberries by washing with tap and ozone water, ultrasonic cleaning and boiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozowicka, Bozena; Jankowska, Magdalena; Hrynko, Izabela; Kaczynski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    The effects of washing with tap and ozone water, ultrasonic cleaning and boiling on 16 pesticide (ten fungicides and six insecticides) residue levels in raw strawberries were investigated at different processing times (1, 2 and 5 min). An analysis of these pesticides was conducted using gas chromatography with nitrogen-phosphorous and electron capture detection (GC-NPD/ECD). The processing factor (PF) for each pesticide in each processing technique was determined. Washing with ozonated water was demonstrated to be more effective (reduction from 36.1 to 75.1 %) than washing with tap water (reduction from 19.8 to 68.1 %). Boiling decreased the residues of the most compounds, with reductions ranging from 42.8 to 92.9 %. Ultrasonic cleaning lowered residues for all analysed pesticides with removal of up to 91.2 %. The data indicated that ultrasonic cleaning and boiling were the most effective treatments for the reduction of 16 pesticide residues in raw strawberries, resulting in a lower health risk exposure. Calculated PFs for alpha-cypermethrin were used to perform an acute risk assessment of dietary exposure. To investigate the relationship between the levels of 16 pesticides in strawberry samples and their physicochemical properties, a principal component analysis (PCA) was performed. Graphical abstract ᅟ.

  13. An Evaluation of Microbial and Chemical Contamination Sources Related to the Deterioration of Tap Water Quality in the Household Water Supply System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoonjin Lee

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The predominant microorganisms in samples taken from shower heads in residences in the Korean city “N” were Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Sphingomonas paucimobilis, Acidovorax temperans, and Microbacterium lacticum. Legionella was not detected in this case. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs vinylacetate, NN-DMA, cis-1,2-dichloroethylene, epichlorohydrin, and styrene were measured in five types of plastic pipes: PVC, PB, PP, PE, and cPVC. The rate of multiplication of the heterotrophic plate count (HPC attached on the copper pipe in contact with hot tap water was higher than the rate for the copper pipe in contact with cold tap water. Biofilm accumulation on stainless steel pipes with added acetate (3 mg/L was 2.56 times higher than the non-supplemented condition. Therefore, the growth of HPC in the pipe system was affected by the type and availability of nutrients and depended on variables such as heating during the hot water supply.

  14. An Evaluation of Microbial and Chemical Contamination Sources Related to the Deterioration of Tap Water Quality in the Household Water Supply System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoonjin

    2013-01-01

    The predominant microorganisms in samples taken from shower heads in residences in the Korean city “N” were Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Sphingomonas paucimobilis, Acidovorax temperans, and Microbacterium lacticum. Legionella was not detected in this case. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) vinylacetate, NN-DMA, cis-1,2-dichloroethylene, epichlorohydrin, and styrene were measured in five types of plastic pipes: PVC, PB, PP, PE, and cPVC. The rate of multiplication of the heterotrophic plate count (HPC) attached on the copper pipe in contact with hot tap water was higher than the rate for the copper pipe in contact with cold tap water. Biofilm accumulation on stainless steel pipes with added acetate (3 mg/L) was 2.56 times higher than the non-supplemented condition. Therefore, the growth of HPC in the pipe system was affected by the type and availability of nutrients and depended on variables such as heating during the hot water supply. PMID:24018837

  15. An evaluation of microbial and chemical contamination sources related to the deterioration of tap water quality in the household water supply system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoonjin

    2013-09-06

    The predominant microorganisms in samples taken from shower heads in residences in the Korean city "N" were Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Sphingomonas paucimobilis, Acidovorax temperans, and Microbacterium lacticum. Legionella was not detected in this case. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) vinylacetate, NN-DMA, cis-1,2-dichloroethylene, epichlorohydrin, and styrene were measured in five types of plastic pipes: PVC, PB, PP, PE, and cPVC. The rate of multiplication of the heterotrophic plate count (HPC) attached on the copper pipe in contact with hot tap water was higher than the rate for the copper pipe in contact with cold tap water. Biofilm accumulation on stainless steel pipes with added acetate (3 mg/L) was 2.56 times higher than the non-supplemented condition. Therefore, the growth of HPC in the pipe system was affected by the type and availability of nutrients and depended on variables such as heating during the hot water supply.

  16. Feasibility study and roadmap to improve residential hot water distribution systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, James D.

    2004-03-31

    Residential building practice currently ignores the losses of energy and water caused by the poor design of hot water systems. These losses include: the waste of water while waiting for hot water to get to the point of use; the wasted heat as water cools down in the distribution system after a draw; and the energy to reheat water that was already heated once before. A feasibility study and an action plan for a proposed research project involving residential hot water distribution systems is being developed. The feasibility study will use past work to estimate of hot water and energy loses caused by current hot water distribution systems in residences. Proposed research project, or roadmap, will develop recommendations for improvements to residential hot water distribution systems. The roadmap addresses the technical obstacles and gaps in our knowledge that prevent water and energy reductions and market adoption of water- and energy-efficient technologies. The initial results of the feasibility study are presented here along with a discussion of a roadmap to improve the efficiency of residential hot water distribution systems.

  17. Optimizing a Small Ammonia Heat Pump with Accumulator Tank for Space and Hot Tap Water Heating

    OpenAIRE

    Lalovs, Arturs

    2015-01-01

    The heat pump market offers a wide variety of different residential heat pumps where most of them utilize refrigerant R-410A which has high global warming potential. Considering the fact that global policy starts to focus on issues related to energy efficiency and harmful impact to the environment, it is necessary to investigate over new refrigerants. As an alternative solution is to utilize natural refrigerants, such as ammonia, which has almost zero glob...

  18. Detection of trace levels of Pb2+ in tap water at boron-doped diamond electrodes with anodic stripping voltammetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dragoe, Diana; Spataru, Nicolae; Kawasaki, Ryuji; Manivannan, Ayyakkannu; Spataru, Tanta; Tryk, Donald A.; Fujishima, Akira

    2006-01-01

    Boron-doped diamond (BDD) electrodes were used to investigate the possibility of detecting trace levels of lead by linear-sweep anodic stripping voltammetry. The low limit of detection (2 nM) is an advantage compared to other electrode materials, and it was found that at low pH values, copper concentrations that are usually present in drinking water do not affect to a large extent the detection of lead. These findings recommend anodic stripping voltammetry at the BDD electrodes as a suitable mercury-free method for the determination of trace levels of lead in drinking water. The results obtained for the lead detection in tap water real samples are in excellent agreement with those found by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), demonstrating the practical analytical utility of the method

  19. Synthesis and characterization of triazole based supramolecule for interaction with cefuroxime in tap water and blood plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Farid; Perveen, Samina; Shah, Kiramat; Shah, Muhammad Raza; Ahmed, Shakil

    2018-01-01

    In this study a new calix[4]arene triazole 5 was successfully synthesized using click reaction and characterized through UV-visible, FT-IR, 1 H NMR spectroscopes and Mass Spectrometry. The supramolecular interaction of compound 5 towards commonly used drugs has been carried out using UV-Visible spectroscopy. The supramolecule 5 showed characteristic enhancement in the absorbance intensity after mixing with Cefuroxime at pH (2-12). Compound 5 displayed considerably good interactions with cefuroxime in the presence of other drugs. Compound 5 exhibits linear relationship with cefuroxime concentration in the range of (10-80µM) with regression value of 0.9954. The standard deviation for 50µM Cefuroxime was found to be 0.01 and the limit of detection for cefuroxime was calculated to be 2µM. Job's plot experiments showed 1:1 (5: cefuroxime) binding stoichiometry between compound 5 and cefuroxime. Supramolecule 5 displayed fairly good spectrophotometric recognition of Cefuroxime in human blood plasma and tap water thus showing that the ingredients of tap water and plasma sample was inert in the recognition of cefuroxime. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Human exposure to thallium through tap water: A study from Valdicastello Carducci and Pietrasanta (northern Tuscany, Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campanella, Beatrice; Onor, Massimo; D'Ulivo, Alessandro; Giannecchini, Roberto; D'Orazio, Massimo; Petrini, Riccardo; Bramanti, Emilia

    2016-04-01

    A geological study evidenced the presence of thallium (Tl) at concentrations of concern in groundwaters near Valdicastello Carducci (Tuscany, Italy). The source of contamination has been identified in the Tl-bearing pyrite ores occurring in the abandoned mining sites of the area. The strongly acidic internal waters flowing in the mining tunnels can reach exceptional Tl concentrations, up to 9000μg/L. In September 2014 Tl contamination was also found in the tap water distributed in the same area (from 2 to 10μg/L). On October 3, 2014 the local authorities imposed a Do Not Drink order to the population. Here we report the results of the exposure study carried out from October 2014 to October 2015, and aimed at quantifying Tl levels in 150 urine and 318 hair samples from the population of Valdicastello Carducci and Pietrasanta. Thallium was quantified by inductively coupled plasma - mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Urine and hair were chosen as model matrices indicative of different time periods of exposure (short-term and long-term, respectively). Thallium values found in biological samples were correlated with Tl concentrations found in tap water in the living area of each citizen, and with his/her habits. Thallium concentration range found in hair and urine was 1-498ng/g (values in unexposed subjects 0.1-6ng/g) and 0.046-5.44μg/L (reference value for the European population 0.006μg/L), respectively. Results show that Tl levels in biological samples were significantly associated with residency in zones containing elevated water Tl levels. The kinetics of decay of Tl concentration in urine samples was also investigated. At the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on human contamination by Tl through water involving such a high number of samples. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Stable hydrogen and oxygen isotopes of tap water reveal structure of the San Francisco Bay Area's water system and adjustments during a major drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipple, Brett J; Jameel, Yusuf; Chau, Thuan H; Mancuso, Christy J; Bowen, Gabriel J; Dufour, Alexis; Chesson, Lesley A; Ehleringer, James R

    2017-08-01

    Water availability and sustainability in the Western United States is a major flashpoint among expanding communities, growing industries, and productive agricultural lands. This issue came to a head in 2015 in the State of California, when the State mandated a 25% reduction in urban water use following a multi-year drought that significantly depleted water resources. Water demands and challenges in supplying water are only expected to intensify as climate perturbations, such as the 2012-2015 California Drought, become more common. As a consequence, there is an increased need to understand linkages between urban centers, water transport and usage, and the impacts of climate change on water resources. To assess if stable hydrogen and oxygen isotope ratios could increase the understanding of these relationships within a megalopolis in the Western United States, we collected and analyzed 723 tap waters across the San Francisco Bay Area during seven collection campaigns spanning 21 months during 2013-2015. The San Francisco Bay Area was selected as it has well-characterized water management strategies and the 2012-2105 California Drought dramatically affected its water resources. Consistent with known water management strategies and previously collected isotope data, we found large spatiotemporal variations in the δ 2 H and δ 18 O values of tap waters within the Bay Area. This is indicative of complex water transport systems and varying municipality-scale management decisions. We observed δ 2 H and δ 18 O values of tap water consistent with waters originating from snowmelt from the Sierra Nevada Mountains, local precipitation, ground water, and partially evaporated reservoir sources. A cluster analysis of the isotope data collected in this study grouped waters from 43 static sampling sites that were associated with specific water utility providers within the San Francisco Bay Area and known management practices. Various management responses to the drought, such as

  2. Characterization of large area ZnS(Ag) detector for gross alpha and beta activity measurements in tap water plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunardon, M.; Cester, D.; Mistura, G.; Moretto, S.; Stevanato, L.; Viesti, G. [Department of Physics and Astronomy ' Galileo Galilei' , University of Padova, (Italy); Schotanus, P.; Bodewits, E. [SCIONIX Holland BV, (Netherlands)

    2015-07-01

    In this work we present the characterization of a large area 200 x 200 mm{sup 2} EJ-444 scintillation detector to be used for monitoring gross alpha and beta activity in tap water plants. Specific tests were performed to determine the best setup to readout the light from the detector side in order to have the possibility to stack many detectors and get a compact device with total active area of the order of 1 m{sup 2}. Alpha/Beta discrimination, efficiency and homogeneity tests were carried out with alpha and beta sources. Background from ambient radioactivity was measured as well. Alpha/beta real-time monitoring in drinking water is a goal of the EU project TAWARA{sub R}TM. (authors)

  3. Mobility of fertiliser-derived uranium in arable soils and its contribution to uranium concentrations in groundwater and tap water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smidt, Geerd Ahlrich

    2011-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) mineral fertilisers are found to contain high concentrations of uranium (U) (up to 206 mg U kg -1 ) and other trace elements (TE), such as Cd, Pb, Ni, Cu, Zn, Th, Nb, Sr, V, and rare earth elements. The content of U and other trace elements is depended on the sedimentary of igneous origin of the rock phosphate. In this study, the production of P fertilisers has been shown to contaminate top soil horizons with U and other trace elements in the close vicinity of a factory located in Southern Brazil. In contrast to this point source, agricultural P fertilisation leads to a diffuse contamination of the agro-ecosystem with U and other fertiliser-derived trace elements on a large scale. Top soil horizons of arable land accumulate fertiliser-derived U. According to the geochemical behaviour of U(VI) species under oxidising conditions, the mobilisation capacity for U in top soil horizons is considered to be high, contrary to other fertiliser-derived heavy metals (e.g. Cd). Hence, it is assumed that U can be leached to shallow groundwater and can reach fresh water resources potentially used for drinking water supply. The aims of this study were to investigate the concentration of U and other contaminants in P fertilisers, to identify geochemical processes of fertiliser-derived U mobility and mobilisation from arable top soil horizons to the groundwater, and to evaluate the origin of U in German groundwater and tap water. This study presents the broadest recent data set on regional distribution of U concentrations in German tap water to which 76 % of the German population has access. The mean U concentration was 0.68 μg L -1 , the median 0.50 μg L -1 . 1.3 % or 1 million of the 80.6 million inhabitants in Germany are exposed to U concentrations in tap water which are higher than the German drinking water threshold limit of 10 μg L -1 . The regional distribution of U concentrations largely agrees with the geological setting reported for mineral waters

  4. Copper concentrations in tap water and possible effects on infant's health - Results of a study in Lower Saxony, Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zietz, B.P.; Dassel de Vergara, Julia; Dunkelberg, Hartmut

    2003-01-01

    Copper in drinking water has been associated with non-Indian childhood cirrhosis (NICC), a form of liver cirrhosis in childhood. This epidemiological study examines the exposure of infants to increased copper concentrations through drinking water from public water supplies in southern Lower Saxony, Germany, and whether this dietary copper intake causes liver damage in early childhood. In total, water samples from 1674 households with infants were tested for copper. The mean copper concentration was 0.18 mg/L in the 1619 collected stagnation samples and 0.11 mg/L in the 1660 random daytime samples. There were notable regional differences in copper values. In 10.3% of all sampled households a copper value of 0.5 mg/L or more was found. These families were requested to additionally collect 2 composite samples. An increased level of copper in the drinking water with copper concentrations at or above 0.8 mg/L in the composite samples and a defined minimum ingestion of tap water was followed by a recommendation of a pediatric examination. Fourteen infants were examined by a pediatrician and of these 11 received a blood serum analysis. None of the examined infants showed any signs of liver malfunction. From the results of the study, no indication of a hazard due to copper pipes connected to public water supplies could be found

  5. Relationship between tap water hardness, magnesium, and calcium concentration and mortality due to ischemic heart disease or stroke in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leurs, L.J.; Schouten, L.J.; Mons, M.N.; Goldbohm, R.A.; Brandt, P.A. van den

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Conflicting results on the relationship between the hardness of drinking water and mortality related to ischemic heart disease (IHD) or stroke have been reported. OBJECTIVES: We investigated the possible association between tap water calcium or magnesium concentration and total hardness

  6. Physics on Tap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Andrew P. S.

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to describe how to visualize surface tension effects in liquid jets. A simple experiment is proposed using the liquid jet flow from a mains water tap/faucet. Using a modern digital camera with a high shutter speed, it is possible to visualize the instabilities (capillary waves) that form within the jet due to the action of…

  7. Plasma-activation of tap water using DBD for agronomy applications: Identification and quantification of long lifetime chemical species and production/consumption mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judée, F; Simon, S; Bailly, C; Dufour, T

    2018-04-15

    Cold atmospheric plasmas are weakly ionized gases that can be generated in ambient air. They produce energetic species (e.g. electrons, metastables) as well as reactive oxygen species, reactive nitrogen species, UV radiations and local electric field. Their interaction with a liquid such as tap water can hence change its chemical composition. The resulting "plasma-activated liquid" can meet many applications, including medicine and agriculture. Consequently, a complete experimental set of analytical techniques dedicated to the characterization of long lifetime chemical species has been implemented to characterize tap water treated using cold atmospheric plasma process and intended to agronomy applications. For that purpose, colorimetry and acid titrations are performed, considering acid-base equilibria, pH and temperature variations induced during plasma activation. 16 species are quantified and monitored: hydroxide and hydronium ions, ammonia and ammonium ions, orthophosphates, carbonate ions, nitrite and nitrate ions and hydrogen peroxide. The related consumption/production mechanisms are discussed. In parallel, a chemical model of electrical conductivity based on Kohlrausch's law has been developed to simulate the electrical conductivity of the plasma-activated tap water (PATW). Comparing its predictions with experimental measurements leads to a narrow fitting, hence supporting the self-sufficiency of the experimental set, I.e. the fact that all long lifetime radicals of interest present in PATW are characterized. Finally, to evaluate the potential of cold atmospheric plasmas for agriculture applications, tap water has been daily plasma-treated to irrigate lentils seeds. Then, seedlings lengths have been measured and compared with untreated tap water, showing an increase as high as 34.0% and 128.4% after 3 days and 6 days of activation respectively. The interaction mechanisms between plasma and tap water are discussed as well as their positive synergy on

  8. A Model of Clean Water Supply and Improvement of Enviromental Sanitary Conditions in Residential Clusters in The Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Nguyen Thuy Lan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Decision 99/TTg dated 9/2/1996 and Decision 173/TTg dated 6/11/2001 of the Prime Minister regarding the construction program of residential clusters (residential flood free areas, these residential areas as constructed would be fully equipped with critical infrastructures and services such as water supply and drainage works, toilets with sanitary appropriateness, etc. to ensure environmental sanitary conditions in the residential clusters. However, the actual surveys done in residential clusters in the Mekong Delta show that many arising problems must be addressed to enable the local communities to have better living conditions and ensure the sanitary conditions and environmental safety.

  9. Predicting compliance with an information-based residential outdoor water conservation program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landon, Adam C.; Kyle, Gerard T.; Kaiser, Ronald A.

    2016-05-01

    Residential water conservation initiatives often involve some form of education or persuasion intended to change the attitudes and behaviors of residential consumers. However, the ability of these instruments to change attitudes toward conservation and their efficacy in affecting water use remains poorly understood. In this investigation the authors examine consumer attitudes toward complying with a persuasive water conservation program, the extent to which those attitudes predict compliance, and the influence of environmental contextual factors on outdoor water use. Results indicate that the persuasive program was successful in developing positive attitudes toward compliance, and that those attitudes predict water use. However, attitudinal variables explain a relatively small proportion of the variance in objectively measured water use behavior. Recommendations for policy are made stressing the importance of understanding both the effects of attitudes and environmental contextual factors in behavior change initiatives in the municipal water sector.

  10. De novo biofilm community assembly from tap water source communities favors Nitrotoga over Nitrospira under elevated nitrite surface loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kinnunen, Marta; Dechesne, Arnaud; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    -through biofilm system to continuous immigration from a tap water metacommunity while applying different nitrite surface loading rates. After 63 days of operation, we extracted biofilms and analyzed the community composition via Illumina MiSeq targeting the 16S rRNA gene. Previous studies have shown...... in the metacommunity, Nitrotoga and Nitrospira were found at near equal abundances, in the biofilm community, elevated nitrite loading strongly selected for Nitrotoga over Nitrospira. The biofilms were also significantly different in their alpha-diversity (p... of the biofilm community decreased significantly (p=0.004) compared to the metacommunity. These observations indicate that the selection towards Nitrotoga and Nitrospira dominated community assembly under different nitrite loadings. Lastly, we compared our observations of community composition...

  11. Biofilm Composition and Threshold Concentration for Growth of Legionella pneumophila on Surfaces Exposed to Flowing Warm Tap Water without Disinfectant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kooij, Dick; Bakker, Geo L; Italiaander, Ronald; Veenendaal, Harm R; Wullings, Bart A

    2017-03-01

    Legionella pneumophila in potable water installations poses a potential health risk, but quantitative information about its replication in biofilms in relation to water quality is scarce. Therefore, biofilm formation on the surfaces of glass and chlorinated polyvinyl chloride (CPVC) in contact with tap water at 34 to 39°C was investigated under controlled hydraulic conditions in a model system inoculated with biofilm-grown L. pneumophila The biofilm on glass (average steady-state concentration, 23 ± 9 pg ATP cm -2 ) exposed to treated aerobic groundwater (0.3 mg C liter -1 ; 1 μg assimilable organic carbon [AOC] liter -1 ) did not support growth of the organism, which also disappeared from the biofilm on CPVC (49 ± 9 pg ATP cm -2 ) after initial growth. L. pneumophila attained a level of 4.3 log CFU cm -2 in the biofilms on glass (1,055 ± 225 pg ATP cm -2 ) and CPVC (2,755 ± 460 pg ATP cm -2 ) exposed to treated anaerobic groundwater (7.9 mg C liter -1 ; 10 μg AOC liter -1 ). An elevated biofilm concentration and growth of L. pneumophila were also observed with tap water from the laboratory. The Betaproteobacteria Piscinibacter and Methyloversatilis and amoeba-resisting Alphaproteobacteria predominated in the clones and isolates retrieved from the biofilms. In the biofilms, the Legionella colony count correlated significantly with the total cell count (TCC), heterotrophic plate count, ATP concentration, and presence of Vermamoeba vermiformis This amoeba was rarely detected at biofilm concentrations of <100 pg ATP cm -2 A threshold concentration of approximately 50 pg ATP cm -2 (TCC = 1 × 10 6 to 2 × 10 6 cells cm -2 ) was derived for growth of L. pneumophila in biofilms. IMPORTANCE Legionella pneumophila is the etiologic agent in more than 10,000 cases of Legionnaires' disease that are reported annually worldwide and in most of the drinking water-associated disease outbreaks reported in the United States. The organism proliferates in biofilms on surfaces

  12. Correlation among the terrestrial gamma radiation, the indoor air 222Rn, and the tap water 222Rn in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buchli, R.; Burkart, W.

    1989-01-01

    The external gamma radiation and the indoor air Rn (222Rn) concentration were measured in 55 houses of the South East Grisons, the Urseren valley, and the Upper Rhine valley (crystalline subsoils) and in 39 houses of the Molasse basin and the Helvetic nappes (sedimentary subsoils). In homes located on a crystalline subsoil, a mean cellar gamma level of 1.40 mGy y-1 was measured, which is twice the mean gamma level of 0.70 mGy y-1 found in homes built on a sedimentary subsoil. The cellar 222Rn gas concentration is about six times higher in houses with a crystalline subsoil (1232 Bq m-3) than in houses with a sedimentary subsoil (201 Bq m-3). Although a weak correlation is observed between the mean gamma radiation levels and mean cellar 222Rn gas concentrations for the five subregions investigated, the gamma levels and the 222Rn gas concentrations do not correlate for single homes. For the population living on the ground floor of a house with a crystalline subsoil, the gamma radiation and the indoor air 222Rn lead to estimated mean exposures of 1.16 mSv and 9.44 mSv effective dose equivalent per year, respectively. In houses with a sedimentary subsoil, these mean exposures lead to 0.68 mSv y-1 and 3.22 mSv y-1, respectively. A mean tap water 222Rn content of 38.3 Bq L-1 and 10.4 Bq L-1 was measured in 31 villages with a crystalline subsoil and 73 villages with a sedimentary subsoil, respectively. Radon-222 degasing from the tap water into the indoor air leads to an additional exposure of about 0.11 mSv y-1 and 0.03 mSv y-1 in homes with a crystalline subsoil and homes with a sedimentary subsoil, respectively

  13. Infectious Intestinal Diseases and Residential Water Services in Mexico: a Spatial Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas P. Sisto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Infectious intestinal diseases (IID represent a widespread public health problem in Mexico. The country also faces major challenges with respect to the provision of residential water services (piped water and sewer—an essential input for hygiene and cleanliness in homes. This paper analyzes morbidity rates from several IID associated with unsanitary living conditions along with a series of residential water services indicators for Mexico’s 2,456 municipalities. With data obtained through a special request to the federal epidemiological authority as well as official census data for 2010, we find stark regional contrasts and identify interesting spatial structures for both IID morbidity and residential water services indicators. In particular, municipalities tend to present values similar to neighboring municipalities, forming clusters of relatively high-value (or low-value municipalities. Moreover we find that municipalities with a relatively high level of access to residential water services tend to present relatively low IID morbidity rates. These results have multiple public policy implications. In order to reduce the incidence of IID effectively and efficiently, interventions should explicitly consider the spatial structure of morbidity and target problem spots—which typically spill over state, municipal and other administrative boundaries. Moreover, improvements in the quality of access to piped water (for example, increasing the frequency of supply may be as important for reducing morbidity as the expansion of basic access to this service.

  14. A City-wide Investigation of the Isotopic Distribution and Source of Tap Waters for Forensic Human Geolocation Ground-truthing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Momoko; Bell, Lynne S

    2017-05-01

    Human geolocation is prefaced on the accuracy of the geographic precision of mapped isotopic values for drinking water. As most people live in cities, it becomes important to understand city water supplies and how the isotopic values uniquely reflect that city. This study investigated the isotopic distribution of δ 2 H and δ 18 O from sourced tap waters that were collected from across the Metro Vancouver (MV) area (n = 135). The results revealed that the isotopic values reflect their water sources with a range of 5.3‰ for δ 18 O tap and 29.3‰ for δ 2 H tap for MV. The results indicate that individual cities need higher resolution studies to determine their tap water isotopic ranges, and a good understanding of the water supply network itself for human geolocation work. With an extended high-resolution understanding of each city, human tissue may be compared with more certainty for geolocation. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  15. Mosaic analysis for personal water consumption in residential buildings in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yuet Fai; Wong, Ling Tim; Mui, Kwok Wai

    2018-02-01

    This paper investigates the daily per capita residential water use based on the demographic and socio-economic factors described by Mosaic Hong Kong and provides insights into future water supply planning. A survey was conducted to collect information on household water use behaviours and water consumption patterns. The survey results indicate that considerable consumption differences (in the range of 115.6 to 167.7 litres per person per day) exist among the Mosaic Groups, and the average daily per capita residential water consumption is estimated to be 139.6 litres per person per day. The results also reveal that the daily per capita water consumption is inversely proportional to household size in the range of 2 to 6. Moreover, consumption differences among housing types and districts are reported.

  16. Molecular characterization of natural biofilms from household taps with different materials: PVC, stainless steel, and cast iron in drinking water distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Wenfang; Yu, Zhisheng; Chen, Xi; Liu, Ruyin; Zhang, Hongxun

    2013-09-01

    Microorganism in drinking water distribution system may colonize in biofilms. Bacterial 16S rRNA gene diversities were analyzed in both water and biofilms grown on taps with three different materials (polyvinyl chloride (PVC), stainless steel, and cast iron) from a local drinking water distribution system. In total, five clone libraries (440 sequences) were obtained. The taxonomic composition of the microbial communities was found to be dominated by members of Proteobacteria (65.9-98.9 %), broadly distributed among the classes Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, and Gammaproteobacteria. Other bacterial groups included Firmicutes, Acidobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Cyanobacteria, and Deinococcus-Thermus. Moreover, a small proportion of unclassified bacteria (3.5-10.6 %) were also found. This investigation revealed that the bacterial communities in biofilms appeared much more diversified than expected and more care should be taken to the taps with high bacterial diversity. Also, regular monitor of outflow water would be useful as potentially pathogenic bacteria were detected. In addition, microbial richness and diversity in taps ranked in the order as: PVC cast iron. All the results interpreted that PVC would be a potentially suitable material for use as tap component in drinking water distribution system.

  17. Rural water safety from the source to the on-farm tap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corkal, Darrell; Schutzman, W C; Hilliard, Clint

    For those Canadians who live in metropolitan areas, good quality water for domestic use and consumption is readily available, and perhaps taken for granted. However, for over 4 million Canadians who rely on private water supplies, access to water that is safe for consumption and suitable for domestic use is a very real issue. This is also true in the agriculture and agri-food sector. Many of these private water supplies are in rural areas, where water is taken from surface or ground sources. These supplies may be of naturally poor quality, or may have had their quality affected by municipal, industrial, or agricultural activities. Options to protect and enhance the quality of private water supplies include source protection using best management practices (BMPs), source enhancement, and water treatment using innovative small-scale systems. With funding from the Canada-Saskatchewan Agri-Food Innovation Fund, Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada has conducted applied research into effective and affordable BMPs (remote livestock watering, low-drift nozzles for spraying farm chemicals, methods to reduce agro-chemical runoff or leaching, etc.). Source enhancement strategies were studied using aeration for farm ponds or preventive maintenance procedures for ground water wells. Various water treatment technologies were adapted to the small-scale needs of farms, including coagulation, biological sand and biological carbon filtration, membrane filtration using microfilters, nanofilters or reverse osmosis processes, and disinfection systems using chlorination or ultra violet light. Each research project included a technology transfer component, to ensure that the knowledge gained from the research was available to those that needed the information, and to help decision makers address rural water quality problems.

  18. Understanding residential water-use behaviour in urban South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jacobs-Mata, Inga M

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available South Africa’s water supply is under great pressure as demand continues to rise. Demand mitigation strategies implemented by the Department of Water and Sanitation (DWS), water boards and local authorities, and a few water awareness initiatives...

  19. Celebrity Homes, Inc. d/b/a Hanover Falls Residential Construction - Clean Water Act Public Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of an Administrative Penalty Assessent in the form of an Expedited Storm Water Settlement Agreement against Celebrity Homes, Inc. d/b/a Hanover Falls Residential Construction, a business located at 14002 L Street, Omaha, NE, for

  20. 75 FR 21981 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-27

    ... DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 [Docket Number EE-2006-BT-STD-0129] RIN 1904-AA90 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct Heating Equipment, and Pool Heaters Correction In rule document 2010-7611 beginning on page 20112 in the issue of Friday...

  1. Postoperative socket irrigation with drinking tap water reduces the risk of inflammatory complications following surgical removal of third molars: a multicenter randomized trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ghaeminia, H.; Hoppenreijs, T.J.; Xi, T.; Fennis, J.P.; Maal, T.J.J.; Berge, S.J.; Meijer, G.J.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The primary aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of postoperative irrigation of the socket with drinking tap water on inflammatory complications following lower third molar removal. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A multicenter randomized controlled trial was carried out from

  2. Electrochemical Performances of Diamond Like Carbon Films for Pb(II) Detection in Tap Water Using Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping Voltammetry Technique

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sbartai, A.; Namour, F.; Barbier, F.; Krejčí, J.; Kučerová, R.; Krejčí, T.; Neděla, Vilém; Sobota, Jaroslav; Jaffrezic-Renault, N.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 8 (2013), s. 1524-1529 ISSN 1546-198X Institutional support: RVO:68081731 Keywords : Diamond Like Carbon DLC * Lead Detection * Differential Pulse Anodic Stripping * Voltammetry * Tap Water Subject RIV: JA - Electronics ; Optoelectronics, Electrical Engineering Impact factor: 0.558, year: 2013

  3. An Analysis on Optimization of Living and Fire Water Supply Systems of Small High-Rise Residential Blocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Min

    2017-11-01

    With the rapid growth of our population, the demand for housing quality of urban residents has been gradually raised. Due to the shortage of traditional multi-storey residential and high-rise residential, it is difficult to achieve a balance between quality and quantity of housing. As a result, a new type of residential building, small high-rise residential building, came into being. The so-called small high-rise residential generally refers to buildings of 7 to 11 layers, including unit buildings and tower buildings. In view of the problems existing in the water supply system of the small high-rise residential blocks, this paper presents a new system, namely a combined system of living and fire water supply. This system can be, according to the available pressure of municipal pipeline network, divided into three types, and has been optimized in order to fully utilize the municipal pipeline network pressure

  4. Assessment of tap water quality and corrosion scales from the selected distribution systems in northern Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, Shams Ali; Lou, Zimo; Baig, Muzaffar Ali; Qasim, Muhammad; Shams, Dilawar Farhan; Mahmood, Qaisar; Xu, Xinhua

    2017-04-01

    Corrosion deposits formed within drinking water distribution systems deteriorate drinking water quality and resultantly cause public health consequences. In the present study, an attempt was made to investigate the concurrent conditions of corrosion scales and the drinking water quality in selected water supply schemes (WSS) in districts Chitral, Peshawar, and Abbottabad, northern Pakistan. Characterization analyses of the corrosion by-products revealed the presence of α-FeOOH, γ-FeOOH, Fe 3 O 4 , and SiO 2 as major constituents with different proportions. The constituents of all the representative XRD peaks of Peshawar WSS were found insignificant as compared to other WSS, and the reason could be the variation of source water quality. Well-crystallized particles in SEM images indicated the formation of dense oxide layer on corrosion by-products. A wider asymmetric vibration peak of SiO 2 appeared only in Chitral and Abbottabad WSS, which demonstrated higher siltation in the water source. One-way ANOVA analysis showed significant variations in pH, turbidity, TDS, K, Mg, PO 4 , Cl, and SO 4 values, which revealed that these parameters differently contributed to the source water quality. Findings from this study suggested the implementation of proper corrosion prevention measures and the establishment of international collaboration for best corrosion practices, expertise, and developing standards.

  5. Quantification of Saprolegnia parasitica in river water using real-time quantitative PCR: from massive fish mortality to tap drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchi, Steffi; Tisserant, Maxime; Valot, Benoit; Laboissière, Audrey; Frossard, Victor; Reboux, Gabriel

    2017-02-01

    Since 2010, the Loue River (Franche-Comté, East of France) has been suffering from massive fish kills infested by Saprolegnia parasitica. The river supplies inhabitants of the city of Besançon in drinking water, raising the question of a potential risk through both water consumption and use. We developed a real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) to quantify S. parasitica in the Loue River as well as in the drinking water. A weak spatial trend is suggested with greater quantities of S. parasitica observed at the sampling station close to the main pumping station. No S. parasitica DNA was detected in the tap water connected to pumping stations. The use of qPCR, which combines specificity, practicality, speed and reliability, appears to be an effective tool to monitor the spatial and temporal dynamics of this oomycete and identify the risk period for wild salmonid populations in the field, for fishery management or in aquaculture.

  6. Concentrations of 222Rn in well and tap waters of North-Eastern Attiki (Central Greece)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kritidis, Panaiotis; Angelou, Panaiotis.

    1984-07-01

    An alpha-scintillation system for determination of low 222 Rn concentrations in water is described. The use of vacuum sampling, the avoidance of sample transfer and the corrections applied result in low systematical errors. The method has been used for a preliminary investigation of 222 Rn concentrations in well waters of NE Attiki, where values between 4 and 345 pCi/1 have been observed. The additional annual effective dose equivalent due to the systematic domestic use of water with the highest radon concentration measured is estimated not to exceed 5 mrem. (author)

  7. Monitoring of Emerging and Legacy Contaminants in Groundwater and Tap Water of the Karst Region in Northern Puerto Rico for Assessment of Sources and Fate and Transport Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, I. Y.; Cotto, I.; Torres, P. M.

    2014-12-01

    The karst aquifer region of northern Puerto Rico is the area with the highest groundwater extraction in the island. Urban and industrial development has led to extensive contamination of the groundwater in the region. Of particular concern, is the presence of emerging and legacy organic contaminants, such as phthalates and chlorinated organic compounds (CVOCs), because there high risk for exposure and adverse health impact. Variable sources and the heterogeneous and dynamic conditions of karst groundwater systems, limits the ability to properly assess and manage the water quality of these precious water resources. This work develops a monitoring and water analysis scheme to assess spatial-temporal exposure of hazardous contaminants trough karst water in northern Puerto Rico. Groundwater and tap water are sampled in the region and analyzed for phthalates, CVOCs, and common ions. Detections and concentrations of phthalates and CVOCs are determined by using modified EPA methods, which rely on liquid-liquid extractions and gas chromatography techniques. The modified methods have reduced the volume of samples and solvent waste, decreased the time of analysis, increased analysis outcomes, and lower potential for hazardous exposure. Results show intermittent presence of di-ethyl, di-butyl and di (2-ethyl hexyl) phthalates in 36% of the groundwater and 53% of tap water samples, with detected concentrations ranging between 0.1-88.7 μg/L. These results indicate that karst groundwater can serve as a route of exposure for phthalates, but there are additional disperse sources in the water system. CVOCs are detected in groundwater at much higher frequencies (50%) than phthalates, and include trichloromethane (TCM), carbon tetrachloride (CT), trichloroethylene (TCE), and tetrachloroethylene (TCE). CVOCs, except for TCM, are found at lower frequencies on tap water (5.8%) than groundwater (27%). TCM is detected more frequently and at higher concentrations in tap water (56.8%) than

  8. A Novel Liquid-Liquid Extraction for the Determination of Sertraline in Tap Water and Waste Water at Trace Levels by GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koçoğlu, Elif Seda; Bakırdere, Sezgin; Keyf, Seyfullah

    2017-09-01

    A simple, green and fast analytical method was developed for the determination of sertraline in tap and waste water samples at trace levels by using supportive liquid-liquid extraction with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Different parameters affecting extraction efficiency such as types and volumes of extraction and supporter solvents, extraction period, salt type and amount were optimized to get lower detection limits. Ethyl acetate was selected as optimum extraction solvent. In order to improve the precision, anthracene-D10 was used as an internal standard. The calibration plot of sertraline was linear from 1.0 to 1000 ng/mL with a correlation coefficient of 0.999. The limit of detection value under the optimum conditions was found to be 0.43 ng/mL. In real sample measurements, spiking experiments were performed to check the reliability of the method for these matrices. The spiking experiments yielded satisfactory recoveries of 91.19 ± 2.48%, 90.48 ± 5.19% and 95.46 ± 6.56% for 100, 250 and 500 ng/mL sertraline for tap water, and 85.80 ± 2.15% and 92.43 ± 4.02% for 250 and 500 ng/mL sertraline for waste water.

  9. determinants of residential per capita water demand of makurdi

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    the demand. Rapid development has also brought about increase in the uses of water as houses are now with gardens, increased number of cars and water using home appliances. This rapid growth in water demand has to be accompanied by regular review and adjustment in planning, designing and management of.

  10. Measuring the Willingness to Pay for Tap Water Quality Improvements: Results of a Contingent Valuation Survey in Pusan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Seob Kim

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available With increasing concern regarding health, people have developed an interest in the safety of drinking water. In this study, we attempt to measure the economic benefits of tap water quality improvement through a case study on Pusan, the second largest city in Korea. To this end, we use a scenario that the government plans to implement a new project of improving water quality and apply the contingent valuation (CV method. A one-and-one-half bounded dichotomous choice question (OOHBDC format is employed to reduce the potential for response bias in multiple-bound formats such as the double-bound model, while maintaining much of the efficiency. Moreover, we employ the spike model to deal with zero willingness to pay (WTP responses from the OOHBDC CV survey. The CV survey of 400 randomly selected households was rigorously designed to comply with the guidelines for best-practice CV studies using person-to-person interviews. From the spike OOHBDC CV model, the mean WTP for the improvement was estimated to be KRW 2,124 (USD 2.2, on average, per household, per month. The value amounts to 36.6% of monthly water bill and 20.2% of production costs of water. The conventional OOHBDC model produces statistically insignificant mean WTP estimate and even negative value, but the OOHBDC spike model gives us statistically significant mean WTP estimate and fitted our data well. The WTP value to Pusan residents can be computed to be KRW 31.2 billion (USD 32.1 million per year.

  11. Modeling of Residential Water Demand Using Random Effect Model,Case Study: Arak City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hossein Sajadifar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study tries to apply the “Partial Adjustment Model” and “Random Effect Model” techniques to the Stone-Greay’s linear expenditure system, in order to estimate the "Residential Seasonal Demand" for water in Arak city. Per capita water consumption of family residences is regressed on marginal price, per capita income, price of other goods, average temperature and average rainfall. Panel data approaches based on a sample of 152 observations from Arak city referred to 1993-2003. From the estimation of the Elasticity-price of the residential water demand, we want to know how a policy of responsive pricing can lead to more efficient household water consumption inArakcity. Results also indicated that summer price elasticity was twice the winter and price and income elasticity was less than 1 in all cases.

  12. Antimycobacterial potential of the juniper berry essential oil in tap water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peruč, Dolores; Gobin, Ivana; Abram, Maja; Broznić, Dalibor; Svalina, Tomislav; Štifter, Sanja; Staver, Mladenka Malenica; Tićac, Brigita

    2018-03-01

    Mycobacterium avium complex-related diseases are often associated with poorly maintained hot water systems. This calls for the development of new control strategies. The aim of this study was to investigate the activity of essential oils (EOs) from the Mediterranean plants, common juniper, immortelle, sage, lavandin, laurel, and white cedar against Mycobacterium avium ssp. avium, Mycobacterium intracellulare, and Mycobacterium gordonae in culturing broth and freshwater as their most common habitat. To do that, we developed a new method of water microdilution to determine their minimal effective concentrations (MEC). The most active EO was the one from the common juniper with the MEC of 1.6 mg mL-1. Gas chromatography / mass spectrometry the juniper EO identified monoterpenes (70.54 %) and sesquiterpenes (25.9 %) as dominant component groups. The main monoterpene hydrocarbons were α-pinene, sabinene, and β-pinene. The juniper EO significantly reduced the cell viability of M. intracellulare and M. gordonae at MEC, and of M. avium at 2xMEC. Microscopic analysis confirmed its inhibitory effect by revealing significant morphological changes in the cell membrane and cytoplasm of all three bacteria. The mode of action of the juniper EO on the cell membrane was confirmed by a marked leakage of intracellular material. Juniper EO has a great practical potential as a complementary or alternative water disinfectant in hot water systems such as baths, swimming pools, spa pools, hot tubs, or even foot baths/whirlpools.

  13. Determination of Arsenic in Sinus Wash and Tap Water by Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnell, Anna M.; Nahan, Keaton; Holloway, Dawone; Vonderheide, Anne P.

    2016-01-01

    Arsenic is a toxic element to which humans are primarily exposed through food and water; it occurs as a result of human activities and naturally from the earth's crust. An experiment was developed for a senior level analytical laboratory utilizing an Inductively Coupled Plasma-Mass Spectrometer (ICP-MS) for the analysis of arsenic in household…

  14. Trace element analysis of mineral and tap water samples using total reflection x-ray fluorescence (TXRF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangala, M.J.; Korir, K.A.; Maina, D.M.; Kinyua, A.M.

    2000-01-01

    Results of trace element analysis by TXRF of tap water and various brands of bottled mineral water samples which are representative of local and imported brands sold in Nairobi are reported. The variation in elemental concentrations in water samples analyzed were as follows: potassium (K) 0.2 to 28.9 μg/ml; calcium (Ca) 2.2 to 120 μg/ml; titanium (Ti) 11 to 60 μg/l; manganese (Mn) 8 to 670 μg/l; iron (Fe) 31 to 540 μg/l; copper (Cu) 8 to 30 μg/l; zinc (Zn) 8 to 4730 μg/l; bromine (Br) 9 to 248 μg/l; rubidium (Rb) 10 to 40 μg/l and strontium (Sr) 10 to 1000 μg/l. Local mineral water samples contain higher levels of trace elements; manganese (Mn), zinc (Zn), bromine (Br), rubidium (Rb) and strontium (Sr) as compared to the imported brands. Principal component analysis of the results revealed three component loading factors clusters for: rubidium (Rb), strontium (Sr) and calcium (Ca); titanium (Ti), iron (Fe), bromine (Br), and zinc (Zn); zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn) and potassium (K) respectively. The percentage of total variance explained by the components was 31.4, 27.3, and 14.8 respectively. In this study, we also found that a limited spread of 5-6 mm for a 10 μl sample was achieved when the quartz sample carrier was dried in a low pressure (300 mbar) oven at 70 o C for 10 hours. (author)

  15. Residential water demand and water consumption: an econometric analysis on municipal panel data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Musolesi, Antonio; Nosvelli, Mario

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on residential water demand estimation, a rather neglected issue in the Italian environmental economics literature as compared to other European countries and the USA. This may depend on the difficulties in gathering proper data and, most of all, panel data. In some cases statistical information are not suitably collected, while in other cases legal privacy ties put some obstacles to data set transfer. Our panel data set refers to 102 municipalities in Lombardy (Italy) for the period 1998-2002. When estimating the effect of water price, we control for other relevant variables such as: income, households demographical variables - (age structure, number of component for each family) number of firms in tertiary sector, water system length. In the considered period, the data show both an increase in population (1,5 %) and in the number of water consumers (7%) associated, on aggregate, with a slight reduction in water consumption (-1,1 %). Water demand models are estimated both in a static and in a dynamic framework. In the former, the emphasis is set on the sources of endogeneity in the average price by estimating a system of simultaneous equations and relevant variables for assessing consumer behaviour - such as socio demographic ones - are incorporated in the model. In the latter, econometric methods especially designed for endogeneity in panel data models (Arellano e Bond, 1991), are employed in order to estimate the long run elasticity of water demand with respect to average price. We find evidence both that consumers significantly respond to average price only in the long run with an elasticity of about - 0,3-0,4 and that income and demographic variables are crucial in explaining consumers' behaviour. Furthermore, water consumption presents a strong auto-regressive component, showing the emergence of inertia and path dependency in consumption habits. Such results suggest important implications for water policy planning. On one side demographic

  16. Pseudomonas aeruginosa Outbreak in a Neonatal Intensive Care Unit Attributed to Hospital Tap Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bicking Kinsey, Cara; Koirala, Samir; Solomon, Benjamin; Rosenberg, Jon; Robinson, Byron F; Neri, Antonio; Laufer Halpin, Alison; Arduino, Matthew J; Moulton-Meissner, Heather; Noble-Wang, Judith; Chea, Nora; Gould, Carolyn V

    2017-07-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate an outbreak of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections and colonization in a neonatal intensive care unit. DESIGN Infection control assessment, environmental evaluation, and case-control study. SETTING Newly built community-based hospital, 28-bed neonatal intensive care unit. PATIENTS Neonatal intensive care unit patients receiving care between June 1, 2013, and September 30, 2014. METHODS Case finding was performed through microbiology record review. Infection control observations, interviews, and environmental assessment were performed. A matched case-control study was conducted to identify risk factors for P. aeruginosa infection. Patient and environmental isolates were collected for pulsed-field gel electrophoresis to determine strain relatedness. RESULTS In total, 31 cases were identified. Case clusters were temporally associated with absence of point-of-use filters on faucets in patient rooms. After adjusting for gestational age, case patients were more likely to have been in a room without a point-of-use filter (odds ratio [OR], 37.55; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.16-∞). Case patients had higher odds of exposure to peripherally inserted central catheters (OR, 7.20; 95% CI, 1.75-37.30) and invasive ventilation (OR, 5.79; 95% CI, 1.39-30.62). Of 42 environmental samples, 28 (67%) grew P. aeruginosa. Isolates from the 2 most recent case patients were indistinguishable by pulsed-field gel electrophoresis from water-related samples obtained from these case-patient rooms. CONCLUSIONS This outbreak was attributed to contaminated water. Interruption of the outbreak with point-of-use filters provided a short-term solution; however, eradication of P. aeruginosa in water and fixtures was necessary to protect patients. This outbreak highlights the importance of understanding the risks of stagnant water in healthcare facilities. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2017;38:801-808.

  17. Relationship between antibiotic- and disinfectant-resistance profiles in bacteria harvested from tap water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Sadia; Beattie, Tara K; Knapp, Charles W

    2016-06-01

    Chlorination is commonly used to control levels of bacteria in drinking water; however, viable bacteria may remain due to chlorine resistance. What is concerning is that surviving bacteria, due to co-selection factors, may also have increased resistance to common antibiotics. This would pose a public health risk as it could link resistant bacteria in the natural environment to human population. Here, we investigated the relationship between chlorine- and antibiotic-resistances by harvesting 148 surviving bacteria from chlorinated drinking-water systems and compared their susceptibilities against chlorine disinfectants and antibiotics. Twenty-two genera were isolated, including members of Paenibacillus, Burkholderia, Escherichia, Sphingomonas and Dermacoccus species. Weak (but significant) correlations were found between chlorine-tolerance and minimum inhibitory concentrations against the antibiotics tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole and amoxicillin, but not against ciprofloxacin; this suggest that chlorine-tolerant bacteria are more likely to also be antibiotic resistant. Further, antibiotic-resistant bacteria survived longer than antibiotic-sensitive organisms when exposed to free chlorine in a contact-time assay; however, there were little differences in susceptibility when exposed to monochloramine. Irrespective of antibiotic-resistance, spore-forming bacteria had higher tolerance against disinfection compounds. The presence of chlorine-resistant bacteria surviving in drinking-water systems may carry additional risk of antibiotic resistance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The Management of Silica in Los Alamos National Laboratory Tap Water - A Study of Silica Solubility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wohlberg, C.; Worland, V.P.; Kozubal, M.A.; Erickson, G.F.; Jacobson, H.M.; McCarthy, K.T.

    1999-07-01

    Well water at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) has a silica (SiO{sub 2}) content of 60 to 100 mg/L, with 4 mg/L of magnesium, 13 mg/L calcium and lesser concentrations of other ions. On evaporation in cooling towers, when the silica concentration reaches 150 to 220 mg/L, silica deposits on heat transfer surfaces. When the high silica well water is used in the reprocessing of plutonium, silica remains in solution at the end of the process and creates a problem of removal from the effluent prior to discharge or evaporation. The work described in this Report is divided into two major parts. The first part describes the behavior of silica when the water is evaporated at various conditions of pH and in the presence of different classes of anions: inorganic and organic. In the second part of this work it was found that precipitation (floccing) of silica was a function of solution pH and mole ratio of metal to silica.

  19. Economics of residential solar hot water heating systems in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdulmula, Ahmed Mohamed Omer; Sopian, Kamaruzzaman; Haj Othman, Mohd Yosof

    2006-01-01

    Malaysia has favorable climatic conditions for the development of solar energy due to the abundant sunshine and is considered good for harnessing energy from the sun. This is because solar hot water can represent the large energy consumer in Malaysian households but, because of the high initial cost of Solar Water Heating Systems (SWHSs) and easily to install and relatively inexpensive to purchase electric water heaters, many Malyaysian families are still using Electric Water Heaters to hot their water needs. This paper is presented the comparing of techno-economic feasibility of some models of SWHS from Malaysian's market with the Electric Water Heaters )EWH) by study the annual cost of operation for both systems. The result shows that the annual cost of the electrical water heater becomes greater than than the annual cost of the SWHS for all models in long-team run so it is advantageous for the family to use the solar water heater, at least after 4 years. In addition with installation SWHS the families can get long-term economical benefits, environment friendly and also can doing its part to reduce this country's dependence on foreign oil that is price increase day after day.(Author)

  20. Assessment of ground water pollution in the residential areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chemical and physico–chemical parameters of ground water samples from wells were analyzed by multivariate statistical tools to provide the characterisation of the ground water distribution of the settlements around cement factories in Ewekoro and Shagamu, Ogun State in Nigeria. The 17 parameters determined include: ...

  1. Influences on residential water consumption in Cape Town

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-12-14

    Dec 14, 2011 ... non-pricing policies such as increasing consumer awareness. Accurate demand estimates are central to these strategies and policies (Jorgensen et al., 2009). The City of Cape Town Water Services Development. Plan (CoCT, 2008) and Water Demand Management Strategy. (CoCT, 2007b) are intended ...

  2. Evaluating the effect of conservation motivations on residential water demand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maas, Alexander; Goemans, Christopher; Manning, Dale; Kroll, Stephan; Arabi, Mazdak; Rodriguez-McGoffin, Mariana

    2017-07-01

    Utilities and water suppliers in the southwestern United States have used education and conservation programs over the past two decades in an attempt to ameliorate the pressures of increasing water scarcity. This paper builds on a long history of water demand and environmental psychology literature and attempts to answer a simple question: do households primarily motivated by environmental and social (E&S) considerations consume water differently than households motivated primarily by cost and convenience (C&C)? We find that E&S consumers use less water than C&C consumers on average. We also find that there is no statistical difference between E&S and C&C consumers in their consumption responses to changing prices, temperature, and precipitation. This implies that targeting future conservation efforts to self-reported consumer groups may not improve policy effectiveness. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Determination of copper in tap water using solid-phase spectrophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Carol M.; Street, Kenneth W.; Philipp, Warren H.; Tanner, Stephen P.

    1994-01-01

    A new application of ion exchange films is presented. The films are used in a simple analytical method of directly determining low concentrations of Cu(2+) in aqueous solutions, in particular, drinking water. The basis for this new test method is the color and absorption intensity of the ion when adsorbed onto the film. The film takes on the characteristic color of the adsorbed cation, which is concentrated on the film by many orders of magnitude. The linear relationship between absorbance (corrected for variations in film thickness) and solution concentration makes the determinations possible. These determinations agree well with flame atomic absorption determinations.

  4. Determination of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid for assessing the quality tap water using SPE and HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Luiz Delmonico

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The use of pesticides in agriculture is one of the current problems that may result in contamination of both ground and surface water and groundwater. Considering the environmental importance and the increasing use of herbicides in Maringá region, in the present work methods for extraction and determination of glyphosate (GLYP and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA using solid phase extraction (SPE and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC were developed. For SPE, anion exchange resin was used and elution was done with hydrochloric acid 50.0 mmol L-1, achieving recovery rates of 82.5-116.2% and 67.1-104.0% for AMPA and GLYP, respectively. For HPLC determination the analytes were derivatized and injected in the HPLC with a C18 column and using mobile phase consisting of phosphate buffer 0.20 mol L-1 at pH 3.0 and acetonitrile (85:15; the monitoring was done at 240 nm. The analysis was performed in 8 min with the same limit of detection and limit of quantification for AMPA and GLYP of 0.09 and 0.20 mg L-1, respectively. The methods were applied to analysis of public water supply samples and concentrations from 2.1 up to 2.9 µg L-1 for AMPA and from 2.3 up to 3.3 µg L-1 for glyphosate were found.

  5. Comparison of Fluoride Levels in Tap and Bottled Water and Reported Use of Fluoride Supplementation in a United States–Mexico Border Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paloma I. Beamer

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundCompared to the general United States (U.S. population, Arizona counties along the U.S.–Mexico border have a higher prevalence of dental caries, which can be reduced with adequate fluoride exposure. Because of concern regarding local tap water quality, fluoride-free bottled water consumption is common in this region, raising concern that families are not receiving adequate fluoride to promote dental health.ObjectiveTo evaluate the levels of fluoride in tap and bottled water as well as the use of fluoride supplements in an Arizona border community.MethodsLow-income Latino households (n = 90 who report use of bottled water as their primary source of water intake were recruited. Participants completed a questionnaire about their and their children’s dental histories and use of fluoride supplements. Water samples (bottled and tap were collected from a subset of households (n = 30 for analysis of fluoride.ResultsFluoride detection levels were significantly greater (p = 0.02, Fisher’s exact test in tap water (average = 0.49 mg/dL than in bottled water, yet, the majority (22/30 were below the range for optimal dental health (0.7–1.2 mg/L. Concentration of fluoride in the majority (29/30 of bottled water samples was below the quantitative detection limit of 0.4 mg/L. Children were significantly less likely to have dental caries if they received fluoride varnishing treatments (p = 0.01, Fisher’s exact test, lived in households that reported using fluoridated mouthwash (p < 0.001, Fisher’s exact test, their parents received fluoride education (p = 0.01, Fisher’s exact test, and their parents reported visiting a dentist yearly (p < 0.001, Fisher’s exact test. Furthermore, none of the participants reported receiving recommendations from health-care providers about fluoride supplementation or variance in content by the type of water consumed.ConclusionAlthough fluoride was significantly more

  6. Comparison of Fluoride Levels in Tap and Bottled Water and Reported Use of Fluoride Supplementation in a United States-Mexico Border Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victory, Kerton R; Cabrera, Nolan L; Larson, Daniela; Reynolds, Kelly A; Latura, Joyce; Thomson, Cynthia A; Beamer, Paloma I

    2017-01-01

    Compared to the general United States (U.S.) population, Arizona counties along the U.S.-Mexico border have a higher prevalence of dental caries, which can be reduced with adequate fluoride exposure. Because of concern regarding local tap water quality, fluoride-free bottled water consumption is common in this region, raising concern that families are not receiving adequate fluoride to promote dental health. To evaluate the levels of fluoride in tap and bottled water as well as the use of fluoride supplements in an Arizona border community. Low-income Latino households ( n  = 90) who report use of bottled water as their primary source of water intake were recruited. Participants completed a questionnaire about their and their children's dental histories and use of fluoride supplements. Water samples (bottled and tap) were collected from a subset of households ( n  = 30) for analysis of fluoride. Fluoride detection levels were significantly greater ( p  = 0.02, Fisher's exact test) in tap water (average = 0.49 mg/dL) than in bottled water, yet, the majority (22/30) were below the range for optimal dental health (0.7-1.2 mg/L). Concentration of fluoride in the majority (29/30) of bottled water samples was below the quantitative detection limit of 0.4 mg/L. Children were significantly less likely to have dental caries if they received fluoride varnishing treatments ( p  = 0.01, Fisher's exact test), lived in households that reported using fluoridated mouthwash ( p  < 0.001, Fisher's exact test), their parents received fluoride education ( p  = 0.01, Fisher's exact test), and their parents reported visiting a dentist yearly ( p  < 0.001, Fisher's exact test). Furthermore, none of the participants reported receiving recommendations from health-care providers about fluoride supplementation or variance in content by the type of water consumed. Although fluoride was significantly more likely to be detected in tap than bottled water

  7. INVESTIGATION OF CHANGES OF PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF TAP WATER UNDER INFLUENCE OF POWERFUL UNDERWATER SPARK DISCHARGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. V. Vinnikov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The purpose of this investigation is to study the changes in the redox potential and pH-value of the tap water as a function of underwater spark discharges, storage device capacitance and the charging voltage. Methodology. To define the electric parameters of discharge circuit we used the Rogowski loop and the compensated capacitance-ohm potential divider. To determine water properties before and after the treatment we used the following devices: the water analyzer Anion -7051 with the limit of absolute error of the EMF measurement ± 2 mV, the BANTE 902 device with the absolute error of ± 0.002 рН. Results. We managed to establish the time of the origination of changes in the properties of treated water. A change in the positive redox potential to a negative one occurred already after the third pulse at a total energy input of ≥ 1 kJ. The pH value increased in the range of 0.2 – 0.45 рН units. We obtained the relationship of a change in the redox potential as a function of total energy of the pulse train that actually exhibits the linear relation to the mass of erosion products. We established that the electrodes made of stainless steel and the electrodes made of graphite provide similar changes in water properties. An increase in pH is indicative of the progress of reactions that result in the formation of ОН‾. Originality. The obtained experimental data prove a rapid and reliable change in the redox potential from positive to negative changes in the redox potential exponent can persist during ten days and even longer. The erosion products of electrodes can be removed from the treated water using the method of magnetic separation. Practical value. The «HYDRA» plant can be used as the electrochemical ideal mixing reactor of a discrete action with the removal of erosion products of the electrode using the method of magnetic separation.

  8. The δ2H and δ18O of tap water from 349 sites in the United States and selected territories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coplen, Tyler B.; Landwehr, Jurate M.; Qi, Haiping; Lorenz, Jennifer M.

    2013-01-01

    Because the stable isotopic compositions of hydrogen (δ2H) and oxygen (δ18O) of animal (including human) tissues, such as hair, nail, and urine, reflect the δ2H and δ18O of water and food ingested by an animal or a human and because the δ2H and δ18O of environmental waters vary geographically, δ2H and δ18O values of tap water samples collected in 2007-2008 from 349 sites in the United States and three selected U.S. territories have been measured in support of forensic science applications, creating one of the largest databases of tap water δ2H and δ18O values to date. The results of replicate isotopic measurements for these tap water samples confirm that the expanded uncertainties (U = 2μc) obtained over a period of years by the Reston Stable Isotope Laboratory from δ2H and δ18O dual-inlet mass spectrometric measurements are conservative, at ±2‰ and ±0.2 ‰, respectively. These uncertainties are important because U.S. Geological Survey data may be needed for forensic science applications, including providing evidence in court cases. Half way through the investigation, an isotope-laser spectrometer was acquired, enabling comparison of dual-inlet isotope-ratio mass spectrometric results with isotope-laser spectrometric results. The uncertainty of the laser-based δ2H measurement results for these tap water samples is comparable to the uncertainty of the mass spectrometric method, with the laser-based method having a slightly lower uncertainty. However, the δ18O uncertainty of the laser-based method is more than a factor of ten higher than that of the dual-inlet isotoperatio mass spectrometric method.

  9. Randomised controlled trial of thermostatic mixer valves in reducing bath hot tap water temperature in families with young children in social housing: A protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillips Ceri

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Each year in the UK 2000 children attend emergency departments and 500 are admitted to hospital following a bath water scald. The long term effects can include disability, disfigurement or psychological harm and repeated skin grafts may be required as the child grows. The costs of treating a severe scald are estimated at 250,000 GBP. Children living in the most deprived wards are at greatest risk of thermal injuries; hospital admission rates are three times that for children living in the least deprived wards. Domestic hot water, which is usually stored at around 60 degrees Celsius, can result in a second-degree burn after 3 seconds and a third-degree burn after 5 seconds. Educational strategies to encourage testing of tap water temperature and reduction of hot water thermostat settings have largely proved unsuccessful. Legislation in the USA mandating pre-setting hot water heater thermostats at 49 degrees Celsius was effective in reducing scald injuries, suggesting passive measures may have a greater impact. Thermostatic mixer valves (TMVs, recently developed for the domestic market, fitted across the hot and cold water supply pipes of the bath, allow delivery of water set at a fixed temperature from the hot bath tap. These valves therefore offer the potential to reduce scald injuries. Design/Methods A pragmatic, randomised controlled trial to assess the effectiveness of TMVs in reducing bath hot tap water temperatures in the homes of families with young children in rented social housing. Two parallel arms include an intervention group and a control group where the intervention will be deferred. The intervention will consist of fitting a TMV (set at 44 degrees Celsius by a qualified plumber and provision of educational materials. The control arm will not receive a TMV or the educational materials for the study duration but will be offered the intervention after collection of follow-up data 12 months post randomisation. The

  10. Possibility of heat recovery from gray water in residential building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Aleksandra; Słyś, Daniel

    2017-12-01

    Recovery of waste heat from gray water can be an interesting alternative to other energy saving systems in a building, including alternative energy sources. Mainly, due to a number of advantages including independence from weather conditions, small investment outlay, lack of user support, or a slight interference with the installation system. The purpose of this article is to present the financial effectiveness of installations which provide hot, usable water to a detached house, using a Drain Water Heat Recovery (DWHR) system depending on the number of system users and the various combinations of bathing time in the shower, which has an influence on the daily warm water demand in each of the considered options. The economic analysis of the adopted installation variants is based on the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) method, which is characterized by the fact that it also includes the operating costs in addition to the capital expenditure during the entire analysis period. For each case, the necessary devices were selected and the cost of their installation was estimated.

  11. Potable water use of residential consumers in the Cape Town ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-01-01

    Jan 1, 2016 ... T Wright1 and HE Jacobs1*. 1Department of Civil Engineering, Stellenbosch University, Private Bag X1, Matieland, 7602, South Africa .... was extracted and verified with a commercial software suite called Swift – a process .... A trend of increasing water use with increased stand size is evident, in line with ...

  12. Possibility of heat recovery from gray water in residential building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazur Aleksandra

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recovery of waste heat from gray water can be an interesting alternative to other energy saving systems in a building, including alternative energy sources. Mainly, due to a number of advantages including independence from weather conditions, small investment outlay, lack of user support, or a slight interference with the installation system. The purpose of this article is to present the financial effectiveness of installations which provide hot, usable water to a detached house, using a Drain Water Heat Recovery (DWHR system depending on the number of system users and the various combinations of bathing time in the shower, which has an influence on the daily warm water demand in each of the considered options. The economic analysis of the adopted installation variants is based on the Life Cycle Cost (LCC method, which is characterized by the fact that it also includes the operating costs in addition to the capital expenditure during the entire analysis period. For each case, the necessary devices were selected and the cost of their installation was estimated.

  13. Evaluation of Residential Hot Water Distribution Ssytems by Numeric Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, ROBERT

    2005-08-17

    The objective of this project was to evaluate the performance and economics of various domestic hot water distribution systems in representative California residences. While the greatest opportunities for improved efficiency occur in new construction, significant improvements can also be made in some existing distribution systems. Specific objectives of the project tasks were: (1) Simulate potential energy savings of, perform cost-benefit analyses of, and identify market barriers to alternative new systems. (2) Simulate potential energy savings of, perform cost-benefit analyses of, and identify market barriers to maintenance, repair, and retrofit modifications of existing systems. (3) Evaluate potential impact of adopting alternative hot water distribution systems and report project findings. The outcome of this project is to provide homeowners, homebuilders, systems suppliers, municipal code officials and utility providers (both electric and water/sewer) with a neutral, independent, third party, cost-benefit analysis of alternative hot water distribution systems for use in California. The results will enable these stakeholders to make informed decisions regarding which system is most appropriate for use.

  14. A method for improving reliability and relevance of LCA reviews: the case of life-cycle greenhouse gas emissions of tap and bottled water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantin, Valentina; Scalbi, Simona; Ottaviano, Giuseppe; Masoni, Paolo

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to propose a method for harmonising Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) literature studies on the same product or on different products fulfilling the same function for a reliable and meaningful comparison of their life-cycle environmental impacts. The method is divided in six main steps which aim to rationalize and quicken the efforts needed to carry out the comparison. The steps include: 1) a clear definition of the goal and scope of the review; 2) critical review of the references; 3) identification of significant parameters that have to be harmonised; 4) harmonisation of the parameters; 5) statistical analysis to support the comparison; 6) results and discussion. This approach was then applied to the comparative analysis of the published LCA studies on tap and bottled water production, focussing on Global Warming Potential (GWP) results, with the aim to identify the environmental preferable alternative. A statistical analysis with Wilcoxon's test confirmed that the difference between harmonised GWP values of tap and bottled water was significant. The results obtained from the comparison of the harmonised mean GWP results showed that tap water always has the best environmental performance, even in case of high energy-consuming technologies for drinking water treatments. The strength of the method is that it enables both performing a deep analysis of the LCA literature and obtaining more consistent comparisons across the published LCAs. For these reasons, it can be a valuable tool which provides useful information for both practitioners and decision makers. Finally, its application to the case study allowed both to supply a description of systems variability and to evaluate the importance of several key parameters for tap and bottled water production. The comparative review of LCA studies, with the inclusion of a statistical decision test, can validate and strengthen the final statements of the comparison. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All

  15. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

    2014-06-01

    This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of U.S. climate regions. HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in certain climate zones when compared to typical electric resistance water heaters. Results show that this technology is a viable option in most climates, but differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the units tested. Tests were conducted to map heat pump performance across the operating range and to determine the logic used to control the heat pump and the backup electric heaters. Other tests performed include two unique draw profile tests, reduced air flow performance tests and the standard DOE rating tests. The results from all these tests are presented here for all five units tested. The results of these tests will be used to improve the EnergyPlus heat pump water heater for use in BEopt™ whole-house building simulations.

  16. Laboratory Performance Evaluation of Residential Integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sparn, B.; Hudon, K.; Christensen, D.

    2014-06-01

    This paper explores the laboratory performance of five integrated Heat Pump Water Heaters (HPWHs) across a wide range of operating conditions representative of US climate regions. HPWHs are expected to provide significant energy savings in certain climate zones when compared to typical electric resistance water heaters. Results show that this technology is a viable option in most climates, but differences in control schemes and design features impact the performance of the units tested. Tests were conducted to map heat pump performance across the operating range and to determine the logic used to control the heat pump and the backup electric heaters. Other tests performed include two unique draw profile tests, reduced air flow performance tests and the standard DOE rating tests. The results from all these tests are presented here for all five units tested. The results of these tests will be used to improve the EnergyPlus heat pump water heater for use in BEopt(tm) whole-house building simulations.

  17. Control and Coordination of Frequency Responsive Residential Water Heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Tess L.; Kalsi, Karanjit; Elizondo, Marcelo A.; Marinovici, Laurentiu D.; Pratt, Richard M.

    2016-07-31

    Demand-side frequency control can complement traditional generator controls to maintain the stability of large electric systems in the face of rising uncertainty and variability associated with renewable energy resources. This paper presents a hierarchical frequency-based load control strategy that uses a supervisor to flexibly adjust control gains that a population of end-use loads respond to in a decentralized manner to help meet the NERC BAL-003-1 frequency response standard at both the area level and interconnection level. The load model is calibrated and used to model populations of frequency-responsive water heaters in a PowerWorld simulation of the U.S. Western Interconnection (WECC). The proposed design is implemented and demonstrated on physical water heaters in a laboratory setting. A significant fraction of the required frequency response in the WECC could be supplied by electric water heaters alone at penetration levels of less than 15%, while contributing to NERC requirements at the interconnection and area levels.

  18. Busting the Baby Teeth Myth and Increasing Children’s Consumption of Tap Water: Building Public Will for Children’s Oral Health in Colorado

    OpenAIRE

    Wyatt C. Hornsby; William Bailey; Patricia A. Braun; Karl Weiss; James Heichelbech

    2017-01-01

    Question Can a multifaceted statewide communications campaign motivate behavior change in low-income Colorado families to limit children’s fruit juice consumption and increase children’s consumption of tap water to prevent tooth decay? Purpose Caries is the most common chronic disease of childhood, affecting 40% of kindergartners and 55% of third graders in Colorado. Frequent consumption of 100% fruit juice is linked to childhood caries. The purpose of this campaign, “Cavities Get ...

  19. Residential Water Scarcity in Cyprus: Impact of Climate Change and Policy Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theodoros Zachariadis

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an assessment of the cost of water scarcity in Cyprus, today and in the next 20 years, taking into account the effect of projected climate change in the region. It focuses on the residential sector, accounting also for tourism and industry. Using a simple demand function, total scarcity costs in Cyprus are computed for the period 2010–2030, and three scenarios of future water demand are presented. The central estimate shows that the present value of total costs due to water shortages will amount to 72 million Euros (at 2009 prices, and, if future water demand increases a little faster, these costs may reach 200 million Euros. Using forecasts of regional climate models, costs are found to be about 20% higher in a “climate change” scenario. Compared to the loss of consumer surplus due to water shortages, desalination is found to be a costly solution, even if environmental damage costs from the operation of desalination plants are not accounted for. Finally, dynamic constrained optimization is employed and shows that efficient residential water prices should include a scarcity price of about 40 Eurocents per cubic meter at  2009 prices; this would constitute a 30–100% increase in current prices faced by residential consumers. Reductions in rainfall due to climate change would raise this price by another 2-3 Eurocents. Such a pricing policy would provide a clear long-term signal to consumers and firms and could substantially contribute to a sustainable use of water resources in the island.

  20. Prevalence of pathogenic free-living amoeba and other protozoa in natural and communal piped tap water from Queen Elizabeth protected area, Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sente, Celsus; Erume, Joseph; Naigaga, Irene; Mulindwa, Julius; Ochwo, Sylvester; Magambo, Phillip Kimuda; Namara, Benigna Gabriela; Kato, Charles Drago; Sebyatika, George; Muwonge, Kevin; Ocaido, Michael

    2016-08-03

    Pathogenic water dwelling protozoa such as Acanthamoeba spp., Hartmannella spp., Naegleria spp., Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. are often responsible for devastating illnesses especially in children and immunocompromised individuals, yet their presence and prevalence in certain environment in sub-Saharan Africa is still unknown to most researchers, public health officials and medical practitioners. The objective of this study was to establish the presence and prevalence of pathogenic free-living amoeba (FLA), Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Queen Elizabeth Protected Area (QEPA). Samples were collected from communal taps and natural water sites in QEPA. Physical water parameters were measured in situ. The samples were processed to detect the presence of FLA trophozoites by xenic cultivation, Cryptosporidium oocysts by Ziehl-Neelsen stain and Giardia cysts by Zinc Sulphate floatation technique. Parasites were observed microscopically, identified, counted and recorded. For FLA, genomic DNA was extracted for amplification and sequencing. Both natural and tap water sources were contaminated with FLA, Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. All protozoan parasites were more abundant in the colder rainy season except for Harmannella spp. and Naegleria spp. which occurred more in the warmer months. The prevalence of all parasites was higher in tap water than in natural water samples. There was a strong negative correlation between the presence of Acanthamoeba spp., Hartmannella spp., Cryptosporidium spp. and Giardia spp. with Dissolved Oxygen (DO) (P protozoa that could possibly be the cause of a number of silent morbidities and mortalities among rural households in QEPA. This implies that water used by communities in QEPA is of poor quality and predisposes them to a variety of protozoan infections including the FLA whose public health importance was never reported, thus necessitating adoption of proper water safety measures.

  1. Mining residential water and electricity demand data in Southern California to inform demand management strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cominola, A.; Spang, E. S.; Giuliani, M.; Castelletti, A.; Loge, F. J.; Lund, J. R.

    2016-12-01

    Demand side management strategies are key to meet future water and energy demands in urban contexts, promote water and energy efficiency in the residential sector, provide customized services and communications to consumers, and reduce utilities' costs. Smart metering technologies allow gathering high temporal and spatial resolution water and energy consumption data and support the development of data-driven models of consumers' behavior. Modelling and predicting resource consumption behavior is essential to inform demand management. Yet, analyzing big, smart metered, databases requires proper data mining and modelling techniques, in order to extract useful information supporting decision makers to spot end uses towards which water and energy efficiency or conservation efforts should be prioritized. In this study, we consider the following research questions: (i) how is it possible to extract representative consumers' personalities out of big smart metered water and energy data? (ii) are residential water and energy consumption profiles interconnected? (iii) Can we design customized water and energy demand management strategies based on the knowledge of water- energy demand profiles and other user-specific psychographic information? To address the above research questions, we contribute a data-driven approach to identify and model routines in water and energy consumers' behavior. We propose a novel customer segmentation procedure based on data-mining techniques. Our procedure consists of three steps: (i) extraction of typical water-energy consumption profiles for each household, (ii) profiles clustering based on their similarity, and (iii) evaluation of the influence of candidate explanatory variables on the identified clusters. The approach is tested onto a dataset of smart metered water and energy consumption data from over 1000 households in South California. Our methodology allows identifying heterogeneous groups of consumers from the studied sample, as well as

  2. Investigation of Fungi in Drinking Water Resources as a Source of Contamination Tap Water in Sari, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Yousefi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: One of the most prominent concerns for the water consumers is pathogenic microorganism contamination. Wells and underground water resources are the main resources of drinking water in Sari city, Iran. The main objectives of the research project were to explore the distribution and frequency of mycoflora in wells and underground water resources of the city and their contamination effects on humans. Materials and methods: Three reservoirs and 18 wells or underground water resources were analyzed. Water samples were then filtered and analyzed according to the World Health Organization guidelines. Each filter and 0.2 ml of suspension inoculated on SDA+CG media. For fungal growth, plates were incubated at 27’C for 7-10 days. The fungi were identified by standard mycological techniques. Results: Fungal colonies were isolated from all samples. From total of 160 fungal colonies isolated from wells water, 14 species of fungi were distinguished. Rhodotorula (54.4%, Monilinia (13.7%, Alternaria (6.9% were the most commonly isolated. Drechslera, Rhizopus, and Exserohilum (0.6% had the lowest frequency. There was no significant difference between fungal elements isolated from three major reservoirs (P>0.05. Conclusion: This study revealed that resources of drinking water from an area have to monitored and if its fungal CFU be greater than a certain value, medical and health preventive measures should be taken before the water is used by human. In this context, public and private awareness should also be provided through the media, broadcasting, teachers and scholars.

  3. Different senescent HDPE pipe-risk: brief field investigation from source water to tap water in China (Changsha City).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jing; Tang, Lin; Zhang, Chang; Zeng, Guangming; Deng, Yaocheng; Dong, Haoran; Wang, Jingjing; Wu, Yanan

    2015-10-01

    Semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) derived from plastic pipes widely used in water distribution definitely influence our daily drinking water quality. There are still few scientific or integrated studies on the release and degradation of the migrating chemicals in pipelines. This investigation was carried out at field sites along a pipeline in Changsha, China. Two chemicals, 2, 4-tert-buthylphenol and 1, 3-diphenylguanidine, were found to be migrating from high density polyethylene (HDPE) pipe material. New pipes released more of these two compounds than older pipes, and microorganisms living in older pipes tended to degrade them faster, indicating that the aged pipes were safer for water transmission. Microorganism degradation in water plays a dominant role in the control of these substances. To minimize the potential harm to human, a more detailed study incorporating assessment of their risk should be carried out, along with seeking safer drinking pipes.

  4. Low Contribution of PbO2-Coated Lead Service Lines to Water Lead Contamination at the Tap

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine if field experience corroborates that formation of stable PbO2 coatings on lead service lines (LSLs) provides an effective lead contamination control strategy, lead profile sampling was undertaken at eight home kitchen taps in three US cities (Newport, Rhode Island; ...

  5. Characterizing Synergistic Water and Energy Efficiency at the Residential Scale Using a Cost Abatement Curve Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillwell, A. S.; Chini, C. M.; Schreiber, K. L.; Barker, Z. A.

    2015-12-01

    Energy and water are two increasingly correlated resources. Electricity generation at thermoelectric power plants requires cooling such that large water withdrawal and consumption rates are associated with electricity consumption. Drinking water and wastewater treatment require significant electricity inputs to clean, disinfect, and pump water. Due to this energy-water nexus, energy efficiency measures might be a cost-effective approach to reducing water use and water efficiency measures might support energy savings as well. This research characterizes the cost-effectiveness of different efficiency approaches in households by quantifying the direct and indirect water and energy savings that could be realized through efficiency measures, such as low-flow fixtures, energy and water efficient appliances, distributed generation, and solar water heating. Potential energy and water savings from these efficiency measures was analyzed in a product-lifetime adjusted economic model comparing efficiency measures to conventional counterparts. Results were displayed as cost abatement curves indicating the most economical measures to implement for a target reduction in water and/or energy consumption. These cost abatement curves are useful in supporting market innovation and investment in residential-scale efficiency.

  6. Occurrence of immunosuppressive drugs and their metabolites in the sewage-impacted Vistula and Utrata Rivers and in tap water from the Warsaw region (Poland).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giebułtowicz, Joanna; Nałęcz-Jawecki, Grzegorz

    2016-04-01

    Immunosuppresive therapy following organ transplant frequently includes treatment with tacrolimus and mycophenolic acid derivatives. These pharmaceuticals may enter the environment through wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents and may have a potentially harmful effect on aquatic biota. Tacrolimus, mycophenolic acid and their metabolites were measured at specific points of a large Polish river (Vistula), a smaller river (Utrata) and in tap water samples from the Warsaw region. Analysis was performed using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, after solid phase extraction for water samples, or QuEChERS extraction for sediments. Residues of tacrolimus were below quantitation limits in both water and sediment samples. However, in water samples mycophenolic acid concentrations were measured at up to 180 ng L(-1) downstream of WWTP outfalls. No immunosuppressive drugs were detected in tap water. Concentrations of mycophenolic acid exceeded the predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) value in some Polish surface water, and risk calculations predicted at least twice higher concentrations in some other countries of the European Union. To the best of the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of these immunosuppressive drug concentrations in the environment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Getting back on tap: the policy context and cost of ensuring access to low-cost drinking water in Massachusetts schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cradock, Angie L; Wilking, Cara L; Olliges, Sarah A; Gortmaker, Steven L

    2012-09-01

    Adequate water intake may have important health benefits for schoolchildren. Layers of federal, state, and local policy are relevant to provision of water within schools. Recently passed state and federal laws require free drinking-water access for students during mealtimes. To review Massachusetts local district wellness policies related to water access, provide estimates of costs for three water-provision strategies, and discuss implications for policy relevant to adequate drinking-water access. Legal research was conducted using the LexisNexis legal database and government websites. Local wellness policies were double-coded using existing research tools. Costs of three water-delivery options were estimated using a 10-year school-district perspective. Prior to 2010, most Massachusetts public school district wellness policies (92%-94%) did not address access to free drinking water. Ten-year costs per school for providing water during mealtimes to students, including dispenser unit, installation, water testing, water, cups, and labor, range between $12,544 and $27,922 (depending on water-delivery option) assuming the average Massachusetts school enrollment. Water-provision strategies relying on tap water are more economical than bottled water in the long term. Policy recommendations and cost considerations deserve attention at the local, state, and federal levels. Recommendations are discussed to ensure access to safe, free drinking water for all students. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. High-technology metals as emerging contaminants: Strong increase of anthropogenic gadolinium levels in tap water of Berlin, Germany, from 2009 to 2012

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tepe, N.; Romero, M.; Bau, M.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Monitoring study Berlin-2012 confirms tap water contamination with gadolinium. • Contamination confined to western districts of Berlin. • Strong increase of anthropogenic gadolinium from 2009 to 2012. • Anthropogenic gadolinium is tracer for wastewater-derived substances. - Abstract: The distribution of rare earth elements (REE) in tap water sampled in December 2012 in Berlin, Germany, is characterized by anomalously high levels of gadolinium (Gd). While the western districts of the city show strong anthropogenic positive Gd anomalies in REE distribution patterns, the eastern districts are (almost) unaffected. This contamination with anthropogenic Gd results from Gd-based contrast agents used in Magnetic Resonance Imaging, that enter rivers, groundwater and eventually tap water via the clear water effluent from wastewater treatment plants. While the spatial distribution of anthropogenic Gd in 2012 confirms results of an earlier study in 2009 (Kulaksiz and Bau, 2011a), anthropogenic Gd concentrations have increased between 1.5- and 11.5-fold in just three years. This confirms predictions based upon the increase of anthropogenic Gd concentrations in the Havel River over the past two decades and the time it takes the water to migrate from the Havel River to the groundwater production wells. Anomalously high levels of anthropogenic Gd in tap water, which are not confined to Berlin but have also been observed in London, U.K., and in German cities in the Ruhr area and along the Rhine River, reveal that high-technology metals have become emerging contaminants. While non-toxic at the observed concentrations, the anthropogenic Gd is a microcontaminant that may be used as a conservative pseudo-natural tracer for wastewater-derived xenobiotics such as pharmaceuticals, food additives and personal care products. Our results suggest that monitoring the concentrations of such substances in Berlin’s drinking water can be restricted to a few central and

  9. Modeling residential water and related energy, carbon footprint and costs in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escriva-Bou, Alvar; Lund, Jay R.; Pulido-Velazquez, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • We model residential water use and related energy and GHG emissions in California. • Heterogeneity in use, spatial variability and water and energy rates are accounted. • Outdoor is more than 50% of water use but 80% of energy is used by faucet + shower. • Variability in water and energy prices affects willingness to adopt conservation. • Targeting high-use hoses and joint conservation policies are effective strategies. - Abstract: Starting from single-family household water end-use data, this study develops an end-use model for water-use and related energy and carbon footprint using probability distributions for parameters affecting water consumption in 10 local water utilities in California. Monte Carlo simulations are used to develop a large representative sample of households to describe variability in use, with water bills for each house for different utility rate structures. The water-related energy consumption for each household realization was obtained using an energy model based on the different water end-uses, assuming probability distributions for hot-water-use for each appliance and water heater characteristics. Spatial variability is incorporated to account for average air and household water inlet temperatures and price structures for each utility. Water-related energy costs are calculated using averaged energy price for each location. CO 2 emissions were derived from energy use using emission factors. Overall simulation runs assess the impact of several common conservation strategies on household water and energy use. Results show that single-family water-related CO 2 emissions are 2% of overall per capita emissions, and that managing water and energy jointly can significantly reduce state greenhouse gas emissions

  10. Identification, toxicity and control of iodinated disinfection byproducts in cooking with simulated chlor(am)inated tap water and iodized table salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Yang; Zhang, Xiangru; Li, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Chlorine/chloramine residuals are maintained in drinking water distribution systems to prevent microbial contamination and microorganism regrowth. During household cooking processes (e.g., soup making), the residual chlorine/chloramines in tap water may react with the iodide in iodized table salt to form hypoiodous acid, which could react with remaining natural organic matter in tap water and organic matter in food to generate iodinated disinfection byproducts (I-DBPs). However, I-DBPs formed during cooking with chloraminated/chlorinated tap water are almost completely new to researchers. In this work, by adopting precursor ion scan of m/z 127 using ultra performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry, many new polar I-DBPs formed during cooking with chloraminated/chlorinated tap water were detected and proposed with structures, of which 3-iodo-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 3-iodo-4-hydroxybenzoic acid, 3-iodo-4-hydroxy-5-methylbenzoic acid, diiodoacetic acid, 3,5-diiodo-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, 3,5-diiodo-4-hydroxybenzoic acid, 2,6-diiodo-4-nitrophenol, 2,4-diiodo-6-nitrophenol, and 2,4,6-triiodophenol were confirmed with standard compounds. With the aid of ultra fast liquid chromatography/ion trap-time of flight-mass spectrometry, molecular formula identification of five new I-DBPs (C8H5O4I, C7H4NO4I, C8H5O5I, C7H4NO5I, and C8H6O3I2) was achieved. A developmental toxicity with a recently developed sensitive bioassay was conducted for the newly identified I-DBPs, suggesting that phenolic I-DBPs (except for iodinated carboxyphenols) were about 50-200 times more developmentally toxic than aliphatic I-DBPs. The major I-DBPs in a baseline simulated cooking water sample were determined to be from 0.72 to 7.63 μg/L. Polar I-DBPs formed under various disinfection and cooking conditions were compared, and suggestions for controlling their formation were provided. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Enrichment of H(2)(17)O from tap water, characterization of the enriched water, and properties of several (17)O-labeled compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Brinda; Lewis, Andrew R; Plettner, Erika

    2011-01-01

    A low-abundance form of water, H(2)(17)O, was enriched from 0.04% to ∼90% by slow evaporation and fractional distillation of tap water. The density and refractive index for H(2)(17)O are reported. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of (16)O- and (17)O-1-hexanols and their trimethyl silyl ethers and of (16)O- and (17)O-hexamethyl disiloxanes was used to determine the percentage of (17)O enrichment in the H(2)(17)O. Furthermore, the chemical shifts of labeled and nonlabeled water dissolved in CDCl(3) differed sufficiently that we could verify the enrichment of H(2)(17)O. (17)O hexanol was synthesized by the reaction of iodohexane with Na(17)OH. (17)O-Labeled trimethylsilanol and (17)O-labeled hexamethyldisiloxane were prepared by the reaction of H(2)(17)O with bis(trimethylsilyl)trifluoroacetamide (BSTFA). To generate standards for (17)O NMR, H(2)(17)O(2), and (17)O camphor were prepared. H(2)(17)O was electrolyzed to form (17)O-labeled hydrogen peroxide which was quantified using two colorimetric assays. (17)O-Labeled camphor was prepared by exchanging the ketone oxygen of camphor using H(2)(17)O. The (17)O-labeled compounds were characterized using (17)O, (1)H, and (13)C NMR and GC-MS. While we were characterizing the labeled camphor, we also detected an unexpected oxygen exchange reaction of primary alcohols, catalyzed by electrophilic ketones such as camphor. The reaction is a displacement of the alcohol OH group by water. This is an example of the usefulness of (17)O NMR in the study of a reaction mechanism that has not been noticed previously.

  12. Study of the Thermal Behaviour of Water for Residential Use in Tanks of Concrete and Polyethylene in Humid Subtropical Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego-Ayala Ulises

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a comparative study of the thermal behavior of residential water tanks of polyethylene and concrete exposed to the sun over a year in the state of Yucatan. The energy for radiation and their corresponding temperatures in each system were measured. Daily patterns of elevation and reduction of temperature were identified and the amount of energy acquired during the day as well as the heat dissipated overnight were determined, aiming to determine the possibility of using residential water tanks as a source of hot water in residential homes in the Yucatan region. Based on this study it has been found that the periods of the day with hot water temperature for showering with comfort is limited and that, interestingly, both systems show similar temperatures at the bottom of the tanks throughout the year.

  13. Contextualising Water Use in Residential Settings: A Survey of Non-Intrusive Techniques and Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Carboni

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Water monitoring in households is important to ensure the sustainability of fresh water reserves on our planet. It provides stakeholders with the statistics required to formulate optimal strategies in residential water management. However, this should not be prohibitive and appliance-level water monitoring cannot practically be achieved by deploying sensors on every faucet or water-consuming device of interest due to the higher hardware costs and complexity, not to mention the risk of accidental leakages that can derive from the extra plumbing needed. Machine learning and data mining techniques are promising techniques to analyse monitored data to obtain non-intrusive water usage disaggregation. This is because they can discern water usage from the aggregated data acquired from a single point of observation. This paper provides an overview of water usage disaggregation systems and related techniques adopted for water event classification. The state-of-the art of algorithms and testbeds used for fixture recognition are reviewed and a discussion on the prominent challenges and future research are also included.

  14. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

    2009-05-06

    New single-family home construction represents a significant and important market for the introduction of energy-efficient gas-fired space heating and water-heating equipment. In the new construction market, the choice of furnace and water-heater type is primarily driven by first cost considerations and the availability of power vent and condensing water heaters. Few analysis have been performed to assess the economic impacts of the different combinations of space and water-heating equipment. Thus, equipment is often installed without taking into consideration the potential economic and energy savings of installing space and water-heating equipment combinations. In this study, we use a life-cycle cost analysis that accounts for uncertainty and variability of the analysis inputs to assess the economic benefits of gas furnace and water-heater design combinations. This study accounts not only for the equipment cost but also for the cost of installing, maintaining, repairing, and operating the equipment over its lifetime. Overall, this study, which is focused on US single-family new construction households that install gas furnaces and storage water heaters, finds that installing a condensing or power-vent water heater together with condensing furnace is the most cost-effective option for the majority of these houses. Furthermore, the findings suggest that the new construction residential market could be a target market for the large-scale introduction of a combination of condensing or power-vent water heaters with condensing furnaces.

  15. Regional analysis of residential water heating options: energy use and economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neal, D.; Carney, J.; Hirst, E.

    1978-10-01

    This report evaluates the energy and direct economic effects of introducing improved electric-water-heating systems to the residential market. These systems are: electric heat pumps offered in 1981, solar systems offered in 1977, and solar systems offered in 1977 with a Federal tax credit in effect from 1977 through 1984. The ORNL residential energy model is used to calculate energy savings by type of fuel for each system in each of the ten Federal regions and for the nation as a whole for each year between 1977 and 2000. Changes in annual fuel bills and capital costs for water heaters are also computed at the same level of detail. Model results suggest that heat-pump water heaters are likely to offer much larger energy and economic benefits than will solar systems, even with tax credits. This is because heat pumps provide about the same savings in electricity for water heating (about half) at a much lower capital cost ($700 to $2000) than do solar systems. However, these results are based on highly uncertain estimates of future performance and cost characteristics for both heat pump and solar systems. The cumulative national energy saving by the year 2000 due to commercialization of heat-pump water heaters in 1981 is estimated to be 1.5 QBtu. Solar-energy benefits are about half this much without tax credits and two-thirds as much with tax credits. The net economic benefit to households of heat-pump water heaters (present worth of fuel bill reductions less the present worth of extra costs for more-efficient systems) is estimated to be $640 million. Again, the solar benefits are much less.

  16. Ground-water quality beneath an urban residential and commercial area, Montgomery, Alabama, 1999-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, James L.

    2002-01-01

    The Black Warrior River aquifer, which is composed of the Coker, Gordo, and Eutaw Formations, supplies more than 50 percent of the ground water used for public water supply in the Mobile River Basin. The city of Montgomery, Alabama, is partially built upon a recharge area for the Black Warrior River aquifer, and is one of many major population centers that depend on the Black Warrior River aquifer for public water supply. To represent the baseline ground-water quality in the Black Warrior River aquifer, water samples were collected from 30 wells located in a low-density residential or rural setting; 9 wells were completed in the Coker Formation, 9 wells in the Gordo Formation, and 12 wells in the Eutaw Formation. To describe the ground-water quality beneath Montgomery, Alabama, water samples also were collected from 30 wells located in residential and commercial areas of Montgomery, Alabama; 16 wells were completed in the Eutaw Formation, 8 wells in alluvial deposits, and 6 wells in terrace deposits. The alluvial and terrace deposits directly overlie the Eutaw Formation with little or no hydraulic separation. Ground-water samples collected from both the rural and urban wells were analyzed for physical properties, major ions, nutrients, metals, volatile organic compounds, and pesticides. Samples from the urban wells also were analyzed for bacteria, chlorofluorocarbons, dissolved gases, and sulfur hexafluoride. Ground-water quality beneath the urban area was compared to baseline water quality in the Black Warrior River aquifer.Compared to the rural wells, ground-water samples from urban wells contained greater concentrations or more frequent detections of chloride and nitrate, and the trace metals aluminium, chromium, cobalt, copper, nickel, and zinc. Pesticides and volatile organic compounds were detected more frequently and in greater concentrations in ground-water samples collected from urban wells than in ground-water samples from rural wells.The Spearman rho

  17. Strontium concentrations in corrosion products from residential drinking water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerke, Tammie L; Little, Brenda J; Luxton, Todd P; Scheckel, Kirk G; Maynard, J Barry

    2013-05-21

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) will require some U.S. drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) to monitor nonradioactive strontium (Sr(2+)) in drinking water in 2013. Iron corrosion products from four DWDS were examined to assess the potential for Sr(2+) binding and release. Average Sr(2+) concentrations in the outermost layer of the corrosion products ranged from 3 to 54 mg kg(-1) and the Sr(2+) drinking water concentrations were all ≤0.3 mg L(-1). Micro-X-ray adsorption near edge structure spectroscopy and linear combination fitting determined that Sr(2+) was principally associated with CaCO3. Sr(2+) was also detected as a surface complex associated with α-FeOOH. Iron particulates deposited on a filter inside a home had an average Sr(2+) concentration of 40.3 mg kg(-1) and the associated drinking water at a tap was 210 μg L(-1). The data suggest that elevated Sr(2+) concentrations may be associated with iron corrosion products that, if disturbed, could increase Sr(2+) concentrations above the 0.3 μg L(-1) US EPA reporting threshold. Disassociation of very small particulates could result in drinking water Sr(2+) concentrations that exceed the US EPA health reference limit (4.20 mg kg(-1) body weight).

  18. Removal of waterborne pathogens from liver transplant unit water taps in prevention of healthcare-associated infections: a proposal for a cost-effective, proactive infection control strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Z Y; Hu, B J; Qin, L; Lin, Y E; Watanabe, H; Zhou, Q; Gao, X D

    2014-04-01

    Hospital water supplies often contain waterborne pathogens, which can become a reservoir for healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). We surveyed the extent of waterborne pathogen contamination in the water supply of a Liver Transplant Unit. The efficacy of point-of-use (POU) water filters was evaluated by comparative analysis in routine clinical use. Our baseline environmental surveillance showed that Legionella spp. (28%, 38/136), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (8%, 11/136), Mycobacterium spp. (87%, 118/136) and filamentous fungi (50%, 68/136) were isolated from the tap water of the Liver Transplant Unit. 28.9% of Legionella spp.-positive water samples (n = 38) showed high-level Legionella contamination (≥10(3) CFU/L). After installation of the POU water filter, none of these pathogens were found in the POU filtered water samples. Furthermore, colonizations/infections with Gram-negative bacteria determined from patient specimens were reduced by 47% during this period, even if only 27% (3/11) of the distal sites were installed with POU water filters. In conclusion, the presence of waterborne pathogens was common in the water supply of our Liver Transplant Unit. POU water filters effectively eradicated these pathogens from the water supply. Concomitantly, healthcare-associated colonization/infections declined after the POU filters were installed, indicating their potential benefit in reducing waterborne HAIs. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2013 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  19. Energy Savings and Breakeven Costs for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burch, Jay [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Merrigan, Tim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ong, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently re-emerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, NREL performed simulations of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern United States. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern United States, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  20. Energy Savings and Breakeven Cost for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.

    2013-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, simulations were performed of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern US. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern US, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  1. A study of DNA damage in buccal cells of consumers of well- and/or tap-water using the comet assay: Assessment of occupational exposure to genotoxicants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez Boucard, Celia; Lee-Cruz, Larisa; Mercier, Laurence; Ramírez Orozco, Martín; Serrano Pinto, Vania; Anguiano, Gerardo; Cazares, Linette; Díaz, Daniel

    2017-10-01

    Because of concerns that natural aquifers in the region of Todos Santos (Baja California Sur, Mexico) might be contaminated by organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals, a case-control study was conducted among consumers and non-consumers of well- and/or tap-water to determine risks to human health. This study was based on a genotoxic evaluation of buccal cells using the Comet assay technique. Levels of DNA damage in the consumers group were significantly higher than those of the control group. However, occupational exposure to genotoxicants showed to be the critical factor rather than water consumption. Taking into account the professions of well- and/or tap-water consumers, agricultural workers exposed directly (those who fumigated) or indirectly (those not involved in fumigating) to agrochemicals showed greater genetic damage than controls. This difference persisted even when age, and whether the person smoked or consumed alcoholic drinks were considered. These factors were not associated with the level of genetic damage observed. Chemical analyses of organochlorine pesticides and heavy metals were carried out to evaluate the water quality of wells, faucets, and surface water of canals consumed by the population and/or used for irrigation. High concentrations of α and β endosulfan were detected in water of surface canals. Although our inventory of agrochemicals employed in the region showed the use of products considered carcinogenic and/or mutagenic, they were not detected by the analytical techniques used. Heavy metals (arsenic, mercury, and lead) were detected in water of some wells used for irrigation and human consumption. Environ. Mol. Mutagen. 58:619-627, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Functional forms and price elasticities in a discrete continuous choice model of the residential water demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vásquez Lavín, F. A.; Hernandez, J. I.; Ponce, R. D.; Orrego, S. A.

    2017-07-01

    During recent decades, water demand estimation has gained considerable attention from scholars. From an econometric perspective, the most used functional forms include log-log and linear specifications. Despite the advances in this field and the relevance for policymaking, little attention has been paid to the functional forms used in these estimations, and most authors have not provided justifications for their selection of functional forms. A discrete continuous choice model of the residential water demand is estimated using six functional forms (log-log, full-log, log-quadratic, semilog, linear, and Stone-Geary), and the expected consumption and price elasticity are evaluated. From a policy perspective, our results highlight the relevance of functional form selection for both the expected consumption and price elasticity.

  3. Determinants of single family residential water use across scales in four western US cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Heejun; Bonnette, Matthew Ryan; Stoker, Philip; Crow-Miller, Britt; Wentz, Elizabeth

    2017-10-15

    A growing body of literature examines urban water sustainability with increasing evidence that locally-based physical and social spatial interactions contribute to water use. These studies however are based on single-city analysis and often fail to consider whether these interactions occur more generally. We examine a multi-city comparison using a common set of spatially-explicit water, socioeconomic, and biophysical data. We investigate the relative importance of variables for explaining the variations of single family residential (SFR) water uses at Census Block Group (CBG) and Census Tract (CT) scales in four representative western US cities - Austin, Phoenix, Portland, and Salt Lake City, - which cover a wide range of climate and development density. We used both ordinary least squares regression and spatial error regression models to identify the influence of spatial dependence on water use patterns. Our results show that older downtown areas show lower water use than newer suburban areas in all four cities. Tax assessed value and building age are the main determinants of SFR water use across the four cities regardless of the scale. Impervious surface area becomes an important variable for summer water use in all cities, and it is important in all seasons for arid environments such as Phoenix. CT level analysis shows better model predictability than CBG analysis. In all cities, seasons, and spatial scales, spatial error regression models better explain the variations of SFR water use. Such a spatially-varying relationship of urban water consumption provides additional evidence for the need to integrate urban land use planning and municipal water planning. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Regional Variation in Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in the U.S.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burch, Jay [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Merrigan, Tim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ong, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Residential heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently re-emerged on the U.S. market, and they have the potential to provide homeowners significant cost and energy savings. However, actual in use performance of a HPWH will vary significantly with climate, installation location, HVAC equipment, and hot water use. To determine the actual energy consumption of a HPWH in different U.S. regions, annual simulations of both 50 and 80 gallon HPWHs as well as a standard electric water heater were performed for over 900 locations across the United States. The simulations included a benchmark home to take into account interactions between the space conditioning equipment and the HPWH and a realistic hot water draw profile. It was found that the HPWH will always save some source energy when compared to a standard electric resistance water heater, although savings varies widely with location. In addition to looking at source energy savings, the breakeven cost (the net installed cost a HPWH would have to have to be a cost neutral replacement for a standard water heater) was also examined. The highest breakeven costs were seen in cases with high energy savings, such as the southeastern U.S., or high energy costs, such as New England and California. While the breakeven cost is higher for 80 gallon units than 50 gallon units, the higher net installed costs of an 80 gallon unit lead to the 50 gallon HPWHs being more likely to be cost effective.

  5. Regional Variation in Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Performance in the U.S.: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.

    2014-01-01

    Residential heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged on the U.S. market. These units have the potential to provide homeowners significant cost and energy savings. However, actual in use performance of a HPWH will vary significantly with climate, installation location, HVAC equipment, and hot water use. To determine what actual in use energy consumption of a HPWH may be in different regions of the U.S., annual simulations of both 50 and 80 gallon HPWHs as well as a standard electric water heater were performed for over 900 locations across the U.S. The simulations included a benchmark home to take into account interactions between the space conditioning equipment and the HPWH and a realistic hot water draw profile. It was found that the HPWH will always save some source energy when compared to a standard electric resistance water heater, although savings varies widely with location. In addition to looking at source energy savings, the breakeven cost (the net installed cost a HPWH would have to have to be a cost neutral replacement for a standard water heater) was also examined. The highest breakeven costs were seen in cases with high energy savings, such as the southeastern U.S., or high energy costs, such as New England and California. While the breakeven cost is higher for 80 gallon units than 50 gallon units, the higher net installed costs of an 80 gallon unit lead to the 50 gallon HPWHs being more likely to be cost effective.

  6. Risk Assessment of Aluminum in Drinking Water between Two Residential Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aizat I. Syazwan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted at Sungai Lembing (SL and Bukit Ubi (BU, Kuantan, Malaysia. The main objectives of this epidemiological study were to determine the aluminum concentration in drinking water, to compare with the government standard and to perform health risk assessment prediction among respondents from these two residential areas. A total of 100 respondents were selected from the study areas based on a few inclusive and exclusive criteria. Two duplicates of treated water samples were taken from each respondent's house using a 200 mL high-density polyethylene (HDPE bottle and 0.4 mL (69% pure concentrated nitric acid added as preservative. Aluminum concentrations were analyzed using Lambda 25 UV/V spectrophotometer. The result showed that the mean concentration of aluminum in drinking water from SL was 0.11 ± 0.0634 mg/L and 0.12 ± 0.0462 mg/L for BU. The mean value of Chronic Daily Intake (CDI in SL (0.0035 ± 0.0028 mg/kg/day was lower compared to BU (0.0037 ± 0.0021 mg/kg/day. The Hazard Index (HI calculation showed all respondents had HI less than 1. In conclusion, there was unlikely potential for adverse health effects from aluminum intake in drinking water. However, it was necessary for some action to be taken in order to reduce aluminum levels found in drinking water in both locations.

  7. The SmartH2O project: a platform supporting residential water management through smart meters and data intensive modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cominola, A.; Nanda, R.; Giuliani, M.; Piga, D.; Castelletti, A.; Rizzoli, A. E.; Maziotis, A.; Garrone, P.; Harou, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    Designing effective urban water demand management strategies at the household level does require a deep understanding of the determinants of users' consumption. Low resolution data on residential water consumption, as traditionally metered, can only be used to model consumers' behavior at an aggregate level whereas end uses breakdown and the motivations and individual attitudes of consumers are hidden. The recent advent of smart meters allows gathering high frequency consumption data that can be used both to provide instantaneous information to water utilities on the state of the network and continuously inform the users on their consumption and savings. Smart metered data also allow for the characterization of water end uses: this information, coupled with users' psychographic variables, constitutes the knowledge basis for developing individual and multi users models, through which water utilities can test the impact of different management strategies. SmartH2O is an EU funded project which aims at creating an ICT platform able to (i) capture and store quasi real time, high resolution residential water usage data measured with smart meters, (ii) infer the main determinants of residential water end uses and build customers' behavioral models and (iii) predict how the customer behavior can be influenced by various water demand management strategies, spanning from dynamic water pricing schemes to social awareness campaigns. The project exploits a social computing approach for raising users' awareness about water consumption and pursuing water savings in the residential sector. In this work, we first present the SmartH2O platform and data collection, storage and analysis components. We then introduce some preliminary models and results on total water consumption disaggregation into end uses and single user behaviors using innovative fully automated algorithms and overcoming the need of invasive metering campaigns at the fixture level.

  8. Characterization of a Large Area ZnS(Ag) Detector for Gross Alpha and Beta Activity Measurements in Tap Water Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodewits, E.; Cester, D.; Lunardon, M.; Moretto, S.; Schotanus, P.; Stevanato, L.; Viesti, G.

    2016-06-01

    In this work we present the characterization of a large area 200 mm ×200 mm EJ-444 scintillation detector to be used for monitoring gross alpha and beta activity in tap water plants. Specific tests were performed in order to determine the best setup to read-out the light from the detector side. The possibility to stack many detectors and get a compact device with total active area of the order of 1 m2 has been explored. Alpha/beta discrimination, efficiency and homogeneity tests were carried out with alpha and beta sources. Background from ambient radioactivity was measured as well. Alpha/beta real-time monitoring in drinking water is a goal of the EU project TAWARA_RTM.

  9. Heat Pump Water Heater Technology: Experiences of Residential Consumers and Utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ashdown, BG

    2004-08-04

    This paper presents a case study of the residential heat pump water heater (HPWH) market. Its principal purpose is to evaluate the extent to which the HPWH will penetrate the residential market sector, given current market trends, producer and consumer attributes, and technical parameters. The report's secondary purpose is to gather background information leading to a generic framework for conducting market analyses of technologies. This framework can be used to compare readiness and to factor attributes of market demand back into product design. This study is a rapid prototype analysis rather than a detailed case analysis. For this reason, primary data collection was limited and reliance on secondary sources was extensive. Despite having met its technical goals and having been on the market for twenty years, the HPWH has had virtually no impact on contributing to the nation's water heating. In some cases, HPWH reliability and quality control are well below market expectations, and early units developed a reputation for unreliability, especially when measured against conventional water heaters. In addition to reliability problems, first costs of HPWH units can be three to five times higher than conventional units. Without a solid, well-managed business plan, most consumers will not be drawn to this product. This is unfortunate. Despite its higher first costs, efficiency of an HPWH is double that of a conventional water heater. The HPWH also offers an attractive payback period of two to five years, depending on hot water usage. On a strict life-cycle basis it supplies hot water very cost effectively. Water heating accounts for 17% of the nation's residential consumption of electricity (see chart at left)--water heating is second only to space heating in total residential energy use. Simple arithmetic suggests that this figure could be reduced to the extent HPWH technology displaces conventional water heating. In addition, the HPWH offers other

  10. Development and Validation of a Gas-Fired Residential Heat Pump Water Heater - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Garrabrant; Roger Stout; Paul Glanville; Janice Fitzgerald; Chris Keinath

    2013-01-21

    For gas-fired residential water heating, the U.S. and Canada is predominantly supplied by minimum efficiency storage water heaters with Energy Factors (EF) in the range of 0.59 to 0.62. Higher efficiency and higher cost ($700 - $2,000) options serve about 15% of the market, but still have EFs below 1.0, ranging from 0.65 to 0.95. To develop a new class of water heating products that exceeds the traditional limit of thermal efficiency, the project team designed and demonstrated a packaged water heater driven by a gas-fired ammonia-water absorption heat pump. This gas-fired heat pump water heater can achieve EFs of 1.3 or higher, at a consumer cost of $2,000 or less. Led by Stone Mountain Technologies Inc. (SMTI), with support from A.O. Smith, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), and Georgia Tech, the cross-functional team completed research and development tasks including cycle modeling, breadboard evaluation of two cycles and two heat exchanger classes, heat pump/storage tank integration, compact solution pump development, combustion system specification, and evaluation of packaged prototype GHPWHs. The heat pump system extracts low grade heat from the ambient air and produces high grade heat suitable for heating water in a storage tank for domestic use. Product features that include conventional installation practices, standard footprint and reasonable economic payback, position the technology to gain significant market penetration, resulting in a large reduction of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions from domestic hot water production.

  11. Silver Oak, Inc. d/b/a Alice Patrcia Homes Residential Development - Clean Water Act Public Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of an Administrative Penalty Assessment in the form of an Expedited Storm Water Settlement Agreement against Silver Oak, Inc. d/b/a Alice Patricia Homes Residential Development, a business located at 10430 New York Ave, Suite C,

  12. Busting the Baby Teeth Myth and Increasing Children's Consumption of Tap Water: Building Public Will for Children's Oral Health in Colorado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hornsby, Wyatt C; Bailey, William; Braun, Patricia A; Weiss, Karl; Heichelbech, James

    2017-01-01

    Can a multifaceted statewide communications campaign motivate behavior change in low-income Colorado families to limit children's fruit juice consumption and increase children's consumption of tap water to prevent tooth decay? Caries is the most common chronic disease of childhood, affecting 40% of kindergartners and 55% of third graders in Colorado. Frequent consumption of 100% fruit juice is linked to childhood caries. The purpose of this campaign, "Cavities Get Around," was to motivate families to limit children's fruit juice consumption and increase consumption of tap water to protect baby teeth from caries, while also building public will for children's oral health. The campaign included targeted media, promotores/organizers, and family education. We focused on fruit juice because audience research showed many families view fruit juice as healthy, and it is also a common beverage among young children up to age of 6 years. We also focused on low-socioeconomic status families because data show higher childhood tooth decay rates in this population. To evaluate progress, we conducted identical pre- and post-surveys, each of 600 random low-income parents contacted by landline, mobile telephone, and Internet, allowing for comparative data. Significant progress was achieved compared to 2014 baseline results. Findings from a November 2015 statewide survey of parents included the following: (1) 22-point increase from 2014 in percentage of children regularly drinking tap water (from 41 to 63%). (2) 29-point decrease from 2014 in percentage of respondents who considered fruit juice consumption important to their child's health and nutritional needs (from 72 to 43%). (3) 19-point reduction in fruit juice consumption among young children (from 66% in 2014 to 47% in 2015). (4) 6-point reduction in percentage of parents considering baby teeth "less important" than adult teeth (from 21% in 2014 to 15% in 2015). The campaign also played a role in new state rules prohibiting

  13. Busting the Baby Teeth Myth and Increasing Children’s Consumption of Tap Water: Building Public Will for Children’s Oral Health in Colorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wyatt C. Hornsby

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available QuestionCan a multifaceted statewide communications campaign motivate behavior change in low-income Colorado families to limit children’s fruit juice consumption and increase children’s consumption of tap water to prevent tooth decay?PurposeCaries is the most common chronic disease of childhood, affecting 40% of kindergartners and 55% of third graders in Colorado. Frequent consumption of 100% fruit juice is linked to childhood caries. The purpose of this campaign, “Cavities Get Around,” was to motivate families to limit children’s fruit juice consumption and increase consumption of tap water to protect baby teeth from caries, while also building public will for children’s oral health.MethodsThe campaign included targeted media, promotores/organizers, and family education. We focused on fruit juice because audience research showed many families view fruit juice as healthy, and it is also a common beverage among young children up to age of 6 years. We also focused on low-socioeconomic status families because data show higher childhood tooth decay rates in this population. To evaluate progress, we conducted identical pre- and post-surveys, each of 600 random low-income parents contacted by landline, mobile telephone, and Internet, allowing for comparative data.ResultsSignificant progress was achieved compared to 2014 baseline results. Findings from a November 2015 statewide survey of parents included the following: (1 22-point increase from 2014 in percentage of children regularly drinking tap water (from 41 to 63%. (2 29-point decrease from 2014 in percentage of respondents who considered fruit juice consumption important to their child’s health and nutritional needs (from 72 to 43%. (3 19-point reduction in fruit juice consumption among young children (from 66% in 2014 to 47% in 2015. (4 6-point reduction in percentage of parents considering baby teeth “less important” than adult teeth (from 21% in 2014 to 15% in 2015. The

  14. The blue water footprint of the world's artificial reservoirs for hydroelectricity, irrigation, residential and industrial water supply, flood protection, fishing and recreation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogeboom, Rick J.; Knook, Luuk; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.

    2018-03-01

    For centuries, humans have resorted to building dams to gain control over freshwater available for human consumption. Although dams and their reservoirs have made many important contributions to human development, they receive negative attention as well, because of the large amounts of water they can consume through evaporation. We estimate the blue water footprint of the world's artificial reservoirs and attribute it to the purposes hydroelectricity generation, irrigation water supply, residential and industrial water supply, flood protection, fishing and recreation, based on their economic value. We estimate that economic benefits from 2235 reservoirs included in this study amount to 265 × 109 US a year, with residential and industrial water supply and hydroelectricity generation as major contributors. The water footprint associated with these benefits is the sum of the water footprint of dam construction (<1% contribution) and evaporation from the reservoir's surface area, and globally adds up to 66 × 109 m3 y-1. The largest share of this water footprint (57%) is located in non-water scarce basins and only 1% in year-round scarce basins. The primary purposes of a reservoir change with increasing water scarcity, from mainly hydroelectricity generation in non-scarce basins, to residential and industrial water supply, irrigation water supply and flood control in scarcer areas.

  15. Modeling Stochastic Energy and Water Consumption to Manage Residential Water Uses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdallah, A. M.; Rosenberg, D. E.; Water; Energy Conservation

    2011-12-01

    Water energy linkages have received growing attention from the water and energy utilities as utilities recognize that collaborative efforts can implement more effective conservation and efficiency improvement programs at lower cost with less effort. To date, limited energy-water household data has allowed only deterministic analysis for average, representative households and required coarse assumptions - like the water heater (the primary energy use in a home apart from heating and cooling) be a single end use. Here, we use recent available disaggregated hot and cold water household end-use data to estimate water and energy consumption for toilet, shower, faucet, dishwasher, laundry machine, leaks, and other household uses and savings from appliance retrofits. The disaggregated hot water and bulk water end-use data was previously collected by the USEPA for 96 single family households in Seattle WA and Oakland CA, and Tampa FL between the period from 2000 and 2003 for two weeks before and four weeks after each household was retrofitted with water efficient appliances. Using the disaggregated data, we developed a stochastic model that represents factors that influence water use for each appliance: behavioral (use frequency and duration), demographical (household size), and technological (use volume or flowrate). We also include stochastic factors that govern energy to heat hot water: hot water fraction (percentage of hot water volume to total water volume used in a certain end-use event), heater water intake and dispense temperatures, and energy source for the heater (gas, electric, etc). From the empirical household end-use data, we derive stochastic probability distributions for each water and energy factor where each distribution represents the range and likelihood of values that the factor may take. The uncertainty of the stochastic water and energy factors is propagated using Monte Carlo simulations to calculate the composite probability distribution for water

  16. Future Residential Water Heating Prospects in Brazil: A Scenario Building Ground Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe de Albuquerque Sgarbi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, electricity is the prime energy carrier for bath shower heating purposes. However, since analyses indicate that expansion of the country´s electricity generation capacity shall spruce from an increased non-renewable sources’ stake in detriment to that of hydroelectricity, high electricity consumption rates that spring from home end uses of the kind have drawn the attention of those who are involved with local energy planning. Furthermore, massive use of electric showers in a short timeframe largely drive electricity demands to culminate in peak loads. For water heating purposes, this context has favoured an alternative to electricity, deemed feasible from both an efficiency and energy infrastructure standpoint: promote fuel gas consumption (liquefied petroleum gas and natural gas in particular. A scenario methodology is herein employed to map electric shower use related variables and players and assess the future behaviour of the core elements that condition resorting to this technology. Thereafter, strategies and opportunities to promote the rational consumption of the country´s power sources ground on the increased use of fuel gases for residential water heating purposes are discussed.

  17. Isolation and identification of pathogenic free-living amoeba from surface and tap water of Shiraz City using morphological and molecular methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armand, B; Motazedian, M H; Asgari, Q

    2016-01-01

    Free-living amoebae (FLA) are the most abundant and widely distributed protozoa in the environment. An investigation was conducted to determine the presence of free-living amoebae (FLA), Acanthamoeba and Vermamoeba in waterfronts of parks and squares and tap water of Shiraz City, Iran. FLA are considered pathogenic for human. These ubiquitous organisms have been isolated from different environments such as water, soil, and air. Eighty-two water samples were collected from different places of Shiraz City during the summer of 2013. All samples were processed in Dept. of Parasitology and Mycology, Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Fars, Iran. Samples were screened for FLA and identified by morphological characters in the cultures, PCR amplification targeting specific genes for each genus and sequencing determined frequent species and genotypes base on NCBI database. Overall, 48 samples were positive for Acanthamoeba and Vermamoeba in non-nutrient agar culture based on morphological characteristics. The PCR examination was done successfully. Sequencing results were revealed T4 (62.96 %) genotypes as the most common genotype of Acanthamoeba in the Shiraz water sources. In addition, T5 (33.33 %) and T15 (3.71 %) were isolated from water supplies. Vermamoeba vermiformis was known the dominant species from this genus. The high frequency of Acanthamoeba spp. and Vermamoeba in different environmental water sources of Shiraz is an alert for the public health related to water sources. The result highlights a need for taking more attention to water supplies in order to prevent illnesses related to free-living amoebae.

  18. Technical Assistance Plan (TAP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A Technical Assistance Plan (TAP) enables community groups to retain the services of an independent technical advisor and to provide resources for a community group to help inform other community members about site decisions.

  19. Propeller TAP flap

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jørn Bo; Bille, Camilla; Wamberg, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine if a propeller thoracodorsal artery perforator (TAP) flap can be used for breast reconstruction. Fifteen women were reconstructed using a propeller TAP flap, an implant, and an ADM. Preoperative colour Doppler ultrasonography was used for patient selection...... to identify the dominant perforator in all cases. A total of 16 TAP flaps were performed; 12 flaps were based on one perforator and four were based on two. A permanent silicone implant was used in 14 cases and an expander implant in two. Minor complications were registered in three patients. Two cases had...... major complications needing additional surgery. One flap was lost due to a vascular problem. Breast reconstruction can be performed by a propeller TAP flap without cutting the descending branch of the thoracodorsal vessels. However, the authors would recommend that a small cuff of muscle is left around...

  20. 78 FR 2340 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Residential Water Heaters and Commercial Water...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-11

    ... marketing, or product installation and operation instructions indicate that the boiler's intended uses.../A 0.30 + 27/Vm(%/hr) Gas-fired storage water heaters.... 155,000 Btu/hr....... 80% Q/800 + 110(Vr) 1/2(Btu/hr) Oil-fired storage water heaters.... 155,000 Btu/hr....... 78% Q/800 + 110(Vr) 1/2(Btu/hr...

  1. Separation and determination of trace amounts of zinc, lead, cadmium and mercury in tap and Qaroun lake water using polyurethane foam functionalized with 4-hydroxytoluene and 4-hydroxyacetophenone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burham, N. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Fayoum University, Fayoum City (Egypt)]. E-mail: n_burham@yahoo.com; Abdel-Azeem, S.M. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Fayoum University, Fayoum City (Egypt); El-Shahat, M.F. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Ain-Shams University, Cairo (Egypt)

    2006-10-10

    A stable chelating sorbent was synthesized by covalently linking 4-hydroxytoluene or 4-hydroxyacetophenone with the polyurethane foam (PUF) through -N=N- group. The synthesized chelating sorbents were characterized by IR and UV/vis measurements. The modified foams show excellent stability towards various solvents. Factors influencing the extraction process of Zn(II), Pb(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) were studied and evaluated as a function of pH of metal ion solution and equilibration shaking time. The values of sorption capacity of metal ions ({mu}g g{sup -1}) were determined with the two types of bonded foams. The two phenolic bonded foams were studied comparatively. The potential applications of the two newly synthesized foams for the removal and separation of the examined metal ions from two natural water samples (drinking tap water and Qaroun lake water at Fayoum City, Egypt) were investigated. Precision (assessed as a relative standard deviation, R.S.D.) was also evaluated and found to be {<=}7.3% (N = 5) with a detection limit under 0.46 {mu}g L{sup -1}.

  2. Separation and determination of trace amounts of zinc, lead, cadmium and mercury in tap and Qaroun lake water using polyurethane foam functionalized with 4-hydroxytoluene and 4-hydroxyacetophenone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burham, N.; Abdel-Azeem, S.M.; El-Shahat, M.F.

    2006-01-01

    A stable chelating sorbent was synthesized by covalently linking 4-hydroxytoluene or 4-hydroxyacetophenone with the polyurethane foam (PUF) through -N=N- group. The synthesized chelating sorbents were characterized by IR and UV/vis measurements. The modified foams show excellent stability towards various solvents. Factors influencing the extraction process of Zn(II), Pb(II), Cd(II) and Hg(II) were studied and evaluated as a function of pH of metal ion solution and equilibration shaking time. The values of sorption capacity of metal ions (μg g -1 ) were determined with the two types of bonded foams. The two phenolic bonded foams were studied comparatively. The potential applications of the two newly synthesized foams for the removal and separation of the examined metal ions from two natural water samples (drinking tap water and Qaroun lake water at Fayoum City, Egypt) were investigated. Precision (assessed as a relative standard deviation, R.S.D.) was also evaluated and found to be ≤7.3% (N = 5) with a detection limit under 0.46 μg L -1

  3. Annual variations and effects of temperature on Legionella spp. and other potential opportunistic pathogens in tap and shower water

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The data contained in this worksheet provides the quantitative detection of potential pathogens for the bathroom water samples used in this study. This dataset is...

  4. Increasing Block Tariffs in an Arid Developing Country: A Discrete/Continuous Choice Model of Residential Water Demand in Jordan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Klassert

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Arid developing countries face growing challenges from water scarcity, which are exacerbated by deficient piped water supply infrastructures. Increasing block tariffs (IBTs, charging higher rates with increasing water consumption, can potentially reconcile cost recovery to finance these infrastructures with an equitable and affordable sharing of the cost burden. A firm understanding of the impacts of varying prices and socio-economic conditions on residential water demand is necessary for designing IBTs that promote these objectives. Consistently estimating water demand under an IBT requires a discrete/continuous choice (DCC model. Despite this, few econometric studies of arid developing countries have applied this state-of-the-art approach. This paper applies a DCC model to estimate residential water demand under IBTs in the severely water-stressed country of Jordan, using 15,811 country-wide household-level observations from five years up to 2013. We extend Hewitt and Hanemann’s original DCC formulation in order to accommodate IBTs featuring a linearly progressive tariff block. We then use the resulting demand function to assess Jordan’s 2013 IBTs and alternative IBT designs. Under the estimated price elasticities, very few IBT designs achieve a full recovery of the financial costs of water provision, but we still identify a potential to improve cost recovery and affordability.

  5. Residential energy-tax-credit eligibility: a case study for the heat-pump water heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohn, S M; Cardell, N S

    1982-09-01

    Described are the methodology and results of an analysis to determine the eligibility of an energy-efficient item for the residential energy-tax credit. Although energy credits are granted only on a national basis, an attempt to determine the tax-credit eligibility for an item such as the heat-pump water heater (HPWH) analyzing national data is inappropriate. The tax-credit eligibility of the HPWH is evaluated for the ten federal regions to take into consideration the regional differences of: (1) HPWH annual efficiency, (2) existing water heater stocks by fuel type, (3) electricity, fuel oil, and natural-gas price variations, and (4) electric-utility oil and gas use for electricity generation. A computer model of consumer choice of HPWH selection as well as a computer code evaluating the economics of tax-credit eligibility on a regional basis were developed as analytical tools for this study. The analysis in this report demonstrates that the HPWH meets an important criteria for eligibility by the Treasury Department for an energy tax credit (nationally, the estimated dollar value of savings of oil and gas over the lifetime of those HPWH's sold during 1981 to 1985 due to the tax credit exceeds the revenue loss to the treasury). A natural-gas price-deregulation scenario is one of two fuel scenarios that are evaluated using the equipment choice and tax-credit models. These two cases show the amounts of oil and gas saved by additional HPWH units sold (due to the tax credit during 1981 to 1985 (range from 13.9 to 23.1 million barrels of oil equivalent over the lifetime of the equipment.

  6. Presence of Legionella spp. in Hot Water Networks of Different Italian Residential Buildings: A Three-Year Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totaro, Michele; Valentini, Paola; Costa, Anna Laura; Frendo, Lorenzo; Cappello, Alessia; Casini, Beatrice; Miccoli, Mario; Privitera, Gaetano; Baggiani, Angelo

    2017-10-26

    Although the European reports highlight an increase in community-acquired Legionnaires' disease cases, the risk of Legionella spp. in private houses is underestimated. In Pisa (Italy) we performed a three-year survey on Legionella presence in 121 buildings with an independent hot water production (IB); 64 buildings with a central hot water production (CB); and 35 buildings with a solar thermal system for hot water production (TB). From all the 220 buildings Legionella spp. was researched in two hot water samples collected either at the recirculation point or on the first floor and on the last floor, while the potable water quality was analysed in three cold water samples collected at the inlet from the aqueduct network, at the exit from the autoclave, and at the most remote tap. Legionella pneumophila sg1, Legionella pneumophila sg2-16, and non- pneumophila Legionella species were detected in 26% of the hot water networks, mostly in CB and TB. In these buildings we detected correlations between the presence of Legionella and the total chlorine concentration decrease and/or the increase of the temperature. Cold water resulted free from microbiological hazards, with the exception of Serratia liquefaciens and Enterobacter cloacae isolated at the exit from two different autoclaves. We observed an increase in total microbial counts at 22 °C and 37 °C between the samples collected at the most remote taps compared to the ones collected at the inlet from the aqueduct. The study highlights a condition of potential risk for susceptible categories of population and supports the need for measures of risk assessment and control.

  7. Highly selective dummy molecularly imprinted polymer as a solid-phase extraction sorbent for five bisphenols in tap and river water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoli; Wang, Jincheng; Li, Yun; Jin, Jing; Zhang, Baoqin; Shah, Syed Mazhar; Wang, Xueli; Chen, Jiping

    2014-05-23

    A simple and fast method for both dummy template selection and polymer composition optimization is proposed here. A series of dummy templates for bisphenols imprinting were screened by running them on a non-imprinted polymer (NIP) column with porogen solvent as mobile phase. The tested dummy templates mainly involved bisphenol S (BPS), bromobisphenol A (TBBPA), bisphenol F (BPF), bisphenol E (BPE), bisphenol B (BPB), bisphenol AF (BPAF), 2,2',6,6'-tetramethyl-4,4'-sulfonyldiphenol (BS-TM) and 4,4'-diaminodiphenylmethane (DADPM). Different monomers and porogens were also investigated for BPS and DADPM using the same method. BPS dummy template was finally selected with acetonitrile and 4-VP as porogen and monomer. The resulting dummy molecularly imprinted polymer (DMIP) achieved superior affinities for BPF, BPE, BPA, BPB and BPAF with imprinting factors 14.5, 13.8, 8.7, 5.7 and 4.2, respectively. An efficient method based on BPS-DMIP-SPE coupled with HPLC-UV was developed for selective extraction of BPF, BPE, BPA, BPB and BPAF in water samples. The method showed excellent recoveries (89.4-102.0%) and precision (RSD 0.3-4.8%, n=5) for tap and river water samples spiked at three concentration levels each (40, 200 and 1000ngL(-1)). The detection limits ranged between 2.2 and 3.8ngL(-1) with a sample volume of 500mL. The result demonstrated the superiority of the optimized method for selective extraction of BPs in water samples at the ngL(-1) level. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Voltammetric detection of trifluralin in tap water, fruit juice, and vegetable extracts in the presence of surfactants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferro, Érica Castro; Cardoso, Claudia A L; Arruda, Gilberto J

    2017-10-03

    This study describes a novel electrochemical method to determine the herbicide trifluralin in samples of water, fruit juice, and vegetable extracts in the presence of surfactants, using a glassy carbon electrode (GCE). In acidic media, trifluralin was irreversible on the glassy carbon electrode surface at -0.5 V vs. Ag/AgCl. Surfactant presence on the electrode-solution interface modified current intensities and shifted the reduction peak potential of trifluralin. Different types of surfactant and their concentrations were investigated. The anionic surfactant significantly enhanced the peak current intensity of trifluralin. Under optimal analytical conditions, an analytical curve was obtained in the concentration range of 0.48-32.20 µM. The limits of detection and quantification were estimated at 0.031 and 0.104 µM, respectively. The method was successfully applied to quantify trifluralin in samples of water, orange and tomato juice, and green pepper, carrot, and onion extracts, with recovery rates of 97.9-102.1%. The results were in good agreement with those obtained using high-performance liquid chromatography, indicating that the proposed electrochemical method can be employed to quantify trifluralin in various types foods, with sensitivity, specificity, selectivity and reproducibility.

  9. Applicability of Related Data, Algorithms, and Models to the Simulation of Ground-Coupled Residential Hot Water Piping in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warner, J.L.; Lutz, J.D.

    2006-01-01

    Residential water heating is an important consideration in California?s building energy efficiency standard. Explicit treatment of ground-coupled hot water piping is one of several planned improvements to the standard. The properties of water, piping, insulation, backfill materials, concrete slabs, and soil, their interactions, and their variations with temperature and over time are important considerations in the required supporting analysis. Heat transfer algorithms and models devised for generalized, hot water distribution system, ground-source heat pump and ground heat exchanger, nuclear waste repository, buried oil pipeline, and underground electricity transmission cable applications can be adapted to the simulation of under-slab water piping. A numerical model that permits detailed examination of and broad variations in many inputs while employing a technique to conserve computer run time is recommended.

  10. 35 Domestic Water Supply and Health of Households in the Three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Choice-Academy

    respondents in the high residential density have access to public tap and private well in their houses. ... ensuring that people have safe drinking water ... health benefits. However, poor water quality coupled with unsanitary conditions and practices at the household levels, such as absence of sanitary latrines, unsafe waste ...

  11. Treatment of Palmar Hyperhidrosis with Tap Water Iontophoresis: A Randomized, Sham-Controlled, Single-Blind, and Parallel-Designed Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Do Hun; Kim, Tae Han; Lee, Seung Ho; Lee, Ai Young

    2017-12-01

    Palmar hyperhidrosis is a common disorder of excessive sweating. A number of studies have demonstrated the effectiveness of iontophoresis in the treatment of palmar hyperhidrosis. However, controlled clinical studies on iontophoresis for palmar hyperhidrosis have been limited. To determine the efficacy and safety of iontophoresis in the treatment of palmar hyperhidrosis with a randomized, sham-controlled, single-blind, and parallel-designed study. Twenty nine patients with significant palmar hyperhidrosis were enrolled in this study. They received active iontophoresis treatment (group A) or sham treatment (group B). Iontophoresis was performed 20 minutes each time, five times per week, for 2 weeks. Its efficacy was assessed with starch-iodine test, mean sweat secretion rate, and hyperhidrosis disease severity scale. Twenty-seven of the 29 patients completed the 2-week treatment. After completion of 10 times of treatment, results of the starch-iodine test showed clinical improvement in 92.9% of patients in group A and 38.5% of patients in group B ( p =0.001). The mean sweat secretion rate was reduced by 91.8% of patients in group A and by 39.1% of patients in group B ( p <0.001). Improvement in quality of life was reported by 78.6% of patients in group A and by 30.8% of patients in group B ( p =0.028). In group A, one case of localized adverse event was noted, although no adverse event was encountered in group B. Tap water iontophoresis could be used as an effective and safe treatment modality for palmar hyperhidrosis.

  12. Uncertainty analysis of daily potable water demand on the performance evaluation of rainwater harvesting systems in residential buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Arthur Santos; Ghisi, Enedir

    2016-09-15

    The objective of this paper is to perform a sensitivity analysis of design variables and an uncertainty analysis of daily potable water demand to evaluate the performance of rainwater harvesting systems in residential buildings. Eight cities in Brazil with different rainfall patterns were analysed. A numeric experiment was performed by means of computer simulation of rainwater harvesting. A sensitivity analysis was performed using variance-based indices for identifying the most important design parameters for rainwater harvesting systems when assessing the potential for potable water savings and underground tank capacity sizing. The uncertainty analysis was performed for different scenarios of potable water demand with stochastic variations in a normal distribution with different coefficients of variation throughout the simulated period. The results have shown that different design variables, such as potable water demand, number of occupants, rainwater demand, and roof area are important for obtaining the ideal underground tank capacity and estimating the potential for potable water savings. The stochastic variations on the potable water demand caused amplitudes of up to 4.8% on the potential for potable water savings and 9.4% on the ideal underground tank capacity. Average amplitudes were quite low for all cities. However, some combinations of parameters resulted in large amplitude of uncertainty and difference from uniform distribution for tank capacities and potential for potable water savings. Stochastic potable water demand generated low uncertainties in the performance evaluation of rainwater harvesting systems; therefore, uniform distribution could be used in computer simulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Results of heavy metals and other water quality levels in tap water from Çan sourced from Ağı Dağı (Mt. Ağı) (Çanakkale, Turkey).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilinc, Gamze; Yilmaz, Selehattin; Turkoglu, Muhammet; Erdugan, Huseyin

    2016-06-01

    In this study, the concentrations of heavy metals Pb, Cu, Zn, Cd, Ni, Fe, Mn and Cr were determined using an inductively coupled plasma and optical emission spectrophotometer (ICP-OES), and water quality parameters pH, temperature, and conductivity were measured using the YSI 556 MPS water probe. The water samples were collected monthly from five different street tap water points sourced from Mt. Agi (Ağı Dağı in Turkish) spring waters between May 2012 and February 2013 in Çan (Canakkale, Turkey). All results were compared with the drinking water standards of the Turkish Standards Institute (TSE 266), World Health Organization, European Union and US Environmental Protection Agency. While concentrations of Cu, Zn, Fe, and Mn were within limit values, Pb, Cd, Ni, and Cr were at undetectable limits. The highest concentrations of Cu, Zn, Fe, and Mn were 0.010 ppm, 0.018 ppm, 0.058 ppm, and 0.014 ppm, respectively. The findings revealed that although there was no public health risk in view of heavy metal concentrations, there was an acidity problem due to lower pH levels correlated with some heavy metals such as Cu (R = 0.419), Fe (R = -0.421) and Mn (R = -0.687).

  14. Break-Even Cost for Residential Solar Water Heating in the United States: Key Drivers and Sensitivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassard, H.; Denholm, P.; Ong, S.

    2011-02-01

    This paper examines the break-even cost for residential rooftop solar water heating (SWH) technology, defined as the point where the cost of the energy saved with a SWH system equals the cost of a conventional heating fuel purchased from the grid (either electricity or natural gas). We examine the break-even cost for the largest 1,000 electric and natural gas utilities serving residential customers in the United States as of 2008. Currently, the break-even cost of SWH in the United States varies by more than a factor of five for both electricity and natural gas, despite a much smaller variation in the amount of energy saved by the systems (a factor of approximately one and a half). The break-even price for natural gas is lower than that for electricity due to a lower fuel cost. We also consider the relationship between SWH price and solar fraction and examine the key drivers behind break-even costs. Overall, the key drivers of the break-even cost of SWH are a combination of fuel price, local incentives, and technical factors including the solar resource location, system size, and hot water draw.

  15. Energy saving analysis on mine-water source heat pump in a residential district of Henan province, central China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Duan, Huanlin; Chen, Aidong

    2018-02-01

    In this paper, the mine-water source heat pump system is proposed in residential buildings of a mining community. The coefficient of performance (COP) and the efficiency of exergy are analyzed. The results show that the COP and exergy efficiency of the mine-water source heat pump are improved, the exergy efficiency of mine-water source heat pump is more than 10% higher than that of the air source heat pump.The electric power conservation measure of “peak load shifting” is also emphasized in this article. It shows that itis a very considerable cost in the electric saving by adopting the trough period electricity to produce hot water. Due to the proper temperature of mine water, the mine-watersource heat pump unit is more efficient and stable in performance, which further shows the advantage of mine-water source heat pump in energy saving and environmental protection. It provides reference to the design of similar heat pump system as well.

  16. 24 CFR 203.52 - Acceptance of individual residential water purification equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... have access to a continuing supply of safe and potable water without the use of a water purification... uninterrupted supply of safe and potable water adequate to meet household needs. (3) The water supply, when..., maintenance, repair and replacement of the water purification equipment. A copy of the signed service contract...

  17. Effect of heat recovery water heater system on the performance of residential split air conditioner using hydrocarbon refrigerant (HCR22)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, A.; Thalal; Amri, I.; Herisiswanto; Mainil, A. K.

    2017-09-01

    This This paper presents the performance of residential split air conditioner (RSAC) using hydrocarbon refrigerant (HCR22) as the effect on the use of heat recovery water heater system (HRWHS). In this study, RSAC was modified with addition of dummy condenser (trombone coil type) as heat recovery water heater system (HRWHS). This HRWHS is installed between a compressor and a condenser by absorbing a part of condenser waste heat. The results show that RSAC with HRWHS is adequate to generate hot water with the temperature range about 46.58˚C - 48.81˚C when compared to without HRWHS and the use of dummy condenser does not give significant effect to the split air conditioner performance. When the use of HRWHS, the refrigerant charge has increase about 19.05%, the compressor power consumption has slightly increase about 1.42% where cooling capacity almost the same with slightly different about 0.39%. The condenser heat rejection is lower about 2.68% and the COP has slightly increased about 1.05% when compared to without HRWHS. The use of HRWHS provide free hot water, it means there is energy saving for heating water without negative impact to the system performance of RSAC.

  18. Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Marion County, Indiana Salt Lake County, Utah Seattle-King County, Washington Tools and Training CLPPP CAP Healthy ... wish to use tap water for drinking or cooking, especially when the water has been off and ...

  19. Rational designing of the internal water supply system in reconstructed residential buildings of mass standard series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Evgeny

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The issues of water supply system reconstruction in mass series buildings are reviewed with consideration of water- and resource saving. Principal points for location of plumbing cells in apartments, arrangement of water devices and wastewater receivers, selection of pipelines for reconstructed water line are described. Comparative analysis of design variants of inner water line before and following reconstruction are given. It was found that applying the developed system design approaches the head losses in the inner water supply line will be significantly decreased as well as the water mains length will be decreased with material and installation saving. Based on the data the conclusions on necessity to review standard arrangement solutions of water supply systems in the reconstructed buildings were made. Recommendations on water loss reduction in the system by installation of special water saving fittings on water devices and touchless faucets.

  20. Voluntary Management of Residential Water Demand in Low and Middle-Low Income Households: Case Study of Soacha (colombia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, R.; Rodriguez, J. P.

    2016-12-01

    Water resources availability is a global concern due to increasing demands, decreasing quality and uncertain spatio-temporal variability (United Nations, 2009). In urban contexts research on efficient water use is a priority to cope with the future vulnerability of water supplies as a result of the impacts of climate change (Bates et al, 2008). Following the proposed methodologies of He and Kua (2013) for implementing programs to promote sustainable energy consumption, we focused on the use of educational strategies to promote a voluntary rationalization of residential water demand. We collaborated with three schools in Soacha (Colombia) where students ranging from 12 to 15 years participated in the project as promoters of educational campaigns inside their families, covering 120 low and middle-low income households. Three intervention or treatment strategies (i.e. e-learning, in-person active learning activities and graphical learning tools) were carried out over a period of 5 months. We analyzed the effects of the treatments strategies in reducing water consumption rates and the dependence of this variable on socio-demographic, economic, environmental, and life quality factors by using personal interviews and self reported water saving technics. The results showed that educational campaigns have a positive effect on reducing consumption in the households. Graphical learning tools accounted for the highest reduction in water consumption. Moreover, the results of the study suggests that socio-economic factors such as type of house, social level, income, and life quality variables significantly affect the variability in water consumption, which is an important fact to consider in similar cases where communities face difficult socio-economic conditions, displacement or high rates of urban growth.

  1. Non-residential water demand model validated with extensive measurements and surveys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterse-Quirijns, I.; Blokker, E.J.M.; van der Blom, E.C.; Vreeburg, J.H.G.

    2013-01-01

    Existing Dutch guidelines for the design of the drinking water and hot water system of nonresidential buildings are based on outdated assumptions on peak water demand or on unfounded assumptions on hot water demand. They generally overestimate peak demand values required for the design of an

  2. TAP usage in SIMBAD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberto, Anaïs, O.; Mantelet, Gregory; Wenger, Marc

    2015-09-01

    TAP (Table Access Protocol promoted by IVOA) is available on SIMBAD web site since July 2012. We will have a look of all kinds of uses and try to figure out how people use it in SIMBAD. Thanks to ADQL (Astronomical Data Query Language), everyone can write their own query using criteria on all data available in the database. In the SIMBAD database, more than 30 tables are available. It can be rather difficult to write a complex query. We will see how many joins between tables are used, and how many fields are used in the queries. The SIMBAD usage is going to change thanks to this new feature, a new way to search in the database.

  3. A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY OF RESIDENTIAL, GEOGENIC AND WATER RADON IN THE NORTH AREA OF MUREŞ COUNTY, ROMANIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Botond; Cucos Dinu, Alexandra; Cosma, Constantin

    2017-11-18

    This study presents results of a complex survey about residential, soil and water radon in the North of Mureş county (Romania). Indoor radon measurements were performed by using CR-39 track detectors, while radon concentrations in soil and in water were measured by using the LUK3C device and accessories. The indoor radon concentrations of 157 houses ranged from 9 to 414 Bq m-3, with an arithmetic mean of 131 Bq m-3 and a geometric mean of 105 Bq m-3. In ~3.2% of the investigated houses exceed the recommended reference level of 300 Bq m-3. The soil gas radon concentrations in 137 sampling points varied from 5.0 to 88.0 kBq m-3, with a geometric mean of 14.6 kBq m-3. Results of 190 water samples shows radon concentrations from 0.2 to 28.0 Bq L-1, with a geometric mean of 5.0 Bq L-1. Beside these results, indoor, soil and water radon maps were performed, divided into cells of 5 km × 5 km. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Silver Oak, Inc. d/b/a Alice Patricia Homes Residential Development - Clean Water Act Public Notice - CWA-07-2017-0020

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA is providing notice of an Administrative Penalty Assessment in the form of an Expedited Storm Water Settlement Agreement against Silver Oak, Inc. d/b/a Alice Patricia Homes Residential Development, a business located at 10430 New York Ave, Suite C,

  5. Drinking water quality concerns and water vending machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McSwane, D.Z.; Oleckno, W.A.; Eils, L.M.

    1994-01-01

    Drinking water quality is a vital public health concern to consumers and regulators alike. This article describes some of the current microbiological, chemical, and radiological concerns about drinking water and the evolution of water vending machines. Also addressed are the typical treatment processes used in water vending machines and their effectiveness, as well as a brief examination of a certification program sponsored by the National Automatic Merchandising Association (NAMA), which provides a uniform standard for the design and construction of food and beverage vending machines. For some consumers, the water dispensed from vending machines is an attractive alternative to residential tap water which may be objectionable for aesthetic or other reasons

  6. One-step competitive lateral flow biosensor running on an independent quantification system for smart phones based in-situ detection of trace Hg(II) in tap water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Nan; Xu, Yuancong; Huang, Kunlun; Chen, Yuting; Yang, Zhansen; Luo, Yunbo; Xu, Wentao

    2017-01-01

    In this study, a one-step lateral flow biosensor (LFB) has been developed, optimized and validated for quantitative detection of Hg(II) in water. In the measurement principle, just one T-rich ssDNA probe (TSP) for the specific binding process was successfully employed in the competitive LFB based methods. The concept of an independent quantification system was realized using a cresol red dot as an external standard, which effectively eliminates false negative results. Under optimized conditions, the limit of detection for Hg(II) was 4nM; high selectivity towards Hg(II) and extraordinary device-to-device repeatability of the LFB were achieved. Furthermore, Hg(II) from tap water samples was analyzed, and the results were confirmed by ICP-MS. The interference from other components in the real samples could be neglected during the analysis. The approach provides a simple, sensitive, and practical tool for the detection of trace Hg(II) in tap water, showing great promise for in-situ applications. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market

    OpenAIRE

    Lekov, Alex B.

    2009-01-01

    New single-family home construction represents a significant and important market for the introduction of energy-efficient gas-fired space heating and water-heating equipment. In the new construction market, the choice of furnace and water-heater type is primarily driven by first cost considerations and the availability of power vent and condensing water heaters. Few analysis have been performed to assess the economic impacts of the different combinations of space and water-heating equipment....

  8. Eco-restoration: Simultaneous nutrient removal from soil and water in a complex residential-cropland area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Yonghong [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 71 Beijing East Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Graduate Schools, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Kerr, Philip G. [School of Biomedical Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2678 (Australia); Hu Zhengyi [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 71 Beijing East Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Graduate Schools, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Yang Linzhang, E-mail: lzyang@issas.ac.c [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 71 Beijing East Road, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2010-07-15

    An eco-restoration system to remove excess nutrients and restore the agricultural ecosystem balance was proposed and applied from August 2006 to August 2008 in a residential-cropland complex area (1.4 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 2}) in Kunming, western China, where the self-purifying capacity of the agricultural ecosystem had been lost. The proposed eco-restoration system examined includes three main foci: farming management, bioremediation, and wastewater treatment. The results showed that the removal efficiencies of total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) from the complex wastewater were 83% and 88%, respectively. The Simpson's diversity indices of macrophytes and zoobenthos indicated that the system had increased macrophyte and zoobenthic diversity as well as improved growth conditions of the plankton habitats. The results demonstrated that the proposed eco-restoration system is a promising approach for decreasing the output of nutrients from soil, improving agricultural ecosystem health, and minimizing the downstream eutrophication risk for surface waters. - A promising and environmentally benign integrated eco-restoration technology has proven highly effective for simultaneously removing nutrients from soil and water, decreasing the output of nutrient, and reducing eutrophic risk of surface waters.

  9. Environmental benefit analysis of strategies for potable water savings in residential buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinoski, Ana Kelly; Rupp, Ricardo Forgiarini; Ghisi, Enedir

    2018-01-15

    The objective of this study is to assess the environmental benefit of using rainwater, greywater, water-efficient appliances and their combinations in low-income houses. The study was conducted surveying twenty households located in southern Brazil, which resulted in water end-uses estimation. Then, embodied energy, potential for potable water savings and sewage reduction when using the different strategies were estimated. The environmental benefit analysis of these strategies was performed using an indicator that includes embodied energy, potable water savings, reduction of sewage and energy consumption in the water utility, and sewage production during the life cycle of the system. The results indicated that the strategy with the greatest environmental benefit is the use of water-efficient appliances, which resulted in substantial water savings and reduction of sewage, causing low environmental impact due to lower embodied energy over the life cycle. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Drain water heat recovery storage-type unit for residential housing

    OpenAIRE

    Torras Ortiz, Santiago; Oliet Casasayas, Carles; Rigola Serrano, Joaquim; Oliva Llena, Asensio

    2016-01-01

    © 2016. This version is made available under the CC-BY-NC-ND 4.0 license http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/ The drain water heat recovery (DWHR) system is an interesting household technology to reduce energy costs and environmental impact. The objective of the utilisation of these devices is the recovery of the waste heat from domestic warm drain water, and transferring it to cold water entering the house. A drain water heat recovery unit has been built in this work. The aut...

  11. Comparison of Advanced Residential Water Heating Technologies in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fang, Xia [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wilson, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-05-01

    In this study, gas storage, gas tankless, condensing, electric storage, heat pump, and solar water heaters were simulated in several different climates across the United States, installed in both conditioned and unconditioned space and subjected to several different draw profiles. While many pre-existing models were used, new models of condensing and heat pump water heaters were created specifically for this work. In each case modeled, the whole house was simulated along with the water heater to capture any interactions between the water heater and the space conditioning equipment.

  12. Comparison of Advanced Residential Water Heating Technologies in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, J.; Fang, X.; Wilson, E.

    2013-05-01

    Gas storage, gas tankless, condensing, electric storage, heat pump, and solar water heaters were simulated in several different climates across the US installed in both conditioned and unconditioned space and subjected to several different draw profiles. While many preexisting models were used, new models of condensing and heat pump water heaters were created specifically for this work.

  13. A High-Resolution Spatially Explicit Monte-Carlo Simulation Approach to Commercial and Residential Electricity and Water Demand Modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, April M [ORNL; McManamay, Ryan A [ORNL; Nagle, Nicholas N [ORNL; Piburn, Jesse O [ORNL; Stewart, Robert N [ORNL; Surendran Nair, Sujithkumar [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    Abstract As urban areas continue to grow and evolve in a world of increasing environmental awareness, the need for high resolution spatially explicit estimates for energy and water demand has become increasingly important. Though current modeling efforts mark significant progress in the effort to better understand the spatial distribution of energy and water consumption, many are provided at a course spatial resolution or rely on techniques which depend on detailed region-specific data sources that are not publicly available for many parts of the U.S. Furthermore, many existing methods do not account for errors in input data sources and may therefore not accurately reflect inherent uncertainties in model outputs. We propose an alternative and more flexible Monte-Carlo simulation approach to high-resolution residential and commercial electricity and water consumption modeling that relies primarily on publicly available data sources. The method s flexible data requirement and statistical framework ensure that the model is both applicable to a wide range of regions and reflective of uncertainties in model results. Key words: Energy Modeling, Water Modeling, Monte-Carlo Simulation, Uncertainty Quantification Acknowledgment This manuscript has been authored by employees of UT-Battelle, LLC, under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the U.S. Department of Energy. Accordingly, the United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes.

  14. Effect of Fuel Wobbe Number on Pollutant Emissions from Advanced Technology Residential Water Heaters: Results of Controlled Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, Vi H.; Singer, Brett C.

    2014-03-01

    The research summarized in this report is part of a larger effort to evaluate the potential air quality impacts of using liquefied natural gas in California. A difference of potential importance between many liquefied natural gas blends and the natural gas blends that have been distributed in California in recent years is the higher Wobbe number of liquefied natural gas. Wobbe number is a measure of the energy delivery rate for appliances that use orifice- or pressure-based fuel metering. The effect of Wobbe number on pollutant emissions from residential water heaters was evaluated in controlled experiments. Experiments were conducted on eight storage water heaters, including five with “ultra low-NO{sub X}” burners, and four on-demand (tankless) water heaters, all of which featured ultra low-NO{sub X} burners. Pollutant emissions were quantified as air-free concentrations in the appliance flue and fuel-based emission factors in units of nanogram of pollutant emitter per joule of fuel energy consumed. Emissions were measured for carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub X}), nitrogen oxide (NO), formaldehyde and acetaldehyde as the water heaters were operated through defined operating cycles using fuels with varying Wobbe number. The reference fuel was Northern California line gas with Wobbe number ranging from 1344 to 1365. Test fuels had Wobbe numbers of 1360, 1390 and 1420. The most prominent finding was an increase in NO{sub X} emissions with increasing Wobbe number: all five of the ultra low-NO{sub X} storage water heaters and two of the four ultra low-NO{sub X} on-demand water heaters had statistically discernible (p<0.10) increases in NO{sub X} with fuel Wobbe number. The largest percentage increases occurred for the ultra low-NO{sub X} water heaters. There was a discernible change in CO emissions with Wobbe number for all four of the on-demand devices tested. The on-demand water heater with the highest CO emissions also had the largest CO increase

  15. Physics of Beer Tapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Javier; Casado-Chacón, Almudena; Fuster, Daniel

    2014-11-01

    The popular bar prank known in colloquial English as beer tapping consists in hitting the top of a beer bottle with a solid object, usually another bottle, to trigger the foaming over of the former within a few seconds. Despite the trick being known for a long time, to the best of our knowledge, the phenomenon still lacks scientific explanation. Although it seems natural to think that shock-induced cavitation enhances the diffusion of CO2 from the supersaturated bulk liquid into the bubbles by breaking them up, the subtle mechanism by which this happens remains unknown. Here, we show that the overall foaming-over process can be divided into three stages where different physical phenomena take place in different time scales: namely, the bubble-collapse (or cavitation) stage, the diffusion-driven stage, and the buoyancy-driven stage. In the bubble-collapse stage, the impact generates a train of expansion-compression waves in the liquid that leads to the fragmentation of preexisting gas cavities. Upon bubble fragmentation, the sudden increase of the interface-area-to-volume ratio enhances mass transfer significantly, which makes the bubble volume grow by a large factor until CO2 is locally depleted. At that point buoyancy takes over, making the bubble clouds rise and eventually form buoyant vortex rings whose volume grows fast due to the feedback between the buoyancy-induced rising speed and the advection-enhanced CO2 transport from the bulk liquid to the bubble. The physics behind this explosive process sheds insight into the dynamics of geological phenomena such as limnic eruptions.

  16. Tapping a new energy source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, W.

    1999-01-01

    The Sable Offshore Energy Project is one of Canada's largest construction projects which is bringing a new industry to Nova Scotia. A five-party consortium comprised of Mobil Oil Canada, Shell Canada, Imperial Oil, Nova Scotia Resources and Mosbacher, has formed an enterprise called Sable Offshore Energy Inc. The consortium plans to bring natural gas to markets in Canada and the United States before the end of 1999. The Santa Fe Galaxy II is one of the world's most modern marine all-weather drilling rigs that will soon begin the drilling of wells. Once in production, the project will produce half a billion cubic feet of natural gas daily from three production platforms that will tap three separate undersea natural gas fields. The gas will then be transported 200 km to shore near Goldboro, Nova Scotia, through an undersea pipeline. There, it will be treated to remove any remaining water and to separate liquid natural gas from the gas proper. The natural gas liquids will then be carried by an onshore pipeline to a new facility at Point Tupper where they will be processed into propane, butane and condensate. There will be enough gas to meet the potential demand in Nova Scotia and New Brunswick. Large urban centres such as Halifax and Saint John will be served by secondary lines that branch off the main pipeline, but developing smaller markets will take time because the necessary infrastructure does not yet exist. The project has already created thousands of jobs in the province. 5 figs

  17. Energy Efficiency and Sustainability Evaluation of Space and Water Heating in Urban Residential Buildings of the Hot Summer and Cold Winter Zone in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With the urbanization process of the hot summer and cold winter (HSCW zone in China, the energy consumption of space and water heating in urban residential buildings of the HSCW zone has increased rapidly. This study presents the energy efficiency and sustainability evaluation of various ways of space and water heating taking 10 typical cities in the HSCW zone as research cases. Two indicators, primary energy efficiency (PEE and sustainability index based on exergy efficiency, are adopted to perform the evaluation. Models for the energy and total exergy efficiencies of various space and water heating equipment/systems are developed. The evaluation results indicate that common uses of electricity for space and water heating are the most unsustainable ways of space and water heating. In terms of PEE and sustainability index, air-source heat pumps for space and water heating are suitable for the HSCW zone. The PEE and sustainability index of solar water heaters with auxiliary electric heaters are greatly influenced by local solar resources. Air-source heat pump assisted solar hot water systems are the most sustainable among all water heating equipment/systems investigated in this study. Our works suggest the key potential for improving the energy efficiency and the sustainability of space and water heating in urban residential buildings of the HSCW zone.

  18. Energy Efficiency Modelling of Residential Air Source Heat Pump Water Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cong Toan Tran

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The heat pump water heater is one of the most energy efficient technologies for heating water for household use. The present work proposes a simplified model of coefficient of performance and examines its predictive capability. The model is based on polynomial functions where the variables are temperatures and the coefficients are derived from the Australian standard test data, using regression technics. The model enables to estimate the coefficient of performance of the same heat pump water heater under other test standards (i.e. US, Japanese, European and Korean standards. The resulting estimations over a heat-up phase and a full test cycle including a draw off pattern are in close agreement with the measured data. Thus the model allows manufacturers to avoid the need to carry out physical tests for some standards and to reduce product cost. The limitations of the methodology proposed are also discussed.

  19. Long-term mortality patterns in a residential cohort exposed to inorganic selenium in drinking water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinceti, Marco; Ballotari, Paola; Steinmaus, Craig; Malagoli, Carlotta; Luberto, Ferdinando; Malavolti, Marcella; Giorgi Rossi, Paolo

    2016-10-01

    Selenium (Se) is a metalloid of considerable nutritional and toxicological importance in humans. To date, limited epidemiologic evidence exists about the health effects of exposure to this trace element in drinking water. We investigated the relationship between Se levels in water and mortality in the municipality of Reggio Emilia, Italy, where high levels of Se were previously observed in drinking water. From 1974 to 1985, 2065 residents consumed drinking water with Se levels close to the European standard of 10μg/l, in its inorganic hexavalent form (selenate). Follow-up was conducted for the years 1986-2012 in Reggio Emilia and a lesser exposed comparison group of around 100,000 municipal residents, with comparable socio-demographic characteristics. Overall mortality from all causes, cardiovascular disease and cancer showed little evidence of differences. However, excess rate ratios were seen for some site specific cancers such as neoplasms of buccal cavity and pharynx, urinary tract, lymphohematopoietic tissue, melanoma, and two neurodegenerative diseases, Parkinson's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Excess mortality in the exposed cohort for specific outcomes was concentrated in the first period of follow-up (1986-1997), and waned starting 10 years after the high exposure ended. We also found lower mortality from breast cancer in females during the first period of follow-up. When we extended the analysis to include residents who had been consuming the high-selenium drinking water for a shorter period, mortality rate ratios were also increased, but to a lesser extent. Overall, we found that the mortality patterns related to long-term exposure to inorganic hexavalent selenium through drinking water were elevated for several site-specific cancers and neurodegenerative disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Modeling Residential Water Consumption in Amman: The Role of Intermittency, Storage, and Pricing for Piped and Tanker Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian Klassert

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Jordan faces an archetypal combination of high water scarcity, with a per capita water availability of around 150 m3 per year significantly below the absolute scarcity threshold of 500 m3, and strong population growth, especially due to the Syrian refugee crisis. A transition to more sustainable water consumption patterns will likely require Jordan’s water authorities to rely more strongly on water demand management in the future. We conduct a case study of the effects of pricing policies, using an agent-based model of household water consumption in Jordan’s capital Amman, in order to analyze the distribution of burdens imposed by demand-side policies across society. Amman’s households face highly intermittent piped water supply, leading them to supplement it with water from storage tanks and informal private tanker operators. Using a detailed data set of the distribution of supply durations across Amman, our model can derive the demand for additional tanker water. We find that integrating these different supply sources into our model causes demand-side policies to have strongly heterogeneous effects across districts and income groups. This highlights the importance of a disaggregated perspective on water policy impacts in order to identify and potentially mitigate excessive burdens.

  1. 75 FR 20111 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Water Heaters, Direct...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-16

    ... Savings and Net Present Value Analysis 1. General 2. Shipments a. Water Heaters b. Direct Heating.... Consumer Net Present Value a. Increased Total Installed Costs and Operating Cost Savings b. Discount Rates... That Are Small Businesses 3. National Net Present Value of Consumer Costs and Benefits and National...

  2. Residential Water Demand in a Mexican Biosphere Reserve: Evidence of the Effects of Perceived Price

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Antonio Almendarez-Hernández

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to provide empirical evidence for policy-makers of water management, evaluate the applicability of economic variables such as price and other factors that affect demand, and determine the impact thereof on decision-making surrounding water management in the El Vizcaino Biosphere Reserve in Mexico. We estimated a dynamic function with an average price specification, as well as price perception specification. Findings demonstrated that consumers tend to react to perceived average price but not to the marginal price. Furthermore, long-term price elasticity was found to be higher than short-term elasticity, and both elasticities were found to be inelastic. Inelastic elasticities, coupled with rising prices, generate substantial revenues with which to improve water planning and supply quality and to expand service coverage. The results suggest that users’ level of knowledge surrounding price is a key factor to take into account when restructuring rates, especially in situations where consumers do not readily possess the necessary information about their rate structure and usage within a given billing period. Furthermore, the results can help water management policy-makers to achieve goals of economic efficiency, social equity, and environmental sustainability.

  3. Solar Ray Tracing Analysis to Determine Energy Availability in a CPC Designed for Use as a Residential Water Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Terrón-Hernández

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Compound parabolic concentrators are relevant systems used in solar thermal technology. With adequate tailoring, they can be used as an efficient and low-cost alternative in residential water heating applications. This work presents a simulation study using a ray tracing analysis. With this technique, we simulate the interaction between solar rays and solar concentrator to quantify the amount of energy that impinges on the receiver at a particular time. Energy availability is evaluated in a comparison of two configurations throughout the year: static setup at 21° and multi-position setup; tilted with respect to the horizontal, depending on three seasonal positions: 0° for summer, 16° for spring/autumn, and 32° for winter, with the aim to evaluate the amount of available energy in each season. The fact that a tracking system can be dispensed with also represents an economical option for the proposed application. The results showed that at 21°, the proposed solar Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC works satisfactorily; however, by carrying out the selected angular adjustments, the overall energy availability increased by 22%, resulting in a more efficient option. The most effective design was also built and analyzed outdoors. The obtained thermal efficiency was of ~43%. The optical design and its evaluation developed herein proved to be a valuable tool for prototype design and performance evaluation.

  4. Eco-restoration: simultaneous nutrient removal from soil and water in a complex residential-cropland area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yonghong; Kerr, Philip G; Hu, Zhengyi; Yang, Linzhang

    2010-07-01

    An eco-restoration system to remove excess nutrients and restore the agricultural ecosystem balance was proposed and applied from August 2006 to August 2008 in a residential-cropland complex area (1.4 x 10(5) m(2)) in Kunming, western China, where the self-purifying capacity of the agricultural ecosystem had been lost. The proposed eco-restoration system examined includes three main foci: farming management, bioremediation, and wastewater treatment. The results showed that the removal efficiencies of total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) from the complex wastewater were 83% and 88%, respectively. The Simpson's diversity indices of macrophytes and zoobenthos indicated that the system had increased macrophyte and zoobenthic diversity as well as improved growth conditions of the plankton habitats. The results demonstrated that the proposed eco-restoration system is a promising approach for decreasing the output of nutrients from soil, improving agricultural ecosystem health, and minimizing the downstream eutrophication risk for surface waters. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Social Diffusion of Water Conservation: A Study of Residential Turf Rebate Programs in Orange County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, K.; Grant, S. B.; Rippy, M.; Feldman, D.

    2017-12-01

    From 2011 to 2017, the combination of record low precipitation and extreme warm temperatures resulted in the most severe drought in California's written history. In April 2015, Governor Jerry Brown issued an executive order mandating a statewide 25% reduction in potable urban water usage. Under such circumstances, outdoor watering is an obvious target for restriction, because it can account for a large fraction of total domestic water usage, up to 50% in the arid southwest [Syme et. al 2004, Cameron et. al 2012]. In this study we analyzed one such effort, in which the Irvine Ranch Water District (IRWD) in Orange County (California) offered a financial incentive through a turf rebate program to encourage Irvine residents to replace turf grass with drought tolerant landscaping. We focused specifically on the number of residents who applied to the turf rebate program. Our hypothesis was that the observed application rate (number of applicants per month) is influenced by a combination of (a) financial incentives issued by IRWD, (b) drought awareness, and (c) the fraction of neighbors that have already applied to the program (a phenomenon that can be described quantitatively through models of social contagion or social diffusion [Karsai et. al 2014]). Our preliminary results indicate that applications to the program occurred in geographic "hot spots", consistent with the idea that early adopters may have influenced neighbors to retrofit their lawns. We are currently evaluating the geographic, demographic, and temporal drivers that influence the rate of spontaneous adoption, the rate of adoption under influence, and the total size of the susceptible population. Overall, our goal is to identify the key factors that contribute to early rapid uptake of conservation behavior, and the rapid diffusion of that behavior through the community.

  6. Microbiological evaluation of water during the 2011 flood crisis in Thailand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chaturongkasumrit, Yuphakhun; Techaruvichit, Punnida; Takahashi, Hajime; Kimura, Bon; Keeratipibul, Suwimon

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, a severe flood occurred in Thailand, covering nearly half the country in water for several months. The contamination of floodwater and subsequent contamination of water for human consumption could have potentially led to a widespread health crisis. However, to date, no study has been conducted to determine the safety of the waters used for human consumption in Thailand during the severe flood. Therefore, we conducted microbiological analysis of 4 kinds of water (floodwater, river water, tap water, and filtered tap water) collected from industrial and residential areas that were damaged due to flooding. Higher net levels of bacteria were found in water with a higher turbidity. No clear trend was observed in the pH value of all 4 water samples. The level of total bacterial contamination in the water samples was estimated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Eleven of the 12 tap water samples and all of the filtered tap water samples had a total bacterial load that exceeded the Thai water quality standards. One of the tap water samples and one of the filtered tap water samples were found to be positive for Shigella sp., although none of the floodwater samples showed detectable levels of this pathogen as determined by PCR analysis. One of the samples of floodwater was also found to be positive for Leptospira sp., but none of the tap water or filtered tap water samples were positive. Most of the tap water samples and all filtered tap water samples were found to be contaminated with Vibrio cholerae. Bacterial contamination in water samples was also analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. These results revealed that several microorganisms were transferred via floodwater to different areas in the central part of Thailand and cross-contaminated between floodwater and water for human consumption. - Highlights: • We investigated the flood impact on the waters used for human consumption. • Higher net levels of

  7. Microbiological evaluation of water during the 2011 flood crisis in Thailand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chaturongkasumrit, Yuphakhun; Techaruvichit, Punnida; Takahashi, Hajime; Kimura, Bon [Department of Food Science and Technology, Faculty of Marine Science, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology, Tokyo 108-8477 (Japan); Keeratipibul, Suwimon, E-mail: Suwimon.k@chula.ac.th [Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Phayathai Road, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2013-10-01

    In 2011, a severe flood occurred in Thailand, covering nearly half the country in water for several months. The contamination of floodwater and subsequent contamination of water for human consumption could have potentially led to a widespread health crisis. However, to date, no study has been conducted to determine the safety of the waters used for human consumption in Thailand during the severe flood. Therefore, we conducted microbiological analysis of 4 kinds of water (floodwater, river water, tap water, and filtered tap water) collected from industrial and residential areas that were damaged due to flooding. Higher net levels of bacteria were found in water with a higher turbidity. No clear trend was observed in the pH value of all 4 water samples. The level of total bacterial contamination in the water samples was estimated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Eleven of the 12 tap water samples and all of the filtered tap water samples had a total bacterial load that exceeded the Thai water quality standards. One of the tap water samples and one of the filtered tap water samples were found to be positive for Shigella sp., although none of the floodwater samples showed detectable levels of this pathogen as determined by PCR analysis. One of the samples of floodwater was also found to be positive for Leptospira sp., but none of the tap water or filtered tap water samples were positive. Most of the tap water samples and all filtered tap water samples were found to be contaminated with Vibrio cholerae. Bacterial contamination in water samples was also analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis. These results revealed that several microorganisms were transferred via floodwater to different areas in the central part of Thailand and cross-contaminated between floodwater and water for human consumption. - Highlights: • We investigated the flood impact on the waters used for human consumption. • Higher net levels of

  8. Gas-operated heat pump for monovalent space heating and tap water heating. A seizable contribution to carbon dioxide emission control; Gasbetriebene Waermepumpe zur monovalenten Raumbeheizung und Trinkwassererwaermung. Ein greifbarer Beitrag zur Reduktion der CO{sub 2}-Emissionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heikrodt, K.; Heckt, R. [Viessmann Werke GmbH und Co., Allendorf (Germany)

    1999-07-01

    The project had the objectives to develop a Vuilleumier heat pump for space heating and make an experimental study testing it as a heat generator for a heating system for one- and multi-family houses. Apart from monovalent operation, the following boundary conditions were defined: provision for connection to existing heating systems, even radiator heatings with 75 C/60 C, tap water heating, and air-source heat. Performance constant, manufacturing cost, freedom from maintenance, and service life were taken into consideration in the design, rating and construction of the unit. (orig.) [German] Ziel des Vorhabens war die Entwicklung einer Vuilleumier-Waermepumpe zur Raumbeheizung und deren experimentelle Untersuchung als Waermeerzeuger fuer ein Heizungssystem in Ein- und Mehrfamilienhaeusern. Als Rahmebedingungen wurden neben einer monovalenten Betriebsweise auch die moegliche Anbindung an bestehende Heizungssysteme, sogar Radiatorheizungen mit 75 C/60 C, Trinkwassererwaermung und Luft als Waermequelle festgelegt. Leistungszahl, Herstellkosten, Wartungsfreiheit und Lebensdauer wurden in Konzeption, Auslegung und Konstruktion beruecksichtigt. (orig.)

  9. Electricity, water, and natural gas consumption of a residential house in Canada from 2012 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makonin, Stephen; Ellert, Bradley; Bajić, Ivan V.; Popowich, Fred

    2016-06-01

    With the cost of consuming resources increasing (both economically and ecologically), homeowners need to find ways to curb consumption. The Almanac of Minutely Power dataset Version 2 (AMPds2) has been released to help computational sustainability researchers, power and energy engineers, building scientists and technologists, utility companies, and eco-feedback researchers test their models, systems, algorithms, or prototypes on real house data. In the vast majority of cases, real-world datasets lead to more accurate models and algorithms. AMPds2 is the first dataset to capture all three main types of consumption (electricity, water, and natural gas) over a long period of time (2 years) and provide 11 measurement characteristics for electricity. No other such datasets from Canada exist. Each meter has 730 days of captured data. We also include environmental and utility billing data for cost analysis. AMPds2 data has been pre-cleaned to provide for consistent and comparable accuracy results amongst different researchers and machine learning algorithms.

  10. Residential Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde; Matsufuji, Y.

    2011-01-01

    are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing residential waste is faced with the problem that many residences already divert some waste away from the official collection systems, for example performing home composting of vegetable waste and garden waste, having their bundled newspaper picked up by the scouts...... twice a year or bringing their used furniture to the flea markets organized by charity clubs. Thus, much of the data available on residential waste represents collected waste and not necessarily all generated waste. The latter can only be characterized by careful studies directly at the source...

  11. Tapping mode microwave impedance microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, K.

    2009-01-01

    We report tapping mode microwave impedance imaging based on atomic force microscope platforms. The shielded cantilever probe is critical to localize the tip-sample interaction near the tip apex. The modulated tip-sample impedance can be accurately simulated by the finite-element analysis and the result agrees quantitatively to the experimental data on a series of thin-film dielectric samples. The tapping mode microwave imaging is also superior to the contact mode in that the thermal drift in a long time scale is totally eliminated and an absolute measurement on the dielectric properties is possible. We demonstrated tapping images on working nanodevices, and the data are consistent with the transport results. © 2009 American Institute of Physics.

  12. Impacts of Urbanization on Water Use and Energy-related CO2 Emissions of Residential Consumption in China: A Spatio-temporal Analysis during 2003-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, J.; Yin, H.; Varis, O.

    2017-12-01

    China has been undergoing unprecedented urbanization since the 1978 economic reform, especially with the present growth rate for the last decade at approximately 20 million people per year. This rapid and perennial progress has been raising soaring concerns on environmental sustainability, due to a severe nationwide deterioration of China's environment and ecosystems in the context of ceaselessly increasing demand for water and energy. It is therefore of prime necessity and importance to comprehend China's water and energy security under the effect of its dramatic demographic changes. Analyses of this issue still remain few and far between, and a comprehensive picture has not been available that would help understand China's recent development in urbanization, its spatial features and links to water and energy security, particularly regarding residential consumption, as well as national policy-making in the context of its water-energy nexus. Consequently, we addressed these knowledge gaps by performing an integrated and quantitative spatio-temporal analysis of the impacts of China's urbanization on water use of residential consumption (WURC) and energy-related CO2 emissions of residential consumption (ERCERC). We proposed per capita WURC and per capita ERCERC as potential national indicators for policy-making targets of its water and energy security. Our study, conducted over the period 2003-2012, for the first time demonstrated strong evidence of the significant impacts of China's urbanization on WURC and ERCERC. Its highlights can be portrayed as follows: (1) rural areas dominated per capita WURC at both national and provincial scales, with a significant increasing trend, while WURC share and per capita WURC in urban areas decreased, despite the fact that the urban population was soaring; (2) per capita ERCERC was significantly augmented in both urban and rural areas nationwide; and (3) per capita WURC and per capita ERCERC had a significant positive correlation

  13. "Bottled or Tap?" A Controversy for Science, Economics, and Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapham, Steven S.

    2009-01-01

    Every year, Americans spend billions of dollars on bottled water. They purchase a bottle from the vending machine or buy a case at the grocery, no longer considering the water that's freely available from their taps. As consumers and as citizens, however, Americans should pause to study the personal and public consequences of this choice. In this…

  14. Forecasting Water Demand in Residential, Commercial, and Industrial Zones in Bogotá, Colombia, Using Least-Squares Support Vector Machines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Peña-Guzmán

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Colombian capital, Bogotá, has undergone massive growth in a short period of time. Naturally, this growth has increased the city’s water demand. The prediction of this demand will help understand and analyze consumption behavior, thereby allowing for effective management of the urban water cycle. This paper uses the Least-Squares Support Vector Machines (LS-SVM model for forecasting residential, industrial, and commercial water demand in the city of Bogotá. The parameters involved in this study include the following: monthly water demand, number of users, and total water consumption bills (price for the three studied uses. Results provide evidence of the model’s accuracy, producing R2 between 0.8 and 0.98, with an error percentage under 12%.

  15. Geothermal Energy: Tapping the Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Bill

    2008-01-01

    Ground source geothermal energy enables one to tap into the earth's stored renewable energy for heating and cooling facilities. Proper application of ground-source geothermal technology can have a dramatic impact on the efficiency and financial performance of building energy utilization (30%+). At the same time, using this alternative energy…

  16. TAP: More than Performance Pay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawchuk, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Since its inception, the program has tackled the most challenging issue facing the teaching profession: how to align systems for managing schools' human capital with goals for improving student achievement. In addition to pay, the Teacher Advancement Program (TAP) shapes new approaches to on-the-job training, career advancement, and evaluation in…

  17. Progressive Increase in Disinfection By-products and Mutagenicity from Source to Tap to Swimming Pool and Spa Water: Impact of Human Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pools and spas are enjoyed throughout the world for exercise and relaxation. However, there are no previous studies on mutagenicity of disinfected spa (hot tub) waters or comprehensive identification of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) formed in spas. Using 28 water samples from ...

  18. Modeling electric load and water consumption impacts from an integrated thermal energy and rainwater storage system for residential buildings in Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upshaw, Charles R.; Rhodes, Joshua D.; Webber, Michael E.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Hydronic integrated rainwater thermal storage (ITHERST) system concept presented. • ITHERST system modeled to assess peak electric load shifting and water savings. • Case study shows 75% peak load reduction and 9% increase in energy consumption. • Potable rainwater collection could provide ∼50–90% of water used for case study. - Abstract: The United States’ built environment is a significant direct and indirect consumer of energy and water. In Texas, and other parts of the Southern and Western US, air conditioning loads, particularly from residential buildings, contribute significantly to the peak electricity load on the grid, straining transmission. In parallel, water resources in these regions are strained by growing populations and shrinking supplies. One potential method to address both of these issues is to develop integrated thermal energy and auxiliary water (e.g. rainwater, greywater, etc.) storage and management systems that reduce peak load and freshwater consumption. This analysis focuses on a proposed integrated thermal energy and rainwater storage (ITHERST) system that is incorporated into a residential air-source chiller/heat pump with hydronic distribution. This paper describes a step-wise hourly thermodynamic model of the thermal storage system to assess on-peak performance, and a daily volume-balance model of auxiliary water collection and consumption to assess water savings potential. While the model is generalized, this analysis uses a case study of a single family home in Austin, Texas to illustrate its capabilities. The results indicate this ITHERST system could reduce on-peak air conditioning electric power demand by over 75%, with increased overall electric energy consumption of approximately 7–9%, when optimally sized. Additionally, the modeled rainwater collection reduced municipal water consumption by approximately 53–89%, depending on the system size.

  19. Subproductos halogenados de la cloración en el agua de consumo público Halogenated by-products of chlorination in tap water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Calderón

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: La presencia de trihalometanos en el agua de diversas ciudades españolas está demostrada. Este estudio pretende analizar sus concentraciones en el agua de la ciudad de Barcelona. Métodos: Se analizan 151 muestras de agua recogidas durante el año 1998. Los análisis se realizaron en el laboratorio municipal mediante purge and trap y posterior determinación por cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrofotometría de masas. Los resultados se presentan según el origen del agua: ríos Llobregat, Ter o mezcla. Resultados: En aguas del Ter los valores son relativamente bajos y predominan cloroformo y bromodiclorometano, mientras que en las del Llobregat son más elevados y predominan bromoformo y dibromoclorometano. Las aguas de mezcla presentan valores intermedios. Los valores totales alcanzados en las muestras procedentes del Llobregat superan los 100 µg/l. Conclusiones: Estos resultados muestran la necesidad de seguir corrigiendo la contaminación orgánica y los compuestos halogenados en el agua captada para el consumo humano en Barcelona.Objective: The presence of trihalomethanes in the water systems of several Spanish cities has been demonstrated. The aim of this study was to analyze trihalomethane concentrations in the water provided for human consumption in the city of Barcelona. Methods: We analyzed 151 water samples collected in 1998. The analyses were performed in the Public Health Laboratory of Barcelona using the purge-and-trap method and subsequent determination by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The results are presented according to the source of the water: the rivers of Llobregat or Ter, or a mixture of these. Results: Thrihalomethane concentrations in the water from Ter were relatively low, with a predominance of chloroform and bromodichloromethane, while concentrations in the water from Llobregat were much higher, with a predominance of bromoform and dibromochloromethane. Mixed water showed intermediate

  20. A New Method for the Fast Analysis of Trihalomethanes in Tap and Recycled Waters Using Headspace Gas Chromatography with Micro-Electron Capture Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydon D. Alexandrou

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chemical disinfection of water supplies brings significant public health benefits by reducing microbial contamination. The process can however, result in the formation of toxic compounds through interactions between disinfectants and organic material in the source water. These new compounds are termed disinfection by-products (DBPs. The most common are the trihalomethanes (THMs such as trichloromethane (chloroform, dichlorobromomethane, chlorodibromomethane and tribromomethane (bromoform; these are commonly reported as a single value for total trihalomethanes (TTHMs. Analysis of DBPs is commonly performed via time- and solvent-intensive sample preparation techniques such as liquid–liquid and solid phase extraction. In this study, a method using headspace gas chromatography with micro-electron capture detection was developed and applied for the analysis of THMs in drinking and recycled waters from across Melbourne (Victoria, Australia. The method allowed almost complete removal of the sample preparation step whilst maintaining trace level detection limits (>1 ppb. All drinking water samples had TTHM concentrations below the Australian regulatory limit of 250 µg/L but some were above the U.S. EPA limit of 60 µg/L. The highest TTHM concentration was 67.2 µg/L and lowest 22.9 µg/L. For recycled water, samples taken directly from treatment plants held significantly higher concentrations (153.2 µg/L TTHM compared to samples from final use locations (4.9–9.3 µg/L.

  1. Tapping Site Planning and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-17

    US Army Corps of Engineers BUILDING STRONG® Tapping Site Planning and Design Kevin S. Holden, RLA, ASLA Landscape Architecture Community of Practice...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) US Army Corps of Engineers,Community of Practice Leader for Landscape ,Rock Island,IL,61204-2004 8...STRONG® Site Planning and Design 1. How is Site Planning and Design foundational to sustainable development? 2. What role does the Landscape Architect

  2. Tapping into community resources in China | IDRC - International ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2011-01-18

    Jan 18, 2011 ... The time saved as result of the tap water system enabled farmers to establish a fruit orchard on uncultivated lands — sloping hills that can't be used for farming without risking soil erosion. Villagers also developed an approach for reforesting and managing disappearing forest lands. From 1995 to 1997, ...

  3. Economic benefits flow from taps | IDRC - International Development ...

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    2010-12-08

    Dec 8, 2010 ... Community-run tap water systems in China's remote Guizhou province have enabled families to develop new income-generating activities and boost a faltering economy. The advances arose from an IDRC-sponsored project in the late 1990s promoting “community-based natural resource management.

  4. Bilateral transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block with 24 hours ropivacaine infusion via TAP catheters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Pernille L; Hilsted, Karen L; Dahl, Jørgen B

    2013-01-01

    The analgesic effect of a TAP block has been investigated in various surgical settings. There are however limited information about block level and block duration. Furthermore, there is a lack of information about continuous TAP block after ultrasound-guided posterior TAP blocks.The aim of this d...... of this double-blind randomized study was therefore to investigate the effect of an ultrasound-guided posterior TAP block with 24 hours local anesthetic infusion via a TAP catheter....

  5. Water

    OpenAIRE

    Hertie School of Governance

    2010-01-01

    All human life depends on water and air. The sustainable management of both is a major challenge for today's public policy makers. This issue of Schlossplatz³ taps the streams and flows of the current debate on the right water governance.

  6. Multiplication of Legionella pneumophila Sequence Types 1, 47, and 62 in Buffered Yeast Extract Broth and Biofilms Exposed to Flowing Tap Water at Temperatures of 38°C to 42°C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Kooij, Dick; Brouwer-Hanzens, Anke J; Veenendaal, Harm R; Wullings, Bart A

    2016-11-15

    Legionella pneumophila proliferates in freshwater environments at temperatures ranging from 25 to 45°C. To investigate the preference of different sequence types (ST) for a specific temperature range, growth of L. pneumophila serogroup 1 (SG1) ST1 (environmental strains), ST47, and ST62 (disease-associated strains) was measured in buffered yeast extract broth (BYEB) and biofilms grown on plasticized polyvinyl chloride in flowing heated drinking water originating from a groundwater supply. The optimum growth temperatures in BYEB were approximately 37°C (ST1), 39°C (ST47), and 41°C (ST62), with maximum growth temperatures of 42°C (ST1) and 43°C (ST47 and ST62). In the biofilm at 38°C, the ST47 and ST62 strains multiplied equally well compared to growth of the environmental ST1 strain and an indigenous L. pneumophila non-SG1 strain, all attaining a concentration of approximately 10 7 CFU/cm -2 Raising the temperature to 41°C did not impact these levels within 4 weeks, but the colony counts of all strains tested declined (at a specific decline rate of 0.14 to 0.41 day -1 ) when the temperature was raised to 42°C. At this temperature, the concentration of Vermamoeba vermiformis in the biofilm, determined with quantitative PCR (qPCR), was about 2 log units lower than the concentration at 38°C. In columns operated at a constant temperature, ranging from 38 to 41°C, none of the tested strains multiplied in the biofilm at 41°C, in which also V. vermiformis was not detected. These observations suggest that strains of ST47 and ST62 did not multiply in the biofilm at a temperature of ≥41°C because of the absence of a thermotolerant host. Growth of Legionella pneumophila in tap water installations is a serious public health concern. The organism includes more than 2,100 varieties (sequence types). More than 50% of the reported cases of Legionnaires' disease are caused by a few sequence types which are very rarely detected in the environment. Strains of selected

  7. The distribution and tapping tidal energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zygmunt Kowalik

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Tidal power along tidal shores has been used for centuries to run small tidal mills. Generating electricity by tapping tidal power proved to be very successful only in the last century through the tidal power plant constructed in 1967 in La Rance, France. This used a large barrier to generate the sea level head necessary for driving turbines. Construction of such plants evolved very slowly because of prohibitive costs and concerns about the environmental impact. Developments in the construction of small, efficient and inexpensive underwater turbines admit the possibility of small scale operations that will use local tidal currents to bring electricity to remote locations. Since the generation of such electricity is concerned with the tidal energy in local water bodies, it is important to understand the site-specific energy balance, i.e., the energy flowing in through open boundaries, and the energy generated and dissipated within the local domain. The question is how to tap the tidal energy while keeping possible changes in the present tidal regimes to a minimum. The older approach of constructing barrages may still be quite useful in some locations. The basics of such tidal power plants constructed in a small bay are analyzed in order to understand the principal parameter for tidal plant evaluation, i.e., the power produced.     The new approach is to place turbines - devices similar to windmills - in the pathway of tidal currents. Theoretically, the amount of power available by such turbines for electricity generation is proportional to the water density and velocity cubed of the tidal flow. The naturally dissipated tidal power due to bottom friction forces is also proportional to the cube of the velocity. Because of this similarity, the exploitation of tidal energy can be directed to reinvesting the naturally dissipated power into tidal power for the generation of electricity. This approach to tidal power exploitation is better tuned

  8. Downregulation of TAP1 and TAP2 in early stage breast cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea M Henle

    Full Text Available TAP1-TAP2 heterodimeric complexes are recognized as the transporter associated with antigen processing of major histocompatibility complex class I peptides for recognition by tumor-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes. In this study, we investigated the immunohistochemical expression of TAP1 and TAP2 in 160 patients with breast cancer and correlated their expression levels with clinicopathologic parameters. The median age of the patient cohort was 52.5 years (range, 30-86 years. Both TAP1 and TAP2 immunohistochemical expression levels correlated significantly with breast cancer characteristics (P < .001. TAP1 expression levels were low to negative in stage I breast tumors. TAP1 and TAP2 levels were significantly higher in grade 3 tumors than low-grade (grade 1 and 2 tumors. TAP1 and TAP2 expression levels were not significantly different among different levels of HER2-expressing tumors and did not vary by estrogen and progesterone receptor status or patient age. Both TAP1 and TAP2 overexpression in breast cancer might be an indicator of an aggressive breast tumor.

  9. TAP 3: Training Program Support Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    The Training Accreditation Program (TAP) establishes objectives and criteria against which DOE nuclear facility training is evaluated to determine readiness for accreditation. TAP 3 has been developed to assist the contractor in preparing the initial Self-Evaluation Report, Training Program Accreditation Plan, and the CSER (contractor self-evaluation report).

  10. Viral interference with antigen presentation: trapping TAP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ressing, Maaike E; Luteijn, Rutger D; Horst, Daniëlle; Wiertz, Emmanuel J

    2013-09-01

    Following primary infection, herpesviruses persist for life in their hosts, even when vigorous anti-viral immunity has been induced. Failure of the host immune system to eliminate infected cells is facilitated by highly effective immune evasion strategies acquired by these herpesviruses during millions of years of co-evolution with their hosts. Here, we review the mechanisms of action of viral gene products that lead to cytotoxic T cell evasion through interference with the function of the transporter associated with antigen processing, TAP. The viral TAP inhibitors impede transport of peptides from the cytosol into the ER lumen, thereby preventing peptide loading onto MHC class I complexes. Recent insights have revealed a pattern of functional convergent evolution. In every herpesvirus subfamily, inhibitors of TAP function have been identified that are, surprisingly, unrelated in genome location, structure, and mechanism of action. Recently, cowpox virus has also been found to encode a TAP inhibitor. Expanding our knowledge on how viruses perturb antigen presentation, in particular by targeting TAP, not only provides information on viral pathogenesis, but also reveals novel aspects of the cellular processes corrupted by these viruses, notably the translocation of peptides by the ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter TAP. As the various TAP inhibitors are anticipated to impede discrete conformational transitions it is expected that crystal structures of TAP-inhibitor complexes will reveal valuable structural information on the actual mechanism of peptide translocation by TAP. Viral TAP inhibitors are also used for various (clinical) applications, for example, as effective tools in antigen presentation studies and as immunomodulators in immunotherapy for cancer, heterologous vaccination, and transplant protection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Traffic Aware Planner (TAP) Flight Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maris, John M.; Haynes, Mark A.; Wing, David J.; Burke, Kelly A.; Henderson, Jeff; Woods, Sharon E.

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Traffic Aware Planner (TAP) is a cockpit decision support tool that has the potential to achieve significant fuel and time savings when it is embedded in the data-rich Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) airspace. To address a key step towards the operational deployment of TAP and the NASA concept of Traffic Aware Strategic Aircrew Requests (TASAR), a system evaluation was conducted in a representative flight environment in November, 2013. Numerous challenges were overcome to achieve this goal, including the porting of the foundational Autonomous Operations Planner (AOP) software from its original simulation-based, avionics-embedded environment to an Electronic Flight Bag (EFB) platform. A flight-test aircraft was modified to host the EFB, the TAP application, an Automatic Dependent Surveillance Broadcast (ADS-B) processor, and a satellite broadband datalink. Nine Evaluation Pilots conducted 26 hours of TAP assessments using four route profiles in the complex eastern and north-eastern United States airspace. Extensive avionics and video data were collected, supplemented by comprehensive inflight and post-flight questionnaires. TAP was verified to function properly in the live avionics and ADS-B environment, characterized by recorded data dropouts, latency, and ADS-B message fluctuations. Twelve TAP-generated optimization requests were submitted to ATC, of which nine were approved, and all of which resulted in fuel and/or time savings. Analysis of subjective workload data indicated that pilot interaction with TAP during flight operations did not induce additional cognitive loading. Additionally, analyses of post-flight questionnaire data showed that the pilots perceived TAP to be useful, understandable, intuitive, and easy to use. All program objectives were met, and the next phase of TAP development and evaluations with partner airlines is in planning for 2015.

  12. Assessment of potable water supply sources in Ilorin metropolis, Kwara State, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J. Musa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Water distribution system plays a vital role in preserving and providing a desirable life quality to the public. In this regards, the reliability of supply is a major component. This study was conducted using the investigative research approach method; 5000 questionnaires which were randomly distributed round the township of Ilorin and 4658 93.16% were returned. Among them, 2350 respondents said that they have their own wells dugged in their respective homes, 1100 respondents had their taps running at specific periods of the week, 750 individuals said that they have boreholes available, 308 people declared that they make use of the streams and rivers running around their areas while about 150 of the remaining buy water from the water vendors so they cannot tell the exact source of the water. It was discovered that majority of the residential areas in Ilorin do not depend on the tap water supply rather they depend on dugged wells and bore holes.

  13. MiTAP for SARS Detection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Damianos, Laurie E; Bayer, Samuel; Chisholm, Michael A; Henderson, John; Hirschman, Lynette; Morgan, William; Ubaldino, Marc; Zarrella, Guido; Wilson, V, James M; Polyak, Marat G

    2006-01-01

    The MiTAP prototype for SARS detection uses human language technology for detecting, monitoring, and analyzing potential indicators of infectious disease outbreaks and reasoning for issuing warnings and alerts...

  14. Tap into Good Teeth--a Western Australian pilot study of children's drinking patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leavy, Justine E; Heyworth, Jane; Middleton, Aves; Rosenberg, Michael; Woloszyn, Magdalene

    2012-04-01

    ISSUED ADDRESSED: The increase trend in the prevalence of dental caries in Australian children is a concern to public health professionals. Attitudes, behaviours and lifestyle patterns established in childhood are often carried throughout adult life. The objective of the study was to estimate the proportion of Perth metropolitan year two public primary school children drinking tap water at home, school and play. It also aimed to explore knowledge and attitudes that children and parents have towards drinking tap water, bottled water, fruit juices and soft drinks. Nine Western Australian government primary schools were recruited. A facilitator-led questionnaire was administered to year two primary school students and a matched parent self-administered questionnaire was also completed. Forty-two per cent of the children in our study reported if thirsty they drank tap (fluoridated) water at home whereas parents stated 60% of children drank tap water at home. The type of drink appeared to vary with time of day/activity while overall water was most frequently drunk; a higher proportion of milk was drunk at breakfast, whereas soft drinks were drunk in a greater proportion while watching television. This study found the vast majority of year two children in metropolitan Perth public primary schools are drinking tap water.

  15. Military Transition Assistance Program (TAP): An Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-15

    in the development, management oversight, and strategic planning of TAP. TAP Counseling Requirements Over time, Congress has increased the...member and spouse Availability of mental health services and treatment of post- traumatic stress disorder , anxiety disorders , depression, suicidal...virtually on Joint Knowledge Online. DOD reports that over 100,000 users have accessed the virtual curriculum since it was launched in October of 2013

  16. Residential Energy Performance Metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Wright

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Techniques for residential energy monitoring are an emerging field that is currently drawing significant attention. This paper is a description of the current efforts to monitor and compare the performance of three solar powered homes built at Missouri University of Science and Technology. The homes are outfitted with an array of sensors and a data logger system to measure and record electricity production, system energy use, internal home temperature and humidity, hot water production, and exterior ambient conditions the houses are experiencing. Data is being collected to measure the performance of the houses, compare to energy modeling programs, design and develop cost effective sensor systems for energy monitoring, and produce a cost effective home control system.

  17. Evaluation of Technical and Utility Programmatic Challenges With Residential Forced-Air Integrated Space/Water Heat Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kingston, Tim [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Vadnal, Hillary [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Scott, Shawn [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Des Plaines, IL (United States); Kalensky, Dave [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This multi-unit field demonstration of combined space and water heating (combi) systems was conducted to help document combi system installation and performance issues that needed to be addressed through research. The objective of the project was to put commercialized forced-air tankless combi units into the field through local contractors that were trained by manufacturers and GTI staff under the auspices of utility-implemented ETPs.

  18. The average concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni and Pb in residential soil and drinking water obtained from springs and wells in Rosia Montana area.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The average concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni and Pb in n=84 residential soil samples, in Rosia Montana area, analyzed by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry are...

  19. Determination of water quality of ground water in selected Payatas residential areas using ion-selective electrodes (ISE) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) (determination of NO3, Cl, Pb, Cd, Zn)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, Samsudin A.; Roque, Willie P.; Arididon, Bonifacio D. Jr.; Gardon, Ruel W.

    2003-01-01

    This study aims to determine the water-soluble ions using ion-selective electrodes (ISE) and trace metals using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Seven water samples were chosen from the thirteen sites, which were gathered from the selected Payatas residential areas in Quezon City. For the trace metals the lowest detection of AAS in lead was obtained in La Brea site and was found to be -0.5 ppm. Lead content has a value of -0.04 ppm and was found to be below the detection limit of 0.1 ppm. The remaining sites obtained high value of lead concentrations in AAS reading. The range of concentration for lead was from 0.5 ppm for La Brea site to 1.4 ppm for Velasco site. The cadmium as trace metal in groundwater samples from Payatas residential area was found to be below the lowest limit of detection ( 3 which is 15.6 ppm and it was obtained by the used of ion selective electrodes (ISE) Horiba model type. Second to it was the La Brea site, which is 10.04 ppm All the other samples do not exceeds to the maximum allowable concentration of nitrate (50.0 ppm), and it ranged from 4.10 ppm for open-well site to 15.6 ppm for Lopez site. In chloride determination, Lagro High School obtained a reading of 57.6 ppm using ISE and it was the highest concentration amount present in seven samples. Next to it was the Ungrin site (36.8 ppm), samples ranged from 6.7 ppm for La Brea site to 57.6 ppm for Lagro high school site. All the samples do not exceeds to the maximum allowable concentration for chloride, which is 250 ppm. (Authors)

  20. Comparison of cleaning efficacy between in-use disinfectant and electrolysed water in an English residential care home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meakin, N S; Bowman, C; Lewis, M R; Dancer, S J

    2012-02-01

    Infection control in hospitals and care homes remains a key issue. They are regularly inspected regarding standards of hygiene, but visual assessment does not necessarily correlate with microbial cleanliness. Pathogens can persist in the inanimate environment for extended periods of time. This prospective study compared the effectiveness of a novel sanitizer containing electrolysed water, in which the active ingredient is stabilized hypochlorous acid (Aqualution™), with the effectiveness of the quaternary ammonium disinfectant in current use for microbial removal from hand-touch surfaces in a care home. The study had a two-period crossover design. Five surfaces were cleaned daily over a four-week period, with screening swabs taken before and after cleaning. Swabs were cultured in order to compare levels of surface microbial contamination [colony-forming units (cfu)/cm(2)] before and after cleaning with each product. Cleaning with electrolysed water reduced the mean surface bacterial load from 2.6 [interquartile range (IQR) 0.30-30.40] cfu/cm(2) to 0.10 (IQR 0.10-1.40) cfu/cm(2) [mean log(10) reduction factor 1.042, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.79-1.30]. Cleaning with the in-use quaternary ammonium disinfectant increased the bacterial load from 0.90 (IQR 0.10-8.50) cfu/cm(2) to 93.30 (IQR 9.85-363.65) cfu/cm(2) (mean log(10) reduction -1.499, 95% CI -1.87 to -1.12) (P care homes. Copyright © 2011 The Healthcare Infection Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Building an Archive Backbone Extending TAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinaro, M.; Apollo, P.; Knapic, C.; Smareglia, R.

    2014-05-01

    A data center (DC) willing to add VO (Virtual Observatory) capabilities to existing archival resources, or new ones, will probably face some issues regarding the constraints on the existing structure of the datasets. On the opposite direction a DC may want to give priority to VO flavored data access but maintain flexibility on proprietary or dedicated access solutions. This contribution tries to delineate a solution, feasible for both approaches, taking advantage of the IVOA (International Virtual Observatory Alliance) existing standards and, at the same time, forcing no constraint at archive generation or ingestion level. The IVOA TAP (Table Access Protocol) specification generalizes the way a set of database schemas and tables, related or not, can be deployed as a queryable resource in the framewok of the Virtual Observatory. The TAP protocol itself has, at its core, a DB schema, named TAP_SCHEMA, that actually acts as an attribute-extended information schema for the exposed set of tables; the TAP_SCHEMA, in short, describes the content of the schemas and tables, and their connections, in a VO aware flavour. It seems then quite immediate to think about pushing the generalization step a little further, i.e. to extend the TAP_SCHEMA itself to provide a more general description of an astrophysical archive (or part of it). Here we discuss on how, adding optional tables and columns to the TAP_SCHEMA, it would be possible to create an archive thin layer solution in terms of this DB schema alongside with a content manager application for it. The goal is to provide a re-usable, configurable connection between an archive's back end and front end, having the benefit of creating a VO translation layer to ease VO resource and service deployment and preserving custom data access and publishing.

  2. The presence and growth of Legionella species in thermostatic shower mixer taps: an exploratory field study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joost van Hoof; P.W.J.J. van der Wielen; E. van der Blom; O.W.W. Nuijten; L. Hornstra

    2014-01-01

    Legislation in the Netherlands requires routine analysis of drinking water samples for cultivable Legionella species from high-priority installations. A field study was conducted to investigate the presence of Legionella species in thermostatic shower mixer taps. Water samples and the interior of

  3. Exposure assessment of radon in the drinking water supplies: a descriptive study in Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Zabadi Hamzeh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Radon gas is considered as a main risk factor for lung cancer and found naturally in rock, soil, and water. The objective of this study was to determine the radon level in the drinking water sources in Nablus city in order to set up a sound policy on water management in Palestine. Methods This was a descriptive study carried out in two phases with a random sampling technique in the second phase. Primarily, samples were taken from 4 wells and 5 springs that supplied Nablus city residents. For each source, 3 samples were taken and each was analyzed in 4 cycles by RAD 7 device manufactured by Durridge Company. Secondly, from the seven regions of the Nablus city, three samples were taken from the residential tap water of each region. Regarding the old city, ten samples were taken. Finally, the mean radon concentration value for each source was calculated. Results The mean (range concentration of radon in the main sources were 6.9 (1.5-23.4 Becquerel/liter (Bq/L. Separately, springs and wells' means were 4.6 Bq/L and 9.5 Bq/L; respectively. For the residential tap water in the 7 regions, the results of the mean (range concentration values were found to be 1.0 (0.9-1.3 Bq/L. For the old city, the mean (range concentration values were 2.3 (0.9-3.9 Bq/L. Conclusions Except for Al-Badan well, radon concentrations in the wells and springs were below the United State Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminated level (U.S EPA MCL. The level was much lower for tap water. Although the concentration of radon in the tap water of old city were below the MCL, it was higher than other regions in the city. Preventive measures and population awareness on radon's exposure are recommended.

  4. Inserting the tap values of the tap changer transformers into the Jacobian matrix as control variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faruk Yalçın

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Series and shunt admittance values of under load tap changer transformers are changed according to tap changing. As this situation changes the structure of bus admittance matrix, it causes the need of rebuilding the bus admittance matrix at each tap changing case in power flow studies. In this paper, a new approach that includes the tap changing effects into the Jacobian matrix. By this approach, the need of rebuilding the bus admittance matrix at each tap changing case during power flow study is prevented. So, fast convergence is achieved for the power flow algorithm. Although there are similar studies for this aim in the literature, apart from these studies, including the tap changing effects to the Jacobian matrix when more than one under load tap changer transformers are connected to the same bus with different connection combinations is provided by the proposed approach. For this aim, new power equations and new Jacobian matrix component calculation equations are obtained. The proposed approach is tested on IEEE 57-bus test system and its accuracy is proved.

  5. Workshop on physics related to TAPS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuehn, W.; Loehner, H.

    1991-06-01

    Since December 1989 there exist two accepted proposals for TAPS experiments at SIS: 'η production in Relativistic Heavy Ion Experiments' (S 025) and 'π 0 Excitation Function and π 0 -π 0 Correlations Combined with Charged Particle Flow Analysis' (S 042). A third proposal 'Electromagnetic Excitations' (S 046) was submitted and is accepted by now. Before the new phase with data taking and detailed analysis of relativistic heavy ion data was about to begin, it was feld that there should be a few days set aside to take breath and to consider in a relaxed atmosphere the physics goals for which TAPS was constructed. The large number of undergraduate and graduate students in the collaboration was additional good reason to plan a meeting in a workshop-like atmosphere in order to communicate recent experimental and theoretical results touching the goals of TAPS and to discuss the aims of the submitted proposals and methods of the respective data analysis. Moreover, new ideas for future proposals and advanced technical developments should also be discussed. The aim was to broaden the view for applications of TAPS for photon and neutral meson measurements at the different accelerators at GANIL(Caen), SIS(GSI), MAMI(Mainz) and AGOR(KVI). See hints under the relevant topics. (orig./HSI)

  6. The TAPS Pyramid: Where, Who and How?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood-Stephens, Isabel

    2018-01-01

    The TAPS pyramid was developed in late 2014 and has been available as a download on the Primary Science Teaching Trust (PSTT) website since August 2015. But where has it gone since then? Who is using it? And how is it being used in schools to change primary science assessment practice? This article attempts to answer these questions with data from…

  7. 10BASE5 Ethernet Cable & Vampire Tap

    CERN Multimedia

    1983-01-01

    10BASE5 Thick Ethernet Cable, 10Mbit/sec. In the 1980s and early 1990's, Ethernet became more popular and provided a much faster data transmission rate. This cable is one of the first ethernet cables from 1983, a thick, bulky affair. Computers were attached via "Vampire Taps" which were connectors screwed straight through the shielding of the cable.

  8. Tapping for pneumoperitoneum in neonates and infants

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    (iii) Absolute constipation. (iv) Intraperitoneal fluid increasing in amount and turbid on sonography or on tapping. (3) Aspiration of feculent or bile-stained fluid: (i) Reaccumulation of air or appearance of signs of peritonitis when the patient starts oral feeding. Results. This study included 33 patients, of whom 27 were cured.

  9. Study of heavy ion collisions with TAPS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Löhner, H.

    The photon spectrometer TAPS is a versatile instrument to measure nuclear bremsstrahlung and neutral mesons via their gamma decay. The formation and evolution of compressed nuclear matter is studied in heavy ion collisions at relativistic energies by analyzing the yield and spectral distribution of

  10. High Efficiency Water Heating Technology Development Final Report, Part II: CO2 and Absorption-Based Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gluesenkamp, Kyle R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Abdelaziz, Omar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Patel, Viral K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mandel, Bracha T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); de Almeida, Valmor F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The two objectives of this project were to 1.demonstrate an affordable path to an ENERGY STAR qualified electric heat pump water heater (HPWH) based on low-global warming potential (GWP) CO2 refrigerant, and 2.demonstrate an affordable path to a gas-fired absorption-based heat pump water heater with a gas energy factor (EF) greater than 1.0. The first objective has been met, and the project has identified a promising low-cost option capable of meeting the second objective. This report documents the process followed and results obtained in addressing these objectives.

  11. Changes in The Content of Biodegradable Organic Matter in Tap Water in The City of Częstochowa / Zmiany Zawartości Biodegradowalnej Materii Organicznej w Wodzie Wodociagowej Dla Miasta Częstochowy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakocz, Klaudia; Rosińska, Agata

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents research aimed at the assessment of biodegradable organic carbon content changes (BDOC) during water disinfection process. The water samples examined in the research came from intakes, pumping stations at treatment plants situated in the Silesia district and water consumers. The examined water was underground water. One water sample was disinfected by sodium sub chloride while the other one by ozone. BDOC was determined using the Joret method, which involves observation of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) decrease in the examined water. The research has shown that BDOC content fluctuates at every stage of the treatment process and distribution of the examined water. Another analyzed parameter was biological stability of water.

  12. The blue water footprint of the world's artificial reservoirs for hydroelectricity, irrigation, residential and industrial water supply, flood protection, fishing and recreation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogeboom, Hendrik Jan; Knook, Luuk; Hoekstra, Arjen Y.

    2018-01-01

    For centuries, humans have resorted to building dams to gain control over freshwater available for human consumption. Although dams and their reservoirs have made many important contributions to human development, they receive negative attention as well, because of the large amounts of water they

  13. Specific Lipids Modulate the Transporter Associated with Antigen Processing (TAP)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholz, C.; Parcej, D.; Ejsing, C. S.

    2011-01-01

    . Detailed analysis of TAP function in the membrane, solubilized, purified, and reconstituted states revealed a direct influence of the native lipid environment on activity. TAP-associated phospholipids, essential for function, were profiled by liquid chromatography Fourier transform mass spectrometry...

  14. Analysis of tap weight errors in CCD transversal filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ricco, Bruno; Wallinga, Hans

    1978-01-01

    A method is presented to determine and evaluate the actual tap weight errors in CCD split-electrode transversal filters. It is concluded that the correlated part in the tap weight errors dominates the random errors.

  15. Biological mechanisms associated with triazophos (TAP) removal by horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (HSFCW)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, Juan; Feng, Yuqin; Dai, Yanran; Cui, Naxin [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and ResourceReuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Anderson, Bruce [Department of Civil Engineering, Queen' s University, Kingston K7L3N6 (Canada); Cheng, Shuiping, E-mail: shpcheng@tongji.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and ResourceReuse, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2016-05-15

    Triazophos (TAP) is a widely used pesticide that is easily accumulated in the environment due to its relatively high stability: this accumulation from agricultural runoff results in potential hazards to aquatic ecosystems. Constructed wetlands are generally considered to be an effective technology for treating TAP polluted surface water. However, knowledge about the biological mechanisms of TAP removal is still lacking. This study investigates the responses of a wetland plant (Canna indica), substrate enzymes and microbial communities in bench-scale horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (HSCWs) loaded with different TAP concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.5 and 5 mg·L{sup −1}). The results indicate that TAP stimulated the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) in the roots of C. indica. The highest TAP concentrations significantly inhibited photosynthetic activities, as shown by a reduced effective quantum yield of PS II (Φ{sub PSII}) and lower electron transport rates (ETR). However, interestingly, the lower TAP loadings exhibited some favorable effects on these two variables, suggesting that C. indica is a suitable species for use in wetlands designed for treatment of low TAP concentrations. Urease and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in the wetland substrate were activated by TAP. Two-way ANOVA demonstrated that urease activity was influenced by both the TAP concentrations and season, while acidphosphatase (ACP) only responded to seasonal variations. Analysis of high throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA revealed seasonal variations in the microbial community structure of the wetland substrate at the phylum and family levels. In addition, urease activity had a greater correlation with the relative abundance of some functional microbial groups, such as the Bacillaceae family, and the ALP and ACP may be influenced by the plant more than substrate microbial communities. - Highlights: • Physiological responses of the wetland plant to triazophos

  16. Biological mechanisms associated with triazophos (TAP) removal by horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (HSFCW)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Juan; Feng, Yuqin; Dai, Yanran; Cui, Naxin; Anderson, Bruce; Cheng, Shuiping

    2016-01-01

    Triazophos (TAP) is a widely used pesticide that is easily accumulated in the environment due to its relatively high stability: this accumulation from agricultural runoff results in potential hazards to aquatic ecosystems. Constructed wetlands are generally considered to be an effective technology for treating TAP polluted surface water. However, knowledge about the biological mechanisms of TAP removal is still lacking. This study investigates the responses of a wetland plant (Canna indica), substrate enzymes and microbial communities in bench-scale horizontal subsurface-flow constructed wetlands (HSCWs) loaded with different TAP concentrations (0, 0.1, 0.5 and 5 mg·L −1 ). The results indicate that TAP stimulated the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and peroxidase (POD) in the roots of C. indica. The highest TAP concentrations significantly inhibited photosynthetic activities, as shown by a reduced effective quantum yield of PS II (Φ PSII ) and lower electron transport rates (ETR). However, interestingly, the lower TAP loadings exhibited some favorable effects on these two variables, suggesting that C. indica is a suitable species for use in wetlands designed for treatment of low TAP concentrations. Urease and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in the wetland substrate were activated by TAP. Two-way ANOVA demonstrated that urease activity was influenced by both the TAP concentrations and season, while acidphosphatase (ACP) only responded to seasonal variations. Analysis of high throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA revealed seasonal variations in the microbial community structure of the wetland substrate at the phylum and family levels. In addition, urease activity had a greater correlation with the relative abundance of some functional microbial groups, such as the Bacillaceae family, and the ALP and ACP may be influenced by the plant more than substrate microbial communities. - Highlights: • Physiological responses of the wetland plant to triazophos loads were

  17. Civilian peacekeeping: a barely tapped ressource

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Christine Schweitzer: Introduction - Civilian peacekeeping. A barely tapped ressource (7-16); Rolf Carrière: The world needs 'another peacekeeping' (17-24); Tim Wallis: Best practices for unarmed civilian peacekeeping (25-34); Rachel Julians: Peacekeeping with nonviolence: protection strategies for sustainable peace (35-42); Christine Schweitzer: Humanitarian protection as an additional function of humanitarian, development and peace projects - or rather a task requiring experts? (43-52); Chr...

  18. Changes in The Content of Biodegradable Organic Matter in Tap Water in The City of Częstochowa / Zmiany Zawartości Biodegradowalnej Materii Organicznej w Wodzie Wodociagowej Dla Miasta Częstochowy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rakocz Klaudia

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents research aimed at the assessment of biodegradable organic carbon content changes (BDOC during water disinfection process. The water samples examined in the research came from intakes, pumping stations at treatment plants situated in the Silesia district and water consumers. The examined water was underground water. One water sample was disinfected by sodium sub chloride while the other one by ozone. BDOC was determined using the Joret method, which involves observation of dissolved organic carbon (DOC decrease in the examined water. The research has shown that BDOC content fluctuates at every stage of the treatment process and distribution of the examined water. Another analyzed parameter was biological stability of water.

  19. Relay self interference minimisation using tapped filter

    KAUST Repository

    Jazzar, Saleh

    2013-05-01

    In this paper we introduce a self interference (SI) estimation and minimisation technique for amplify and forward relays. Relays are used to help forward signals between a transmitter and a receiver. This helps increase the signal coverage and reduce the required transmitted signal power. One problem that faces relays communications is the leaked signal from the relay\\'s output to its input. This will cause an SI problem where the new received signal at the relay\\'s input will be added with the unwanted leaked signal from the relay\\'s output. A Solution is proposed in this paper to estimate and minimise this SI which is based upon using a tapped filter at the destination. To get the optimum weights for this tapped filter, some channel parameters must be estimated first. This is performed blindly at the destination without the need of any training. This channel parameter estimation method is named the blind-self-interference-channel-estimation (BSICE) method. The next step in the proposed solution is to estimate the tapped filter\\'s weights. This is performed by minimising the mean squared error (MSE) at the destination. This proposed method is named the MSE-Optimum Weight (MSE-OW) method. Simulation results are provided in this paper to verify the performance of BSICE and MSE-OW methods. © 2013 IEEE.

  20. Influence of secondary water supply systems on microbial community structure and opportunistic pathogen gene markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Huan; Li, Shang; Tang, Wei; Yang, Yang; Zhao, Jianfu; Xia, Siqing; Zhang, Weixian; Wang, Hong

    2018-06-01

    Secondary water supply systems (SWSSs) refer to the in-building infrastructures (e.g., water storage tanks) used to supply water pressure beyond the main distribution systems. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of SWSSs on microbial community structure and the occurrence of opportunistic pathogens, the latter of which are an emerging public health concern. Higher numbers of bacterial 16S rRNA genes, Legionella and mycobacterial gene markers were found in public building taps served by SWSSs relative to the mains, regardless of the flushing practice (P < 0.05). In residential buildings, genes of L. pneumomhila, Acanthamoeba and Vermamoeba vermiformis were primarily detected in tanks and taps compared to the mains. Long water retention time, warm temperature and loss of disinfectant residuals promoted microbial growth and colonization of potential pathogens in SWSSs. Varied levels of microbial community shifts were found in different types of SWSSs during water transportation from the distribution main to taps, highlighting the critical role of SWSSs in shaping the drinking water microbiota. Overall, the results provided insight to factors that might aid in controlling pathogen proliferation in real-world water systems using SWSSs. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Life cycle assessment of drinking water: comparing conventional water treatment, reverse osmosis and mineral water in glass and plastic bottles

    OpenAIRE

    Garfi, Marianna; Cadena, Erasmo; Sanchez Ramos, David; Ferrer Martí, Ivet

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the environmental impacts caused by drinking water consumption in Barcelona (Spain) using the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology. Five different scenarios were compared: 1) tap water from conventional drinking water treatment; 2) tap water from conventional drinking water treatment with reverse osmosis at the water treatment plant; 3) tap water from conventional drinking water treatment with domestic reverse osmosis; 4) mineral water in plastic bottles, and 5) minera...

  2. Thermal destratification in small standard solar tanks due to mixing during tapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon

    1999-01-01

    The aim of the project is to investigate the thermal destratification in small standard solar tanks due to mixing during tapping. Three different cold water inlet designs are tested. A model of the tested solar tank is verified. Based on the measurements and the calculations it is elucidated how...... much mixing reduces the yearly net utilised solar energy....

  3. Estimation of energy efficiency of residential buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glushkov Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing energy performance of the residential buildings by means of reducing heat consumption on the heating and ventilation is the last segment in the system of energy resources saving. The first segments in the energy saving process are heat producing and transportation over the main lines and outside distribution networks. In the period from 2006 to 2013. by means of the heat-supply schemes optimization and modernization of the heating systems. using expensive (200–300 $US per 1 m though hugely effective preliminary coated pipes. the economy reached 2.7 mln tons of fuel equivalent. Considering the multi-stage and multifactorial nature (electricity. heat and water supply of the residential sector energy saving. the reasonable estimate of the efficiency of the saving of residential buildings energy should be performed in tons of fuel equivalent per unit of time.

  4. TAP 2: Performance-Based Training Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    Cornerstone of safe operation of DOE nuclear facilities is personnel performing day-to-day functions which accomplish the facility mission. Performance-based training is fundamental to the safe operation. This manual has been developed to support the Training Accreditation Program (TAP) and assist contractors in efforts to develop performance-based training programs. It provides contractors with narrative procedures on performance-based training that can be modified and incorporated for facility-specific application. It is divided into sections dealing with analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation.

  5. TAP 2: Performance-Based Training Manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-08-01

    Cornerstone of safe operation of DOE nuclear facilities is personnel performing day-to-day functions which accomplish the facility mission. Performance-based training is fundamental to the safe operation. This manual has been developed to support the Training Accreditation Program (TAP) and assist contractors in efforts to develop performance-based training programs. It provides contractors with narrative procedures on performance-based training that can be modified and incorporated for facility-specific application. It is divided into sections dealing with analysis, design, development, implementation, and evaluation

  6. Robustness of TAP-based Scan Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Ghani Zadegan, Farrokh; Carlsson, Gunnar; Larsson, Erik

    2014-01-01

    It is common to embed instruments when developing integrated circuits (ICs). These instruments are accessed at post-silicon validation, debugging, wafer sort, package test, burn-in, printed circuit board bring-up, printed circuit board assembly manufacturing test, power-on self-test, and operator-driven in-field test. At any of these scenarios, it is of interest to access some but not all of the instruments. IEEE 1149.1-2013 and IEEE 1687 propose Test Access Port based (TAP-based) mechanisms ...

  7. Correlation between TAP detection and common digestive tract precancerous lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Changqing; Deng, Fang; Meng, Lingjun; Chen, Guohua

    2018-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the clinical significance of abnormal sugar-chain glycoprotein tumor abnormal protein (TAP) in the screening of common digestive tract pre-cancer colon adenocarcinoma lesions. A total of 50 colitis patients, 50 colon polyp patients and 50 colon adenocarcinoma patients admitted to our hospital from March, 2012 to May, 2014 were included. Fresh blood from patient's fingertips was collected and condensation staining was used to detect TAP expression. Positive expressions of TAP in patients in the colitis, colon polyp and colon adenocarcinoma groups prior to treatment were 6,76 and 92%, respectively. The TAP-positive expression rate comparisons between the three groups were statistically significant (PTAP-positive expression showed an increasing trend. TAP-positive expression was not significantly correlated with sex, age or ethnic group (P>0.05). Patient follow-up revealed that the tumor incidence rate in TAP-positive patients was significantly higher than that in TAP-negative in the colitis and colon polyp groups (PTAP-positive patients was significantly higher than that in TAP-negative in the colon adenocarcinoma group (PTAP had a higher expression in colon pre-adenocarcinoma lesions. Additionally, TAP participated in the processes from intestinal mucosal inflammation to colon polyp formation to tissue canceration, and was correlated with these. Thus, TAP can be used for the screening of digestive tract precancerous lesions.

  8. Using probabilistic modeling to evaluate human exposure to organotin in drinking water transported by polyvinyl chloride pipe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fristachi, Anthony; Xu, Ying; Rice, Glenn; Impellitteri, Christopher A; Carlson-Lynch, Heather; Little, John C

    2009-11-01

    The leaching of organotin (OT) heat stabilizers from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) pipes used in residential drinking water systems may affect the quality of drinking water. These OTs, principally mono- and di-substituted species of butyltins and methyltins, are a potential health concern because they belong to a broad class of compounds that may be immune, nervous, and reproductive system toxicants. In this article, we develop probability distributions of U.S. population exposures to mixtures of OTs encountered in drinking water transported by PVC pipes. We employed a family of mathematical models to estimate OT leaching rates from PVC pipe as a function of both surface area and time. We then integrated the distribution of estimated leaching rates into an exposure model that estimated the probability distribution of OT concentrations in tap waters and the resulting potential human OT exposures via tap water consumption. Our study results suggest that human OT exposures through tap water consumption are likely to be considerably lower than the World Health Organization (WHO) "safe" long-term concentration in drinking water (150 microg/L) for dibutyltin (DBT)--the most toxic of the OT considered in this article. The 90th percentile average daily dose (ADD) estimate of 0.034 +/- 2.92 x 10(-4)microg/kg day is approximately 120 times lower than the WHO-based ADD for DBT (4.2 microg/kg day).

  9. Tapping polyrhythms in music activates language areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuust, Peter; Wallentin, Mikkel; Mouridsen, Kim; Ostergaard, Leif; Roepstorff, Andreas

    2011-05-02

    Music is experienced and understood on the basis of foreground/background relationships and tension created between actual music and the underlying meter. Polyrhythms create tension between a counter meter and the main meter. Previously, we have shown that Brodmann area 47 (BA47), a brain area associated with processing of language, is activated bilaterally when musicians tap the main meter in a polymetric context emphasizing a counter meter, suggesting that processing of metric elements in music relies on brain areas also involved in language processing. In that study, the tension was created entirely by changes in the stimulus while participants were tapping the main meter. Here we find left-hemispheric BA47 activation in response to a self-produced counter meter on top of a main meter provided by an ecological music excerpt. This data indicates that the activation is linked to polyrhythmic tension, regardless of whether it arises from the stimulus or the task. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. 78 FR 151 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Residential Clothes Dryers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... (NRDC), Alliance to Save Energy (ASE), Alliance for Water Efficiency (AWE), Northwest Power and... in the docket of the residential dishwasher, dehumidifier, and conventional cooking products test...

  11. Triazophos (TAP) removal in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (HSCWs) and its accumulation in plants and substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Juan; Li, Zhu; Wu, Liang; Zhong, Fei; Cui, Naxin; Dai, Yanran; Cheng, Shuiping

    2017-07-14

    Triazophos (TAP) is a widely used phosphorus pesticide in China that possesses a potential risk for water pollution. We have studied the removal efficiency of TAP using pilot-scale horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands (HSCWs) as well as the contribution of plants, substrates and other pathways to its removal. For TAP concentrations of 0.12 ± 0.04 mg L -1 , 0.79 ± 0.29 mg L -1 and 3.96 ± 1.17 mg L -1 , the removal efficiencies were 94.2 ± 3.7%, 97.8 ± 2.9% and 84.0 ± 13.5%, respectively, at a hydraulic loading rate (HLR) of 100 mm d -1 ; at an HLR of 200 mm d -1 , the removal efficiencies were 96.7 ± 1.3%, 96.2 ± 1.7% and 61.7 ± 11.1%, respectively. The isopleth maps of TAP along the direction of flow indicate that most of the TAP removal occurred in the front and middle regions, while the major removal region would move forward with increasing influent TAP. Plant and substrate accumulation accounted for 0.035 ± 0.034% and 4.33 ± 0.43% of the total removal, respectively, indicating that over 95% of the TAP removal was achieved through other mechanisms. Thus, these results suggest HSCWs can be an effective approach with which to treat TAP contaminated water. Furthermore, the longitudinal scale and hydraulic conditions, as well as the roles of plants, substrates and microbes and their interactions, should be further considered in the design and application of CWs for pesticide pollution control.

  12. Specific Lipids Modulate the Transporter Associated with Antigen Processing (TAP)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schölz, Christian; Parcej, David; Ejsing, Christer S.; Robenek, Horst; Urbatsch, Ina L.; Tampé, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) plays a key role in adaptive immunity by translocating proteasomal degradation products from the cytosol into the endoplasmic reticulum lumen for subsequent loading onto major histocompatibility (MHC) class I molecules. For functional and structural analysis of this ATP-binding cassette complex, we established the overexpression of TAP in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris. Screening of optimal solubilization and purification conditions allowed the isolation of the heterodimeric transport complex, yielding 30 mg of TAP/liter of culture. Detailed analysis of TAP function in the membrane, solubilized, purified, and reconstituted states revealed a direct influence of the native lipid environment on activity. TAP-associated phospholipids, essential for function, were profiled by liquid chromatography Fourier transform mass spectrometry. The antigen translocation activity is stimulated by phosphatidylinositol and -ethanolamine, whereas cholesterol has a negative effect on TAP activity. PMID:21357424

  13. Vaccination and the TAP-independent antigen processing pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Daniel; Lorente, Elena; Barriga, Alejandro; Johnstone, Carolina; Mir, Carmen

    2013-09-01

    The cytotoxic CD8(+) T lymphocyte-mediated cellular response is important for the elimination of virus-infected cells and requires the prior recognition of short viral peptide antigens previously translocated to the endoplasmic reticulum by the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP). However, individuals with nonfunctional TAP complexes or infected cells with TAP molecules blocked by specific viral proteins, such as the cowpoxvirus, a component of the first source of early empirical vaccination against smallpox, are still able to present several HLA class I ligands generated by the TAP-independent antigen processing pathways to specific cytotoxic CD8(+) T lymphocytes. Currently, bioterrorism and emerging infectious diseases have renewed interest in poxviruses. Recent works that have identified HLA class I ligands and epitopes in virus-infected TAP-deficient cells have implications for the study of both the effectiveness of early empirical vaccination and the analysis of HLA class I antigen processing in TAP-deficient subjects.

  14. Residential Mechanical Precooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, a. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This research conducted by the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team evaluated mechanical air conditioner pre-cooling strategies in homes throughout the United States. EnergyPlus modeling evaluated two homes with different performance characteristics in seven climates. Results are applicable to new construction homes and most existing homes built in the last 10 years, as well as fairly efficient retrofitted homes.

  15. Residential Solar Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulkerson, Dan

    This publication contains student and teacher instructional materials for a course in residential solar systems. The text is designed either as a basic solar course or as a supplement to extend student skills in areas such as architectural drafting, air conditioning and refrigeration, and plumbing. The materials are presented in four units…

  16. Dynamical TAP equations for non-equilibrium Ising spin glasses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roudi, Yasser; Hertz, John

    2011-01-01

    We derive and study dynamical TAP equations for Ising spin glasses obeying both synchronous and asynchronous dynamics using a generating functional approach. The system can have an asymmetric coupling matrix, and the external fields can be time-dependent. In the synchronously updated model, the TAP...... equations take the form of self consistent equations for magnetizations at time t+1, given the magnetizations at time t. In the asynchronously updated model, the TAP equations determine the time derivatives of the magnetizations at each time, again via self consistent equations, given the current values...... of the magnetizations. Numerical simulations suggest that the TAP equations become exact for large systems....

  17. Pseudo-Outbreak of Cupriavidus pauculus Infection at an Outpatient Clinic Related to Rinsing Culturette Swabs in Tap Water▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balada-Llasat, Joan-Miquel; Elkins, Camille; Swyers, Lettie; Bannerman, Tammy; Pancholi, Preeti

    2010-01-01

    Cupriavidus pauculus is a water microorganism rarely isolated from clinical specimens. We describe a pseudo-outbreak in which multiple strains that were associated with moistening of culturette swabs with tap water were isolated from a single clinic before collecting the patient specimen. PMID:20444965

  18. Pseudo-Outbreak of Cupriavidus pauculus Infection at an Outpatient Clinic Related to Rinsing Culturette Swabs in Tap Water▿

    OpenAIRE

    Balada-Llasat, Joan-Miquel; Elkins, Camille; Swyers, Lettie; Bannerman, Tammy; Pancholi, Preeti

    2010-01-01

    Cupriavidus pauculus is a water microorganism rarely isolated from clinical specimens. We describe a pseudo-outbreak in which multiple strains that were associated with moistening of culturette swabs with tap water were isolated from a single clinic before collecting the patient specimen.

  19. Tapping generalized essentialism to predict outgroup prejudices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodson, Gordon; Skorska, Malvina N

    2015-06-01

    Psychological essentialism, the perception that groups possess inherent properties binding them and differentiating them from others, is theoretically relevant to predicting prejudice. Recent developments isolate two key dimensions: essentialistic entitativity (EE; groups as unitary, whole, entity-like) and essentialistic naturalness (EN; groups as fixed and immutable). We introduce a novel question: does tapping the covariance between EE and EN, rather than pitting them against each other, boost prejudice prediction? In Study 1 (re-analysis of Roets & Van Hiel, 2011b, Samples 1-3, in Belgium) and Study 2 (new Canadian data) their common/shared variance, modelled as generalized essentialism, doubles the predictive power relative to regression-based approaches with regard to racism (but not anti-gay or -schizophrenic prejudices). Theoretical implications are discussed. © 2014 The British Psychological Society.

  20. The Expanding Universe of Astronomy on Tap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livermore, Rachael C.; Morris, Brett; Narayan, Gautham; Morrison, Sarah J.; Schneider, Evan; Bozek, Brandon; Rice, Emily L.; Hummels, Cameron B.; Garofali, Kristen; Martinez, Raquel; Li, Yuan; Green, Joel D.; LaMassa, Stephanie M.; Silvia, Devin W.; Schwamb, Megan E.; Arcavi, Iair; Silverman, Jeffrey M.

    2017-01-01

    Astronomy on Tap (AoT) is a constellation of free public outreach presentations held in bars. AoT events aim to engage audiences who might not choose to attend public lectures in a university setting by creating an informal atmosphere and combining scientific talks with music, games, and prizes. The events have a flexible format, typically consisting of between one and three astronomy-related presentations, sometimes with additional games and trivia, and some locations also produce merchandise. The flexible structure means that the format can be adapted to the resources available in the location and the time commitment the local organizers are willing to make. Some events are broadcast online through live streaming, with some others being posted to YouTube. In conjunction with an active social media presence, this ensures engagement beyond those able to attend events in person. Astronomy on Tap events have now been held in 20 cities around the world and are typically organised by postdocs and graduate students, with some involvement from faculty and outreach or education staff. Holding these events under the global AoT constellation facilitates knowledge transfer, sharing of resources, and networking opportunities for scientists interested in outreach/communication. The events have been highly successful, with some locations regularly attracting more than 200 people per month. In this poster we describe the goals and characteristics of AoT events, the different adaptations by various locations, the resources we have developed, and provide information for those interested in starting a new event in their location.

  1. Pesquisa de Micobactérias Ambientais em água de torneira, luvas e soluções utilizadas em procedimentos cirúrgicos no Hospital Universitário Getúlio Vargas - Manaus/AM Investigation of Environmental Mycobacteria in tap water, surgical gloves and antiseptic solutions used in surgical procedures at the Getúlio Vargas University Hospital, Manaus-AM/Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Vallejo Restrepo

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigou-se por métodos bacteriológicos (cultivo e moleculares (PCR - Restriction Enzyme Analysis, PRA, a presença de micobactérias ambientais em águas de torneira, soluções e luvas cirúrgicas, utilizadas nas etapas dos procedimentos cirúrgicos executados no centro cirúrgico do Hospital Universitário Getulio Vargas (HUGV, na cidade de Manaus-Amazonas/Brasil. Foram colhidas e analisadas 105 amostras sendo: 24 de águas (colhidas das 2 torneiras existentes no centro cirúrgico, 8 de solução de Povidine e 7 de solução de Clorhexidina, que servem para a higienização das mãos dos cirurgiões; 39 de luvas cirúrgicas (superfícies internas e externas; e 27 de soluções que foram efetivamente utilizadas durante o ato cirúrgico. Por método bacteriológico obteve-se 41 isolados micobacterianos apenas de águas das torneiras. Pelo PRA obteve-se a detecção de DNA micobacteriano somente na amostra de água que forneceu acima de 100 colônias de micobactérias por tubo semeado. Os isolados foram identificados como sendo Mycobacterium celatum perfil 2, M. gordonae perfil 3, M. gordonae perfil 6, M. intracellulare perfil 1, M. lentiflavum perfil 3 e M. mucogenicum perfil 1. O encontro de M. mucogenicum, espécie já incriminada em surtos pós-cirúrgicos, indica que devem ser efetuados procedimentos de limpeza e monitoramento em todos os pontos de distribuição de águas, visando à prevenção de surtos de micobacterioses nosocomiais induzidos pelo uso das águas nas diferentes atividades de manuseio ou higienização dos pacientes submetidos a procedimentos invasivos.Using bacteriological (culture and molecular (PCR - Restriction Enzyme Analysis, PRA methods, we investigated the presence of environmental mycobacteria in tap water, antiseptic solutions and surgical gloves, used in carrying out surgical procedures at the Getúlio Vargas University Hospital Surgical Center, in Manaus -Amazonas/Brazil. Samples (105 were collected and

  2. Metal contamination in environmental media in residential ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hard-rock mining for metals, such as gold, silver, copper, zinc, iron and others, is recognized to have a significant impact on the environmental media, soil and water, in particular. Toxic contaminants released from mine waste to surface water and groundwater is the primary concern, but human exposure to soil contaminants either directly, via inhalation of airborne dust particles, or indirectly, via food chain (ingestion of animal products and/or vegetables grown in contaminated areas), is also, significant. In this research, we analyzed data collected in 2007, as part of a larger environmental study performed in the Rosia Montana area in Transylvania, to provide the Romanian governmental authorities with data on the levels of metal contamination in environmental media from this historical mining area. The data were also considered in policy decision to address mining-related environmental concerns in the area. We examined soil and water data collected from residential areas near the mining sites to determine relationships among metals analyzed in these different environmental media, using the correlation procedure in SAS statistical software. Results for residential soil and water analysis indicate that the average values for arsenic (As) (85 mg/kg), cadmium (Cd) (3.2 mg/kg), mercury (Hg) (2.3 mg/kg) and lead (Pb) (92 mg/kg) exceeded the Romanian regulatory exposure levels [the intervention thresholds for residential soil in case of As (25 mg/kg) and Hg

  3. Abstract: Trauma Tapping Technique: Practical First Aid for Stress ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trauma tapping technique (TTT) is a procedure that uses touch through tapping to relieve anxiety symptoms. TTT is a nonverbal process that can be delivered at minimal cost with the potential for easy dissemination. This technique can be applied in urban or rural communities and in medical or mental health environments.

  4. 49 CFR 192.627 - Tapping pipelines under pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Tapping pipelines under pressure. 192.627 Section 192.627 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS... under pressure. Each tap made on a pipeline under pressure must be performed by a crew qualified to make...

  5. DRY TAP: A DIAGNOSTIC ALERT FOR UNDERLYING BONE MARROW PATHOLOGY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Saqib Qayyum; Yusuf, Rizwan; Zafar, Nadeem; Ali, Nadir

    2015-01-01

    Dry tap is an annoying experience in bone marrow (BM) findings, especially in cases where the diagnosis may hinge on BM findings. This study was conducted to determine, on, the basis of bone marrow (BM) trephine biopsy, the frequency of various underlying conditions causing a dry tap, among different age groups. It was a descriptive study carried out at PAF hospital Mianwali, Pakistan from 1" Jan 2009 to 31 Dec 2012. Record of all BM aspirations and trephine biopsies performed during 4 years was retrieved from hospital's laboratory. Total number of BM aspirations and trephines were counted and the subject's ages and genders recorded. Frequencies and percentages of patients with dry tap, in paediatric group ( or = 60 years) were calculated. Diagnoses of patients with dry tap made on BM biopsy were noted for each group and their frequencies calculated. Of 548 BM aspirations, dry tap was encountered in 52 (9.5%) cases. Acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) was the commonest cause of dry tap in paediatric age, seen in 6 (60%) of 10 children. In young to middle-aged group, non Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) was the commonest cause, found in 6 (30%) of 20 cases. NHL and metastatic tumours, seen in 8 (36.4%) and 6 (27.3%) of 22 patients respectively, were the most frequent causes of dry tap in the elderly. Dry tap, in most of the cases, is like a diagnostic alert for the presence of an underlying BM pathology, nature of which depends upon age group.

  6. TAP High School Symposium: Lessons Learned from Principals and Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Joshua H.

    2014-01-01

    Since the 1999-2000 school year, TAP: The System for Teacher and Student Advancement (TAP) has been implemented in hundreds of schools across the nation and demonstrated an ability to raise student achievement, improve the quality of instruction and increase the ability of high-need schools to recruit, retain and support effective teachers. The…

  7. Herpes viral proteins manipulating the peptide transporter TAP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reits, E.; Griekspoor, A.; Neefjes, J.

    2002-01-01

    The peptide transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP) is crucial for class I-restricted antigen presentation because it transfers cytosolic peptides into the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen for class I binding. It is therefore not surprising that TAP is targeted for inactivation by many

  8. Effect of Tap Root Size, Percentage Rootlets Retention and Planting ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The two-factor interaction of length of tap root and percentage of retention of rootlets also had a significant influence on tree growth, except leaf dry weight. The best biomass production was observed for non-treated stump tap root and rootlets and planting at 9 cm soil depth ensuring a gain of about 486 % of tree dry weight ...

  9. Tap Testing Hammer using Unmanned Aerial Systems (UASs)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mason, JaMein DeShon [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Ayorinde, Emmanuel Temiloluwa [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Mascarenas, David Dennis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Moreu, Fernando [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-08-11

    This is the final poster for a Student Symposium at Los Alamos National Laboratory. This research describes the development, validation, and testing of a remote concrete tapping mechanism enabled by UAS. The conclusion is the following: The results quantify for the first time concrete tapping data collected remotely with UAS, enabling cost-effective, safer and sustainable upgrade prioritization of railroad bridges inventories.

  10. Real time kernel performance monitoring with SystemTap

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2018-01-01

    SystemTap is a dynamic method of monitoring and tracing the operation of a running Linux kernel. In this talk I will present a few practical use cases where SystemTap allowed me to turn otherwise complex userland monitoring tasks in simple kernel probes.

  11. Healthy and Creative Tap Dance: Teaching a Lifetime Physical Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Barbara L. Michiels; Ozmun, Michelle; Keeton, Gladys

    2013-01-01

    As a result of competitive dance television shows, interest in tap dance seems to have increased in the past few years. Tap dance is a challenging and fun lifetime physical activity that is appropriate for people of all ages. It is an excellent activity for K-12 physical education programs, higher education, parks and recreation facilities,…

  12. Guidelines for residential commissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wray, Craig P.; Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.

    2003-01-31

    Currently, houses do not perform optimally or even as many codes and forecasts predict, largely because they are field assembled and there is no consistent process to identify problems or to correct them. Residential commissioning is a solution to this problem. This guide is the culmination of a 30-month project that began in September 1999. The ultimate objective of the project is to increase the number of houses that undergo commissioning, which will improve the quality, comfort, and safety of homes for California citizens. The project goal is to lay the groundwork for a residential commissioning industry in California focused on end-use energy and non-energy issues. As such, we intend this guide to be a beginning and not an end. Our intent is that the guide will lead to the programmatic integration of commissioning with other building industry processes, which in turn will provide more value to a single site visit for people such as home energy auditors and raters, home inspectors, and building performance contractors. Project work to support the development of this guide includes: a literature review and annotated bibliography, which facilitates access to 469 documents related to residential commissioning published over the past 20 years (Wray et al. 2000), an analysis of the potential benefits one can realistically expect from commissioning new and existing California houses (Matson et al. 2002), and an assessment of 107 diagnostic tools for evaluating residential commissioning metrics (Wray et al. 2002). In this guide, we describe the issues that non-experts should consider in developing a commissioning program to achieve the benefits we have identified. We do this by providing specific recommendations about: how to structure the commissioning process, which diagnostics to use, and how to use them to commission new and existing houses. Using examples, we also demonstrate the potential benefits of applying the recommended whole-house commissioning approach to

  13. Detailed residential electric determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-06-01

    Data on residential loads has been collected from four residences in real time. The data, measured at 5-second intervals for 53 days of continuous operation, were statistically characterized. An algorithm was developed and incorporated into the modeling code SOLCEL. Performance simulations with SOLCEL using these data as well as previous data collected over longer time intervals indicate that no significant errors in system value are introduced through the use of long-term average data.

  14. A Dynamic Tap Allocation for Concurrent CMA-DD Equalizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trindade DiegovonBM

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This paper proposes a dynamic tap allocation for the concurrent CMA-DD equalizer as a low complexity solution for the blind channel deconvolution problem. The number of taps is a crucial factor which affects the performance and the complexity of most adaptive equalizers. Generally an equalizer requires a large number of taps in order to cope with long delays in the channel multipath profile. Simulations show that the proposed new blind equalizer is able to solve the blind channel deconvolution problem with a specified and reduced number of active taps. As a result, it minimizes the output excess mean square error due to inactive taps during and after the equalizer convergence and the hardware complexity as well.

  15. TAP Research Summary: Examining the Evidence and Impact of "TAP: The System for Teacher and Student Advancement"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, J. H.; Rinthapol, N.; Hudgens, T.

    2014-01-01

    Researchers at NIET and elsewhere have studied the effectiveness of "TAP: The System for Teacher and Student Advancement" (TAP) in raising student achievement, improving the quality of instruction and increasing the ability of high-need schools to recruit, retain and support effective teachers. This document describes some of the most…

  16. Bilateral transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block with 24 hours ropivacaine infusion via TAP catheters: A randomized trial in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Pernille L; Hilsted, Karen L; Dahl, Jørgen B; Mathiesen, Ole

    2013-10-10

    The analgesic effect of a TAP block has been investigated in various surgical settings. There are however limited information about block level and block duration. Furthermore, there is a lack of information about continuous TAP block after ultrasound-guided posterior TAP blocks.The aim of this double-blind randomized study was therefore to investigate the effect of an ultrasound-guided posterior TAP block with 24 hours local anesthetic infusion via a TAP catheter. In this randomized study 8 male volunteers received a bilateral TAP block (20 mLs 0.5% ropivacaine) and were allocated to receive active infusion (ropivacaine 0.2% 5 mL/hr) via a TAP catheter on one side and placebo infusion on the other side. Dermatomal sensory block involvement after 24 hours evaluated with pinprick. Sensory block involvement evaluated with cold test and heat-pain detection thresholds (HPDT) on the abdominal wall. Assessment points: 15 min before block performance and 1, 4, 8, 12 and 24 hours after block performance. The TAP block primarily involved sensory changes in the Th10 to Th12 dermatomes. On the placebo side there was a decrease in extension beginning at 4-8 hours after block performance and with no detectable effect beyond 12 hours. Median number of dermatomes anesthetized (pinprick) at 24 hours after block performance was 1.5 (0-3) on the active side compared with 0 (0-0) on the placebo side (P = 0.039).There were no statistical significant between-side differences in HPDT measurements at 24 hours after block performance. The spread of sensory block following ultrasound-guided posterior TAP block is partly maintained by a continuous 24 hour ropivacaine infusion through a TAP catheter. The study was registered at NCT01577940.

  17. 'Nothing works' in secure residential youth care?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souverein, F.A.; van der Helm, G.H.P.; Stams, G.J.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    A debate about the effectiveness of secure residential youth care is currently going on. While some continue to support secure residential youth care, others conclude that ‘nothing works’ in secure residential youth care, and argue that non-residential treatment is superior to secure residential

  18. TAP Report - Southwest Idaho Juniper Working Group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gresham, Garold Linn [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2015-09-01

    There is explicit need for characterization of the materials for possible commercialization as little characterization data exists. Pinyon-juniper woodlands are a major ecosystem type found in the Southwest and the Intermountain West regions of the United States including Nevada, Idaho and Oregon. These widespread ecosystems are characterized by the presence of several different species of pinyon and juniper as the dominant plant cover. Since the 1800s, pinyon-juniper woodlands have rapidly expanded their range at the expense of existing ecosystems. Additionally, existing woodlands have become denser, progressively creating potential fire hazards as seen in the Soda Fire, which burned more than 400 sq. miles. Land managers responsible for these areas often desire to reduce pinyon-juniper coverage on their lands for a variety of reasons, as stated in the Working Group objectives. However, the cost of clearing thinning pinyon-juniper stands can be prohibitive. One reason for this is the lack of utilization options for the resulting biomass that could help recover some of the cost of pinyon-juniper stand management. The goal of this TAP effort was to assess the feedstock characteristics of biomass from a juniper harvested from Owyhee County to evaluate possible fuel and conversion utilization options.

  19. Re-thinking residential mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ham, Maarten; Findlay, Allan M.

    2015-01-01

    While researchers are increasingly re-conceptualizing international migration, far less attention has been devoted to re-thinking short-distance residential mobility and immobility. In this paper we harness the life course approach to propose a new conceptual framework for residential mobility research. We contend that residential mobility and immobility should be re-conceptualized as relational practices that link lives through time and space while connecting people to structural conditions. Re-thinking and re-assessing residential mobility by exploiting new developments in longitudinal analysis will allow geographers to understand, critique and address pressing societal challenges. PMID:27330243

  20. Large-Scale Residential Demolition

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA provides resources for handling residential demolitions or renovations. This includes planning, handling harmful materials, recycling, funding, compliance assistance, good practices and regulations.

  1. Analysis of profitability of using a heat recovery system from grey water discharged from the shower (case study of Poland)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordana, Sabina; Słys, Daniel

    2017-11-01

    The paper analyses the profitability of the use of Drain Water Heat Recovery units. An original simulation model was used for this purpose, and a detached residential building located in Poland was selected as the test facility. The conducted analysis proved that the type of the hot water heater has decisive influence on the profitability level of such an investment. Application of the abovementioned technology is particularly profitable, when water is heated with the use of an electrical device. When the energy source in the system is a gas water heater, the obtained calculation results are not as favourable, and the period of investment return in many cases exceeds the expected service life of these devices. Moreover, the analysis demonstrated that the potential energy savings, and thus also the financial savings, may be in both cases increased as a result of simultaneous intake of water from various water taps.

  2. Analgesic Effect Of Bilateral Subcostal Tap Block After Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Karima Karam; Khan, Robyna Irshad

    2018-01-01

    Pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy is mild to moderate in intensity. Several modalities are employed for achieving safe and effective postoperative analgesia, the benefits of which adds to the early recovery of the patients. As a part of multimodal analgesia, various approaches of Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block has been used for management of parietal and incisional components of pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy. This study was designed to compare the analgesic efficacy of two different approaches of ultrasound guided TAP block, i.e., Subcostal-TAP block technique with ultrasound guided Posterior-TAP block for postoperative pain management in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anaesthesia. In this double blinded randomized controlled study, consecutive nonprobability sampling was done and a total of 126 patients admitted for elective laparoscopic cholecystectomy fulfilling the inclusion criteria were selected. After induction of general anaesthesia, patients were randomized through draw method and received either ultrasound guided posterior TAP block with 0.375% bupivacaine (20ml volume) on each side of the abdomen or subcostal TAP block bilaterally with the same. Up to 24 hours postoperatively, static and dynamic numeric rating pain scores were assessed. We found statistically significant difference in mean static pain scores over 24 hours postoperatively in subcostal TAP group, suggesting improved analgesia. However, mean dynamic postoperative pain scores were comparable between the two groups. Whereas, patients in both groups were satisfied with pain management. Ultrasound guided subcostal TAP block provides better postoperative analgesia as compared to the Posterior TAP block in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Otherwise both of the approaches improve patient outcomes towards early recovery and discharge from hospital.

  3. Effects of acidified drinking water on the teeth of laboratory mice

    OpenAIRE

    Kostov, Marko

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the effects of hydrochloric acid used as hygienic measure in drinking water (pH2) on teeth of conventional and germfree laboratory mice. Four groups of 10 animals each were used. Group 1 : Conventional animals (tap water) Group 2 : Conventional animals (tap water, acidified ) Group 3 : Germfree animals (tap water, sterilized ) Group 4 : Germfree animals (tap water , acidified, sterilized ) The application of acidified drinking ...

  4. ASHRAE and residential ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max H.

    2003-10-01

    In the last quarter of a century, the western world has become increasingly aware of environmental threats to health and safety. During this period, people psychologically retreated away from outdoors hazards such as pesticides, smog, lead, oil spills, and dioxin to the seeming security of their homes. However, the indoor environment may not be healthier than the outdoor environment, as has become more apparent over the past few years with issues such as mold, formaldehyde, and sick-building syndrome. While the built human environment has changed substantially over the past 10,000 years, human biology has not; poor indoor air quality creates health risks and can be uncomfortable. The human race has found, over time, that it is essential to manage the indoor environments of their homes. ASHRAE has long been in the business of ventilation, but most of the focus of that effort has been in the area of commercial and institutional buildings. Residential ventilation was traditionally not a major concern because it was felt that, between operable windows and envelope leakage, people were getting enough outside air in their homes. In the quarter of a century since the first oil shock, houses have gotten much more energy efficient. At the same time, the kinds of materials and functions in houses changed in character in response to people's needs. People became more environmentally conscious and aware not only about the resources they were consuming but about the environment in which they lived. All of these factors contributed to an increasing level of public concern about residential indoor air quality and ventilation. Where once there was an easy feeling about the residential indoor environment, there is now a desire to define levels of acceptability and performance. Many institutions--both public and private--have interests in Indoor Air Quality (IAQ), but ASHRAE, as the professional society that has had ventilation as part of its mission for over 100 years, is the

  5. Tapping into Community Resources in China

    International Development Research Centre (IDRC) Digital Library (Canada)

    In the dry winter season, women travelled two or three kilometres for water, each taking a half of every day to bring back barely enough water for a family of four. Unsurprisingly, villagers identified the household water supply as one of their biggest problems. Researchers, together with village experts, helped villagers.

  6. Microbiological quality of packaged bottled water and public water ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Bacteriological assessment of five samples of bottled water marketed in Ibadan, Nigeria and same number of public tap water supply (other wise called tap water) in Ibadan city was carried out. The samples were tested for bacterial cells counts, presumptive coliform count and the isolates were characterised using selective ...

  7. Beer tapping: dynamics of bubbles after impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantič-Lugo, V.; Cayron, A.; Brun, P.-T.; Gallaire, F.

    2015-12-01

    Beer tapping is a well known prank where a bottle of beer is impacted from the top by a solid object, usually another bottle, leading to a sudden foam overflow. A description of the shock-driven bubble dynamics leading to foaming is presented based on an experimental and numerical study evoking the following physical picture. First, the solid impact produces a sudden downwards acceleration of the bottle creating a strong depression in the liquid bulk. The existing bubbles undergo a strong expansion and a sudden contraction ending in their collapse and fragmentation into a large amount of small bubbles. Second, the bubble clouds present a large surface area to volume ratio, enhancing the CO2 diffusion from the supersaturated liquid, hence growing rapidly and depleting the CO2. The clouds of bubbles migrate upwards in the form of plumes pulling the surrounding liquid with them and eventually resulting in the foam overflow. The sudden pressure drop that triggers the bubble dynamics with a collapse and oscillations is modelled by the Rayleigh-Plesset equation. The bubble dynamics from impact to collapse occurs over a time (tb ≃ 800 μs) much larger than the acoustic time scale of the liquid bulk (tac = 2H/c ≃ 80 μs), for the experimental container of height H = 6 cm and a speed of sound around c ≃ 1500 m/s. This scale separation, together with the comparison of numerical and experimental results, suggests that the pressure drop is controlled by two parameters: the acceleration of the container and the distance from the bubble to the free surface.

  8. MICRO-CHP System for Residential Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Gerstmann

    2009-01-31

    This is the final report of progress under Phase I of a project to develop and commercialize a micro-CHP system for residential applications that provides electrical power, heating, and cooling for the home. This is the first phase of a three-phase effort in which the residential micro-CHP system will be designed (Phase I), developed and tested in the laboratory (Phase II); and further developed and field tested (Phase III). The project team consists of Advanced Mechanical Technology, Inc. (AMTI), responsible for system design and integration; Marathon Engine Systems, Inc. (MES), responsible for design of the engine-generator subsystem; AO Smith, responsible for design of the thermal storage and water heating subsystems; Trane, a business of American Standard Companies, responsible for design of the HVAC subsystem; and AirXchange, Inc., responsible for design of the mechanical ventilation and dehumidification subsystem.

  9. Swimming pools and intra-city climates: Influences on residential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While determinants such as household income, regional climate, water price, property size and household occupancy have been comprehensively studied and modelled, other determinants such as swimming pools and intra-city climates have not. This study examines residential water consumption in the City of Cape Town ...

  10. Residential Mechanical Precooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, Alea [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States). Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI); Hoeschele, Marc [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States). Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI)

    2014-12-01

    Residential air conditioning (AC) represents a challenging load for many electric utilities with poor load factors. Mechanical precooling improves the load factor by shifting cooling operation from on-peak to off-peak hours. This provides benefits to utilities and the electricity grid, as well as to occupants who can take advantage of time-of-use (TOU) electricity rates. Performance benefits stem from reduced compressor cycling, and shifting condensing unit operation to earlier periods of the day when outdoor temperatures are more favorable to operational efficiency. Finding solutions that save energy and reduce demand on the electricity grid is an important national objective and supports key Building America goals. The Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team evaluated mechanical AC precooling strategies in homes throughout the United States. EnergyPlus modeling was used to evaluate two homes with different performance characteristics in seven climates. Results are applicable to new construction homes and most existing homes built in the last 10 years, as well as fairly efficient retrofitted homes. A successful off-peak AC strategy offers the potential for increased efficiency and improved occupant comfort, and promotes a more reliable and robust electricity grid. Demand response capabilities and further integration with photovoltaic TOU generation patterns provide additional opportunities to flatten loads and optimize grid impacts.

  11. Astronomy on Tap: science engagement in the pub

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livermore, Rachael C.; Silverman, Jeffrey Michael

    2015-08-01

    Astronomy on Tap is a series of free lectures by astronomers in the pub, aimed at disseminating the latest research to the public in an informal setting. Started in New York City in 2013, Astronomy on Tap has now expanded to seven cities across North and South America. Organized by local astronomers, each event features talks by astronomers from local institutions or visitors, or others whose professions or hobbies intersect with astronomy, along with games and opportunities for the public to interact with professional astronomers. The largest Astronomy on Tap events are in Austin, Texas, attracting over 150 people each month, which consists of populations outside of the self-selected groups that might be reached by more formal EPO activities. The organisers of Astronomy on Tap in Austin (AoTATX) will discuss the impact of and feedback from all of the locations, and present information on setting up new satellite locations.

  12. Impact of a Programme for Water Affordability on Residential Consumption: Implementation of the “Programa Mínimo Vital de Agua Potable” in Bogotá, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Vargas

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Affordability of services is a determinant for people’s level of access to water. In this study, we analyse the effect of a programme aimed at improving the affordability of water services on users’ water consumption. The programme was implemented in 2012 by the local government of the city of Bogotá, Colombia, intending to provide an essential “lifeline” volume of water to poor households free of charge. Our assessment was carried out with secondary data and used difference-in-difference estimators in a panel data analysis of a two-period sample: 2011 and 2014. The unit of analysis was defined based on the city’s administrative divisions and the socio-economic stratification of residences. Over the period analysed, beneficiaries’ household consumption increased, reaching per capita consumption levels closer to those of the upper strata of users. Results suggest that the programme contributes to increased consumption and equity among users.

  13. A Posterior TAP Block Provides More Effective Analgesia Than a Lateral TAP Block in Patients Undergoing Laparoscopic Gynecologic Surgery: A Retrospective Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshiyama, Sakatoshi; Ueshima, Hironobu; Sakai, Ryomi; Otake, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    Background. There are a few papers that compared the lateral transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block with the posterior TAP block. Our study aimed to compare retrospectively the quality of analgesia after laparoscopic gynecologic surgery using the lateral TAP block with general anesthesia versus the posterior TAP block with general anesthesia. Method. Sixty-seven adult female patients were included in this retrospective study. Of these patients, thirty-four patients received the lateral TAP block with general anesthesia (lat. TAP group), and the rest of thirty-three patients received the posterior TAP block with general anesthesia (pos. TAP group). Pain scores both at rest and at movement and the use of additional analgesic drugs were recorded in the postoperative care unit within twenty-four hours after the operation. Postoperative complications were noted. Results. Patients who received pos. TAP reported lower visual analog scale (VAS) pain scores in all points, within twenty-four hours after the operation, than patients who received lat. TAP. Moreover, with the use of additional analgesic drugs, the incidence of nausea and vomiting during the first twenty-four hours after surgery was lower in the pos. TAP group than in the lat. TAP group. Conclusion. The posterior TAP block provided more effective analgesia than the lateral TAP block in patients undergoing laparoscopic gynecologic surgery.

  14. Finger and foot tapping sensor system for objective motor assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurić-Jovičić Milica

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Finger tapping test is commonly used in neurological examinations as a test of motor performance. The new system comprising inertial and force sensors and custom proprietary software was developed for quantitative estimation and assessment of finger and foot tapping tests. The aim of this system was to provide diagnosis support and objective assessment of motor function. Methods. Miniature inertial sensors were placed on fingertips and used for measuring finger movements. A force sensor was placed on the fingertip of one finger, in order to measure the force during tapping. For foot tapping assessment, an inertial sensor was mounted on the subject’s foot, which was placed above a force platform. By using this system, various parameters such as a number of taps, tapping duration, rhythm, open and close speed, the applied force and tapping angle, can be extracted for detailed analysis of a patient’s motor performance. The system was tested on 13 patients with Parkinson’s disease and 14 healthy controls. Results. The system allowed easy measurement of listed parameters, and additional graphical representation showed quantitative differences in these parameters between neurological patient and healthy subjects. Conclusion. The novel system for finger and foot tapping test is compact, simple to use and efficiently collects patient data. Parameters measured in patients can be compared to those measured in healthy subjects, or among groups of patients, or used to monitor progress of the disease, or therapy effects. Created data and scores could be used together with the scores from clinical tests, providing the possibility for better insight into the diagnosis. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. 175090 and Grant no. 175016

  15. Probabilistic data modelling with adaptive TAP mean-field theory

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Opper, M.; Winther, Ole

    2001-01-01

    We demonstrate for the case of single-layer neural networks how an extension of the TAP mean-field approach of disorder physics can be applied to the computation of approximate averages in probabilistic models for real data.......We demonstrate for the case of single-layer neural networks how an extension of the TAP mean-field approach of disorder physics can be applied to the computation of approximate averages in probabilistic models for real data....

  16. Bacteria of public health concern associated with tap water samples ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Identification tests revealed the presence of Escherichia coli, Chromobacterium spp, Bacillus spp, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholerae, Vibrio spp, Micrococcus spp and Klebsiella spp. The overall percentage occurrence of Bacillus spp, Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus were in 90.0, 89.7 and 71.0% ...

  17. Managing Residential Electricity Demand Through Provision of Better Feedback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Myles

    -time pricing program. I found that load-shifting can cause GHG emissions to increase or decrease depending on region and season and in no discernable pattern. Therefore, feedback may be more useful and comprehensible to households in the form of total GHG emissions attributable to electricity usage instead of the emission rate of the marginal power plant. Finally, this dissertation explores ways to maximize the effect of feedback by evaluating which appliances may be best suited for appliance-specific feedback. Due to the energy use and behavioral factors associated with each appliance, the most promising appliances were those that heat water for taps, showers, hot tubs, and waterbeds.

  18. College residential sleep environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton-Radek, Kathy; Hartley, Andrew

    2013-12-01

    College students regularly report increased sleep disturbances as well as concomitant reductions in performance (e.g., academic grades) upon entering college. Sleep hygiene refers to healthy sleep practices that are commonly used as first interventions in sleep disturbances. One widely used practice of this sort involves arranging the sleep environment to minimize disturbances from excessive noise and light at bedtime. Communal sleep situations such as those in college residence halls do not easily support this intervention. Following several focus groups, a questionnaire was designed to gather self-reported information on sleep disturbances in a college population. The present study used The Young Adult Sleep Environment Inventory (YASEI) and sleep logs to investigate the sleep environment of college students living in residential halls. A summary of responses indicated that noise and light are significant sleep disturbances in these environments. Recommendations are presented related to these findings.

  19. Beam polarimetry in the CBELSA/TAPS experiment; Strahlpolarimetrie am CBELSA/TAPS Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kammer, Susanne

    2010-02-19

    In the identification of nucleon resonances polarization observables play an important role. For the photoproduction experiments of the CBELAS/TAPS assembly at the accelerator facility ELSA in the framework of this thesis linearly and circularly polarized were realized and prepared. Linearly polarized photons were produced on a diamond crystal under usage of the coherent bremsstrahlung. By alignment of the crystal in the bremsstrahlung coherent intensity increasements in form of pronounced edges could be generated. The number of the polarized photons lying in the increasement determines in comparison to the incoherently produced background the degree of polarization. The position of the coherent edge could be tuned by means of control distributions to an arbitrary position in the measured energy spectrum as well as the degree of polarization of the photons optimized. For the production of circularly polarized photons longitudinally polarized electrons on the bremsstrahlung target are required. The polarization transfer of the bremsstrahlung process is uniquely given by the QED, so that the degree of polarization of the photons can be determined via a measurement of the electron-beam polarization. With this goal a for the first time in the CBELSA/TAPS applied momentum-selecting Moeller polarimeter was developed and integrated in the photon-tagging facility. Via a change of the beam helicity the counting-rate asymmetry for parallely and antiparallely beam and target electrons was measured and the degree of polarization of the electrons at beam energies of 2350 MeV determined to typically above 60%. By means of dedicated test measurements and simulations the functionality of the Moeller polarimeter was checked and the relative systematic uncertainty determined to 1%. Since 2007 the Moeller polarimeter essential for the double-polarization experiments is in current operation. Finally a method was sketched, in which via the known cross-section asymmetry of the

  20. Solar Heating and Cooling of Residential Buildings: Sizing, Installation and Operation of Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins. Solar Energy Applications Lab.

    This training course and a companion course titled "Design of Systems for Solar Heating and Cooling of Residential Buildings," are designed to train home designers and builders in the fundamentals of solar hydronic and air systems for space heating and cooling and domestic hot water heating for residential buildings. Each course, organized in 22…

  1. Effect of B7.1 costimulation on T-cell based immunity against TAP-negative cancer can be facilitated by TAP1 expression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Lin Li

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Tumors deficient in expression of the transporter associated with antigen processing (TAP usually fail to induce T-cell-mediated immunity and are resistant to T-cell lysis. However, we have found that introduction of the B7.1 gene into TAP-negative (TAP(- or TAP1-transfected (TAP1(+ murine lung carcinoma CMT.64 cells can augment the capacity of the cells to induce a protective immune response against wild-type tumor cells. Differences in the strength of the protective immune responses were observed between TAP(- and TAP1(+ B7.1 expressing CMT.64 cells depending on the doses of gamma-irradiated cell immunization. While mice immunized with either high or low dose of B7.1-expressing TAP1(+ cells rejected TAP(- tumors, only high dose immunization with B7.1-expressing TAP(- cells resulted in tumor rejection. The induced protective immunity was T-cell dependent as demonstrated by dramatically reduced antitumor immunity in mice depleted of CD8 or CD4 cells. Augmentation of T-cell mediated immune response against TAP(- tumor cells was also observed in a virally infected tumor cell system. When mice were immunized with a high dose of gamma-irradiated CMT.64 cells infected with vaccinia viruses carrying B7.1 and/or TAP1 genes, we found that the cells co-expressing B7.1 and TAP1, but not those expressing B7.1 alone, induced protective immunity against CMT.64 cells. In addition, inoculation with live tumor cells transfected with several different gene(s revealed that only B7.1- and TAP1-coexpressing tumor cells significantly decreased tumorigenicity. These results indicate that B7.1-provoked antitumor immunity against TAP(- cancer is facilitated by TAP1-expression, and thus both genes should be considered for cancer therapy in the future.

  2. Residential energy usage comparison: Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, B.A.; Uhlaner, R.T.; Cason, T.N.; Courteau, S. (Quantum Consulting, Inc., Berkeley, CA (United States))

    1991-08-01

    This report presents the research methods and results from the Residential Energy Usage Comparison (REUC) project, a joint effort by Southern California Edison Company (SCE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The REUC project design activities began in early 1986. The REUC project is an innovative demand-site project designed to measure and compare typical energy consumption patterns of energy efficient residential electric and gas appliances. 95 figs., 33 tabs.

  3. PM A-37Tap.pmd

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PC1

    control. In western Senegal Sine Saloum Region, lowlands salinity is due to sea contact. To reduce negative salinity effects and maintain good water control, a dam was built in Ndour Ndour village. To optimize input of this ... et Gestion des Ressources Naturelles au Sine-. Saloum .... Prestation de services pour opération ...

  4. Role of attractive forces in tapping tip force microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kyhle, Anders; Sørensen, Alexis Hammer; Bohr, Jakob

    1997-01-01

    We present experimental and numerical results demonstrating the drastic influence of attractive forces on the behaviour of the atomic force microscope when operated in the resonant tapping tip mode in an ambient environment. It is often assumed that tapping is related to repulsive interaction....... In contrast, we find that in general the attractive forces are the most dominant interaction in this mode of operation. We show that attractive forces in combination with the repulsive elastic type of forces cause points of instability in the parameter space constituted by: the cantilever swing amplitude...

  5. Colorectal Cancer and Long-Term Exposure to Trihalomethanes in Drinking Water: A Multicenter Case–Control Study in Spain and Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villanueva, Cristina M.; Gracia-Lavedan, Esther; Bosetti, Cristina; Righi, Elena; Molina, Antonio José; Martín, Vicente; Boldo, Elena; Aragonés, Nuria; Perez-Gomez, Beatriz; Pollan, Marina; Acebo, Ines Gomez; Altzibar, Jone M.; Zabala, Ana Jiménez; Ardanaz, Eva; Peiró, Rosana; Tardón, Adonina; Chirlaque, Maria Dolores; Tavani, Alessandra; Polesel, Jerry; Serraino, Diego; Pisa, Federica; Castaño-Vinyals, Gemma; Espinosa, Ana; Espejo-Herrera, Nadia; Palau, Margarita; Moreno, Victor; La Vecchia, Carlo; Aggazzotti, Gabriella; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Kogevinas, Manolis

    2016-01-01

    Background: Evidence on the association between colorectal cancer and exposure to disinfection by-products in drinking water is inconsistent. Objectives: We assessed long-term exposure to trihalomethanes (THMs), the most prevalent group of chlorination by-products, to evaluate the association with colorectal cancer. Methods: A multicenter case–control study was conducted in Spain and Italy in 2008–2013. Hospital-based incident cases and population-based (Spain) and hospital-based (Italy) controls were interviewed to ascertain residential histories, type of water consumed in each residence, frequency and duration of showering/bathing, and major recognized risk factors for colorectal cancer. We estimated adjusted odds ratios (OR) for colorectal cancer in association with quartiles of estimated average lifetime THM concentrations in each participant’s residential tap water (micrograms/liter; from age 18 to 2 years before the interview) and estimated average lifetime THM ingestion from drinking residential tap water (micrograms/day). Results: We analyzed 2,047 cases and 3,718 controls. Median values (ranges) for average lifetime residential tap water concentrations of total THMs, chloroform, and brominated THMs were 30 (0–174), 17 (0–63), and 9 (0–145) μg/L, respectively. Total THM concentration in residential tap water was not associated with colorectal cancer (OR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.66, 1.28 for highest vs. lowest quartile), but chloroform concentrations were inversely associated (OR = 0.31, 95% CI: 0.24, 0.41 for highest vs. lowest quartile). Brominated THM concentrations showed a positive association among men in the highest versus the lowest quartile (OR = 1.43, 95% CI: 0.83, 2.46). Patterns of association were similar for estimated average THM ingestion through residential water consumption. Conclusions: We did not find clear evidence of an association between detailed estimates of lifetime total THM exposure and colorectal cancer in our large case

  6. IMPACT OF SUBMERSIBLE PUMPS ON PB CONSTITUENTS IN RESIDENTIAL WELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissolved lead in 51 domestic wells screened from 18 m to 48 m in glacial tills and outwash deposits were examined, from archived samples collected during 2001-2004, in conjunction with respective submersible pump characteristics. Pb concentrations of these residential water supp...

  7. Evaluation of advanced technologies for residential appliances and residential and commercial lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turiel, I.; Atkinson, B.; Boghosian, S.; Chan, P.; Jennings, J.; Lutz, J.; McMahon, J.; Rosenquist, G.

    1995-01-01

    Section 127 of the Energy Policy Act requires that the Department of Energy (DOE) prepare a report to Congress on the potential for the development and commercialization of appliances that substantially exceed the present federal or state efficiency standards. Candidate high-efficiency appliances must meet several criteria including: the potential exists for substantial improvement (beyond the minimum established in law) of the appliance`s energy efficiency; electric, water, or gas utilities are prepared to support and promote the commercialization of such appliances; manufacturers are unlikely to undertake development and commercialization of such appliances on their own, or development and production would be substantially accelerated by support to manufacturers. This report describes options to improve the efficiency of residential appliances, including water heaters, clothes washers and dryers, refrigerator/freezers, dishwashers, space heating and cooling devices, as well as residential and commercial lighting products. Data from this report (particularly Appendix 1)were used to prepare the report to Congress mentioned previously. For the residential sector, national energy savings are calculated using the LBL Residential Energy Model. This model projects the number of households and appliance saturations over time. First, end-use consumption is calculated for a base case where models that only meet the standard replace existing models as these reach the end of their lifetime. Second, models with efficiencies equal to the technology under consideration replace existing models that reach the end of their lifetime. For the commercial sector, the COMMEND model was utilized to project national energy savings from new technologies. In this report, energy savings are shown for the period 1988 to 2015.

  8. H2NG (hydrogen-natural gas mixtures) effects on energy performances of a condensing micro-CHP (combined heat and power) for residential applications: An expeditious assessment of water condensation and experimental analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lo Basso, Gianluigi; Santoli, Livio de; Albo, Angelo; Nastasi, Benedetto

    2015-01-01

    In order to accomplish significant primary energy saving and GHG (greenhouse gas) emissions reduction, CHP (combined heat and power) technology can be adopted largely for industrial and civil sectors. Waiting for the cutting-edge appliances (i.e. Fuel Cell) wide deployment, ICEs (internal combustion engines) fuelled with an environmentally-friendly fuel, such as H 2 NG (hydrogen-natural gas mixtures) could represent the bridge technology towards the forthcoming pure hydrogen economy. This paper deals with the results of an experimental campaign carried out on a Single Cylinder ICE, fuelled with NG (natural gas) and H 2 NG @ 15% vol. In detail, energy performances were assessed at rated and partial loads. From data analysis, it emerged that the electrical efficiency increased up to 2.28%, at the expense of the heat recovery one, having added hydrogen. Additionally, due to the higher water content in exhaust gas when H 2 NG is burned, it was investigated on how heat recovery efficiency has been affected by condensing operating conditions. Finally, to estimate this benefit, an expeditious procedure was developed building three maps for H 2 NG blends condensing properties from 0% up to 30% vol. of H 2 . Their outputs provided the condensation efficiency value and the absolute gain of heat recovery one with varying exhaust gas temperatures and hydrogen fraction in the mixture. - Highlights: • H 2 NG mixture effects on a commercial technology μCHP for residential applications. • Experimental analysis and methodology for H 2 NG condensing properties assessment. • CO 2 specific emissions calculation accounting for electrical and thermal outputs. • Uncertainty analysis on the μCHP energy performances and methodology validation. • H 2 addition coupling a condensing heat exchanger enhance CHP First Law efficiency

  9. Under-utilization of taps in intensive care unit as a cause of reservoirs of nonfermenting gram-negative bacilli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de-Las-Casas-Cámara, Gonzalo; Martín-Ríos, María Dolores; Adillo-Montero, Maria Isabel; Muñoz-Egea, María Carmen; Zapardiel-Ferrero, Javier; Pérez-Jorge Peremarch, Concepción

    2017-03-10

    The under-utilisation of taps is associated with the generation of reservoirs of non-fermenting gram-negative bacilli with the ability to disseminate. We describe the detection and approach of the problem in an ICU. Observational descriptive study in an ICU with individual cubicles with their own sink. We collected clinical samples from patients and environmental samples from tap aerators and reviewed the unit's hygiene measures. We detected four cases due to Chryseobacterium indologenes, one to Elizabethkingia meningoseptica and another to Pseudomonas aeruginosa; they were identified both in clinical and the environmental samples. The healthcare professionals reported that almost every hand hygiene opportunity was performed with a hydroalcoholic solution. After considered the daily flushing of water outlets as inefficient, it was decided to remove them. National recommendations were insufficient for preventing, detecting and controlling tap contamination in units with a high risk of infection. The management of taps in these units needs to be improved. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  10. Media Leader Tapped to Head New York City Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuels, Christina A.

    2010-01-01

    When Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg sought a leader for the New York City schools in 2002, his outside-the-box choice was Joel I. Klein, a former assistant U.S. attorney general who had no experience as a school administrator. Eight years later, in seeking a replacement for Mr. Klein, Mr. Bloomberg has tapped yet another person from outside education:…

  11. Thinking along : A process for tapping into knowledge across boundaries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berends, Hans; Garud, Raghu; Debackere, Koenraad; Weggeman, Mathieu

    2011-01-01

    The knowledge management literature offers knowledge 'transfer' and 'transformation' as mechanisms to tap into the diversity of knowledge that lies dispersed over organisations. However, it is difficult to transfer and transform knowledge across epistemic boundaries and, even if these processes were

  12. Potential, Distribution, Ethno-Botany and Tapping Procedures of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Potential, Distribution, Ethno-Botany and Tapping Procedures of Gum Producing Acacia Species in the Somali Region, Southeastern Ethiopia. ... Therefore, promotion of gum extraction in the Somali Region both for economic benefit of the community and sustainable management of the fragile ecosystem is recommended.

  13. Cortical activation during finger tapping in thyroid dysfunction: A ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    MADU

    Cortical activation during finger tapping in thyroid dysfunction: A functional magnetic resonance imaging study. S KHUSHU. 1,*, S SENTHIL KUMARAN. 1, T SEKHRI. 2, R P TRIPATHI. 1, P C JAIN. 3 and V JAIN. 1. 1NMR Research Centre, 2Thyroid Research Centre, Institute of Nuclear Medicine and Allied sciences,. Brig.

  14. Trauma Tapping Technique: Practical First Aid for Stress and Trauma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Trauma Tapping Technique: Practical First Aid for Stress and Trauma. Marie Claire Gasanganwa1, Rebecca L White1. 1University of Rwanda, College of Medicine and Health Sciences, Rwanda. Background. Epidemiological studies on posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) show a lifetime prevalence rate of up to. 6.8%.

  15. Frankincense tapping reduces the carbohydrate storage of Boswellia trees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mengistu, T.; Sterck, F.J.; Fetene, M.; Bongers, F.

    2013-01-01

    Carbohydrates fixed by photosynthesis are stored in plant organs in the form of starch or sugars. Starch and sugars sum to the total non-structural carbohydrate pool (TNC) and may serve as intermediate pools between assimilation and utilization. We examined the impact of tapping on TNC

  16. Extended topologies of tapped-inductor Z-source inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Miao; Li, Ding; Gao, Feng

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, two distinct types of tapped-inductor Z-source impedance networks are proposed for implementing high performance voltage-type inverters topologies with strong voltage boost inversion abilities and less components' stresses. All proposed topologies can in principle be unified...

  17. Deep Smarts: How to Tap Teachers' Tacit Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burbach, Harold J.; Duke, Daniel L.

    2007-01-01

    Principals can tap the tacit knowledge, or "deep smarts," of their teachers in a variety of ways, many of which are based on the notion that tacit knowledge is best sought indirectly. Coming right out and asking people to share what they have learned over the years can be intimidating and disconcerting, especially if trust has not yet been…

  18. Tapping the unexploited plant resources for the synthesis of silver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tapping the unexploited plant resources for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles. ... H. annus was found to exhibit strong potential for rapid reduction of silver ions. It was observed that there is no ... synthesised. The work adds to the confirmation of previous reports on biosynthesis of nanometals using plant leaf extracts.

  19. Health Risk Assessment Related to Waterborne Pathogens from the River to the Tap

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauline Jacob

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A two-year monitoring program of Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts, Giardia duodenalis cysts, Escherichia coli, Clostridium perfringens spores and adenovirus was conducted in three large rivers in France used for recreational activities and as a resource for drinking water production. Fifty-liter river water and one thousand-liter tap water samples were concentrated using hollow-fiber ultrafiltration and analyzed by molecular biology or laser-scanning cytometry. In order to evaluate watershed land use influence on microorganism concentration changes, occurrence and seasonality of microorganisms were studied. The highest concentrations of protozoan parasites and C. perfringens were found for one of the three sites, showing a high proportion of agricultural territories, forests and semi-natural environments, which may be partly attributable to soil leaching due to rainfall events. On the contrary, the highest concentrations of adenoviruses were found at the two other sites, probably due to strong urban activities. Health risk assessment was evaluated for each waterborne pathogen regarding exposure during recreational activities (for a single or five bathing events during the summer. The calculated risk was lower than 0.5% for parasites and varied from 1% to 42% for adenovirus. A theoretical assessment of microorganism removal during the drinking water treatment process was also performed, and it showed that an absence of microorganisms could be expected in finished drinking water. This hypothesis was confirmed since all tested tap water samples were negative for each studied microorganism, resulting in a risk for drinking water consumption lower than 0.01% for parasites and lower than 0.5% for adenovirus.

  20. Impact of Low and Moderate Salinity Water on Plant Performance of Leafy Vegetables in a Recirculating NFT System

    OpenAIRE

    Genhua Niu; Youping Sun; Joseph G. Masabni

    2018-01-01

    Two greenhouse experiments were conducted to examine the growth and mineral nutrition of four leafy vegetables in a nutrient film technique (NFT) system with water with low to moderate salinity. In Expt. 1, a nutrient solution was prepared using reverse osmosis (RO) water and treatments consisted of supplementing with RO water, tap water, or nutrient solution. In Expt. 2, nutrient solution was prepared using three different water sources (treatments), namely, RO water, tap water, or tap water...

  1. Possibility of hydrogen supply by shared residential fuel cell systems for fuel cell vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ono Yusuke

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Residential polymer electrolyte fuel cells cogeneration systems (residential PEFC systems produce hydrogen from city gas by internal gas-reformer, and generate electricity, the hot water at the same time. From the viewpoint of the operation, it is known that residential PEFC systems do not continuously work but stop for long time, because the systems generate enough hot water for short operation time. In other words, currently residential PEFC systems are dominated by the amount of hot water demand. This study focuses on the idle time of residential PEFC systems. Since their gas-reformers are free, the systems have potential to produce hydrogen during the partial load operations. The authors expect that residential PEFC systems can take a role to supply hydrogen for fuel cell vehicles (FCVs before hydrogen fueling stations are distributed enough. From this perspective, the objective of this study is to evaluate the hydrogen production potential of residential PEFC systems. A residential PEFC system was modeled by the mixed integer linear programming to optimize the operation including hydrogen supply for FCV. The objective function represents annual system cost to be minimized with the constraints of energy balance. It should be noted that the partial load characteristics of the gas-reformer and the fuel cell stack are taken into account to derive the optimal operation. The model was employed to estimate the possible amount of hydrogen supply by a residential PEFC system. The results indicated that the system could satisfy at least hydrogen demand for transportation of 8000 km which is as far as the average annual mileage of a passenger car in Japan. Furthermore, hydrogen production by sharing a residential PEFC system with two households is more effective to reduce primary energy consumption with hydrogen supply for FCV than the case of introducing PEFC in each household.

  2. Selection and Exergy Analysis of Fuel Cell System to Meet all Energy Needs of Residential Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    G.R. Ashari; N.Hedayat; S. Shalbaf; E.Hajidavalloo

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell power system including burner, steam reformer, heat exchanger and water heater has been considered to meet the electrical, heating, cooling and domestic hot water loads of residential building which in Tehran. The system uses natural gas as fuel and works in CHP mode. Design and operating conditions of a PEM fuel cell system is considered in this study. The energy requirements of residential building and the num...

  3. Post-Retrofit Residential Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lancaster, Ross; lutzenhiser, Loren; Moezzi, Mithra; Widder, Sarah H.; Chandra, Subrato; Baechler, Michael C.

    2012-04-30

    This study examined a range of factors influencing energy consumption in households that had participated in residential energy-efficiency upgrades. The study was funded by a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and was conducted by faculty and staff of Portland State University Center for Urban Studies and Department of Economics. This work was made possible through the assistance and support of the Energy Trust of Oregon (ETO), whose residential energy-efficiency programs provided the population from which the sample cases were drawn. All households in the study had participated in the ETO Home Performance with Energy Star (HPwES) program. A number of these had concurrently pursued measures through other ETO programs. Post-retrofit energy outcomes are rarely investigated on a house-by-house basis. Rather, aggregate changes are ordinarily the focus of program impact evaluations, with deviation from aggregate expectations chalked up to measurement error, the vagaries of weather and idiosyncrasies of occupants. However, understanding how homes perform post-retrofit on an individual basis can give important insights to increase energy savings at the participant and the programmatic level. Taking a more disaggregated approach, this study analyzed energy consumption data from before and after the retrofit activity and made comparisons with engineering estimates for the upgrades, to identify households that performed differently from what may have been expected based on the estimates. A statistical analysis using hierarchal linear models, which accounted for weather variations, was performed looking separately at gas and electrical use during the periods before and after upgrades took place. A more straightforward comparison of billing data for 12-month periods before and after the intervention was also performed, yielding the majority of the cases examined. The later approach allowed total energy use and costs to be

  4. Quebec residential electricity demand: a microeconometric approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, J.T.; Bolduc, D.; Belanger, D.

    1996-01-01

    An economic analysis of Quebec residential electricity demand was studied by micro-simulation models. These structural models describe all components which lead to decisions upon durable holdings and electric appliance usage. The demand for space and water heating systems was evaluated. Recent price change in favour of energy sources other than electricity were taken into account. Price and income elasticity ratios were found to be low, as expected when estimating short term use. The role played by socio-economic variables on the choice of space-water heating systems and electricity use was also examined. Recent conversions have indicated a trend toward preference by households in favour of natural gas or oil over electricity. 18 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig

  5. Drinking Water in your Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many people choose to filter or test the drinking water that comes out of their tap or from their private well for a variety of reasons. And whether at home, at work or while traveling, many Americans drink bottled water.

  6. Indoor Noise Loading in Residential Prefabricated Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michal; Juhásová Šenitková, Ingrid

    2017-10-01

    Quality on indoor environment is among others also defined by an acoustic comfort and noise emissions. The indoor noise loading in the residential prefabricated buildings is specific problem related to structural design of these buildings. Problems with noise level of sanitary systems are mostly associated with hydraulic shock such as water distribution and sewage drainage. Another very common cause of excessive noise is also flushing the toilet or water fall on enamelled steel (bath or shower). This paper aims to analyse the acoustic properties in the residential prefabricated buildings. Sanitary core of the assessed apartment is in original condition without any alterations. The sanitary core is based on a formica (high-pressure laminate). The study discusses the maximum sound levels in the three assessed rooms for the three different noise sources. The values of maximum noise level are measured for the corridor, bedroom and living room. Sources of noise are common activities relating to the operation of sanitary core - the toilet flush in the toilet, falling water from the shower in the bathroom and the water falling on the bottom of the kitchen sink in the kitchen. Other sources of noise are eliminated or minimized during the experiment. The digital sound level meter Testo 815 is used for measurements. The measured values of maximum sound level LA,max [dB] are adjusted by the correction coefficient. The obtained values are compared with the hygienic limits for day and night period. Night hygienic limit (30 dB) is exceeded in all the rooms for all noise sources. This limit is exceeded from 17 to 73%. The values in the bedroom and the living room meet the daily hygienic limit (40 dB). The daily limit is exceeded only in the corridor. The highest values of noise are identified for the toilet flushing.

  7. Design and optimization of zero-energy-consumption based solar energy residential building systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, D. L.; Yu, L. J.; Tan, H. W.

    2017-11-01

    Energy consumption of residential buildings has grown fast in recent years, thus raising a challenge on zero energy residential building (ZERB) systems, which aim at substantially reducing energy consumption of residential buildings. Thus, how to facilitate ZERB has become a hot but difficult topic. In the paper, we put forward the overall design principle of ZERB based on analysis of the systems’ energy demand. In particular, the architecture for both schematic design and passive technology is optimized and both energy simulation analysis and energy balancing analysis are implemented, followed by committing the selection of high-efficiency appliance and renewable energy sources for ZERB residential building. In addition, Chinese classical residential building has been investigated in the proposed case, in which several critical aspects such as building optimization, passive design, PV panel and HVAC system integrated with solar water heater, Phase change materials, natural ventilation, etc., have been taken into consideration.

  8. TAPS - An automated tool for identification of skills, knowledges, and abilities using natural language task description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorgensen, C.C.; Carter, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    A prototype, computer-based tool (TAPS) has been developed to aid training system developers in identifying skills, knowledges, and abilities (SKAs) during task analysis. TAPS uses concepts of flexible pattern matching to evaluate English descriptions of job behaviors and to recode them as SKA lists. This paper addresses the rationale for TAPS and describes its design including SKA definitions and task analysis logic. It also presents examples of TAPS's application

  9. TAPS: an automated tool for identification of skills, knowledges, and abilities using natural language task description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorgensen, C.C.; Carter, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    A prototype, computer-based tool (TAPS) has been developed to aid training system developers in identifying skills, knowledges, and abilities (SKAs) during task analysis. TAPS uses concepts of flexible pattern matching to evaluate English descriptions of job behaviors and to recode them as SKA lists. This paper addresses the rationale for TAPS and describes its design including SKA definitions and task analysis logic. It also presents examples of TAPS's application

  10. Main challenges of residential areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Luca

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article is a position paper aiming to initiate a professional debate related to the aspects related to the urban dysfunctions leading to the wear of the residential areas. The paper proposes a definition of the wear process, identify the main causes leading to its occurrence and propose a number of solutions to neutralise the dysfunctions. The three wearing phases of residential areas components are emphasized, exploring their lifecycle. In order to perform the study of urban wear, the status of the residential areas components can be established and monitored, and also the variables of the function that can mathematically model the specific wear process may be considered. The paper is considered a first step for the model adjustment, to be tested and validated in the following steps. Based on the mathematical method and model, there can be created, in a potential future research, the possibility of determining the precarity degree for residential areas/neighbourhoods and cities, by minimising the subjective component of the analyses preceding the decision for renovation or regeneration.

  11. Trends of Sustainable Residential Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Narvydas, A

    2014-01-01

    The article is based on Master’s research conducted during Scottish Housing Expo 2010. The aim of the research was to determine the prevailing trends in sustainable residential architecture. Each trend can be described by features detected during visual and technical observation of project data. Based on that architects may predict possible problems related to a specific trend.

  12. Technical Problems of Residential Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowogońska, Beata; Cibis, Jerzy

    2017-10-01

    Beauty, utility, durability - these are the features of good architecture and should also be the distinguishing qualities of every residential building. But do beauty and utility remain along with the passing of time? Performance characteristics are an indicator of both, the technical as well as aesthetic state of buildings. Aesthetic needs are in disagreement with the merciless aging process. The beauty of a city is formed not only by the original forms of new residential buildings, but also by existing tenement housing; thus preserving their aesthetics becomes a necessity. Time is continuously passing and along with it, aging intensifies. The aging process is a natural phenomenon for every material. The life expectancy of building materials is also limited. Along with the passing of time, the technical state of residential buildings continuously deteriorates. With the passing of time, the aesthetic values and preferences of users of flats change and the usability of the building decreases. The permanence of buildings, including residential buildings, is shaped not only by the forces of nature but also by activities of humans. A long lifespan is ensured by carrying out ongoing, systematic renovation-repair works. It is thanks to them that buildings derived from past centuries are still being used, and their market attractiveness is not decreasing.

  13. Congestion and residential moving behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Marott; Pilegaard, Ninette; Van Ommeren, Jos

    2008-01-01

    we study how congestion and residential moving behaviour are interrelated, using a two-region job search model. Workers choose between interregional commuting and residential moving, in order to live closer to their place of work. This choice affects the external costs of commuting, due to conges......we study how congestion and residential moving behaviour are interrelated, using a two-region job search model. Workers choose between interregional commuting and residential moving, in order to live closer to their place of work. This choice affects the external costs of commuting, due...... to congestion. We focus on the equilibrium in which some workers currently living in one region accept jobs in the other, with a fraction of them choosing to commute from their current residence to the new job in the other region and the remainder choosing to move to the region in which the new job is located....... The welfare-maximising road tax is derived, which is essentially the Pigouvian tax, given the absence of a tax on moving. Given the presence of moving taxes, which are substantial in Europe, the optimal road tax for commuters is the Pigouvian tax plus the amortised value of the moving tax, evaluated...

  14. Convergence of Residential Gateway Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, F.T.H. den; Balm, M.; Jong, C.M. de; Kwaaitaal, J.J.B.

    2004-01-01

    A new OSI-based model is described that can be used for the classification of residential gateways. It is applied to analyze current gateway solutions and draw evolutionary paths for the medium to long term. From this it is concluded that particularly set-top boxes and broadband modems, as opposed

  15. TAp63 suppress metastasis via miR-133b in colon cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, C W; Li, X R; Zhang, Y; Hu, G; Guo, Y H; Zhou, J Y; Du, J; Lv, L; Gao, K; Zhang, Y; Deng, H

    2014-04-29

    TAp63 is a tumour-suppressor protein that is often underexpressed in various types of cancer. It has been shown to activate gene transcription depending on the transcription domain and to be closely related with metastasis. In this study, we demonstrate that TAp63 suppresses metastasis in colon cancer cells through microRNA-133b. We evaluated the correlation of TAp63 and miR-133b with HT-29 and SW-620 cells and investigated the roles of TAp63 in the expression of RhoA, E-cadherin and vimentin. We further investigated the roles of TAp63-mediated invasion and migration of colon cancer cells. TAp63 expression is downregulated in colon cancer, and microRNA-133b is a transcriptional target of TAp63. Furthermore, microRNA-133b is essential for the inhibitory effects of TAp63 on RhoA, E-cadherin and vimentin. Moreover, TAp63 inhibits cell migration and invasion through microRNA-133b. Correspondingly, the inhibitory effect of TAp63 on RhoA, E-cadherin, vimentin, migration and invasion can be blocked by the microRNA-133b inhibitor. TAp63 and microRNA-133b were able to suppress the metastasis of colon cancer. Both TAp63 and microRNA-133b may be potential biomarkers for diagnosis in colon cancer metastasis and may provide unique therapeutic targets for this common malignancy.

  16. The Ability to Tap to a Beat Relates to Cognitive, Linguistic, and Perceptual Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tierney, Adam T.; Kraus, Nina

    2013-01-01

    Reading-impaired children have difficulty tapping to a beat. Here we tested whether this relationship between reading ability and synchronized tapping holds in typically-developing adolescents. We also hypothesized that tapping relates to two other abilities. First, since auditory-motor synchronization requires monitoring of the relationship…

  17. Mechanistic aspects of ligand substitution on [(H 2 O)(tap) 2 RuORu ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 124; Issue 3. Mechanistic aspects of ligand substitution on [(H2O)(tap)2RuORu(tap)2(H2O)]2+ {tap=2-(m-tolylazo)pyridine} ion by three glycine-containing dipeptides in aqueous medium at physiological pH. Arup Mandal Subala Mondal Parnajyoti Karmakar Biplab K ...

  18. 75 FR 40033 - Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Taxpayer Advocacy Panel (TAP) Tax Check Waiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-13

    ... Internal Revenue Service Proposed Collection; Comment Request for Taxpayer Advocacy Panel (TAP) Tax Check...(c)(2)(A)). Currently, the IRS is soliciting comments concerning Taxpayer Advocacy Panel (TAP) Tax...: Taxpayer Advocacy Panel (TAP) Tax Check Waiver. OMB Number: 1545-2092. Abstract: Taxpayer Advocacy Panel...

  19. Effects of aging on control of timing and force of finger tapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Hirokazu; Masumoto, Junya; Inui, Nobuyuki

    2011-04-01

    The present study examined whether the elderly produced a hastened or delayed tap with a negative or positive constant intertap interval error more frequently in self-paced tapping than in the stimulus-synchronized tapping for the 2 N target force at 2 or 4 Hz frequency. The analysis showed that, at both frequencies, the percentage of the delayed tap was larger in the self-paced tapping than in the stimulus-synchronized tapping, whereas the hastened tap showed the opposite result. At the 4 Hz frequency, all age groups had more variable intertap intervals during the self-paced tapping than during the stimulus-synchronized tapping, and the variability of the intertap intervals increased with age. Thus, although the increase in the frequency of delayed taps and variable intertap intervals in the self-paced tapping perhaps resulted from a dysfunction of movement timing in the basal ganglia with age, the decline in timing accuracy was somewhat improved by an auditory cue. The force variability of tapping at 4 Hz further increased with age, indicating an effect of aging on the control of force.

  20. Stability of ricinine, abrine, and alpha-amanitin in finished tap ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Journal Article Ricinine and abrine are potential indicators of drinking water contamination by the biotoxins ricin and abrin, respectively. Simultaneous detection of ricinine and abrine, along with α-amanitin, another potential biotoxin water contaminant, is reportable through the use of automated sample preparation via solid phase extraction and detection using liquid chromatography/tandem-mass spectrometry. Performance of the method was characterized over eight analytical batches with quality control samples analyzed over 10 days. For solutions of analytes prepared with appropriate preservatives, the minimum reporting level (MRL) was 0.50 μg/L for ricinine and abrine and 2.0 μg/L for α-amanitin. Among the analytes, the accuracy of the analysis ranged between 93 and 100% at concentrations of 1-2.5 x the MRL, with analytical precision ranging from 4 to 8%. Five drinking waters representing a range of water quality parameters and disinfection practices were fortified with the analytes and analyzed over a 28 day period to determine their storage stability in these waters. Ricinine was observed to be stable for 28 days in all tap waters. The analytical signal decreased within 5 hrs of sample preparation for abrine and μ-amanitin in some waters, but afterwards, remained stable for 28 days. The magnitude of the decrease correlated with common water quality parameters potentially related to sorption of contaminants onto dissolved and colloidal components within