WorldWideScience

Sample records for residential structures state

  1. Residential firewood use in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipfert, F W; Dungan, J L

    1983-03-25

    An empirical relation between residential firewood use and population density was developed from survey data for 64 counties in New England and was corroborated by data from other states. The results indicate that usage is concentrated in urbanized areas of the Northeast and north central states and that about 9.0 to 11.0 percent of U.S. space heating input is from firewood. No constraints due to the supply of wood were apparent in 1978-1979. These findings have implications for effects on air quality.

  2. Family Structure, Residential Mobility, and Environmental Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Liam; Crowder, Kyle; Kemp, Robert J.

    2016-01-01

    This study combines micro-level data on families with children from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics with neighborhood-level industrial hazard data from the Environmental Protection Agency and neighborhood-level U.S. census data to examine both the association between family structure and residential proximity to neighborhood pollution and the micro-level, residential mobility processes that contribute to differential pollution proximity across family types. Results indicate the existence of significant family structure differences in household proximity to industrial pollution in U.S. metropolitan areas between 1990 and 1999, with single-mother and single-father families experiencing neighborhood pollution levels that are on average 46% and 26% greater, respectively, than those experienced by two-parent families. Moreover, the pollution gap between single-mother and two-parent families persists with controls for household and neighborhood socioeconomic, sociodemographic, and race/ethnic characteristics. Examination of underlying migration patterns reveals that single-mother, single-father, and two-parent families are equally likely to move in response to pollution. However, mobile single-parent families move into neighborhoods with significantly higher pollution levels than do mobile two-parent families. Thus, family structure differences in pollution proximity are maintained more by these destination neighborhood differences than by family structure variations in the likelihood of moving out of polluted neighborhoods. PMID:28348440

  3. Wood products used for residential repair and remodeling in the United States, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. B. McKeever; R. G. Anderson

    Large amounts of lumber and wood panel products are used annually for the repair and remodeling of residential structures and properties in the United States. In response to the need by government and industry for detailed information on this important market for timber products, a study was conducted by the Timber Demand and Technology...

  4. The structure of residential energy demand in Greece

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapanos, Vassilis T.; Polemis, Michael L.

    2006-01-01

    This paper attempts to shed light on the determinants of residential energy demand in Greece, and to compare it with some other OECD countries. From the estimates of the short-run and long-run elasticities of energy demand for the period 1965-1999, we find that residential energy demand appears to be price inelastic. Also, we do not find evidence of a structural change probably because of the low efficiency of the energy sector. We find, however, that the magnitude of the income elasticity varies substantially between Greece and other OECD countries

  5. Lifting and protecting residential structures from subsidence damage using airbags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Triplett, T.L.; Bennett, R.M.

    1998-01-01

    Conventional practice in protecting residential structures from subsidence damage concentrates on saving the superstructure. The foundation is sacrificed, even though it represents the structural component with the greatest replacement cost. In this study, airbags were used to lift a 20 ft x 30 ft structure to test their ability to protect both the foundation and superstructure from ground settlement. Two contiguous sides of the test foundation were unreinforced, and the other two contiguous sides incorporated footing and wall reinforcement. The airbags successfully lifted the structure without causing damage, even on the unreinforced sides. This paper gives a procedure for determining airbag spacing, and describes installation and operation techniques of the airbags. The paper then focuses on the performance of the airbags in lifting the structure, and shows that airbags can preserve existing foundations during subsidence movements

  6. Tracking the Sun VIII. The Installed Price of Residential and Non-Residential Photovoltaic Systems in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, Galen L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Darghouth, Naïm R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Spears, Mike [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wiser, Ryan H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Buckley, Michael [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Widiss, Rebecca [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Grue, Nick [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Now in its eighth edition, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)’s Tracking the Sun report series is dedicated to summarizing trends in the installed price of grid-connected solar photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States. The present report focuses on residential and nonresidential systems installed through year-end 2014, with preliminary trends for the first half of 2015. As noted in the text box below, this year’s report incorporates a number of important changes and enhancements. Among those changes, this year's report focuses solely on residential and nonresidential PV systems; data on utility-scale PV are reported in LBNL’s companion Utility-Scale Solar report series. Installed pricing trends presented within this report derive primarily from project-level data reported to state agencies and utilities that administer PV incentive programs, solar renewable energy credit (SREC) registration systems, or interconnection processes. In total, data were collected for roughly 400,000 individual PV systems, representing 81% of all U.S. residential and non-residential PV capacity installed through 2014 and 62% of capacity installed in 2014, though a smaller subset of this data were used in analysis.

  7. Tracking the Sun IX: The Installed Price of Residential and Non-Residential Photovoltaic Systems in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area; Darghouth, Naïm [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area; Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cates, Sarah [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); DiSanti, Nicholas [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Widiss, Rebecca [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States)

    2016-08-16

    Now in its ninth edition, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)’s Tracking the Sun report series is dedicated to summarizing trends in the installed price of grid-connected solar photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States. The present report focuses on residential and non-residential systems installed through year-end 2015, with preliminary trends for the first half of 2016. An accompanying LBNL report, Utility-Scale Solar, addresses trends in the utility-scale sector. This year’s report incorporates a number of important changes and enhancements from prior editions. Among those changes, LBNL has made available a public data file containing all non-confidential project-level data underlying the analysis in this report. Installed pricing trends presented within this report derive primarily from project-level data reported to state agencies and utilities that administer PV incentive programs, solar renewable energy credit (SREC) registration systems, or interconnection processes. Refer to the text box to the right for several key notes about these data. In total, data were collected and cleaned for more than 820,000 individual PV systems, representing 85% of U.S. residential and non-residential PV systems installed cumulatively through 2015 and 82% of systems installed in 2015. The analysis in this report is based on a subset of this sample, consisting of roughly 450,000 systems with available installed price data.

  8. Occupational safety issues in residential construction surveyed in Wisconsin, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang D; Carlson, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Residential construction is a high-risk industry in the U.S. due to the exposure to work-related safety hazards and fall injuries. This study aimed to examine the safety training and safe work practices of construction workers within the small residential construction industry. In order to achieve the study objectives, a survey was designed and sent to approximately 200 Wisconsin based residential construction contractors. About one third of the respondents stated that they did not have any form of safety programs. The study indicated that the most common types of work-related injuries in residential construction were slips/trips/falls and cuts/lacerations. The survey findings also suggested that the residential construction contractors needed to increase the utilization of fall protection safety equipment. Further education and subject matter expert training could provide benefits to improve occupational safety and health of the small business workforce in the residential construction industry.

  9. Residents Living in Residential Care Facilities: United States, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... analyses, the 12% of residents chair-ridden or bedridden were defined as receiving assistance in the transferring ... MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2011. Mollica R, Sims-Kastelein K, O'Keeffe J. Residential care ...

  10. State energy price projections for the residential sector, 1992--1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this report, State Energy Price Projections for the Residential Sector, 1992--1993, is to provide projections of State-level residential prices for 1992 and 1993 for the following fuels: electricity, natural gas, heating oil, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), kerosene, and coal. Prices for 1991 are also included for comparison purposes. This report also explains the methodology used to produce these estimates and the limitations

  11. The Evolving Market Structure of the U.S. Residential Solar PV Installation Industry, 2000-2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OShaughnessy, Eric J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-16

    This study uses data on over 900,000 solar PV installations to summarize the evolving market structure of the U.S. residential solar PV installation industry. Over 8,000 companies have installed residential PV systems in the United States. The vast majority of these installers are small local companies. At the same time, a subset of national-scale high-volume PV installation companies hold high market shares. This study examines the factors behind these trends in market concentration, including the role of customer financing options.

  12. A state-space model for residential real estate valuation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Francke, M.

    2010-01-01

    All property in the Netherlands has to be appraised yearly. Yearly valuation has only been made possible with the help of models. The number of real estate appraisers is simply too small to value the more than 7 million residential properties. This paper describes the statistical model that is used

  13. Contaminant deposition building shielding factors for US residential structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, E D; Hamby, D M; Eckerman, K F

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents validated building shielding factors designed for contemporary US housing-stock under an idealized, yet realistic, exposure scenario from contaminant deposition on the roof and surrounding surfaces. The building shielding factors are intended for use in emergency planning and level three probabilistic risk assessments for a variety of postulated radiological events in which a realistic assessment is necessary to better understand the potential risks for accident mitigation and emergency response planning. Factors are calculated from detailed computational housing-units models using the general-purpose Monte Carlo N-Particle computational code, MCNP5, and are benchmarked from a series of narrow- and broad-beam measurements analyzing the shielding effectiveness of ten common general-purpose construction materials and ten shielding models representing the primary weather barriers (walls and roofs) of likely US housing-stock. Each model was designed to scale based on common residential construction practices and include, to the extent practical, all structurally significant components important for shielding against ionizing radiation. Calculations were performed for floor-specific locations from contaminant deposition on the roof and surrounding ground as well as for computing a weighted-average representative building shielding factor for single- and multi-story detached homes, both with and without basement as well for single-wide manufactured housing-unit. (paper)

  14. Cloud immersion building shielding factors for US residential structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, E D; Hamby, D M

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents validated building shielding factors designed for contemporary US housing-stock under an idealized, yet realistic, exposure scenario within a semi-infinite cloud of radioactive material. The building shielding factors are intended for use in emergency planning and level three probabilistic risk assessments for a variety of postulated radiological events in which a realistic assessment is necessary to better understand the potential risks for accident mitigation and emergency response planning. Factors are calculated from detailed computational housing-units models using the general-purpose Monte Carlo N-Particle computational code, MCNP5, and are benchmarked from a series of narrow- and broad-beam measurements analyzing the shielding effectiveness of ten common general-purpose construction materials and ten shielding models representing the primary weather barriers (walls and roofs) of likely US housing-stock. Each model was designed to scale based on common residential construction practices and include, to the extent practical, all structurally significant components important for shielding against ionizing radiation. Calculations were performed for floor-specific locations as well as for computing a weighted-average representative building shielding factor for single- and multi-story detached homes, both with and without basement, as well for single-wide manufactured housing-units. (paper)

  15. Contaminant deposition building shielding factors for US residential structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Elijah; Hamby, David; Eckerman, Keith

    2017-10-10

    This paper presents validated building shielding factors designed for contemporary US housing-stock under an idealized, yet realistic, exposure scenario from contaminant deposition on the roof and surrounding surfaces. The building shielding factors are intended for use in emergency planning and level three probabilistic risk assessments for a variety of postulated radiological events in which a realistic assessment is necessary to better understand the potential risks for accident mitigation and emergency response planning. Factors are calculated from detailed computational housing-units models using the general-purpose Monte Carlo N-Particle computational code, MCNP5, and are benchmarked from a series of narrow- and broad-beam measurements analyzing the shielding effectiveness of ten common general-purpose construction materials and ten shielding models representing the primary weather barriers (walls and roofs) of likely US housing-stock. Each model was designed to scale based on common residential construction practices and include, to the extent practical, all structurally significant components important for shielding against ionizing radiation. Calculations were performed for floor-specific locations from contaminant deposition on the roof and surrounding ground as well as for computing a weighted-average representative building shielding factor for single- and multi-story detached homes, both with and without basement as well for single-wide manufactured housing-unit. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  16. Steady State Shift Damage Localization in a Residential-Sized Wind Turbine Blade

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Markvart, Morten Kusk; Sekjær, Claus; Bull, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    methodological premise is that of mapping a model-based damage distribution to experimental vibration features from the healthy and damaged states. Damage is then localized when a postulated damage distribution yields a, under ideal conditions, perfect mapping. The S3DL method relies on a theoretical model that......, in an experimental procedure with a plate-like structure, thus the present study serves to investigate the applicability of the method for more complex structures; in this case, a residential-sized wind turbine blade, which has been designed specifically for damage identification purposes. The blade consists of two...... parts that are bolted together along the leading and trailing edges, hence enabling introduction of stiffness-related damages by untightening a number of bolts. The paper studies two damage cases: failure of the trailing edge and a mass modification....

  17. Tracking the Sun 10: The Installed Price of Residential and Non-Residential Photovoltaic Systems in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Darghouth, Naim R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); LaCommare, Kristina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); DiSanti, Nicholas [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Widiss, Rebecca [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States)

    2017-09-21

    Berkeley Lab’s Tracking the Sun report series is dedicated to summarizing trends in the installed price of grid-connected, residential and non-residential systems solar photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States. The present report, the tenth edition in the series, focuses on systems installed through year-end 2016, with preliminary data for the first half of 2017. The report provides an overview of both long-term and more-recent trends, highlighting key drivers for installed price declines over different time horizons. The report also extensively characterizes the widespread variability in system pricing, comparing installed prices across states, market segments, installers, and various system and technology characteristics. The trends described in this report derive from project-level data collected by state agencies and utilities that administer PV incentive programs, solar renewable energy credit (SREC) registration systems, or interconnection processes. In total, data for this report were compiled and cleaned for more than 1.1 million individual PV systems, though the analysis in the report is based on a subset of that sample, consisting of roughly 630,000 systems with available installed price data. The full underlying dataset of project-level data (excluding any confidential information) is available in a public data file, for use by other researchers and analysts.

  18. Residential Greenness and Birthweight in the State of Massachusetts, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelvin C. Fong

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural vegetation, or greenness, may benefit maternal health and consequently, fetal growth, by providing opportunities for physical activity and psychological restoration, and decreasing detrimental environmental exposures. We retrieved Massachusetts Birth Registry data from 2001–2013 and investigated the association between residential greenness and birthweight in full-term births (≥37 weeks gestation. We calculated average residential greenness during pregnancy using 250 m normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI from satellites. We estimated associations between greenness and continuous birthweight, term low birthweight (TLBW: <2500 g, and small for gestational age (SGA: <10th percentile of birthweight stratified by sex and gestational age adjusted for individual and neighborhood covariates and considered nonlinearity and effect modification. Higher greenness exposure was associated with higher birthweight with stronger associations in the lower than higher range of greenness. Greenness was associated with lower odds of TLBW (OR 0.98; 95% CI 0.97, 0.99 per 0.1 increase in NDVI and SGA (OR 0.98; 95% 0.97, 0.99 and associations varied by population density (TLBW and socioeconomic status (TLBW, SGA. Our results suggest that greenness is beneficial to fetal growth exhibited by higher birthweight and lower odds of TLBW and SGA. Unlike prior studies, associations with TLBW and SGA appeared stronger among those with higher socioeconomic status.

  19. Residential green power demand in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagher, Leila; Bird, Lori; Heeter, Jenny

    2017-12-01

    This paper investigates the demand determinants of green power in the U.S. residential sector. The data employed were collected by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and consist of a cross-section of seven utilities observed over 13 years. A series of tests are performed that resulted in estimating a demand equation using the one-way cross-section random effects model. As expected, we find that demand is highly price inelastic. More interestingly though, is that elasticity with respect to number of customers is 0.52 leading to the conclusion that new subscribers tend to purchase less green power on average than the existing customers. Another compelling finding is that obtaining accreditation will have a 28.5% positive impact on consumption. Knowing that gaining green accreditation is important to the success of programs, utilities may want to seek certification and highlight it in their advertising campaigns.

  20. Impact of performance interdependencies on structural vulnerability: A systems perspective of storm surge risk to coastal residential communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatzikyriakou, Adam; Lin, Ning

    2017-01-01

    Interaction between residential structures during natural hazards can lead to interdependencies in their performance. During storm surge, for example, structures can affect the performance of inland buildings by generating damaging waterborne debris or by beneficially dampening surge loads. Quantifying the impact of this interaction on structural vulnerability is critical for risk assessment and informed decision-making. In this study we present and implement two general modeling approaches for investigating such interdependencies. The first method is to condition the vulnerability of a structure on the performance of neighboring buildings using a Markov model. The second uses a marginal model to account for correlation between damage observations when estimating a structure's vulnerability to the hazard. Both approaches are implemented using a case study of an impacted coastal community during Hurricane Sandy (2012). Findings indicate that a structure's performance during storm surge is strongly dependent on the damage state of the structure immediately seaward. Furthermore, considering the correlated damage states of buildings increases statistical uncertainty when relating structural performance to hazard intensity. Motivated by these findings, we propose a more coordinated approach to coastal risk mitigation which considers the effects of interdependencies on insurance pricing, structural design, mitigation strategies and community resilience. - Highlights: • Interaction between residential structures leads to performance interdependencies. • Interdependencies during storm surge are due to debris and structural shielding. • Markov model treats interdependencies as an additional demand parameter. • Marginal model incorporates damage correlation into regression estimation. • System behavior should be considered in community risk and resilience.

  1. The Availability of Residential Real Estate Increasing by Means of State Compensation of Prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Viktorovich Ivanitskiy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the influence of natural monopolies on the value of residential property, discusses the basic energy resources affecting it. Oil is defined as the main energy resource, its main brands, and their features are considered. The different authors’ perspectives of the impact of oil prices on the real estate prices are considered (“no effect”, “direct effect” and “indirect effect”. Schemes (models, clearly demonstrating the cause-and-effect relations of the impact of prices of the main energy resources on each other and on the value of residential property, are provided. The stability of relations between the prices of the major energy recourses (between each other as well as between each resource and real estate prices and residential property prices in the primary market are analyzed. The interval of “crisis” and “crisis-free” time is defined. The impact of the energy in “crisis” and “crisis-free” time is analyzed. The impact of oil prices on the residential property prices is proved through the cement as the main price-determining element in the construction. The introduction of the state target compensation allowing to increase the availability of residential property is proposed as one of the elements of a comprehensive solution of the “housing question”. The size of the state target compensation in absolute (in rubles and relative (% prices for residential real estate values is determined, taking into account the sufficient reproduction of the population, and restrictions on the right to use it are introduced. The total value of the state target compensation per total number of homebuyers is calculated, and its share in the expenditures of the consolidated budget and budgets of state extra-budgetary funds is determined. The realization of the state target compensation based on an average annual growth among the major countries of the world is grounded.

  2. TRANSIENT AND STEADY STATE STUDY OF PURE AND MIXED REFRIGERANTS IN A RESIDENTIAL HEAT PUMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of an experimental and theoretical investigation of the transient and steady state performance of a residential air-conditioning/heat pump (AC/HP) operating with different refrigerants. (NOTE: The project was motivated by environmental concerns related to...

  3. Wood Products Other Building Materials Used in New Residential Construction in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    David B. McKeever; Joe Elling

    2015-01-01

    On average, new residential construction accounts for about one-third of all wood products consumed in the United States annually. During periods of robust housing activity, 45% or more of all wood products consumed are for new single-family and multifamily housing. This can fall to as low as 20% or less during times of economic recession. Unfortunately, 2012 was not...

  4. Residential segregation and birth weight among racial and ethnic minorities in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Emily

    2009-12-01

    Racial and ethnic minorities are often residentially segregated from whites in urban settings, a fact which has important health consequences. Research on the relationship between residential segregation and health outcomes lacks national-level investigation of racial and ethnic minority groups other than African Americans. I use multilevel analyses to examine the associations of residential isolation and clustering with birth weight among Asian, black, and Latino Americans using data from the National Center for Health Statistics' Natality Files and the U.S. Census. Findings indicate that segregation has a negative effect on the likelihood of having a low birth weight baby among Asian Americans, suggesting a possible concentration of social and structural resources in highly-segregated communities. On the contrary, segregation marginally increases the odds of low birth weight among African Americans, but only in the presence of higher poverty rates. Segregation does not affect birth weight among Latino Americans.

  5. 76 FR 42688 - Updating State Residential Building Energy Efficiency Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) considers high... determination could potentially impact States. The American Chemistry Council (ACC) submitted a written comment...-Conditioning Engineers. [[Page 42692

  6. The configuration of residential area in urban structure of the palace in Siak Sri Indrapura - Riau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijal, Muhammad

    2018-05-01

    This article is part of major research in describing the configuration of waterfront residential area in urban space structure of the palace and related to the Malay Kingdom in the waterside of the Strait of Malacca. This research aimed to identify the configuration of riverfront residential area in Siak Sri Indrapura City based on physical and non-physical aspects. The method used in this research was qualitative rationalistic referring to the components of urban design theory. The results of the research showed that the spatial configuration in Siak Sri Indrapura City is linear and related to the past events and socio-cultural and socio-economic interaction of the society.

  7. Break-Even Cost for Residential Photovoltaics in the United States: Key Drivers and Sensitivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, P.; Margolis, R. M.; Ong, S.; Roberts, B.

    2009-12-01

    Grid parity--or break-even cost--for photovoltaic (PV) technology is defined as the point where the cost of PV-generated electricity equals the cost of electricity purchased from the grid. Break-even cost is expressed in $/W of an installed system. Achieving break-even cost is a function of many variables. Consequently, break-even costs vary by location and time for a country, such as the United States, with a diverse set of resources, electricity prices, and other variables. In this report, we analyze PV break-even costs for U.S. residential customers. We evaluate some key drivers of grid parity both regionally and over time. We also examine the impact of moving from flat to time-of-use (TOU) rates, and we evaluate individual components of the break-even cost, including effect of rate structure and various incentives. Finally, we examine how PV markets might evolve on a regional basis considering the sensitivity of the break-even cost to four major drivers: technical performance, financing parameters, electricity prices and rates, and policies. We find that local incentives rather than ?technical? parameters are in general the key drivers of the break-even cost of PV. Additionally, this analysis provides insight about the potential viability of PV markets.

  8. Autoclaved aerated concrete : shaping the evolution of residential construction in the United States.

    OpenAIRE

    Bukoski, Steven C.

    1998-01-01

    CIVINS (Civilian Institutions) Thesis document Precast Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC) is a proven construction material used in Europe for over 70 years. Introduced to the United States in 1990, construction thus far is limited to commercial and custom borne applications. Premium benefits include energy efficiency and resistance to natural disaster and pests. Despite being the leading residential construction material in Europe and Japan, lumber is the leading material of choice in the ...

  9. The residential segregation of detailed Hispanic and Asian groups in the United States: 1980-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Iceland

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Racial and ethnic diversity continues to grow in communities across the United States,raising questions about the extent to which different ethnic groups will become residentially integrated. Objective: While a number of studies have examined the residential patterns of pan-ethnic groups, our goal is to examine the segregation of several Asian and Hispanic ethnic groups - Cubans, Dominicans, Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, Salvadorans, Asian Indians, Chinese, Filipinos, Japanese, Koreans, and Vietnamese. We gauge the segregation of each group from several alternative reference groups using two measures over the 1980 to 2010 period. Results: We find that the dissimilarity of Hispanics and Asians from other groups generally held steady or declined, though, because most Hispanic and Asian groups are growing, interaction with Whites also often declined. Our analyses also indicate that pan-ethnic segregation indexes do not always capture the experience of specific groups. Among Hispanics, Mexicans are typically less residentially segregated (as measured using the dissimilarity index from Whites, Blacks, Asians, and other Hispanics than are other Hispanic-origin groups. Among Asian ethnic groups, Japanese and Filipinos tend to have lower levels of dissimilarity from Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics than other Asian groups. Examining different dimensions of segregation also indicates that dissimilarity scores alone often do not capture to what extent various ethnic groups are actually sharing neighborhoods with each other. Finally, color lines vary across groups in some important ways, even as the dominant trend has been toward reduced racial and ethnic residential segregation over time. Conclusions: The overarching trend is that ethnic groups are becoming more residentially integrated,suggestive of assimilation, though there is significant variation across ethnic groups.

  10. Sustainability of Physical Activity Promoting Environments and Influences on Sustainability Following a Structural Intervention in Residential Children's Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dominick, Gregory M.; Tudose, Alina; Pohlig, Ryan T.; Saunders, Ruth P.

    2016-01-01

    Research examining sustainability of health promotion programs within organizational settings is limited. The Environmental Interventions in Residential Children's Homes (ENRICH) was a structural intervention that trained Wellness Teams (WTs) within residential children's homes (RCH) to target environmental changes that promote physical activity…

  11. Big five personality and residential mobility: a state-level analysis of the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Stewart J H

    2015-01-01

    Relations of the state-aggregated Big Five personality scores of 619,397 residents to four 2005 state-level residential mobility criteria were examined with the 50 states as cases. Multiple regression controlling for five state demographic variables showed (a) higher state neuroticism was strongly associated with lower mobility, lower same-county mobility, and lower between-county mobility; (b) higher state extraversion was associated with lower mobility and lower same-county mobility, but only with neuroticism and/or conscientiousness controlled; and (c) conscientiousness was related to same-residence, same-county, and different-county mobility, but only without demographic variables controlled. Discussion is grounded in the dangers of cross-level speculation and the potential of a basic assumption of geographical psychology that an area's aggregate position on a dispositional variable is associated there with behavioral and psychological tendencies related to that variable.

  12. An analysis of residential PV system price differences between the United States and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seel, Joachim; Barbose, Galen L.; Wiser, Ryan H.

    2014-01-01

    Residential photovoltaic (PV) systems were twice as expensive in the United States as in Germany (median of $5.29/W vs. $2.59/W) in 2012. This price discrepancy stems primarily from differences in non-hardware or “soft” costs between the two countries, which can only in part be explained by differences in cumulative market size and associated learning. A survey of German PV installers was deployed to collect granular data on PV soft costs in Germany, and the results are compared to those of a similar survey of U.S. PV installers. Non-module hardware costs and all analyzed soft costs are lower in Germany, especially for customer acquisition, installation labor, and profit/overhead costs, but also for expenses related to permitting, interconnection, and inspection procedures. Additional costs occur in the United States due to state and local sales taxes, smaller average system sizes, and longer project-development times. To reduce the identified additional costs of residential PV systems, the United States could introduce policies that enable a robust and lasting market while minimizing market fragmentation. Regularly declining incentives offering a transparent and certain value proposition—combined with simple interconnection, permitting, and inspection requirements—might help accelerate PV cost reductions in the United States. - Highlights: • Residential PV system prices are twice as high in the USA than in Germany in 2012. • Different cumulative national PV market sizes explain only 35% of price gap. • Installer surveys show that price differences stem from non-module and soft costs. • Largest cost differences stem from customer acquisition and installation labor. • Incentives in the US are less effective in driving and following cost reductions

  13. A Room to Grow: The Residential Density-dependence of Childbearing in Europe and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathanael Lauster

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available I argue that cultural processes linked to the demographic transition produce new density-dependent fertility dynamics. In particular, childbearing becomes dependent upon residential roominess. This relationship is culturally specific, and I argue that the cultural nature of this relationship means that professional and managerial classes are likely to be particularly influenced by residential roominess, while immigrants are less likely to be influenced. I test hypotheses linking residential roominess to the presence of an “own infant” in the household using census data from the Austria, Greece, Portugal, Spain, and the United States. Roominess predicts fertility in all countries, but to differing degrees.

  14. Environmental Assessment: Disposition of Chiefs’ Circle Residential Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-27

    five structures ranged from Page 4 of 5  $200,000 (with bricks removed) to $500,000 (with bricks intact). Mike Ford, CEO of NewTown Macon, echoed Mr...feasibility 25-Jul-08 and practicality of moving the Chief’s Circle duplexes Mike Ford NewTown Macon 23-Jul-08 478-722-9909 President of NewTown Macon...Daniel.Chavira@ Gave a tour of Chiefs’ Circle huntcompanies.com Not interested in using the houses Bob Sharples RAFB 26-Oct-10 robert.sharples

  15. Dynamic modeling of potentially conflicting energy reduction strategies for residential structures in semi-arid climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Nathan; Li, Ke; Schramski, John R; Crittenden, John

    2012-04-30

    Globally, residential energy consumption continues to rise due to a variety of trends such as increasing access to modern appliances, overall population growth, and the overall increase of electricity distribution. Currently, residential energy consumption accounts for approximately one-fifth of total U.S. energy consumption. This research analyzes the effectiveness of a range of energy-saving measures for residential houses in semi-arid climates. These energy-saving measures include: structural insulated panels (SIP) for exterior wall construction, daylight control, increased window area, efficient window glass suitable for the local weather, and several combinations of these. Our model determined that energy consumption is reduced by up to 6.1% when multiple energy savings technologies are combined. In addition, pre-construction technologies (structural insulated panels (SIPs), daylight control, and increased window area) provide roughly 4 times the energy savings when compared to post-construction technologies (window blinds and efficient window glass). The model also illuminated the importance variations in local climate and building configuration; highlighting the site-specific nature of this type of energy consumption quantification for policy and building code considerations. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. The Evolving Market Structure of the U.S. Residential Solar PV Installation Industry, 2000-2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OShaughnessy, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-02-22

    Market structure refers to the number of firms and the distribution of market shares among firms within an industry. In The Evolving Market Structure of the U.S. Residential Solar PV Installation Industry, 2000-2016, we examine market structure in the context of residential solar PV. We find that over 8,000 companies have installed at least one residential PV system, with about 2,900 companies active in 2016. The majority of residential PV installers are relatively small companies, with about half of installers installing fewer than five systems. At the same time, a subset of high-volume installers accumulated market share, especially beginning around 2010 with the emergence of alternative customer financing options.

  17. Neighborhood Disadvantage, Residential Segregation, and Beyond-Lessons for Studying Structural Racism and Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riley, Alicia R

    2018-04-01

    A recent surge of interest in identifying the health effects of structural racism has coincided with the ongoing attention to neighborhood effects in both epidemiology and sociology. Mindful of these currents in the literature, it makes sense that we are seeing an emergent tendency in health disparities research to operationalize structural racism as either neighborhood disadvantage or racial residential segregation. This review essay synthesizes findings on the relevance of neighborhood disadvantage and residential segregation to the study of structural racism and health. It then draws on recent literature to propose four lessons for moving beyond traditional neighborhood effects approaches in the study of structural racism and health. These lessons are (1) to shift the focus of research from census tracts to theoretically meaningful units of analysis, (2) to leverage historic and geographic variation in race relations, (3) to combine data from multiple sources, and (4) to challenge normative framing that aims to explain away racial health disparities without discussing racism or racial hierarchy. The author concludes that research on the health effects of structural racism should go beyond traditional neighborhood effects approaches if it is to guide intervention to reduce racial and ethnic health disparities.

  18. Simulation and Assessment of Whole Life-Cycle Carbon Emission Flows from Different Residential Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rikun Wen

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available To explore the differences in carbon emissions over the whole life-cycle of different building structures, the published calculated carbon emissions from residential buildings in China and abroad were normalized. Embodied carbon emission flows, operations stage carbon emission flows, demolition and reclamation stage carbon emission flows and total life-cycle carbon emission flows from concrete, steel, and wood structures were obtained. This study is based on the theory of the social cost of carbon, with an adequately demonstrated social cost of carbon and social discount rate. Taking into consideration both static and dynamic situations and using a social discount rate of 3.5%, the total life-cycle carbon emission flows, absolute carbon emission and building carbon costs were calculated and assessed. The results indicated that concrete structures had the highest embodied carbon emission flows and negative carbon emission flows in the waste and reclamation stage. Wood structures that started the life-cycle with stored carbon had the lowest carbon emission flows in the operations stage and relatively high negative carbon emission flows in the reclamation stage. Wood structures present the smallest carbon footprints for residential buildings.

  19. Feasibility Study of Residential Grid-Connected Solar Photovoltaic Systems in the State of Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Odeh, Mahmoud

    This study aims to measure the financial viability of installing and using a residential grid-connected PV system in the State of Indiana while predicting its performance in eighteen geographical locations within the state over the system's expected lifetime. The null hypothesis of the study is that installing a PV system for a single family residence in the State of Indiana will not pay for itself within 25 years. Using a systematic approach consisting of six steps, data regarding the use of renewable energy in the State of Indiana was collected from the website of the US Department of Energy to perform feasibility analysis of the installation and use of a standard-sized residential PV system. The researcher was not able to reject the null hypothesis that installing a PV system for a single family residence in the State of Indiana will not pay for itself within 25 years. This study found that the standard PV system does not produce a positive project balance and does not pay for itself within 25 years (the life time of the system) assuming the average cost of a system. The government incentive programs are not enough to offset the cost of installing the system against the cost of the electricity that would not be purchased from the utility company. It can be concluded that the cost of solar PV is higher than the market valuation of the power it produces; thus, solar PV did not compete on the cost basis with the traditional competitive energy sources. Reducing the capital cost will make the standard PV system economically viable in Indiana. The study found that the capital cost for the system should be reduced by 15% - 56%.

  20. The influence of (toll-related) travel costs in residential location decisions of households : A stated choice approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tillema, T.; van Wee, B.; Ettema, D.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the impact of travel costs, in particular toll costs, on the residential location choice of households, using a stated choice survey. Within the stated choice experiment, car drivers that frequently face traffic congestion, traded-off several trip-related (including

  1. Safety climate and workplace violence prevention in state-run residential addiction treatment centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscomb, Jane A; London, M; Chen, Y M; Flannery, K; Watt, M; Geiger-Brown, J; Johnson, J V; McPhaul, K

    2012-01-01

    To examine the association between violence prevention safety climate measures and self reported violence toward staff in state-run residential addiction treatment centers. In mid-2006, 409 staff from an Eastern United States state agency that oversees a system of thirteen residential addiction treatment centers (ATCs) completed a self-administered survey as part of a comprehensive risk assessment. The survey was undertaken to identify and measure facility-level risk factors for violence, including staff perceptions of the quality of existing US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) program elements, and ultimately to guide violence prevention programming. Key informant interviews and staff focus groups provided researchers with qualitative data with which to understand safety climate and violence prevention efforts within these work settings. The frequency with which staff reported experiencing violent behavior ranged from 37% for "clients raised their voices in a threatening way to you" to 1% for "clients pushed, hit, kicked, or struck you". Findings from the staff survey included the following significant predictors of violence: "client actively resisting program" (OR=2.34, 95% CI=1.35, 4.05), "working with clients for whom the history of violence is unknown" (OR=1.91, 95% CI=1.18, 3.09) and "management commitment to violence prevention" reported as "never/hardly ever" and "seldom or sometimes" (OR=4.30 and OR=2.31 respectively), while controlling for other covariates. We utilized a combination of qualitative and quantitative research methods to begin to describe the risk and potential for violence prevention in this setting. The prevalence of staff physical violence within the agency's treatment facilities was lower than would be predicted. Possible explanations include the voluntary nature of treatment programs; strong policies and consequences for resident behavior and ongoing quality improvement efforts. Quantitative data identified low

  2. Chemical behavior of residential lead in urban yards in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elless, M P; Bray, C A; Blaylock, M J

    2007-07-01

    Long after federal regulations banned the use of lead-based paints and leaded gasoline, residential lead remains a persistent challenge. Soil lead is a significant contributor to this hazard and an improved understanding of physicochemical properties is likely to be useful for in situ abatement techniques such as phytoremediation and chemical stabilization. A laboratory characterization of high-lead soils collected from across the United States shows that the lead contaminants were concentrating in the silt and clay fractions, in the form of discrete particles of lead, as observed by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Soil lead varied widely in its solubility behavior as assessed by sequential and chelate extractions. Because site-specific factors (e.g., soil pH, texture, etc.) are believed to govern the solubility of the lead, understanding the variability in these characteristics at each site is necessary to optimize in situ remediation or abatement of these soils.

  3. Study of structural capacity and serviceability affecting the obstruction of residential door

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Forcael

    Full Text Available The last Chilean earthquake, occurred on February 27, 2010, allowed establishing important patterns of structural failures in reinforced concrete residential buildings; however, limited progress has been made in the study of basic standards of serviceability, such as obstruction of doors. Thus, this study focused on measuring the influence of design specifications and construction criteria of lintels and columns, in terms of obstruction of doors, considering capacity thresholds for certain levels of displacement. The study consisted of the design and construction of a full-scale prototype of a reinforced concrete frame, designed in accordance with all the ACI-318-08 requirements, taking into account typical aspects of geometry and materiality widely used by the real estate industry, for location and size of doors. In order to quantify the structural capacity of the prototype and to study the serviceability of the door, a quasi-static cyclic test was conducted, according to load and displacement protocols specified in FEMA 356 and FEMA 461, which was adjusted by using virtual models based on a static nonlinear analysis called "Pushover". This research verified that, for displacement levels even five times higher than those established by codes considered, the cracking degree was minimal and fully recoverable. It was also found the door evidenced malfunction when the displacements were greater than those specified by design only, validating a high degree of accomplishment of current codes, in terms of capacity and serviceability, when dealing with obstruction of residential doors.

  4. Energy Savings and Breakeven Costs for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burch, Jay [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Merrigan, Tim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ong, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently re-emerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, NREL performed simulations of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern United States. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern United States, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  5. Field assessment of the impacts of landscape structure on different-sized airborne particles in residential areas of Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shuxin; Li, Xiaopeng; Han, Jing; Cao, Yu; Dong, Li

    2017-10-01

    In high-density metropolis, residential areas are important human living environments. Aimed at investigating the impacts of landscape structure on the levels of different-sized airborne particle in residential areas, we conducted field monitoring of the levels of TSP, PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 using mobile traverses in 18 residential areas during the daytime in winter (Dec. 2015-Feb. 2016) and summer (Jun.-Aug. 2016) in Beijing, China. The net concentration differences (d) of the four-sized particles (dTSP, dPM10, dPM2.5 and dPM1) between residential environments and nearby corresponding urban backgrounds, which can be regarded as the reduction of particle concentration in residential environments, were calculated. The effects and relative contributions of different landscape structure parameters on these net concentration differences were further investigated. Results showed that the distribution of particle concentrations has great spatial variation in urban environments. Within the residential environment, there were overall lower concentrations of the four-sized particles compared with the nearby urban background. The net concentration differences of the four-sized particles were all significantly different among the 18 studied residential areas. The average dTSP, dPM10, dPM2.5 and dPM1 reached 18.92, 12.28, 2.01 and 0.53 μg/m3 in summer, and 9.91, 7.81, 1.39 and 0.38 μg/m3 in winter, respectively. The impacts and relative contribution of different landscape structure parameters on the reductions of TSP, PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 in residential environments differed and showed seasonal variation. Percentage of vegetation cover (PerVC) and building cover (PerBC) had the greatest impact. A 10% increase in PerVC would increase about 5.03, 8.15, 2.16 and 0.20 μg/m3 of dTSP, dPM10, dPM2.5 and dPM1 in summer, and a 10% increase in PerBC would decreased about 41.37, 16.54, 2.47 and 0.95 μg/m3 of them in winter. Increased vegetation coverage and decreased building

  6. Energy Savings and Breakeven Cost for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.

    2013-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, simulations were performed of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern US. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern US, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  7. Exploring the impact of permitting and local regulatory processes on residential solar prices in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhardt, Jesse; Wiser, Ryan; Darghouth, Naïm; Dong, C.G.; Huneycutt, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    This article statistically isolates the impacts of city-level permitting and other local regulatory processes on residential PV prices in the United States. We combine data from two “scoring” mechanisms that independently capture local regulatory process efficiency with the largest dataset of installed PV prices in the United States. We find that variations in local permitting procedures can lead to differences in average residential PV prices of approximately $0.18/W between the jurisdictions with the least-favorable and most-favorable permitting procedures. Between jurisdictions with scores across the middle 90% of the range (i.e., 5th percentile to 95th percentile), the difference is $0.14/W, equivalent to a $700 (2.2%) difference in system costs for a typical 5-kW residential PV installation. When considering variations not only in permitting practices, but also in other local regulatory procedures, price differences grow to $0.64–$0.93/W between the least-favorable and most-favorable jurisdictions. Between jurisdictions with scores across the middle 90% of the range, the difference is equivalent to a price impact of at least $2500 (8%) for a typical 5-kW residential PV installation. These results highlight the magnitude of cost reduction that might be expected from streamlining local regulatory regimes. - Highlights: • We show local regulatory processes meaningfully affect U.S. residential PV prices. • We use regression analysis and two mechanisms for “scoring” regulatory efficiency. • Local permitting procedure variations can produce PV price differences of $0.18/W. • Broader regulatory variations can produce PV price differences of $0.64–$0.93/W. • The results suggest the cost-reduction potential of streamlining local regulations

  8. Do homes that are more energy efficient consume less energy?: A structural equation model of the English residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Energy consumption from the residential sector is a complex socio-technical problem that can be explained using a combination of physical, demographic and behavioural characteristics of a dwelling and its occupants. A structural equation model (SEM) is introduced to calculate the magnitude and significance of explanatory variables on residential energy consumption. The benefit of this approach is that it explains the complex relationships that exist between manifest variables and their overall effect though direct, indirect and total effects. Using the English House Condition Survey (EHCS) consisting of 2531 unique cases, the main drivers behind residential energy consumption are found to be the number of household occupants, floor area, household income, dwelling efficiency (SAP), household heating patterns and living room temperature. In the multivariate case, SAP explains very little of the variance of residential energy consumption. However, this procedure fails to account for simultaneity bias between energy consumption and SAP. Using SEM its shown that dwelling energy efficiency (SAP), has reciprocal causality with dwelling energy consumption and the magnitude of these two effects are calculable. When non-recursivity between SAP and energy consumption is allowed for, SAP is shown to have a negative effect on energy consumption but conversely, homes with a propensity to consume more energy also have higher SAP rates. -- Highlights: → A Structural Equation Model (SEM) is developed to explain residential energy demand. → Key variables that drive residential energy consumption are empirically identified. → Direct, indirect and total effects are determined. → It is found that occupancy and household income are strongly mediated by floor area. → A non-recursive relationship is found to exist between energy consumption and SAP.

  9. Impacts of global warming on residential heating and cooling degree-days in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, Yana; Caldeira, Ken

    2015-08-04

    Climate change is expected to decrease heating demand and increase cooling demand for buildings and affect outdoor thermal comfort. Here, we project changes in residential heating degree-days (HDD) and cooling degree-days (CDD) for the historical (1981-2010) and future (2080-2099) periods in the United States using median results from the Climate Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) simulations under the Representation Concentration Pathway 8.5 (RCP8.5) scenario. We project future HDD and CDD values by adding CMIP5 projected changes to values based on historical observations of US climate. The sum HDD + CDD is an indicator of locations that are thermally comfortable, with low heating and cooling demand. By the end of the century, station median HDD + CDD will be reduced in the contiguous US, decreasing in the North and increasing in the South. Under the unmitigated RCP8.5 scenario, by the end of this century, in terms of HDD and CDD values considered separately, future New York, NY, is anticipated to become more like present Oklahoma City, OK; Denver, CO, becomes more like Raleigh, NC, and Seattle, WA, becomes more like San Jose, CA. These results serve as an indicator of projected climate change and can help inform decision-making.

  10. Chemical behavior of residential lead in urban yards in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elless, M.P.; Bray, C.A.; Blaylock, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Long after federal regulations banned the use of lead-based paints and leaded gasoline, residential lead remains a persistent challenge. Soil lead is a significant contributor to this hazard and an improved understanding of physicochemical properties is likely to be useful for in situ abatement techniques such as phytoremediation and chemical stabilization. A laboratory characterization of high-lead soils collected from across the United States shows that the lead contaminants were concentrating in the silt and clay fractions, in the form of discrete particles of lead, as observed by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Soil lead varied widely in its solubility behavior as assessed by sequential and chelate extractions. Because site-specific factors (e.g., soil pH, texture, etc.) are believed to govern the solubility of the lead, understanding the variability in these characteristics at each site is necessary to optimize in situ remediation or abatement of these soils. - Site-specific solubility behavior of lead in soils has important implications for the selection of remediation approaches

  11. Impacts of global warming on residential heating and cooling degree-days in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, Yana; Caldeira, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is expected to decrease heating demand and increase cooling demand for buildings and affect outdoor thermal comfort. Here, we project changes in residential heating degree-days (HDD) and cooling degree-days (CDD) for the historical (1981–2010) and future (2080–2099) periods in the United States using median results from the Climate Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) simulations under the Representation Concentration Pathway 8.5 (RCP8.5) scenario. We project future HDD and CDD values by adding CMIP5 projected changes to values based on historical observations of US climate. The sum HDD + CDD is an indicator of locations that are thermally comfortable, with low heating and cooling demand. By the end of the century, station median HDD + CDD will be reduced in the contiguous US, decreasing in the North and increasing in the South. Under the unmitigated RCP8.5 scenario, by the end of this century, in terms of HDD and CDD values considered separately, future New York, NY, is anticipated to become more like present Oklahoma City, OK; Denver, CO, becomes more like Raleigh, NC, and Seattle, WA, becomes more like San Jose, CA. These results serve as an indicator of projected climate change and can help inform decision-making. PMID:26238673

  12. EnviroAtlas - Residential vacancy rate by Census Tract for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset portrays the vacancy rate for residential addresses for each Census Tract for each year from 2010-2014. Vacant buildings are included if...

  13. Comparison of mental health, happiness, and emotion control with adolescents’ residential centers of state welfare organization and family reared adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laila Bawi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Many research indicated that adolescents’ residential centers have the high possibility to diagnose with psychological disorders. Therefore, the aim of this study was investigated the mental health, happiness and emotion control among adolescents’ residential centers of state welfare organization.Materials and Methods: This research is a causal –comparative research. The 80 adolescents’ residential centers were chosen through available sampling and 80 adolescents of schools of Alborz city were selected through cluster method. Statistical analysis was conducted by using the independent t-test. The research instruments were Emotion Control Questionnaire (ECQ, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ, Goldenberg, and Oxford Happiness Inventory (OHI.Results: The significantly different was observed in mental health, happiness and emotion control between two adolescents groups (p<0.05.Conclusion: The results indicate that the institutional-reared decrease the level of mental health, happiness and emotion control in adolescents. Thus, counselors should be considered these factors in therapeutic intervention to enhancing the mental health of adolescents’ residential centers.

  14. Learning from the implementation of residential optional time of use pricing in the United States electricity industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xibao

    Residential time-of-use (TOU) rates have been in practice in the U.S. since the 1970s. However, for institutional, political, and regulatory reasons, only a very small proportion of residential customers are actually on these schedules. In this thesis, I explore why this is the case by empirically investigating two groups of questions: (1) On the "supply" side: Do utilities choose to offer TOU rates in residential sectors on their own initiative if state commissions do not order them to do so? Since utilities have other options, what is the relationship between the TOU rate and other alternatives? To answer these questions, I survey residential tariffs offered by more than 100 major investor-owned utilities, study the impact of various factors on utilities' rate-making behavior, and examine utility revealed preferences among four rate options: seasonal rates, inverted block rates, demand charges, and TOU rates. Estimated results suggest that the scale of residential sectors and the revenue contribution from residential sectors are the only two significant factors that influence utility decisions on offering TOU rates. Technical and economic considerations are not significant statistically. This implies that the little acceptance of TOU rates is partly attributed to utilities' inadequate attention to TOU rate design. (2) On the "demand" side: For utilities offering TOU tariffs, why do only a very small proportion of residential customers choose these tariffs? What factors influence customer choices? Unlike previous studies that used individual-level experimental data, this research employs actual aggregated information from 29 utilities offering optional TOU rates. By incorporating neo-classical demand analysis into an aggregated random coefficient logit model, I investigate the impact of both price and non-price tariff characteristics and non-tariff factors on customer choice behavior. The analysis indicates that customer pure tariff preference (which captures the

  15. Structural Risk Assessment and Mitigation for Low- to Mid-Rise Residential Buildings in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasim A. Korkmaz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available China has experienced major earthquakes recently. The 2014 Ludian earthquake struck Ludian County, Yunnan, (Mw = 6.1 on 3 August, 2014. On April 20th 2013, Ya’an earthquake (Mw = 6.9, on April 14th 2010, Qinghai earthquake (Mw = 7.1, on July 9th 2009, Yunnan earthquake (Mw = 6.0, and on May 12th 2008, Sichuan earthquake (Mw = 7.9 struck China. Among these disasters, the most devastating, the Sichuan earthquake, resulted in the collapse of 5 million buildings and damage to more than 21 million. Human loss was also high with over 60,000 people dead, 360,000 injured, and more than 14 million people displaced. South-west China lies in an area that is prone to earthquakes. In 1970, a magnitude 7.7 earthquake in Yunnan with 15,000 lost. This study presents a detailed risk assessment for a structural risk assessment and mitigation for low- to mid-rise residential buildings for China. The risk assessment, through seismic hazard assessment approaches, evaluates the impact of the disasters for integrated structural health monitoring. Among the results of the investigation, relations and links between safety and risk are defined.

  16. Experimental shielding evaluation of the radiation protection provided by the structurally significant components of residential structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, E D; Hamby, D M

    2014-03-01

    The human health and environmental effects following a postulated accidental release of radioactive material to the environment have been a public and regulatory concern since the early development of nuclear technology. These postulated releases have been researched extensively to better understand the potential risks for accident mitigation and emergency planning purposes. The objective of this investigation is to provide an updated technical basis for contemporary building shielding factors for the US housing stock. Building shielding factors quantify the protection from ionising radiation provided by a certain building type. Much of the current data used to determine the quality of shielding around nuclear facilities and urban environments is based on simplistic point-kernel calculations for 1950s era suburbia and is no longer applicable to the densely populated urban environments realised today. To analyse a building's radiation shielding properties, the ideal approach would be to subject a variety of building types to various radioactive sources and measure the radiation levels in and around the building. While this is not entirely practicable, this research analyses the shielding effectiveness of ten structurally significant US housing-stock models (walls and roofs) important for shielding against ionising radiation. The experimental data are used to benchmark computational models to calculate the shielding effectiveness of various building configurations under investigation from two types of realistic environmental source terms. Various combinations of these ten shielding models can be used to develop full-scale computational housing-unit models for building shielding factor calculations representing 69.6 million housing units (61.3%) in the United States. Results produced in this investigation provide a comparison between theory and experiment behind building shielding factor methodology.

  17. Experimental shielding evaluation of the radiation protection provided by the structurally significant components of residential structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, E D; Hamby, D M

    2014-01-01

    The human health and environmental effects following a postulated accidental release of radioactive material to the environment have been a public and regulatory concern since the early development of nuclear technology. These postulated releases have been researched extensively to better understand the potential risks for accident mitigation and emergency planning purposes. The objective of this investigation is to provide an updated technical basis for contemporary building shielding factors for the US housing stock. Building shielding factors quantify the protection from ionising radiation provided by a certain building type. Much of the current data used to determine the quality of shielding around nuclear facilities and urban environments is based on simplistic point-kernel calculations for 1950s era suburbia and is no longer applicable to the densely populated urban environments realised today. To analyse a building’s radiation shielding properties, the ideal approach would be to subject a variety of building types to various radioactive sources and measure the radiation levels in and around the building. While this is not entirely practicable, this research analyses the shielding effectiveness of ten structurally significant US housing-stock models (walls and roofs) important for shielding against ionising radiation. The experimental data are used to benchmark computational models to calculate the shielding effectiveness of various building configurations under investigation from two types of realistic environmental source terms. Various combinations of these ten shielding models can be used to develop full-scale computational housing-unit models for building shielding factor calculations representing 69.6 million housing units (61.3%) in the United States. Results produced in this investigation provide a comparison between theory and experiment behind building shielding factor methodology. (paper)

  18. Residential energy use in Mexico: Structure, evolution, environmental impacts, and savings potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masera, O.; Friedmann, R.; deBuen, O.

    1993-05-01

    This article examines the characteristics of residential energy use in Mexico, its environmental impacts, and the savings potential of the major end-uses. The main options and barriers to increase the efficiency of energy use are discussed. The energy analysis is based on a disaggregation of residential energy use by end-uses. The dynamics of the evolution of the residential energy sector during the past 20 years are also addressed when the information is available. Major areas for research and for innovative decision-making are identified and prioritized.

  19. Assisted Living Facilities - CARE_LONG_TERM_FACILITIES_ISDH_IN: Residential Care Facilities, Nursing Homes, and Hospices in Indiana in 2007 (Indiana State Department of Health, Point Shapefile)

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC State | GIS Inventory — CARE_LONG_TERM_FACILITIES_ISDH_IN is a point shapefile showing the locations of 86 residential care facilities, 525 long-term care facilities (nursing homes), and 81...

  20. Unsightly urban menaces and the rescaling of residential segregation in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, James

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author uses a slum clearance project in Lexington, Kentucky, as a lens through which to examine the spatial dynamics of racial residential segregation during the first half of the twentieth century. At the time, urban migration and upward socioeconomic mobility on the part of African Americans destabilized extant residential segregation patterns. Amid this instability, various spatial practices were employed in the interest of maintaining white social and economic supremacy. The author argues that such practices were indicative of a thoroughgoing reinvention of urban socio-spatial order that in turn precipitated the vastly expanded scale of residential segregation still found in U.S. cities today. Evidence of this reinvented ordering of urban space lies in the rendering of some long-standing African American neighborhoods as “out of place” within it and the use of slum clearance to remove the “menace” such neighborhoods posed to it.

  1. Changing state structures: Outside in

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasner, Stephen D.

    2011-01-01

    In explaining the development of institutional structures within states, social science analysis has focused on autochthonous factors and paid less attention to the way in which external factors, especially purposive agent-directed as opposed to more general environmental factors, can influence domestic authority structures. For international relations scholarship, this lacunae is particularly troubling or perhaps, just weird. If the international system is anarchical, then political leaders can pursue any policy option. In some cases, the most attractive option would be conventional state to state interactions, diplomacy, or war. In other instances, however, changing the domestic authority structures of other states might be more appealing. In some cases, domestic authority structures have been influenced through bargaining, and in others through power. Power may reflect either explicit agent-oriented decisions or social processes that reflect the practices, values, and norms of more powerful entities. PMID:22198756

  2. Renewable energy rebound effect?: Estimating the impact of state renewable energy financial incentives on residential electricity consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Beth A.

    Climate change is a well-documented phenomenon. If left unchecked greenhouse gas emissions will continue global surface warming, likely leading to severe and irreversible impacts. Generating renewable energy has become an increasingly salient topic in energy policy as it may mitigate the impact of climate change. State renewable energy financial incentives have been in place since the mid-1970s in some states and over 40 states have adopted one or more incentives at some point since then. Using multivariate linear and fixed effects regression for the years 2002 through 2012, I estimate the relationship between state renewable energy financial incentives and residential electricity consumption, along with the associated policy implications. My hypothesis is that a renewable energy rebound effect is present; therefore, states with renewable energy financial incentives have a higher rate of residential electricity consumption. I find a renewable energy rebound effect is present in varying degrees for each model, but the results do not definitively indicate how particular incentives influence consumer behavior. States should use caution when adopting and keeping renewable energy financial incentives as this may increase consumption in the short-term. The long-term impact is unclear, making it worthwhile for policymakers to continue studying the potential for renewable energy financial incentives to alter consumer behavior.

  3. Residential Folk High Schools in Eastern Europe and the Baltic States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulich, Jindra

    2002-01-01

    In Eastern Europe, Poland has the longest history of folk high schools. Although closed in Hungary during the 1950s, folk high schools have recently reemerged. There were attempts to establish them in Estonia, Lithuania, and Latvia following independence. Although the residential aspect of folk schools is desirable, economic and social conditions…

  4. The state of the residential fire fatality problem in Sweden: Epidemiology, risk factors, and event typologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Anders; Bonander, Carl; Nilson, Finn; Huss, Fredrik

    2017-09-01

    Residential fires represent the largest category of fatal fires in Sweden. The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiology of fatal residential fires in Sweden and to identify clusters of events. Data was collected from a database that combines information on fatal fires with data from forensic examinations and the Swedish Cause of Death-register. Mortality rates were calculated for different strata using population statistics and rescue service turnout reports. Cluster analysis was performed using multiple correspondence analysis with agglomerative hierarchical clustering. Male sex, old age, smoking, and alcohol were identified as risk factors, and the most common primary injury diagnosis was exposure to toxic gases. Compared to non-fatal fires, fatal residential fires more often originated in the bedroom, were more often caused by smoking, and were more likely to occur at night. Six clusters were identified. The first two clusters were both smoking-related, but were separated into (1) fatalities that often involved elderly people, usually female, whose clothes were ignited (17% of the sample), (2) middle-aged (45-64years old), (often) intoxicated men, where the fire usually originated in furniture (30%). Other clusters that were identified in the analysis were related to (3) fires caused by technical fault, started in electrical installations in single houses (13%), (4) cooking appliances left on (8%), (5) events with unknown cause, room and object of origin (25%), and (6) deliberately set fires (7%). Fatal residential fires were unevenly distributed in the Swedish population. To further reduce the incidence of fire mortality, specialized prevention efforts that focus on the different needs of each cluster are required. Cooperation between various societal functions, e.g. rescue services, elderly care, psychiatric clinics and other social services, with an application of both human and technological interventions, should reduce residential fire

  5. Flood loss modelling with FLF-IT: a new flood loss function for Italian residential structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasanzadeh Nafari, Roozbeh; Amadio, Mattia; Ngo, Tuan; Mysiak, Jaroslav

    2017-07-01

    The damage triggered by different flood events costs the Italian economy millions of euros each year. This cost is likely to increase in the future due to climate variability and economic development. In order to avoid or reduce such significant financial losses, risk management requires tools which can provide a reliable estimate of potential flood impacts across the country. Flood loss functions are an internationally accepted method for estimating physical flood damage in urban areas. In this study, we derived a new flood loss function for Italian residential structures (FLF-IT), on the basis of empirical damage data collected from a recent flood event in the region of Emilia-Romagna. The function was developed based on a new Australian approach (FLFA), which represents the confidence limits that exist around the parameterized functional depth-damage relationship. After model calibration, the performance of the model was validated for the prediction of loss ratios and absolute damage values. It was also contrasted with an uncalibrated relative model with frequent usage in Europe. In this regard, a three-fold cross-validation procedure was carried out over the empirical sample to measure the range of uncertainty from the actual damage data. The predictive capability has also been studied for some sub-classes of water depth. The validation procedure shows that the newly derived function performs well (no bias and only 10 % mean absolute error), especially when the water depth is high. Results of these validation tests illustrate the importance of model calibration. The advantages of the FLF-IT model over other Italian models include calibration with empirical data, consideration of the epistemic uncertainty of data, and the ability to change parameters based on building practices across Italy.

  6. Flood loss modelling with FLF-IT: a new flood loss function for Italian residential structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Hasanzadeh Nafari

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The damage triggered by different flood events costs the Italian economy millions of euros each year. This cost is likely to increase in the future due to climate variability and economic development. In order to avoid or reduce such significant financial losses, risk management requires tools which can provide a reliable estimate of potential flood impacts across the country. Flood loss functions are an internationally accepted method for estimating physical flood damage in urban areas. In this study, we derived a new flood loss function for Italian residential structures (FLF-IT, on the basis of empirical damage data collected from a recent flood event in the region of Emilia-Romagna. The function was developed based on a new Australian approach (FLFA, which represents the confidence limits that exist around the parameterized functional depth–damage relationship. After model calibration, the performance of the model was validated for the prediction of loss ratios and absolute damage values. It was also contrasted with an uncalibrated relative model with frequent usage in Europe. In this regard, a three-fold cross-validation procedure was carried out over the empirical sample to measure the range of uncertainty from the actual damage data. The predictive capability has also been studied for some sub-classes of water depth. The validation procedure shows that the newly derived function performs well (no bias and only 10 % mean absolute error, especially when the water depth is high. Results of these validation tests illustrate the importance of model calibration. The advantages of the FLF-IT model over other Italian models include calibration with empirical data, consideration of the epistemic uncertainty of data, and the ability to change parameters based on building practices across Italy.

  7. Estimating State-Specific Contributions to PM2.5- and O3-Related Health Burden from Residential Combustion and Electricity Generating Unit Emissions in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Stefani L; Arunachalam, Saravanan; Woody, Matthew; Heiger-Bernays, Wendy; Tripodis, Yorghos; Levy, Jonathan I

    2017-03-01

    Residential combustion (RC) and electricity generating unit (EGU) emissions adversely impact air quality and human health by increasing ambient concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and ozone (O 3 ). Studies to date have not isolated contributing emissions by state of origin (source-state), which is necessary for policy makers to determine efficient strategies to decrease health impacts. In this study, we aimed to estimate health impacts (premature mortalities) attributable to PM 2.5 and O 3 from RC and EGU emissions by precursor species, source sector, and source-state in the continental United States for 2005. We used the Community Multiscale Air Quality model employing the decoupled direct method to quantify changes in air quality and epidemiological evidence to determine concentration-response functions to calculate associated health impacts. We estimated 21,000 premature mortalities per year from EGU emissions, driven by sulfur dioxide emissions forming PM 2.5 . More than half of EGU health impacts are attributable to emissions from eight states with significant coal combustion and large downwind populations. We estimate 10,000 premature mortalities per year from RC emissions, driven by primary PM 2.5 emissions. States with large populations and significant residential wood combustion dominate RC health impacts. Annual mortality risk per thousand tons of precursor emissions (health damage functions) varied significantly across source-states for both source sectors and all precursor pollutants. Our findings reinforce the importance of pollutant-specific, location-specific, and source-specific models of health impacts in design of health-risk minimizing emissions control policies. Citation: Penn SL, Arunachalam S, Woody M, Heiger-Bernays W, Tripodis Y, Levy JI. 2017. Estimating state-specific contributions to PM 2.5 - and O 3 -related health burden from residential combustion and electricity generating unit emissions in the United States. Environ

  8. Residential fuelwood assessment, state of Minnesota, 2007-2008 heating season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimi Barzen; Ronald Piva; Chun Yi Wy; Rich. Dahlman

    2009-01-01

    During the spring and summer of 2008, the cooperating partners conducted a survey to determine the volume of residential fuelwood burned during the 2007-2008 heating season. Similar surveys were conducted for the 1960, 1969-1970, 1979-1980, 1984-1985, 1988-1989, 1995-1996, and 2002-2003 heating seasons. These surveys are part of a long-term effort to monitor trends in...

  9. Combined assessment of the environmental, economic and social impacts of structural solutions for residential construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraile-García, E.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Sustainable development in construction is based on three fundamental pillars: economic, environmental and social. This type of approach aims to identify the best possible solutions for sustainably developing structures by conducting a joint evaluation of the impact on those three pillars. The proposed methodology incorporates metadata on the Spanish construction sector. First, a discrete database is generated with 360 alternatives covering a range of common solutions in residential building. A Pareto algorithm is utilized to select the optimal choices and the wide range of solutions is reduced to the 5 % of the initial group. The project manager is therefore provided with an objective assessment of suitable structural alternatives including the overall joint economic, social, and environmental impact. The results obtained demonstrate the importance and utility of the proposed methodology for sustainable construction.El desarrollo sostenible aplicado a la construcción se basa en tres pilares fundamentales: económico, medioambiental y social. El objetivo principal es identificar las mejores soluciones en términos de desarrollo sostenible de alternativas estructurales a partir de la evaluación conjunta de los impactos en dichos pilares. La metodología propuesta incorpora metadatos con información del sector de la construcción en España. Primero se genera una base de datos discreta de 360 alternativas estructurales que cubren el rango de soluciones habituales en edificación residencial. La selección de alternativas óptimas se realiza mediante el algoritmo de Pareto. El abanico de soluciones se reduce al 5 % de las iniciales. Se aporta una valoración objetiva que orienta al proyectista en la selección de alternativas estructurales idóneas, visualizando de forma conjunta el impacto económico, social y ambiental. Los resultados obtenidos muestran la importancia y utilidad de la metodología propuesta en el campo de la construcci

  10. Break-Even Cost for Residential Solar Water Heating in the United States: Key Drivers and Sensitivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassard, H.; Denholm, P.; Ong, S.

    2011-02-01

    This paper examines the break-even cost for residential rooftop solar water heating (SWH) technology, defined as the point where the cost of the energy saved with a SWH system equals the cost of a conventional heating fuel purchased from the grid (either electricity or natural gas). We examine the break-even cost for the largest 1,000 electric and natural gas utilities serving residential customers in the United States as of 2008. Currently, the break-even cost of SWH in the United States varies by more than a factor of five for both electricity and natural gas, despite a much smaller variation in the amount of energy saved by the systems (a factor of approximately one and a half). The break-even price for natural gas is lower than that for electricity due to a lower fuel cost. We also consider the relationship between SWH price and solar fraction and examine the key drivers behind break-even costs. Overall, the key drivers of the break-even cost of SWH are a combination of fuel price, local incentives, and technical factors including the solar resource location, system size, and hot water draw.

  11. 24 CFR 40.2 - Definition of “residential structure”.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OWNED RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES § 40.2 Definition of “residential structure”. (a) As used in this part, the term residential structure means a residential structure (other than a privately owned residential structure and a residential structure on a military reservation): (1) Constructed or altered by or on behalf...

  12. The role of defensible space for residential structure protection during wildfires

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syphard, Alexandra D.; Brennan, Teresa J.; Keeley, Jon E.

    2014-01-01

    With the potential for worsening fire conditions, discussion is escalating over how to best reduce effects on urban communities. A widely supported strategy is the creation of defensible space immediately surrounding homes and other structures. Although state and local governments publish specific guidelines and requirements, there is little empirical evidence to suggest how much vegetation modification is needed to provide significant benefits. We analysed the role of defensible space by mapping and measuring a suite of variables on modern pre-fire aerial photography for 1000 destroyed and 1000 surviving structures for all fires where homes burned from 2001 to 2010 in San Diego County, CA, USA. Structures were more likely to survive a fire with defensible space immediately adjacent to them. The most effective treatment distance varied between 5 and 20 m (16–58 ft) from the structure, but distances larger than 30 m (100 ft) did not provide additional protection, even for structures located on steep slopes. The most effective actions were reducing woody cover up to 40% immediately adjacent to structures and ensuring that vegetation does not overhang or touch the structure. Multiple-regression models showed landscape-scale factors, including low housing density and distances to major roads, were more important in explaining structure destruction. The best long-term solution will involve a suite of prevention measures that include defensible space as well as building design approach, community education and proactive land use planning that limits exposure to fire.

  13. Models for predicting turnover of residential aged care nurses: a structural equation modelling analysis of secondary data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fengsong; Newcombe, Peter; Tilse, Cheryl; Wilson, Jill; Tuckett, Anthony

    2014-09-01

    Nurse turnover in the residential aged care industry is a pressing issue. Researchers have shown ongoing interest in exploring how the factors that are amendable to change in aged care policy, regulation and funding and in organizational procedures (e.g. job demands, coping resources and psychological health of nurses) impact on turnover. However, the findings are mixed. This study tested two theoretical models of turnover to examine the structural relationships among job demands, coping resources, psychological health and turnover of residential aged care nurses. Although many previous studies operationalized turnover as intention to leave, the present study investigated actual turnover by following up with the same individuals over time, and thus provided more accurate predictive models of turnover behaviour. The sample, 239 Australian residential aged care nurses, came from the Nurses and Midwives e-cohort Study. Job demands, coping resources, and psychological health were measured using standardized instruments. Structural equation modelling was used to test the measurement and structural models. Controlling for a number of workforce and individual characteristics, coping resources (measured by job control, supervisor support, and co-worker support) were negatively and directly associated with turnover. Additionally, the findings supported the Job Demand-Control-Support model in that higher coping resources and lower job demands (indicated by psychological demands, physical demands, and effort) were related to better psychological health (measured by vitality, social functioning, role emotional, and mental health), and higher job demands were related to lower coping resources. Findings suggest that aged care policy makers and service providers might consider increasing coping resources available to nurses and minimizing job demands of care work to reduce turnover and improve nurses' psychological health. Moreover, findings from this Australian study may provide

  14. Nuclear structure with coherent states

    CERN Document Server

    Raduta, Apolodor Aristotel

    2015-01-01

    This book covers the essential features of a large variety of nuclear structure properties, both collective and microscopic in nature. Most of results are given in an analytical form thus giving deep insight into the relevant phenomena. Using coherent states as variational states, which allows a description in the classical phase space, or provides the generating function for a boson basis, is an efficient tool to account, in a realistic fashion, for many complex properties. A detailed comparison with all existing nuclear structure models provides readers with a proper framework and, at the same time, demonstrates the prospects for new developments. The topics addressed are very much of current concern in the field. The book will appeal to practicing researchers and, due to its self-contained account, can also be successfully read and used by new graduate students.

  15. Ambient Air Quality Assessment of Al-Mansoriah Residential Area in the State of Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Al-Salem

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Air quality data (ground level ozone (O3 , non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC, methane (CH4 , nitrogen oxide (NO, nitrogen dioxide (NO2 , carbon monoxide (CO, hydrogen sulfide (H2 S and sulfur dioxide (SO2 of a Kuwaiti residential area, Al-Mansoriah, were analyzed to evaluate and determine: (a the exceedances of air quality from permissible limits set by the Kuwait Environment Public Authority (KUEPA, (b the diurnal patterns of air pollutants, (c the predominant sources of airborne pollutants in the surrounding area, and (d the ''weekend effect'' on ozone levels. The dataset covered the period of five consecutive years, from January 2000 to December 2004. High levels of ozone were witnessed; recording a number of exceedances. Inhabitants of Al-Mansoriah were exposed, during the period of study, to acute and chronic levels of SO2 . Concerning NMHC, the permissible limit (0.24 ppm- rolling average between 6-9 am, was violated in each of the monitoring years. NO diurnal pattern showed two distinct strong peaks during the months from October to March, in which the low solar radiation does not cause intense photochemical reactions, which lead to NO destruction. A clear H2 S source (considered as a primary one was witnessed from Kuwait city (Sharq district. The backed up sewage lines and maintenance work coinciding with study period clearly affected Al- Mansoriah. A clear "weekend effect", in terms of difference in levels occurring during midweek and weekends, was ascertained. The analysis suggests that Al-Mansoriah residential area should be considered a NOx sensitive region of Kuwait.

  16. Structural Concept and Analysis of a 17-Story Multifunctional Residential Complex with and without Seismic Isolation System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melkumyan, Mikayel; Gevorgyan, Emma

    2008-01-01

    In recent years seismic isolation technologies in Armenia were extensively applied in construction of multistory buildings. These are 10-17-story residential complexes with parking floors and with floors envisaged for offices, shopping centers, fitness clubs, etc. Also there is a 20-story business centre designed in 2006, which is currently under construction. All mentioned complexes are briefly described in the paper, which is, however, mainly dedicated to the 17-story residential complex designed in 2007. The structural concept, including the new approach on installation of seismic isolation rubber bearings in this building, is described and detailed results of the earthquake response analysis for two cases, i.e. when the building is base isolated and when it has a fixed base, are given. Several time histories were used in the analysis and for both cases the building was analyzed also according to the requirements of the Armenian Seismic Code. Comparison of the obtained results indicates the high effectiveness of the proposed structural concept of isolation system and the need for further improvement of Seismic Code provisions regarding the values of the reduction factors

  17. Comparative economic analysis of supporting policies for residential solar PV in the United States: Solar Renewable Energy Credit (SREC) potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, John Edward; Kang, Jin-Su

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies and market reports suggest that the solar photovoltaic markets rely heavily, if not entirely, upon governmental support policies at present. Unlike in other countries where these policies are enacted at a national level, the 50 states in the US pursue different policies in an attempt to foster the growth of renewable energy, and specifically solar photovoltaics. This paper provides an economic and financial analysis of the US federal and state level policies in states with solar-targeted policies that have markets. After putting a value on SRECs, this study further compares solar carve-outs with other incentives including the federal tax credit, net metering, and state personal tax credits. Our findings show that SREC markets can certainly be strong, with New Jersey, Delaware, and Massachusetts having the most potential. Despite their strong potential as effective renewable policies, the lack of a guaranteed minimum and the uncertainty attached are major drawbacks of SREC markets. However, the leveraging of this high value offers hope that the policies will indeed stimulate residential solar photovoltaic markets. - Highlights: ► We measure solar support incentives in eight US states with set-asides that include SREC policies. ► Compare each financial incentive using DCF, NPV, IRR, and Present Value/Watt-capacity. ► Most US SREC markets have strong potential to stimulate solar photovoltaics. ► SREC success requires price floors to alleviate uncertainty issues. ► Private financial entities can leverage SRECs to provide necessary price floors.

  18. Transition state structures in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertran, J.; Lluch, J. M.; Gonzalez-Lafont, A.; Dillet, V.; Perez, V.

    1995-01-01

    In the present paper the location of transition state structures for reactions in solution has been studied. Continuum model calculations have been carried out on the Friedel-Crafts alkylation reaction and a proton transfer through a water molecule between two oxygen atoms in formic acid. In this model the separation between the chemical system and the solvent has been introduced. On the other hand, the discrete Monte Carlo methodology has also been used to simulate the solvent effect on dissociative electron transfer processes. In this model, the hypothesis of separability is not assumed. Finally, the validity of both approaches is discussed

  19. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

    2009-05-06

    New single-family home construction represents a significant and important market for the introduction of energy-efficient gas-fired space heating and water-heating equipment. In the new construction market, the choice of furnace and water-heater type is primarily driven by first cost considerations and the availability of power vent and condensing water heaters. Few analysis have been performed to assess the economic impacts of the different combinations of space and water-heating equipment. Thus, equipment is often installed without taking into consideration the potential economic and energy savings of installing space and water-heating equipment combinations. In this study, we use a life-cycle cost analysis that accounts for uncertainty and variability of the analysis inputs to assess the economic benefits of gas furnace and water-heater design combinations. This study accounts not only for the equipment cost but also for the cost of installing, maintaining, repairing, and operating the equipment over its lifetime. Overall, this study, which is focused on US single-family new construction households that install gas furnaces and storage water heaters, finds that installing a condensing or power-vent water heater together with condensing furnace is the most cost-effective option for the majority of these houses. Furthermore, the findings suggest that the new construction residential market could be a target market for the large-scale introduction of a combination of condensing or power-vent water heaters with condensing furnaces.

  20. The greenhouse gas and energy impacts of using wood instead of alternatives in residential construction in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upton, Brad; Miner, Reid; Spinney, Mike; Heath, Linda S.

    2008-01-01

    Data developed by the Consortium for Research on Renewable Industrial Materials were used to estimate savings of greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption associated with use of wood-based building materials in residential construction in the United States. Results indicate that houses with wood-based wall systems require 15-16% less total energy for non-heating/cooling purposes than thermally comparable houses employing alternative steel- or concrete-based building systems. Results for non-renewable energy consumption are essentially the same as those for total energy, reflecting the fact that most of the displaced energy is in fossil fuels. Over a 100-year period, net greenhouse gas emissions associated with wood-based houses are 20-50% lower than emissions associated with thermally comparable houses employing steel- or concrete-based building systems. Assuming 1.5 million single-family housing starts per year, the difference between wood and non-wood building systems represents about 9.6 Mt of CO 2 equivalents per year. The corresponding energy benefit associated with wood-based building materials is approximately 132 PJ year -1 . These estimates represent about 22% of embodied energy and 27% of embodied greenhouse gas emissions in the residential sector of the US economy. The results of the analysis are very sensitive to assumptions and uncertainties regarding the fate of forestland that is taken out of wood production due to reduced demand for wood, the continued production of co-products where demand for wood products is reduced, and the rate at which carbon accumulates in forests

  1. Race/Ethnicity, Socioeconomic Status, Residential Segregation, and Spatial Variation in Noise Exposure in the Contiguous United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Joan A; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Mennitt, Daniel J; Fristrup, Kurt; Ogburn, Elizabeth L; James, Peter

    2017-07-25

    Prior research has reported disparities in environmental exposures in the United States, but, to our knowledge, no nationwide studies have assessed inequality in noise pollution. We aimed to a ) assess racial/ethnic and socioeconomic inequalities in noise pollution in the contiguous United States; and b ) consider the modifying role of metropolitan level racial residential segregation. We used a geospatial sound model to estimate census block group–level median (L 50 ) nighttime and daytime noise exposure and 90th percentile (L 10 ) daytime noise exposure. Block group variables from the 2006–2010 American Community Survey (ACS) included race/ethnicity, education, income, poverty, unemployment, homeownership, and linguistic isolation. We estimated associations using polynomial terms in spatial error models adjusted for total population and population density. We also evaluated the relationship between race/ethnicity and noise, stratified by levels of metropolitan area racial residential segregation, classified using a multigroup dissimilarity index. Generally, estimated nighttime and daytime noise levels were higher for census block groups with higher proportions of nonwhite and lower-socioeconomic status (SES) residents. For example, estimated nighttime noise levels in urban block groups with 75% vs. 0% black residents were 46.3 A-weighted decibels (dBA) [interquartile range (IQR): 44.3–47.8 dBA] and 42.3 dBA (IQR: 40.4–45.5 dBA), respectively. In urban block groups with 50% vs. 0% of residents living below poverty, estimated nighttime noise levels were 46.9 dBA (IQR: 44.7–48.5 dBA) and 44.0 dBA (IQR: 42.2–45.5 dBA), respectively. Block groups with the highest metropolitan area segregation had the highest estimated noise exposures, regardless of racial composition. Results were generally consistent between urban and suburban/rural census block groups, and for daytime and nighttime noise and robust to different spatial weight and neighbor

  2. A Study of Curriculum Development and Reform in Residential Schools for the Blind in the United States: Three Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holiday, Jeremiah

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to understand curriculum development in residential schools for the blind after the enactment of NCLB and was guided by the research question, "How do residential schools for the blind and visually impaired develop their curriculum to meet the unique needs of students who are blind and visually impaired?" In the…

  3. Residential Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids For Teens For Parents & Teachers Resolving Family Conflicts The Holidays and Alzheimer's Glossary Virtual Library Online ... longer an option Costs Choosing a care setting Types of residential care A good long-term care ...

  4. A Survey of State and Local PV Program Response to Financial Innovation and Disparate Federal Tax Treatment in the Residential PV Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Holt, Edward [Ed Holt & Associates, Inc., Harpswell, ME (United States)

    2015-06-01

    High up-front costs and a lack of financing options have historically been the primary barriers to the adoption of photovoltaics (PV) in the residential sector. State clean energy funds, which emerged in a number of states from the restructuring of the electricity industry in the mid-to-late 1990s, have for many years attempted to overcome these barriers through PV rebate and, in some cases, loan programs. While these programs (rebate programs in particular) have been popular, the residential PV market in the United States only started to achieve significant scale in the last five years – driven in large part by an initial wave of financial innovation that led to the rise of third-party ownership.

  5. Re-thinking residential mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ham, Maarten; Findlay, Allan M.

    2015-01-01

    While researchers are increasingly re-conceptualizing international migration, far less attention has been devoted to re-thinking short-distance residential mobility and immobility. In this paper we harness the life course approach to propose a new conceptual framework for residential mobility research. We contend that residential mobility and immobility should be re-conceptualized as relational practices that link lives through time and space while connecting people to structural conditions. Re-thinking and re-assessing residential mobility by exploiting new developments in longitudinal analysis will allow geographers to understand, critique and address pressing societal challenges. PMID:27330243

  6. State Structure and Political Regime Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul – Iulian Nedelcu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The political regime is the concrete form of organization and functioning of political system andtherefore, the regime means the concrete way of organize, institutionalize and function a political systemand of the exercise of political power by a social-political force in a social community or global socialistem. The political regime is not limited to institutions and state bodies, but it covers the entire politicalsystem. Form of expression in social practice plan is the result of balance of forces between classes ofcitizens, organizations, between them and civil society and politics.Designates the concrete form ofgovernment formation and organization, of state bodies, in aspect of their characteristics and principles, therelations between them and other state bodies, and also as the relationship between them and otherinstitutionalized forms of political systems. Instead, the political regime is an explicit realization ofaxiological operations, a specific hierarchy of values, in general and political values, in particular. Even ifsome elements of the political regime overlap to some extent and in some respects, those of form orstructure of guvernamnt state, thus they dissolve his identity, distinct quality of being specific traits of thepolitical regime.

  7. Residential energy demand in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arouca, M.; Gomes, F.M.; Rosa, L.P.

    1981-01-01

    The energy demand in Brazilian residential sector is studied, discussing the methodology for analyzing this demand from some ideas suggested, for developing an adequate method to brazilian characteristics. The residential energy consumption of several fuels in Brazil is also presented, including a comparative evaluation with the United States and France. (author)

  8. Survey of Music Programs at State Residential Schools for Blind Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahler, Edward P.; Coleman, Jeremy M.; Molloy-Daugherty, Della

    2018-01-01

    Currently, students with visual impairments are the least represented disability group in the music education literature (Brown & Jellison, 2012). The purpose of the descriptive investigation presented here was to identify the types of music programs and instructional music strategies utilized by students in state schools. All three of the…

  9. Residential Radon Exposure and Lung Cancer: Evidence of an Inverse Association in Washington State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuberger, John S.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Presents results of a descriptive study of lung cancer death rates compared to county levels of radon in Washington State. Age-specific death rates were computed for white female smokers according to radon exposure. A significant lung cancer excess was found in lowest radon counties. No significant difference was found between the proportion of…

  10. CAPTA and the Residential Placement: A Survey of State Policy and Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overcamp-Martini, Mary Ann; Nutton, Jennifer S.

    2009-01-01

    Children in out-of-home care due to familial maltreatment and other developmental and behavioral problems remain at risk for abuse and neglect in the very placements designed for care and treatment. The background of federal involvement in Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act (CAPTA) requirements, as well as the states' responses for…

  11. Homogenization of vegetation structure across residential neighborhoods: effects of climate, urban morphology, and socio-economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climate is a key driver regulating vegetation structure across rural ecosystems. In urban ecosystems, multiple interactions between humans and the environment can have homogenizing influences, confounding the relationship between vegetation structure and climate. In fact, vegetat...

  12. Comparison of Advanced Residential Water Heating Technologies in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fang, Xia [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wilson, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-05-01

    In this study, gas storage, gas tankless, condensing, electric storage, heat pump, and solar water heaters were simulated in several different climates across the United States, installed in both conditioned and unconditioned space and subjected to several different draw profiles. While many pre-existing models were used, new models of condensing and heat pump water heaters were created specifically for this work. In each case modeled, the whole house was simulated along with the water heater to capture any interactions between the water heater and the space conditioning equipment.

  13. Residential Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde; Matsufuji, Y.

    2011-01-01

    are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing residential waste is faced with the problem that many residences already divert some waste away from the official collection systems, for example performing home composting of vegetable waste and garden waste, having their bundled newspaper picked up by the scouts...... twice a year or bringing their used furniture to the flea markets organized by charity clubs. Thus, much of the data available on residential waste represents collected waste and not necessarily all generated waste. The latter can only be characterized by careful studies directly at the source......, but such studies are very expensive if fair representation of both spatial and temporal variations should be obtained. In addition, onsite studies may affect the waste generation in the residence because of the increased focus on the issue. Residential waste is defined in different ways in different countries...

  14. Technical use stated preference: a study in residential sector for college students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Sonaglio Albano

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available In a dynamic and competitive market for a product or service to be chosen, it is very important to understand the needs of consumers. Some market research techniques are recommended to investigate consumer preferences. This paper reports on research of declared preference, with specific application to the process of choosing the location of housing for university students. Data collection was performed with students from a federal university, through a questionnaire composed of structured cards, where students would indicate their preferences. The composition of the sample was random, according to the students’ availability. The results reveal the preferences of this consumer segment, making possible a better understanding of the factors that are prevalent when choosing the site for housing. Another contribution of this work is to demonstrate the methodological procedures developed for the use of the declared preference technique and their respective results.

  15. GREEN RETROFITTING RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    When compared with the rest of the world, the United States consumes a disproportionately large amount of energy and is a major source of greenhouse gases from fossil fuel combustion. As much as two thirds of U.S. electricity production is consumed by residential and commerci...

  16. Residential Mechanical Precooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, a. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This research conducted by the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team evaluated mechanical air conditioner pre-cooling strategies in homes throughout the United States. EnergyPlus modeling evaluated two homes with different performance characteristics in seven climates. Results are applicable to new construction homes and most existing homes built in the last 10 years, as well as fairly efficient retrofitted homes.

  17. Leadership and Registered Nurses (RNs) working after-hours in Residential Aged Care Facilities (RACFs): A structured literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nhongo, Dorika; Hendricks, Joyce; Bradshaw, Julie; Bail, Kasia

    2018-06-12

    Registered nurses (RNs) working in Residential Aged Care Facilities are required to undertake complex management tasks including leading nursing care teams, supervising non-nursing staff, and allocating workloads according to residents' care needs, staff skills and experience. Registered nurses plan, assess, manage medication, evaluate each resident's care, liaise with doctors and allied health professionals and are responsible for evidence-based practice in accordance with the Nursing Standards for Practice (2016). Researchers have commented that effective nurse leadership can improve quality of care, improved resident outcomes and reduce adverse events. The aim of this literature review is to synthesise and analyse the literature pertinent to the RN's competence and confidence to undertake the leadership role when working in residential aged care facilities after-hours and to determine any association of leadership with quality resident outcomes. A review of original research papers based on the structured methodology described by Kable, Pich and Maslin-Prothero (2012). The review was conducted according to the 12-step structured framework by Kable et al. (2012). The search included peer-reviewed papers published between 2002 and 2017 on RN leadership after-hours, factors contributing to or with relationships to nursing leadership. Nineteen papers were found that researched the impact of leadership in aged care settings. The literature review concluded that nursing leadership has been linked to the quality of care and clinical outcomes in the aged care setting. However, RNs in the aged care setting have limited opportunities to develop key leadership competencies and confidence in order to meet the many challenges found in this environment due to lack of access to aged-care-specific leadership education. Minimal publications address the importance of the leadership of after-hours RNs. Results from this literature review will inform future research in this area

  18. The Impact of Wind Power Projects on Residential Property Values in the United States: A Multi-Site Hedonic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoen, Ben; Wiser, Ryan; Cappers, Peter; Thayer, Mark; Sethi, Gautam

    2009-12-02

    With wind energy expanding rapidly in the U.S. and abroad, and with an increasing number of communities considering wind power development nearby, there is an urgent need to empirically investigate common community concerns about wind project development. The concern that property values will be adversely affected by wind energy facilities is commonly put forth by stakeholders. Although this concern is not unreasonable, given property value impacts that have been found near high voltage transmission lines and other electric generation facilities, the impacts of wind energy facilities on residential property values had not previously been investigated thoroughly. The present research collected data on almost 7,500 sales of singlefamily homes situated within 10 miles of 24 existing wind facilities in nine different U.S. states. The conclusions of the study are drawn from eight different hedonic pricing models, as well as both repeat sales and sales volume models. The various analyses are strongly consistent in that none of the models uncovers conclusive evidence of the existence of any widespread property value impacts that might be present in communities surrounding wind energy facilities. Specifically, neither the view of the wind facilities nor the distance of the home to those facilities is found to have any consistent, measurable, and statistically significant effect on home sales prices. Although the analysis cannot dismiss the possibility that individual homes or small numbers of homes have been or could be negatively impacted, it finds that if these impacts do exist, they are either too small and/or too infrequent to result in any widespread, statistically observable impact.

  19. Werner State Structure and Entanglement Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David W. Lyons

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We present applications of the representation theory of Lie groups to the analysis of structure and local unitary classification of Werner states, sometimes called the decoherence-free states, which are states of n quantum bits left unchanged by local transformations that are the same on each particle. We introduce a multiqubit generalization of the singlet state and a construction that assembles these qubits into Werner states.

  20. Changes in residential, occupational and gender structure of the greater Bangkok in the globalization process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Nakagawa

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated recent changes in migration and population structure of the Greater Bangkok considering the impact of economic globalization. The spatial policy of the Thai government has lead newer investments for manufacturing to locate away from Bangkok Metropolis and thereby the industrial structure of Bangkok Metropolis has gradually turned into service-dominated, while the region surrounding Bangkok Metropolis has attracted factories mainly owned by foreign capital. Light industry and electronics industry are con-centrated in the adjacent provinces to Bangkok Metropolis and the heavy and petrochemical industry tends to be located in the outer zone of the surrounding region. The service sector and light industry as well as electronics industry prefer female workers and Bangkok met-ropolis and the adjoining provinces have become female-dominated population structure while male workers tend to gather in the outer zone attracted by heavy and petrochemical industry. It is possible to mention accordingly that the unbalanced spatial distribution of sex structure of population which might cause changes in the norm to the family formation in future is one of the consequences of economic globalization of Thailand, which the inves-tment promotion policy of the government did not assume.

  1. Changes in residential, occupational and gender structure of the greater Bangkok in the globalization process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoshi Nakagawa

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated recent changes in migration and population structure of the GreaterBangkok considering the impact of economic globalization. The spatial policy of the Thaigovernment has lead newer investments for manufacturing to locate away from BangkokMetropolis and thereby the industrial structure of Bangkok Metropolis has gradually turnedinto service-dominated, while the region surrounding Bangkok Metropolis has attractedfactories mainly owned by foreign capital. Light industry and electronics industry are concentratedin the adjacent provinces to Bangkok Metropolis and the heavy and petrochemicalindustry tends to be located in the outer zone of the surrounding region. The service sectorand light industry as well as electronics industry prefer female workers and Bangkok metropolisand the adjoining provinces have become female-dominated population structurewhile male workers tend to gather in the outer zone attracted by heavy and petrochemicalindustry. It is possible to mention accordingly that the unbalanced spatial distribution of sexstructure of population which might cause changes in the norm to the family formation infuture is one of the consequences of economic globalization of Thailand, which the investmentpromotion policy of the government did not assume.

  2. Change in consumer sensitivity to electricity prices in response to retail deregulation: A panel empirical analysis of the residential demand for electricity in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Tadahiro; Hamori, Shigeyuki

    2010-01-01

    About ten years have passed since the deregulation of the U.S. retail electricity market, and it is now generally accepted that the available data is adequate to quantitatively assess and compare conditions before and after deregulation. This study, therefore, estimates the changes in price elasticity in the residential electricity market to examine the changes, if any, in household sensitivity (as a result of retail electricity market deregulation policies) to residential electricity rates. Specifically, six types of panel data are prepared, based on three cross-sections-all states (except for Alaska and Hawaii) and the District of Columbia, deregulated states, and non-deregulated states-and two time series-the period before deregulation and the period after deregulation. The panel empirical analysis techniques are used to determine whether or not the variables are stationary, and to estimate price elasticity. We find that there is no substantial difference in the price elasticity between deregulated and non-deregulated states for both periods-before deregulation and after deregulation. Thus, it can be said that the deregulation of the retail electricity market has not made consumers more sensitive to electricity rates and that retail deregulation policies are not the cause of price elasticity differences between deregulated and non-deregulated states.

  3. Change in consumer sensitivity to electricity prices in response to retail deregulation. A panel empirical analysis of the residential demand for electricity in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Tadahiro [The Kansai Electric Power Company, Incorporated, 6-16, Nakanoshima 3-chome, Kita-Ku, Osaka 530-8270 (Japan); Hamori, Shigeyuki [Faculty of Economics, Kobe University 2-1, Rokkodai, Nada-Ku, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2010-05-15

    About ten years have passed since the deregulation of the U.S. retail electricity market, and it is now generally accepted that the available data is adequate to quantitatively assess and compare conditions before and after deregulation. This study, therefore, estimates the changes in price elasticity in the residential electricity market to examine the changes, if any, in household sensitivity (as a result of retail electricity market deregulation policies) to residential electricity rates. Specifically, six types of panel data are prepared, based on three cross-sections - all states (except for Alaska and Hawaii) and the District of Columbia, deregulated states, and non-deregulated states - and two time series - the period before deregulation and the period after deregulation. The panel empirical analysis techniques are used to determine whether or not the variables are stationary, and to estimate price elasticity. We find that there is no substantial difference in the price elasticity between deregulated and non-deregulated states for both periods - before deregulation and after deregulation. Thus, it can be said that the deregulation of the retail electricity market has not made consumers more sensitive to electricity rates and that retail deregulation policies are not the cause of price elasticity differences between deregulated and non-deregulated states. (author)

  4. Bacterial community structures in air conditioners installed in Japanese residential buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatayama, Kouta; Oikawa, Yurika; Ito, Hiroyuki

    2018-01-01

    The bacterial community structures in four Japanese split-type air conditioners were analyzed using a next-generation sequencer. A variety of bacteria were detected in the air filter of an air conditioner installed on the first floor. In the evaporator of this air conditioner, bacteria belonging to the genus Methylobacterium, or the family of Sphingomonadaceae, were predominantly detected. On the other hand, the majority of bacteria detected in the air filters and evaporators of air conditioners installed on the fifth and twelfth floors belonged to the family Enterobacteriaceae. The source of bacteria belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae may have been aerosols generated by toilet flushing in the buildings. Our results suggested the possibility that the bacterial contamination in the air conditioners was affected by the floor level on which they were installed. The air conditioner installed on the lower floor, near the ground, may have been contaminated by a variety of outdoor bacteria, whereas the air conditioners installed on floors more distant from the ground may have been less contaminated by outdoor bacteria. However, these suppositions may apply only to the specific split-type air conditioners that we analyzed, because our sample size was small.

  5. The meaning of activities in the dwelling and residential environment : A structural approach in people-environment relations.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meesters, J.

    2009-01-01

    The dwelling is a central setting in people’s everyday life. People use their dwelling and residential environment for a large variety of activities and purposes. This study systematically relates activities, settings and meanings to improve the insight into people-environment relations. This is

  6. Using Hydrated Salt Phase Change Materials for Residential Air Conditioning Peak Demand Reduction and Energy Conservation in Coastal and Transitional Climates in the State of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyoung Ok

    The recent rapid economic and population growth in the State of California have led to a significant increase in air conditioning use, especially in areas of the State with coastal and transitional climates. This fact makes that the electric peak demand be dominated by air conditioning use of residential buildings in the summer time. This extra peak demand caused by the use of air conditioning equipment lasts only a few days out of the year. As a result, unavoidable power outages have occurred when electric supply could not keep up with such electric demand. This thesis proposed a possible solution to this problem by using building thermal mass via phase change materials to reduce peak air conditioning demand loads. This proposed solution was tested via a new wall called Phase Change Frame Wall (PCFW). The PCFW is a typical residential frame wall in which Phase Change Materials (PCMs) were integrated to add thermal mass. The thermal performance of the PCFWs was first evaluated, experimentally, in two test houses, built for this purpose, located in Lawrence, KS and then via computer simulations of residential buildings located in coastal and transitional climates in California. In this thesis, a hydrated salt PCM was used, which was added in concentrations of 10% and 20% by weight of the interior sheathing of the walls. Based on the experimental results, under Lawrence, KS weather, the PCFWs at 10% and 20% of PCM concentrations reduced the peak heat transfer rates by 27.0% and 27.3%, on average, of all four walls, respectively. Simulated results using California climate data indicated that PCFWs would reduce peak heat transfer rates by 8% and 19% at 10% PCM concentration and 12.2% and 27% at 20% PCM concentration for the coastal and transitional climates, respectively. Furthermore, the PCFWs, at 10% PCM concentration, would reduce the space cooling load and the annual energy consumption by 10.4% and 7.2%, on average in both climates, respectively.

  7. Residential greenhouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-02-01

    The following report examines the technical and economic viability of residential greenhouse additions in Whitehorse, Yukon. The greenhouse was constructed using the south facing wall of an existing residence as a common wall. Total construction costs were $18,000, including labour. Annual fuel demand for the residence has been reduced by about 10 per cent for an annual saving of $425. In addition, produce to the value of $1,000 is grown annually in the greenhouse for domestic consumption and commercial resale. Typically the greenhouse operates for nine months each year. There is a net thermal loss during the months of November, December and January as a result of the large area of glazing. As well as supplementing the heating supply solar greenhouses can provide additional cash crops which can be used to offset the cost of construction. Humidity problems are minimal and can be dealt with by exhausting high humidity air. One system which has been considered for the greenhouse is to use a standard residential heat pump to remove excess moisture and to pump heat into the house. This would have a secondary benefit of excluding the need to circulate greenhouse air through the house. Thus any allergenic reactions to the greenhouse air would be prevented. 8 refs., 3 figs, 2 tabs.

  8. The end of the line: The relationship between New York City's subway system and residential class structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhindress, Mindy

    Public money is necessary to build and maintain this country's vast network of mass transit systems and highways. Thus you would expect class equity in choices of infrastructure location, types of projects and pricing. However, the influence of commercial interests appears to create a contradictory effect, and may negatively influence the settlement patterns where transit serves. New York City and its subway system offered the perfect case study by which to examine the before and after effects of mass transit introduction given the enormous size of the transit system and the grand development of New York City that appeared to occur simultaneous to subway inauguration. The main objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the growth of the New York City subway system and the establishment of class structure in residential patterns. Regional census data covering the first 16-year period of the subway's development was examined along with geographic statistics on subway line expansion and station openings. GIS (Geographic Information Systems) maps were used to illustrate the development of living spaces as a function of subway introduction into communities, and several Indices were computed to demonstrate the population growth and class disparity. The results revealed that the early years of transit development were entrepreneurial efforts coordinated by business interests. This led to transit first providing significant benefits mostly to the middle and upper classes, giving them a reasonable means by which to escape horrible tenement living conditions while turning a profit at the same time. Thus new settlements were stratified by class almost immediately after introduction. The cycle continued until years later when the automobile was introduced and the once expensive and luxurious, but now more reasonably priced and just functional, public transit system finally befit the population much lower on the socioeconomic scale. Class divisions still

  9. Exploring the market for third-party-owned residential photovoltaic systems: insights from lease and power-purchase agreement contract structures and costs in California

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davidson, Carolyn; Steinberg, Daniel; Margolis, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Over the past several years, third-party-ownership (TPO) structures for residential photovoltaic (PV) systems have become the predominant ownership model in the US residential market. Under a TPO contract, the PV system host typically makes payments to the third-party owner of the system. Anecdotal evidence suggests that the total TPO contract payments made by the customer can differ significantly from payments in which the system host directly purchases the system. Furthermore, payments can vary depending on TPO contract structure. To date, a paucity of data on TPO contracts has precluded studies evaluating trends in TPO contract cost. This study relies on a sample of 1113 contracts for residential PV systems installed in 2010–2012 under the California Solar Initiative to evaluate how the timing of payments under a TPO contract impacts the ultimate cost of the system to the customer. Furthermore, we evaluate how the total cost of TPO systems to customers has changed through time, and the degree to which contract costs have tracked trends in the installed costs of a PV system. We find that the structure of the contract and the timing of the payments have financial implications for the customer: (1) power-purchase contracts, on average, cost more than leases, (2) no-money-down contracts are more costly than prepaid contracts, assuming a customer’s discount rate is lower than 17% and (3) contracts that include escalator clauses cost more, for both power-purchase agreements and leases, at most plausible discount rates. In addition, all contract costs exhibit a wide range, and do not parallel trends in installed costs over time. (letter)

  10. Evaluating the energy and CO2 emissions impacts of shifts in residential water heating in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, Kelly T.; Webber, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Water heating represented nearly 13% of 2010 residential energy consumption making it an important target for energy conservation efforts. The objective of this work is to identify spatially-resolved strategies for energy conservation, since little analysis has been done to identify how regional characteristics affect the energy consumed for water heating. We present a first-order thermodynamic analysis, utilizing ab initio calculations and regression methods, to quantify primary energy consumption and CO 2 emissions with regional specificity by considering by considering local electricity mixes, heat rates, solar radiation profiles, heating degrees days, and water heating unit sales for 27 regions of the US. Results suggest that shifting from electric towards natural gas or solar water heating offered primary energy and CO 2 emission reductions in most US regions, but these reductions varied considerably according to regional electricity mix and solar resources. We find that regions that would benefit most from technology transitions, are often least likely to switch due to limited economic incentives. Our results suggest that federal energy factor metrics, which ignore upstream losses in power generation, are insufficient in informing consumers about the energy performance of residential end use appliances. - Highlights: • US energy factor ratings for water heaters ignore upstream losses. • Switching from electric storage water heating reduces CO 2 emissions in most US regions. • Regions with greatest potential for CO 2 avoidance are least likely to shift technologies. • Benefits vary significantly according to climate and regional electricity fuel mix

  11. The “housing bubble” and financial factors: Insights from a structural model of the French and Spanish residential markets.

    OpenAIRE

    Antipa, P.; Lecat, R.

    2009-01-01

    Over the last decade, France and Spain have experienced property price and residential investment increases which were among the strongest and the lengthiest in the euro area. Although the quality of the underlying data limits the precision of the estimates, the present paper aims at analysing the fundamental factors behind these evolutions. The analysis presented here assesses whether the observed price dynamics may be attributed to a pure expectation bubble phenomenon or to the large change...

  12. Does place explain racial health disparities? Quantifying the contribution of residential context to the Black/white health gap in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, D Phuong; Finch, Brian Karl; Basurto-Davila, Ricardo; Bird, Chloe; Escarce, Jose; Lurie, Nicole

    2008-10-01

    The persistence of the black health disadvantage has been a puzzling component of health in the United States in spite of general declines in rates of morbidity and mortality over the past century. Studies that have focused on well-established individual-level determinants of health such as socio-economic status and health behaviors have been unable to fully explain these disparities. Recent research has begun to focus on other factors such as racism, discrimination, and segregation. Variation in neighborhood context-socio-demographic composition, social aspects, and built environment-has been postulated as an additional explanation for racial disparities, but few attempts have been made to quantify its overall contribution to the black/white health gap. This analysis is an attempt to generate an estimate of place effects on explaining health disparities by utilizing data from the U.S. National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) (1989-1994), combined with a methodology for identifying residents of the same blocks both within and across NHIS survey cross-sections. Our results indicate that controlling for a single point-in-time measure of residential context results in a roughly 15-76% reduction of the black/white disparities in self-rated health that were previously unaccounted for by individual-level controls. The contribution of residential context toward explaining the black/white self-rated health gap varies by both age and gender such that contextual explanations of disparities decline with age and appear to be smaller among females.

  13. Nearly Zero Energy Standard for Non-Residential Buildings with high Energy Demands—An Empirical Case Study Using the State-Related Properties of BAVARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Keltsch

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD 2010 calls for the Nearly Zero Energy Building (nZEB Standard for new buildings from 2021 onwards: Buildings using “almost no energy” are powered by renewable sources or by the energy produced by the building itself. For residential buildings, this ambitious new standard has already been reached. But for other building types, this goal is still far away. The potential of these buildings to meet a nZEB Standard was investigated by analyzing ten case studies, representing non-residential buildings with different uses. The analysis shows that the primary characteristics common to critical building types are a dense building context with a very high degree of technical installation (such as hospital, research, and laboratory buildings. The large primary energy demand of these types of buildings cannot be compensated by building- and property-related energy generation, including off-site renewables. If the future nZEB Standard were to be defined with lower requirements because of this, the state-related properties of Bavaria suggest that the real potential energy savings available in at least 85% of all new buildings would be insufficiently exploited. Therefore, it would be more useful to individualize the legal energy verification process for new buildings, to distinguish critical building types such as laboratories and hospitals from the other building types.

  14. Guidelines for residential commissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wray, Craig P.; Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.

    2003-01-31

    Currently, houses do not perform optimally or even as many codes and forecasts predict, largely because they are field assembled and there is no consistent process to identify problems or to correct them. Residential commissioning is a solution to this problem. This guide is the culmination of a 30-month project that began in September 1999. The ultimate objective of the project is to increase the number of houses that undergo commissioning, which will improve the quality, comfort, and safety of homes for California citizens. The project goal is to lay the groundwork for a residential commissioning industry in California focused on end-use energy and non-energy issues. As such, we intend this guide to be a beginning and not an end. Our intent is that the guide will lead to the programmatic integration of commissioning with other building industry processes, which in turn will provide more value to a single site visit for people such as home energy auditors and raters, home inspectors, and building performance contractors. Project work to support the development of this guide includes: a literature review and annotated bibliography, which facilitates access to 469 documents related to residential commissioning published over the past 20 years (Wray et al. 2000), an analysis of the potential benefits one can realistically expect from commissioning new and existing California houses (Matson et al. 2002), and an assessment of 107 diagnostic tools for evaluating residential commissioning metrics (Wray et al. 2002). In this guide, we describe the issues that non-experts should consider in developing a commissioning program to achieve the benefits we have identified. We do this by providing specific recommendations about: how to structure the commissioning process, which diagnostics to use, and how to use them to commission new and existing houses. Using examples, we also demonstrate the potential benefits of applying the recommended whole-house commissioning approach to

  15. Quantifying structural states of soft mudrocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, B.; Wong, R. C. K.

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a cm model is proposed to quantify structural states of soft mudrocks, which are dependent on clay fractions and porosities. Physical properties of natural and reconstituted soft mudrock samples are used to derive two parameters in the cm model. With the cm model, a simplified homogenization approach is proposed to estimate geomechanical properties and fabric orientation distributions of soft mudrocks based on the mixture theory. Soft mudrocks are treated as a mixture of nonclay minerals and clay-water composites. Nonclay minerals have a high stiffness and serve as a structural framework of mudrocks when they have a high volume fraction. Clay-water composites occupy the void space among nonclay minerals and serve as an in-fill matrix. With the increase of volume fraction of clay-water composites, there is a transition in the structural state from the state of framework supported to the state of matrix supported. The decreases in shear strength and pore size as well as increases in compressibility and anisotropy in fabric are quantitatively related to such transition. The new homogenization approach based on the proposed cm model yields better performance evaluation than common effective medium modeling approaches because the interactions among nonclay minerals and clay-water composites are considered. With wireline logging data, the cm model is applied to quantify the structural states of Colorado shale formations at different depths in the Cold Lake area, Alberta, Canada. Key geomechancial parameters are estimated based on the proposed homogenization approach and the critical intervals with low strength shale formations are identified.

  16. Smart density: A more accurate method of measuring rural residential density for health-related research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Peter M; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Gibson, Lucinda; Beach, Michael L; Beauregard, Sandy; Dalton, Madeline A

    2010-02-12

    Studies involving the built environment have typically relied on US Census data to measure residential density. However, census geographic units are often unsuited to health-related research, especially in rural areas where development is clustered and discontinuous. We evaluated the accuracy of both standard census methods and alternative GIS-based methods to measure rural density. We compared residential density (units/acre) in 335 Vermont school neighborhoods using conventional census geographic units (tract, block group and block) with two GIS buffer measures: a 1-kilometer (km) circle around the school and a 1-km circle intersected with a 100-meter (m) road-network buffer. The accuracy of each method was validated against the actual residential density for each neighborhood based on the Vermont e911 database, which provides an exact geo-location for all residential structures in the state. Standard census measures underestimate residential density in rural areas. In addition, the degree of error is inconsistent so even the relative rank of neighborhood densities varies across census measures. Census measures explain only 61% to 66% of the variation in actual residential density. In contrast, GIS buffer measures explain approximately 90% of the variation. Combining a 1-km circle with a road-network buffer provides the closest approximation of actual residential density. Residential density based on census units can mask clusters of development in rural areas and distort associations between residential density and health-related behaviors and outcomes. GIS-defined buffers, including a 1-km circle and a road-network buffer, can be used in conjunction with census data to obtain a more accurate measure of residential density.

  17. Smart density: a more accurate method of measuring rural residential density for health-related research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibson Lucinda

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies involving the built environment have typically relied on US Census data to measure residential density. However, census geographic units are often unsuited to health-related research, especially in rural areas where development is clustered and discontinuous. Objective We evaluated the accuracy of both standard census methods and alternative GIS-based methods to measure rural density. Methods We compared residential density (units/acre in 335 Vermont school neighborhoods using conventional census geographic units (tract, block group and block with two GIS buffer measures: a 1-kilometer (km circle around the school and a 1-km circle intersected with a 100-meter (m road-network buffer. The accuracy of each method was validated against the actual residential density for each neighborhood based on the Vermont e911 database, which provides an exact geo-location for all residential structures in the state. Results Standard census measures underestimate residential density in rural areas. In addition, the degree of error is inconsistent so even the relative rank of neighborhood densities varies across census measures. Census measures explain only 61% to 66% of the variation in actual residential density. In contrast, GIS buffer measures explain approximately 90% of the variation. Combining a 1-km circle with a road-network buffer provides the closest approximation of actual residential density. Conclusion Residential density based on census units can mask clusters of development in rural areas and distort associations between residential density and health-related behaviors and outcomes. GIS-defined buffers, including a 1-km circle and a road-network buffer, can be used in conjunction with census data to obtain a more accurate measure of residential density.

  18. The fundamental structural framework of Goias state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasui, Y.; Haralyi, N.L.E.

    1986-01-01

    The fundamental structural framework of the State of Goias is done by the Araguacema, Porangatu, Brasilia and Parana crustal blocks, linked through obduction zones at late Archean time. This first-order structure deduced from gravimetric and magnetic data is consistent with the distribution of granite-greenstone terrains high-grade terrains and associated supracrustals. This crustal geometry was modified by vertical shear zones and polycyclic faults, mostly of NW to WNW and NE to ENE trends, to which total displacements up to 200 km are related. Some isotope dating of the rocks are also presented. (author)

  19. Dynamic management of integrated residential energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Matteo

    dissertation presents a bottom-up highly resolved model of a generic residential energy eco-system in the United States. The model is able to capture the entire energy footprint of an individual household, to include all appliances, space conditioning systems, in-home charging of plug-in electric vehicles, and any other energy needs, viewing residential and transportation energy needs as an integrated continuum. The residential energy eco-system model is based on a novel bottom-up approach that quantifies consumer energy use behavior. The incorporation of stochastic consumer behaviors allows capturing the electricity consumption of each residential specific end-use, providing an accurate estimation of the actual amount of available controllable resources, and for a better understanding of the potential of residential demand response programs. A dynamic energy management framework is then proposed to manage electricity consumption inside each residential energy eco-system. Objective of the dynamic energy management framework is to optimize the scheduling of all the controllable appliances and in-home charging of plug-in electric vehicles to minimize cost. Such an automated energy management framework is used to simulate residential demand response programs, and evaluate their impact on the electric power infrastructure. For instance, time-varying electricity pricing might lead to synchronization of the individual residential demands, creating pronounced rebound peaks in the aggregate demand that are higher and steeper than the original demand peaks that the time-varying electricity pricing structure intended to eliminate. The modeling tools developed in this study can serve as a virtual laboratory for investigating fundamental economic and policy-related questions regarding the interplay of individual consumers with energy use. The models developed allow for evaluating the impact of different energy policies, technology adoption, and electricity price structures on the total

  20. Survey of the actual state of energy consumption in the residential/commercial sector; Minsei bumon energy shohi jittai chosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    With relation to energy demand in the business field, the paper conducted a questionnaire survey of the actual state and preparation of the existing literature and data. The purpose is to make the consumption structure and trend clear and to make it useful for the development/introduction of new energy and petroleum substitution energy in the future. The unit energy consumption in the business type, `office buildings` decreased from 227.0 Mcal/m{sup 2} per year in the fiscal 1990 survey to 179.5 Mcal/m{sup 2} per year in the fiscal 1995 survey. The energy type shifted from petroleum to electricity and gas. The unit energy consumption in the business type, `wholesale/retail` slightly decreased from 360.9 Mcal/m{sup 2} per year in the previous survey to 342.7 Mcal/{sup 2} per year in the survey this time. The energy type showed the same trend as in the case of office buildings. The unit energy consumption in the business type, `restaurants` increased from 573.3 Mcal/m{sup 2} per year in the previous survey to 622.8 Mcal/m{sup 2} per year in the survey this time. As energy type, electricity increased while gas remarkably decreased. 55 refs., 155 figs., 29 tabs.

  1. Ground-state structures of Hafnium clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Wei Chun; Yoon, Tiem Leong [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM, Penang (Malaysia); Lim, Thong Leng [Faculty of Engineering and Technoloty, Multimedia University, Melaca Campus, 75450 Melaka (Malaysia)

    2015-04-24

    Hafnium (Hf) is a very large tetra-valence d-block element which is able to form relatively long covalent bond. Researchers are interested to search for substitution to silicon in the semi-conductor industry. We attempt to obtain the ground-state structures of small Hf clusters at both empirical and density-functional theory (DFT) levels. For calculations at the empirical level, charge-optimized many-body functional potential (COMB) is used. The lowest-energy structures are obtained via a novel global-minimum search algorithm known as parallel tempering Monte-Carlo Basin-Hopping and Genetic Algorithm (PTMBHGA). The virtue of using COMB potential for Hf cluster calculation lies in the fact that by including the charge optimization at the valence shells, we can encourage the formation of proper bond hybridization, and thus getting the correct bond order. The obtained structures are further optimized using DFT to ensure a close proximity to the ground-state.

  2. On methods of sustainable architectural design of bio-positive buildings in the low-rise residential development structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhogoleva Anna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the author’s research is to determine the actual content of sustainable architectural design for suburban residential development. In accordance with the methodology of area sustainable development the traditional architectural design according to the rules and regulations is completed with additional approaches and methods. As a result, methods of bio-positive design of buildings have been studied and defined, including: the principle of planning transformations, the use of environmentally friendly, local building materials and design concepts, energy-efficient architectural design, the use of alternative energy in building operation, the design of the energy intake and accumulationsystems, the architectural and landscape design that ensures stable functioning of autonomous, sustainable biosystems on the site, non-waste functioning of architectural objects, introduction of waste disposal systems in the project.

  3. Human Thermal Comfort In Residential House Buildings Of Jimma Town Southwest Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chali Yadeta

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Indoor human thermal comfort is an important factor in indoor air quality assessment. Thermal comfort affects human health work efficiency and overall wellbeing. Thermal discomfort in indoors lowers the emotional and physical health of the occupants. This paper targets to explore human thermal comfort in residential house buildings of Jimma town and state some possible mechanisms to improve the existing thermal discomfort in large number the houses. For the study 303 structured questionnaires were distributed to the residential houses in thirteen places of the town based on predetermined criteria. The study reveals that human thermal discomfort in residential houses Jimma town are mainly from poor architectural design and improper use of heat generating appliances in indoors. The uses architectural design that suites the present climatic conditions and use of materials that facilitates ventilations will enhance the realization of the required human thermal comfort in residential houses of the study area.

  4. The structure of 83Sr excited states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liptak, J.; Kristiak, J.; Kristiakova, K.

    1976-01-01

    The β-decay of 83 Y isomers (7.06 min and 2.85 min) have been studied by means of Ge(Li) detectors. The proposed level scheme of the 83 Sr nucleus is based on the coincidence measurement and the analysis of energy sums. The intensity balance requirement leads to αsub(T)(35.5keV)=3.2 which is consistent with M1 multipolarity of this transition. A probable structure of some of the excited states in the 83 Sr nucleus is discussed in the frame work of Alaga's model and Kuriyama's model

  5. Reduce tax on residential mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ewijk, C.; van Leuvensteijn, M.

    2010-01-01

    How can Europe increase structural growth? This column argues that labour market flexibility is key. As a major barrier to labour movement is rigidity in the housing market, abolishing transfer taxes on residential property could result in gains of up to 0.4% of GDP.

  6. Adaptation of methodology to select structural alternatives of one-way slab in residential building to the guidelines of the European Committee for Standardization (CEN/TC 350)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraile-Garcia, Esteban, E-mail: esteban.fraile@unirioja.es [University of La Rioja, Department of Mechanical Engineering (Spain); Ferreiro-Cabello, Javier, E-mail: javier.ferreiro@unirioja.es [University of La Rioja, Department of Mechanical Engineering (Spain); Qualiberica S.L. (Spain); Martinez-Camara, Eduardo, E-mail: eduardo.martinezc@unirioja.es [University of La Rioja, Department of Mechanical Engineering (Spain); Jimenez-Macias, Emilio, E-mail: emilio.jimenez@unirioja.es [University of La Rioja, Department of Electrical Engineering (Spain)

    2015-11-15

    The European Committee for Standardization (CEN) through its Technical Committee CEN/TC-350 is developing a series of standards for assessing the building sustainability, at both product and building levels. The practical application of the selection (decision making) of structural alternatives made by one-way slabs leads to an intermediate level between the product and the building. Thus the present study addresses this problem of decision making, following the CEN guidelines and incorporating relevant aspects of architectural design into residential construction. A life cycle assessment (LCA) is developed in order to obtain valid information for the decision making process (the LCA was developed applying CML methodology although Ecoindicator99 was used in order to facilitate the comparison of the values); this information (the carbon footprint values) is contrasted with other databases and with the information from the Environmental Product Declaration (EPD) of one of the lightening materials (expanded polystyrene), in order to validate the results. Solutions of different column disposition and geometries are evaluated in the three pillars of sustainable construction on residential construction: social, economic and environmental. The quantitative analysis of the variables used in this study enables and facilitates an objective comparison in the design stage by a responsible technician; the application of the proposed methodology reduces the possible solutions to be evaluated by the expert to 12.22% of the options in the case of low values of the column index and to 26.67% for the highest values. - Highlights: • Methodology for selection of structural alternatives in buildings with one-way slabs • Adapted to CEN guidelines (CEN/TC-350) for assessing the building sustainability • LCA is developed in order to obtain valid information for the decision making process. • Results validated comparing carbon footprint, databases and Env. Product Declarations

  7. Residential Mechanical Precooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, Alea [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States). Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI); Hoeschele, Marc [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States). Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI)

    2014-12-01

    Residential air conditioning (AC) represents a challenging load for many electric utilities with poor load factors. Mechanical precooling improves the load factor by shifting cooling operation from on-peak to off-peak hours. This provides benefits to utilities and the electricity grid, as well as to occupants who can take advantage of time-of-use (TOU) electricity rates. Performance benefits stem from reduced compressor cycling, and shifting condensing unit operation to earlier periods of the day when outdoor temperatures are more favorable to operational efficiency. Finding solutions that save energy and reduce demand on the electricity grid is an important national objective and supports key Building America goals. The Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team evaluated mechanical AC precooling strategies in homes throughout the United States. EnergyPlus modeling was used to evaluate two homes with different performance characteristics in seven climates. Results are applicable to new construction homes and most existing homes built in the last 10 years, as well as fairly efficient retrofitted homes. A successful off-peak AC strategy offers the potential for increased efficiency and improved occupant comfort, and promotes a more reliable and robust electricity grid. Demand response capabilities and further integration with photovoltaic TOU generation patterns provide additional opportunities to flatten loads and optimize grid impacts.

  8. Technical Problems of Residential Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowogońska, Beata; Cibis, Jerzy

    2017-10-01

    Beauty, utility, durability - these are the features of good architecture and should also be the distinguishing qualities of every residential building. But do beauty and utility remain along with the passing of time? Performance characteristics are an indicator of both, the technical as well as aesthetic state of buildings. Aesthetic needs are in disagreement with the merciless aging process. The beauty of a city is formed not only by the original forms of new residential buildings, but also by existing tenement housing; thus preserving their aesthetics becomes a necessity. Time is continuously passing and along with it, aging intensifies. The aging process is a natural phenomenon for every material. The life expectancy of building materials is also limited. Along with the passing of time, the technical state of residential buildings continuously deteriorates. With the passing of time, the aesthetic values and preferences of users of flats change and the usability of the building decreases. The permanence of buildings, including residential buildings, is shaped not only by the forces of nature but also by activities of humans. A long lifespan is ensured by carrying out ongoing, systematic renovation-repair works. It is thanks to them that buildings derived from past centuries are still being used, and their market attractiveness is not decreasing.

  9. Impact of Rate Design Alternatives on Residential Solar Customer Bills. Increased Fixed Charges, Minimum Bills and Demand-based Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Davidson, Carolyn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McLaren, Joyce [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    With rapid growth in energy efficiency and distributed generation, electric utilities are anticipating stagnant or decreasing electricity sales, particularly in the residential sector. Utilities are increasingly considering alternative rates structures that are designed to recover fixed costs from residential solar photovoltaic (PV) customers with low net electricity consumption. Proposed structures have included fixed charge increases, minimum bills, and increasingly, demand rates - for net metered customers and all customers. This study examines the electricity bill implications of various residential rate alternatives for multiple locations within the United States. For the locations analyzed, the results suggest that residential PV customers offset, on average, between 60% and 99% of their annual load. However, roughly 65% of a typical customer's electricity demand is non-coincidental with PV generation, so the typical PV customer is generally highly reliant on the grid for pooling services.

  10. Residential building energy conservation and avoided power plant emissions by urban and community trees in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Nathaniel Appleton; Alexis Ellis; Eric Greenfield

    2017-01-01

    Urban trees and forests alter building energy use and associated emissions from power plants by shading buildings, cooling air temperatures and altering wind speeds around buildings. Field data on urban trees were combined with local urban/community tree and land cover maps, modeling of tree effects on building energy use and pollutant emissions, and state energy and...

  11. Residential Tornado Safe Rooms from Commodity Wood Products: Wall Development and Impact Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. Falk; James J. Bridwell; John C. Hermanson

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, tornadoes cause significant damage and result in many injuries and deaths. Although the development and use of tornado safe rooms and shelters have helped reduce the human toll associated with these events, the cost of these structures is often too high for many that could benefit from their use. The development of a residential tornado safe room...

  12. Residential tornado safe room from commodity wood products – design and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. Falk; James J. Bridwell

    2018-01-01

    In the United States, tornadoes cause significant damage and result in many injuries and deaths. Although the development and use of tornado safe rooms have helped decrease the human toll associated with these events, the cost of these structures is often too high for many that could benefit from their use. The development of a nonproprietary residential tornado safe...

  13. Indoor air quality in green buildings: A case-study in a residential high-rise building in the northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Youyou; Krogmann, Uta; Mainelis, Gediminas; Rodenburg, Lisa A; Andrews, Clinton J

    2015-01-01

    Improved indoor air quality (IAQ) is one of the critical components of green building design. Green building tax credit (e.g., New York State Green Building Tax Credit (GBTC)) and certification programs (e.g., Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design (LEED)) require indoor air quality measures and compliance with allowable maximum concentrations of common indoor air pollutants. It is not yet entirely clear whether compliance with these programs results in improved IAQ and ultimately human health. As a case in point, annual indoor air quality measurements were conducted in a residential green high-rise building for five consecutive years by an industrial hygiene contractor to comply with the building's GBTC requirements. The implementation of green design measures resulted in better IAQ compared to data in references of conventional homes for some parameters, but could not be confirmed for others. Relative humidity and carbon dioxide were satisfactory according to existing standards. Formaldehyde levels during four out of five years were below the most recent proposed exposure limits found in the literature. To some degree, particulate matter (PM) levels were lower than that in studies from conventional residential buildings. Concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) with known permissible exposure limits were below levels known to cause chronic health effects, but their concentrations were inconclusive regarding cancer health effects due to relatively high detection limits. Although measured indoor air parameters met all IAQ maximum allowable concentrations in GBTC and applicable LEED requirements at the time of sampling, we argue that these measurements were not sufficient to assess IAQ comprehensively because more sensitive sampling/analytical methods for PM and VOCs are needed; in addition, there is a need for a formal process to ensure rigor and adequacy of sampling and analysis methods. Also, we suggest that a comprehensive IAQ assessment should

  14. Symmetric structures of coherent states in superfluid helium-4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad, M.

    1981-02-01

    Coherent States in superfluid helium-4 are discussed and symmetric structures are assigned to these states. Discrete and continuous series functions are exhibited for such states. Coherent State structure has been assigned to oscillating condensed bosons and their inter-relations and their effects on the superfluid system are analysed. (author)

  15. Quantum state propagation in linear photonic bandgap structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severini, S; Tricca, D; Sibilia, C; Bertolotti, M; Perina, Jan

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we investigate the propagation of a generic quantum state in a corrugated waveguide, which reproduces a photonic bandgap structure. We find the conditions that assure the outcoming state to preserve the quantum properties of the incoming state. Then, focusing on a particular quantum state (realized by two counter-propagating coherent states), we study the possibility of preserving the quantum properties of this particular double coherent state even in the presence of absorption phenomena during propagation in the structure

  16. Structural health and dynamic behavior of residential buildings: field challenges in the rehab of damaged reinforced concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chalhoub M. S.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Reinforced concrete buildings require special consideration under dynamic excitations due to their anisotropic material properties. Strain compatibility equations are used in concrete analysis and design with assumptions about the stress and strain field across member section and member length. However, these assumptions fall short of describing real life behavior when concrete elements deteriorate, age or undergo cyclic loading. This paper addresses the structural health of reinforced concrete buildings and proposes an analytical model to account for concrete damage through loss of bond. The proposed model relates steel loading that causes bond distress to design parameters such as development length and bar properties, and therefore could be complemented by field measurement. The paper proposes a diagnosis method and discusses the sustainability of the structure by assisting in a simplistic decision rule as to whether to perform minor fixes, major rehabilitation, or disposal. Emphasis is placed on the difference between reversible and irreversible effects of cyclic loading on structural behaviour, and draws a distinction between damage to the girder and damage to the column in the overall structural system. The model is compared to empirical results to address field challenges faced when the structure is subjected to severe conditions in its ambient environment, or to unusual loading. Deterioration in concrete causes alteration in its composite behavior with the reinforcing steel. This affects the fundamental period of the structure, and its response to seismic loading.

  17. RESIDENTIAL MORTGAGE IN MODERN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dementiev N. P.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a comparative analysis of residential mortgages in Russia and the United States. The primary ways of mortgage refinancing are outlined. Predominance of the elements of two-level refinancing system of residential mortgage in Russia and the United States is shown. The activity of the Agency for Housing Mortgage Lending (AHML, the basic tool of the Russian government’s mortgage policy, is described in detail. In its objectives and functions the AHML is similar to the American mortgage agencies Ginnie Mae, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. Similarities were identified in the Russian and US residential mortgages in the pre-crisis period (high rates of mortgage growth, favourable economic conjuncture, low interest rates, large increase in house prices, speculative housing demand. During the mortgage crisis, the policies of the Russian and US governments and monetary authorities had also much in common (monetary policy easing, cheap central banks loans, extended facilities of mortgage refinancing on the part of state agencies, mortgage rescue scheme, social mortgage programs. But the scope of mortgage in Russia is enormously narrow as compared to the US mortgage. The most important reason for that - low incomes of the Russian population.

  18. The structure of states and maps in quantum theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Pramana – Journal of Physics; Volume 73; Issue 3. The structure of states and maps in quantum theory. Sudhavathani Simon S P ... The structure of statistical state spaces in the classical and quantum theories are compared in an interesting and novel manner. Quantum state spaces and maps on them ...

  19. Collective states in 230Th: band structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Levon

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Experimental data for the excited states in the deformed nucleus 230Th studied in the (p, t reaction are analyzed. Sequences of the states are selected which can be treated as rotational bands and as multiplets of excitations. Experimental data are compared with the interacting boson model (IBM and the quasiparticle-phonon model (QPM calculations.

  20. 77 FR 28519 - Test Procedure Guidance for Room Air Conditioners, Residential Dishwashers, and Residential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... Guidance for Room Air Conditioners, Residential Dishwashers, and Residential Clothes Washers: Public... procedures for room air conditioners, residential dishwashers, and residential clothes washers. DATES: DOE...'s existing test procedures for residential room air conditioners, residential dishwashers, and...

  1. Enact legislation supporting residential property assessed clean energy financing (PACE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Devashree

    2012-11-15

    Congress should enact legislation that supports residential property assessed clean energy (PACE) programs in the nation’s states and metropolitan areas. Such legislation should require the Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) to allow Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac to purchase residential mortgages with PACE assessments while at the same time providing responsible underwriting standards and a set of benchmarks for residential PACE assessments in order to minimize financial risks to mortgage holders. Congressional support of residential PACE financing will improve energy efficiency, encourage job creation, and foster economic growth in the nation’s state and metropolitan areas.

  2. The challenges of the implementation of regulation AGERBA for residential natural gas distribution in the state of Bahia, Brazil; Os desafios da implantacao do regulamento AGERBA (Agencia Estadual de Regulacao de Servicos Publicos de Energia, Transportes e Comunicacoes da Bahia) para o gas natural residencial no estado da Bahia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Eduardo F. de [Bahiagas, Salvador, BA (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    In recent years, important structural and institutional transformations are observed, for consequence the questions on the energy industries had started to incorporate, the regulation problems. Thus, the simple creation of new regulating agencies does not assure the automatic fulfilment of the functions of public interest. In this new context, these tasks are much more complex, demanding a learning process: how much to the structures of market and how much to the strategical behavior of the companies. In the local scene, to consolidate the distribution of the natural gas for the residential segment is one of the challenges of the Bahiagas, mainly after the publication of the Resolution that will go to establish the General Conditions of Gas Supply Canalized in the Residential Classroom in the State of the Bahia (hearing publishes carried through N. 002/2006 in June/2006). In this context, it is important to deeply understand the Resolution, that consequently will go to print a new dynamics for the Bahiagas. (author)

  3. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Utah. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 Utah State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Utah.

  4. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Montana. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2014 Montana State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Montana.

  5. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Idaho. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2015 Idaho State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Idaho.

  6. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Georgia. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2011 Georgia State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Georgia.

  7. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Iowa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Iowa. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2014 Iowa State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Iowa.

  8. Transire, a Program for Generating Solid-State Interface Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-09-14

    ARL-TR-8134 ● SEP 2017 US Army Research Laboratory Transire, a Program for Generating Solid-State Interface Structures by...Program for Generating Solid-State Interface Structures by Caleb M Carlin and Berend C Rinderspacher Weapons and Materials Research Directorate, ARL...

  9. Sensitivity of rocky planet structures to the equation of state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swift, D.C.

    2009-01-01

    Structures were calculated for Mercury, Venus, Earth, the Moon, and Mars, using a core-mantle model and adjusting the core radius to reproduce the observed mass and diameter of each body. Structures were calculated using Fe and basalt equations of state of different degrees of sophistication for the core and mantle. The choice of equation of state had a significant effect on the inferred structure. For each structure, the moment of inertia ratio was calculated and compared with observed values. Linear Grueneisen equations of state fitted to limited portions of shock data reproduced the observed moments of inertia significantly better than did more detailed equations of state incorporating phase transitions, presumably reflecting the actual compositions of the bodies. The linear Grueneisen equations of state and corresponding structures seem however to be a reasonable starting point for comparative simulations of large-scale astrophysical impacts.

  10. Structural racism and myocardial infarction in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukachko, Alicia; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Keyes, Katherine M.

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing research literature suggesting that racism is an important risk factor undermining the health of Blacks in the United States. Racism can take many forms, ranging from interpersonal interactions to institutional/structural conditions and practices. Existing research, however, tends to focus on individual forms of racial discrimination using self-report measures. Far less attention has been paid to whether structural racism may disadvantage the health of Blacks in the United States. The current study addresses gaps in the existing research by using novel measures of structural racism and by explicitly testing the hypothesis that structural racism is a risk factor for myocardial infarction among Blacks in the United States. State-level indicators of structural racism included four domains: (1) political participation; (2) employment and job status; (3) educational attainment; and (4) judicial treatment. State-level racial disparities across these domains were proposed to represent the systematic exclusion of Blacks from resources and mobility in society. Data on past-year myocardial infarction were obtained from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (non-Hispanic Black: N = 8245; non-Hispanic White: N = 24,507), a nationally representative survey of the U.S. civilian, non-institutionalized population aged 18 and older. Models were adjusted for individual-level confounders (age, sex, education, household income, medical insurance) as well as for state-level disparities in poverty. Results indicated that Blacks living in states with high levels of structural racism were generally more likely to report past-year myocardial infarction than Blacks living in low-structural racism states. Conversely, Whites living in high structural racism states experienced null or lower odds of myocardial infarction compared to Whites living in low-structural racism states. These results raise the provocative possibility that structural

  11. Phase space structure of generalized Gaussian cat states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nicacio, Fernando; Maia, Raphael N.P.; Toscano, Fabricio; Vallejos, Raul O.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze generalized Gaussian cat states obtained by superposing arbitrary Gaussian states. The structure of the interference term of the Wigner function is always hyperbolic, surviving the action of a thermal reservoir. We also consider certain superpositions of mixed Gaussian states. An application to semiclassical dynamics is discussed.

  12. Factor Structure, Reliability and Measurement Invariance of the Alberta Context Tool and the Conceptual Research Utilization Scale, for German Residential Long Term Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoben, Matthias; Estabrooks, Carole A.; Squires, Janet E.; Behrens, Johann

    2016-01-01

    We translated the Canadian residential long term care versions of the Alberta Context Tool (ACT) and the Conceptual Research Utilization (CRU) Scale into German, to study the association between organizational context factors and research utilization in German nursing homes. The rigorous translation process was based on best practice guidelines for tool translation, and we previously published methods and results of this process in two papers. Both instruments are self-report questionnaires used with care providers working in nursing homes. The aim of this study was to assess the factor structure, reliability, and measurement invariance (MI) between care provider groups responding to these instruments. In a stratified random sample of 38 nursing homes in one German region (Metropolregion Rhein-Neckar), we collected questionnaires from 273 care aides, 196 regulated nurses, 152 allied health providers, 6 quality improvement specialists, 129 clinical leaders, and 65 nursing students. The factor structure was assessed using confirmatory factor models. The first model included all 10 ACT concepts. We also decided a priori to run two separate models for the scale-based and the count-based ACT concepts as suggested by the instrument developers. The fourth model included the five CRU Scale items. Reliability scores were calculated based on the parameters of the best-fitting factor models. Multiple-group confirmatory factor models were used to assess MI between provider groups. Rather than the hypothesized ten-factor structure of the ACT, confirmatory factor models suggested 13 factors. The one-factor solution of the CRU Scale was confirmed. The reliability was acceptable (>0.7 in the entire sample and in all provider groups) for 10 of 13 ACT concepts, and high (0.90–0.96) for the CRU Scale. We could demonstrate partial strong MI for both ACT models and partial strict MI for the CRU Scale. Our results suggest that the scores of the German ACT and the CRU Scale for nursing

  13. The challenges of the implantation of the regulation of AGERBA (State Agency of Regulation of Public Services for Energy and Transport and Communications of Bahia) for residential natural gas in the State of Bahia; Os desafios da implantacao do regulamento da AGERBA (Agencia Estadual de Regulacao de Servicos Publicos de Energia e Transportes e Comunicacoes da Bahia) para o gas natural residencial no estado da Bahia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sousa, Eduardo F. de [Universidade Salvador (UNIFACS), BA (Brazil)], e-mail: eduardosousa@bahiagas.com.br

    2008-07-01

    In recent years, important structural and institutional transformations are observed, for consequence the questions on the energy industries had started to incorporate, the regulation problems. Thus, the simple creation of new regulating agencies does not assure the automatic fulfilment of the functions of public interest. In this new context, these tasks are much more complex, demanding a learning process: how much to the structures of market and how much to the strategical behavior of the companies. In the local scene, to consolidate the distribution of the natural gas for the residential segment is one of the challenges of the Bahiagas, mainly after the publication of the Resolution that will go to establish the General Conditions of Gas Supply Canalized in the Residential Classroom in the State of the Bahia (hearing publishes carried through N. 002/2006 in June/2006). In this context, it is important to deeply understand the Resolution, that consequently will go to print a new dynamics for the Bahiagas. (author)

  14. Electrochemical structures and states of tetraphenylgermoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Y. H.; Shin, Y. H.; Kim, Y. M.

    2010-01-01

    The electronic structures of two germoles (1,1-dihydro-2,3,4,5-tetraphenylgermole (DHG) and 1,1-dimethyl-2,3,4,5-tetraphenylgermole (DMG)) are investigated by using density functional theory (DFT) calculations, which indicate that both the highest occupied molecular orbitals (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbitals (LUMO) are mainly localized in the germole ring and in the two phenyl groups at the 3,5-positions. These compounds are of interest as emissive layers for organic light emitting devices as they posses relatively low LUMO energy levels while maintaining high HOMO-LUMO optical gaps.

  15. Bonding, structure and solid-state chemistry

    CERN Document Server

    Ladd, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This book is aimed at undergraduate students in both chemistry and those degree subjects in which chemistry forms a significant part. It does not reflect any particular academic year, and so finds a place during the normal span of degree studies in the physical sciences. An A-level standard in science and mathematics is presumed; additional mathematical treatments are discussed in Appendices. An introductory first chapter leads into the main subject matter, which is treated through four chapters in terms of the principle bonding forces of cohesion in the solid state; a further chapter discusses nanosize materials. Important applications of the study topics are interspersed at appropriate points within the text. Each chapter is provided with a set of problems of varying degrees of difficulty, so as to assist the reader in gaining a facility with the subject matter and its applications. The problems are supplemented by detailed tutorial solutions, some of which present additional relevant material that indicate...

  16. Residential Preferences: What's Terrorism Got to Do with It?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kay, David; Geisler, Charles; Bills, Nelson

    2010-01-01

    Security has long been recognized as an element in residential preference and its relative importance has risen with fear of extremist attacks on U.S. cities. Using polling data from 2004, this research investigates whether the security breaches of 9/11 in New York City influenced residential preferences in New York State. Our results confirm that…

  17. 77 FR 51569 - Large Residential Washers From Korea and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ...)] Large Residential Washers From Korea and Mexico Scheduling of the final phase of countervailing duty and... and Mexico of large residential washers, provided for in subheading 8450.20.00 of the Harmonized... and Mexico are being sold in the United States at less than fair value within the meaning of section...

  18. 78 FR 10636 - Large Residential Washers From Korea and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... Residential Washers From Korea and Mexico Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... determines that an industry in the United States is materially injured by reason of imports from Mexico of... of large residential washers from Korea and Mexico were sold at LTFV within the meaning of 733(b) of...

  19. RECENT TRENDS IN CONSTRUCTION AND RESIDENTIAL REAL ESTATE MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheremisina T. P.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the residential real estate and the structure of Russian housing market do not match: primary and secondary markets are supplemented by a considerable in size non-market sector of residential real estate - the stock of dilapidated housing and buildings in a state of emergency that is filling up the secondary market with rapidly growing volume of worn out properties. While the developmental model of entrepreneurship is gradually settling in the primary housing market, and in general the “soviet” model of management (management companies are not that different from the soviet property management agencies is remaining in the secondary market, the non-market sector requires a formulation of an adequate management model that would allow the private and public management of residential real estate at the same time. Mega-project of renovation of the 5-storey buildings in Moscow will support the formation of such a model and the legal grounds for its existence.

  20. Represenation of process state, structure and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodstein, L.P.; Rasmussen, J.

    1987-04-01

    Supervisory control is essentially a decision-making activity where, among other things, the dm has to maneuver within a complex problem space which reflects key dimensions and attributes of the object system (power plant ...). Of considerable importance therefore is the representation for the dm of this problem space comprising at the one end the target demands, goals, constraints and, at the other, the resources available for meeting the assigned goals - and all of this in pace with the dynamic event-driven environment which characterizes the types of systems of interest. Previous work has identified the advantages of utilizing the two-dimensional means-ends/part-whole space as a basic ingredient in a system representation. This paper associates more detailed representational requirements at the various levels of the means-ends axis with the activities of state identification and diagnosis. In addition, some examples of display formats which attempt to incorporate the outlined representational principles within the context of a PWR plant are discussed. (authors)

  1. Structural orientation and social agency in South Africa: state, race ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-12-08

    Dec 8, 2010 ... naturalist and racial historicist traditions of social agency when .... the segregationist and the apartheid states is premised on the structural embeddedness ..... the fact that what diversity brings to the epistemic formation is not ...

  2. Structural Performance of the Second Oldest Glued-Laminated Structure in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas R. Rammer; Jorge de Melo Moura; Robert J. Ross

    2014-01-01

    The second glued-laminated structure built in the United States was constructed at the USDA Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) in 1934 to demonstrate the performance of wooden arch buildings. After 75 years of use the structure was decommissioned in 2010. Shortly after construction, researchers structurally evaluated the glued-laminated arch structure for uniform loading...

  3. Structural Evaluation of the Second Oldest Glued-Laminated Structure in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas R. Rammer; Jorge de Melo Moura

    2013-01-01

    The second glued-laminated structure built in the United States was constructed at the USDA Forest Products Laboratory (FPL) in 1934 to demonstrate the performance of wooden arch buildings. After decades of use the structure was decommissioned in 2010. Shortly after construction, researchers structurally evaluated the glued-laminated arch structure for uniform loading...

  4. DETERMINANTS OF RESIDENTIAL PER CAPITA WATER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This report presents the findings of the study on the determinants of residential per capita water demand of Makurdi metropolis in Benue State, Nigeria. Data for the study was obtained by the use of questionnaires, oral interviews and observations. The data was analyzed using SPSS. Twenty variables were considered in ...

  5. Structural racism and myocardial infarction in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukachko, Alicia; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L; Keyes, Katherine M

    2014-02-01

    There is a growing research literature suggesting that racism is an important risk factor undermining the health of Blacks in the United States. Racism can take many forms, ranging from interpersonal interactions to institutional/structural conditions and practices. Existing research, however, tends to focus on individual forms of racial discrimination using self-report measures. Far less attention has been paid to whether structural racism may disadvantage the health of Blacks in the United States. The current study addresses gaps in the existing research by using novel measures of structural racism and by explicitly testing the hypothesis that structural racism is a risk factor for myocardial infarction among Blacks in the United States. State-level indicators of structural racism included four domains: (1) political participation; (2) employment and job status; (3) educational attainment; and (4) judicial treatment. State-level racial disparities across these domains were proposed to represent the systematic exclusion of Blacks from resources and mobility in society. Data on past-year myocardial infarction were obtained from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions (non-Hispanic Black: N = 8245; non-Hispanic White: N = 24,507), a nationally representative survey of the U.S. civilian, non-institutionalized population aged 18 and older. Models were adjusted for individual-level confounders (age, sex, education, household income, medical insurance) as well as for state-level disparities in poverty. Results indicated that Blacks living in states with high levels of structural racism were generally more likely to report past-year myocardial infarction than Blacks living in low-structural racism states. Conversely, Whites living in high structural racism states experienced null or lower odds of myocardial infarction compared to Whites living in low-structural racism states. These results raise the provocative possibility that structural

  6. Residentialization of Public Spaces: Bratislava Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacová, Andrea; Puškár, Branislav; Vráblová, Edita

    2017-10-01

    The housing estates in Bratislava saturated the housing needs of a large number of inhabitants who come after World War II to the city. Design of public spaces often did not have priority in the process of designing. The solutions for mentioned exterior spaces had been planned after blocks of flat realization, but many of them are not realized to this day. The article analyzes the example of the unrealized public spaces in existing housing estates Devinska Nova Ves and Petržalka (city districts of Bratislava) and offer practical solutions in relation to residencialization method. Residencialization of missing public places is an effective method of adding identities to settlements. It improves the quality of residential environment and public spaces. The main aim is to create better conditions for social activities in public areas, which are missing on the present. The research will be focused on the examination of the urban, cultural and construction potential of the existing residential enviroment in Bratislava. The main aim of residentialization is not only to enhance the quality of spatial and building structures in the selected residential area and maintain long-term sustainability in the pertinent programme area, but mainly to improve the quality of living for the residents. The outputs of the project are proposals and practical procedures developed with regard to planning documents for local municipal authorities and regional organizations. The solutions will have a positive impact on the enhancement of the quality of public spaces, attractive social activities and of a conceptual link - residentialization.

  7. Condition assessment and strengthening of residential units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatheer Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available About 40, ground plus one (G+1 residential units were designed using a hybrid structural framing system (RC frame and load bearing walls. A few months after the completion of the ground floor of the residential units, cracks appeared at several locations in the structure. Field and Laboratory testing was conducted to ascertain the in situ strength of concrete and steel reinforcement. The results of the experimental work were used in the analytical ETABS model for the structural stability calculations. The results indicated that residential units were marginally safe in the existing condition (completed ground floor, but the anticipated construction of the floor above the ground floor (G+1 could not be carried out as the strength of the structural system was inadequate. To increase the safety of existing ground floor and to provide the option of the construction of one floor above, rehabilitation and strengthening design was performed. The proposed strengthening design made use of welded wire fabric (WWF and carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP laminates/sheets for the strengthening of walls, columns and slabs. The residential units will be strengthened in the near future.

  8. Family ties and residential locations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, C.H.; Cooke, T.J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, and in the Special Issue it introduces, the focus is on the role of family ties in residential location choice and, conversely, the role of residential locations in maintaining family ties. Not only do events in the nuclear family trigger residential relocations, but nearby family

  9. Optical Tamm states in one-dimensional magnetophotonic structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, T; Dorofeenko, A V; Merzlikin, A M; Baryshev, A V; Vinogradov, A P; Inoue, M; Lisyansky, A A; Granovsky, A B

    2008-09-12

    We demonstrate the existence of a spectrally narrow localized surface state, the so-called optical Tamm state, at the interface between one-dimensional magnetophotonic and nonmagnetic photonic crystals. The state is spectrally located inside the photonic band gaps of each of the photonic crystals comprising this magnetophotonic structure. This state is associated with a sharp transmission peak through the sample and is responsible for the substantial enhancement of the Faraday rotation for the corresponding wavelength. The experimental results are in excellent agreement with the theoretical predictions.

  10. Infectious Intestinal Diseases and Residential Water Services in Mexico: a Spatial Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas P. Sisto

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Infectious intestinal diseases (IID represent a widespread public health problem in Mexico. The country also faces major challenges with respect to the provision of residential water services (piped water and sewer—an essential input for hygiene and cleanliness in homes. This paper analyzes morbidity rates from several IID associated with unsanitary living conditions along with a series of residential water services indicators for Mexico’s 2,456 municipalities. With data obtained through a special request to the federal epidemiological authority as well as official census data for 2010, we find stark regional contrasts and identify interesting spatial structures for both IID morbidity and residential water services indicators. In particular, municipalities tend to present values similar to neighboring municipalities, forming clusters of relatively high-value (or low-value municipalities. Moreover we find that municipalities with a relatively high level of access to residential water services tend to present relatively low IID morbidity rates. These results have multiple public policy implications. In order to reduce the incidence of IID effectively and efficiently, interventions should explicitly consider the spatial structure of morbidity and target problem spots—which typically spill over state, municipal and other administrative boundaries. Moreover, improvements in the quality of access to piped water (for example, increasing the frequency of supply may be as important for reducing morbidity as the expansion of basic access to this service.

  11. Modelling and forecasting Turkish residential electricity demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilaver, Zafer; Hunt, Lester C

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates the relationship between Turkish residential electricity consumption, household total final consumption expenditure and residential electricity prices by applying the structural time series model to annual data over the period from 1960 to 2008. Household total final consumption expenditure, real energy prices and an underlying energy demand trend are found to be important drivers of Turkish residential electricity demand with the estimated short run and the long run total final consumption expenditure elasticities being 0.38 and 1.57, respectively, and the estimated short run and long run price elasticities being -0.09 and -0.38, respectively. Moreover, the estimated underlying energy demand trend, (which, as far as is known, has not been investigated before for the Turkish residential sector) should be of some benefit to Turkish decision makers in terms of energy planning. It provides information about the impact of past policies, the influence of technical progress, the impacts of changes in consumer behaviour and the effects of changes in economic structure. Furthermore, based on the estimated equation, and different forecast assumptions, it is predicted that Turkish residential electricity demand will be somewhere between 48 and 80 TWh by 2020 compared to 40 TWh in 2008. - Research highlights: → Estimated short run and long run expenditure elasticities of 0.38 and 1.57, respectively. → Estimated short run and long run price elasticities of -0.09 and -0.38, respectively. → Estimated UEDT has increasing (i.e. energy using) and decreasing (i.e. energy saving) periods. → Predicted Turkish residential electricity demand between 48 and 80 TWh in 2020.

  12. Life-cycle energy of residential buildings in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Yuan; Ries, Robert J.; Wang, Yaowu

    2013-01-01

    In the context of rapid urbanization and new construction in rural China, residential building energy consumption has the potential to increase with the expected increase in demand. A process-based hybrid life-cycle assessment model is used to quantify the life-cycle energy use for both urban and rural residential buildings in China and determine the energy use characteristics of each life cycle phase. An input–output model for the pre-use phases is based on 2007 Chinese economic benchmark data. A process-based life-cycle assessment model for estimating the operation and demolition phases uses historical energy-intensity data. Results show that operation energy in both urban and rural residential buildings is dominant and varies from 75% to 86% of life cycle energy respectively. Gaps in living standards as well as differences in building structure and materials result in a life-cycle energy intensity of urban residential buildings that is 20% higher than that of rural residential buildings. The life-cycle energy of urban residential buildings is most sensitive to the reduction of operational energy intensity excluding heating energy which depends on both the occupants' energy-saving behavior as well as the performance of the building itself. -- Highlights: •We developed a hybrid LCA model to quantify the life-cycle energy for urban and rural residential buildings in China. •Operation energy in urban and rural residential buildings is dominant, varying from 75% to 86% of life cycle energy respectively. •Compared with rural residential buildings, the life-cycle energy intensity of urban residential buildings is 20% higher. •The life-cycle energy of urban residential buildings is most sensitive to the reduction of daily activity energy

  13. StateGEN/StateNET - A structured method to perform route comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashwell, J.W.; Erickson, C.M.

    1989-01-01

    StateGEN/StateNET is a modeling structure and routing algorithm designed expressly to address the needs of state and local governments to perform analyses of routing alternatives. StateGEN/StateNET is designed to permit the user to construct a network and assign attributes of interest to the network on a personal computer (PC). The completed network is then transferred via a modem to the TRANSNET system and the preferred route is determined based upon attribute weights assigned by the user. This modeling structure permits the state or local government to perform a routing analysis, such as that required by the US Department of Transportation (DOT) for Highway Route-Controlled Quantity shipments of radioactive materials, with a minimum of resources. StateGEN/StateNET provides a computerized version of the DOT guidelines or allows the user to structure their own network parameters. Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is the Department of Energy (DOE) lead organization for transportation research and development. The DOE Office of Defense Programs has been the prime sponsor of development of models and associated databases used to analyze the impacts of the transportation of radioactive materials. The routing algorithms used in StateGEN/StateNET were based on the existing models on TRANSNET, a system which was developed to enable outside users to access analytical codes and associated data developed for the DOE

  14. StateGEN/StateNET--A structured method to perform route comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashwell, J.W.; Erickson, C.M.

    1989-01-01

    StateGEN/StateNET is a modelling structure and routing algorithm designed expressly to address the needs of state and local governments to perform analyses of routing alternatives. StateGEN/StateNET is designed to permit the user to construct a network and assign attributes of interest to the network on a personal computer (PC). The completed network is then transferred via a modem to the TRANSNET system (Cashwell, 1989) and the preferred route is determined based upon attribute weights assigned by the user. This modelling structure permits the state or local to perform a routing analysis, such as that required by the US Department of Transportation (DOT) for Highway Route-Controlled Quantity shipments of radioactive materials, with a minimum of resources. StateGEN/StateNET provides a computerized version of the DOT guidelines (Cashwell, 1989) or allows the user to structure their own network parameters. Sandia national Laboratories (SNL) is the Department of Energy's (DOE) lead organization for transportation research and development. The DOE Office of Defense Programs has been the prime sponsor of development of models and associated databases used to analyze the impacts of the transportation of radioactive materials. The routing algorithms used in StateGEN/StateNET were based on the existing models on TRANSNET, a system which was developed to enable outside users to access analytical codes and associated data developed for the DOE. 2 refs

  15. About the structure of quantum intermediate state of superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ledenev, O.P.

    2008-01-01

    The calculation of spatial structure of a quantum intermediate state in Type I superconductors is completed. Theoretical model of thermodynamics of considered state was proposed by Andreev. It is shown, that in a quantum case, the period of structure appears significantly smaller and has different dependence on both the magnetic field and temperature than in the classical intermediate Landau state. The decrease of thickness of normal layers results in increase of characteristic distance between the quantum Andreev levels of electronic excitations, and the transition to the quantum intermediate from classical state is realized at higher temperatures ∼1 K, than it was supposed in previous works. The comparison of calculation data with experimental results, for example using the sample of mono-crystal gallium, is conducted

  16. Magnetic monopole interactions: shell structure of meson and baryon states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akers, D.

    1986-01-01

    It is suggested that a low-mass magnetic monopole of Dirac charge g = (137/2)e may be interacting with a c-quark's magnetic dipole moment to produce Zeeman splitting of meson states. The mass M 0 = 2397 MeV of the monopole is in contrast to the 10 16 -GeV monopoles of grand unification theories (GUT). It is shown that shell structure of energy E/sub n/ = M 0 + 1/4nM 0 ... exists for meson states. The presence of symmetric meson states leads to the identification of the shell structure. The possible existence of the 2397-MeV magnetic monopole is shown to quantize quark masses in agreement with calculations of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). From the shell structure of meson states, the existence of two new mesons is predicted: eta(1814 +/- 50 MeV) with I/sup G/(J/sup PC/) = 0 + (0 -+ ) and eta/sub c/ (3907 +/- 100 MeV) with J/sup PC/ = 0 -+ . The presence of shell structure for baryon states is shown

  17. Factor structure of functional state of primary school age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davidenko O.V.

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The examination of primary school children to determine the ranking of significant factors that determine the structure of their functional state depending on the level of physical health. It is shown that the main factor in the structure of the functional state of younger schoolchildren in low-and lower-middle level of physical fitness is selected morpho-functional status, which characterizes the functions of the body at rest. For children with average or above average level of physical fitness is a leading factor in physical fitness of schoolchildren.

  18. Residential damage in an area of underground coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padgett, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    In order to estimate the potential for future subsidence-related residential damage, a statistical analysis of past residential damage in the Boulder-Weld, Colorado, coal field was performed. The objectives of this study were to assess the difference in damage severity and frequency between undermined and non-undermined areas, and to determine, where applicable, which mining factors significantly influence the severity and frequency of residential damage. The results of this study suggest that undermined homes have almost three times the risk of having some type of structural damage than do non-undermined homes. The study also indicated that both geologic factors, such as the ratio of sandstone/claystone in the overburden, and mining factors, such as the mining feature (room, pillar, entry, etc.), can significantly affect the severity of overlying residential damage. However, the results of this study are dependent on local conditions and should not be applied elsewhere unless the geologic, mining, and residential conditions are similar

  19. Analysis of a Residential Building Energy Consumption Demand Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Liu

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to estimate the energy consumption demand of residential buildings, this paper first discusses the status and shortcomings of current domestic energy consumption models. Then it proposes and develops a residential building energy consumption demand model based on a back propagation (BP neural network model. After that, taking residential buildings in Chongqing (P.R. China as an example, 16 energy consumption indicators are introduced as characteristics of the residential buildings in Chongqing. The index system of the BP neutral network prediction model is established and the multi-factorial BP neural network prediction model of Chongqing residential building energy consumption is developed using the Cshap language, based on the SQL server 2005 platform. The results obtained by applying the model in Chongqing are in good agreement with actual ones. In addition, the model provides corresponding approximate data by taking into account the potential energy structure adjustments and relevant energy policy regulations.

  20. Structural racism and myocardial infarction in the United States

    OpenAIRE

    Lukachko, Alicia; Hatzenbuehler, Mark L.; Keyes, Katherine M.

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing research literature suggesting that racism is an important risk factor undermining the health of Blacks in the United States. Racism can take many forms, ranging from interpersonal interactions to institutional/structural conditions and practices. Existing research, however, tends to focus on individual forms of racial discrimination using self-report measures. Far less attention has been paid to whether structural racism may disadvantage the health of Blacks in the United ...

  1. Long-term energy demand forecasting for the Sao Paulo state, Brazil, applying the structural decomposition model for three alternative growth sceneries of the state economy; Projecao da demanda setorial de energia do Estado de Sao Paulo no longo prazo, aplicando o modelo de desagregacao estrutural em tres cenarios alternativos de crescimento da economia do estado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laite, Alvaro Afonso Furtado; Bajay, Sergio Valdir; Pereira, Andre Flavio Soares [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Mecanica. Dept. de Energia]|[Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Nucleo Interdisciplinar de Planejamento Energetico (NIPE)]. E-mails: afurtado@fem.unicamp.br; bajay@fem.unicamp.br; apereira@fem.unicamp.br

    2006-07-01

    Long-term demand forecasts (up to 2025) are presented in this paper for the main energy forms consumed in the residential, trade and services, rural, transport, and industrial sectors in the State of Sao Paulo. They were obtained with the help of a flexible forecasting model based on the structural decomposition of the demand, for three alternative scenarios concerning the growth of the state economy. These three state-wise scenarios are related to initially nation-wide defined scenarios, through assumptions concerning the evolution on the ratio between the state GDP and the national GDP. (author)

  2. Ground state correlations and structure of odd spherical nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishev, S.; Voronov, V. V.

    2006-01-01

    It is well known that the Pauli principle plays a substantial role at low energies because the phonon operators are not ideal boson operators. Calculating the exact commutators between the quasiparticle and phonon operators one can take into account the Pauli principle corrections. Besides the ground state correlations due to the quasiparticle interaction in the ground state influence the single particle fragmentation as well. In this paper, we generalize the basic QPM equations to account for both mentioned effects. As an illustration of our approach, calculations on the structure of the low-lying states in "1"3"1Ba have been performed.

  3. Ground state correlations and structure of odd spherical nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mishev, S.; Voronov, V.V.

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that the Pauli principle plays a substantial role at low energies because the phonon operators are not ideal boson operators. Calculating the exact commutators between the quasiparticle and phonon operators one can take into account the Pauli principle corrections. Besides, the ground state correlations due to the quasiparticle interaction in the ground state influence the single-particle fragmentation as well. In this paper, we generalize the basic equations of the quasiparticle-phonon nuclear model to account for both effects mentioned. As an illustration of our approach, calculations on the structure of the low-lying states in 133 Ba have been performed

  4. Ground-state electronic structure of actinide monocarbides and mononitrides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petit, Leon; Svane, Axel; Szotek, Z.

    2009-01-01

    The self-interaction corrected local spin-density approximation is used to investigate the ground-state valency configuration of the actinide ions in the actinide monocarbides, AC (A=U,Np,Pu,Am,Cm), and the actinide mononitrides, AN. The electronic structure is characterized by a gradually increa...

  5. Measuring Structural Gender Equality in Mexico: A State Level Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frias, Sonia M.

    2008-01-01

    The main goal of this article is to assess the level of gender equality across the 32 Mexican states. After reviewing conceptual and methodological issues related to previous measures of structural inequality I detail the logic and methodology involved in the construction of a composite and multidimensional measure of gender equality, at the…

  6. A possible global group structure for exotic states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Xue-Qian [Nankai University, School of Physics, Tianjin (China); Liu, Xiang [Lanzhou University, School of Physical Science and Technology, Lanzhou (China); Lanzhou University and Institute of Modern Physics of CAS, Research Center for Hadron and CSR Physics, Lanzhou (China)

    2014-12-01

    Based on the fact that the long expected pentaquark which possesses the exotic quantum numbers of B = 1 and S = 1 was not experimentally found, although exotic states of XY Z have been observed recently, we conjecture that the heavy flavors may play an important role in stabilizing the hadronic structures beyond the traditional q anti q and qqq composites. (orig.)

  7. Structural and dynamic properties of solid state ionics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakuma, T.

    1995-01-01

    The structural and dynamic properties of solid state ionics are reviewed. The low temperature phase transition of the copper halide-chalcogen compounds by specific heat measurements, electrical conductivity measurements and x-ray diffraction measurements are explained. The structures of solid state ionics investigated by the usual x-ray diffraction method and the anomalous x-ray scattering (AXS) measurement are discussed. The expression of the diffuse scattering intensity including the correlations among the thermal displacements of atoms has been given and applied to α-AgI type solid state ionics and lithium sulphate. The presence of low-energy excitations in crystalline copper ion conductors and the superionic conducting glass is investigated by neutron inelastic scattering measurements. The relation between the excitation energy and the mass of the cations is discussed. (author). 141 refs., 21 figs., 7 tabs

  8. Charge state of oxide layer of SIMOX-structures

    CERN Document Server

    Askinazi, A Y; Dmitriev, V A; Miloglyadova, L V

    2001-01-01

    The charge state of the oxide layer of the SIMOX-structures, obtained in the course of forming the oxide layers, bricked up in the silicon volume, through the oxygen ions implantation into the Si, is studied. The charge state of the given structures is studied through the method of the layer-by-layer profiling, which makes it possible to obtain the dependence of the plane zones potential on the oxide layer thickness. It is established, that during the process of the SIMOX-structures formation in the oxide layer near the boundary with the Si there appear defects, responsible for the charge. The radiation from the near-the-ultraviolet (NUV) area without the applied electric field neutralizes the given charge. The simultaneous impact of the NUV-radiation and electric field leads to the formation of significantly positive charge

  9. Structural study of chloryl fluoride in its three states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tantot, Georges

    1974-01-01

    This research thesis reports the study of the ClO 2 F chloryl fluoride molecule in its three physical states by using different methods, and by highlighting the structural aspect. Observations confirm the pyramidal structure of the compound in its three states. The structure of the single solid phase is partially elucidated in terms of four-molecule monoclinic cell. In the liquid phase, the author shows the existence of a phenomenon of association which seems to be related with a partial local order phenomenon. This phenomenon is also characterized. The interaction force is compared for various compounds (ClO 3 F and ClO 2 F, ClF 3 and BrF 3 , ClF 5 and BrF 5 , BrF 5 and IF 5 ). It appears that interactions do not have an electrostatic origin, but are based on a partial overlapping of two molecular orbitals [fr

  10. Hyperfine structure of S-states of muonic deuterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexey P. Martynenko

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of quasipotential method in quantum electrodynamics we calculate corrections of order $\\alpha^5$ and $\\alpha^6$ to hyperfine structure of $S$-wave energy levels of muonic deuterium. Relativistic corrections, effects of vacuum polarization in first, second and third orders of perturbation theory, nuclear structure and recoil corrections are taken into account. The obtained numerical values of hyperfine splitting $\\Delta E^{hfs}(1S=50.2814$ meV ($1S$ state and $\\Delta E^{hfs}(2S=6.2804$ meV ($2S$ state represent reliable estimate for a comparison with forthcoming experimental data of CREMA collaboration. The hyperfine structure interval $\\Delta_{12}=8\\Delta E^{hfs}(2S- \\Delta E^{hfs}(1S=-0.0379$ meV can be used for precision check of quantum electrodynamics prediction for muonic deuterium.

  11. Chemical modulation of electronic structure at the excited state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, F.; Song, C.; Gu, Y. D.; Saleem, M. S.; Pan, F.

    2017-12-01

    Spin-polarized electronic structures are the cornerstone of spintronics, and have thus attracted a significant amount of interest; in particular, researchers are looking into how to modulate the electronic structure to enable multifunctional spintronics applications, especially in half-metallic systems. However, the control of the spin polarization has only been predicted in limited two-dimensional systems with spin-polarized Dirac structures and is difficult to achieve experimentally. Here, we report the modulation of the electronic structure in the light-induced excited state in a typical half-metal, L a1 /2S r1 /2Mn O3 -δ . According to the spin-transport measurements, there appears a light-induced increase in magnetoresistance due to the enhanced spin scattering, which is closely associated with the excited spin polarization. Strikingly, the light-induced variation can be enhanced via alcohol processing and reduced by oxygen annealing. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements show that in the chemical process, a redox reaction occurs with a change in the valence of Mn. Furthermore, first-principles calculations reveal that the change in the valence of Mn alters the electronic structure and consequently modulates the spin polarization in the excited state. Our findings thus report a chemically tunable electronic structure, demonstrating interesting physics and the potential for multifunctional applications and ultrafast spintronics.

  12. Selective maintenance of multi-state systems with structural dependence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dao, Cuong D.; Zuo, Ming J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper studies the selective maintenance problem for multi-state systems with structural dependence. Each component can be in one of multiple working levels and several maintenance actions are possible to a component in a maintenance break. The components structurally form multiple hierarchical levels and dependence groups. A directed graph is used to represent the precedence relations of components in the system. A selective maintenance optimization model is developed to maximize the system reliability in the next mission under time and cost constraints. A backward search algorithm is used to determine the assembly sequence for a selective maintenance scenario. The maintenance model helps maintenance managers in determining the best combination of maintenance activities to maximize the probability of successfully completing the next mission. Examples showing the use of the proposed method are presented. - Highlights: • A selective maintenance model for multi-state systems is proposed considering both economic and structural dependence. • Structural dependence is modeled as precedence relationship when disassembling components for maintenance. • Resources for disassembly and maintenance are evaluated using a backward search algorithm. • Maintenance strategies with and without structural dependence are analyzed. • Ignoring structural dependence may lead to over-estimation of system reliability.

  13. Residential Mortgage Market in Economic and Social Development of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onysko Stefaniia M.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The article studies tendencies of development of the residential mortgage market in Ukraine in the post-crisis period 2009 – 2012, identifies main tendencies of development of the Ukrainian mortgage market and conducts analysis of the level of mortgage interest rates. The article analyses the modern state of the mortgage market of Ukraine, dynamics of volumes of mortgage loans, their cost, structure of banks as mortgage creditors and cost of housing in Ukraine in the studied period. The article makes a number of offers on efficiency of mortgage, offers directions of financial support of rehabilitation of the market for solving housing problems of the population and identifies importance of state support of mortgage development.

  14. Structure of the Deactive State of Mammalian Respiratory Complex I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaza, James N; Vinothkumar, Kutti R; Hirst, Judy

    2018-02-06

    Complex I (NADH:ubiquinone oxidoreductase) is central to energy metabolism in mammalian mitochondria. It couples NADH oxidation by ubiquinone to proton transport across the energy-conserving inner membrane, catalyzing respiration and driving ATP synthesis. In the absence of substrates, active complex I gradually enters a pronounced resting or deactive state. The active-deactive transition occurs during ischemia and is crucial for controlling how respiration recovers upon reperfusion. Here, we set a highly active preparation of Bos taurus complex I into the biochemically defined deactive state, and used single-particle electron cryomicroscopy to determine its structure to 4.1 Å resolution. We show that the deactive state arises when critical structural elements that form the ubiquinone-binding site become disordered, and we propose reactivation is induced when substrate binding to the NADH-reduced enzyme templates their reordering. Our structure both rationalizes biochemical data on the deactive state and offers new insights into its physiological and cellular roles. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Islamic Political Thought between Justice Value and the State Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed As-Sirri

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses the relationship between state structure and the implementing of justice in the Islamic society. The shift from caliphate system to the system of royal system starting from the Umayyad Dynasty (41-132 AH / 661-750 AD made the issue of social justice highly urgent. The main question discussed was : Is there a relationship between state structure and achieving social justice? To answer this question the paper reviews the relationship between religious authorities and political authorities in the main periods of Islamic history. Based on these relations as well as the intellectual product known as the “Heritage of Islamic Political Thought”, we concluded that the classical structure of Islamic state didn’t assure the implementing of justice. In light of the forgoing idea we could also conclude that the political islamic thought used today in context of “Arab spring” does not support the aspirations of building a modern state that assures the implementing of justice as well as variety of social, cultural and political rights.

  16. In search of new structural states of exchangeable apolipoproteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xicohtencatl-Cortes, J.; Castillo, R.; Mas-Oliva, J.

    2004-01-01

    Based upon state of the art biophysical experimentation, this article focuses on the different structural arrangements exchangeable apolipoproteins achieve when placed on Langmuir monolayers and subjected to changes in lateral pressure. We have studied the monolayers of apolipoproteins CI, CIII, AI, AII, and E that show as secondary structure a high percentage of amphipathic α-helix. This has been achieved employing techniques such as Brewster angle microscopy, synchrotron X-ray diffraction, and surface pressure measurements. In addition, the lateral order of protein arrays has been also studied by atomic force microscopy. These monolayers show that a phase transition from a two-dimensional disorder fluid to an ordered state is detected at relatively high lateral pressure, where unusual one-dimensional solid phases are discovered. While several helices that conform the apolipoprotein are confined to the interface, others are uniformly tilted toward the hydrophobic air or the phospholipid fatty acid chains. Our results suggest that a similar ordering might also occur when these apolipoproteins are attached to a lipoprotein particle such as a high density lipoprotein (HDL) particle. Therefore, changes from a nascent or discoidal HDL to a mature spherical HDL might in parallel involve structural changes as those described in our Langmuir interfaces. Current experimentation is being carried out in order to elucidate if the structural states already found are related to the efficiency of lipid transfer between lipoprotein particles or lipoproteins and the plasma membrane of cells, as well as receptor ligand recognition

  17. Excited State Structural Dynamics of Carotenoids and Charge Transfer Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tassle, Aaron Justin

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation describes the development and implementation of a visible/near infrared pump/mid-infrared probe apparatus. Chapter 1 describes the background and motivation of investigating optically induced structural dynamics, paying specific attention to solvation and the excitation selection rules of highly symmetric molecules such as carotenoids. Chapter 2 describes the development and construction of the experimental apparatus used throughout the remainder of this dissertation. Chapter 3 will discuss the investigation of DCM, a laser dye with a fluorescence signal resulting from a charge transfer state. By studying the dynamics of DCM and of its methyl deuterated isotopomer (an otherwise identical molecule), we are able to investigate the origins of the charge transfer state and provide evidence that it is of the controversial twisted intramolecular (TICT) type. Chapter 4 introduces the use of two-photon excitation to the S1 state, combined with one-photon excitation to the S2 state of the carotenoid beta-apo-8'-carotenal. These 2 investigations show evidence for the formation of solitons, previously unobserved in molecular systems and found only in conducting polymers Chapter 5 presents an investigation of the excited state dynamics of peridinin, the carotenoid responsible for the light harvesting of dinoflagellates. This investigation allows for a more detailed understanding of the importance of structural dynamics of carotenoids in light harvesting

  18. Hyperfine structure of S-states of muonic tritium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martynenko F.A.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of quasipotential method in quantum electrodynamics we carry out a precise calculation of hyperfine splitting of S-states in muonic tritium. The one-loop and two-loop vacuum polarization corrections, relativistic effects, nuclear structure corrections in first and second orders of perturbation theory are taken into account. The contributions to hyperfine structure are obtained in integral form and calculated analytically and numerically. Obtained results for hyperfine splitting can be used for a comparison with future experimental data of CREMA collaboration.

  19. Ground-State Structures of Ice at High-Pressures

    OpenAIRE

    McMahon, Jeffrey M.

    2011-01-01

    \\textit{Ab initio} random structure searching based on density functional theory is used to determine the ground-state structures of ice at high pressures. Including estimates of lattice zero-point energies, ice is found to adopt three novel crystal phases. The underlying sub-lattice of O atoms remains similar among them, and the transitions can be characterized by reorganizations of the hydrogen bonds. The symmetric hydrogen bonds of ice X and $Pbcm$ are initially lost as ice transforms to s...

  20. Large-Scale Residential Demolition

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA provides resources for handling residential demolitions or renovations. This includes planning, handling harmful materials, recycling, funding, compliance assistance, good practices and regulations.

  1. State vector labelling problem: a review of structural principles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louck, J.D.

    1976-01-01

    The technique of labeling state vectors by use of the simultaneous eigenvalues of a complete set of commuting Hermitian operators stems from the early days of quantum theory. In sharp contrast to the classical method, there stands the nonorthogonal bases methods of Moshinsky and Bargmann and the null space methods of Biedenharn and Louck. The structural principles underlying these various methods are presented and discussed. 2 figures

  2. ASHRAE and residential ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max H.

    2003-10-01

    In the last quarter of a century, the western world has become increasingly aware of environmental threats to health and safety. During this period, people psychologically retreated away from outdoors hazards such as pesticides, smog, lead, oil spills, and dioxin to the seeming security of their homes. However, the indoor environment may not be healthier than the outdoor environment, as has become more apparent over the past few years with issues such as mold, formaldehyde, and sick-building syndrome. While the built human environment has changed substantially over the past 10,000 years, human biology has not; poor indoor air quality creates health risks and can be uncomfortable. The human race has found, over time, that it is essential to manage the indoor environments of their homes. ASHRAE has long been in the business of ventilation, but most of the focus of that effort has been in the area of commercial and institutional buildings. Residential ventilation was traditionally not a major concern because it was felt that, between operable windows and envelope leakage, people were getting enough outside air in their homes. In the quarter of a century since the first oil shock, houses have gotten much more energy efficient. At the same time, the kinds of materials and functions in houses changed in character in response to people's needs. People became more environmentally conscious and aware not only about the resources they were consuming but about the environment in which they lived. All of these factors contributed to an increasing level of public concern about residential indoor air quality and ventilation. Where once there was an easy feeling about the residential indoor environment, there is now a desire to define levels of acceptability and performance. Many institutions--both public and private--have interests in Indoor Air Quality (IAQ), but ASHRAE, as the professional society that has had ventilation as part of its mission for over 100 years, is the

  3. Electricity demand for South Korean residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sa'ad, Suleiman

    2009-01-01

    This study estimates the electricity demand function for the residential sector of South Korea with the aim of examining the effects of improved energy efficiency, structural factors and household lifestyles on electricity consumption. In the study, time series data for the period from 1973 to 2007 is used in a structural time series model to estimate the long-term price and income elasticities and annual growth of underlying energy demand trend (UEDT) at the end of the estimation period. The result shows a long-term income elasticity of 1.33 and a long-term price elasticity of -0.27% with -0.93% as the percentage growth of UEDT at the end of the estimation period. This result suggests that, in order to encourage energy efficiency in the residential sector, the government should complement the market based pricing policies with non-market policies such as minimum energy efficiency standards and public enlightenment.

  4. Electricity demand for South Korean residential sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sa' ad, Suleiman [Surrey Energy Economics Centre (SEEC), Department of Economics, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-15

    This study estimates the electricity demand function for the residential sector of South Korea with the aim of examining the effects of improved energy efficiency, structural factors and household lifestyles on electricity consumption. In the study, time series data for the period from 1973 to 2007 is used in a structural time series model to estimate the long-term price and income elasticities and annual growth of underlying energy demand trend (UEDT) at the end of the estimation period. The result shows a long-term income elasticity of 1.33 and a long-term price elasticity of -0.27% with -0.93% as the percentage growth of UEDT at the end of the estimation period. This result suggests that, in order to encourage energy efficiency in the residential sector, the government should complement the market based pricing policies with non-market policies such as minimum energy efficiency standards and public enlightenment. (author)

  5. Fault Diagnosis of Nonlinear Systems Using Structured Augmented State Models

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jochen Aβfalg; Frank Allg(o)wer

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents an internal model approach for modeling and diagnostic functionality design for nonlinear systems operating subject to single- and multiple-faults. We therefore provide the framework of structured augmented state models. Fault characteristics are considered to be generated by dynamical exosystems that are switched via equality constraints to overcome the augmented state observability limiting the number of diagnosable faults. Based on the proposed model, the fault diagnosis problem is specified as an optimal hybrid augmented state estimation problem. Sub-optimal solutions are motivated and exemplified for the fault diagnosis of the well-known three-tank benchmark. As the considered class of fault diagnosis problems is large, the suggested approach is not only of theoretical interest but also of high practical relevance.

  6. POLITICAL AND EDUCATIONAL LOGISTICS IN STRUCTURAL ASSESSMENT OF VARIOUS STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Aleksandrovich Zhitnov

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim. The theoretical and methodological foundations of political and educational logistics and also qualimetric models that characterize the role of the educational system in the structural assessment of states will be created. The method or methodology of the paper. The research is based on educational and economic theories and concepts; this study involves a wide range of cross-disciplinary approaches including the tools of pedagogy, political science, economics, economic sociology etc. The results. The results of the work are about making an attempt to create an integral model of assessing the state development level based on a wide range of various informative data, including different indicators. The field of application. The results of the research can be used in pedagogical, economic, political practices where it is required to assess the level of state development both in a separate and integral aspects.

  7. Multivariate time series with linear state space structure

    CERN Document Server

    Gómez, Víctor

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a comprehensive study of multivariate time series with linear state space structure. The emphasis is put on both the clarity of the theoretical concepts and on efficient algorithms for implementing the theory. In particular, it investigates the relationship between VARMA and state space models, including canonical forms. It also highlights the relationship between Wiener-Kolmogorov and Kalman filtering both with an infinite and a finite sample. The strength of the book also lies in the numerous algorithms included for state space models that take advantage of the recursive nature of the models. Many of these algorithms can be made robust, fast, reliable and efficient. The book is accompanied by a MATLAB package called SSMMATLAB and a webpage presenting implemented algorithms with many examples and case studies. Though it lays a solid theoretical foundation, the book also focuses on practical application, and includes exercises in each chapter. It is intended for researchers and students wor...

  8. Direct methods for limit states in structures and materials

    CERN Document Server

    Weichert, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Knowing the safety factor for limit states such as plastic collapse, low cycle fatigue or ratcheting is always a major design consideration for civil and mechanical engineering structures that are subjected to loads. Direct methods of limit or shakedown analysis that proceed to directly find the limit states offer a better alternative than exact time-stepping calculations as, on one hand, an exact loading history is scarcely known, and on the other they are much less time-consuming. This book presents the state of the art on various topics concerning these methods, such as theoretical advances in limit and shakedown analysis, the development of relevant algorithms and computational procedures, sophisticated modeling of inelastic material behavior like hardening, non-associated flow rules, material damage and fatigue, contact and friction, homogenization and composites.

  9. Putting Encyclopaedia Knowledge into Structural Form: Finite State Transducers Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajić Vesna

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In biology and functional genomics in particular, understanding the dependence and interplay between different genome and ecological characteristics of organisms is a very challenging problem. There are some public databases which combine this kind of information, but there is still much more information about microbes and other organisms that reside in unstructured and semi-structured documents, such as encyclopaedias. In this paper we present a method for extracting information from semi-structured resources, such as encyclopaedias, based on finite state transducers, consisting of two clearly distinguished phases. The first phase strongly relies on the analysis of the document structure and it is used for locating records of data in the text. The second phase is based on the finite state transducers created for extracting the data, which can be modified so as to achieve the preferred efficiency and it is used for extracting the particular characteristic from the text. We show how the two phase method is applied to the text of the encyclopaedia “Systematic Bacteriology”. A fully structured database with genotype and phenotype characteristics of organisms has been created from the encyclopaedia unstructured descriptions.

  10. Crystal structure optimisation using an auxiliary equation of state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Adam J.; Skelton, Jonathan M.; Hendon, Christopher H.; Butler, Keith T.; Walsh, Aron

    2015-11-01

    Standard procedures for local crystal-structure optimisation involve numerous energy and force calculations. It is common to calculate an energy-volume curve, fitting an equation of state around the equilibrium cell volume. This is a computationally intensive process, in particular, for low-symmetry crystal structures where each isochoric optimisation involves energy minimisation over many degrees of freedom. Such procedures can be prohibitive for non-local exchange-correlation functionals or other "beyond" density functional theory electronic structure techniques, particularly where analytical gradients are not available. We present a simple approach for efficient optimisation of crystal structures based on a known equation of state. The equilibrium volume can be predicted from one single-point calculation and refined with successive calculations if required. The approach is validated for PbS, PbTe, ZnS, and ZnTe using nine density functionals and applied to the quaternary semiconductor Cu2ZnSnS4 and the magnetic metal-organic framework HKUST-1.

  11. Crystal structure optimisation using an auxiliary equation of state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, Adam J.; Skelton, Jonathan M.; Hendon, Christopher H.; Butler, Keith T.; 3 Institute and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of))" data-affiliation=" (Centre for Sustainable Chemical Technologies and Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Global E3 Institute and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of))" >Walsh, Aron

    2015-01-01

    Standard procedures for local crystal-structure optimisation involve numerous energy and force calculations. It is common to calculate an energy–volume curve, fitting an equation of state around the equilibrium cell volume. This is a computationally intensive process, in particular, for low-symmetry crystal structures where each isochoric optimisation involves energy minimisation over many degrees of freedom. Such procedures can be prohibitive for non-local exchange-correlation functionals or other “beyond” density functional theory electronic structure techniques, particularly where analytical gradients are not available. We present a simple approach for efficient optimisation of crystal structures based on a known equation of state. The equilibrium volume can be predicted from one single-point calculation and refined with successive calculations if required. The approach is validated for PbS, PbTe, ZnS, and ZnTe using nine density functionals and applied to the quaternary semiconductor Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 and the magnetic metal-organic framework HKUST-1

  12. Crystal structure optimisation using an auxiliary equation of state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jackson, Adam J.; Skelton, Jonathan M.; Hendon, Christopher H.; Butler, Keith T. [Centre for Sustainable Chemical Technologies and Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Walsh, Aron, E-mail: a.walsh@bath.ac.uk [Centre for Sustainable Chemical Technologies and Department of Chemistry, University of Bath, Claverton Down, Bath BA2 7AY (United Kingdom); Global E" 3 Institute and Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Yonsei University, Seoul 120-749 (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-14

    Standard procedures for local crystal-structure optimisation involve numerous energy and force calculations. It is common to calculate an energy–volume curve, fitting an equation of state around the equilibrium cell volume. This is a computationally intensive process, in particular, for low-symmetry crystal structures where each isochoric optimisation involves energy minimisation over many degrees of freedom. Such procedures can be prohibitive for non-local exchange-correlation functionals or other “beyond” density functional theory electronic structure techniques, particularly where analytical gradients are not available. We present a simple approach for efficient optimisation of crystal structures based on a known equation of state. The equilibrium volume can be predicted from one single-point calculation and refined with successive calculations if required. The approach is validated for PbS, PbTe, ZnS, and ZnTe using nine density functionals and applied to the quaternary semiconductor Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} and the magnetic metal-organic framework HKUST-1.

  13. Effect of structure state on the microplastic resistance of thermobimetals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashnin, Yu.A.; Ulanovskij, F.B.; Shiryaeva, A.N.

    1983-01-01

    The effect of structural state on microplastic resistance of nickel alloy thermobimetals with butt oint of layers has been studied. It has been shown that a stable polygonal structure with minimum level of residual stresses is achieved in thermobimetals by a three-fold thermocyclic treatment with heating up to 400 deg C, holding during 1 hour and slow cooling up to room temperature after each cycle with a speed of 2-4 deg C per min. The stable polygonal structure of alloys-components of thermobimetals provides growth of microplastic resistance and drop of residual deflection. The maximum thermobimetal thermosensitivity is provided at 50% preliminary plastic deformation degree on thermocouples cut out along the direction of rolli

  14. Effect of structure state on the microplastic resistance of thermobimetals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bashnin, Yu.A.; Ulanovskij, F.B.; Shiryaeva, A.N. (Moskovskij Vechernij Metallurgicheskij Inst. (USSR))

    1983-01-01

    The effect of structural state on microplastic resistance of nickel alloy thermobimetals with butt joint of layers has been studied. It has been shown that a stable polygonal structure with minimum level of residual stresses is achieved in thermobimetals by a three-fold thermocyclic treatment with heating up to 400 deg C, holding during 1 hour and slow cooling up to room temperature after each cycle with a speed of 2-4 deg C per min. The stable polygonal structure of alloys-components of thermobimetals provides growth of microplastic resistance and drop of residual deflection. The maximum thermobimetal thermosensitivity is provided at 50% preliminary plastic deformation degree on thermocouples cut out along the direction of rolli.

  15. Organisational culture in residential aged care facilities: a cross-sectional observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etherton-Beer, Christopher; Venturato, Lorraine; Horner, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    Organisational culture is increasingly recognised as important for provision of high-quality long-term care. We undertook this study to measure organisational culture in residential aged care facilities in two Australian states. Cross-sectional observational study in 21 residential aged care facilities in Western Australia (n = 14) and Queensland (n = 7), Australia. Staff and next-of-kin of residents participated. Measurement comprised surveys of facility staff and residents' next-of-kin, and structured observation of indicators of care quality. Staff tended to rate organisational culture positively. Some qualitative feedback from staff emphasised negative perceptions of communication, leadership and teamwork. Staffing levels were perceived as a dominant challenge, threatening care quality. Direct observation revealed variability within and between facilities but suggested that most facilities (n = 12) were in the typical range, or were quality facilities (n = 8). There was scope to strengthen organisational culture in participating aged care facilities.

  16. The electronic structure of core states under extreme compressions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Straub, G.K.

    1992-01-01

    At normal density and for modest compressions, the electronic structure of a metal can be accurately described by treating the conduction electrons and their interactions with the usual methods of band theory. The core electrons remain essentially the same as for an isolated free atom and do not participate in the bonding forces responsible for creating a condensed phase. As the density increases, the core electrons begin to ''see'' one another as the overlap of the tails of wave functions can no longer be neglected. The electronic structure of the core electrons is responsible for an effective repulsive interaction that eventually becomes free-electron-like at very high compressions. The electronic structure of the interacting core electrons may be treated in a simple manner using the Atomic Surface Method (ASM). The ASM is a first-principles treatment of the electronic structure involving a rigorous integration of the Schroedinger equation within the atomic-sphere approximation. Solid phase wave functions are constructed from isolated atom wave functions and the band width W l and the center of gravity of the band C l are obtained from simple formulas. The ASM can also utilize analytic forms of the atomic wave functions and thus provide direct functional dependence of various aspects of the electronic structure. Of particular use in understanding the behavior of the core electrons, the ASM provides the ability to analytically determine the density dependence of the band widths and positions. The process whereby core states interact with one another is best viewed as the formation of narrow electron bands formed from atomic states. As the core-core overlap increases, the bands increase in width and mean energy. In Sec.3 this picture is further developed and from the ASM one obtains the analytic dependence on density of the relative motion of the different bands. Also in Sec. 3 is a discussion of the transition to free electron bands

  17. On the quark structure of resonance states in dual models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volkov, D.V.; Zheltukhin, A.A.; Pashnev, A.I.

    1975-01-01

    It is shown using as an example the Veneziano dual model, that each particular dual model already contains a certain latent quark structure unambiauously determined by internal properties of the dual model. To prove this degeneration of the resonance state spectrum is studied by introducing an additional disturbing interaction into the model being considered. Induced transitions of particles into a vacuum act as such an additional disturbance. This method complements the known factorization method of Fubini, Gordon and Veneziano and turns out to be free from an essential limitation of the latter connected with implicit assumption about the basence of internal additive laws of conservation in the model. By using the method of induced transitions of particles into a vacuum it has been possible to show that the resonance state spectrum is indeed more degenerated than it should be expected from the factorization theorem, and that the supplementary degeneration corresponds to the quark model with an infinite number of quarks of the increasing mass. Structures of some terms of the dual amplitude expansion over the degrees of the constant of the induced transition of particles to vacuum are considered; it is shown that the summation of this expansion may be reduced to a solution of a certain integral equation. On the basis of the integral equation obtained an integral representation ofr dual amplitudes is established. The problems related with degeneration of resonance states and with determination of additive quantum numbers leading to the quark interpretation of the degeneration being considered are discussed

  18. Structure and state of repeatedly rubbed pure iron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuichi, Hiroshi [Dept. of Mechanical System Engineering, Yamanashi Univ., Kofu (Japan); Nakamura, Shoichiro [Dept. of Mechanical System Engineering, Yamanashi Univ., Kofu (Japan); Xuan Junsong [Nippo Precision Ltd., Nirasaki (Japan); Yamazaki, Kunihiro [Dept. of Mechanical System Engineering, Yamanashi Univ., Kofu (Japan)

    1995-05-01

    Pure iron was repeatedly rubbed under special conditions. The highest and the average hardness near the friction surface were 1431 HV and 1146 HV, respectively. Diffraction patterns near the friction surface showed a broad hexagonal ring corresponding to the (002) plane of {epsilon}-iron (hcp), although the other rings are from {alpha}-iron. Extremely fine imperfectly defined regions were observed from the area of this diffraction pattern. Another diffraction patterns showed an extremely diffuse and faint halo ring indicating an amorphous state, whose average atomic distance equals one of the interplanar spacing of the basal plane of {epsilon}-iron. This amorphous state differs from that by obtained rapid quenching. These results suggest that a structure with only the basal plane of {epsilon}-iron appeared during the rubbing and further destruction resulted in the amorphous state. Extremely high pressure may arise during rubbing: {epsilon}-iron forms above 13 GPa at room temperature and the basal plane consists of the shortest atomic distance of iron. In the latter pattern, a spot arrangement indicating a structure ordered only in one or two directions was observed. Rows of pits and cracks connecting them were observed, on the side surface near the rubbed surface, which shows crack formation during sliding contact fatigue. (orig.)

  19. The vitreous state thermodynamics, structure, rheology, and crystallization

    CERN Document Server

    Gutzow, Ivan S

    2013-01-01

    This book summarizes the experimental evidence and modern classical and theoretical approaches in understanding the vitreous state, from structural problems, over equilibrium and non-equilibrium thermodynamics, to statistical physics. Glasses, and especially silicate glasses, are only the best known representatives of this particular physical state of matter. Other typical representatives include organic polymer glasses, and many other easily vitrifying organic and inorganic substances, technically important materials, amidst them vitreous water and vitrified aqueous solutions, and also many metallic alloy systems. Some of these systems only form glasses under particular conditions, e.g. through ultra-rapid cooling. This book describes the properties and the formation of both every-day technical glasses and especially of such more exotic forms of vitreous matter. It is a unique source of knowledge and new ideas for materials scientists, engineers and researchers working on condensed matter. The new edition e...

  20. Nuclear structure investigations with inclusion of continuum states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rotter, I.

    1983-09-01

    The influence of the continuum on the properties of discrete nuclear states is reviewed. It is described on the basis of a continuum shell model. The coupling of the discrete states to the continuum results in an additional term to the Hamiltonian, commonly used in the study of nuclear structure, and an additional term to the wavefunction of the discrete state. These additional terms characterise finite nuclei in contrast to nuclear matter. They result in some symmetry violation of the residual nuclear interaction such as charge symmetry violation, and describe the nuclear surface, respectively. The energies and widths of resonance states result from the complex eigenvalues of the Hamiltonian. The partial widths are shown to be factorisable into a spectroscopic factor and into a penetration factor if the spectroscopic factor is large. An expression for the S-matrix is derived in which instead of the so-called resonance parameters, functions appear which are calculated in the framework of the model. The line shape of resonances is also influenced by these functions. As an extreme case, a resonance may have the appearance of a cusp. The conclusions drawn are supported by the results of numerical calculations performed in the continuum shell model for light nuclei with realistic shell model wavefunctions. (author)

  1. Panethnicity, Ethnic Diversity and Residential Segregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ann H.; White, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    We consider the theoretical and empirical implications of the structural basis of panethnicity and of the layering of ethnic boundaries in residential patterns while simultaneously evaluating the ‘panethnic hypothesis’, that is, the extent to which homogeneity within panethnic categories can be assumed. Our results do show a panethnic effect – greater residential proximity is evident within panethnic boundaries than between, net of ethnic group size and metropolitan area, but this association clearly depends on immigration. While findings generally show a lower degree of social distance between panethnic subgroups, particularly for blacks, whites and Latinos and less for Asians, ethno-national groups continue to maintain some degree of distinctiveness within a racialized context. PMID:20503650

  2. Belongingness--The Critical Variable in the Residential Treatment of Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machell, David F.

    Many alcohol treatment programs have stressed a sense of belongingness as a means for successful treatment of alcoholics in a residential setting. An examination of the effectiveness of this strategy in highly structured and less structured programs involved 200 chronic, recidivistic male adult alcoholics in a residential program. Subjects were…

  3. Residential Energy Performance Metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Wright

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Techniques for residential energy monitoring are an emerging field that is currently drawing significant attention. This paper is a description of the current efforts to monitor and compare the performance of three solar powered homes built at Missouri University of Science and Technology. The homes are outfitted with an array of sensors and a data logger system to measure and record electricity production, system energy use, internal home temperature and humidity, hot water production, and exterior ambient conditions the houses are experiencing. Data is being collected to measure the performance of the houses, compare to energy modeling programs, design and develop cost effective sensor systems for energy monitoring, and produce a cost effective home control system.

  4. Thermodynamic behavior of glassy state of structurally related compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushal, Aditya Mohan; Bansal, Arvind Kumar

    2008-08-01

    Thermodynamic properties of amorphous pharmaceutical forms are responsible for enhanced solubility as well as poor physical stability. The present study was designed to investigate the differences in thermodynamic parameters arising out of disparate molecular structures and associations for four structurally related pharmaceutical compounds--celecoxib, valdecoxib, rofecoxib, and etoricoxib. Conventional and modulated temperature differential scanning calorimetry were employed to study glass forming ability and thermodynamic behavior of the glassy state of model compounds. Glass transition temperature of four glassy compounds was in a close range of 327.6-331.8 K, however, other thermodynamic parameters varied considerably. Kauzmann temperature, strength parameter and fragility parameter showed rofecoxib glass to be most fragile of the four compounds. Glass forming ability of the compounds fared similar in the critical cooling rate experiments, suggesting that different factors were determining the glass forming ability and subsequent behavior of the compounds in glassy state. A comprehensive understanding of such thermodynamic facets of amorphous form would help in rationalizing the approaches towards development of stable glassy pharmaceuticals.

  5. The state of the Hungarian residential market in the time of the global economic crisis Etat du marché résidentiel hongrois en période de crise économique mondiale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihály Tömöri

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Housing in Hungary has undergone significant changes since the years of political and economic transition. During the socialist decades the housing sector was controlled by the state, market forces were marginal or non-existent. Thus, one of the biggest changes in housing was the establishment of a western-type residential market after the regime change. The latest worldwide economic crisis has had a dramatic impact on the Hungarian housing market. The turnover of the Hungarian residential market has declined enormously in the past few years. Those families who financed their housing by foreign currency mortgages are facing the hardest situation. The Hungarian forint has significantly weakened against other currencies having resulted in a dramatic increase in foreign currency mortgage payments. First, the paper briefly reviews the literature on housing theories, then it outlines the most important milestones in the development of the Hungarian residential market. The next part of the paper introduces the most problematic issues and areas concerning housing in Hungary, and finally analyzes the effects and consequences of the present economic crisis.En Hongrie, le logement est confronté à d’importantes mutations depuis les années de transition politique et économique. Durant les décennies du socialisme, ce secteur se trouvait sous le contrôle de l’état et les forces du marché étaient marginales, voire inexistantes. En conséquence, l’un des changements majeurs dans le secteur fut l’établissement d’un marché résidentiel de type occidental à la suite du changement de régime. La dernière crise économique mondiale a eu un impact crucial sur le marché du logement hongrois, dont le chiffre d’affaires a considérablement chuté ces dernières années. Les familles qui finançaient leur logement à l’aide de prêts hypothécaires étrangers se retrouvent dans la situation la plus difficile. La très nette dévaluation du

  6. Robustness of Topological Superconductivity in Solid State Hybrid Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitthison, Piyapong

    The non-Abelian statistics of Majorana fermions (MFs) makes them an ideal platform for implementing topological quantum computation. In addition to the fascinating fundamental physics underlying the emergence of MFs, this potential for applications makes the study of these quasiparticles an extremely popular subject in condensed matter physics. The commonly called `Majorana fermions' are zero-energy bound states that emerge near boundaries and defects in topological superconducting phases, which can be engineered, for example, by proximity coupling strong spin-orbit coupling semiconductor nanowires and ordinary s-wave superconductors. The stability of these bound states is determined by the stability of the underlying topological superconducting phase. Hence, understanding their stability (which is critical for quantum computation), involves studying the robustness of the engineered topological superconductors. This work addresses this important problem in the context of two types of hybrid structures that have been proposed for realizing topological superconductivity: topological insulator - superconductor (TI-SC) and semiconductor - superconductor (SM-SC) nanostructures. In both structures, electrostatic effects due to applied external potentials and interface-induced potentials are significant. This work focuses on developing a theoretical framework for understanding these effects, to facilitate the optimization of the nanostructures studied in the laboratory. The approach presented in this thesis is based on describing the low-energy physics of the hybrid structure using effective tight-binding models that explicitly incorporate the proximity effects emerging at interfaces. Generically, as a result of the proximity coupling to the superconductor, an induced gap emerges in the semiconductor (topological insulator) sub-system. The strength of the proximity-induced gap is determined by the transparency of the interface and by the amplitude of the low- energy SM

  7. ENERGY STAR Certified Residential Dishwashers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 6.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Residential Dishwashers that are effective as of...

  8. ENERGY STAR Certified Residential Freezers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 5.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Residential Refrigerators and Freezers that are...

  9. ENERGY STAR Certified Residential Refrigerators

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 5.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Residential Refrigerators and Freezers that are...

  10. U.S. Photovoltaic Prices and Cost Breakdowns. Q1 2015 Benchmarks for Residential, Commercial, and Utility-Scale Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Donald [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Davidson, Carolyn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fu, Ran [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ardani, Kristen [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The price of photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States (i.e., the cost to the system owner) has continued to decline across all major market sectors. This report provides a Q1 2015 update regarding the prices of residential, commercial, and utility scale PV systems, based on an objective methodology that closely approximates the book value of a PV system. Several cases are benchmarked to represent common variations in business models, labor rates, and system architecture choice. We estimate a weighted-average cash purchase price of $3.09/W for residential scale rooftop systems, $2.15/W for commercial scale rooftop systems, $1.77/W for utility scale systems with fixed mounting structures, and $1.91/W for utility scale systems using single-axis trackers. All systems are modeled assuming standard-efficiency, polycrystalline-silicon PV modules, and further assume installation within the United States.

  11. Historic trends in the residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    In the OECD countries, income-driven growth in equipment ownership (heating, appliances) and home size drove household energy use up, but higher energy prices and conservation programs had a restraining effect. The results were mixed, with consumption per capita significantly lower in a few countries (United States, France), but higher in others. There was a significant decline in the intensity of space heating (30-40%) and a small decline in the intensity of electric applicances. Changes in the size and features of many appliances offset much of the improvement in technical energy efficiency. Not all of the decline in heating intensity was a result of technical change; the author estimates that about 25% was caused by change in heating behavior. In all, there were significant improvements in efficiency, but these were offset somewhat by structural change. In the Former East Bloc, there is far less residential space and amenity than in OECD countries, and efficiency of space heating and water heating is low, in part due to lake of energy pricing. Electric appliances are simple and relatively inefficient. Unlike in the OECD countries, there is little sign of improved efficiency in the 1970s and 1980s. In the LDCs, patterns of energy use, and changes in them, are very different in rural and urban areas, and vary among regions as well. Biomass is still the dominant fuel in rural areas. In urban areas, Western-like patterns of electricity (and even gas) use have emerged for appliances, cooking, and water heating among the affluent, and TV and refrigerators have become more common among the less-affluent. In many countries, especially in Southeast Asia, there has been very rapid growth in ownership of appliances. Most appliances are cheaply made and inefficient compared to similar appliances sold in the OECD countries, though there are signs of some improvement in the past decade. 16 refs., 11 figs., 9 figs

  12. Structural Influence on Excited State Dynamics in Simple Amines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klein, Liv Bærenholdt

    experiments with calculations, provides new insight into the nature of the internal conversion processes that mediate the dynamical evolution between Rydberg states, and how structural variations in simple amine system have a large impact on the non-adiabatic processes. The experimental method of choice...... is femtosecond time-resolved photoelectron velocity map imaging (VMI), which is a newtechnique in the Copenhagen lab. The design, building and implementation of the VMI spectrometer has been a very substantial part of the thesis work. This techniques oers enhanced information content in the form of ecient...... and sensitive collection of photoelectron spectra. In particular, the angleresolved data available from the VMI approach provides highly detailed mechanistic insight about the relaxation pathways. One striking novel nding is that for tertiary amines, the critical factor driving the non-adiabatic dynamics...

  13. Adjustment problems and residential care environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Sebastian Novotný

    2015-01-01

    problems in the clinical range. Overall, the results do not correspond with previous findings, which describes more frequent presence of various adjustment problems. More frequently occur only the thought problems and rule-breaking behavior. Hyperactivity and cognitive problems are indicated as typical for residential care children, with wider causes in the emotional development. Problems with rule-breaking behavior have most likely a complex background. MANOVA analysis confirmed the finding that there is a significant difference between groups, but in most cases only with small effect. The residential care environment in the Czech Republic thus can be evaluated as functional, regarding its purpose and function. Conclusion: The results showed the differences in the presence of adjustment problems in adolescents growing up in the family and in institutional care, but also pointed to the fact that these differences are in most cases only small. The current state of the residential care environment in terms of adjustment problems can be evaluated as quite positive.

  14. Residential, Commercial, and Utility-Scale Photovoltaic (PV) System Prices in the United States: Current Drivers and Cost-Reduction Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodrich, A.; James, T.; Woodhouse, M.

    2012-02-01

    The price of photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States (i.e., the cost to the system owner) has dropped precipitously in recent years, led by substantial reductions in global PV module prices. However, system cost reductions are not necessarily realized or realized in a timely manner by many customers. Many reasons exist for the apparent disconnects between installation costs, component prices, and system prices; most notable is the impact of fair market value considerations on system prices. To guide policy and research and development strategy decisions, it is necessary to develop a granular perspective on the factors that underlie PV system prices and to eliminate subjective pricing parameters. This report's analysis of the overnight capital costs (cash purchase) paid for PV systems attempts to establish an objective methodology that most closely approximates the book value of PV system assets.

  15. The Value of Green Infrastructure on Vacant and Residential Land in Roanoke, Virginia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunwoo Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Using the City of Roanoke, Virginia as a study site, this paper quantifies the forest structure, ecosystem services and values of vacant and residential land. Single family residential land had more trees (1,683,000 than vacant land (210,000 due largely to the differences in land area (32.44 km2 of vacant land vs. 57.94 km2 residential. While the percentage of tree coverage was almost identical across land uses (30.6% in vacant to 32.3% in residential, the number of trees per ha is greater on residential land (290.3 than on vacant land (63.4. The average healthy leaf surface area on individual trees growing on vacant land was greater than that of individual trees on residential land. The fact that trees in vacant land were found to provide more ecosystem services per tree than residential trees was attributed to this leaf area difference. Trees on vacant land are growing in more natural conditions and there are more large trees per ha. Assessing the forest structure and ecosystem services of Roanoke’s vacant and residential land provides a picture of the current extent and condition of the vacant and residential land. Understanding these characteristics provides the information needed for improved management and utilization of urban vacant land and estimating green infrastructure value.

  16. 24 CFR 200.926a - Residential building code comparison items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Residential building code comparison items. 200.926a Section 200.926a Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and... § 200.926a Residential building code comparison items. HUD will review each local and State code...

  17. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in New Jersey. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2015 New Jersey State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in New Jersey.

  18. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for New Hampshire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in New Hampshire. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2010 New Hampshire State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in New Hampshire.

  19. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in North Carolina. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 North Carolina State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in North Carolina.

  20. 25 CFR 36.99 - Are immunizations required for residential program students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are immunizations required for residential program... SITUATIONS Homeliving Programs Program Requirements § 36.99 Are immunizations required for residential program students? Each student must have all immunizations required by State, local, or tribal governments...

  1. FIRST REPORT ON Cryptococcus neoformans IN PIGEON EXCRETA FROM PUBLIC AND RESIDENTIAL LOCATIONS IN THE METROPOLITAN AREA OF CUIABÁ, STATE OF MATO GROSSO, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doracilde Terumi Takahara

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Cryptococcosis is a severe systemic mycosis caused by two species of Cryptococcus that affect humans and animals: C. neoformans and C. gattii. Cosmopolitan and emergent, the mycosis results from the interaction between a susceptible host and the environment. The occurrence of C. neoformans was evaluated in 122 samples of dried pigeon excreta collected in 49 locations in the City of Cuiabá, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil, including public squares (n = 5, churches (n = 4, educational institutions (n = 3, health units (n = 8, open areas covered with asbestos (n = 4, residences (n = 23, factory (n = 1 and a prison (n = 1. Samples collected from July to December of 2010 were seeded on Niger seed agar (NSA. Dark brown colonies were identified by urease test, carbon source assimilation tests and canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue medium. Polymerase chain reaction primer pairs specific for C. neoformans were also used for identification. Cryptococcus neoformans associated to pigeon excreta was isolated from eight (6.6% samples corresponding to six (12.2% locations. Cryptococcus neoformans was isolated from urban areas, predominantly in residences, constituting a risk of acquiring the disease by immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals.

  2. First report on Cryptococcus neoformans in pigeon excreta from public and residential locations in the metropolitan area of Cuiabá, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahara, Doracilde Terumi; Lazéra, Márcia dos Santos; Wanke, Bodo; Trilles, Luciana; Dutra, Valéria; Paula, Daphine Ariadne Jesus de; Nakazato, Luciano; Anzai, Mariana Caselli; Leite Júnior, Diniz Pereira; Paula, Claudete Rodrigues; Hahn, Rosane Christine

    2013-01-01

    Cryptococcosis is a severe systemic mycosis caused by two species of Cryptococcus that affect humans and animals: C. neoformans and C. gattii. Cosmopolitan and emergent, the mycosis results from the interaction between a susceptible host and the environment. The occurrence of C. neoformans was evaluated in 122 samples of dried pigeon excreta collected in 49 locations in the City of Cuiabá, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil, including public squares (n = 5), churches (n = 4), educational institutions (n = 3), health units (n = 8), open areas covered with asbestos (n = 4), residences (n = 23), factory (n = 1) and a prison (n = 1). Samples collected from July to December of 2010 were seeded on Niger seed agar (NSA). Dark brown colonies were identified by urease test, carbon source assimilation tests and canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue medium. Polymerase chain reaction primer pairs specific for C. neoformans were also used for identification. Cryptococcus neoformans associated to pigeon excreta was isolated from eight (6.6%) samples corresponding to six (12.2%) locations. Cryptococcus neoformans was isolated from urban areas, predominantly in residences, constituting a risk of acquiring the disease by immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals.

  3. The value of residential photovoltaic systems: A comprehensive assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, C. S.

    1983-01-01

    Utility-interactive photovoltaic (PV) arrays on residential rooftops appear to be a potentially attractive, large-scale application of PV technology. Results of a comprehensive assessment of the value (i.e., break-even cost) of utility-grid connected residential photovoltaic power systems under a variety of technological and economic assumptions are presented. A wide range of allowable PV system costs are calculated for small (4.34 kW (p) sub ac) residential PV systems in various locales across the United States. Primary factor in this variation are differences in local weather conditions, utility-specific electric generation capacity, fuel types, and customer-load profiles that effect purchase and sell-back rates, and non-uniform state tax considerations. Additional results from this analysis are: locations having the highest insolation values are not necessary the most economically attractive sites; residential PV systems connected in parallel to the utility demonstrate high percentages of energy sold back to the grid, and owner financial and tax assumptions cause large variations in break-even costs. Significant cost reduction and aggressive resolution of potential institutional impediments (e.g., liability, standards, metering, and technical integration) are required for a residential PV marker to become a major electric-grid-connected energy-generation source.

  4. Influence of India’s transformation on residential energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharyya, Subhes C.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The middle income group emerges as the dominant segment by 2030. • Commercial residential energy demand increases 3–4 folds compared to 2010. • Electricity and LPG demand grows above 6% per year in the reference scenario. • India faces the potential of displacing the domination of biomass by 2030. - Abstract: India’s recent macro-economic and structural changes are transforming the economy and bringing significant changes to energy demand behaviour. Life-style and consumption behaviour are evolving rapidly due to accelerated economic growth in recent times. The population structure is changing, thereby offering the country with the potential to reap the population dividend. The country is also urbanising rapidly, and the fast-growing middle class segment of the population is fuelling consumerism by mimicking international life-styles. These changes are likely to have significant implications for energy demand in the future, particularly in the residential sector. Using the end-use approach of demand analysis, this paper analyses how residential energy demand is likely to evolve as a consequence of India’s transformation and finds that by 2030, India’s commercial energy demand in the residential sector can quadruple in the high scenario compared to the demand in 2010. Demand for modern fuels like electricity and liquefied petroleum gas is likely to grow at a faster rate. However, there is a window of opportunity to better manage the evolution of residential demand in India through energy efficiency improvement

  5. Financing Non-Residential Photovoltaic Projects: Options and Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark

    2009-01-09

    Installations of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States have increased dramatically in recent years, growing from less than 20 MW in 2000 to nearly 500 MW at the end of 2007, a compound average annual growth rate of 59%. Of particular note is the increasing contribution of 'non-residential' grid-connected PV systems--defined here as those systems installed on the customer (rather than utility) side of the meter at commercial, institutional, non-profit, or governmental properties--to the overall growth trend. Although there is some uncertainty in the numbers, non-residential PV capacity grew from less than half of aggregate annual capacity installations in 2000-2002 to nearly two-thirds in 2007. This relative growth trend is expected to have continued through 2008. The non-residential sector's commanding lead in terms of installed capacity in recent years primarily reflects two important differences between the non-residential and residential markets: (1) the greater federal 'Tax Benefits'--including the 30% investment tax credit (ITC) and accelerated tax depreciation--provided to commercial (relative to residential) PV systems, at least historically (this relative tax advantage has largely disappeared starting in 2009) and (2) larger non-residential project size. These two attributes have attracted to the market a number of institutional investors (referred to in this report as 'Tax Investors') seeking to invest in PV projects primarily to capture their Tax Benefits. The presence of these Tax Investors, in turn, has fostered a variety of innovative approaches to financing non-residential PV systems. This financial innovation--which is the topic of this report--has helped to overcome some of the largest barriers to the adoption of non-residential PV, and is therefore partly responsible (along with the policy changes that have driven this innovation) for the rapid growth in the market seen in recent years

  6. Quaternary structure and spin state of human fetal methemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chevion, M.; Navok, T.; Ilan, Y.A.; Czapski, G.

    1981-01-01

    Using the pulse-radiolysis technique, solutions of fetal human methemoglobin were irradiated in order to reduce a single heme-iron within the protein tetramers. The valence-hybrids thus formed ere reacted wjth oxygen. Kinetics of the reactions were studied. The effects of p and inositol-hexaphosphate (IHP) were examined. The kinetics of the ligation of oxygen to stripped valence-hybrids showed a single-phase behaviour at the pH range 7-9. As the pH was lowered below 6.5, a second slower phase became apparent. This slow phase consisted of approximately 50% at pH 5.8. In the presence of IHP above pH 7.4, the kinetics of oxygen-binding was of a single-phase. As the pH was lowered a transition to a second, slower phase was noticed. Below pH 7 the slower phase was the only detectable one. The analysis of the relative contribution of the faster phase to the total reaction, as a function of the pH, showed a typical sigmoidal transition curve characterized by a pK = 7.2 and a Hill parameter n = 3.06. On this basis it is concluded that stripped, fetal human methemoglobin resides in an R quaternary structure while the presence of IHP stabilizes the T structure at pH below 7.2. The switch between the high spin aquomet- and the low spin hydroxymet-derivatives of adult and fetal human hemoglobins was studied optically in detail. These switches were found to be only slightly affected by IHP, and exhibited very low cooperativity (pK = 8.04; n = 1.1 and pK = 8.10; n = 1.3 for adult methemoglobin when stripped and in the presence of IHP, respectively; pK = 8.18; n = 1.11 and pK = 8.21; n = 1.28 for fetal methemoglobin when stripped and in the presence of IHP, respectively). These findings lead to the conclusion that the transition between quaternary structures in either human or fetal methemoglobins is not coupled to the switch of the spin state of the ferric heme. (author)

  7. Recoil effects in the hyperfine structure of QED bound states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bodwin, G.T.; Yennie, D.R.; Gregorio, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    The authors give a general discussion of the derivation from field theory of a formalism for the perturbative solution of the relativistic two-body problem. The lowest-order expression for the four-point function is given in terms of a two-particle three-dimensional propagator in a static potential. It is obtained by fixing the loop energy in the four-dimensional formalism at a point which is independent of the loop momentum and is symmetric in the two particle variables. This method avoids awkward positive- and negative-energy projectors, with their attendant energy square roots, and allows one to recover the Dirac equation straightforwardly in the nonrecoil limit. The perturbations appear as a variety of four-dimensional kernels which are rearranged and regrouped into convenient sets. In particular, they are transformed from the Coulomb to the Feynman gauge, which greatly simplifies the expressions that must be evaluated. Although the approach is particularly convenient for the precision analysis of QED bound states, it is not limited to such applications. The authors use it to give the first unified treatment of all presently known recoil corrections to the muonium hyperfine structure and also to verify the corresponding contributions through order α 2 lnαE/sub F/ in positronium. The required integrals are evaluated analytically

  8. Cluster model calculations of the solid state materials electron structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pelikan, P.; Biskupic, S.; Banacky, P.; Zajac, A.; Svrcek, A.; Noga, J.

    1997-01-01

    Materials of the general composition ACuO 2 are the parent compounds of so called infinite layer superconductors. In the paper presented the electron structure of the compounds CaCuO 2 , SrCuO2, Ca 0.86 Sr 0.14 CuO2 and Ca 0.26 Sr 0.74 CuO 2 were calculated. The cluster models consisting of 192 atoms were computed using quasi relativistic version of semiempirical INDO method. The obtained results indicate the strong ionicity of Ca/Sr-O bonds and high covalency of Cu-bonds. The width of energy gap at the Fermi level increases as follows: Ca 0.26 Sr 0.74 CuO 2 0.86 Sr 0.14 CuO2 2 . This order correlates with the fact that materials of the composition Ca x Sr 1-x CuO 2 have have the high temperatures of the superconductive transition (up to 110 K). Materials partially substituted by Sr 2+ have also the higher density of states in the close vicinity at the Fermi level that ai the additional condition for the possibility of superconductive transition. It was calculated the strong influence of the vibration motions to the energy gap at the Fermi level. (authors). 1 tabs., 2 figs., 10 refs

  9. Effects of topographic position and geology on shaking damage to residential wood-framed structures during the 2003 San Simeon earthquake, western San Luis obispo county, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrink, T.P.; Wills, C.J.; Real, C.R.; Manson, M.W.

    2010-01-01

    A statistical evaluation of shaking damage to wood-framed houses caused by the 2003 M6.5 San Simeon earthquake indicates that both the rate and severity of damage, independent of structure type, are significantly greater on hilltops compared to hill slopes when underlain by Cretaceous or Tertiary sedimentary rocks. This increase in damage is interpreted to be the result of topographic amplification. An increase in the damage rate is found for all structures built on Plio-Pleistocene rocks independent of topographic position, and this is interpreted to be the result of amplified shaking caused by geologic site response. Damage rate and severity to houses built on Tertiary rocks suggest that amplification due to both topographic position and geologic site response may be occurring in these rocks, but effects from other topographic parameters cannot be ruled out. For all geologic and topographic conditions, houses with raised foundations are more frequently damaged than those with slab foundations. However, the severity of damage to houses on raised foundations is only significantly greater for those on hill slopes underlain by Tertiary rocks. Structures with some damage-resistant characteristics experienced greater damage severity on hilltops, suggesting a spectral response to topographic amplification. ?? 2010, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  10. Measuring urban tree loss dynamics across residential landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossola, Alessandro; Hopton, Matthew E

    2018-01-15

    The spatial arrangement of urban vegetation depends on urban morphology and socio-economic settings. Urban vegetation changes over time because of human management. Urban trees are removed due to hazard prevention or aesthetic preferences. Previous research attributed tree loss to decreases in canopy cover. However, this provides little information about location and structural characteristics of trees lost, as well as environmental and social factors affecting tree loss dynamics. This is particularly relevant in residential landscapes where access to residential parcels for field surveys is limited. We tested whether multi-temporal airborne LiDAR and multi-spectral imagery collected at a 5-year interval can be used to investigate urban tree loss dynamics across residential landscapes in Denver, CO and Milwaukee, WI, covering 400,705 residential parcels in 444 census tracts. Position and stem height of trees lost were extracted from canopy height models calculated as the difference between final (year 5) and initial (year 0) vegetation height derived from LiDAR. Multivariate regression models were used to predict number and height of tree stems lost in residential parcels in each census tract based on urban morphological and socio-economic variables. A total of 28,427 stems were lost from residential parcels in Denver and Milwaukee over 5years. Overall, 7% of residential parcels lost one stem, averaging 90.87 stems per km 2 . Average stem height was 10.16m, though trees lost in Denver were taller compared to Milwaukee. The number of stems lost was higher in neighborhoods with higher canopy cover and developed before the 1970s. However, socio-economic characteristics had little effect on tree loss dynamics. The study provides a simple method for measuring urban tree loss dynamics within and across entire cities, and represents a further step toward high resolution assessments of the three-dimensional change of urban vegetation at large spatial scales. Published by

  11. Incentive Pass-through for Residential Solar Systems in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, C. G. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rai, Varun [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The deployment of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems has grown rapidly over the last decade, partly because of various government incentives. In the United States, among the largest and longest-running incentives have been those established in California. Building on past research, this report addresses the still-unanswered question: to what degree have the direct PV incentives in California been passed through from installers to consumers? This report helps address this question by carefully examining the residential PV market in California (excluding a certain class of third-party-owned PV systems) and applying both a structural-modeling approach and a reduced-form regression analysis to estimate the incentive pass-through rate. The results suggest an average pass-through rate of direct incentives of nearly 100%, though with regional differences among California counties. While these results could have multiple explanations, they suggest a relatively competitive market and well-functioning subsidy program. Further analysis is required to determine whether similar results broadly apply to other states, to other customer segments, to all third-party-owned PV systems, or to all forms of financial incentives for solar (considering not only direct state subsidies, but also utility electric bill savings and federal tax incentives).

  12. Communication Supports in Congregate Residential Care Settings in Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Pamela R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Communication skills are important to the pursuit of increased self-determination in individuals with disabilities. The aim of this investigation was to gather information about communication supports in state-run residential care facilities in Ohio, and to compare findings with a previous investigation on this topic examining such…

  13. Costs of Residential Solar PV Plants in Distribution Grid Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Søren Bækhøj; Yang, Guangya; Ipsen, Hans Henrik

    2015-01-01

    In this article we investigate the impact of residential solar PV plants on energy losses in distribution networks and their impact on distribution transformers lifetime. Current guidelines in Denmark states that distribution transformers should not be loaded with more than 67% solar PV power...

  14. RESIDENTIAL WOOD COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY REVIEW VOLUME 1. TECHNICAL REPORT

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report gives results of a review of the current state-of-the-art of residential wood combustion (RWC). The key environmental parameter of concern was the air emission of particles. The technological status of all major RWC categories -- cordwood stoves, fireplaces, masonry h...

  15. RESIDENTIAL WOOD COMBUSTION TECHNOLOGY REVIEW - VOLUME 2. APPENDICES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of a review of the current state-of-the-art of residential wood combustion (RWC). The key environmental parameter of concern was the air emission of particles. The technological status of all major RWC categories--cordwood stoves, fireplaces, masonry heat...

  16. The structure of states and maps in quantum theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In classical theory, the statistical state space of a two-state system is a closed line segment ... state space of of a d-level quantum system has such a simple geometry as that of a sphere. ..... positive map cannot represent any physical process.

  17. Application and feasibility of coal fly ash and scrap tire fiber as wood wall insulation supplements in residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van de Lindt, J.W.; Carraro, J.A.H.; Heyliger, P.R.; Choi, C. [Colorado State University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2008-08-15

    Each year, nearly 55% of the fly ash (FA) produced by coal burning power plants in the United States is disposed of in landfills and ash ponds, while the amount of recycled fiber from scrap tires that is beneficially used in end-user markets is virtually negligible. This paper presents the results of a study carried out to investigate whether it might be possible to increase the thermal efficiency of a light-frame residential structure through addition of a fly ash-scrap tire fiber composite to traditional fiberglass insulation in light-frame wood residential construction. This type of construction represents more than 80% of the building stock in North America. The results of this study suggest that the fly ash-scrap tire fiber composite provides a sustainable supplement to traditional insulation that not only increases the efficiency of traditional insulation but can also help significantly reduce the environmental issues associated with disposal of these waste products. (author)

  18. Application and feasibility of coal fly ash and scrap tire fiber as wood wall insulation supplements in residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van de Lindt, J.W.; Carraro, J.A.H.; Heyliger, P.R.; Choi, C.

    2008-01-01

    Each year, nearly 55% of the fly ash (FA) produced by coal burning power plants in the United States is disposed of in landfills and ash ponds, while the amount of recycled fiber from scrap tires that is beneficially used in end-user markets is virtually negligible. This paper presents the results of a study carried out to investigate whether it might be possible to increase the thermal efficiency of a light-frame residential structure through addition of a fly ash-scrap tire fiber composite to traditional fiberglass insulation in light-frame wood residential construction. This type of construction represents more than 80% of the building stock in North America. The results of this study suggest that the fly ash-scrap tire fiber composite provides a sustainable supplement to traditional insulation that not only increases the efficiency of traditional insulation but can also help significantly reduce the environmental issues associated with disposal of these waste products. (author)

  19. A Neo-Rawlsian Approach to Residential Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin J. Brown

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 40 years, the United States has engaged in various policies to integrate otherwise segregated black and white households within a shared space. However, little work has been done to fully articulate a moral argument for residential integration among black and white households. This paper offers what I refer to as the normative argument, which possesses two morally-impelled arguments for residential integration. Since the ethical appeal to integrate is often couched in the language of justice, I begin with a framework—based upon the work of the late philosopher John Rawls—for considering the moral aspects of residential integration. However, I go on to point out intractable problems related to the Rawlsian framework that would fail to flesh out all ethical considerations of the normative argument. From here, I provide a revised, or neo-Rawlsian, framework for understanding residential integration which addresses the aforementioned problems. This exercise is both important and necessary for the future of residential mixing, as better understanding the moral and ethical attributes of this discussion is, perhaps, the best means to lubricate the fundamental shift from 'spatial' to 'social' integration.

  20. Residential energy consumption: A convergence analysis across Chinese regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrerias, M.J.; Aller, Carlos; Ordóñez, Javier

    2017-01-01

    The process of urbanization and the raise of living standards in China have led an increasing trend in the patterns of residential consumption. Projections for the population growth rate in urban areas do not paint a very optimistic picture for energy conservation policies. In addition, the concentration of economic activities around coastal areas calls for new prospects to be formulated for energy policy. In this context, the objective of this paper is twofold. First, we analyse the effect of the urbanization process of the Chinese economy in terms of the long-run patterns of residential energy consumption at national level. By using the concept of club convergence, we examine whether electricity and coal consumption in rural and urban areas converge to the same long-run equilibrium or whether in fact they diverge. Second, the impact of the regional concentration of the economic activity on energy consumption patterns is also assessed by source of energy across Chinese regions from 1995 to 2011. Our results suggest that the process of urbanization has led to coal being replaced by electricity in urban residential energy consumption. In rural areas, the evidence is mixed. The club convergence analysis confirms that rural and urban residential energy consumption converge to different steady-states. At the regional level, we also confirm the effect of the regional concentration of economic activity on residential energy consumption. The existence of these regional clusters converging to different equilibrium levels is indicative of the need of regional-tailored set of energy policies in China.

  1. Solar Energy Systems for Ohioan Residential Homeowners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckett, Rickey D.

    Dwindling nonrenewable energy resources and rising energy costs have forced the United States to develop alternative renewable energy sources. The United States' solar energy industry has seen an upsurge in recent years, and photovoltaic holds considerable promise as a renewable energy technology. The purpose of this case study was to explore homeowner's awareness of the benefits of solar energy. Disruptive-innovation theory was used to explore marketing strategies for conveying information to homeowners about access to new solar energy products and services. Twenty residential homeowners were interviewed face-to-face to explore (a) perceived benefits of solar energy in their county in Ohio, and (b) perceptions on the rationale behind the marketing strategy of solar energy systems sold for residential use. The study findings used inductive analyses and coding interpretation to explore the participants' responses that revealed 3 themes: the existence of environmental benefits for using solar energy systems, the expensive cost of equipment associated with government incentives, and the lack of marketing information that is available for consumer use. The implications for positive social change include the potential to enable corporate leaders, small business owners, and entrepreneurs to develop marketing strategies for renewable energy systems. These strategies may promote use of solar energy systems as a clean, renewable, and affordable alternative electricity energy source for the 21st century.

  2. Residential carbon monoxide poisoning from motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Neil B

    2011-01-01

    Although morbidity and mortality from accidental carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning are high in the United States, identification of common but poorly recognized sources should help prevention efforts. The study aimed to describe CO poisoning of home occupants due to a vehicle left running in an attached garage. News stories reporting incidents of US CO poisoning were collected daily from March 2007 to September 2009 via a news.Google.com search and data extracted. Patients were individuals reported in the media to have been poisoned with CO in their home by a vehicle running in the attached garage. Main outcome measures were frequency of occurrence, geographic distribution, patient demographics, and mortality. Of 837 CO poisoning incidents reported in US news media over 2 and a half years, 59 (8%) were the result of a vehicle left running in the garage. The elderly were disproportionately affected, with incidents most common in states with larger elderly populations and 29% of cases with age specified occurring in individuals older than 80 years. Among those older than 80 years, 15 of 17 were found dead at the scene. Residential CO poisoning from a vehicle running in the garage is common, disproportionately affects the elderly, has a high mortality rate, and should be preventable with a residential CO alarm. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. α cluster structures in unbound states in 19Ne

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otani, Reiji; Iwasaki, Masataka; Ito, Makoto

    2016-06-01

    Cluster structures in 19Ne are studied by the microscopic and macroscopic cluster models. In the microscopic calculation, the coupled-channels problem of (3He+16O) + (α+15O) is solved, and the adiabatic energy surfaces, which are the series of the energy eigenvalues as a function of the He-O distance, are investigated. In the adiabatic energy curves, the several local minima are generated in the spatial region of the small core distance, where the neutron hole inside of the He or O nucleus is strongly coupled to the residual nuclei. The energy spectra, which are constructed from the strong coupling states, nicely reproduce the the low-lying energy levels in the 19Ne nucleus. In the macroscopic approach, the α + 15O potential is evaluated from the elastic scattering of the α + 15N system, and the resonant levels of the α + 15O system are calculated under the absorbing boundary condition. The potential model predicts the existence of the resonances above the α threshold, which has a weak-coupling scheme of the α particle and one hole inside of the 16O nucleus. The extended microscopic calculations of (3He+16O) + (α+15O) + (5He+14O) are performed in order to see the coupling effect of the 5p-2h configuration, which corresponds to the shell model limit of the 5He + 14O cluster configuration. The extended calculation suggests that the 5He + 14O configuration plays an important role on the formation of the 3/2+ resonance at 0.5 MeV with respect to the α threshold.

  4. Post-Retrofit Residential Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lancaster, Ross; lutzenhiser, Loren; Moezzi, Mithra; Widder, Sarah H.; Chandra, Subrato; Baechler, Michael C.

    2012-04-30

    This study examined a range of factors influencing energy consumption in households that had participated in residential energy-efficiency upgrades. The study was funded by a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and was conducted by faculty and staff of Portland State University Center for Urban Studies and Department of Economics. This work was made possible through the assistance and support of the Energy Trust of Oregon (ETO), whose residential energy-efficiency programs provided the population from which the sample cases were drawn. All households in the study had participated in the ETO Home Performance with Energy Star (HPwES) program. A number of these had concurrently pursued measures through other ETO programs. Post-retrofit energy outcomes are rarely investigated on a house-by-house basis. Rather, aggregate changes are ordinarily the focus of program impact evaluations, with deviation from aggregate expectations chalked up to measurement error, the vagaries of weather and idiosyncrasies of occupants. However, understanding how homes perform post-retrofit on an individual basis can give important insights to increase energy savings at the participant and the programmatic level. Taking a more disaggregated approach, this study analyzed energy consumption data from before and after the retrofit activity and made comparisons with engineering estimates for the upgrades, to identify households that performed differently from what may have been expected based on the estimates. A statistical analysis using hierarchal linear models, which accounted for weather variations, was performed looking separately at gas and electrical use during the periods before and after upgrades took place. A more straightforward comparison of billing data for 12-month periods before and after the intervention was also performed, yielding the majority of the cases examined. The later approach allowed total energy use and costs to be

  5. Photovoltaic electricity generation: Value for residential and commercial sectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Ujjwal

    The photovoltaic (PV) industry in the US has seen an upsurge in recent years, and PV holds great promise as a renewable technology with no greenhouse gas emissions with its use. We aim to assess the value of PV based electricity for users in the residential and commercial sectors focusing on the financial impacts it has, which may not be greatly recognized. Specifically, we pursue two goals. First, the emerging 'renewable portfolio standard (RPS)' adopted in several states in the country has been a driving force for large scale PV deployment, but financial incentives offered to PV in different RPS states differ considerably. We use life cycle cost model to estimate the cost of PV based electricity for thirty-two RPS states in the country. Results indicate that the levelized cost of PV electricity is high (40 to 60 Cents/kWh). When the contribution of the financial incentives (along with the cost of energy saved) is taken into account, the cost of PV based electricity is negative in some RPS states such as California, New Jersey, New York, while for most of the RPS states the cost of PV electricity continues to remain high. In addition, the states with negative or low cost of PV electricity have been driving the PV diffusion in the residential sector. Therefore, a need to adjust the financial incentive structure in different RPS states is recommended for homogenous development of the residential PV market in the country. Second, we assess the value of the PV in reducing the highest peak load demand in commercial buildings and hence the high value demand charge. The Time-of-Use (TOU) based electricity tariff is widely used by electric utilities in the commercial sector. Energy and peak load are two important facets of the TOU tariff regime. Tools are well established to estimate the energy contribution from a PV system (installed in a commercial building), but not power output on a short time interval. A joint conditional probability model has been developed that

  6. Understanding Residential Polarization in a Globalizing City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Rotimi Aliu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the spatial polarization that characterizes the dwellings in the African leading megacity of Lagos. Data were collected through an extensive housing survey carried out on 1,485 household residences in 56 wards within 12 administrative units in Lagos megacity. The spatial dimension of residential density in the city generates three unique residential patterns which are low residential density (LRD, medium residential density (MRD, and high residential density (HRD areas. Descriptive and multivariate inferential statistics were used to render explanations for the spatial variations in the residential quality variables in the study area. Findings indicated that a clear difference exists in the residential quality within the three residential density areas of Lagos. High correlations exist among the residential quality indicators and housing type. The principal component analysis shows that residential polarizations that occur in the LRD, MRD, and HRD are based on the location, dwelling facility, interior and exterior quality, neighborhood integrity, social bond, barrier to entry, and security. The practical implications of residential polarizations along the residential density areas are explicitly expressed.

  7. Evaluation of advanced technologies for residential appliances and residential and commercial lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turiel, I.; Atkinson, B.; Boghosian, S.; Chan, P.; Jennings, J.; Lutz, J.; McMahon, J.; Rosenquist, G.

    1995-01-01

    Section 127 of the Energy Policy Act requires that the Department of Energy (DOE) prepare a report to Congress on the potential for the development and commercialization of appliances that substantially exceed the present federal or state efficiency standards. Candidate high-efficiency appliances must meet several criteria including: the potential exists for substantial improvement (beyond the minimum established in law) of the appliance`s energy efficiency; electric, water, or gas utilities are prepared to support and promote the commercialization of such appliances; manufacturers are unlikely to undertake development and commercialization of such appliances on their own, or development and production would be substantially accelerated by support to manufacturers. This report describes options to improve the efficiency of residential appliances, including water heaters, clothes washers and dryers, refrigerator/freezers, dishwashers, space heating and cooling devices, as well as residential and commercial lighting products. Data from this report (particularly Appendix 1)were used to prepare the report to Congress mentioned previously. For the residential sector, national energy savings are calculated using the LBL Residential Energy Model. This model projects the number of households and appliance saturations over time. First, end-use consumption is calculated for a base case where models that only meet the standard replace existing models as these reach the end of their lifetime. Second, models with efficiencies equal to the technology under consideration replace existing models that reach the end of their lifetime. For the commercial sector, the COMMEND model was utilized to project national energy savings from new technologies. In this report, energy savings are shown for the period 1988 to 2015.

  8. Main challenges of residential areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Luca

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article is a position paper aiming to initiate a professional debate related to the aspects related to the urban dysfunctions leading to the wear of the residential areas. The paper proposes a definition of the wear process, identify the main causes leading to its occurrence and propose a number of solutions to neutralise the dysfunctions. The three wearing phases of residential areas components are emphasized, exploring their lifecycle. In order to perform the study of urban wear, the status of the residential areas components can be established and monitored, and also the variables of the function that can mathematically model the specific wear process may be considered. The paper is considered a first step for the model adjustment, to be tested and validated in the following steps. Based on the mathematical method and model, there can be created, in a potential future research, the possibility of determining the precarity degree for residential areas/neighbourhoods and cities, by minimising the subjective component of the analyses preceding the decision for renovation or regeneration.

  9. Residential solar-heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Complete residential solar-heating and hot-water system, when installed in highly-insulated energy-saver home, can supply large percentage of total energy demand for space heating and domestic hot water. System which uses water-heating energy storage can be scaled to meet requirements of building in which it is installed.

  10. Convergence of Residential Gateway Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, F.T.H. den; Balm, M.; Jong, C.M. de; Kwaaitaal, J.J.B.

    2004-01-01

    A new OSI-based model is described that can be used for the classification of residential gateways. It is applied to analyze current gateway solutions and draw evolutionary paths for the medium to long term. From this it is concluded that particularly set-top boxes and broadband modems, as opposed

  11. Convergence of residential gateway technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, den F.T.H.; Balm, M.; Jong, de C.M.; Kwaaitaal, J.J.B.

    2004-01-01

    A new OSI-based model is described that can be used for the classification of residential gateways. It is applied to analyze current gateway solutions and draw evolutionary paths for the medium to long term. From this it is concluded that particularly set-top boxes and broadband modems, as opposed

  12. Trends of Sustainable Residential Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Narvydas, A

    2014-01-01

    The article is based on Master’s research conducted during Scottish Housing Expo 2010. The aim of the research was to determine the prevailing trends in sustainable residential architecture. Each trend can be described by features detected during visual and technical observation of project data. Based on that architects may predict possible problems related to a specific trend.

  13. Zones 30 : urban residential areas.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2006-01-01

    Sustainable Safety uses a road categorization in which through traffic is concentrated on motorways and other main roads. In residential areas, which have a living, shopping, or work function, through traffic is discouraged by setting a speed limit of 30 km/h, and by speed reducing measures such as

  14. Wood products and other building materials used in new residential construction in Canada, with comparison to previous studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe Elling; David B. McKeever

    2015-01-01

    New residential construction is a critical driver of the demand for lumber, structural panels and engineered wood products in Canada. For the period 2010 through 2013, residential construction accounted for roughly 23 percent of the lumber consumed in Canada and 47 percent of structural panel usage. Insufficient data concerning imports and exports prevent estimates of...

  15. Energy Savings Potential and Opportunities for High-Efficiency Electric Motors in Residential and Commercial Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Sutherland, Timothy [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Reis, Callie [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2013-12-04

    This report describes the current state of motor technology and estimates opportunities for energy savings through application of more advanced technologies in a variety of residential and commercial end uses. The objectives of this report were to characterize the state and type of motor technologies used in residential and commercial appliances and equipment and to identify opportunities to reduce the energy consumption of electric motor-driven systems in the residential and commercial sectors through the use of advanced motor technologies. After analyzing the technical savings potential offered by motor upgrades and variable speed technologies, recommended actions are presented.

  16. An engineering economic assessment of whole-house residential wood heating in New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood devices are being selected increasingly for residential space heating by households in New York State. Motivations for their use include energy independence, mitigating climate change, stimulating local economic development, and reducing exposure to high and variable fuel c...

  17. Solid state synthesis and structural refinement of polycrystalline La ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Perovskite structure based ceramic precursors have a characteristic property of substitution in the ``A" site of the ABO3 structure. This makes them a potential material for nuclear waste management in synthetic rock (SYNROC) technology. In order to simulate the mechanism of rare earth fixation in perovskite, La ...

  18. Structure of Maiduguri cattle market, Borno State, Nigeria | Bila ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Market structure is an important factor that influences the performance and efficiency of a market. The study aimed at determining the structure of Maiduguri cattle market. Primary data were collected, from questionnaires randomly administered to the respondents. Descriptive statistics was used to analyse product ...

  19. State Confessional Relations: Problem of the Subject Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandra A. Dorskaya

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article various existing definitions of the concept "state and confessional relations" are analyzed, also author's definition is offered. Three levels of the state and confessional relations are revealed: conceptual, legislative and administrative-managerial. In the article it is shown that in Russia a tradition of only two subjects of the state and confessional relations – government bodies and the religious organizations allocation exists. It is revealed that at the present stage many researchers are dissatisfied with such situation. Scientific sources of the problem of the state and church relations within the psychological school of the law, which are addressed to the personality and experiences in the legal sphere are studied and revealed. Special attention is paid to scientific heritage of the M.A. Reysner, who was one of the first to begin study of this problem. In the article the question of the school of three subjects of the state and confessional relations allocation formation, what adds the faithful or faithless personality in addition to two traditional subjects is analyzed. The state and confessional relations are considered in the context of the human rights development. The question of new type of the believer possessing high education level and knowledge formation is considered. In the article it is shown that at the present stage relations of any regulation between the state and religious organizations is based on the basis of international legal standards, domestic legislation and norms of canon law.

  20. The effect of pure state structure on nonequilibrium dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, C M; Stein, D L

    2008-01-01

    Motivated by short-range Ising spin glasses, we review some rigorous results and their consequences for the relation between the number/nature of equilibrium pure states and nonequilibrium dynamics. Two of the consequences for spin glass dynamics following an instantaneous deep quench to a temperature with broken spin flip symmetry are: (1) almost all initial configurations lie on the boundary between the basins of attraction of multiple pure states; (2) unless there are uncountably many pure states with almost all pairs having zero overlap, there can be no equilibration to a pure state as time t → ∞. We discuss the relevance of these results to the difficulty of equilibration of spin glasses. We also review some results concerning the 'nature versus nurture' problem of whether the large-t behavior of both ferromagnets and spin glasses following a deep quench is determined more by the initial configuration (nature) or by the dynamics realization (nurture)

  1. How EPA's Asbestos Regulations Apply to Residential Buildings Used for Fire Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memos and guidance from the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards that clarify how the Asbestos National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants applies to residential buildings used for fire training, also known as acquired structures.

  2. Residential proximinity, perceived and acceptable risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, G.O.

    1984-01-01

    This paper focuses on the relationship between the life experiences associated with residential proximity, and the perception and acceptability of the risks associated with generating electricity in nuclear power plants. Perceived risk is operationally defined in terms of estimated likelihood of occurrence, while acceptability of nuclear power is defined in terms of people's favorable or unfavorable opinions regarding nuclear power plants. In the context of a simple social-structural model of perceived and acceptable risk, four potential explanations for enhanced acceptability among those residentially proximate with nuclear facilities are examined: residents, through the experience of living with hazard, are reinforced toward assigning lower probabilities to the potential risks associated with nuclear facilities; the cognitive dissonance created by the acceptance of the risks associated with nuclear power is decreased by reducing perceived risk; nuclear neighbors are predisposed toward, educated about, and/or economically dependent upon nuclear power hence the more favorable attitudes toward it; nearby residents are systematically more altruistic--other oriented--than the general population and thus more willing to bear the risks associated with nuclear power

  3. External built residential environment characteristics that affect mental health of adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochodo, Charles; Ndetei, D M; Moturi, W N; Otieno, J O

    2014-10-01

    External built residential environment characteristics include aspects of building design such as types of walls, doors and windows, green spaces, density of houses per unit area, and waste disposal facilities. Neighborhoods that are characterized by poor quality external built environment can contribute to psychosocial stress and increase the likelihood of mental health disorders. This study investigated the relationship between characteristics of external built residential environment and mental health disorders in selected residences of Nakuru Municipality, Kenya. External built residential environment characteristics were investigated for 544 residents living in different residential areas that were categorized by their socioeconomic status. Medically validated interview schedules were used to determine mental health of residents in the respective neighborhoods. The relationship between characteristics of the external built residential environment and mental health of residents was determined by multivariable logistic regression analyses and chi-square tests. The results show that walling materials used on buildings, density of dwelling units, state of street lighting, types of doors, states of roofs, and states of windows are some built external residential environment characteristics that affect mental health of adult males and females. Urban residential areas that are characterized by poor quality external built environment substantially expose the population to daily stressors and inconveniences that increase the likelihood of developing mental health disorders.

  4. Ground state structures and properties of small hydrogenated silicon

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    To understand the structural evolutions and properties of silicon cluster due to hydrogenation ... partly due to the growing importance of these systems in applications like .... of the system. Using the Lagrangian (1), equations of motions for the.

  5. Effect of deformation on the structural state of piracetam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanunnikova, O. M.; Mikhailova, S. S.; Karban', O. V.; Mukhgalin, V. V.; Aksenova, V. V.; Sen'kovskii, B. V.; Pechina, E. A.; Lad'yanov, V. I.

    2016-04-01

    The effect of various deformation actions on the structure-phase transformations in piracetam of modifications I and II with a sodium acetate addition is studied. Mechanical activation and pressing are shown to cause the polymorphic transformation of modification I into modification II, and modification III forms predominantly during severe plastic deformation by torsion. The structural difference between the piracetam molecules of modifications I and II is found to be retained in aqueous solutions.

  6. Reversibility and the structure of the local state space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Safi, Sabri W; Richens, Jonathan

    2015-01-01

    The richness of quantum theory’s reversible dynamics is one of its unique operational characteristics, with recent results suggesting deep links between the theory’s reversible dynamics, its local state space and the degree of non-locality it permits. We explore the delicate interplay between these features, demonstrating that reversibility places strong constraints on both the local and global state space. Firstly, we show that all reversible dynamics are trivial (composed of local transformations and permutations of subsytems) in maximally non-local theories whose local state spaces satisfy a dichotomy criterion; this applies to a range of operational models that have previously been studied, such as d-dimensional ‘hyperballs’ and almost all regular polytope systems. By separately deriving a similar result for odd-sided polygons, we show that classical systems are the only regular polytope state spaces whose maximally non-local composites allow for non-trivial reversible dynamics. Secondly, we show that non-trivial reversible dynamics do exist in maximally non-local theories whose state spaces are reducible into two or more smaller spaces. We conjecture that this is a necessary condition for the existence of such dynamics, but that reversible entanglement generation remains impossible even in this scenario. (paper)

  7. Structure-function relationships during segregated and integrated network states of human brain functional connectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Makoto; Betzel, Richard F; He, Ye; van den Heuvel, Martijn P; Zuo, Xi-Nian; Sporns, Olaf

    2018-04-01

    Structural white matter connections are thought to facilitate integration of neural information across functionally segregated systems. Recent studies have demonstrated that changes in the balance between segregation and integration in brain networks can be tracked by time-resolved functional connectivity derived from resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) data and that fluctuations between segregated and integrated network states are related to human behavior. However, how these network states relate to structural connectivity is largely unknown. To obtain a better understanding of structural substrates for these network states, we investigated how the relationship between structural connectivity, derived from diffusion tractography, and functional connectivity, as measured by rs-fMRI, changes with fluctuations between segregated and integrated states in the human brain. We found that the similarity of edge weights between structural and functional connectivity was greater in the integrated state, especially at edges connecting the default mode and the dorsal attention networks. We also demonstrated that the similarity of network partitions, evaluated between structural and functional connectivity, increased and the density of direct structural connections within modules in functional networks was elevated during the integrated state. These results suggest that, when functional connectivity exhibited an integrated network topology, structural connectivity and functional connectivity were more closely linked to each other and direct structural connections mediated a larger proportion of neural communication within functional modules. Our findings point out the possibility of significant contributions of structural connections to integrative neural processes underlying human behavior.

  8. Exploring utility organization electricity generation, residential electricity consumption, and energy efficiency: A climatic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, Christopher A.; Feng, Song

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Study examined impact of electricity fuel sources and consumption on emissions. • 97.2% of variability in emissions explained by coal and residential electricity use. • Increasing cooling degree days significantly related to increased electricity use. • Effectiveness of state-level energy efficiency programs showed mixed results. - Abstract: This study examined the impact of electricity generation by fuel source type and electricity consumption on carbon emissions to assess the role of climatic variability and energy efficiency (EE) in the United States. Despite high levels of greenhouse gas emissions, residential electricity consumption continues to increase in the United States and fossil fuels are the primary fuel source of electricity generation. 97.2% of the variability in carbon emissions in the electricity industry was explained by electricity generation from coal and residential electricity consumption. The relationships between residential electricity consumption, short-term climatic variability, long-term climatic trends, short-term reduction in electricity from EE programs, and long-term trends in EE programs was examined. This is the first study of its nature to examine these relationships across the 48 contiguous United States. Inter-year and long-term trends in cooling degree days, or days above a baseline temperature, were the primary climatic drivers of residential electricity consumption. Cooling degree days increased across the majority of the United States during the study period, and shared a positive relationship with residential electricity consumption when findings were significant. The majority of electricity reduction from EE programs was negatively related to residential electricity consumption where findings were significant. However, the trend across the majority of states was a decrease in electricity reduction from EE while residential electricity consumption increased. States that successfully reduced consumption

  9. Estimation of European Union residential sector space cooling potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jakubcionis, Mindaugas; Carlsson, Johan

    2017-01-01

    Data on European residential space cooling demands are scarce and often of poor quality. This can be concluded from a review of the Comprehensive Assessments on the energy efficiency potential in the heating and cooling sector performed by European Union Member States under Art. 14 of the Energy Efficiency Directive. This article estimates the potential space cooling demands in the residential sector of the EU and the resulting impact on electricity generation and supply systems using the United States as a proxy. A georeferenced approach was used to establish the potential residential space cooling demand in NUTS-3 regions of EU. The total potential space cooling demand of the EU was estimated to be 292 TW h for the residential sector in an average year. The additional electrical capacity needed was estimated to 79 GW. With proper energy system development strategies, e.g. matching capacity of solar PV with cooling demand, or introduction of district cooling, the stresses on electricity system from increasing cooling demand can be mitigated. The estimated potential of space cooling demand, identified in this paper for all EU Members States, could be used while preparing the next iteration of EU MS Comprehensive Assessments or other energy related studies. - Highlights: • An estimation of EU space cooling demand potential in residential sector is presented. • An estimate of space cooling demand potential is based on using USA data as a proxy. • Significant cooling demand increase can be expected. • Cooling demand increase would lead to increased stress in energy supply systems. • Proper policies and strategies might measurably decrease the impact on energy systems.

  10. Small State Strategies in emerging Regional Governance Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kluth, Michael Friederich; Lynggaard, Kennet

    2017-01-01

    This article departs from the puzzling observation that of the five littoral arctic states the Danish realm has been the most consistent backer in China’s quest to gain observer status in the Arctic Council. Small states are generally assumed to adapt to changes in the international system...... such as spatial reconfigurations and alterations in the distribution of capabilities. Yet Denmark’s enabling role in relation to China seems to contravene that assumption. Why would a small state invite one of the world’s leading powers to enter its regional domain while its principle allies and regional partners...... explanation suggesting that unease with growing Canadian securitisation of Arctic issues has prompted courting China as a balancing act. 3) a foreign policy identity explanation focussing on the normative desire to enmeshment China into a liberal Arctic order....

  11. Chimera-like states in structured heterogeneous networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bo; Saad, David

    2017-04-01

    Chimera-like states are manifested through the coexistence of synchronous and asynchronous dynamics and have been observed in various systems. To analyze the role of network topology in giving rise to chimera-like states, we study a heterogeneous network model comprising two groups of nodes, of high and low degrees of connectivity. The architecture facilitates the analysis of the system, which separates into a densely connected coherent group of nodes, perturbed by their sparsely connected drifting neighbors. It describes a synchronous behavior of the densely connected group and scaling properties of the induced perturbations.

  12. Structural characterization of coatomer in its cytosolic state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengliu Wang

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Studies on coat protein I (COPI have contributed to a basic understanding of how coat proteins generate vesicles to initiate intracellular transport. The core component of the COPI complex is coatomer, which is a multimeric complex that needs to be recruited from the cytosol to membrane in order to function in membrane bending and cargo sorting. Previous structural studies on the clathrin adaptors have found that membrane recruitment induces a large conformational change in promoting their role in cargo sorting. Here, pursuing negative-stain electron microscopy coupled with single-particle analyses, and also performing CXMS (chemical cross-linking coupled with mass spectrometry for validation, we have reconstructed the structure of coatomer in its soluble form. When compared to the previously elucidated structure of coatomer in its membrane-bound form we do not observe a large conformational change. Thus, the result uncovers a key difference between how COPI versus clathrin coats are regulated by membrane recruitment.

  13. Resource handbook for low-income residential retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callaway, J.W.; Brenchley, D.L.; Davis, L.J.; Ivey, D.L.; Smith, S.A.; Westergard, E.J.

    1987-04-01

    The purpose of the handbook is to provide technical assistance to state grantees participating in the Partnerships in Low-Income Residential Retrofit (PILIRR) Program. PILIRR is a demonstration program aimed at identifying innovative, successful approaches to developing public and private support for weatherization of low-income households. The program reflects the basic concept that responsibility for financial support for conservation activities such as low-income residential retrofitting is likely to gradually shift from the DOE to the states and the private sector. In preparing the handbook, PNL staff surveyed over 50 programs that provide assistance to low-income residents. The survey provided information on factors that contribute to successful programs. PNL also studied the winning PILIRR proposals (from the states of Florida, Iowa, Kentucky, Oklahoma and Washington) and identified the approaches proposed and the type of information that would be most helpful in implementing these approaches.

  14. Quantum state propagation in linear photonic bandgap structures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Severini, S.; Tricca, S.; Sibilia, C.; Peřina, Jan

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 6, - (2004), s. 110-114 ISSN 1464-4266 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A015 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010921 Keywords : photonic crystals * coupled mode theory * decoherence * quantum states propagation Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 1.746, year: 2004

  15. Reforming residential electricity tariff in China: Block tariffs pricing approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Chuanwang; Lin, Boqiang

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese households that make up approximately a quarter of world households are facing a residential power tariff reform in which a rising block tariff structure will be implemented, and this tariff mechanism is widely used around the world. The basic principle of the structure is to assign a higher price for higher income consumers with low price elasticity of power demand. To capture the non-linear effects of price and income on elasticities, we set up a translog demand model. The empirical findings indicate that the higher income consumers are less sensitive than those with lower income to price changes. We further put forward three proposals of Chinese residential electricity tariffs. Compared to a flat tariff, the reasonable block tariff structure generates more efficient allocation of cross-subsidies, better incentives for raising the efficiency of electricity usage and reducing emissions from power generation, which also supports the living standards of low income households. - Highlights: • We design a rising block tariff structure of residential electricity in China. • We set up a translog demand model to find the non-linear effects on elasticities. • The higher income groups are less sensitive to price changes. • Block tariff structure generates more efficient allocation of cross-subsidies. • Block tariff structure supports the living standards of low income households

  16. Residential mobility and childhood leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoon, A T; Oksuzyan, S; Crespi, C M; Arah, O A; Cockburn, M; Vergara, X; Kheifets, L

    2018-07-01

    Studies of environmental exposures and childhood leukemia studies do not usually account for residential mobility. Yet, in addition to being a potential risk factor, mobility can induce selection bias, confounding, or measurement error in such studies. Using data collected for California Powerline Study (CAPS), we attempt to disentangle the effect of mobility. We analyzed data from a population-based case-control study of childhood leukemia using cases who were born in California and diagnosed between 1988 and 2008 and birth certificate controls. We used stratified logistic regression, case-only analysis, and propensity-score adjustments to assess predictors of residential mobility between birth and diagnosis, and account for potential confounding due to residential mobility. Children who moved tended to be older, lived in housing other than single-family homes, had younger mothers and fewer siblings, and were of lower socioeconomic status. Odds ratios for leukemia among non-movers living mobility, including dwelling type, increased odds ratios for leukemia to 2.61 (95% CI: 1.76-3.86) for living mobility of childhood leukemia cases varied by several sociodemographic characteristics, but not by the distance to the nearest power line or calculated magnetic fields. Mobility appears to be an unlikely explanation for the associations observed between power lines exposure and childhood leukemia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Patterns of Residential Segregation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rémi Louf

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of income shapes the structure and organisation of cities and its understanding has broad societal implications. Despite an abundant literature, many issues remain unclear. In particular, all definitions of segregation are implicitely tied to a single indicator, usually rely on an ambiguous definition of income classes, without any consensus on how to define neighbourhoods and to deal with the polycentric organization of large cities. In this paper, we address all these questions within a unique conceptual framework. We avoid the challenge of providing a direct definition of segregation and instead start from a definition of what segregation is not. This naturally leads to the measure of representation that is able to identify locations where categories are over- or underrepresented. From there, we provide a new measure of exposure that discriminates between situations where categories co-locate or repel one another. We then use this feature to provide an unambiguous, parameter-free method to find meaningful breaks in the income distribution, thus defining classes. Applied to the 2014 American Community Survey, we find 3 emerging classes-low, middle and higher income-out of the original 16 income categories. The higher-income households are proportionally more present in larger cities, while lower-income households are not, invalidating the idea of an increased social polarisation. Finally, using the density-and not the distance to a center which is meaningless in polycentric cities-we find that the richer class is overrepresented in high density zones, especially for larger cities. This suggests that density is a relevant factor for understanding the income structure of cities and might explain some of the differences observed between US and European cities.

  18. Structure of high excited nuclear states and elastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhivopistsev, F.A.; Rzhevskij, E.S.

    1979-01-01

    An approach to a unified description of nuclear reactions and nuclear structure based on the formalism of the quantum Green functions and on the ideas of the theory of finite Fermi systems has been formulated. New structural vertices are introduced, which are responsible for nucleon collectivization in an atomic nucleus and for the excitation of many-phonon, quasideuteron, quasitriton and other configurations. The vertices define both the processes of particle scattering by atomic nuclei (T matrix and optical potentials) and the nuclear structure (secular equations and wave functions). The vertices are determined from the equations with effective many-particle forces Fsub(nm)sup(c). In their turn the Fsub(nm)sup(c) forces are either determined from a comparison of theory and experiment, or calculated from the equations with more fundamental nucleon-nucleon forces in a nucleus. The effective forces Fsub(nm)sup(c) are more universal than the constants of the theory of finite Fermi-systems, which extends the boundaries of applicability of the particle-hole formalism in the description of nuclear processes. In this approach the traditional methods of description of the nuclear structure, based on particular models of hamiltonian and wave functions, acquire a natural interpretation

  19. State of the Art in the Design of Coastal Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, Hans F.

    1998-01-01

    Coastal structures are used in coastal defence schemes with the objective of preventing shoreline erosion and flooding of the hinterland. Other objectives are sheltering of harbour basins and entrances against waves, stabilization of navigation channels at inlets and protection of water intakes a...

  20. State Space identification of Civil Engineering Structures from Output Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Andersen, P.

    for identification of civil engineering structures. The SST is compared with the stochastic realization estimator Matrix Block Hankel (MBH) and a prediction error method (PEM). The results show that the investigated techniques give good results in terms of estimated modal parameters and mode shapes. Especially...

  1. State Space identification of Civil Engineering Structures from Output Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Andersen, P.

    1997-01-01

    for identification of civil engineering structures. The SST is compared with the stochastic realization estimator Matrix Block Hankel (MBH) and a prediction error method (PEM). The results show that the investigated techniques give good results in terms of estimated modal parameters and mode shapes. Especially...

  2. State of the Art in the Design of Coastal Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.

    1997-01-01

    Coastal structures are used in coastal defence schemes with the objective of preventing shoreline erosion and flooding of the hinterland. Other objectives are sheltering of harbour basins and entrances against waves, stabilization of navigation channels at inlets, and protection of water intakes ...

  3. Characteristics of aluminum alloy microplastic deformation in different structural states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seregin, G.V.; Efimenko, L.L.; Leonov, M.V. [Novosibirsk Pedagogical Inst. (Russian Federation)

    1995-07-01

    The solution to the problem of improving the mechanical properties (including cyclic strength) of structural materials is largely dependent on our knowledge of the laws governing the development of microplastic deformations in them. The effect of heat and mechanical treatment on the elastoplastic properties and fatigue resistance of the commercial aluminum alloys AK4-1 and D16 is analyzed.

  4. State of the APC/C: Organization, function, and structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Janel R.; Chaix, Denis; Ohi, Melanie D.; Gould, Kathleen L.

    2016-01-01

    The ubiquitin-proteasome protein degradation system is involved in many essential cellular processes including cell cycle regulation, cell differentiation, and the unfolded protein response.The anaphase-promoting complex/cyclosome (APC/C), an evolutionary conserved E3 ubiquitin ligase, was discovered 15 years ago because of its pivotal role in cyclin degradation and mitotic progression. Since then, we have learned that the APC/C is a very large, complex E3 ligase composed of 13 subunits, yielding a molecular machine of approximately 1 MDa. The intricate regulation of the APC/C is mediated by the Cdc20 family of activators, pseudosubstrate inhibitors, protein kinases and phosphatases and the spindle assembly checkpoint. The large size, complexity, and dynamic nature of the APC/C represent significant obstacles toward high-resolution structural techniques; however, over the last decade, there have been a number of lower resolution APC/C structures determined using single particle electron microscopy. These structures, when combined with data generated from numerous genetic and biochemical studies, have begun to shed light on how APC/C activity is regulated. Here, we discuss the most recent developments in the APC/C field concerning structure, substrate recognition, and catalysis. PMID:21261459

  5. Mental State Talk Structure in Children’s Narratives: A Cluster Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuliana Pinto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This study analysed children’s Theory of Mind (ToM as assessed by mental state talk in oral narratives. We hypothesized that the children’s mental state talk in narratives has an underlying structure, with specific terms organized in clusters. Ninety-eight children attending the last year of kindergarten were asked to tell a story twice, at the beginning and at the end of the school year. Mental state talk was analysed by identifying terms and expressions referring to perceptual, physiological, emotional, willingness, cognitive, moral, and sociorelational states. The cluster analysis showed that children’s mental state talk is organized in two main clusters: perceptual states and affective states. Results from the study confirm the feasibility of narratives as an outlet to inquire mental state talk and offer a more fine-grained analysis of mental state talk structure.

  6. Assessment of Residential History Generation Using a Public-Record Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Wheeler

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In studies of disease with potential environmental risk factors, residential location is often used as a surrogate for unknown environmental exposures or as a basis for assigning environmental exposures. These studies most typically use the residential location at the time of diagnosis due to ease of collection. However, previous residential locations may be more useful for risk analysis because of population mobility and disease latency. When residential histories have not been collected in a study, it may be possible to generate them through public-record databases. In this study, we evaluated the ability of a public-records database from LexisNexis to provide residential histories for subjects in a geographically diverse cohort study. We calculated 11 performance metrics comparing study-collected addresses and two address retrieval services from LexisNexis. We found 77% and 90% match rates for city and state and 72% and 87% detailed address match rates with the basic and enhanced services, respectively. The enhanced LexisNexis service covered 86% of the time at residential addresses recorded in the study. The mean match rate for detailed address matches varied spatially over states. The results suggest that public record databases can be useful for reconstructing residential histories for subjects in epidemiologic studies.

  7. Robust Performance of Systems with Structured Uncertainties in State Space

    OpenAIRE

    Zhou, K.; Khargonekar, P.P.; Stoustrup, Jakob; Niemann, H.H.

    1995-01-01

    This paper considers robust performance analysis and state feedback design for systems with time-varying parameter uncertainties. The notion of a strongly robust % performance criterion is introduced, and its applications in robust performance analysis and synthesis for nominally linear systems with time-varying uncertainties are discussed and compared with the constant scaled small gain criterion. It is shown that most robust performance analysis and synthesisproblems under this strongly rob...

  8. Electron structure of amorphous semi-conductor states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wiid, D.H.; Lemmer, R.H.

    1975-01-01

    The electrical properties of amorphous materials are determined by their electron states. Since the electrons are much lighter than the massive ions, the energy levels of the electrons are extremely sensitive to changes in the states of the ions, e.g. a change in their positions. A method has been developed to approximate the positional disorder inthe crystal by a compositional disorder, i.e. the substitution, in a pure crystal, of ions by impurities. The advantage of this lies in the retention of the periodicity of the lattice. This model is linked with an investigation at present under way, in which the mobility, electrical resistance, etc. of a silicon crystal is determined as a function of its amorphous state. It is for instance possible to control the degree of disorder in the crystal, and the problem is to characterise the disorder by a specific parameter. For theoretical calculations such a parameter is essential and it is therefore also the biggest shortcoming in all the theories that, as far as is known, have been developed. It is possible to set up a general phenomenological theory for, for example, electrical resistance, but in view of its complex nature only rough approximations can be made [af

  9. Structure-function relationships in elderly resting-state-networks : influence of age and cognitive performance

    OpenAIRE

    Jockwitz, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the structure-function relationship in cognitive resting state networks in a large population-based elderly sample. The first study characterized the functional connectivity in four cognitive resting state networks with respect to age, gender and cognitive performance: Default Mode Network (DMN), executive, and left and right frontoparietal resting state networks. The second study assessed the structural correlates of the functional reorganization of th...

  10. Regionalised tertiary psychiatric residential facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesage, Alain; Groden, David; Goldner, Elliot M; Gelinas, Daniel; Arnold, Leslie M

    2008-01-01

    Psychiatric hospitals remain the main venue for long-term mental health care and, despite widespread closures and downsizing, no country that built asylums in the last century has done away with them entirely--with the recent exception of Italy. Differentiated community-based residential alternatives have been developed over the past decades, with staffing levels that range from full-time professional, to daytime only, to part-time/on-call. This paper reviews the characteristics of community-based psychiatric residential care facilities as an alternative to long-term care in psychiatric hospitals. It describes five factors decision makers should consider: 1. number of residential places needed; 2. staffing levels; 3. physical setting; 4. programming; and 5. governance and financing. In Italy, facilities with full-time professional staff have been developed since the mid-1990s to accommodate the last cohorts of patients discharged from psychiatric hospitals. In the United Kingdom, experiments with hostel wards since the 1980s have shown that home-like, small-scale facilities with intensive treatment and rehabilitation programming can be effective for the most difficult-to-place patients. More recently in Australia, Community Care Units (CCUs) have been applying this concept. In the Canadian province of British Columbia (BC), Tertiary Psychiatric Residential Facilities (TPRFs) have been developed as part of an effort to regionalise health and social services and downsize and ultimately close its only psychiatric hospital. This type of service must be further developed in addition to the need for forensic, acute-care and intermediate-level beds, as well as for community-based care such as assertive community treatment and intensive case management. All these types of services, together with long-term community-based residential care, constitute the elements of a balanced mental health care system. As part of a region's balanced mental health care plan, these Tertiary

  11. Residential solar hot water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-06-01

    This report examines the feasibility of using solar energy to preheat domestic water coming from the city supply at a temperature of approximately 4{degree}C. Four solar collectors totalling 7 m{sup 2} were installed on a support structure facing south at an angle of 60{degree} from the horizontal. The system worked most efficiently in the spring and early summer when the combination of long hours of sunshine, clean air and clear skies allowed for maximum availability of solar radiation. Performance dropped in late summer and fall mainly due to cloudier weather conditions. The average temperature in the storage tank over the 10 months of operation was 42{degree}C, ranging from a high of 83{degree}C in July to a low of 6{degree}C in November. The system provided a total of 7.1 GJ, which is approximately one-third the annual requirement for domestic hot water heating. At the present time domestic use of solar energy to heat water does not appear to be economically viable. High capital costs are the main problem. As a solar system with present day technology can only be expected to meet half to two-thirds of the hot water energy demand the savings are not sufficient for the system to pay for itself within a few years. 5 figs.

  12. Limit State of Materials and Structures Direct Methods 2

    CERN Document Server

    Oueslati, Abdelbacet; Charkaluk, Eric; Tritsch, Jean-Bernard

    2013-01-01

    To determine the carrying capacity of a structure or a structural element susceptible to operate beyond the elastic limit is an important task in many situations of both mechanical and civil engineering. The so-called “direct methods” play an increasing role due to the fact that they allow rapid access to the request information in mathematically constructive manners. They embrace Limit Analysis, the most developed approach now widely used, and Shakedown Analysis, a powerful extension to the variable repeated loads potentially more economical than step-by-step inelastic analysis. This book is the outcome of a workshop held at the University of Sciences and Technology of Lille. The individual contributions stem from the areas of new numerical developments rendering these methods more attractive for industrial design, extension of the general methodology to new horizons, probabilistic approaches and concrete technological applications.

  13. Importance of complex band structure and resonant states for tunneling

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dederichs, P. H.; Mavropoulos, Ph.; Wunnicke, O.; Papanikolaou, N.; Bellini, V.; Zeller, R.; Drchal, Václav; Kudrnovský, Josef

    2002-01-01

    Roč. 240, - (2002), s. 108-113 ISSN 0304-8853 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA1010829; GA ČR GA202/00/0122; GA MŠk OC P5.30 Grant - others:TSR(XX) 01398 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z1010914 Keywords : magnetoresistance * tunneling * band structure * interface effects Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.046, year: 2002

  14. Quebec residential electricity demand: a microeconometric approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, J.T.; Bolduc, D.; Belanger, D.

    1996-01-01

    An economic analysis of Quebec residential electricity demand was studied by micro-simulation models. These structural models describe all components which lead to decisions upon durable holdings and electric appliance usage. The demand for space and water heating systems was evaluated. Recent price change in favour of energy sources other than electricity were taken into account. Price and income elasticity ratios were found to be low, as expected when estimating short term use. The role played by socio-economic variables on the choice of space-water heating systems and electricity use was also examined. Recent conversions have indicated a trend toward preference by households in favour of natural gas or oil over electricity. 18 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig

  15. EVOLUTION OF THE ROMANIAN RESIDENTIAL MARKET AFTER OUTBREAK OF THE CURRENT ECONOMIC AND FINANCIAL CRISIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şteliac Nela

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The residential market is one of the market sectors seriously affected by the current economic and financial crisis. This is mirrored both in the fall of real estate trading prices and in the decreased number of transactions and cutback of newly built constructions. This trend is applicable to the entire spectrum of the residential market (luxury properties and homes destined to average-income customers. Romania is no exception from this European and world-wide state of affairs. This paper aims to briefly outline the trends on the Romanian residential market in the aftermath of the current crisis.

  16. Branching out to residential lands: Missions and strategies of five tree distribution programs in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vi D. Nguyen; Lara A. Roman; Dexter H. Locke; Sarah K. Mincey; Jessica R. Sanders; Erica Smith Fichman; Mike Duran-Mitchell; Sarah Lumban Tobing

    2017-01-01

    Residential lands constitute a major component of existing and possible tree canopy in many cities in the United States. To expand the urban forest on these lands, some municipalities and nonprofit organizations have launched residential yard tree distribution programs, also known as tree giveaway programs. This paper describes the operations of five tree distribution...

  17. Identifying vulnerable populations to death and injuries from residential fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Stanley W; Butry, David T

    2017-08-03

    This study proposes and evaluates the theory that people who are susceptible to injury in residential fires are not susceptible to death in residential fires and vice versa. It is proposed that the population vulnerable to death in residential fires can be proxied by 'frailty', which is measured as age-gender adjusted fatality rates due to natural causes. This study uses an ecological approach and controls for exposure to estimate the vulnerability of different population groups to death and injury in residential fires. It allows fatalities and injuries to be estimated by different models. Frailty explains fire-related death in adults while not explaining injuries, which is consistent with the idea that deaths and injuries affect disjoint populations. Deaths and injuries in fire are drawn from different populations. People who are susceptible to dying in fires are unlikely to be injured in fires, and the people who are susceptible to injury are unlikely to die in fires. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Modelling residential electricity demand in the GCC countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atalla, Tarek N.; Hunt, Lester C.

    2016-01-01

    This paper aims at understanding the drivers of residential electricity demand in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries by applying the structural time series model. In addition to the economic variables of GDP and real electricity prices, the model accounts for population, weather, and a stochastic underlying energy demand trend as a proxy for efficiency and human behaviour. The resulting income and price elasticities are informative for policy makers given the paucity of previous estimates for a region with particular political structures and economies subject to large shocks. In particular, the estimates allow for a sound assessment of the impact of energy-related policies suggesting that if policy makers in the region wish to curtail future residential electricity consumption they would need to improve the efficiency of appliances and increase energy using awareness of consumers, possibly by education and marketing campaigns. Moreover, even if prices were raised the impact on curbing residential electricity growth in the region is likely to be very small given the low estimated price elasticities—unless, that is, prices were raised so high that expenditure on electricity becomes such a large proportion of income that the price elasticities increase (in absolute terms). - Highlights: • Residential electricity demand for Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, and Saudi Arabia • Estimated residential electricity demand relationships using STSM/UEDT approach • LR income and price elasticities from 0.43 to 0.71 and − 0.16 to zero respectively • Impact CDD elasticities from 0.2 to 0.7 • Estimated UEDTs suggest exogenous electricity using behaviour.

  19. Valley-chiral quantum Hall state in graphene superlattice structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, H. Y.; Tao, W. W.; Wang, J.; Cui, Y. H.; Xu, N.; Huang, B. B.; Luo, G. X.; Hao, Y. H.

    2016-05-01

    We theoretically investigate the quantum Hall effect in a graphene superlattice (GS) system, in which the two valleys of graphene are coupled together. In the presence of a perpendicular magnetic field, an ordinary quantum Hall effect is found with the sequence σxy=ν e^2/h(ν=0,+/-1,+/-2,\\cdots) . At the zeroth Hall platform, a valley-chiral Hall state stemming from the single K or K' valley is found and it is localized only on one sample boundary contributing to the longitudinal conductance but not to the Hall conductivity. Our findings may shed light on the graphene-based valleytronics applications.

  20. Robust Performance of Systems with Structured Uncertainties in State Space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, Kemin; Khargonekar, Pramod P.; Stoustrup, Jakob

    1995-01-01

    This paper considers robust performance analysis and state feedback design for systems with time-varying parameter uncertainties. The notion of a strongly robust % performance criterion is introduced, and its applications in robust performance analysis and synthesis for nominally linear systems...... with time-varying uncertainties are discussed and compared with the constant scaled small gain criterion. It is shown that most robust performance analysis and synthesis problems under this strongly robust % performance criterion can be transformed into linear matrix inequality problems, and can be solved...

  1. Residential care : Dutch and Italian residents of residential care facilities compared

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Heer-Wunderink, Charlotte; Caro-Nienhuis, Annemarie D.; Sytema, Sjoerd; Wiersma, Durk

    2008-01-01

    Aims - Characteristics of patients living in residential care facilities and the availability of mental hospital- and residential beds in Italy and The Netherlands were compared to assess whether differences in the process of deinstitutionalisation have influenced the composition of their

  2. The relation between residential property and its surroundings and day- and night-time residential burglary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montoya, Lorena; Junger, Marianne; Ongena, Yfke

    This article examines how residential property and its surroundings influence day- and night-time residential burglary. Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) principles of territoriality, surveillance, access control, target hardening, image maintenance, and activity support underpin

  3. The Relation Between Residential Property and its Surroundings and Day- and Night-Time Residential Burglary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montoya, L.; Junger, Marianne; Ongena, Yfke

    This article examines how residential property and its surroundings influence day- and night-time residential burglary. Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) principles of territoriality, surveillance, access control, target hardening, image maintenance, and activity support underpin

  4. Electronic structures of interfacial states formed at polymeric semiconductor heterojunctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Ya-Shih; Westenhoff, Sebastian; Avilov, Igor; Sreearunothai, Paiboon; Hodgkiss, Justin M.; Deleener, Caroline; Friend, Richard H.; Beljonne, David

    2008-06-01

    Heterojunctions between organic semiconductors are central to the operation of light-emitting and photovoltaic diodes, providing respectively for electron-hole capture and separation. However, relatively little is known about the character of electronic excitations stable at the heterojunction. We have developed molecular models to study such interfacial excited electronic excitations that form at the heterojunction between model polymer donor and polymer acceptor systems: poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-bis-N,N-(4-butylphenyl)-bis-N,N-phenyl-1,4-phenylenediamine) (PFB) with poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-benzothiadiazole) (F8BT), and poly(9,9-dioctylfluorene-co-N-(4-butylphenyl)diphenylamine) (TFB) with F8BT. We find that for stable ground-state geometries the excited state has a strong charge-transfer character. Furthermore, when partly covalent, modelled radiative lifetimes (~10-7s) and off-chain axis polarization (30∘) match observed `exciplex' emission. Additionally for the PFB:F8BT blend, geometries with fully ionic character are also found, thus accounting for the low electroluminescence efficiency of this system.

  5. Solid State Structure of Poly(9,9-dinonylfluorene)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torkkeli, Mika; Galbrecht, Frank; Scherf, Ullrich

    2015-01-01

    We report on X-ray diffraction and grazing-incidence X-ray diffraction data of poly(9,9-dinonylfluorene) (PF9) in bulk, thin films and in the 1% methylcyclohexane gel. We denote the main crystalline phase as alpha phase and propose that the unit cell is monoclinic (a = 29.31 angstrom, b = 23.......1 angstrom, and c = 16.7 angstrom). Structural analogues to other 9,9-di-n-alkyl-substituted polyfluorenes are discussed in terms of unit cell parameters and backbone geometry....

  6. Transforming the market for residential windows: design considerations for DOE's Efficient Window Collaborative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eto, J.; Arasteh, D.; Selkowitz, S.

    1998-08-01

    Market adoption of recent, commercially available technological advances that improve the energy performance of windows will lead to immediate economic and energy savings benefits to the nation. This paper is a scoping study intended to inform the design of a major DOE initiative to accelerate market adoption of these windows in the residential sector. We describe the structure of the US residential window market and the interests of the various market players. We then briefly review five recent market transformation initiatives. Finally, we summarize our findings in a list of considerations we believe will be important for the DOE's initiative to transform the US residential window market.

  7. Structural robustness with suboptimal responses for linear state space model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keel, L. H.; Lim, Kyong B.; Juang, Jer-Nan

    1989-01-01

    A relationship between the closed-loop eigenvalues and the amount of perturbations in the open-loop matrix is addressed in the context of performance robustness. If the allowable perturbation ranges of elements of the open-loop matrix A and the desired tolerance of the closed-loop eigenvalues are given such that max(j) of the absolute value of Delta-lambda(j) (A+BF) should be less than some prescribed value, what is a state feedback controller F which satisfies the closed-loop eigenvalue perturbation-tolerance requirement for a class of given perturbation in A? The paper gives an algorithm to design such a controller. Numerical examples are included for illustration.

  8. Bound states and molecular structure of systems with hyperons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akaishi, Y.

    1992-01-01

    Microscopic calculations are done for Σ-hypernuclear few-body systems by a method named ATMS. Among two- to five-body systems, only the Σ 4 He(0 + ) and Σ 4 H(0 + ) hypernuclei are expected to be bound: The binding energy and the width of the former are calculated to be 3.7 ∼ 4.6 MeV and 4.5 ∼ 7.9 MeV, respectively. The observation of Σ 4 He at KEK is in good agreement with the above prediction. The nucleus-Σ potential has a strong Lane term and a repulsive bump at short distance. The Lane term makes the system bound and the bump suppresses the ΣN → ΛN conversion. X-ray measurement of level shifts in the 4 He-Σ - , 3 He-Σ - and 3 H-Σ - atoms can provide another information on the Lane term. In 208 Pb, there may exist a peculiar state, Coulomb-assisted (atomnucleus) hybrid state, where Σ - is trapped in the surface region by the strong interaction with the aid of the inner centrifugal repulsion and the outer Coulomb attraction. An analysis is given for new data of Ξ -.12 C atomic or nuclear systems from the emulsion-counter experiment at KEK. The double-Λ hypernucleus formation rate is calculated for a stopped Ξ - on 4 He. A high branching ratio of 37% is obtained for the ΛΛ 4 H formation from a Ξ -.4 He atom. The detection of about 2.3 MeV neutron is proposed to search for lightest double-Λ hypernucleus ΛΛ 4 H. (author)

  9. Structural evaluation of FHX for PGSFR at steady state condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Nak-Hyun; Lee, S. Y.; Kim, S. K. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    Liquid sodium flows inside the heat transfer tubes and atmospheric air flows over the finned tubes. The configuration and overall shape of the unit are shown in Figure 1. The unit is placed in the upper region of the reactor building and has function of dumping the system heat load into the final heat sink, i.e., the atmosphere. Heat is transmitted from the primary cold sodium pool into the ADHRS sodium loop via DHX (Decay Heat Exchanger), and a direct heat exchange occurs between the tube-side sodium and the shell-side air through the FHX tube wall. Cold atmospheric air is introduced into the air inlet duct at the lower part of the unit by using an electrically operated air blower or by the natural circulation force. Air flows across the finned tube bank rising upward direction to make uniform air flow with perfect mixing across the tubes. The finned tube bundle is placed inside a well-insulated casing. The air heated at the tube bank region is collected at the top of the unit and then is discharged through the air stack above the unit. Although a blower supplies atmospheric cooling air into the FHX unit, a tall air stack of 30 m in height is also provided to secure natural draft head of natural circulation air flow against a loss of power supply. The structural analysis of a FHX are carried out and its structural integrity under the given service levels is evaluated per ASME Code rule. The design loads according to design condition and normal operating steady condition are classified and stresses calculated from stress analyses are linearized and summarized in their stress components.

  10. Structural instability and ground state of the U{sub 2}Mo compound

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Losada, E.L., E-mail: losada@cab.cnea.gov.ar [SIM" 3, Centro Atómico Bariloche, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (Argentina); Garcés, J.E. [Gerencia de Investigación y Aplicaciones Nucleares, Comisión Nacional de Energía Atómica (Argentina)

    2015-11-15

    This work reports on the structural instability at T = 0 °K of the U{sub 2}Mo compound in the C11{sub b} structure under the distortion related to the C{sub 66} elastic constant. The electronic properties of U{sub 2}Mo such as density of states (DOS), bands and Fermi surface (FS) are studied to understand the source of the instability. The C11{sub b} structure can be interpreted as formed by parallel linear chains along the z-directions each one composed of successive U–Mo–U blocks. Hybridization due to electronic interactions inside the U–Mo–U blocks is slightly modified under the D{sub 6} distortion. The change in distance between chains modifies the U–U interaction and produces a split of f-states. The distorted structure is stabilized by a decrease in energy of the hybridized states, mainly between d-Mo and f-U states, together with the f-band split. Consequently, an induced Peierls distortion is produced in U{sub 2}Mo due to the D{sub 6} distortion. It is important to note that the results of this work indicate that the structure of the ground state of the U{sub 2}Mo compound is not the assumed C11{sub b} structure. It is suggested for the ground state a structure with hexagonal symmetry (P6 #168), ∼0.1 mRy below the energy of the recently proposed Pmmn structure. - Highlights: • Structural instability of the C11b compound due to the D6 deformation. • Induced Peierls distortion due to the D6 deformation. • Distorted structure is stabilized by hybridization and split of f-Uranium state. • P6 (#168) suggested ground state for the U{sub 2}Mo compound.

  11. Structural instability and ground state of the U_2Mo compound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Losada, E.L.; Garcés, J.E.

    2015-01-01

    This work reports on the structural instability at T = 0 °K of the U_2Mo compound in the C11_b structure under the distortion related to the C_6_6 elastic constant. The electronic properties of U_2Mo such as density of states (DOS), bands and Fermi surface (FS) are studied to understand the source of the instability. The C11_b structure can be interpreted as formed by parallel linear chains along the z-directions each one composed of successive U–Mo–U blocks. Hybridization due to electronic interactions inside the U–Mo–U blocks is slightly modified under the D_6 distortion. The change in distance between chains modifies the U–U interaction and produces a split of f-states. The distorted structure is stabilized by a decrease in energy of the hybridized states, mainly between d-Mo and f-U states, together with the f-band split. Consequently, an induced Peierls distortion is produced in U_2Mo due to the D_6 distortion. It is important to note that the results of this work indicate that the structure of the ground state of the U_2Mo compound is not the assumed C11_b structure. It is suggested for the ground state a structure with hexagonal symmetry (P6 #168), ∼0.1 mRy below the energy of the recently proposed Pmmn structure. - Highlights: • Structural instability of the C11b compound due to the D6 deformation. • Induced Peierls distortion due to the D6 deformation. • Distorted structure is stabilized by hybridization and split of f-Uranium state. • P6 (#168) suggested ground state for the U_2Mo compound.

  12. Economics of Condensing Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters Potential in Residential Single Family Homes

    OpenAIRE

    Lekov, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Residential space and water heating accounts for over 90percent of total residential primary gas consumption in the United States. Condensing space and water heating equipment are 10-30percent more energy-efficient than conventional space and water heating. Currently, condensing gas furnaces represent 40 percent of shipments and are common in the Northern U.S. market. Meanwhile, manufacturers are planning to develop condensing gas storage water heaters to qualify for Energy Star? certificati...

  13. Bound-state quark and gluon contributions to structure functions in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1990-08-01

    One can distinguish two types of contributions to the quark and gluon structure functions of hadrons in quantum chromodynamics: ''intrinsic'' contributions, which are due to the direct scattering on the bound-state constituents, and ''extrinsic'' contributions, which are derived from particles created in the collision. In this talk, I discussed several aspects of deep inelastic structure functions in which the bound-state structure of the proton plays a crucial role: the properties of the intrinsic gluon distribution associated with the proton bound-state wavefunction; the separation of the quark structure function of the proton onto intrinsic ''bound-valence'' and extrinsic ''non-valence'' components which takes into account the Pauli principle; the properties and identification of intrinsic heavy quark structure functions; and a theory of shadowing and anti-shadowing of nuclear structure functions, directly related to quark-nucleon interactions and the gluon saturation phenomenon. 49 refs., 5 figs

  14. Bound-state quark and gluon contributions to structure functions in QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brodsky, S.J.

    1991-01-01

    One can distinguish two types of contributions to the quark and gluon structure functions of hadrons in quantum chromodynamics: 'intrinsic' contributions, which are due to the direct scattering on the bound-state constituents, and 'extrinsic' contributions, which are derived from particles created in the collision. In this talk, I discuss several aspects of deep inealstic structure functions in which the bound-state structure of the proton plays a crucial role: (1) the properties of the intrinsic gluon distribution associated with the proton bound-state wavefunction; (2) the separation of the quark structure function of the proton into intrinsic 'bound-valence' and extrinsic 'non-valence' components which takes into account the Pauli principle; (3) the properties and identification of intrinsic heavy quark structure functions; and (4) a theory of shadowing and anti-shadowing of nuclear structure functions, directly related to quark-nucleon interactions and the gluon saturation phenomenon. (orig.)

  15. Investigation of Concrete Structures in Serviceability Limit State Using Energy Principles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagsten, Lars German; Fisker, Jakob

    2013-01-01

    of the choices, made in relation to the design of the structure with respect to the ultimate limit state (ULS). Hence, a rational link between the two states is established. The approach is appropriate for the design of new structures and assessment of existing structures. The method and the link between...... the choices made regarding the ULS and the state of stress in the SLS is compared with tests on reinforced concrete disks and beams, respectively. Fairly good agreement between theory and tests is achieved....

  16. EMISSIONS CHARACTERISTICS OF A RESIDENTIAL PELLET BOILER AND A STOVE

    OpenAIRE

    Win, Kaung Myat; Persson, Tomas

    2010-01-01

    Gaseous and particulate emissions from a residential pellet boiler and a stove are measured at a realistic 6-day operation sequence and during steady state operation. The aim is to characterize the emissions during each phase in order to identify when the major part of the emissions occur to enable actions for emission reduction where the savings can be highest. The characterized emissions comprised carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxide (NO), total organic carbon (TOC) and particulate matter (...

  17. State-Transition Structures in Physics and in Computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, C. A.

    1982-12-01

    In order to establish close connections between physical and computational processes, it is assumed that the concepts of “state” and of “transition” are acceptable both to physicists and to computer scientists, at least in an informal way. The aim of this paper is to propose formal definitions of state and transition elements on the basis of very low level physical concepts in such a way that (1) all physically possible computations can be described as embedded in physical processes; (2) the computational aspects of physical processes can be described on a well-defined level of abstraction; (3) the gulf between the continuous models of physics and the discrete models of computer science can be bridged by simple mathematical constructs which may be given a physical interpretation; (4) a combinatorial, nonstatistical definition of “information” can be given on low levels of abstraction which may serve as a basis to derive higher-level concepts of information, e.g., by a statistical or probabilistic approach. Conceivable practical consequences are discussed.

  18. The magnetic structure on the ground state of the equilateral triangular spin tube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsui, Kazuki; Goto, Takayuki; Manaka, Hirotaka; Miura, Yoko

    2016-01-01

    The ground state of the frustrated equilateral triangular spin tube CsCrF_4 is still hidden behind a veil though NMR spectrum broaden into 2 T at low temperature. In order to investigate the spin structure in an ordered state by "1"9F-NMR, we have determined the anisotropic hyperfine coupling tensors for each three fluorine sites in the paramagnetic state. The measurement field was raised up to 10 T to achieve highest resolution. The preliminary analysis using the obtained hyperfine tensors has shown that the archetypal 120°-type structure in ab-plane does not accord with the NMR spectra of ordered state.

  19. Self-organized emergence of multilayer structure and chimera states in dynamical networks with adaptive couplings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasatkin, D. V.; Yanchuk, S.; Schöll, E.; Nekorkin, V. I.

    2017-12-01

    We report the phenomenon of self-organized emergence of hierarchical multilayered structures and chimera states in dynamical networks with adaptive couplings. This process is characterized by a sequential formation of subnetworks (layers) of densely coupled elements, the size of which is ordered in a hierarchical way, and which are weakly coupled between each other. We show that the hierarchical structure causes the decoupling of the subnetworks. Each layer can exhibit either a two-cluster state, a periodic traveling wave, or an incoherent state, and these states can coexist on different scales of subnetwork sizes.

  20. Patterns of residential crowding among Hispanics in later life: immigration, assimilation, and housing market factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, Jeffrey A; Mutchler, Jan E; Gerst, Kerstin

    2010-11-01

    We describe patterns of residential crowding among older Hispanics and non-Hispanic Whites. We also examine hypotheses about the relationship of residential crowding with assimilation (language and duration of residence) and housing market characteristics. We employ a multilevel research design, using data from the 2000 U.S. Census of Population. Hierarchical linear models are utilized to estimate the association between residential crowding and both individual and housing market factors. Approximately one third of older Hispanics in metropolitan areas live in crowded housing compared with only one tenth of older non-Hispanic Whites. Foreign-born older persons report higher levels of crowding than U.S.-born older persons. Residential crowding differences between older Hispanics and non-Hispanics are not eliminated after controls are included. Older Hispanics who report better English language skills and a longer duration of residence in the United States live in less crowded housing. We do not find evidence for a relationship between crowding and residential segregation, but we find consistent evidence for an association between residential crowding and relative size of the Hispanic population. The forces that shape household composition and access to housing among older Hispanics appear to result in higher levels of residential crowding for this population.

  1. Shallow nitrogen ion implantation: Evolution of chemical state and defect structure in titanium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manojkumar, P.A., E-mail: manoj@igcar.gov.in [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Chirayath, V.A.; Balamurugan, A.K.; Krishna, Nanda Gopala; Ilango, S.; Kamruddin, M.; Amarendra, G.; Tyagi, A.K. [Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603102 (India); Raj, Baldev [National Institute of Advanced Studies, Bangalore 560 012 (India)

    2016-09-15

    Highlights: • Low energy nitrogen ion implantation in titanium was studied. • Chemical and defect states were analyzed using SIMS, XPS and PAS. • SIMS and depth resolved XPS data showed good agreement. • Depth resolved defect and chemical states information were revealed. • Formation of 3 layers of defect states proposed to fit PAS results. - Abstract: Evolution of chemical states and defect structure in titanium during low energy nitrogen ion implantation by Plasma Immersion Ion Implantation (PIII) process is studied. The underlying process of chemical state evolution is investigated using secondary ion mass spectrometry and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The implantation induced defect structure evolution as a function of dose is elucidated using variable energy positron annihilation Doppler broadening spectroscopy (PAS) and the results were corroborated with chemical state. Formation of 3 layers of defect state was modeled to fit PAS results.

  2. Residential cogeneration systems: review of the current technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onovwiona, H.I.; Ugursal, V.I.

    2006-01-01

    There is a growing potential for the use of micro-cogeneration systems in the residential sector because they have the ability to produce both useful thermal energy and electricity from a single source of fuel such as oil or natural gas. In cogeneration systems, the efficiency of energy conversion increases to over 80% as compared to an average of 30-35% for conventional fossil fuel fired electricity generation systems. This increase in energy efficiency can result in lower costs and reduction in greenhouse gas emissions when compared to the conventional methods of generating heat and electricity separately. Cogeneration systems and equipment suitable for residential and small-scale commercial applications like hospitals, hotels or institutional buildings are available, and many new systems are under development. These products are used or aimed for meeting the electrical and thermal demands of a building for space and domestic hot water heating, and potentially, absorption cooling. The aim of this paper is to provide an up-to-date review of the various cogeneration technologies suitable for residential applications. The paper considers the various technologies available and under development for residential, i.e. single-family ( e ) and multi-family (10-30kW t ) applications, with focus on single-family applications. Technologies suitable for residential cogeneration systems include reciprocating internal combustion engine, micro-turbine, fuel cell, and reciprocating external combustion Stirling engine based cogeneration systems. The paper discusses the state of development and the performance, environmental benefits, and costs of these technologies. (author)

  3. Building and household X-factors and energy consumption at the residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estiri, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Energy use in residential buildings is one of the major sources of greenhouse gas emission production from cities. Using microdata from the 2009 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), this study applies structural equation modeling to analyze the direct, indirect, and total impacts of household and building characteristics on residential energy consumption. Results demonstrate that the direct impact of household characteristics on residential energy consumption is significantly smaller than the corresponding impact from the buildings. However, accounting for the indirect impact of household characteristics on energy consumption, through choice of the housing unit characteristics, the total impact of households on energy consumption is just slightly smaller than that of buildings. Outcomes of this paper call for smart policies to incorporate housing choice processes in managing residential energy consumption. - Highlights: • Households indirectly influence residential energy use through housing choice. • Households' total impact on energy use is comparable to that of buildings. • Understanding households' indirect impact will enhance residential energy policy. • Smart energy policies are needed to target both direct and indirect effects

  4. Indoor Noise Loading in Residential Prefabricated Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michal; Juhásová Šenitková, Ingrid

    2017-10-01

    Quality on indoor environment is among others also defined by an acoustic comfort and noise emissions. The indoor noise loading in the residential prefabricated buildings is specific problem related to structural design of these buildings. Problems with noise level of sanitary systems are mostly associated with hydraulic shock such as water distribution and sewage drainage. Another very common cause of excessive noise is also flushing the toilet or water fall on enamelled steel (bath or shower). This paper aims to analyse the acoustic properties in the residential prefabricated buildings. Sanitary core of the assessed apartment is in original condition without any alterations. The sanitary core is based on a formica (high-pressure laminate). The study discusses the maximum sound levels in the three assessed rooms for the three different noise sources. The values of maximum noise level are measured for the corridor, bedroom and living room. Sources of noise are common activities relating to the operation of sanitary core - the toilet flush in the toilet, falling water from the shower in the bathroom and the water falling on the bottom of the kitchen sink in the kitchen. Other sources of noise are eliminated or minimized during the experiment. The digital sound level meter Testo 815 is used for measurements. The measured values of maximum sound level LA,max [dB] are adjusted by the correction coefficient. The obtained values are compared with the hygienic limits for day and night period. Night hygienic limit (30 dB) is exceeded in all the rooms for all noise sources. This limit is exceeded from 17 to 73%. The values in the bedroom and the living room meet the daily hygienic limit (40 dB). The daily limit is exceeded only in the corridor. The highest values of noise are identified for the toilet flushing.

  5. The Structure of the Nucleon and its Excited States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    None

    1995-01-01

    The past year has been an exciting and productive one for particle physics research at Abilene Christian University. The thrust of our experimental investigations is the study of the nucleon and its excited states. Laboratories where these investigations are presently being conducted are the AGS at Brookhaven, Fermilab and LAMPF. Some analysis of the data for experiments at the Petersburg Nuclear Physics Institute (Gatchina, Russia) is still in progress. Scheduling of activities at different laboratories inevitably leads to occasional conflicts. This likelihood is increased by the present budget uncertainties at the laboratories that make long-term scheduling difficult. For the most part, the investigators have been able to avoid such conflicts. Only one experiment received beam time in 1994 (E890 at the AGS). The situation for 1995-1996 also appears manageable at this point. E890 and another AGS experiment (E909) will run through May, 1995. El 178 at LAMPF is presently scheduled for August/September 1995. E866 at Fermilab is scheduled to start in Spring/Summer 1996. Undergraduate student involvement has been a key element in this research contract since its inception. Summer students participated at all of the above laboratories in 1994 and the same is planned in 1995. A transition to greater involvement by graduate students will provide cohesiveness to ACU involvement at a given laboratory and full-time on-site involvement in the longer running experiments at FNAL and BNL. Funds to support a full-time graduate student are requested this year. Finally, collaboration by Russian, Croatian and Bosnian scientists has proven to be mutually beneficial to these experimental programs and to the overall programs at the institutions involved. Past support has been augmented by other grants from government agencies and from the Research Council at Abilene Christian University. Additional funds are requested in this renewal to enable more programmatic support for these

  6. Structure of the Nanobody-Stabilized Active State of the Kappa Opioid Receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Tao; Majumdar, Susruta; Zaidi, Saheem A; Ondachi, Pauline; McCorvy, John D; Wang, Sheng; Mosier, Philip D; Uprety, Rajendra; Vardy, Eyal; Krumm, Brian E; Han, Gye Won; Lee, Ming-Yue; Pardon, Els; Steyaert, Jan; Huang, Xi-Ping; Strachan, Ryan T; Tribo, Alexandra R; Pasternak, Gavril W; Carroll, F Ivy; Stevens, Raymond C; Cherezov, Vadim; Katritch, Vsevolod; Wacker, Daniel; Roth, Bryan L

    2018-01-11

    The κ-opioid receptor (KOP) mediates the actions of opioids with hallucinogenic, dysphoric, and analgesic activities. The design of KOP analgesics devoid of hallucinatory and dysphoric effects has been hindered by an incomplete structural and mechanistic understanding of KOP agonist actions. Here, we provide a crystal structure of human KOP in complex with the potent epoxymorphinan opioid agonist MP1104 and an active-state-stabilizing nanobody. Comparisons between inactive- and active-state opioid receptor structures reveal substantial conformational changes in the binding pocket and intracellular and extracellular regions. Extensive structural analysis and experimental validation illuminate key residues that propagate larger-scale structural rearrangements and transducer binding that, collectively, elucidate the structural determinants of KOP pharmacology, function, and biased signaling. These molecular insights promise to accelerate the structure-guided design of safer and more effective κ-opioid receptor therapeutics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. A risk assessment for crude oil in residential surface soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, M.J.; Miller, C.J.; Custance, S.R.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the discovery of crude oil residues in residential soils is occurring with increasing frequency as property previously owned by the petroleum industry is sold and developed for housing. Many states have adopted action levels for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in soil for the purpose of discerning those sites requiring remediation and/or monitoring. Many states are known to have action levels consisting of a single concentration value which may carry from 10 to 100 ppm TPH. Other states incorporate a range of action levels for addressing site-specific needs; values range from 10 to 1000 ppm TPH for gasoline in soils

  8. Photo-crystallography: from the structure towards the electron density of metastable states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Legrand, V [Laboratoire de Cristallographie et de Modelisation des Materiaux Mineraux et Biologiques, CNRS UMR 7036, UHP Nancy 1, Faculte des sciences, Boulevard des Aiguillettes, BP 239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France); Carbonera, C [Institut de Chimie de la Matiere Condensee de Bordeaux, UPR CNRS 9048, Universite de Bordeaux 1, Groupe de Sciences Moleculaires, 87 Avenue du Docteur Schweitzer, 33608 Pessac cedex (France); Pillet, S [Laboratoire de Cristallographie et de Modelisation des Materiaux Mineraux et Biologiques, CNRS UMR 7036, UHP Nancy 1, Faculte des sciences, Boulevard des Aiguillettes, BP 239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France); Souhassou, M [Laboratoire de Cristallographie et de Modelisation des Materiaux Mineraux et Biologiques, CNRS UMR 7036, UHP Nancy 1, Faculte des sciences, Boulevard des Aiguillettes, BP 239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France); Letard, J F [Institut de Chimie de la Matiere Condensee de Bordeaux, UPR CNRS 9048, Universite de Bordeaux 1, Groupe de Sciences Moleculaires, 87 Avenue du Docteur Schweitzer, 33608 Pessac cedex (France); Guionneau, P [Institut de Chimie de la Matiere Condensee de Bordeaux, UPR CNRS 9048, Universite de Bordeaux 1, Groupe de Sciences Moleculaires, 87 Avenue du Docteur Schweitzer, 33608 Pessac cedex (France); Lecomte, C [Laboratoire de Cristallographie et de Modelisation des Materiaux Mineraux et Biologiques, CNRS UMR 7036, UHP Nancy 1, Faculte des sciences, Boulevard des Aiguillettes, BP 239, 54506 Vandoeuvre-les-Nancy Cedex (France)

    2005-01-01

    A photo-crystallographic study of Fe(btr){sub 2}(NCS){sub 2}{center_dot}H{sub 2}O was performed in order to describe the modification of structures and charge densities on going from the ground low spin (LS) state to the metastable high spin (HS) state during the LIESST phenomenon at 15 K. Related photo-magnetic and spectroscopic measurements are also described. We show that at 15 K, the thermally quenched and photo-induced structures of the metastable HS state are identical. For comparison, we also derived the structure of the HS and LS states at 130 K in the hysteresis loop; the thermal spin transition and the LIESST spin transition exhibit similar structural behaviours.

  9. Advanced fusion welding processes, solid state joining and a successful marriage. [production of aerospace structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, F. R.

    1972-01-01

    Joining processes for aerospace systems combine fusion welding and solid state joining during production of metal structures. Detailed characteristics of electron beam welding, plasma arc welding, diffusion welding, inertia welding and weldbond processes are discussed.

  10. Structural oxidation state studies of the manganese cluster in the oxygen evolving complex of photosystem II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liang, Wenchuan [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1994-11-01

    X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) was performed on Photosystem II (PSII)-enriched membranes prepared from spinach to explore: (1) the correlation between structure and magnetic spin state of the Mn cluster in the oxygen evolving complex (OEC) in the S2 state; and (2) the oxidation state changes of the Mn cluster in the flash-induced S-states. The structure of the Mn cluster in the S2 state with the g~4 electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) signal (S2-g4 state) was compared with that in the S2 state with multiline signal (S2-MLS state) and the S1 state. The S2-g4 state has a higher XAS inflection point energy than that of the S1 state, indicating the oxidation of Mn in the advance from the S1 to the S2-g4 state. Differences in the edge shape and in the extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) show that the structure of the Mn cluster in the S2-g4 state is different from that in the S2-MLS or the S1 state. In the S2-g4 state, the second shell of backscatterers from the Mn absorber contains two Mn-Mn distances of 2.73 Å and 2.85 Å. Very little distance disorder exists in the second shell of the S1 or S2-MLS states. The third shell of the S2-g4 state at about 3.3 Å also contains increased heterogeneity relative to that of the S2-MLS or the S1 state. Various S-states were prepared at room-temperature by saturating, single-turnover flashes. The flash-dependent oscillation in the amplitude of the MLS was used to characterize the S-state composition and to construct "pure" S-state Mn K-edge spectra. The edge position shifts to higher energy by 1.8 eV upon the S1 → S2 transition.

  11. Residential Electricity Consumption in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Ropuszyńska-Surma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Key factors influencing electricity consumption in the residential sector in Poland have been identified. A fixed-effects model was used, which includes time effects, and a set of covariates, based on the model developed by Houthakker et al. This model estimates electricity demand by using lagged values of the dependent variable along with current and lagged values of electricity prices, and other variables that affect electricity demand such as: population, economic growth, income per capita, price of related goods, etc. The model has been identified according to the research results of the authors and those obtained by Bentzen and Engsted. The set of covariates was extended to the lagged electricity price given by a tariff (taken from two years previous to the time of interest and heating degree days index, a very important factor in European Union countries, where the climate is temperate. The authors propose four models of residential electricity demand, for which a confidence interval of 95% has been assumed. Estimation was based on Polish quarterly data for the years 2003-2013. (original abstract

  12. Residential ventilation standards scoping study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, Thomas E.; Sherman, Max H.

    2003-10-01

    The goals of this scoping study are to identify research needed to develop improved ventilation standards for California's Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards. The 2008 Title 24 Standards are the primary target for the outcome of this research, but this scoping study is not limited to that timeframe. We prepared this scoping study to provide the California Energy Commission with broad and flexible options for developing a research plan to advance the standards. This document presents the findings of a scoping study commissioned by the Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) program of the California Energy Commission to determine what research is necessary to develop new residential ventilation requirements for California. This study is one of three companion efforts needed to complete the job of determining the ventilation needs of California residences, determining the bases for setting residential ventilation requirements, and determining appropriate ventilation technologies to meet these needs and requirements in an energy efficient manner. Rather than providing research results, this scoping study identifies important research questions along with the level of effort necessary to address these questions and the costs, risks, and benefits of pursuing alternative research questions. In approaching these questions and corresponding levels of effort, feasibility and timing were important considerations. The Commission has specified Summer 2005 as the latest date for completing this research in time to update the 2008 version of California's Energy Code (Title 24).

  13. Isospin quantum number and structure of the excited states in halo nuclei. Halo-isomers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izosimov, I.N.

    2015-01-01

    It has been shown that isobar-analog (IAS), double isobar-analog (DIAS), configuration (CS), and double configuration states (DCS) can simultaneously have n-n, n-p, and p-p halo components in their wave functions. Differences in halo structure of the excited and ground states can result in the formation of isomers (halo-isomers). Both the Borromean and tango halo types can be observed for n-p configurations of atomic nuclei. The structure of the ground and excited states with different isospin quantum number in halo-like nuclei is discussed. B(Mλ) and B(Eλ) for γ-transitions in 6-8 Li, 8-10 Be, 8,10,11 B, 10-14 C, 13-17 N, 15-17,19 O, and 17 F are analyzed. Special attention is given to nuclei whose ground state does not exhibit halo structure, but the excited state may have one.

  14. Correlation between local structure and stability of supercooled liquid state in Zr-based metallic glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saida, Junji; Imafuku, Muneyuki; Sato, Shigeo; Sanada, Takashi; Matsubara, Eiichiro; Inoue, Akihisa

    2007-01-01

    The correlation between the local structure and stability of supercooled liquid state is investigated in the Zr 70 (Ni, Cu) 30 binary and Zr 70 Al 10 (Ni, Cu) 20 (numbers indicate at.%) ternary metallic glasses. The Zr 70 Ni 30 binary amorphous alloy with a low stability of supercooled liquid state has a tetragonal Zr 2 Ni-like local structure around Ni atom. Meanwhile, the Zr 70 Cu 30 binary metallic glass has a different local structure of tetragonal Zr 2 Cu, where we suggest the icosahedral local structure by the quasicrystallization behavior in addition of a very small amount of noble metals. The effect of Al addition on the local structure in the Zr-Ni alloy is also examined. We have investigated that the dominant local structure changes in the icosahedral-like structure from the tetragonal Zr 2 Ni-like local structure by the Al substitution with Ni accompanying with the significant stabilization of supercooled liquid state. It is concluded that the formation of icosahedral local structure contributes to the enhancement of stability of supercooled liquid state in the Zr-based alloys

  15. Structural Phenomenon of Cement-Based Composite Elements in Ultimate Limit State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Iskhakov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cement-based composite materials have minimum of two components, one of which has higher strength compared to the other. Such materials include concrete, reinforced concrete (RC, and ferrocement, applied in single- or two-layer RC elements. This paper discusses experimental and theoretical results, obtained by the authors in the recent three decades. The authors have payed attention to a structural phenomenon that many design features (parameters, properties, etc. at ultimate limit state (ULS of a structure are twice higher (or lower than at initial loading state. This phenomenon is evident at material properties, structures (or their elements, and static and/or dynamic structural response. The phenomenon is based on two ideas that were developed by first author: quasi-isotropic state of a structure at ULS and minimax principle. This phenomenon is supported by experimental and theoretical results, obtained for various structures, like beams, frames, spatial structures, and structural joints under static or/and dynamic loadings. This study provides valuable indicators for experiments’ planning and estimation of structural state. The phenomenon provides additional equation(s for calculating parameters that are usually obtained experimentally and can lead to developing design concepts and RC theory, in which the number of empirical design coefficients will be minimal.

  16. Novel Structures for the Excess Electron State of the Water Hexamer and the Interaction Forces Governing the Structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.; Kim, J.; Lee, S.J.; Kim, K.S.

    1997-01-01

    The geometrical and electronic structures of partially hydrated electron systems, in particular, the water hexamer, which have been controversial for decades, have been clarified by an exhaustive search for possible low-lying energy structures. Several competing interaction forces governing the conformation have been examined for the first time. The low-lying energy structures are hybrid (or partially internal and partially surface) excess electron states. Our prediction is evidenced from excellent agreements with available experimental data. The vertical electron-detachment energies are mainly determined by the number of dangling H atoms (H d ) . copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  17. Structural and optical properties of solid-state synthesized Au dendritic structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentile, A.; Ruffino, F.; Romano, L.; Boninelli, S.; Reitano, R.; Piccitto, G.; Grimaldi, M.G.

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Au dendritic structures were produced on surfaces. • The chemical and structural properties of the dendritic structures are presented. • The optical properties of the dendritic structures are presented. • The ability of the dendritic structures to serve as light scattering centers is presented. - Abstract: Au dendrites (Au Ds) are synthesized, on various substrates, by a simple physical methodology involving the deposition of a thin Au film on a Si surface followed by thermal processes at high temperatures (>1273 K) in an inert ambient (N 2 ), using fast heating and cooling rates (1273 K/min). Microscopic analyses reveal the evolution, thanks to the thermal processes, of the Au film from a continuous coating to dendritic structures covering the entire sample surface. In particular, transmission electron microscopy analyses indicate that, below the Au surface, the dendritic structures consist of Si atoms originating from the substrate. Furthermore, optical characterizations reveal the ability of the Au Ds to serve as scattering centers in the infrared region. Finally, on the basis of the experimental observations, a phenomenological model for the growth of the Au Ds is proposed

  18. Determination of the Steady State Leakage Current in Structures with Ferroelectric Ceramic Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podgornyi, Yu. V.; Vorotilov, K. A.; Sigov, A. S.

    2018-03-01

    Steady state leakage currents have been investigated in capacitor structures with ferroelectric solgel films of lead zirconate titanate (PZT) formed on silicon substrates with a lower Pt electrode. It is established that Pt/PZT/Hg structures, regardless of the PZT film thickness, are characterized by the presence of a rectifying contact similar to p-n junction. The steady state leakage current in the forward direction increases with a decrease in the film thickness and is determined by the ferroelectric bulk conductivity.

  19. Secondary structure classification of amino-acid sequences using state-space modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Brunnert, Marcus; Krahnke, Tillmann; Urfer, Wolfgang

    2001-01-01

    The secondary structure classification of amino acid sequences can be carried out by a statistical analysis of sequence and structure data using state-space models. Aiming at this classification, a modified filter algorithm programmed in S is applied to data of three proteins. The application leads to correct classifications of two proteins even when using relatively simple estimation methods for the parameters of the state-space models. Furthermore, it has been shown that the assumed initial...

  20. Integration of motor traffic in residential areas.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    In stead of banning the cars from residential areas, the plan is to integrate them in such a way that they can still be used, but that they will loose their predominant position. The areas where this integration is to take place are called residential yards. This paper concentrates on the lighting

  1. Therapeutic Residential Care for Children and Youth:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whittaker, James K.; Holmes, Lisa; del Valle, Jorge F.

    2016-01-01

    so in closer collaboration with their families and in closer proximity to their home communities; and, (3) with the hope of reducing the high costs often associated with group residential provision. In some jurisdictions, efforts to reduce residential care resources in the absence of sufficient...... alternatives to serve high-resource needing youth has had unintended and negative consequences. It is within this context that a working group international experts representing research, policy, service delivery and families (International Work Group for Therapeutic Residential Care) convened at the Centre...... for Child and Family Research, Loughborough University in the U.K. for a Summit meeting on therapeutic residential care for children and youth funded by the Sir Halley Stewart Trust (UK). The focus centered on what is known about therapeutic residential care and what key questions should inform a priority...

  2. Influence of the atomic structure on the quantum state of sputtered Ir atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bastiaansen, J.; Philipsen, V.; Lievens, P.; Silverans, R.E.; Vandeweert, E.

    2004-01-01

    The probability of the ejection of a neutral atom in a specific quantum state after keV-ion beam sputtering is often interpreted in terms of the interaction between the atomic states of the escaping atom and the electronic states of the solid. In this work, we examined this interplay in the sputtering of iridium as this element has--unlike the elements employed in previous investigations--a complex atomic structure due to strong configuration interactions. Double-resonant two-photon laser ionization is used to probe the sputtered Ir atoms yielding information about the probability for an ejected atom to populate a specific atomic state and its escape velocity. The qualitative features of the corresponding population partition and state-selective velocity distributions show the influence of the excitation energy and the electronic structure of the different atomic states. A comparison is made between the experimental data and predictions from the resonant electron transfer description

  3. Structure of a nanobody-stabilized active state of the β(2) adrenoceptor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Søren Gøgsig Faarup; Choi, Hee-Jung; Fung, Juan Jose

    2011-01-01

    to the inherent instability of this state in the absence of a G protein. We generated a camelid antibody fragment (nanobody) to the human β(2) adrenergic receptor (β(2)AR) that exhibits G protein-like behaviour, and obtained an agonist-bound, active-state crystal structure of the receptor-nanobody complex...

  4. Structural Location and Reputed Influence in State Reading Policy Issue Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Tamara V.; Lewis, Wayne D.; Sanders, Marla S.

    2010-01-01

    Using data about collaborative relationships among 109 reading policy actors from four states, this study investigated the extent to which social capital, operationalized as spanning structural holes, predicted a policy actor's reputed influence. Regression analysis showed that after controlling for state, centrality, and government entity, having…

  5. Structure and management of tuberculosis control programs in fragile states--Afghanistan, DR Congo, Haiti, Somalia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mauch, Verena; Weil, Diana; Munim, Aayid; Boillot, Francois; Coninx, Rudi; Huseynova, Sevil; Powell, Clydette; Seita, Akihiro; Wembanyama, Henriette; van den Hof, Susan

    2010-01-01

    Health care delivery is particularly problematic in fragile states often connected with increased incidence of communicable diseases, among them tuberculosis. This article draws upon experiences in tuberculosis control in four fragile states from which four lessons learned were derived. A structured

  6. Analysis of Management Practices in Lagos State Tertiary Institutions through Total Quality Management Structural Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    AbdulAzeez, Abbas Tunde

    2016-01-01

    This research investigated total quality management practices and quality teacher education in public tertiary institutions in Lagos State. The study was therefore designed to analyse management practices in Lagos state tertiary institutions through total quality management structural framework. The selected public tertiary institutions in Lagos…

  7. A study of structure of phenomenology of consciousness in meditative and non-meditative states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatesh, S; Raju, T R; Shivani, Y; Tompkins, G; Meti, B L

    1997-04-01

    Twelve senior Kundalini (Chakra) meditators were assessed during meditation session and non-meditation or control session using Phenomenology of Consciousness Inventory. The data has been analyzed using structural analysis to measure the altered state of consciousness and the identity state by comparing meditative state with non-meditative state. The structural analysis of pattern of consciousness during the meditative state revealed altered experience in perception (percentile rank PR = 90), meaning (PR = 82) and time sense (PR = 87), while positive affect dimension showed increased joy (PR = 73) and love (PR = 67). The imagery vividness (PR = 72), self-awareness (PR = 77), rationality (PR = 73) and arousal (PR = 69) were found to be structurally different from the ordinary state. With regards to identity state meditative experience was found to produce statistically significant changes in terms of intensity in meaning (P < 0.05), time sense (P < 0.05), joy (P < 0.05), love (P < 0.05) and state of awareness (P < 0.01). Our results indicate that long term practice of meditation appears to produce structural as well as intensity changes in phenomenological experiences of consciousness.

  8. Absence of quantized energy-states local diffusion in semiconductor quantum-dash structures

    KAUST Repository

    Tan, Cheeloon

    2010-01-01

    We present an analysis of InAs/InAlGaAs/InP quantum-dash structures utilizing different degrees of postgrowth-lattice-disordering. The observation of digital transitions among quantized states discards the origins of multiple excited states from a single group of dash ensembles.

  9. Key Residential Building Equipment Technologies for Control and Grid Support PART I (Residential)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Onar, Omer C [ORNL; DeVault, Robert C [ORNL

    2011-09-01

    Electrical energy consumption of the residential sector is a crucial area of research that has in the past primarily focused on increasing the efficiency of household devices such as water heaters, dishwashers, air conditioners, and clothes washer and dryer units. However, the focus of this research is shifting as objectives such as developing the smart grid and ensuring that the power system remains reliable come to the fore, along with the increasing need to reduce energy use and costs. Load research has started to focus on mechanisms to support the power system through demand reduction and/or reliability services. The power system relies on matching generation and load, and day-ahead and real-time energy markets capture most of this need. However, a separate set of grid services exist to address the discrepancies in load and generation arising from contingencies and operational mismatches, and to ensure that the transmission system is available for delivery of power from generation to load. Currently, these grid services are mostly provided by generation resources. The addition of renewable resources with their inherent variability can complicate the issue of power system reliability and lead to the increased need for grid services. Using load as a resource, through demand response programs, can fill the additional need for flexible resources and even reduce costly energy peaks. Loads have been shown to have response that is equal to or better than generation in some cases. Furthermore, price-incentivized demand response programs have been shown to reduce the peak energy requirements, thereby affecting the wholesale market efficiency and overall energy prices. The residential sector is not only the largest consumer of electrical energy in the United States, but also has the highest potential to provide demand reduction and power system support, as technological advancements in load control, sensor technologies, and communication are made. The prevailing loads

  10. Structural Distortion Stabilizing the Antiferromagnetic and Semiconducting Ground State of BaMn2As2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekkehard Krüger

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We report evidence that the experimentally found antiferromagnetic structure as well as the semiconducting ground state of BaMn 2 As 2 are caused by optimally-localized Wannier states of special symmetry existing at the Fermi level of BaMn 2 As 2 . In addition, we find that a (small tetragonal distortion of the crystal is required to stabilize the antiferromagnetic semiconducting state. To our knowledge, this distortion has not yet been established experimentally.

  11. Ground state structure of U2Mo: static and lattice dynamics study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, D.; Sahoo, B.D.; Joshi, K.D.; Kaushik, T.C.

    2016-01-01

    According to experimental reports, the ground state stable structure of U 2 Mo is tetragonal. However, various theoretical studies performed in past do not get tetragonal phase as the stable structure at ambient conditions. Therefore, the ground state structure of U 2 Mo is still unresolved. In an attempt to understand the ground state properties of this system, we have carried out first principle electronic band structure calculations. The structural stability analysis carried out using evolutionary structure search algorithm in conjunction with ab-inito method shows that a hexagonal structure (space group P6/mmm) is the lowest enthalpy structure at ambient condition and remains stable upto 200 GPa. The elastic and lattice dynamical stability further supports the stability of this phase at ambient condition. Further, using the 0 K calculations in conjunction with finite temperature corrections, we have derived the isotherm and shock adiabat (Hugoniot) of this material. Various equilibrium properties such as ambient pressure volume, bulk modulus, pressure derivative of bulk modulus etc. are derived from equation of state. (author)

  12. Determination of structure of oriented samples using two-dimensional solid state NMR techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin Hong; Harbison, G.S.

    1990-01-01

    One dimensional and two-dimensional MAS techniques can give detailed information about the structure and dynamics of oriented systems. We describe the application of such techniques to the liquid-crystalline polymer poly(p-phenyleneterphtalimide) (PPTA), and thence deduce the solid-state structure of the material. (author). 9 refs.; 6 figs

  13. Crystal structure and solid-state properties of discrete hexa cationic ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Subsequently, weight loss of 33% in two stages from 242 to 691◦C can be assigned to the decomposition of triazole ligands. 3.3 Description of the crystal structure. The solid-state structure of ZnT was unambiguously determined by the single crystal X-ray diffraction tech- nique (figures 2 and 3). Compound ZnT crystallizes in.

  14. Stress state of thin – walled member of the structure with operation damages under nonuniform loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В.В. Астанін

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available  The publication is dedicated to determining of stress state in particular the stress concentration factors for thin – walled members of the structures subject to nonuniform tension. A structure member has obtained the operation damage generation by corrosion and other causes.

  15. Steady-state response of periodically supported structures to a moving load

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Metrikine, A.V.; Wolfert, A.R.M.; Vrouwenvelder, A.C.W.M.

    1999-01-01

    Steady-state vibrations of periodically supported structures under a moving load are analytically investigated. The following three structures are considered: an overhead power line for a train, a long suspended bridge and a railway track. The study is based on the application of so-called

  16. Vibration Analysis of a Residential Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampaio Regina Augusta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the results of a study regarding vibration problems in a 17 storey residential building during pile driving in its vicinity. The structural design of the building was checked according to the Brazilian standards NBR6118 and NBR6123, and using commercial finite element software. An experimental analysis was also carried out using low frequency piezo-accelerometers attached to the building structure. Structure vibrations were recorded under ambient conditions. Four monitoring tests were performed on different days. The objective of the first monitoring test was an experimental modal analysis. To obtain de modal parameters, data was processed in the commercial software ARTEMIS employing two methods: the Stochastic Subspace Identification and the Frequency Domain Decomposition. Human comfort was investigated considering the International Standard ISO 2631. The Portuguese standard, NP2074, was also used as a reference, since it aims to limit the adverse effects of vibrations in structures caused by pile driving in the vicinity of the structure. The carried out experimental tests have shown that, according to ISO2301, the measure vibration levels are above the acceptance limits. However, velocity peaks are below the limits established by NP2074. It was concluded that, although the structure has adequate capacity to resist internal forces according to normative criteria, it has low horizontal stiffness, which could be verified by observing the vibration frequencies and mode shapes obtained with the finite element models, and its similarity with the experimental results. Thus, the analyses indicate the occurrence of discomfort by the residents.

  17. Bifurcation structure of localized states in the Lugiato-Lefever equation with anomalous dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra-Rivas, P.; Gomila, D.; Gelens, L.; Knobloch, E.

    2018-04-01

    The origin, stability, and bifurcation structure of different types of bright localized structures described by the Lugiato-Lefever equation are studied. This mean field model describes the nonlinear dynamics of light circulating in fiber cavities and microresonators. In the case of anomalous group velocity dispersion and low values of the intracavity phase detuning these bright states are organized in a homoclinic snaking bifurcation structure. We describe how this bifurcation structure is destroyed when the detuning is increased across a critical value, and determine how a bifurcation structure known as foliated snaking emerges.

  18. Water-mediated variability in the structure of relaxed-state haemoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaushal, Prem Singh; Sankaranarayanan, R.; Vijayan, M.

    2008-01-01

    Partial dehydration of high-salt horse methaemoglobin crystals tends to shift the structure from the R state to the R2 state, in agreement with previous observations that movements in the molecule resulting from changes in water content mimic those involved in protein action. The crystal structure of high-salt horse methaemoglobin has been determined at environmental relative humidities (r.h.) of 88, 79, 75 and 66%. The molecule is in the R state in the native and the r.h. 88% crystals. At r.h. 79%, the water content of the crystal is reduced and the molecule appears to move towards the R2 state. The crystals undergo a water-mediated transformation involving a doubling of one of the unit-cell parameters and an increase in water content when the environmental humidity is further reduced to r.h. 75%. The water content is now similar to that in the native crystals and the molecules are in the R state. The crystal structure at r.h. 66% is similar, but not identical, to that at r.h. 75%, but the solvent content is substantially reduced and the molecules have a quaternary structure that is in between those corresponding to the R and R2 states. Thus, variation in hydration leads to variation in the quaternary structure. Furthermore, partial dehydration appears to shift the structure from the R state to the R2 state. This observation is in agreement with the earlier conclusion that the changes in protein structure that accompany partial dehydration are similar to those that occur during protein action

  19. Urban BIPV in the new residential construction industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elzinga, D.

    2008-03-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 10 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at urban building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) in the new residential construction industry. The mission of the Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme is to enhance the international collaboration efforts which accelerate the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. The aim of Task 10 is stated as being to enhance the opportunities for wide-scale, solution-oriented application of photovoltaics in the urban environment. The report states that different types of building require different approaches to BIPV due to their associated varying dimensions and geometry. Several solutions are proposed to encourage the adoption and diffusion of BIPV by the new home residential building industry. These are divided into PV industry-based approaches and policy-based solutions. The former include end-customer focused policies, the identification of early adopters, the creation of product solutions that meet the needs of the building industry and standards and that the construction industry must be engaged in the design and planning stage of residential developments. Policy questions discussed include the provision of incentives, a planned approach to the demonstration of BIPV and the development of BIPV-specific policy.

  20. A taxonomy of state public health preparedness units: an empirical examination of organizational structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menachemi, Nir; Yeager, Valerie A; Duncan, W Jack; Katholi, Charles R; Ginter, Peter M

    2012-01-01

    State public health preparedness units (SPHPUs) were developed in response to federal funding to improve response to disasters: a responsibility that had not traditionally been within the purview of public health. The SPHPUs were created within the existing public health organizational structure, and their placement may have implications for how the unit functions, how communication takes place, and ultimately how well the key responsibilities are performed. This study empirically identifies a taxonomy of similarly structured SPHPUs and examines whether this structure is associated with state geographic, demographic, and threat-vulnerability characteristics. Data representing each SPHPU were extracted from publically available sources, including organizational charts and emergency preparedness plans for 2009. A cross-sectional segmentation analysis was conducted of variables representing structural attributes. Fifty state public health departments. Variables representing "span of control" and "hierarchal levels" were extracted from organizational charts. Structural "complexity" and "centralization" were extracted from state emergency preparedness documents and other secondary sources. On average, 6.6 people report to the same manager as the SPHPU director; 2.1 levels separate the SPHPU director from the state health officer; and a mean of 13.5 agencies collaborate with SPHPU during a disaster. Despite considerable variability in how SPHPUs had been structured, results of the cluster and principal component analysis identified 7 similarly structured groups. Neither the taxonomic groups nor the individual variables representing structure were found to be associated with state characteristics, including threat vulnerabilities. Our finding supports the hypothesis that SPHPUs are seemingly inadvertently (eg, not strategically) organized. This taxonomy provides the basis for which future research can examine how SPHPU structure relates to performance measures and

  1. Differential structural and resting state connectivity between insular subdivisions and other pain-related brain regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiech, K; Jbabdi, S; Lin, C S; Andersson, J; Tracey, I

    2014-10-01

    Functional neuroimaging studies suggest that the anterior, mid, and posterior division of the insula subserve different functions in the perception of pain. The anterior insula (AI) has predominantly been associated with cognitive-affective aspects of pain, while the mid and posterior divisions have been implicated in sensory-discriminative processing. We examined whether this functional segregation is paralleled by differences in (1) structural and (2) resting state connectivity and (3) in correlations with pain-relevant psychological traits. Analyses were restricted to the 3 insular subdivisions and other pain-related brain regions. Both type of analyses revealed largely overlapping results. The AI division was predominantly connected to the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (structural and resting state connectivity) and orbitofrontal cortex (structural connectivity). In contrast, the posterior insula showed strong connections to the primary somatosensory cortex (SI; structural connectivity) and secondary somatosensory cortex (SII; structural and resting state connectivity). The mid insula displayed a hybrid connectivity pattern with strong connections with the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, SII (structural and resting state connectivity) and SI (structural connectivity). Moreover, resting state connectivity revealed strong connectivity of all 3 subdivisions with the thalamus. On the behavioural level, AI structural connectivity was related to the individual degree of pain vigilance and awareness that showed a positive correlation with AI-amygdala connectivity and a negative correlation with AI-rostral anterior cingulate cortex connectivity. In sum, our findings show a differential structural and resting state connectivity for the anterior, mid, and posterior insula with other pain-relevant brain regions, which might at least partly explain their different functional profiles in pain processing. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All

  2. Helical quantum states in HgTe quantum dots with inverted band structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kai; Lou, Wen-Kai

    2011-05-20

    We investigate theoretically the electron states in HgTe quantum dots (QDs) with inverted band structures. In sharp contrast to conventional semiconductor quantum dots, the quantum states in the gap of the HgTe QD are fully spin-polarized and show ringlike density distributions near the boundary of the QD and spin-angular momentum locking. The persistent charge currents and magnetic moments, i.e., the Aharonov-Bohm effect, can be observed in such a QD structure. This feature offers us a practical way to detect these exotic ringlike edge states by using the SQUID technique.

  3. Structure of transition nuclei states in fermion dynamic-symmetry model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baktybaev, K.; Kojlyk, N.O.; Romankulov, K.

    2007-01-01

    In the paper collective structures of osmium heavy isotopes nucleons are studied. Results of diagonalization of SO(6) symmetric Hamiltonian of fermion-dynamical symmetry-model are comparing with results of other phenomenological methods such as Bohr-Mottelson model and interacting bosons model. For heavy osmium isotopes not only collective excitations spectral bands but also for probability of E2-electromagnet transition are which are compared with existing experimental data. It is revealed, that complexity of state structure for examined nuclei is related with competition and interweaving of rotation and vibration states and also more complicated states of γ instable nature

  4. Actual performance and economic feasibility of residential solar water heaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anhalt, J.

    1987-01-01

    Four residential solar water heaters currently available on the Brazilian market have been evaluated to their possible use for substituting the common electric shower head. The tests were carried out with the solar systems mounted side by side on an artificial roof. The hot water demand was simulated following a consumer profile which represents a Brazilian family with an income of seven minimum salaries. The data, which was collected automatically and presented in the form of graphs and tables, shows that an optimized solar water heater could save as much as 65% of the energy demand for residential water heating in the state of Sao Paulo. An economical study concludes that the installation and maintenance of such a solar system is feasible if long term financing is available. (author)

  5. The Impact of Legislative Factor in the Identity of Modern Residential Urban in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadhim Faris Dhumad

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Urban Residential has developed and changed in different periods of time with successive and gradual shifts, as it cast a shadow over the characterization of modern urbanism in Iraq. The semi-total absence of the governing legislation of urbanization as well as the weakness of the State's role of supervisory in addition to neglecting urban heritage contributed in offering a strange environment in relation to its traditional identity. That was increased by the pressure of the using urban environment as a result of the increasing of population as well as the growth of people’s needs. The research aims to provide an objective view for a mechanism of the application of urban legislation to monitor the implementation of the business relating to the urban structure in general and specifically the urban residential areas in order to preserve the traditional identity of the modern Iraqi city. For the purpose of treating the problem of research and to achieve its goals, the research supposes that the legislative system is based on a pyramid arrangement in its vocabulary, which is flexible in its application, and are drawn from objective reality, it can produce urban residential with local identity. The elements of the practical influential process of the legislative factor identified by the planning legislation, laws, regulations, controls and limitations, supervision and oversight. And then draw theoretical indicators which affect the urban environment, namely: proportionately, essence and appearance, construction and the sky line, the scale and size, bearings, cover-up, opening-up and containment through the study of a number of legislative irregularities in neighborhoods and residential areas that produced these indicators. For applying and testing these indicators practically, two selective neighborhoods in Al Rabeea'a District in Baghdad has been chosen and with a précised field survey the search findings are: the poverty of Urban elements

  6. Frequency Based Real-time Pricing for Residential Prosumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hambridge, Sarah Mabel

    stability in a free, competitive, market. Frequency based pricing is applied to secondary frequency control in this work, providing support at one to five minute time intervals. In Chapter 2, a frequency based pricing curve is designed as a preliminary study and the response of the prosumer is optimized for economic dispatch. In Chapter 3, a day-ahead schedule and real-time adjustment energy management framework is presented for the prosumer, creating a market structure similar to the existing energy market supervised by Independent System Operators (ISOs). Enabling technology, such as the solid state transformer (SST) is described for prosumer energy transactions, controlling power flow from the prosumer's energy cell to the grid or neighboring prosumer as an energy router. Experimental results are shown to demonstrate this capability. Additionally, the SST is capable of measuring the grid frequency. Lastly, a frequency based real-time hybrid electricity rate is presented in Chapter 4 and Chapter 5. Chapter 4 specializes in a single direction rate while Chapter 5 presents a bi-directional rate. A Time-of-use (TOU) rate is combined with the real-time frequency based price to lower energy bills for a residential prosumer with ESS, in agreement with the proposed day-ahead and real-time energy management framework. The cost to the ESS is also considered in this section. Linear programming and strategic rule based methods are utilized to find the lowest energy bill. As a result, prosumers can use ESS to balance the grid, reducing their bill as much per kWh as PV or DG under a TOU net-metering price scheme, while providing distributed frequency support to the grid authority. The variability of the frequency based rate is similar to variability in the stock market, which gives a sense of how prosumers will interact with variable prices in a system supported by The Energy Internet.

  7. Love, intimacy and sexuality in residential dementia care: A spousal perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roelofs, Tineke Sm; Luijkx, Katrien G; Embregts, Petri Jcm

    2017-01-01

    The experiences and needs of spouses of residential care facility residents with dementia, regarding friendship, love, intimacy, and sexuality were explored. Understanding of how spouses make sense of their experiences was pursued. Semi-structured interviews were held with nine spouses of people with dementia, living in high intensive 24-hour care units within residential care facilities. The results show that friendship, love, intimacy, and sexuality were still embedded in the couples' marital lives, but all in their own way. Changing roles and a shift in purpose of the relationship recurred. Although intimacy was found to be still important in the lives of spouses, emotional, and practical residential care facility barriers were experienced by the spouses, of which the absence of communication were most important. Our findings on the experiences of spouses with regard to intimacy and sexuality can help residential care facility staff and policymakers to recognize the needs of couples and take these into account.

  8. Parallel β-Sheet Structure of Alanine Tetrapeptide in the Solid State As Studied by Solid-State NMR Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakura, Tetsuo; Horiguchi, Kumiko; Aoki, Akihiro; Tasei, Yugo; Naito, Akira

    2016-09-01

    The structural analysis of alanine oligopeptides is important for understanding the crystalline region in silks from spiders and wild silkworms and also the mechanism of cellular toxicity of human diseases arising from expansion in polyalanine sequences. The atomic-level structures of alanine tripeptide and tetrapeptide with antiparallel β-sheet structures (AP-Ala3 and AP-Ala4, respectively) together with alanine tripeptide with parallel β-sheet structures (P-Ala3) have been determined, but alanine tetrapeptide with a parallel β-sheet structure (P-Ala4) has not been reported yet. In this article, first, we established the preparation protocol of P-Ala4 from more stable AP-Ala4. Second, complete assignments of the (13)C, (15)N, and (1)H solid-state NMR spectra were performed with (13)C- and (15)N-labeled Ala4 samples using several solid-state NMR techniques. Then, the structural constraints were obtained, for example, the amide proton peaks of P-Ala4 in the (1)H double-quantum magic-angle spinning NMR spectrum were heavily overlapped and observed at about 7.4 ppm, which was a much higher field than that of 8.7-9.1 ppm observed for AP-Ala4, indicating that the intermolecular hydrogen-bond lengths across strands (N-H···O═C) were considerably longer for P-Ala4, that is, 2.21-2.34 Å, than those reported for AP-Ala4, that is, 1.8-1.9 Å. The structural model was proposed for P-Ala4 by NMR results and MD calculations.

  9. US residential energy demand and energy efficiency: A stochastic demand frontier approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippini, Massimo; Hunt, Lester C.

    2012-01-01

    This paper estimates a US frontier residential aggregate energy demand function using panel data for 48 ‘states’ over the period 1995 to 2007 using stochastic frontier analysis (SFA). Utilizing an econometric energy demand model, the (in)efficiency of each state is modeled and it is argued that this represents a measure of the inefficient use of residential energy in each state (i.e. ‘waste energy’). This underlying efficiency for the US is therefore observed for each state as well as the relative efficiency across the states. Moreover, the analysis suggests that energy intensity is not necessarily a good indicator of energy efficiency, whereas by controlling for a range of economic and other factors, the measure of energy efficiency obtained via this approach is. This is a novel approach to model residential energy demand and efficiency and it is arguably particularly relevant given current US energy policy discussions related to energy efficiency.

  10. Slurry dispersion state as a parameter to control internal structure of alumina green compact

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, M.; Shui, A.; Tanaka, S.; Uchida, N.; Uematsu, K. [Nagaoka Univ. of Technology, Niigata (Japan)

    2002-07-01

    The dispersion state of slurry must be controlled to produce granules with appropriated properties for pressing. In this study dispersion state of alumina slurry is changed to form granules with different morphology, deformation property and packing density, and the influence on the internal structure of green compact are presented. Novel methods applying liquid immersion technique coupled with different type of microscopy were used to characterize the internal structures of green compacts. Two types of granules were obtained: dimpled, hard and dense granule, and spherical, soft and loose granule. The respective internal structures of green compacts were totally different. (orig.)

  11. ANALYSIS OF THE FLORA OF RESIDENTIAL AND TECHNOGENIC AREAS OF GROZNY CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kh. Alikhadzhiev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The process of territorial expansion of the city is accompanied by intensive construction of industrial and social facilities, road network is actively developed, that leads to the transformation of natural vegetation, the appearance of manmade habitats which are actively colonized by segetal-ruderal species.Aim of the work is inventory of flora of disturbed habitats and the study of its current state, identify the taxonomic composition of phytocenoses.Field works were carried with help of route-floristic method in different growing seasons 2010-2012., technogenic and residential area of the city were studied.According to research a list of vascular plants of disturbed habitats numbering 237 species was compiled. Biomorphological and geographic structure is showed, adventive and indigenous flora fraction is determined.

  12. An Energy-Based Limit State Function for Estimation of Structural Reliability in Shock Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Guthrie

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available limit state function is developed for the estimation of structural reliability in shock environments. This limit state function uses peak modal strain energies to characterize environmental severity and modal strain energies at failure to characterize the structural capacity. The Hasofer-Lind reliability index is briefly reviewed and its computation for the energy-based limit state function is discussed. Applications to two degree of freedom mass-spring systems and to a simple finite element model are considered. For these examples, computation of the reliability index requires little effort beyond a modal analysis, but still accounts for relevant uncertainties in both the structure and environment. For both examples, the reliability index is observed to agree well with the results of Monte Carlo analysis. In situations where fast, qualitative comparison of several candidate designs is required, the reliability index based on the proposed limit state function provides an attractive metric which can be used to compare and control reliability.

  13. Internal structures of self-organized relaxed states and self-similar decay phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondoh, Yoshiomi

    1992-03-01

    A thought analysis on relaxation due to nonlinear processes is presented to lead to a set of general thoughts applicable to general nonlinear dynamical systems for finding out internal structures of the self-organized relaxed state without using 'invariant'. Three applications of the set of general thoughts to energy relaxations in resistive MHD plasmas, incompressible viscous fluids, and incompressible viscous MHD fluids are shown to lead to the internal structures of the self-organized relaxed states. It is shown that all of the relaxed states in these three dynamical systems are followed by self-similar decay phase without significant change of the spatial structure. The well known relaxed state of ∇ x B = ±λ B is shown to be derived generally in the low β plasma limit. (author)

  14. Community pharmacists as educators in Danish residential facilities: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mygind, Anna; El-Souri, Mira; Pultz, Kirsten; Rossing, Charlotte; Thomsen, Linda A

    2017-08-01

    To explore experiences with engaging community pharmacists in educational programmes on quality and safety in medication handling in residential facilities for the disabled. A secondary analysis of data from two Danish intervention studies where community pharmacists were engaged in educational programmes. Data included 10 semi-structured interviews with staff, five semi-structured interviews and three open-ended questionnaires with residential facility managers, and five open-ended questionnaires to community pharmacists. Data were thematically coded to identify key points pertaining to the themes 'pharmacists as educators' and 'perceived effects of engaging pharmacists in competence development'. As educators, pharmacists were successful as medicines experts. Some pharmacists experienced pedagogical challenges. Previous teaching experience and obtained knowledge of the local residential facility before teaching often provided sufficient pedagogical skills and tailored teaching to local needs. Effects of engaging community pharmacists included in most instances improved cooperation between residential facilities and community pharmacies through a trustful relationship and improved dialogue about the residents' medication. Other effects included a perception of improved patient safety, teaching skills and branding of the pharmacy. Community pharmacists provide a resource to engage in educational programmes on medication handling in residential facilities, which may facilitate improved cooperation between community pharmacies and residential facilities. However, development of pedagogical competences and understandings of local settings are prerequisites for facilities and pharmacists to experience the programmes as successful. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  15. Analysis of institutional mechanisms affecting residential and commercial buildings retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    Barriers to energy conservation in the residential and commercial sectors influence (1) the willingness of building occupants to modify their energy usage habits, and (2) the willingness of building owners/occupants to upgrade the thermal characteristics of the structures within which they live or work and the appliances which they use. The barriers that influence the willingness of building owners/occupants to modify the thermal efficiency characteristics of building structures and heating/cooling systems are discussed. This focus is further narrowed to include only those barriers that impede modifications to existing buildings, i.e., energy conservation retrofit activity. Eight barriers selected for their suitability for Federal action in the residential and commercial sectors and examined are: fuel pricing policies that in the short term do not provide enough incentive to invest in energy conservation; high finance cost; inability to evaluate contractor performance; inability to evaluate retrofit products; lack of well-integrated or one-stop marketing systems (referred to as lack of delivery systems); lack of precise or customized information; lack of sociological/psychological incentives; and use of the first-cost decision criterion (expanded to include short-term payback criterion for the commercial sector). The impacts of these barriers on energy conservation are separately assessed for the residential and commercial sectors.

  16. Residential electricity demand in Singapore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ang, B.W.; Goh, T.N.; Liu, X.Q.

    1992-01-01

    Residential electricity consumption in Singapore increased at a rate of 8.8% per year between 1972 and 1990. Estimates of the long-run income and price elasticities are 1.0 and -0.35, respectively. The energy-conservation campaigns that have been launched are found to have marginal effects on consumption. A statistical analysis shows that the consumption is sensitive to small changes in climatic variables, particularly the temperature, which is closely linked to the growing diffusion of electric appliances for environmental controls. There has been a temporal increase in the ownership levels of appliances associated with increasing household incomes. However, other factors were involved since the ownership levels would also increase over time after the elimination of the income effect. A large part of the future growth in electricity demand will arise from the growing need for air-conditioning, which will lead to increasingly large seasonal variations in electricity use. (author)

  17. Residential radon survey in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvela, H.; Maekelaeinen, I.; Castren, O.

    1993-02-01

    The study measured the indoor radon concentration in the dwellings of 3074 persons, selected randomly from the central population register of Finland. Alpha track detectors and two consecutive half year measuring periods were used. The national mean of indoor radon concentration for persons living in low-rise residential buildings as well as blocks of flats was 145 and 82 Bq/m 3 , respectively. The mean for the total population was 123 Bq/m 3 . Based on the decision of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health in 1992, the indoor radon concentration should not exceed 400 Bq/m 3 in already existing houses, the target for new construction being less than 200 Bq/m 3 . According to the study, the percentage of the Finnish population living in houses with an indoor radon concentration exceeding 200, 400 and 800 Bq/m 3 was 12.3 %, 3.6 % and 1.0 %

  18. Measuring Positive and Negative Occupational States (PNOSI: Structural Confirmation of a New Belgian Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marie Barbier

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on the validation of the Positive and Negative Occupational States Inventory (PNOSI, a new tool for measuring positive and negative occupational states. Three goals were defined: testing the structural validity of the PNOSI, testing its stability, and testing its convergent and discriminant validity with engagement, burnout, commitment, and workaholism. Data were collected in seven different companies (more than 16,000 participants. The factorial validity of the PNOSI was demonstrated using covariance structure analyses. A two-factor model with a negative occupational state factor and a positive occupational state factor fitted the data better than an alternative one-factor model. The two corresponding scales demonstrated good internal consistency. The results confirmed that positive and negative occupational states are distinct constructs and should be measured with different items. Convergent and discriminant validity with related constructs, namely engagement, burnout, commitment, and workaholism, were also demonstrated. The conclusion is that the PNOSI has good psychometric properties.

  19. Electronic structure and the mechanism of autoionization for doubly excited states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Komninos, Y.; Makri, N.; Nicolaides, C.A.

    1986-01-01

    Apart from pure phenomenology, the rigorous and quantitative study of many-electron autoionizing states presents intriguing questions as regards their structure and dynamics. In this paper we present an analysis of such states within a state specific theory with application to five low-lying doubly excited states (DES) of He. The zeroth order description is multiconfigurational and is obtained numerically at the MCHF level. In this way, major radial and angular correlations are accounted for accurately, and reliable predictions can be made without the requirement of large computations. The additional localized correlation is obtained by optimizing variationally analytic virtual orbitals. (orig./WL)

  20. Nature of the many-particle potential in the monatomic liquid state: Radial and angular structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clements, B.E.; Wallace, D.C.

    1999-01-01

    The atomic configurational order of random, symmetric, and crystalline states of sodium is investigated using molecular-dynamics simulations. Pair distribution functions are calculated for these states. Consistent with the liquid- and random-state energetics, we find that, by cooling, the liquid configurations evolve continuously to random-state structures. For sodium, the random pair distribution function has a split second peak characteristic of many amorphous materials and has the first subpeak exceeding the second subpeak. Experiments have shown this to be the case for amorphous Ni, Co, Cr, Fe, and Mn. A universal pair distribution function is identified for all random structures, as was hypothesized by liquid-dynamics theory. The peak widths of the random pair distribution function are considerably broader, even at very low temperatures, than those of the bcc and symmetric structures. No universal pair distribution function exists for symmetric structures. For low-temperature random, symmetric, and crystalline structures we determine average Voronoi coordination numbers, angular distributions between neighboring atomic triplets, and the number of Voronoi edges per face. Without exception the random and symmetric structures show very different trends for each of these properties. The universal nature of the random structures is also apparent in each property exhibited in the Voronoi polyhedra, unlike for the symmetric structures. Angles between neighboring Voronoi triplets common to random close-packing structures are favored by the random structures whereas those hinting at microcrystalline order are found for the symmetric structures. The distribution of Voronoi coordination numbers for both random and symmetric structures are peaked at 14 neighbors, but while the symmetric structures are essentially all 14, the random structures have nearly as many 13 and 15 neighbor polyhedra. The number of edges per face also shows a stark difference between the random and

  1. Unraveling the Solution-State Supramolecular Structures of Donor-Acceptor Polymers and their Influence on Solid-State Morphology and Charge-Transport Properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yu-Qing; Yao, Ze-Fan; Lei, Ting; Dou, Jin-Hu; Yang, Chi-Yuan; Zou, Lin; Meng, Xiangyi; Ma, Wei; Wang, Jie-Yu; Pei, Jian

    2017-11-01

    Polymer self-assembly in solution prior to film fabrication makes solution-state structures critical for their solid-state packing and optoelectronic properties. However, unraveling the solution-state supramolecular structures is challenging, not to mention establishing a clear relationship between the solution-state structure and the charge-transport properties in field-effect transistors. Here, for the first time, it is revealed that the thin-film morphology of a conjugated polymer inherits the features of its solution-state supramolecular structures. A "solution-state supramolecular structure control" strategy is proposed to increase the electron mobility of a benzodifurandione-based oligo(p-phenylene vinylene) (BDOPV)-based polymer. It is shown that the solution-state structures of the BDOPV-based conjugated polymer can be tuned such that it forms a 1D rod-like structure in good solvent and a 2D lamellar structure in poor solvent. By tuning the solution-state structure, films with high crystallinity and good interdomain connectivity are obtained. The electron mobility significantly increases from the original value of 1.8 to 3.2 cm 2 V -1 s -1 . This work demonstrates that "solution-state supramolecular structure" control is critical for understanding and optimization of the thin-film morphology and charge-transport properties of conjugated polymers. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Criteria of Architectural Composition Design in Residential Courtyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemeļniece, Aija; Īle, Una

    2017-10-01

    The totalitarian times of the 50s-80s of the 20th century have brought the building of high-rise residential blocks in Latvian cities, characterized by an uninteresting solution of standard buildings and the alien scale which does not meet the regional features. During the above period, areas of the residential courtyards have not been addressed. The conclusion of the research is that today the courtyards of the high-rise residential houses have become a stagnant, functionally irrelevant area that forms a depressing nature of the outdoor living space. The uncharted area of courtyards is not being used fully which highlights a wide range of issues that applies to car parks, recreation areas, and the green areas. With the development of the urban infrastructure, the creation of high-rise parking facilities and separate car parks are insufficiently addressed. Consequently, the implementation of improvements in courtyards of high-rise residential houses is not possible if the above issue on the removal of the car load from courtyards is not solved. Many building districts are characterized by the same compositional, architectural-spatial structure which even more influences and causes discomfort in these areas to stay. In recent years, the solution to the above issue is sought by the municipal authorities of Latvia to create a new courtyard zoning. It applies to the project development and construction works. In the research, courtyards of the city of Jelgava are analysed and evaluated which from the qualitative point of view demonstrates and is a vivid example where the issues of the research are readable. The city of Jelgava, located 45 km away from Riga, is an expressed satellite city and serves for the agglomeration of Riga as a huge high-rise residential district. Consequently, the research includes separate courtyards of high-rise residential buildings of the city of Jelgava and their study is carried out from the point of view of the architectural composition

  3. 12 CFR 541.23 - Residential real estate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Residential real estate. 541.23 Section 541.23... AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 541.23 Residential real estate. The terms residential real estate... home used in part for business); (c) Other real estate used for primarily residential purposes other...

  4. 12 CFR 541.16 - Improved residential real estate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Improved residential real estate. 541.16... REGULATIONS AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 541.16 Improved residential real estate. The term improved residential real estate means residential real estate containing offsite or other improvements...

  5. Structural transition, subgap states, and carrier transport in anion-engineered zinc oxynitride nanocrystalline films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xian, Fenglin; Ye, Jiandong; Gu, Shulin; Tan, Hark Hoe; Jagadish, Chennupati

    2016-01-01

    In this work, anion alloying is engineered in ZnON nanocrystalline films, and the resultant evolution of the structural transition, subgap states, and carrier transport is investigated. A broad distribution of sub-gap states above the valence band maximum is introduced by nitrogen due to the hybridization of N 2p and O 2p orbitals. The phase transition from partially amorphous states to full crystallinity occurs above a characteristic growth temperature of 100 °C, and the localized states are suppressed greatly due to the reduction of nitrogen composition. The electronic properties are dominated by grain boundary scattering and electron transport across boundary barriers through thermal activation at band edge states at high temperatures. The conductivity below 130 K exhibits a weak temperature dependence, which is a signature of variable-range hopping conduction between localized states introduced by nitrogen incorporation.

  6. Grassroots movement building and preemption in the campaign for residential fire sprinklers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertschuk, Mark; Hobart, Robin; Paloma, Marjorie; Larkin, Michelle A; Balbach, Edith D

    2013-10-01

    Home fires account for 85% of fire deaths in the United States, the majority in 1- or 2-family homes lacking fire sprinklers. Since 1978, however, a grassroots movement has successfully promoted more than 360 local ordinances mandating sprinklers in all new residential construction, including 1- and 2-family homes. The homebuilding industry has responded by seeking state preemption of local authority, a strategy previously used by other industries concerned about protecting their profits. From 2009 through 2011, 13 states adopted laws eliminating or limiting local authority over residential fire sprinklers. This study of the residential sprinkler movement adds to our understanding of grassroots public health movements and provides additional evidence that preemption can have a negative impact on public health and safety.

  7. Contribution of price/expenditure factors of residential energy consumption in China from 1993 to 2011: A decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zengming; Zhao, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Analysis about energy prices and the residential expenditure on energy in China. • Though the prices of energy declined, the price effect was negative. • The effect of price was the strongest restraining contribution. • Discussion on the proportion of energy expenditure in residential incomes. - Abstract: Since the establishment of the market economy in 1993, the residential consumption of commodities, including energy, has been highly influenced by prices in China. However, the contribution of the factors related to prices in residential energy consumption is relatively unexplored. This paper extends the KAYA identity with price and expenditure factors and then applies the LMDI method to a decomposition of residential energy consumption in China from 1993 to 2011. Our results show the following: (1) Though the prices of a majority of residential energy sources in China declined, the effect of energy prices restrained residential energy consumption because the expenditure structure changed during the period. (2) During the research period, the urban energy expenditure proportion experienced two progresses of rising and falling, and the rural proportion, which was stable before 2002, sharply increased. (3) The energy consumption intensity effect, which is the negative of the average energy price effect, contributed to most of the decrease in energy consumption, whereas residential income played a key role in the growth of consumption. According to the conclusions, we suggest further marketization and deregulation of energy prices, the promotion of advanced energy types and guidance for better energy consumption patterns

  8. Gyrotropic-nihility state in a composite ferrite-semiconductor structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tuz, Vladimir R

    2015-01-01

    Characteristics of the gyrotropic-nihility state are studied in a finely-stratified ferrite-semiconductor structure, which is under an action of an external static magnetic field. Investigations are carried out with the assistance of the effective medium theory, according to which the studied structure is approximated as a uniform gyroelectromagnetic medium. The theory of the gyrotropic-nihility state is developed in terms of the eigenwaves propagation in such gyroelectromagnetic medium. The frequency and angular dependencies of the transmittance, reflectance and absorption coefficient are presented. It turns out that in the frequency band around the frequency of gyrotropic-nihility state the studied structure appears to be matched to free space with both the refractive index and the wave impedance which results in its high transmittance almost in the entire range of angles of the electromagnetic wave incidence. (paper)

  9. An innovative educational program for residential energy efficiency. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laquatra, J.; Chi, P.S.K.

    1996-09-01

    Recognizing the importance of energy conservation, under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy, Cornell University conducted a research and demonstration project entitled An Innovative Educational Program for Residential Energy Efficiency. The research project examined the amount of residential energy that can be saved through changes in behavior and practices of household members. To encourage these changes, a workshop was offered to randomly-selected households in New York State. Two surveys were administered to household participants (Survey 1 and Survey 2, Appendix A) and a control group; and a manual was developed to convey many easy but effective ways to make a house more energy efficient (see Residential Manual, Appendix B). Implementing methods of energy efficiency will help reduce this country`s dependence on foreign energy sources and will also reduce the amount of money that is lost on inefficient energy use. Because Cornell Cooperative Extension operates as a component of the land-grant university system throughout the US, the results of this research project have been used to develop a program that can be implemented by the Cooperative Extension Service nationwide. The specific goals and objectives for this project will be outlined, the population and sample for the research will be described, and the instruments utilized for the survey will be explained. A description of the workshop and manual will also be discussed. This report will end with a summary of the results from this project and any observed changes and/or recommendations for future surveys pertaining to energy efficiency.

  10. Contemporary facades of multistorey residential buildings in Kiev: Videoecological aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlova Nataliia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to one of the actual problems concerning the current state of the facades on apartment buildings in residential districts in Kiev - videoecology. The main purpose of the article is to determine the degree of visual aggressiveness of multistorey residential buildings in Kiev. It also investigates the problem of finding the optimal criteria for creating an ecologically healthy and friendly inhabited environment in the capital city of Ukraine. The modern visual environment in the capital is contaminated, not only because of the increasing numbers of promotional billboards, but also because of the contemporary architecture of high-rise buildings such as office buildings, apartment buildings. Their composition is usually based on a simple description of a rhythm. There are also repetitions of the end parts of buildings in “lowercase” buildings, which are high-rise buildings that alternate with nine or identical apartment groups. It creates a sense of oppressive monotony and leads to psychological and visual fatigue, especially when these repetitions are the only pattern the eye perceives. In the article a theoretical block of ecological-aesthetic criteria is defined, which must be met by the modern architecture facades of multistorey residential houses in Kiev.

  11. Structure of states and reduced probabilities of electromagnetic transitions in 169Yb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonch-Osmolovskaya, N.A.; Morozov, V.A.; Khudajberdyev, Eh.N.

    1988-01-01

    The effect of accounting the Pauli principle on the structure and energy of nonrotational states of 169 Yb deformed nucleus as well as on reduced probabilities of E2-transitions B(E2) is studied within the framework of the quasiparticle-phonon model (QPM). The amplitudes of states mixing due to Coriolis interaction and reduced probabilities of gamma transition within the framework of nonadiabatic rotation model are also calculated. The results are compared with calculations made within QPM with account of Coriolis interaction but excluding the Pauli principle in the wave state function. It is shown that to describe correctly both the level structure and reduced probabilities B(E2) it is necessary to include all types of interaction : quasiparticle interaction with phonons with account of the Pauli principle in the wave state functions and Coriolis interactions. Now no uniform theoretical approach exists

  12. Optimal load scheduling in commercial and residential microgrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganji Tanha, Mohammad Mahdi

    Residential and commercial electricity customers use more than two third of the total energy consumed in the United States, representing a significant resource of demand response. Price-based demand response, which is in response to changes in electricity prices, represents the adjustments in load through optimal load scheduling (OLS). In this study, an efficient model for OLS is developed for residential and commercial microgrids which include aggregated loads in single-units and communal loads. Single unit loads which include fixed, adjustable and shiftable loads are controllable by the unit occupants. Communal loads which include pool pumps, elevators and central heating/cooling systems are shared among the units. In order to optimally schedule residential and commercial loads, a community-based optimal load scheduling (CBOLS) is proposed in this thesis. The CBOLS schedule considers hourly market prices, occupants' comfort level, and microgrid operation constraints. The CBOLS' objective in residential and commercial microgrids is the constrained minimization of the total cost of supplying the aggregator load, defined as the microgrid load minus the microgrid generation. This problem is represented by a large-scale mixed-integer optimization for supplying single-unit and communal loads. The Lagrangian relaxation methodology is used to relax the linking communal load constraint and decompose the independent single-unit functions into subproblems which can be solved in parallel. The optimal solution is acceptable if the aggregator load limit and the duality gap are within the bounds. If any of the proposed criteria is not satisfied, the Lagrangian multiplier will be updated and a new optimal load schedule will be regenerated until both constraints are satisfied. The proposed method is applied to several case studies and the results are presented for the Galvin Center load on the 16th floor of the IIT Tower in Chicago.

  13. Optimizing Hydronic System Performance in Residential Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, L.; Faakye, O.

    2013-10-01

    Even though new homes constructed with hydronic heat comprise only 3% of the market (US Census Bureau 2009), of the 115 million existing homes in the United States, almost 14 million of those homes (11%) are heated with steam or hot water systems according to 2009 US Census data. Therefore, improvements in hydronic system performance could result in significant energy savings in the US. When operating properly, the combination of a gas-fired condensing boiler with baseboard convectors and an indirect water heater is a viable option for high-efficiency residential space heating in cold climates. Based on previous research efforts, however, it is apparent that these types of systems are typically not designed and installed to achieve maximum efficiency. Furthermore, guidance on proper design and commissioning for heating contractors and energy consultants is hard to find and is not comprehensive. Through modeling and monitoring, CARB sought to determine the optimal combination(s) of components - pumps, high efficiency heat sources, plumbing configurations and controls - that result in the highest overall efficiency for a hydronic system when baseboard convectors are used as the heat emitter. The impact of variable-speed pumps on energy use and system performance was also investigated along with the effects of various control strategies and the introduction of thermal mass.

  14. Residential mobility, neighbourhood deprivation and children's behaviour in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Mavroveli, Stella; Midouhas, Emily

    2013-03-01

    Using data from the first two waves (in 2001/02 and 2004) of the UK's Millennium Cohort Study (MCS), we attempted to separate the effect of residential mobility from the effect of neighbourhood deprivation on children's emotional and behavioural problems. Our sample was 23,162 children (aged 3-16 years) clustered in 12,692 families. We measured neighbourhood deprivation with the Index of Multiple Deprivation, a measure of neighbourhood-level socio-economic disadvantage, and residential mobility as household move between waves. Being in a lower deprivation neighbourhood at Wave 1 was related to lower scores of both emotional and behavioural problems 2 years later, even after adjustment for child's age and sex, family adversity, family structure and maternal psychological distress. However, children whose families subsequently moved-even within or between lower deprivation neighbourhoods-were at higher risk of emotional and behavioural problems. Adjusting for family socio-economic disadvantage at Wave 1 explained the association of residential mobility with emotional but not with behavioural problems, which remained significant even after accounting for change in family's socio-economic disadvantage between waves. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Indoor Thermal Environment in Tropical Climate Residential Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamaludin Nazhatulzalkis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indoor thermal environment is one of the criteria in sustainable building. This criterion is important in ensuring a healthy indoor environment for the occupants. The consideration of environmental concerns at the early design stage would effectively integrate the sustainability of the building environment. Global climate changes such as global warming do affect human comfort since people spend most of their time and activities in the building. The increasing of urban population required additional housing for households, as well as places to shop, office and other facilities. Occupants are now more conscious the importance of sustainability for a better quality of life. Good thermal environment is essential for human wellness and comfort. A residential environment will influence residents’ health and safety. The global warming increase the earth’s temperature and greenhouse emission to the atmosphere cause adverse effects to the outdoor environment. Residential developments modify the materials, structure and energy balance in urban climate effects of human economic activities. As an indoor environment is influenced by the outdoor condition, the factors affecting indoor thermal environment are crucial in improving a comfortable and healthy environment in residential building. The microclimatic of a site such as temperature and relative humidity, and wind movement led to the variation of indoor thermal environment in the building.

  16. Residential Energy Use and Conservation. Economics, Demographics, and Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brounen, D. [Department of Financial Management, Erasmus University Rotterdam, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Kok, N. [Limburg Institute of Financial Economics LIFE, Maastricht University, Maastricht (Netherlands); Quigley, J.M. [Department of Economics, University of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-03-15

    Energy consumption in the residential sector offers an important opportunity for conserving resources. However, much of the current debate regarding energy efficiency in the housing market focuses on the physical and technical determinants of energy consumption, neglecting the role of the economic behavior of resident households. In this paper, we analyze the extent to which the use of gas and electricity is determined by the technical specifications of the dwelling as compared to the demographic characteristics of the occupying household, using a unique set of microeconomic data for a sample of more than 300,000 Dutch homes. The results show that residential gas consumption is determined principally by structural dwelling characteristics, such as the vintage, building type and quality of the home, while electricity consumption varies more directly with household composition, in particular income and family composition. Combining these results with projections on future economic and demographic trends, we find that, absent price increases for residential energy, the aging of the population and their increasing wealth will mostly offset improvements in the energy efficiency of the building stock resulting from policy interventions and natural revitalization.

  17. Development of Residential SOFC Cogeneration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Takashi; Miyachi, Itaru; Suzuki, Minoru; Higaki, Katsuki

    2011-06-01

    Since 2001 Kyocera has been developing 1kW class Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) for power generation system. We have developed a cell, stack, module and system. Since 2004, Kyocera and Osaka Gas Co., Ltd. have been developed SOFC residential co-generation system. From 2007, we took part in the "Demonstrative Research on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells" Project conducted by New Energy Foundation (NEF). Total 57 units of 0.7kW class SOFC cogeneration systems had been installed at residential houses. In spite of residential small power demand, the actual electric efficiency was about 40%(netAC,LHV), and high CO2 reduction performance was achieved by these systems. Hereafter, new joint development, Osaka Gas, Toyota Motors, Kyocera and Aisin Seiki, aims early commercialization of residential SOFC CHP system.

  18. Development of Residential SOFC Cogeneration System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Takashi; Miyachi, Itaru; Suzuki, Minoru; Higaki, Katsuki

    2011-01-01

    Since 2001 Kyocera has been developing 1kW class Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) for power generation system. We have developed a cell, stack, module and system. Since 2004, Kyocera and Osaka Gas Co., Ltd. have been developed SOFC residential co-generation system. From 2007, we took part in the 'Demonstrative Research on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells' Project conducted by New Energy Foundation (NEF). Total 57 units of 0.7kW class SOFC cogeneration systems had been installed at residential houses. In spite of residential small power demand, the actual electric efficiency was about 40%(netAC,LHV), and high CO2 reduction performance was achieved by these systems. Hereafter, new joint development, Osaka Gas, Toyota Motors, Kyocera and Aisin Seiki, aims early commercialization of residential SOFC CHP system.

  19. Forecasting residential electricity demand in provincial China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hua; Liu, Yanan; Gao, Yixuan; Hao, Yu; Ma, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Kan

    2017-03-01

    In China, more than 80% electricity comes from coal which dominates the CO2 emissions. Residential electricity demand forecasting plays a significant role in electricity infrastructure planning and energy policy designing, but it is challenging to make an accurate forecast for developing countries. This paper forecasts the provincial residential electricity consumption of China in the 13th Five-Year-Plan (2016-2020) period using panel data. To overcome the limitations of widely used predication models with unreliably prior knowledge on function forms, a robust piecewise linear model in reduced form is utilized to capture the non-deterministic relationship between income and residential electricity consumption. The forecast results suggest that the growth rates of developed provinces will slow down, while the less developed will be still in fast growing. The national residential electricity demand will increase at 6.6% annually during 2016-2020, and populous provinces such as Guangdong will be the main contributors to the increments.

  20. Influence of Macroeconomic Factors on Residential Property ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sultan

    exerted by macroeconomic factors on residential property returns in Abuja. The backward .... explanatory power and positive influence of employment and ...... Project. Management In Property Development: the Nigeria experience. Ibadan:.

  1. Plasma Processing of Model Residential Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerle, V. E.; Mossé, A. L.; Nikonchuk, A. N.; Ustimenko, A. B.; Baimuldin, R. V.

    2017-09-01

    The authors have tested the technology of processing of model residential solid waste. They have developed and created a pilot plasma unit based on a plasma chamber incinerator. The waste processing technology has been tested and prepared for commercialization.

  2. Multi-Center Electronic Structure Calculations for Plasma Equation of State

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, B G; Johnson, D D; Alam, A

    2010-12-14

    We report on an approach for computing electronic structure utilizing solid-state multi-center scattering techniques, but generalized to finite temperatures to model plasmas. This approach has the advantage of handling mixtures at a fundamental level without the imposition of ad hoc continuum lowering models, and incorporates bonding and charge exchange, as well as multi-center effects in the calculation of the continuum density of states.

  3. Data Structure Analysis to Represent Basic Models of Finite State Automation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Gurenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Complex system engineering based on the automaton models requires a reasoned data structure selection to implement them. The problem of automaton representation and data structure selection to be used in it has been understudied. Arbitrary data structure selection for automaton model software implementation leads to unnecessary computational burden and reduces the developed system efficiency. This article proposes an approach to the reasoned selection of data structures to represent finite algoristic automaton basic models and gives practical considerations based on it.Static and dynamic data structures are proposed for three main ways to assign Mealy and Moore automatons: a transition table, a matrix of coupling and a transition graph. A thirddimensional array, a rectangular matrix and a matrix of lists are the static structures. Dynamic structures are list-oriented structures: two-level and three-level Ayliff vectors and a multi-linked list. These structures allow us to store all required information about finite state automaton model components - characteristic set cardinalities and data of transition and output functions.A criterion system is proposed for data structure comparative evaluation in virtue of algorithmic features of automata theory problems. The criteria focused on capacitive and time computational complexity of operations performed in tasks such as equivalent automaton conversions, proving of automaton equivalence and isomorphism, and automaton minimization.A data structure comparative analysis based on the criterion system has done for both static and dynamic type. The analysis showed advantages of the third-dimensional array, matrix and two-level Ayliff vector. These are structures that assign automaton by transition table. For these structures an experiment was done to measure the execution time of automation operations included in criterion system.The analysis of experiment results showed that a dynamic structure - two

  4. Structural Vulnerability and Health: Latino Migrant Laborers in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quesada, James; Hart, Laurie K.; Bourgois, Philippe

    2011-01-01

    Latino immigrants in the United States constitute a paradigmatic case of a population group subject to structural violence. Their subordinated location in the global economy and their culturally depreciated status in the United States are exacerbated by legal persecution. Medical Anthropology Volume 30, issues 4 and 5, include a series of ethnographic analyses of the processes that render undocumented Latino immigrants structurally vulnerable to ill-health. We hope to extend the social science concept of ‘structural vulnerability’ to make it a useful tool for health care. Defined as a positionality that imposes physical/emotional suffering on specific population groups and individuals in patterned ways, structural vulnerability is a product of two complementary forces: (1) class-based economic exploitation and cultural, gender/sexual, and racialized discrimination; and (2) processes of symbolic violence and subjectivity formation that have increasingly legitimized punitive neoliberal discourses of individual unworthiness. PMID:21777121

  5. Structural, stratigraphic and hydrodynamic analysis of the Paleozoic section of central New York State

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willette, P.D.

    1979-01-01

    A structural, stratigraphic and hydrodynamic analysis of 12 formations in central New York State between longitudes 75 30' and 78 30' is presented in the form of structure, isopach and potentiometric-fluid flow maps. Information used in the study was obtained from 2804 wells drilled for gas and oil. New concepts, approaches or reinterpretations of ideas presented in previous studies include: evidence of Taconic orogenic features as far west as Rochester, structural control of Trenton gas fields, a new interpretation of Oriskany erosional features and Onondaga reef trends, and structurally controlled fluid-flow patterns. Because fluid flow is toward the water supply of major population centers and because of the likelihood of drilling for natural gas in the area, the Salina Formation in central New York State is not a good site for a high level radioactive waste repository

  6. Absence of residual structure in the intrinsically disordered regulatory protein CP12 in its reduced state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Launay, Hélène; Barré, Patrick [Laboratory of integrative Structural and Chemical Biology (iSCB), Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie de Marseille (CRCM), CNRS UMR 7258, INSERM U 1068, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Aix-Marseille Universités, Marseille 13009 (France); Puppo, Carine [Aix-Marseille Université, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UMR 7281, Laboratoire de Bioénergétique et Ingénierie des Protéines, 31 Chemin Joseph Aiguier, 13402, Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Manneville, Stéphanie [Laboratory of integrative Structural and Chemical Biology (iSCB), Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie de Marseille (CRCM), CNRS UMR 7258, INSERM U 1068, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Aix-Marseille Universités, Marseille 13009 (France); Gontero, Brigitte [Aix-Marseille Université, Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique, UMR 7281, Laboratoire de Bioénergétique et Ingénierie des Protéines, 31 Chemin Joseph Aiguier, 13402, Marseille Cedex 20 (France); Receveur-Bréchot, Véronique, E-mail: veronique.brechot@inserm.fr [Laboratory of integrative Structural and Chemical Biology (iSCB), Centre de Recherche en Cancérologie de Marseille (CRCM), CNRS UMR 7258, INSERM U 1068, Institut Paoli-Calmettes, Aix-Marseille Universités, Marseille 13009 (France)

    2016-08-12

    The redox switch protein CP12 is a key player of the regulation of the Benson–Calvin cycle. Its oxidation state is controlled by the formation/dissociation of two intramolecular disulphide bridges during the day/night cycle. CP12 was known to be globally intrinsically disordered on a large scale in its reduced state, while being partly ordered in the oxidised state. By combining Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Small Angle X-ray Scattering experiments, we showed that, contrary to secondary structure or disorder predictions, reduced CP12 is fully disordered, with no transient or local residual structure likely to be precursor of the structures identified in the oxidised active state and/or in the bound state with GAPDH or PRK. These results highlight the diversity of the mechanisms of regulation of conditionally disordered redox switches, and question the stability of oxidised CP12 scaffold. - Highlights: • CP12 is predicted to form two helices in its N-terminal sequence. • Reduced CP12 is disordered as a random coil according to SAXS. • Limited or no transient structures are observed in reduced CP12 by NMR.

  7. Absence of residual structure in the intrinsically disordered regulatory protein CP12 in its reduced state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Launay, Hélène; Barré, Patrick; Puppo, Carine; Manneville, Stéphanie; Gontero, Brigitte; Receveur-Bréchot, Véronique

    2016-01-01

    The redox switch protein CP12 is a key player of the regulation of the Benson–Calvin cycle. Its oxidation state is controlled by the formation/dissociation of two intramolecular disulphide bridges during the day/night cycle. CP12 was known to be globally intrinsically disordered on a large scale in its reduced state, while being partly ordered in the oxidised state. By combining Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and Small Angle X-ray Scattering experiments, we showed that, contrary to secondary structure or disorder predictions, reduced CP12 is fully disordered, with no transient or local residual structure likely to be precursor of the structures identified in the oxidised active state and/or in the bound state with GAPDH or PRK. These results highlight the diversity of the mechanisms of regulation of conditionally disordered redox switches, and question the stability of oxidised CP12 scaffold. - Highlights: • CP12 is predicted to form two helices in its N-terminal sequence. • Reduced CP12 is disordered as a random coil according to SAXS. • Limited or no transient structures are observed in reduced CP12 by NMR.

  8. Structurally-constrained relationships between cognitive states in the human brain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann M Hermundstad

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The anatomical connectivity of the human brain supports diverse patterns of correlated neural activity that are thought to underlie cognitive function. In a manner sensitive to underlying structural brain architecture, we examine the extent to which such patterns of correlated activity systematically vary across cognitive states. Anatomical white matter connectivity is compared with functional correlations in neural activity measured via blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD signals. Functional connectivity is separately measured at rest, during an attention task, and during a memory task. We assess these structural and functional measures within previously-identified resting-state functional networks, denoted task-positive and task-negative networks, that have been independently shown to be strongly anticorrelated at rest but also involve regions of the brain that routinely increase and decrease in activity during task-driven processes. We find that the density of anatomical connections within and between task-positive and task-negative networks is differentially related to strong, task-dependent correlations in neural activity. The space mapped out by the observed structure-function relationships is used to define a quantitative measure of separation between resting, attention, and memory states. We find that the degree of separation between states is related to both general measures of behavioral performance and relative differences in task-specific measures of attention versus memory performance. These findings suggest that the observed separation between cognitive states reflects underlying organizational principles of human brain structure and function.

  9. A toric varieties approach to geometrical structure of multi partite states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heydari, Hoshang

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the geometrical structures of multipartite states based on construction of toric varieties. In particular, we describe pure quantum systems in terms of affine toric varieties and projective embedding of these varieties in complex projective spaces. We show that a quantum system can be corresponds to a toric variety of a fan which is constructed by gluing together affine toric varieties of polytopes. Moreover, we show that the projective toric varieties are the spaces of separable multipartite quantum states. The construction is a generalization of the complex multi-projective Segre variety. Our construction suggests a systematic way of looking at the structures of multipartite quantum systems.

  10. Microscopical structure of the states of deformed nuclei in the neighborhood of the yrast line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janssen, D.; Mikhailov, I.N.

    1979-01-01

    A simple model is derived which allows one to study the structure of the nuclear states in the neighborhood of the 'yrast' band. In the present scheme the precession motion plays a role of one of the normal modes of oscillations. (The structure of the dispersion equation for this mode corresponds to the well known classical formula.) Vibrational states associated with quadrupole oscillations of the nuclear shape are determined from a general equation. At slow rotation this equation breaks up into the known equations for β-, Δ- and γ-vibrations and non-collectivized Ksup(π)=1 + excitations. (Auth.)

  11. A stochastic global identification framework for aerospace structures operating under varying flight states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopsaftopoulos, Fotis; Nardari, Raphael; Li, Yu-Hung; Chang, Fu-Kuo

    2018-01-01

    In this work, a novel data-based stochastic "global" identification framework is introduced for aerospace structures operating under varying flight states and uncertainty. In this context, the term "global" refers to the identification of a model that is capable of representing the structure under any admissible flight state based on data recorded from a sample of these states. The proposed framework is based on stochastic time-series models for representing the structural dynamics and aeroelastic response under multiple flight states, with each state characterized by several variables, such as the airspeed, angle of attack, altitude and temperature, forming a flight state vector. The method's cornerstone lies in the new class of Vector-dependent Functionally Pooled (VFP) models which allow the explicit analytical inclusion of the flight state vector into the model parameters and, hence, system dynamics. This is achieved via the use of functional data pooling techniques for optimally treating - as a single entity - the data records corresponding to the various flight states. In this proof-of-concept study the flight state vector is defined by two variables, namely the airspeed and angle of attack of the vehicle. The experimental evaluation and assessment is based on a prototype bio-inspired self-sensing composite wing that is subjected to a series of wind tunnel experiments under multiple flight states. Distributed micro-sensors in the form of stretchable sensor networks are embedded in the composite layup of the wing in order to provide the sensing capabilities. Experimental data collected from piezoelectric sensors are employed for the identification of a stochastic global VFP model via appropriate parameter estimation and model structure selection methods. The estimated VFP model parameters constitute two-dimensional functions of the flight state vector defined by the airspeed and angle of attack. The identified model is able to successfully represent the wing

  12. Limits on nonlocal correlations from the structure of the local state space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janotta, Peter; Gogolin, Christian; Barrett, Jonathan; Brunner, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    The outcomes of measurements on entangled quantum systems can be nonlocally correlated. However, while it is easy to write down toy theories allowing arbitrary nonlocal correlations, those allowed in quantum mechanics are limited. Quantum correlations cannot, for example, violate a principle known as macroscopic locality, which implies that they cannot violate Tsirelson's bound. This paper shows that there is a connection between the strength of nonlocal correlations in a physical theory and the structure of the state spaces of individual systems. This is illustrated by a family of models in which local state spaces are regular polygons, where a natural analogue of a maximally entangled state of two systems exists. We characterize the nonlocal correlations obtainable from such states. The family allows us to study the transition between classical, quantum and super-quantum correlations by varying only the local state space. We show that the strength of nonlocal correlations - in particular whether the maximally entangled state violates Tsirelson's bound or not-depends crucially on a simple geometric property of the local state space, known as strong self-duality. This result is seen to be a special case of a general theorem, which states that a broad class of entangled states in probabilistic theories-including, by extension, all bipartite classical and quantum states-cannot violate macroscopic locality. Finally, our results show that models exist that are locally almost indistinguishable from quantum mechanics, but can nevertheless generate maximally nonlocal correlations.

  13. Structural investigation of e-beam cured epoxy resins through solid state NMR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alessi, Sabina; Spinella, Alberto; Caponetti, Eugenio; Dispenza, Clelia; Spadaro, Giuseppe

    2012-01-01

    In this paper the network structure of e-beam cured DGEBF based epoxy resins is investigated. Two epoxy systems, having different reactivity and cured in different process conditions, were analyzed through solid state NMR spectroscopy. The analysis shows that the more reactive system has higher cross-linking density and higher uniformity of network distribution. Similar information were obtained, in a previous work, on the same systems through dynamic mechanical thermal analysis. It is worth noting that unlike DMTA tests, which interfere with the molecular structure of the analyzed material, due to the heating during the analysis itself, more reliable information, without any artefact, are obtained by solid state NMR, carried out at constant room temperature. - Highlights: ► The structure of two e-beam cured epoxy systems is investigated through solid state NMR. ► The aim is to have direct information about the structure without inducing modifications. ► The different molecular structures are able to emphasize the response of solid state NMR. ► T 1 H, T 1ρ H and T CH measurements indicate different cross-linking degrees. ► The NMR results are in agreement with DMTA analysis performed in a previous paper.

  14. Architectural design of passive solar residential building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Jing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies thermal environment of closed balconies that commonly exist in residential buildings, and designs a passive solar residential building. The design optimizes the architectural details of the house and passive utilization of solar energy to provide auxiliary heating for house in winter and cooling in summer. This design might provide a more sufficient and reasonable modification for microclimate in the house.

  15. Hyperfine structure of the S- and P-wave states of muonic deuterium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martynenko, A. P.; Martynenko, G. A.; Sorokin, V. V.; Faustov, R. N.

    2016-01-01

    Corrections of order α"5 and α"6 to the hyperfine structure of the S- and P-wave states of muonic deuteriumwere calculated on the basis of the quasipotential approach in quantum electrodynamics. Relativistic corrections, vacuum-polarization and deuteron-structure effects, and recoil corrections were taken into account in this calculation. The resulting hyperfine-splitting values can be used in a comparison with experimental data obtained by the CREMA Collaboration.

  16. Population structure age of Paraná state between 1970 and 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo de Pintor

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The theory of demographic transition began with an effort of Frank Notestein (1945 to understand the demographic changes that were occurring in Western Europe since the late nineteenth century. The demographic transition is the transition between two scenarios of population growth, which changes the age structure of the population. The aim of the article is to discuss the evolution of population structure age of Paraná state between 1970 and 2010. The changes in the age structure of the Paraná indicate a reduction in the share of young population and increasing aging population, an increase in the relative weight of the elderly population. Public policies on education, health, social security and labor market should consider the current change in the age structure. Thus, the aim of this study was to analyze the change in the age structure of the population of the state of Paraná. For this we used data Censuses of the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics (IBGE on the age distribution of urban and rural Paraná and its Mesoregions. It was concluded that the change in structure occurs group widespread in all Mesoregions state. However, it occurs unevenly between urban and rural population.

  17. Ioniclike energy structure of neutral core-excited states in free Kr clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peredkov, S.; Sorensen, S.L.; Kivimaeki, A.; Schulz, J.; Maartensson, N.; Oehrwall, G.; Lundwall, M.; Rander, T.; Lindblad, A.; Bergersen, H.; Svensson, S.; Bjoerneholm, O.; Tchaplyguine, M.

    2005-01-01

    The development of electronic states in krypton clusters is investigated by high-resolution core-level electron spectroscopy. The energy ordering of bulk versus surface 3d -1 np(n>5) core-excited states in neutral clusters is demonstrated to be reversed to the 3d -1 5p level situation. The cluster 3d -1 6p,7p states are proven to be at a lower energy than the corresponding atomic levels. These findings reveal the ioniclike energy structure of the neutral cluster core-excited levels. The phenomenon is explained by a spatial spread of the excited orbitals over the cluster lattice

  18. The 1986 residential occupant survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivey, D.L.; Alley, P.K.

    1987-04-01

    In 1986, Pacific Northwest Laboratory developed the Residential Occupant Survey-Spring '86, which was implemented. The overall purpose of the study was to collect demographic, attitudinal, and behavioral data related to the use and conservation of electricity in dwellings participating in the Bonneville Power Administration's End-Use Load and Conservation Assessment Program (ELCAP). Information was collected on the respondents' perceptions of the energy efficiency of their dwelling, temperature the dwelling was kept when people were at home and awake during the last heating season, which rooms, if any, were not heated during the last heating season, number of times the dwelling was unoccupied for at least one week, number of times pets were let out of the dwelling per day, attitudes toward energy use and conservation and several socio-demographic variables such as age, sex, and total household income. The results of the data analyses showed age to be an important factor for reported indoor temperature and perceived energy efficiency of the dwelling. The results also showed that almost 60% of the ELCAP occupants do not heat one or more rooms during the heating season, and almost 45% of the ELCAP dwellings were unoccupied for at least one week during the reporting period. In terms of the reported allocation of household income for household energy expenses, the results showed that the reported dollar amount spent for the expenses remained relatively constant over income levels.

  19. Residential energy consumption in urban China: A decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiaoli; Li Na; Ma, Chunbo

    2012-01-01

    Residential energy consumption (REC) is the second largest energy use category (10%) in China and urban residents account for 63% of the REC. Understanding the underlying drivers of variations of urban REC thus helps to identify challenges and opportunities and provide advices for future policy measures. This paper applies the LMDI method to a decomposition of China's urban REC during the period of 1998–2007 at disaggregated product/activity level using data collected from a wide range of sources. Our results have shown an extensive structure change towards a more energy-intensive household consumption structure as well as an intensive structure change towards high-quality and cleaner energy such as electricity, oil, and natural gas, which reflects a changing lifestyle and consumption mode in pursuit of a higher level of comfort, convenience and environmental protection. We have also found that China's price reforms in the energy sector have contributed to a reduction of REC while scale factors including increased urban population and income levels have played a key role in the rapid growth of REC. We suggest that further deregulation in energy prices and regulatory as well as voluntary energy efficiency and conservation policies in the residential sector should be promoted. - Highlights: ► We examine china's residential energy consumption (REC) at detailed product level. ► Results show significant extensive and intensive structure changed. ► Price deregulation in the energy sector has contributed a reduction of REC. ► Growth of population and income played a key role in REC rapid growth. ► We provide policy suggestions to promote REC saving.

  20. USING MAGNETIC MOMENTS TO UNVEIL THE NUCLEAR STRUCTURE OF LOW-SPIN NUCLEAR STATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego A. Torres

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The experimental study of magnetic moments for nuclear states near the ground state, I ≤ 2, provides a powerful tool to test nuclear structure models. Traditionally, the use of Coulomb excitation reactions has been used to study low spin states, mostly I = 2. The use of alternative reaction channels, such as α transfer, for the production of radioactive species that, otherwise, will be only produced in future radioactive beam facilities has proved to be an alternative to measure not only excited states with I > 2, but to populate and study long-live radioactive nuclei. This contribution will present the experimental tools and challenges for the use of the transient field technique for the measurement of g factors in nuclear states with I ≤ 2, using Coulomb excitation and α-transfer reactions. Recent examples of experimental results near the N = 50 shell closure, and the experimental challenges for future implementations with radioactive beams, will be discussed.

  1. On bipartite pure-state entanglement structure in terms of disentanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbut, Fedor

    2006-12-01

    Schrödinger's disentanglement [E. Schrödinger, Proc. Cambridge Philos. Soc. 31, 555 (1935)], i.e., remote state decomposition, as a physical way to study entanglement, is carried one step further with respect to previous work in investigating the qualitative side of entanglement in any bipartite state vector. Remote measurement (or, equivalently, remote orthogonal state decomposition) from previous work is generalized to remote linearly independent complete state decomposition both in the nonselective and the selective versions. The results are displayed in terms of commutative square diagrams, which show the power and beauty of the physical meaning of the (antiunitary) correlation operator inherent in the given bipartite state vector. This operator, together with the subsystem states (reduced density operators), constitutes the so-called correlated subsystem picture. It is the central part of the antilinear representation of a bipartite state vector, and it is a kind of core of its entanglement structure. The generalization of previously elaborated disentanglement expounded in this article is a synthesis of the antilinear representation of bipartite state vectors, which is reviewed, and the relevant results of [Cassinelli et al., J. Math. Anal. Appl. 210, 472 (1997)] in mathematical analysis, which are summed up. Linearly independent bases (finite or infinite) are shown to be almost as useful in some quantum mechanical studies as orthonormal ones. Finally, it is shown that linearly independent remote pure-state preparation carries the highest probability of occurrence. This singles out linearly independent remote influence from all possible ones.

  2. Brief Report: The Factor Structure of Mood States in an Early Adolescent Sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Christopher J.; Cunningham, Everarda G.; Moore, Susan M.

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the structure of negative mood states among young adolescents. Students (N=216) aged 11-15 years from a secondary school in Melbourne, Australia, completed the Depression, Anxiety, Stress Scales (DASS) [Lovibond, S. H., & Lovibond, P. F. (1996). "Depression anxiety stress scales." Sydney: The…

  3. Charge structure of the hadronic final state in deep-inelastic muon-nucleon scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arneodo, M.; Ferrero, M.I.; Peroni, C.; Beaufays, J.; Jacholkowska, A.; Kellner, G.; Osborne, A.M.; Bee, C.P.; Bird, I.; Coughlan, J.; Sloan, T.; Braun, H.; Brueck, H.; Drees, J.; Edwards, A.; Krueger, J.; Montgomery, H.E.; Peschel, H.; Pietrzyk, U.; Poetsch, M.; Schneider, A.; Combley, F.; Foster, J.; Whalley, M.; Wheeler, S.; Dreyer, T.; Ernst, T.; Haas, J.; Kabuss, E.M.; Landgraf, U.; Mohr, W.; Rith, K.; Schlagboehmer, A.; Schroeder, T.; Stier, H.E.; Wallucks, W.; Figiel, J.; Gajewski, J.; Janata, F.; Poensgen, B.; Schiemann, H.; Studt, M.; Torre, A. de la; Geddes, N.; Johnson, A.S.; Loken, J.; Long, K.; Renton, P.; Taylor, G.N.; Williams, W.S.C.; Grard, F.; Windmolders, R.

    1988-01-01

    The general charge properties of the hadronic final state produced in μ + p and μ + d interactions at 280 GeV are investigated. Quark charge retention and local charge compensation is observed. The ratio F 2 n /F 2 p of the neutron to proton structure function is derived from the measurement of the average hadronic charge in μd interactions. (orig.)

  4. System Identification of Civil Engineering Structures using State Space and ARMAV Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, P.; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning; Brincker, Rune

    In this paper the relations between an ambient excited structural system, represented by an innovation state space system, and the Auto-Regressive Moving Average Vector (ARMAV) model are considered. It is shown how to obtain a multivariate estimate of the ARMAV model from output measurements, usi...

  5. Ground state structures and properties of Si3Hn (n= 1–6) clusters

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The ground state structures and properties of Si3H (1 ≤ ≤ 6) clusters have been calculated using Car–Parrinello molecular dynamics with simulated annealing and steepest descent optimization methods. We have studied cohesive energy per particle and first excited electronic level gap of the clusters as a function of ...

  6. Brain Structure and Resting-State Functional Connectivity in University Professors with High Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Weiwei; Yang, Wenjing; Li, Wenfu; Li, Yadan; Wei, Dongtao; Li, Huimin; Qiu, Jiang; Zhang, Qinglin

    2015-01-01

    Creative persons play an important role in technical innovation and social progress. There is little research on the neural correlates with researchers with high academic achievement. We used a combined structural (regional gray matter volume, rGMV) and functional (resting-state functional connectivity analysis, rsFC) approach to examine the…

  7. CSL Model Checking Algorithms for Infinite-state Structured Markov chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Remke, Anne Katharina Ingrid; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.; Raskin, J.-F.; Thiagarajan, P.S.

    2007-01-01

    Jackson queueing networks (JQNs) are a very general class of queueing networks that find their application in a variety of settings. The state space of the continuous-time Markov chain (CTMC) that underlies such a JQN, is highly structured, however, of infinite size in as many dimensions as there

  8. Cost and return structure in sawmill industry in Ijebu Ode, Ogun state ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cost and return structure in sawmill industry in Ijebu Ode, Ogun state, Nigeria. ... The finding showed that 32.6% of the industries were retailers while 30.4% were wholesalers of timbers and both had regular supply of the products. The working capital among the timbers business was N3,641,905.6 and the average annual ...

  9. Occupational structure and socioeconomic inequality: a comparative study between Brazil and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Gori Maia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis paper explores how occupational structure is associated with economic inequality in Brazil in comparison to the United States. Changes in the Brazilian and American occupational structures between 1983 and 2011 are investigated in order to assess how closely they generate high socioeconomic inequalities. The effects of education, age, gender and race on occupational attainment are taken into account. Highlights of the results include: (1 a higher level of socioeconomic development in the American occupational structure, reflecting huge socioeconomic differences between these countries; (2 a tenuous convergence between the Brazilian and American occupational structures; (3 a significant decrease in the net impacts of education, age, gender and race on occupational attainment (i.e., reduced social stratification in both countries. These results suggest the analytical worth of considering occupational structure as a significant intermediate variable affecting the level of socioeconomic inequality within a country over time, as well as between two countries at a given point in time.

  10. Structure of B2O3 and alkali borates in glass-like and melted states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubkov, V.V.

    1992-01-01

    Structure of boron oxide and alkali-borate oxide and alkali-borate glasses and melts at temperatures up to 100 deg C was investigated using method of x-ray scattering at small angles (RSA). Specified and detailed concentration dependences were given for the main parameters of the structure: sizes of non-uniformity regions, values of surface interface, data of average square of difference of electron densities. Uppearance of ordered structures at sharp drop of temperature of B 2 O 3 sample was shown. Interference effects connected with this phenomenon significantly influence on value of RSA intensity in the field of small angles and correspondingly on light diffusion intensity. Conclusion on existence of structural differences between liquids and supercooled liquids was confirmed. Narrow temperature range of transition from one state to another esisted. Submicrononuniform structure of alkaliborate glasses wasn't connected with critical phenomenon. In the fields of non-uniformity 25-50% of alkali ions were concentrated

  11. Rotational and fine structure of open-shell molecules in nearly degenerate electronic states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jinjun

    2018-03-01

    An effective Hamiltonian without symmetry restriction has been developed to model the rotational and fine structure of two nearly degenerate electronic states of an open-shell molecule. In addition to the rotational Hamiltonian for an asymmetric top, this spectroscopic model includes the energy separation between the two states due to difference potential and zero-point energy difference, as well as the spin-orbit (SO), Coriolis, and electron spin-molecular rotation (SR) interactions. Hamiltonian matrices are computed using orbitally and fully symmetrized case (a) and case (b) basis sets. Intensity formulae and selection rules for rotational transitions between a pair of nearly degenerate states and a nondegenerate state have also been derived using all four basis sets. It is demonstrated using real examples of free radicals that the fine structure of a single electronic state can be simulated with either a SR tensor or a combination of SO and Coriolis constants. The related molecular constants can be determined precisely only when all interacting levels are simulated simultaneously. The present study suggests that analysis of rotational and fine structure can provide quantitative insights into vibronic interactions and related effects.

  12. Evaluation of DOE's Partnership in Low-Income Residential Retrofit (PILIRR) Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callaway, J.W.; Lee, A.D.

    1989-05-01

    In July 1986, the US Department of Energy (DOE) awarded competitive grants to five states to conduct pilot projects to establish partnerships and use resource leveraging to stimulate support for low-income residential energy retrofits. The projects were conducted under DOE's Partnerships in Low-Income Residential Retrofit (PILIRR) Program. These projects have been monitored and analyzed through a concurrent process evaluation conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). This study reports the findings of that evaluation. The overriding goal of the PILIRR Program was to determine whether the states could stimulate support for low-income residential energy improvements from non-federal sources. The goal for the process evaluation was to conduct an assessment of the processes used by the states and the extent to which they successfully established partnerships and leveraged resources. Five states were selected to participate in the program: Florida, Iowa, Kentucky, Oklahoma and Washington. Each state proposed a different approach to promote non-federal support for low-income residential weatherization. Three of the five states--Florida, Iowa, and Washington--established partnerships that led to retrofits during the monitoring period (October 1986--October 1988). Kentucky established its partnership during the monitoring period, but did not accomplish its retrofits until after monitoring was complete. Oklahoma completed development of its marketing program and had begun marketing efforts by the end of the monitoring period. 16 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  13. The World Bank and Fragile States: Dynamics of Cooperation and Aid Structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solomatin A.

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The eradication of extreme poverty in fragile states is one of the central problems of global governance at the present time. Development of these states is hindered by instability, weak public and social institutions or ongoing conflicts and violence. The World Bank is a key partner of fragile states, which account for almost a third of the world’s population. This article is a continuation of research exploring the evolution of conceptual and practical approaches by the World Bank to cooperation with fragile states. Its methodology is based on a multilevel analysis of the securitization of foreign aid as proposed by J. Lind and J. Howell of the London School of Economics. The main focus of this examination is on the dynamics of the change of scale and structure of the World Bank’s aid to fragile states in comparison with global armed trends of providing aid to fragile states as well. This article concludes that statements about the priority of the Bank’s work in fragile states have not yet been realized in practice. The Bank remains committed to the standard approach to working with this group of recipients, which involves serious risks. The World Bank leans toward supporting projects in fragile states which increases volatility and reduces aid predictability. This trend undermines the development potentials of recipient states. Attention is drawn to political factors influencing aid flows to fragile states and particularly to the tendency of increasing the share of aid provided to fragile states through multi donor trust funds rather than through the mechanisms of the International Development Association (IDA. This trend indicates that the Bank is no longer a central point of aid distribution to the recipients, pointing to the lack of trust of donor states in the existing mechanisms and rules of aid distribution. It also reveals the expanding role of donors’ strategic interests in the process of choosing recipients of World Bank aid.

  14. 25 CFR 20.509 - What must the social services worker do when a child is placed in foster care or residential care...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... home or residential care facility to law enforcement and protective services in accordance with tribal... Assistance Foster Care § 20.509 What must the social services worker do when a child is placed in foster care... tribal or state licensed foster home or residential care facility evaluating how the home has fulfilled...

  15. Interrelation of structure and operational states in cascading failure of overloading lines in power grids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Fei; Bompard, Ettore; Huang, Tao; Jiang, Lin; Lu, Shaofeng; Zhu, Huaiying

    2017-09-01

    As the modern power system is expected to develop to a more intelligent and efficient version, i.e. the smart grid, or to be the central backbone of energy internet for free energy interactions, security concerns related to cascading failures have been raised with consideration of catastrophic results. The researches of topological analysis based on complex networks have made great contributions in revealing structural vulnerabilities of power grids including cascading failure analysis. However, existing literature with inappropriate assumptions in modeling still cannot distinguish the effects between the structure and operational state to give meaningful guidance for system operation. This paper is to reveal the interrelation between network structure and operational states in cascading failure and give quantitative evaluation by integrating both perspectives. For structure analysis, cascading paths will be identified by extended betweenness and quantitatively described by cascading drop and cascading gradient. Furthermore, the operational state for cascading paths will be described by loading level. Then, the risk of cascading failure along a specific cascading path can be quantitatively evaluated considering these two factors. The maximum cascading gradient of all possible cascading paths can be used as an overall metric to evaluate the entire power grid for its features related to cascading failure. The proposed method is tested and verified on IEEE30-bus system and IEEE118-bus system, simulation evidences presented in this paper suggests that the proposed model can identify the structural causes for cascading failure and is promising to give meaningful guidance for the protection of system operation in the future.

  16. 16O + 16O molecular structures of superdeformed states in S isotopes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taniguchi, Y.

    2017-06-01

    Structures of excited states in S isotopes are investigated by using the antisymmetrized molecular dynamics and generator coordinate method (GCM). The GCM basis wave functions are calculated via energy variation with a constraint on the quadrupole deformation parameter β. By applying the GCM after parity and angular momentum projections, the coexistence of positive- and negative-parity superdeformed (SD) bands are predicted in 33-36S except for negative-parity states in 36S. The SD bands have structures of 16O + 16O + valence neutron(s) in molecular orbitals around the two 16O cores in a cluster picture. The configurations of the valence neutron(s) in the SD states are δ and/or π molecular orbitals.

  17. Microtraps for neutral atoms using superconducting structures in the critical state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emmert, A.; Brune, M.; Raimond, J.-M.; Nogues, G.; Lupascu, A.; Haroche, S.

    2009-01-01

    Recently demonstrated superconducting atom chips provide a platform for trapping atoms and coupling them to solid-state quantum systems. Controlling these devices requires a full understanding of the supercurrent distribution in the trapping structures. For type-II superconductors, this distribution is hysteretic in the critical state due to the partial penetration of the magnetic field in the thin superconducting film through pinned vortices. We report here an experimental observation of this memory effect. Our results are in good agreement with the predictions of the Bean model of the critical state without adjustable parameters. The memory effect allows to write and store permanent currents in micron-sized superconducting structures and paves the way toward engineered trapping potentials.

  18. Evidence from n=2 fine structure transitions for the production of fast excited state positronium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ley, R.; Niebling, K.D.; Schwarz, R.; Werth, G.

    1990-01-01

    Fine structure transitions in the first excited state of positronium (Ps) have been measured using 'Backscatter Ps' production on a Mo surface by observation of a change in the emitted Lyman-α intensity under resonant microwave irradiation. Production, fine structure transitions and Lyman-α decay of the Ps atoms took place inside a waveguide designed to transmit the microwave frequencies of 8.6, 13.0 and 18.5 GHz for the transitions from the 2 3 S 1 state to the 2 3 P J , J=2, 1, 0, states, respectively. In the presence of a magnetic field, all transitions observed show a shift to higher frequencies, compared with earlier calculations and measurements in zero magnetic field. The deviations exceed the expected Zeeman shift significantly but may be explained by assuming a motional Stark effect for Ps with kinetic energies of several eV. (author)

  19. Differences between Residential and Non-Residential Fathers on Sexual Socialisation of African American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneed, Carl D.; Willis, Leigh A.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated differences between residential and non-residential fathers on topics discussed during father-child sex communication and factors associated with child sexual socialisation. Young people (N = 159, 53% female) provided self-reports using computer surveys on the role of their fathers on father-child sex communication, general…

  20. Spectroscopic Diagnosis of Excited-State Aromaticity: Capturing Electronic Structures and Conformations upon Aromaticity Reversal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Juwon; Sung, Young Mo; Hong, Yongseok; Kim, Dongho

    2018-03-06

    Aromaticity, the special energetic stability derived from cyclic [4 n + 2]π-conjugated electronic structures, has been the topic of intense interest in chemistry because it plays a critical role in rationalizing molecular stability, reactivity, and physical/chemical properties. Recently, the pioneering work by Colin Baird on aromaticity reversal, postulating that aromatic (antiaromatic) character in the ground state reverses to antiaromatic (aromatic) character in the lowest excited triplet state, has attracted much scientific attention. The completely reversed aromaticity in the excited state provides direct insight into understanding the photophysical/chemical properties of photoactive materials. In turn, the application of aromatic molecules to photoactive materials has led to numerous studies revealing this aromaticity reversal. However, most studies of excited-state aromaticity have been based on the theoretical point of view. The experimental evaluation of aromaticity in the excited state is still challenging and strenuous because the assessment of (anti)aromaticity with conventional magnetic, energetic, and geometric indices is difficult in the excited state, which practically restricts the extension and application of the concept of excited-state aromaticity. Time-resolved optical spectroscopies can provide a new and alternative avenue to evaluate excited-state aromaticity experimentally while observing changes in the molecular features in the excited states. Time-resolved optical spectroscopies take advantage of ultrafast laser pulses to achieve high time resolution, making them suitable for monitoring ultrafast changes in the excited states of molecular systems. This can provide valuable information for understanding the aromaticity reversal. This Account presents recent breakthroughs in the experimental assessment of excited-state aromaticity and the verification of aromaticity reversal with time-resolved optical spectroscopic measurements. To

  1. Electronic and structural ground state of heavy alkali metals at high pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabbris, G.; Lim, J.; Veiga, L. S. I.; Haskel, D.; Schilling, J. S.

    2015-02-01

    Alkali metals display unexpected properties at high pressure, including emergence of low-symmetry crystal structures, which appear to occur due to enhanced electronic correlations among the otherwise nearly free conduction electrons. We investigate the high-pressure electronic and structural ground state of K, Rb, and Cs using x-ray absorption spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction measurements together with a b i n i t i o theoretical calculations. The sequence of phase transitions under pressure observed at low temperature is similar in all three heavy alkalis except for the absence of the o C 84 phase in Cs. Both the experimental and theoretical results point to pressure-enhanced localization of the valence electrons characterized by pseudogap formation near the Fermi level and strong s p d hybridization. Although the crystal structures predicted to host magnetic order in K are not observed, the localization process appears to drive these alkalis closer to a strongly correlated electron state.

  2. Third-order polynomial model for analyzing stickup state laminated structure in flexible electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Xianhong; Wang, Zihao; Liu, Boya; Wang, Shuodao

    2018-02-01

    Laminated hard-soft integrated structures play a significant role in the fabrication and development of flexible electronics devices. Flexible electronics have advantageous characteristics such as soft and light-weight, can be folded, twisted, flipped inside-out, or be pasted onto other surfaces of arbitrary shapes. In this paper, an analytical model is presented to study the mechanics of laminated hard-soft structures in flexible electronics under a stickup state. Third-order polynomials are used to describe the displacement field, and the principle of virtual work is adopted to derive the governing equations and boundary conditions. The normal strain and the shear stress along the thickness direction in the bi-material region are obtained analytically, which agree well with the results from finite element analysis. The analytical model can be used to analyze stickup state laminated structures, and can serve as a valuable reference for the failure prediction and optimal design of flexible electronics in the future.

  3. Dynamic functional connectivity using state-based dynamic community structure: method and application to opioid analgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Lucy F; Atlas, Lauren Y; Wager, Tor D

    2015-03-01

    We present a new method, State-based Dynamic Community Structure, that detects time-dependent community structure in networks of brain regions. Most analyses of functional connectivity assume that network behavior is static in time, or differs between task conditions with known timing. Our goal is to determine whether brain network topology remains stationary over time, or if changes in network organization occur at unknown time points. Changes in network organization may be related to shifts in neurological state, such as those associated with learning, drug uptake or experimental conditions. Using a hidden Markov stochastic blockmodel, we define a time-dependent community structure. We apply this approach to data from a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment examining how contextual factors influence drug-induced analgesia. Results reveal that networks involved in pain, working memory, and emotion show distinct profiles of time-varying connectivity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. [State Hygiene Institute, 1918-1954 organisational structure, objectives and tasks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieckowska, E

    2001-01-01

    After Poland regained its independence in 1918, research units were set up to provide scientific assistance to the state health and epidemiological service then being created. Towards the end of 1918 The State Central Hygiene Institute was established and, following successive reorganisations, transformed into the State Hygiene Institute. It operated at Chocimska str. 24 throughout the entire pre-war period, adapting its organisational structure to current needs. As a state public-health institution, it tracked down sources of communicable diseases and the way they were spread, and conducted research to detect cases of Asian cholera and carriers of contagious diseases. It produced vaccinations of other biological products used in the treatment and prevention of epidemics and made a significant contribution to the war on communicable diseases. It also served as the central state institution in charge of inspecting the country's epidemiological condition as well as a scientific-research facility designed to maintain it at a suitable level in accordance with international norms. With various organisational modifications it survived World War Two, its continued existence being maintained by the German occupation authorities. Reactivated after the war it continues to function to this day at its old location - ulica Chocimska 24, where it serves as a scientific-research facility for health and epidemiological services transferred to a separate organisational structure after 1950. Health and sanitary stations became state institutions in charge of anti-epidemic campaigns and were responsible for the country's health and epidemiological situation. In 1954, the State Health Inspectorate co-operating with the Ministry of Health was set up. The State Hygiene Institute functions to this day and it is the supervisory, co-ordinating and scientific-research institution of the State Health and Epidemiological Service.

  5. The structure of nuclear states at low, intermediate and high excitation energies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soloviev, V.G.

    1976-01-01

    It is shown that within the model based on the quasiparticle-phonon interaction one can obtain the description of few-quasiparticle components of nuclear states at low, intermediate and high excitation energies. For the low-lying states the energy of each level is calculated. The few-quasiparticle components at intermediate and high excitation energies are represented to be averaged in certain energy intervals and their characteri stics are given as the corresponding strength functions. The fragmentation of single-particle states in deformed nuclei is studied. It is shown that in the distribution of the single-particle strength alongside with a large maximum there appear local maxima and the distribution itself has a long tail. The dependence of neutron strength functions on the excitation energy is investigated for the transfer reaction of the type (d,p) and (d,t). The s,- p,- and d-wave neutron strength functions are calculated at the neutron binding energy Bn. A satisfactory agreement with experiment is obtained. The energies and Elambda-strength functions for giant multipole resonances in deformed nuclei are calculated. The energies of giant quadrupole and octupole resonances are calculated. Their widths and fine structure are being studied. It is stated that to study the structure of highly excited states it is necessary to find the values of many-quasiparticle components of the wave functions. The ways of experimental determination of these components based on the study of γ-transitions between highly excited states are discussed

  6. Structure of quasiparticles and their fusion algebra in fractional quantum Hall states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkeshli, Maissam; Wen, Xiao-Gang

    2009-05-01

    It was recently discovered that fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states can be characterized quantitatively by the pattern of zeros that describe how the ground-state wave function goes to zero when electrons are brought close together. Quasiparticles in the FQH states can be described in a similar quantitative way by the pattern of zeros that result when electrons are brought close to the quasiparticles. In this paper, we combine the pattern of zeros approach and the conformal field theory (CFT) approach to calculate the topological properties of quasiparticles. We discuss how the quasiparticles in FQH states naturally form representations of a magnetic translation algebra, with members of a representation differing from each other by Abelian quasiparticles. We find that this structure dramatically simplifies topological properties of the quasiparticles, such as their fusion rules, charges, and scaling dimensions, and has consequences for the ground state degeneracy of FQH states on higher genus surfaces. We find constraints on the pattern of zeros of quasiparticles that can fuse together, which allow us to derive the fusion rules of quasiparticles from their pattern of zeros, at least in the case of the (generalized and composite) parafermion states. We also calculate from CFT the number of quasiparticle types in the generalized and composite parafermion states, which confirm the result obtained previously through a completely different approach.

  7. Structure of quasiparticles and their fusion algebra in fractional quantum Hall states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barkeshli, Maissam; Wen Xiaogang

    2009-01-01

    It was recently discovered that fractional quantum Hall (FQH) states can be characterized quantitatively by the pattern of zeros that describe how the ground-state wave function goes to zero when electrons are brought close together. Quasiparticles in the FQH states can be described in a similar quantitative way by the pattern of zeros that result when electrons are brought close to the quasiparticles. In this paper, we combine the pattern of zeros approach and the conformal field theory (CFT) approach to calculate the topological properties of quasiparticles. We discuss how the quasiparticles in FQH states naturally form representations of a magnetic translation algebra, with members of a representation differing from each other by Abelian quasiparticles. We find that this structure dramatically simplifies topological properties of the quasiparticles, such as their fusion rules, charges, and scaling dimensions, and has consequences for the ground state degeneracy of FQH states on higher genus surfaces. We find constraints on the pattern of zeros of quasiparticles that can fuse together, which allow us to derive the fusion rules of quasiparticles from their pattern of zeros, at least in the case of the (generalized and composite) parafermion states. We also calculate from CFT the number of quasiparticle types in the generalized and composite parafermion states, which confirm the result obtained previously through a completely different approach.

  8. A comparison of the structure of radiation oncology in the United States and Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, Jean B.; Hanks, Gerald E.; Teshima, Teruki; Sato, Shinichiro; Tsunemoto, Hiroshi; Inoue, Toshihiko

    1996-01-01

    Purpose: The United States and Japan have very different backgrounds in their medical care systems. In the field of radiation oncology, national surveys on structure have been conducted for both countries and compared to illustrate any similarities and differences present from 1989-1990. Methods and Materials: The Patterns of Care Study Facility Survey conducted in 1989 in the United States and the National Survey of Structure in Japan in 1990 were compared to evaluate the equipment pattern, staffing pattern, compliance rate with the 'blue book' (3) guideline, and the geographic distribution of institutions. Results: In the United States, a total of 598,184 (49% of the total of newly diagnosed) patients were treated with radiation therapy. In Japan, 62,829 (approximately 15% of the total of newly diagnosed) patients were treated. The numbers of external megavoltage treatment machines were 2,397 in the United States and 494 in Japan. The numbers of full time equivalent (FTE) radiation oncologists were 2,335 in the United States and 366 in Japan. Only 15% of United States facilities and 11% of Japan facilities complied with the narrow blue book guideline for the patients per FTE radiation oncologist (200-250), while the most common ratio was 151-200 patients/FTE in the United States and 51-100 in Japan. In Japan, more than 60% of institutions were staffed by a part-time radiation oncologist (FTE < 1.0). Between geographic regions, there was variation in the percentage of cancer patients treated with radiation therapy for both the United States (42-56%) and Japan (6-25%). Conclusion: There is a major difference in the usage of radiation therapy for treating cancer between the United States and Japan with 49% of all new cancer patients treated in the United States and approximately 15% treated in Japan. Equipment structure in the United States is more complete than in Japan with important differences in treatment simulators, treatment planning computers, and support

  9. Structures of riboswitch RNA reaction states by mix-and-inject XFEL serial crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagno, J. R.; Liu, Y.; Bhandari, Y. R.; Conrad, C. E.; Panja, S.; Swain, M.; Fan, L.; Nelson, G.; Li, C.; Wendel, D. R.; White, T. A.; Coe, J. D.; Wiedorn, M. O.; Knoska, J.; Oberthuer, D.; Tuckey, R. A.; Yu, P.; Dyba, M.; Tarasov, S. G.; Weierstall, U.; Grant, T. D.; Schwieters, C. D.; Zhang, J.; Ferré-D'Amaré, A. R.; Fromme, P.; Draper, D. E.; Liang, M.; Hunter, M. S.; Boutet, S.; Tan, K.; Zuo, X.; Ji, X.; Barty, A.; Zatsepin, N. A.; Chapman, H. N.; Spence, J. C. H.; Woodson, S. A.; Wang, Y.-X.

    2017-01-01

    Riboswitches are structural RNA elements that are generally located in the 5‧ untranslated region of messenger RNA. During regulation of gene expression, ligand binding to the aptamer domain of a riboswitch triggers a signal to the downstream expression platform. A complete understanding of the structural basis of this mechanism requires the ability to study structural changes over time. Here we use femtosecond X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) pulses to obtain structural measurements from crystals so small that diffusion of a ligand can be timed to initiate a reaction before diffraction. We demonstrate this approach by determining four structures of the adenine riboswitch aptamer domain during the course of a reaction, involving two unbound apo structures, one ligand-bound intermediate, and the final ligand-bound conformation. These structures support a reaction mechanism model with at least four states and illustrate the structural basis of signal transmission. The three-way junction and the P1 switch helix of the two apo conformers are notably different from those in the ligand-bound conformation. Our time-resolved crystallographic measurements with a 10-second delay captured the structure of an intermediate with changes in the binding pocket that accommodate the ligand. With at least a 10-minute delay, the RNA molecules were fully converted to the ligand-bound state, in which the substantial conformational changes resulted in conversion of the space group. Such notable changes in crystallo highlight the important opportunities that micro- and nanocrystals may offer in these and similar time-resolved diffraction studies. Together, these results demonstrate the potential of ‘mix-and-inject’ time-resolved serial crystallography to study biochemically important interactions between biomacromolecules and ligands, including those that involve large conformational changes.

  10. Residential response to voluntary time-of-use electricity rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostafa Baladi, S. [Laurits R. Christensen Associates, Inc. Ames, IA 50011-1070 (United States); Herriges, Joseph A. [Iowa State University, 280D Heady Hall, Department of Economics, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-1070 (United States); Sweeney, Thomas J. [MidAmerican Energy, Des Moines, Iowa (United States)

    1998-09-01

    The response of residential households to voluntary Time-of-Use (TOU) electricity rates is estimated using data from a recent experiment at Midwest Power Systems of Iowa. The study`s design allows us to examine both the participation decision and the customer`s load pattern changes once the TOU rate structure was in effect. Substitution elasticities between on-peak and off-peak electricity usage are estimated and compared to those obtained in earlier mandatory programs, indicating whether program volunteers are more responsive to TOU pricing than the typical household. Attitudinal questionnaires allow us to examine the role of usage perceptions in program participation

  11. Excited-state dynamics of oxazole: A combined electronic structure calculations and dynamic simulations study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao, Jun; Xie, Zhi-Zhong; Yu, Xiaodong

    2016-01-01

    In the present work, the combined electronic structure calculations and surface hopping simulations have been performed to investigate the excited-state decay of the parent oxazole in the gas phase. Our calculations show that the S_2 state decay of oxazole is an ultrafast process characterized by the ring-opening and ring-closure of the five-membered oxazole ring, in which the triplet contribution is minor. The ring-opening involves the O−C bond cleavage affording the nitrile ylide and airine intermediates, while the ring-closure gives rise to a bicyclic species through a 2−5 bond formation. The azirine and bicyclic intermediates in the S_0 state are very likely involved in the phototranspositions of oxazoles. This is different from the previous mechanism in which these intermediates in the T_1 state have been proposed for these phototranspositions.

  12. Rotational structure of the five lowest frequency fundamental vibrational states of dimethylsulfoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuisset, Arnaud; Drumel, Marie-Aline Martin; Hindle, Francis; Mouret, Gaël; Sadovskií, Dmitrií A.

    2013-10-01

    We report on the successful extended analysis of the high-frequency (200-700 GHz) part of the gas phase (sub)mm-wave spectra of dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). The spectrum was recorded at 100 kHz resolution using a solid state subTHz spectrometer. The five lowest energy fundamental vibrational states of DMSO with frequencies below 400 cm-1 were observed as sidebands along with the main 0←0 band. Neglecting the internal rotation of methyls, our rotational Hamiltonian reproduced the spectrum to the subMHz accuracy. We have found that the asymmetric bending state ν23 is the only low frequency fundamental vibrational state with the "anomalous" rotational structure uncovered in Cuisset et al. [1]. dmsomw 2013-09-04 15:03

  13. Dynamical structure analysis of crystalline-state reaction and elucidation of chemical reactivity in crystalline environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohashi, Yuji

    2010-01-01

    It was found that a chiral alkyl group bonded to the cobalt atom in a cobalt complex crystal was racemized with retention of the single crystal form on exposure to visible light. Such reactions, which are called crystalline-state reactions, have been found in a variety of cobalt complex crystals. The concept of reaction cavity was introduced to explain the reaction rate quantitatively and the chirality of the photo-product. The new diffractometers and detectors were made for rapid data collection. The reaction mechanism was also elucidated using neutron diffraction analysis. The unstable reaction intermediates were analyzed using cryo-trapping method. The excited-state structures were obtained at the equilibrium state between ground and excited states. (author)

  14. Excited-state dynamics of oxazole: A combined electronic structure calculations and dynamic simulations study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Jun [Guizhou Provincial Key Laboratory of Computational Nano-material Science, Guizhou Education University, Guiyang, Guizhou 550018 (China); Guizhou Synergetic Innovation Center of Scientific Big Data for Advanced Manufacturing Technology, Guizhou Education University, Guiyang 550018 (China); Key Laboratory of Theoretical and Computational Photochemistry, Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry, Beijing Normal University, Beijing 100875 (China); Xie, Zhi-Zhong [Department of Chemistry, School of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Life Sciences, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Yu, Xiaodong, E-mail: yuxdhy@163.com [Department of Architecture and Chemical Engineering, Tangshan Polytechnic College, Tangshan 063020 (China)

    2016-08-02

    In the present work, the combined electronic structure calculations and surface hopping simulations have been performed to investigate the excited-state decay of the parent oxazole in the gas phase. Our calculations show that the S{sub 2} state decay of oxazole is an ultrafast process characterized by the ring-opening and ring-closure of the five-membered oxazole ring, in which the triplet contribution is minor. The ring-opening involves the O−C bond cleavage affording the nitrile ylide and airine intermediates, while the ring-closure gives rise to a bicyclic species through a 2−5 bond formation. The azirine and bicyclic intermediates in the S{sub 0} state are very likely involved in the phototranspositions of oxazoles. This is different from the previous mechanism in which these intermediates in the T{sub 1} state have been proposed for these phototranspositions.

  15. Spiritual Needs of Elderly Living in Residential/Nursing Homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora-Beata Erichsen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available While the research on spiritual needs of patients with chronic and life-threatening diseases increases, there is limited knowledge about psychosocial and spiritual needs of elderly living in residential/nursing homes. We were interested in which needs were of relevance at all, and how these needs are related to life satisfaction and mood states. For that purpose we enrolled 100 elderly living in residential/nursing homes (mean age years, 82% women and provided standardized questionnaires, that is, Spiritual Needs Questionnaire (SpNQ, Brief Multidimensional Life Satisfaction Scale (BMLSS, Quality of Life in Elders with Multimorbidity (FLQM questionnaire, and a mood states scale (ASTS. Religious needs and Existential needs were of low relevance, while inner peace needs were of some and needs for giving/generativity of highest relevance. Regression analyses revealed that the specific needs were predicted best by religious trust and mood states, particularly tiredness. However, life satisfaction and quality of life were not among the significant predictors. Most had the intention to connect with those who will remember them, although they fear that there is limited interest in their concerns. It remains an open issue how these unmet needs can be adequately supported.

  16. Do institutions matter in neighbourhood commons governance? A two-stage relationship between diverse property-rights structure and residential public open space (POS quality: Kota Kinabalu and Penampang, Sabah, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Gabriel Hoh Teck

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Despite the existing literature regarding institutional influence ontraditional commons, there is still a comparative dearth of research that theorisesproperty-rights structure and its impact on contemporary commons. This isparticularly true for public open space (POS governance: its management andutilisation and hence its quality, of which underinvestment and overexploitationleads to increasingly negative externalities and outcomes. An interdisciplinarystudy is employed here to depict the relationships of diverse property-rightsstructure attributes – POS title existence, community existence, POS title transfer and POS site handing-over period to local government – with quality ofresidential POS. A cross-sectional survey via direct structured observation witha POS quality audit tool was conducted to collect a randomly stratified sampleof 155 Country Lease (CL POS and entire 22 Native Title (NT POS, from thedistricts of Kota Kinabalu and Penampang, Sabah, respectively. Archival searchand document analysis on data of property-rights attributes were executed aswell. Next, 2-stage Pearson’s Chi-Square ( c2 and Lambda (λ with ProportionalReduction Error feature analyses were performed. Results showed that only thesethree property-rights attributes – title deed existence, community existence andPOS site handing-over period to local government- are significantly associatedwith POS quality at significance level (p≤0.05. It is found that, although POSwith title deed and community’s involvement might not contribute to goodquality, these attributes were likely to provide better quality. On the other hand,it is found that the more recent the POS site handing over to government, thehigher the likelihood of good POS quality and vice versa. Such empirical findingsprima facie infer that: (i current local property-rights structure does matter incontributing to POS condition, particularly the effective management right whichlikely leads to better

  17. A Novel Coupled State/Input/Parameter Identification Method for Linear Structural Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhimin Wan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In many engineering applications, unknown states, inputs, and parameters exist in the structures. However, most methods require one or two of these variables to be known in order to identify the other(s. Recently, the authors have proposed a method called EGDF for coupled state/input/parameter identification for nonlinear system in state space. However, the EGDF method based solely on acceleration measurements is found to be unstable, which can cause the drift of the identified inputs and displacements. Although some regularization methods can be adopted for solving the problem, they are not suitable for joint input-state identification in real time. In this paper, a strategy of data fusion of displacement and acceleration measurements is used to avoid the low-frequency drift in the identified inputs and structural displacements for linear structural systems. Two numerical examples about a plane truss and a single-stage isolation system are conducted to verify the effectiveness of the proposed modified EGDF algorithm.

  18. Simplicity of state and overlap structure in finite-volume realistic spin glasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newman, C.M.; Stein, D.L.

    1998-01-01

    We present a combination of heuristic and rigorous arguments indicating that both the pure state structure and the overlap structure of realistic spin glasses should be relatively simple: in a large finite volume with coupling-independent boundary conditions, such as periodic, at most a pair of flip-related (or the appropriate number of symmetry-related in the non-Ising case) states appear, and the Parisi overlap distribution correspondingly exhibits at most a pair of δ functions at ±q EA . This rules out the nonstandard mean-field picture introduced by us earlier, and when combined with our previous elimination of more standard versions of the mean-field picture, argues against the possibility of even limited versions of mean-field ordering in realistic spin glasses. If broken spin-flip symmetry should occur, this leaves open two main possibilities for ordering in the spin glass phase: the droplet-scaling two-state picture, and the chaotic pairs many-state picture introduced by us earlier. We present scaling arguments which provide a possible physical basis for the latter picture, and discuss possible reasons behind numerical observations of more complicated overlap structures in finite volumes. copyright 1998 The American Physical Society

  19. Sintered Cathodes for All-Solid-State Structural Lithium-Ion Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddleston, William; Dynys, Frederick; Sehirlioglu, Alp

    2017-01-01

    All-solid-state structural lithium ion batteries serve as both structural load-bearing components and as electrical energy storage devices to achieve system level weight savings in aerospace and other transportation applications. This multifunctional design goal is critical for the realization of next generation hybrid or all-electric propulsion systems. Additionally, transitioning to solid state technology improves upon battery safety from previous volatile architectures. This research established baseline solid state processing conditions and performance benchmarks for intercalation-type layered oxide materials for multifunctional application. Under consideration were lithium cobalt oxide and lithium nickel manganese cobalt oxide. Pertinent characteristics such as electrical conductivity, strength, chemical stability, and microstructure were characterized for future application in all-solid-state structural battery cathodes. The study includes characterization by XRD, ICP, SEM, ring-on-ring mechanical testing, and electrical impedance spectroscopy to elucidate optimal processing parameters, material characteristics, and multifunctional performance benchmarks. These findings provide initial conditions for implementing existing cathode materials in load bearing applications.

  20. A low loss superconducting filter with four states based on symmetrical interdigital-loaded structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Tianqi; Wei, Bin; Cao, Bisong; Wang, Dan; Guo, Xubo

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel symmetrical interdigital-loaded microstrip structure is presents. • A six-pole L-band HTS filter with four states has similar in-band responses. • The coupling coefficients between resonators keep unchanged during tuning. • The low loss HTS filter can be tuned from 1.382 GHz to 1.193 GHz. - Abstract: This paper presents a new symmetrical interdigital-loaded microstrip structure. The symmetrical structure can be applied to design a filter that can work at different frequencies. The filter has similar in-band response at each working frequency with low insertion loss. Based on the proposed structures, a low-loss six-pole high temperature superconducting (HTS) filter with four different working states is designed and fabricated. The center frequency of the filter can be tuned discretely from 1.382 GHz to 1.193 GHz. All four states have similar in-band characters, whereas the insertion losses are less than 0.3 dB. The measured results are consistent with the simulations.

  1. Pareto-Optimal Evaluation of Ultimate Limit States in Offshore Wind Turbine Structural Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Muskulus

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The ultimate capacity of support structures is checked with extreme loads. This is straightforward when the limit state equations depend on a single load component, and it has become common to report maxima for each load component. However, if more than one load component is influential, e.g., both axial force and bending moments, it is not straightforward how to define an extreme load. The combination of univariate maxima can be too conservative, and many different combinations of load components can result in the worst value of the limit state equations. The use of contemporaneous load vectors is typically non-conservative. Therefore, in practice, limit state checks are done for each possible load vector, from each time step of a simulation. This is not feasible when performing reliability assessments and structural optimization, where additional, time-consuming computations are involved for each load vector. We therefore propose to use Pareto-optimal loads, which are a small set of loads that together represent all possible worst case scenarios. Simulations with two reference wind turbines show that this approach can be very useful for jacket structures, whereas the design of monopiles is often governed by the bending moment only. Even in this case, the approach might be useful when approaching the structural limits during optimization.

  2. Integration of fuel cells into residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, J.M.; Entchev, E.; Gusdorf, J.; Szadkowski, F.; Swinton, M.; Kalbfleisch, W.; Marchand, R.

    2004-01-01

    Integration of small combined heat and power systems (CHP) into residential buildings is challenging as the loads are small, the load diversity is limited and there are a number of unresolved issues concerning sizing, control, peak loads, emergency operation, grid connection and export, etc. Natural Resources Canada has undertaken an initiative to investigate and develop techniques for the integration of small CHP systems into residential buildings using a highly instrumented house modified to allow quick installation and thorough monitoring of CHP integration techniques as well determining the performance of the CHP systems themselves when operating in a house. The first CHP system installed was a Stirling engine residential CHP system. It was used to examine the completeness of the CHP modifications to the house, to evaluate various building integration techniques and to measure the performance of the CHP system itself. The testing demonstrated the modified house to be an excellent facility for the development of CHP building integration techniques and the testing of residential CHP systems. The Stirling engine CHP system was found to operate well and produce meaningful input to the house. A second system (residential fuel cell) is presently being installed and building integration techniques and the performance of the fuel cell will be tested over the coming year. (author)

  3. Integrated Management of Residential Energy Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antunes C. H.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The increasing deployment of distributed generation systems based on renewables in the residential sector, the development of information and communication technologies and the expected evolution of traditional power systems towards smart grids are inducing changes in the passive role of end-users, namely with stimuli to change residential demand patterns. The residential user should be able to make decisions and efficiently manage his energy resources by taking advantages from his flexibility in load usage with the aim to minimize the electricity bill without depreciating the quality of energy services provided. The aim of this paper is characterizing electricity consumption in the residential sector and categorizing the different loads according to their typical usage, working cycles, technical constraints and possible degree of control. This categorization of end-use loads contributes to ascertain the availability of controllable loads to be managed as well as the different direct management actions that can be implemented. The ability to implement different management actions over diverse end-use load will increase the responsiveness of demand and potentially raises the willingness of end-users to accept such activities. The impacts on the aggregated national demand of large-scale dissemination of management systems that would help the end-user to make decisions regarding electricity consumption are predicted using a simulator that generates the aggregated residential sector electricity consumption under variable prices.

  4. Insights from the structure of a smallpox virus topoisomerase-DNA transition state mimic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Kay; Hwang, Young; Bushman, Frederic D.; Van Duyne, Gregory D.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Poxviruses encode their own type IB topoisomerases (TopIBs) which release superhelical tension generated by replication and transcription of their genomes. To investigate the reaction catalyzed viral TopIBs, we have determined the structure of a variola virus topoisomerase-DNA complex trapped as a vanadate transition state mimic. The structure reveals how the viral TopIB enzymes are likely to position the DNA duplex for ligation following relaxation of supercoils and identifies the sources of friction observed in single molecule experiments that argue against free rotation. The structure also identifies a conformational change in the leaving group sugar that must occur prior to cleavage and reveals a mechanism for promoting ligation following relaxation of supercoils that involves a novel Asp-minor groove interaction. Overall, the new structural data support a common catalytic mechanism for the TopIB superfamily but indicate distinct methods for controlling duplex rotation in the small vs. large enzyme subfamilies. PMID:20152159

  5. Coupled Optical Tamm States in a Planar Dielectric Mirror Structure Containing a Thin Metal Film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Hai-Chun; Yang Guang; Lu Pei-Xiang; Wang Kai; Long Hua

    2012-01-01

    The coupling between two optical Tamm states (OTSs) with the same eigenenergy is numerically investigated in a planar dielectric mirror structure containing a thin metal film. The reflectivity map in this structure at normal incidence is obtained by applying the transfer matrix method. Two splitting branches appear in the photonic bandgap region when both adjacent dielectric layers of metal film are properly set. The splitting energy of two branches strongly depends on the thickness of the metal film. According to the electric field distribution in this structure, it is found that the high-energy branch corresponds to the antisymmetric coupling between two OTSs, while the low-energy branch is associated with the symmetric coupling between two OTSs. Moreover, the optical difference frequency of two branches is located in a broad terahertz region. (condensed matter: electronic structure, electrical, magnetic, and optical properties)

  6. Structure and management of tuberculosis control programs in fragile states--Afghanistan, DR Congo, Haiti, Somalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauch, Verena; Weil, Diana; Munim, Aayid; Boillot, Francois; Coninx, Rudi; Huseynova, Sevil; Powell, Clydette; Seita, Akihiro; Wembanyama, Henriette; van den Hof, Susan

    2010-07-01

    Health care delivery is particularly problematic in fragile states often connected with increased incidence of communicable diseases, among them tuberculosis. This article draws upon experiences in tuberculosis control in four fragile states from which four lessons learned were derived. A structured inventory to extract common themes specific for TB control in fragile states was conducted among twelve providers of technical assistance who have worked in fragile states. The themes were applied to the TB control programs of Afghanistan, DR Congo, Haiti and Somalia during the years 2000-2006. Case notifications and treatment outcomes have increased in all four countries since 2003 (treatment success rates 81-90%). Access to care and case detection however have remained insufficient (case detection rates 39-62%); There are four lessons learned: 1. TB control programs can function in fragile states. 2. National program leadership and stewardship are essential for quality and sustained TB control. 3. Partnerships with non-governmental providers are vital for continuous service delivery; 4. TB control programs in fragile states require consistent donor support. Despite challenges in management, coordination, security, logistics and funding, TB control programs can function in fragile states, but face considerable problems in access to diagnosis and treatment and therefore case detection. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. [Motivation and Emotional States: Structural Systemic, Neurochemical, Molecular and Cellular Mechanisms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazyan, A S

    2016-01-01

    The structural, systemic, neurochemical, molecular and cellular mechanisms of organization and coding motivation and emotional states are describe. The GABA and glutamatergic synaptic systems of basal ganglia form a neural network and participate in the implementation of voluntary behavior. Neuropeptides, neurohormones and paracrine neuromodulators involved in the organization of motivation and emotional states, integrated with synaptic systems, controlled by neural networks and organizing goal-directed behavior. Structural centers for united and integrated of information in voluntary and goal-directed behavior are globus pallidus. Substantia nigra pars reticulata switches the information from corticobasal networks to thalamocortical networks, induces global dopaminergic (DA) signal and organize interaction of mesolimbic and nigostriatnoy DA systems controlled by prefrontal and motor cortex. Together with the motor cortex, substantia nigra displays information in the brainstem and spinal cord to implementation of behavior. Motivation states are formed in the interaction of neurohormonal and neuropeptide systems by monoaminergic systems of brain. Emotional states are formed by monoaminergic systems of the mid-brain, where the leading role belongs to the mesolimbic DA system. The emotional and motivation state of the encoded specific epigenetic molecular and chemical pattern of neuron.

  8. Mathematical Modeling of the Thermal State of the Spatial Layered Rod Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. V. Stankevich

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper considers the features of finite element technology to determine the temperature state of layered rod structures with complex spatial design. The area of research, on the one hand, is defined by the fact that the rod structures (frames are so-called “skeletal framework” of aviation, machinery, shipbuilding products and structures for industrial construction and an issue of implementation of most research and industrial projects, strongly promising from the practical point of view, depends largely on the level of reliability, bearing capacity, and general performance of its “skeletal framework”. On the other hand, the laminates have a wide range and unique combination of valuable properties such as high strength, corrosion resistance, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, heat resistance, abrasion resistance and many others. The use of layered metal compositions allows to increase the reliability and durability of a large range of parts and equipment and to reduce significantly the consumption of high-alloyed steels and nonferrous metals. A temperature field is one of the main factors to determine the expected performance of multilayer rod structures, operation conditions of which imply intensive thermal loading.The paper shows how within a single finite element model that approximates the spatial design of steel structures consisting of multilayer curvilinear rods, at the stage of discretization in space to take into account the thermo-physical properties of all materials, forming layer of each timber. Using the technique described in the paper has been created a complex of application programs that allows us to solve a wide class of scientific and applied problems, and explore the impact of various structural, technological and operational factors on the temperature state of multilayer rod structures. The paper presents research results of the multilayer rod design. It shows that the high conductivity layer available

  9. High Performance Residential Housing Units at U.S. Coast Guard Base Kodiak: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, R.; Hickey, J.

    2013-10-01

    The United States Coast Guard (USCG) constructs residential housing throughout the country using a basic template that must meet the minimum Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Silver criteria or better for the units. In Kodiak, Alaska, USCG is procuring between 24 and 100 residential multi-family housing units. Priorities for the Kodiak project were to reduce overall energyconsumption by at least 20% over existing units, improve envelope construction, and evaluate space heating options. USCG is challenged with maintaining similar existing units that have complicated residential diesel boilers. Additionally, fuel and material costs are high in Kodiak. While USCG has worked to optimize the performance of the housing units with principles of improved buildingenvelope, the engineers realize there are still opportunities for improvement, especially within the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system and different envelope measures. USCG staff also desires to balance higher upfront project costs for significantly reduced life-cycle costs of the residential units that have an expected lifetime of 50 or more years. To answer thesequestions, this analysis used the residential modeling tool BEoptE+ to examine potential energy- saving opportunities for the climate. The results suggest criteria for achieving optimized housing performance at the lowest cost. USCG will integrate the criteria into their procurement process. To achieve greater than 50% energy savings, USCG will need to specify full 2x 6 wood stud R-21 insulationwith two 2 inches of exterior foam, R-38 ceiling insulation or even wall insulation in the crawl space, and R-49 fiberglass batts in a the vented attic. The air barrier should be improved to ensure a tight envelope with minimal infiltration to the goal of 2.0 ACH50. With the implementation of an air source heat pump for space heating requirements, the combination of HVAC and envelope savings inthe residential unit can save

  10. Electronic structure of molecular Rydberg states of some small molecules and molecular ion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Biao; Li Jiaming

    1993-01-01

    Based on an independent-particle-approximation (i.e. the multiple scattering self-consistent-field theory), the electronic structures of Rydberg states of the small diatomic molecules H 2 , He 2 and the He 2 + molecular ion were studied. The principal quantum number of the first state of the Rydberg series is determined from a convention of the limit of the molecular electronic configuration. The dynamics of the excited molecules and molecular ion has been elucidated. The theoretical results are in fair agreement with the existing experimental measurements, thus they can serve as a reliable basis for future refined treatment such as the configuration interaction calculation

  11. Solid state proton spin-lattice relaxation in four structurally related organic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beckmann, Peter A.; Burbank, Kendra S.; Lau, Matty M.W.; Ree, Jessica N.; Weber, Tracy L.

    2003-01-01

    We report and interpret the temperature dependence of the proton spin-lattice relaxation rate at 8.50 and 22.5 MHz in four polycrystalline solids composed of structurally related molecules: 2-ethylanthracene, 2-t-butylanthracene, 2-ethylanthraquinone, and 2-t-butylanthraquinone. We have been unable to grow single crystals and therefore do not know the crystal structures. Hence, we use the NMR relaxometry data to make predictions about the solid state structures. As expected, we are able to conclude that the ethyl groups do not reorient in the solid state but that the t-butyl groups do. The anthraquinones have a ''simpler'' structure than the anthracenes. The best dynamical models suggest that there is a unique crystallographic site for the t-butyl groups in 2-t-butylanthraquinone and two sites, each with half the molecules, for the ethyl groups in 2-ethylanthraquinone. There are also two sites in 2-ethylanthracene, but with unequal weights, suggesting four sites in the unit cell with lower symmetry than the two anthraquinones. Finally, the observed relaxation rate data in 2-t-butylanthracene is very complex and its interpretation demonstrates the uniqueness problem that arises in interpreting relaxometry data without the knowledge of the crystal structure

  12. Marginal-cost pricing for Hydro-Quebec residential customers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paquin, C.

    1994-02-01

    An option available to governments and to utilities such as Hydro-Quebec for responding to objectives of energy efficiency is the adoption of marginal cost pricing. Compared to currently used price structures, marginal cost pricing will allow improvement of price signals and assure an optimal utilization of the resource. That type of pricing could be economically beneficial but may not be desirable from the point of view of revenue distribution. Taking account of Hydro-Quebec's cost structure, pure marginal cost pricing would generate an income that would be strongly contested on equity grounds. For example, it would raise prices 60% for residential customers. Faced with this possibility, an analysis is presented of the impact of a peak-offpeak pricing (or pure marginal cost pricing) on Hydro-Quebec's residential customer energy bills. The marginal costs of Hydro-Quebec are calculated by the method of Bernard and Chatel (1985) and analysis of the results is based on Friedman and Weare (1993). A sample of 28,417 residential customers from a 1989 Hydro-Quebec survey is used in the study. Two scenarios are analyzed; the first allowing comparison of the energy bill only on the basis of marginal costs and of average costs, and the second allowing comparison of the impact of marginal cost pricing on the total bill. In the first scenario, the impact translates into a 31% increase in energy bills for the entire customer class considered; in addition, this impact is inversely proportional to the revenue class. In the second scenario, the increase is 24%. 33 refs., 10 figs., 53 tabs

  13. Monitoring the State of the Magmatic Structures of Elbrus Volcano Based on Observation of Lithosphere Strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milyukov, Vadim; Myasnikov, Andrey; Mironov, Alexey

    2008-01-01

    An analysis of crustal strain recorded by the Baksan laser interferometer revealed a shallow magma chamber in the structure of Elbrus Volcano (The Northern Caucasus, Russia). The analysis is based on estimation of parameters of magmatic structures resonant modes excited by teleseismic signals. The resonance parameters we have found were interpreted in the framework of contemporary models of magma resonators. The depth and dimension of the magma chamber, as well as the properties of the magma fluid were estimated. It was suggested the changing the magma state due to rising the intrachamber pressure

  14. Structure determination of helical filaments by solid-state NMR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Mumdooh; Spehr, Johannes; König, Renate; Lünsdorf, Heinrich; Rand, Ulfert; Lührs, Thorsten; Ritter, Christiane

    2016-01-01

    The controlled formation of filamentous protein complexes plays a crucial role in many biological systems and represents an emerging paradigm in signal transduction. The mitochondrial antiviral signaling protein (MAVS) is a central signal transduction hub in innate immunity that is activated by a receptor-induced conversion into helical superstructures (filaments) assembled from its globular caspase activation and recruitment domain. Solid-state NMR (ssNMR) spectroscopy has become one of the most powerful techniques for atomic resolution structures of protein fibrils. However, for helical filaments, the determination of the correct symmetry parameters has remained a significant hurdle for any structural technique and could thus far not be precisely derived from ssNMR data. Here, we solved the atomic resolution structure of helical MAVSCARD filaments exclusively from ssNMR data. We present a generally applicable approach that systematically explores the helical symmetry space by efficient modeling of the helical structure restrained by interprotomer ssNMR distance restraints. Together with classical automated NMR structure calculation, this allowed us to faithfully determine the symmetry that defines the entire assembly. To validate our structure, we probed the protomer arrangement by solvent paramagnetic resonance enhancement, analysis of chemical shift differences relative to the solution NMR structure of the monomer, and mutagenesis. We provide detailed information on the atomic contacts that determine filament stability and describe mechanistic details on the formation of signaling-competent MAVS filaments from inactive monomers. PMID:26733681

  15. Estimation of energy efficiency of residential buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glushkov Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing energy performance of the residential buildings by means of reducing heat consumption on the heating and ventilation is the last segment in the system of energy resources saving. The first segments in the energy saving process are heat producing and transportation over the main lines and outside distribution networks. In the period from 2006 to 2013. by means of the heat-supply schemes optimization and modernization of the heating systems. using expensive (200–300 $US per 1 m though hugely effective preliminary coated pipes. the economy reached 2.7 mln tons of fuel equivalent. Considering the multi-stage and multifactorial nature (electricity. heat and water supply of the residential sector energy saving. the reasonable estimate of the efficiency of the saving of residential buildings energy should be performed in tons of fuel equivalent per unit of time.

  16. Residential neighbourhoods in Kathmandu: Key design guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijaya K. Shrestha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Residential neighbourhoods developed using various techniques in Kathmandu by both the public and private sectors have not only provided a poor urban setting and failed to address socio-cultural needs, but are also poor at building a community and creating links to the built environment, with the result that the planned areas lack a sense of place and the inhabitants lack a feeling of home. Although traditional neighbourhoods in the historic core area had many features of a good residential neighbourhood in the past, they are currently undergoing rapid destruction. The residents of these neighbourhoods have little awareness of these issues. The existing legal and institutional frameworks are inadequate and ineffective and cannot address these problems, and so the formulation of design guidelines, their strict implementation, and enhancement of socio-cultural events including social networking are recommended for future residential neighbourhood development.

  17. Gentrification and Residential Mobility in Philadelphia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lei; Hwang, Jackelyn; Divringi, Eileen

    2016-11-01

    Gentrification has provoked considerable controversy surrounding its effects on residential displacement. Using a unique individual-level, longitudinal data set, this study examines mobility rates and residential destinations of residents in gentrifying neighborhoods during the recent housing boom and bust in Philadelphia for various strata of residents and different types of gentrification. We find that vulnerable residents, those with low credit scores and without mortgages, are generally no more likely to move from gentrifying neighborhoods compared with their counterparts in nongentrifying neighborhoods. When they do move, however, they are more likely to move to lower-income neighborhoods. Residents in gentrifying neighborhoods at the aggregate level have slightly higher mobility rates, but these rates are largely driven by more advantaged residents. These findings shed new light on the heterogeneity in mobility patterns across residents in gentrifying neighborhoods and suggest that researchers should focus more attention on the quality of residential moves and nonmoves for less advantaged residents, rather than mobility rates alone.

  18. Expressions of Prayer in Residential Care Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer-Kirkham, Sheryl; Sharma, Sonya; Smith, Brenda; Schutt, Kelly; Janzen, Kyla

    2018-01-01

    Although the value of spiritual care in the care of older adults is supported by research, few studies have focused specifically on prayer in residential care settings. This ethnographic study with fifteen chaplains and administrators in eleven residential care homes involved analyses of walking interviews and research diaries. Findings revealed the spaces in which prayer happens and the forms it takes. The identities of chaplains-their own spiritual practices, religious beliefs, and positioning within the facility-shaped their dis/comfort with prayer and how they located prayer within public and private spaces. Where organizational leadership endorsed the legitimacy of chaplaincy services, prayer was more likely to be offered. Even in these circumstances, however, religious diversity and questions about secularism left chaplains ambivalent about the appropriateness of prayer. The results demonstrate the relevance of religion and spirituality to residential care, and illustrate how prayer functions as an opportunity for connection and understanding.

  19. Service Differentiation in Residential Broadband Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdsson, Halldór Matthias

    2004-01-01

    As broadband gains widespread adoption with residential users, revenue generating voice- and video-services have not yet taken off. This slow uptake is often attributed to lack of Quality of Service management in residential broadband networks. To resolve this and induce service variety, network...... access providers are implementing service differentiation in their networks where voice and video gets prioritised before data. This paper discusses the role of network access providers in multipurpose packet based networks and the available migration strategies for supporting multimedia services...... in digital subscriber line (DSL) based residential broadband networks. Four possible implementation scenarios and their technical characteristics and effects are described. To conclude, the paper discusses how network access providers can be induced to open their networks for third party service providers....

  20. Solar Photovoltaic Financing: Residential Sector Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, J.; Cory, K.

    2009-03-01

    This report presents the information that homeowners and policy makers need to facilitate PV financing at the residential level. The full range of cash payments, bill savings, and tax incentives is covered, as well as potentially available solar attribute payments. Traditional financing is also compared to innovative solutions, many of which are borrowed from the commercial sector. Together, these mechanisms are critical for making the economic case for a residential PV installation, given its high upfront costs. Unfortunately, these programs are presently limited to select locations around the country. By calling attention to these innovative initiatives, this report aims to help policy makers consider greater adoption of these models to benefit homeowners interested installing a residential PV system.