Recently, there has been a surge in environmental regulations that require information disclosure. However, existing empirical evidence is limited to certain applications and has yet to generalize the effectiveness of this approach as a policy strategy to reduce environmental risks. This study evaluates the disclosure rule of the residential lead…
Rau, Thea; Ohlert, Jeannine; Fegert, Jörg M; Allroggen, Marc
Disclosure of Adolescents in Residential Care Institutions and Boarding Schools after Exposure to Sexual Violence In international research, many papers exist about the issue of disclosure after having experienced sexual violence. However, specific research regarding disclosure processes of children and adolescents in institutional care are missing, even though those are particularly often affected by sexual violence. In the Germany-wide study "Sprich mit!", adolescents from the age of 15 up (n = 322; average age 16,69 (SD = 1,3); 57,1 % males) who live in residential care or boarding schools were asked for experiences of sexual violence and their consequences by means of a self-report questionnaire. Results showed that the majority of the adolescents (82 %) entrusted themselves to someone, mostly towards peers (56 %) and less frequent towards adults (24 %). Boys and girls opened up equally often, regardless of the severity of the experienced violence. Adolescents who entrusted themselves towards their peers indicated retrospectively more satisfaction than those entrusting themselves towards adults, even if there were no consequences following the disclosure. Considering that the disclosure towards peers did not initiate a process of help, adolescents in institutional care should be better informed about relevant possibilities to entrust themselves and receive support.
Lev-Wiesel, Rachel; Gottfried, Ruth; Eisikovits, Zvi; First, Maya
Disclosure of child abuse may enable initiating interventions to end maltreatment and mediate its negative physical and psychological consequences. The present study reviews the field of disclosure and examines factors affecting disclosure among a service population of abused children who were placed in residential care due to various forms of abuse (e.g., physical, sexual, emotional, neglect and witnessing domestic violence). The sample consisted of 286 Israeli (Hebrew and Arabic speaking) children aged 12-17 (mean=14±1). Following approval of the Ethics committee of the University and parents' written consent, participants were administered a self-report questionnaire that included the following measures: a Socio-Demographic Questionnaire, the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), the Juvenile Victimization Questionnaire (JVQ), and the Disclosure of Trauma Questionnaire (DTQ). Results indicated that the three key factors enhancing the likelihood of disclosure were: moral factors, external initiatives and intolerable physical pain. The three key factors inhibiting disclosure were feelings of shame, fear of losing social support and uncertainty as to how and to whom to disclose. Results also showed that children preferred to disclose to their nuclear family members (parents and siblings) in comparison with professionals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Downey, Liam; Crowder, Kyle; Kemp, Robert J
This study combines micro-level data on families with children from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics with neighborhood-level industrial hazard data from the Environmental Protection Agency and neighborhood-level U.S. census data to examine both the association between family structure and residential proximity to neighborhood pollution and the micro-level, residential mobility processes that contribute to differential pollution proximity across family types. Results indicate the existence of significant family structure differences in household proximity to industrial pollution in U.S. metropolitan areas between 1990 and 1999, with single-mother and single-father families experiencing neighborhood pollution levels that are on average 46% and 26% greater, respectively, than those experienced by two-parent families. Moreover, the pollution gap between single-mother and two-parent families persists with controls for household and neighborhood socioeconomic, sociodemographic, and race/ethnic characteristics. Examination of underlying migration patterns reveals that single-mother, single-father, and two-parent families are equally likely to move in response to pollution. However, mobile single-parent families move into neighborhoods with significantly higher pollution levels than do mobile two-parent families. Thus, family structure differences in pollution proximity are maintained more by these destination neighborhood differences than by family structure variations in the likelihood of moving out of polluted neighborhoods.
Dwyer, Stephen F.; Sanchez, Alfred; Campos, Ivan A.; Gerstle, Walter H.
Engineering certification for the installation of solar photovoltaic (PV) modules on wood roofs is often denied because existing wood roofs do not meet structural design codes. This work is intended to show that many roofs are actually sufficiently strong given the conservatism in codes, documented allowable strengths, roof structure system effects, and beam composite action produced by joist-sheathing interaction. This report provides results from a testing program to provide actual load carrying capacity of residential rooftops. The results reveal that the actual load carrying capacity of structural members and systems tested are significantly stronger than allowable loads provided by the International Residential Code (IRC 2009) and the national structural code found in Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures (ASCE 7-10). Engineering analysis of residential rooftops typically ignores the system affects and beam composite action in determining rooftop stresses given a potential PV installation. This extreme conservatism combined with conservatism in codes and published allowable stress values for roof building materials (NDS 2012) lead to the perception that well built homes may not have adequate load bearing capacity to enable a rooftop PV installation. However, based on the test results presented in this report of residential rooftop structural systems, the actual load bearing capacity is several times higher than published values (NDS 2012).
Rapanos, Vassilis T.; Polemis, Michael L.
This paper attempts to shed light on the determinants of residential energy demand in Greece, and to compare it with some other OECD countries. From the estimates of the short-run and long-run elasticities of energy demand for the period 1965-1999, we find that residential energy demand appears to be price inelastic. Also, we do not find evidence of a structural change probably because of the low efficiency of the energy sector. We find, however, that the magnitude of the income elasticity varies substantially between Greece and other OECD countries
Triplett, T.L.; Bennett, R.M.
Conventional practice in protecting residential structures from subsidence damage concentrates on saving the superstructure. The foundation is sacrificed, even though it represents the structural component with the greatest replacement cost. In this study, airbags were used to lift a 20 ft x 30 ft structure to test their ability to protect both the foundation and superstructure from ground settlement. Two contiguous sides of the test foundation were unreinforced, and the other two contiguous sides incorporated footing and wall reinforcement. The airbags successfully lifted the structure without causing damage, even on the unreinforced sides. This paper gives a procedure for determining airbag spacing, and describes installation and operation techniques of the airbags. The paper then focuses on the performance of the airbags in lifting the structure, and shows that airbags can preserve existing foundations during subsidence movements
Tatiana Aquino Almeida
Full Text Available The disclosure of sustainable practices has become important in the search for competitive advantage, so as to meet the expectations of the various stakeholders. Thus, the study aims to investigate the relationship between the ownership structure and the economic and environmental voluntary disclosure in the largest Brazilian companies, analyzing ownership concentration and the identity of the controlling shareholder. For the analysis, we considered the economic, social and environmental perspectives, addressed both individually and jointly. The sample consists of 47 companies from the 100 largest public companies listed on BM&FBOVESPA, according to the magazine Exame Biggest and Best, edition 2013. The research is descriptive and quantitative, using Multiple Linear Regression for statistical analysis. The descriptive analysis of the prospects of (economic, social, environmental and sustainability disclosure showed lower average disclosure for the environmental aspect. The state control organizations stood out with the highest average in three of the four levels of disclosure: economic, social and sustainability. As regards the application of statistical analysis, the regression models were not statistically significant, indicating that, for the companies in the sample, the ownership structure does not influence the economic and socio-environmental disclosure.
Dickson, E D; Hamby, D M
This paper presents validated building shielding factors designed for contemporary US housing-stock under an idealized, yet realistic, exposure scenario within a semi-infinite cloud of radioactive material. The building shielding factors are intended for use in emergency planning and level three probabilistic risk assessments for a variety of postulated radiological events in which a realistic assessment is necessary to better understand the potential risks for accident mitigation and emergency response planning. Factors are calculated from detailed computational housing-units models using the general-purpose Monte Carlo N-Particle computational code, MCNP5, and are benchmarked from a series of narrow- and broad-beam measurements analyzing the shielding effectiveness of ten common general-purpose construction materials and ten shielding models representing the primary weather barriers (walls and roofs) of likely US housing-stock. Each model was designed to scale based on common residential construction practices and include, to the extent practical, all structurally significant components important for shielding against ionizing radiation. Calculations were performed for floor-specific locations as well as for computing a weighted-average representative building shielding factor for single- and multi-story detached homes, both with and without basement, as well for single-wide manufactured housing-units.
Full Text Available This study examines theimpact of corporate governance structures on the levels of compliance withmandatory IFRSs disclosure requirements by companies listed on the Amman StockExchange (ASE as a leading Arab stock exchange. Using a disclosure indexderived from mandatory IFRSs disclosure requirements for the fiscal year 2007,this study measures the levels of compliance by a sample of 75 non-financialcompanies listed on the ASE. This study extends the financial reporting literatureand the emerging markets disclosure literature by being one of the first toinvestigate the influence of corporate governance requirements for bestpractices on the levels of compliance with mandatory IFRSs disclosurerequirements by companies listed on the ASE. Results provide evidence of thelack of influence of corporate governance best practices on the levels ofcompliance with mandatory IFRSs disclosure requirements as it is not yet partof the cultural values within the Jordanian context. These findings areconsistent with the notions of the theoretical foundation employed in thisstudy.
Dominick, Gregory M.; Tudose, Alina; Pohlig, Ryan T.; Saunders, Ruth P.
Research examining sustainability of health promotion programs within organizational settings is limited. The Environmental Interventions in Residential Children's Homes (ENRICH) was a structural intervention that trained Wellness Teams (WTs) within residential children's homes (RCH) to target environmental changes that promote physical activity…
Full Text Available Intellectual capital is an intangible asset which is able to increase company’s value. Intellectual capital inherent to skill, knowledge and experience that can create competitive advantage for company. The purposes of this study are to analyze the effect of ownership structure (managerial ownership, institutional ownership, government ownership, foreign ownership with the quality of audit committee as moderating variable on intellectual capital. The population of this study is financial companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange from 2013 until 2015. Samples are selected using purposive sampling method, and obtained 165 units as observations. Data was collected by documentation, and the analysis data is moderated regression analysis. The study found that managerial ownership has negative effect on intellectual capital disclosure. Government ownership and foreign ownership has positive effect on intellectual capital disclosure, and institutional ownership has not been proven to effect on intellectual capital disclosure. Then, the study also found that the quality of audit committee has significant effect as a moderating variable on the influence of institutional ownership, but it has not been proven to have a moderating effect on the influence of managerial ownership, government ownership and foreign ownership intellectual capital disclosure. The recommendation for further study is to use another technique such as questionnaires that is directly given to company for discovering the level of company’s intellectual capital disclosure. For the company, the limitation of managerial ownership can be used as a control to the company disclosure practice, and improve the role of audit committee to maximize disclosure practice in the company.
OShaughnessy, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Market structure refers to the number of firms and the distribution of market shares among firms within an industry. In The Evolving Market Structure of the U.S. Residential Solar PV Installation Industry, 2000-2016, we examine market structure in the context of residential solar PV. We find that over 8,000 companies have installed at least one residential PV system, with about 2,900 companies active in 2016. The majority of residential PV installers are relatively small companies, with about half of installers installing fewer than five systems. At the same time, a subset of high-volume installers accumulated market share, especially beginning around 2010 with the emergence of alternative customer financing options.
Sheila Mendes Fernandes
Full Text Available The objective of this study to verify the relationship between environmental disclosure and the capital structure of companies classified according to Law 10165 which provides for the National Environmental Policy for the period 2006 to 2010. To meet the proposed objectives were used as proxies for capital structure debt to verify the cost of debt and to verify the CAPM cost of equity. To measure the level of environmental disclosure content analysis was carried out in the notes, the management report and the report of the environmental information contained in the report of the Annual Information (IAN. We analyzed 89 companies with 95,020 sentences, and 5279 relating to environmental events, such 4819 relating to environmental information regarding positive and 460 negative environmental information. To investigate the relationship between these variables was used in the analysis panel with random effects adjusted by robust tool. The findings of this study demonstrate that environmental disclosure does not affect the cost of debt, ie, in the Brazilian market, the environmental information whether positive or negative does not drive the market to influence positively / negatively the cost of debt. However, the results showed that the positive environmental disclosure adversely affects the cost of equity demonstrating that "good environmental image of the company" leverage the company's credibility this crucial factor in reducing the risk of the company since the engagement with sustainability and generate savings for the effective and efficient use of resources eliminates and / or reduces the incidence of government regulations.
Full Text Available The purpose of this study is to examine the moderating effect of earning management on corporate governance mechanism, ownership structure, and external auditor toward corporate social responsibility disclosure. This study finds that the increase of ownership structure (foreign ownership and institutional ownership will increase corporate social responsibility disclosure. However corporate governance mechanism and external auditor is not affecting corporate social responsibility disclosure. Furthermore, this study provides additional empirical evidence for agency theory especially agency cost, that corporate governance mechanism, ownership structure, and Big Four audit firm do not have an effective role as agency cost to prevent or decrease earning management practice.
Chan, N W
In Peninsular Malaysia 'structural' factors are found to influence strongly people's persistent occupation of floodplains. Thus, despite a high level of flood hazard awareness, a high level of pessimism and a high level of expectation of future floods, poorer individuals seldom attempt to leave for more advantageous locations but are instead trapped in their present locations by structural factors such as poverty, low residential and occupational mobility, low educational attainment, traditional land inheritance, government aid, and government disaster preparedness, relief and rehabilitation programmes. These forces exert a strong influence upon individuals and largely control their choice of residential location in response to flood hazards, thereby reinforcing the persistent occupation of floodplains. Structural factors such as landlessness, rural-urban migration, floodplain encroachment and squatting are also highly influential in leading people to move. Even for those who move, structural factors have largely confined their choice of residential location to urban floodplains.
Full Text Available The last Chilean earthquake, occurred on February 27, 2010, allowed establishing important patterns of structural failures in reinforced concrete residential buildings; however, limited progress has been made in the study of basic standards of serviceability, such as obstruction of doors. Thus, this study focused on measuring the influence of design specifications and construction criteria of lintels and columns, in terms of obstruction of doors, considering capacity thresholds for certain levels of displacement. The study consisted of the design and construction of a full-scale prototype of a reinforced concrete frame, designed in accordance with all the ACI-318-08 requirements, taking into account typical aspects of geometry and materiality widely used by the real estate industry, for location and size of doors. In order to quantify the structural capacity of the prototype and to study the serviceability of the door, a quasi-static cyclic test was conducted, according to load and displacement protocols specified in FEMA 356 and FEMA 461, which was adjusted by using virtual models based on a static nonlinear analysis called "Pushover". This research verified that, for displacement levels even five times higher than those established by codes considered, the cracking degree was minimal and fully recoverable. It was also found the door evidenced malfunction when the displacements were greater than those specified by design only, validating a high degree of accomplishment of current codes, in terms of capacity and serviceability, when dealing with obstruction of residential doors.
Roshayani Arshad; Rohaya Md Nor; Nur Adura Ahmad Noruddin
A rich empirical research suggests that corporate disclosures are important means for management to communicate firm performance and governance to outside investors. (e.g. Chau & Gray, 2002; Mohd Ghazali & Weetman, 2006). In the last few years, there is an increasing attention regarding non-financial information disclosure in companies' annual reports. An important development in relation to this is the discussion paper and subsequently statement practice on Management Commentary (MC) issued ...
Using a broad sample of the largest European companies, I examine whether the two governance mechanisms, namely (i) independent monitoring by a board of directors and (ii) grants and disclosures of incentive-based executive pay, are substitutes for one another. I find that companies with proportionately more executives on their boards of directors grant greater incentive-based pay to their executives, and improve the transparency of their pay disclosure. The findings are consistent with the e...
Horn, Gavin P; Kesler, Richard M; Kerber, Steve; Fent, Kenneth W; Schroeder, Tad J; Scott, William S; Fehling, Patricia C; Fernhall, Bo; Smith, Denise L
Firefighters' thermal burden is generally attributed to high heat loads from the fire and metabolic heat generation, which may vary between job assignments and suppression tactic employed. Utilising a full-sized residential structure, firefighters were deployed in six job assignments utilising two attack tactics (1. Water applied from the interior, or 2. Exterior water application before transitioning to the interior). Environmental temperatures decreased after water application, but more rapidly with transitional attack. Local ambient temperatures for inside operation firefighters were higher than other positions (average ~10-30 °C). Rapid elevations in skin temperature were found for all job assignments other than outside command. Neck skin temperatures for inside attack firefighters were ~0.5 °C lower when the transitional tactic was employed. Significantly higher core temperatures were measured for the outside ventilation and overhaul positions than the inside positions (~0.6-0.9 °C). Firefighters working at all fireground positions must be monitored and relieved based on intensity and duration. Practitioner Summary: Testing was done to characterise the thermal burden experienced by firefighters in different job assignments who responded to controlled residential fires (with typical furnishings) using two tactics. Ambient, skin and core temperatures varied based on job assignment and tactic employed, with rapid elevations in core temperature in many roles.
Fan, Shuxin; Li, Xiaopeng; Han, Jing; Cao, Yu; Dong, Li
In high-density metropolis, residential areas are important human living environments. Aimed at investigating the impacts of landscape structure on the levels of different-sized airborne particle in residential areas, we conducted field monitoring of the levels of TSP, PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 using mobile traverses in 18 residential areas during the daytime in winter (Dec. 2015-Feb. 2016) and summer (Jun.-Aug. 2016) in Beijing, China. The net concentration differences (d) of the four-sized particles (dTSP, dPM10, dPM2.5 and dPM1) between residential environments and nearby corresponding urban backgrounds, which can be regarded as the reduction of particle concentration in residential environments, were calculated. The effects and relative contributions of different landscape structure parameters on these net concentration differences were further investigated. Results showed that the distribution of particle concentrations has great spatial variation in urban environments. Within the residential environment, there were overall lower concentrations of the four-sized particles compared with the nearby urban background. The net concentration differences of the four-sized particles were all significantly different among the 18 studied residential areas. The average dTSP, dPM10, dPM2.5 and dPM1 reached 18.92, 12.28, 2.01 and 0.53 μg/m3 in summer, and 9.91, 7.81, 1.39 and 0.38 μg/m3 in winter, respectively. The impacts and relative contribution of different landscape structure parameters on the reductions of TSP, PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 in residential environments differed and showed seasonal variation. Percentage of vegetation cover (PerVC) and building cover (PerBC) had the greatest impact. A 10% increase in PerVC would increase about 5.03, 8.15, 2.16 and 0.20 μg/m3 of dTSP, dPM10, dPM2.5 and dPM1 in summer, and a 10% increase in PerBC would decreased about 41.37, 16.54, 2.47 and 0.95 μg/m3 of them in winter. Increased vegetation coverage and decreased building
Full Text Available This study examines the Environmental Disclosure (ED practices in Saudi Arabia and the potential relationship with Corporate Governance (CG , ownership and company structure, following the application of the Saudi 2006 CG code in 2007. The study deepens the understanding of ED and its main determinants in one of the largest economies in the Middle East. A self-constructed ED checklist, based on ISO 26000, is used. We employ regression and content analyses to examine a sample of 267 annual reports covering the period 2007-2011. The analysis finds that the average ED has improved following the application of the Saudi 2006 CG code to 30%, more than double the 14.61% found by Al-Janadi et al. (2013 during 2006-2007. The analysis also finds that audit committee effectiveness, role duality, state and institutional ownerships, firm profitability, and industry sensitivity positively affect ED. However, board independence, family ownership, and firm size are found not to be significant determinants, while a negative significant correlation was found with firm leverage. The results imply that CG regulators and stakeholders should acknowledge the importance of active audit committees comprising relevant experts and independent directors, in addition to the role of state and institutional ownership in enhancing ED. The study covers a five-year period, contrary to the majority of ED studies which focus on only one year. The study helps to fill the gap in ED literature in developing countries. Finally, the study provides a recent evaluation for the Saudi CG code recently applied in 2007.
OShaughnessy, Eric J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
This study uses data on over 900,000 solar PV installations to summarize the evolving market structure of the U.S. residential solar PV installation industry. Over 8,000 companies have installed residential PV systems in the United States. The vast majority of these installers are small local companies. At the same time, a subset of national-scale high-volume PV installation companies hold high market shares. This study examines the factors behind these trends in market concentration, including the role of customer financing options.
Energy consumption from the residential sector is a complex socio-technical problem that can be explained using a combination of physical, demographic and behavioural characteristics of a dwelling and its occupants. A structural equation model (SEM) is introduced to calculate the magnitude and significance of explanatory variables on residential energy consumption. The benefit of this approach is that it explains the complex relationships that exist between manifest variables and their overall effect though direct, indirect and total effects. Using the English House Condition Survey (EHCS) consisting of 2531 unique cases, the main drivers behind residential energy consumption are found to be the number of household occupants, floor area, household income, dwelling efficiency (SAP), household heating patterns and living room temperature. In the multivariate case, SAP explains very little of the variance of residential energy consumption. However, this procedure fails to account for simultaneity bias between energy consumption and SAP. Using SEM its shown that dwelling energy efficiency (SAP), has reciprocal causality with dwelling energy consumption and the magnitude of these two effects are calculable. When non-recursivity between SAP and energy consumption is allowed for, SAP is shown to have a negative effect on energy consumption but conversely, homes with a propensity to consume more energy also have higher SAP rates. -- Highlights: → A Structural Equation Model (SEM) is developed to explain residential energy demand. → Key variables that drive residential energy consumption are empirically identified. → Direct, indirect and total effects are determined. → It is found that occupancy and household income are strongly mediated by floor area. → A non-recursive relationship is found to exist between energy consumption and SAP.
Kasim A. Korkmaz
Full Text Available China has experienced major earthquakes recently. The 2014 Ludian earthquake struck Ludian County, Yunnan, (Mw = 6.1 on 3 August, 2014. On April 20th 2013, Ya’an earthquake (Mw = 6.9, on April 14th 2010, Qinghai earthquake (Mw = 7.1, on July 9th 2009, Yunnan earthquake (Mw = 6.0, and on May 12th 2008, Sichuan earthquake (Mw = 7.9 struck China. Among these disasters, the most devastating, the Sichuan earthquake, resulted in the collapse of 5 million buildings and damage to more than 21 million. Human loss was also high with over 60,000 people dead, 360,000 injured, and more than 14 million people displaced. South-west China lies in an area that is prone to earthquakes. In 1970, a magnitude 7.7 earthquake in Yunnan with 15,000 lost. This study presents a detailed risk assessment for a structural risk assessment and mitigation for low- to mid-rise residential buildings for China. The risk assessment, through seismic hazard assessment approaches, evaluates the impact of the disasters for integrated structural health monitoring. Among the results of the investigation, relations and links between safety and risk are defined.
Masera, O.; Friedmann, R.; deBuen, O.
This article examines the characteristics of residential energy use in Mexico, its environmental impacts, and the savings potential of the major end-uses. The main options and barriers to increase the efficiency of energy use are discussed. The energy analysis is based on a disaggregation of residential energy use by end-uses. The dynamics of the evolution of the residential energy sector during the past 20 years are also addressed when the information is available. Major areas for research and for innovative decision-making are identified and prioritized.
Hasanzadeh Nafari, Roozbeh; Amadio, Mattia; Ngo, Tuan; Mysiak, Jaroslav
The damage triggered by different flood events costs the Italian economy millions of euros each year. This cost is likely to increase in the future due to climate variability and economic development. In order to avoid or reduce such significant financial losses, risk management requires tools which can provide a reliable estimate of potential flood impacts across the country. Flood loss functions are an internationally accepted method for estimating physical flood damage in urban areas. In this study, we derived a new flood loss function for Italian residential structures (FLF-IT), on the basis of empirical damage data collected from a recent flood event in the region of Emilia-Romagna. The function was developed based on a new Australian approach (FLFA), which represents the confidence limits that exist around the parameterized functional depth-damage relationship. After model calibration, the performance of the model was validated for the prediction of loss ratios and absolute damage values. It was also contrasted with an uncalibrated relative model with frequent usage in Europe. In this regard, a three-fold cross-validation procedure was carried out over the empirical sample to measure the range of uncertainty from the actual damage data. The predictive capability has also been studied for some sub-classes of water depth. The validation procedure shows that the newly derived function performs well (no bias and only 10 % mean absolute error), especially when the water depth is high. Results of these validation tests illustrate the importance of model calibration. The advantages of the FLF-IT model over other Italian models include calibration with empirical data, consideration of the epistemic uncertainty of data, and the ability to change parameters based on building practices across Italy.
R. Hasanzadeh Nafari
Full Text Available The damage triggered by different flood events costs the Italian economy millions of euros each year. This cost is likely to increase in the future due to climate variability and economic development. In order to avoid or reduce such significant financial losses, risk management requires tools which can provide a reliable estimate of potential flood impacts across the country. Flood loss functions are an internationally accepted method for estimating physical flood damage in urban areas. In this study, we derived a new flood loss function for Italian residential structures (FLF-IT, on the basis of empirical damage data collected from a recent flood event in the region of Emilia-Romagna. The function was developed based on a new Australian approach (FLFA, which represents the confidence limits that exist around the parameterized functional depth–damage relationship. After model calibration, the performance of the model was validated for the prediction of loss ratios and absolute damage values. It was also contrasted with an uncalibrated relative model with frequent usage in Europe. In this regard, a three-fold cross-validation procedure was carried out over the empirical sample to measure the range of uncertainty from the actual damage data. The predictive capability has also been studied for some sub-classes of water depth. The validation procedure shows that the newly derived function performs well (no bias and only 10 % mean absolute error, especially when the water depth is high. Results of these validation tests illustrate the importance of model calibration. The advantages of the FLF-IT model over other Italian models include calibration with empirical data, consideration of the epistemic uncertainty of data, and the ability to change parameters based on building practices across Italy.
Full Text Available Sustainable development in construction is based on three fundamental pillars: economic, environmental and social. This type of approach aims to identify the best possible solutions for sustainably developing structures by conducting a joint evaluation of the impact on those three pillars. The proposed methodology incorporates metadata on the Spanish construction sector. First, a discrete database is generated with 360 alternatives covering a range of common solutions in residential building. A Pareto algorithm is utilized to select the optimal choices and the wide range of solutions is reduced to the 5 % of the initial group. The project manager is therefore provided with an objective assessment of suitable structural alternatives including the overall joint economic, social, and environmental impact. The results obtained demonstrate the importance and utility of the proposed methodology for sustainable construction.El desarrollo sostenible aplicado a la construcción se basa en tres pilares fundamentales: económico, medioambiental y social. El objetivo principal es identificar las mejores soluciones en términos de desarrollo sostenible de alternativas estructurales a partir de la evaluación conjunta de los impactos en dichos pilares. La metodología propuesta incorpora metadatos con información del sector de la construcción en España. Primero se genera una base de datos discreta de 360 alternativas estructurales que cubren el rango de soluciones habituales en edificación residencial. La selección de alternativas óptimas se realiza mediante el algoritmo de Pareto. El abanico de soluciones se reduce al 5 % de las iniciales. Se aporta una valoración objetiva que orienta al proyectista en la selección de alternativas estructurales idóneas, visualizando de forma conjunta el impacto económico, social y ambiental. Los resultados obtenidos muestran la importancia y utilidad de la metodología propuesta en el campo de la construcci
Full Text Available This paper investigates the relationship between annual report disclosure, market liquidity, and capital cost for firms registered on the Deutsche Börse. Disclosure is comprehensively measured using the innovative Artificial Intelligence Measurement of Disclosure (AIMD. Results show that annual report disclosure enhances market liquidity by changing investors’ expectations and inducing portfolio adjustments. Trading frictions are negatively associated with disclosure. The study provides evidence for a capital-costreduction effect of disclosure based on the analysis of investors’ return requirements and market values. Altogether, no evidence is found that the information processing at the German capital market is structurally different from other markets.
Full Text Available With 6.5 million households in the United States located in areas prone to storm surge, assessing the vulnerability of structures and residential communities to coastal flooding is an important concern. Of particular interest is understanding how the performance of structures during surge events is influenced by flood conditions, coastal defenses, and building design at both the house and community level. This study presents such a vulnerability analysis by investigating the impact of coastal flooding from Hurricane Sandy (2012 on 95 km of developed coastline across New Jersey and New York. Exterior structural damage observed from a Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA aerial survey of the study area is related to (1 a hindcast simulation of flood inundation and wave action, (2 a classification of coastal defenses and storm-induced erosion, and (3 minimum building design elevations specified in FEMA’s flood hazard mapping. Findings indicate that the hardest hit communities experienced significant dune erosion, which coincided with severe flood and wave exposure. Furthermore, structures were considerably more susceptible to flood impact if Sandy’s flood level exceeded FEMA’s 100-year Base Flood Elevation dictating building design. These results are quantified by developing fragility curves relating both house and community-level performance to the considered vulnerability parameters. Findings from this study can be used to inform decision making for improving coastal resilience.
van Ham, Maarten; Findlay, Allan M.
While researchers are increasingly re-conceptualizing international migration, far less attention has been devoted to re-thinking short-distance residential mobility and immobility. In this paper we harness the life course approach to propose a new conceptual framework for residential mobility research. We contend that residential mobility and immobility should be re-conceptualized as relational practices that link lives through time and space while connecting people to structural conditions. Re-thinking and re-assessing residential mobility by exploiting new developments in longitudinal analysis will allow geographers to understand, critique and address pressing societal challenges. PMID:27330243
Climate is a key driver regulating vegetation structure across rural ecosystems. In urban ecosystems, multiple interactions between humans and the environment can have homogenizing influences, confounding the relationship between vegetation structure and climate. In fact, vegetat...
Krause Hansen, Hans; Uldam, Julie
, and onongoing research in the extractive industries and social movements, this work-in-progress sets outto examine (a) why and how transparency has been constructed and mobilized in recentinternational attempts to regulate the extractive industries, specifically oil and gas companies; (b)how companies’ normal...... appearances become challenged through disruptive disclosures in mediaenvironments characterized by multiple levels of visibility, with companies both observing andbeing observed by civil society groups that criticize them; (c) why and how the mobilization aroundtransparency and ensuing practices......While projects of governance by transparency have become widespread over the past decades, theyare usually investigated and theorized in isolation from the wider field of visibility and surveillancein which they are embedded. Building on theories of governance, visibility and surveillance...
Syphard, Alexandra D.; Brennan, Teresa J.; Keeley, Jon E.
With the potential for worsening fire conditions, discussion is escalating over how to best reduce effects on urban communities. A widely supported strategy is the creation of defensible space immediately surrounding homes and other structures. Although state and local governments publish specific guidelines and requirements, there is little empirical evidence to suggest how much vegetation modification is needed to provide significant benefits. We analysed the role of defensible space by mapping and measuring a suite of variables on modern pre-fire aerial photography for 1000 destroyed and 1000 surviving structures for all fires where homes burned from 2001 to 2010 in San Diego County, CA, USA. Structures were more likely to survive a fire with defensible space immediately adjacent to them. The most effective treatment distance varied between 5 and 20 m (16–58 ft) from the structure, but distances larger than 30 m (100 ft) did not provide additional protection, even for structures located on steep slopes. The most effective actions were reducing woody cover up to 40% immediately adjacent to structures and ensuring that vegetation does not overhang or touch the structure. Multiple-regression models showed landscape-scale factors, including low housing density and distances to major roads, were more important in explaining structure destruction. The best long-term solution will involve a suite of prevention measures that include defensible space as well as building design approach, community education and proactive land use planning that limits exposure to fire.
Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde; Matsufuji, Y.
are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing residential waste is faced with the problem that many residences already divert some waste away from the official collection systems, for example performing home composting of vegetable waste and garden waste, having their bundled newspaper picked up by the scouts...... twice a year or bringing their used furniture to the flea markets organized by charity clubs. Thus, much of the data available on residential waste represents collected waste and not necessarily all generated waste. The latter can only be characterized by careful studies directly at the source...
Winters, S.; Kool, R. B.; Klazinga, N. S.; Huijsman, R.
To examine the impact of corporate structure and quality improvement (QI) activities on improvements in client-reported and professional indicators between 2007 and 2009. A cross-sectional study using organizational survey and indicator multilevel modelling to test relationships between corporate
Full Text Available This study investigated recent changes in migration and population structure of the Greater Bangkok considering the impact of economic globalization. The spatial policy of the Thai government has lead newer investments for manufacturing to locate away from Bangkok Metropolis and thereby the industrial structure of Bangkok Metropolis has gradually turned into service-dominated, while the region surrounding Bangkok Metropolis has attracted factories mainly owned by foreign capital. Light industry and electronics industry are con-centrated in the adjacent provinces to Bangkok Metropolis and the heavy and petrochemical industry tends to be located in the outer zone of the surrounding region. The service sector and light industry as well as electronics industry prefer female workers and Bangkok met-ropolis and the adjoining provinces have become female-dominated population structure while male workers tend to gather in the outer zone attracted by heavy and petrochemical industry. It is possible to mention accordingly that the unbalanced spatial distribution of sex structure of population which might cause changes in the norm to the family formation in future is one of the consequences of economic globalization of Thailand, which the inves-tment promotion policy of the government did not assume.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The initial module incorporated into the application was the eDisclosure module to track regulatory audit disclosure reports that come through EPA's Central Data...
The key issues surrounding regulatory enforcement of Internet disclosure in the petroleum industry were discussed under three headings, i.e. (1) content problems, such as intellectual property, trademarks, copyright, licence limitations, accuracy of promotional and other information; (2) disclosure problems, including web site information, employee disclosure, electronic mail, and third party disclosures; and (3) regulatory issues that range from the Internet as the vehicle for stock manipulation, to transnational aspects, lack of editorial oversight, and multi-jurisdictional enforcement issues
Full Text Available This study investigated recent changes in migration and population structure of the GreaterBangkok considering the impact of economic globalization. The spatial policy of the Thaigovernment has lead newer investments for manufacturing to locate away from BangkokMetropolis and thereby the industrial structure of Bangkok Metropolis has gradually turnedinto service-dominated, while the region surrounding Bangkok Metropolis has attractedfactories mainly owned by foreign capital. Light industry and electronics industry are concentratedin the adjacent provinces to Bangkok Metropolis and the heavy and petrochemicalindustry tends to be located in the outer zone of the surrounding region. The service sectorand light industry as well as electronics industry prefer female workers and Bangkok metropolisand the adjoining provinces have become female-dominated population structurewhile male workers tend to gather in the outer zone attracted by heavy and petrochemicalindustry. It is possible to mention accordingly that the unbalanced spatial distribution of sexstructure of population which might cause changes in the norm to the family formation infuture is one of the consequences of economic globalization of Thailand, which the investmentpromotion policy of the government did not assume.
Sizov, Natalia V; Plotkin, Kenneth J; Hobbs, Christopher M
Human perception of sonic booms is a major impediment to commercial supersonic flight. Shaping, which reduces the audible shock waves of a boom, can make outdoor perception of booms acceptable. Perception of sonic booms experienced indoors is of concern, and it is not yet established whether shaped booms offer benefit to indoor listeners. A better understanding of the transmission of shaped booms into building structures is needed. In the authors' earlier work the vibration response of house elements subjected to different sonic boom wave shapes was evaluated using a single degree of freedom model. This paper expands that approach with a modal analysis model. The acceleration of building elements and the resulting sound pressure inside a room are computed in the time and frequency domains. Analytical results are compared with experimental data measured by NASA during sonic boom tests conducted at Edwards Air Force Base in 2007. The effects of wave signature parameters on transmission are studied to evaluate the advantages of various kinds of minimized boom shapes.
Hatayama, Kouta; Oikawa, Yurika; Ito, Hiroyuki
The bacterial community structures in four Japanese split-type air conditioners were analyzed using a next-generation sequencer. A variety of bacteria were detected in the air filter of an air conditioner installed on the first floor. In the evaporator of this air conditioner, bacteria belonging to the genus Methylobacterium, or the family of Sphingomonadaceae, were predominantly detected. On the other hand, the majority of bacteria detected in the air filters and evaporators of air conditioners installed on the fifth and twelfth floors belonged to the family Enterobacteriaceae. The source of bacteria belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae may have been aerosols generated by toilet flushing in the buildings. Our results suggested the possibility that the bacterial contamination in the air conditioners was affected by the floor level on which they were installed. The air conditioner installed on the lower floor, near the ground, may have been contaminated by a variety of outdoor bacteria, whereas the air conditioners installed on floors more distant from the ground may have been less contaminated by outdoor bacteria. However, these suppositions may apply only to the specific split-type air conditioners that we analyzed, because our sample size was small.
Through the Neighborhood Housing Services, Incorporated of Charlotte, a series of hands-on workshops and a demonstration site was provided to enable residents of the Plaza-Midwood Neighborhood to build and install a variety of low-cost, durable, small scale, energy conservation systems. This experimental approach enabled homeowners to apply specific technologies to their own homes. These cost effective measures were designed to encourage both self reliance and the use of renewable resources. The weekend projects included protected entry, numerous moveable window insulation devices, solar air collector/greenhouse, window greenhouse and water storage tubes. The building used for retrofit was the office for the Neighborhood Housing Services (NHS), a non-profit corporation formed to help revitalize residential structures and maintain the economic, racial, and social character of existing neighborhoods. The particular neighborhood involved was Plaza-Midwood and covers approximately a 2 square mile area. The neighborhood housing stock is of the 1910 to 1940 variety with the predominate architectual style being bungalow frame, having 1000 to 1900 square feet in area. The neighborhood is a racially integrated one, with about 70% of the residents being homeowners. An estimated 1700 housing units are in this area. The NHS office presently serves as a resource center for area residents who need loans and/or construction assistance. Providing a continuing educational program is a function of this organization. The Grant provided a significant contribution as a resource for energy conservation mined residents. A resource room displaying procedures and diagrams for the various projects in this proposal was established. Additional resource literature was provided and used by local residents.
The dwelling is a central setting in people’s everyday life. People use their dwelling and residential environment for a large variety of activities and purposes. This study systematically relates activities, settings and meanings to improve the insight into people-environment relations. This is
Oldfield, M; MacEachen, E; Kirsh, B; MacNeill, M
Findings from a study examining how women with fibromyalgia remain employed are used to explicate a conceptualization that adds to literature on workplace disclosure of stigmatized illnesses and impairments: disclosure dances that employees improvise in response to workplace-relationships needs and disclosure risks. Critical-discourse-analysis (CDA) methodology framed the study. Data were collected through 26 semi-structured, individual interviews with participant triads or dyads comprising women with fibromyalgia, family members and supervisors or co-workers. Interviews with managers who supervised disabled employees other than the women supplemented these data. Following coding, data were compared within and across triads/dyads through code-dimension summaries, narrative summaries and relational diagrams. Women with fibromyalgia and other stigmatized illnesses improvised everyday disclosures when they needed to explain fluctuating work ability, when others needed reminding about invisible impairments, and when workplace relationships changed. These impromptu disclosures comprised three dimensions: exposing oneself to scrutiny by disclosing both illness and impairments, divulging stigmatized illness, and revealing invisible impairments selectively. Through impromptu disclosure dances, women tailored disclosure to changing immediate circumstances. While assumptions from psychological theories of risk underlie current conceptualizations of disclosure as planned in advance, this article examines disclosure through a different lens: social theories of everyday risk. Implications for rehabilitation For women with fibromyalgia, disclosing illness and impairments at work may entail risks to their jobs and workplace relationships. Rehabilitation professionals need to consider these risks when advising women with fibromyalgia about disclosing their illness and impairments at work. Professionals may first want to learn from clients about their workplace cultures and
Public money is necessary to build and maintain this country's vast network of mass transit systems and highways. Thus you would expect class equity in choices of infrastructure location, types of projects and pricing. However, the influence of commercial interests appears to create a contradictory effect, and may negatively influence the settlement patterns where transit serves. New York City and its subway system offered the perfect case study by which to examine the before and after effects of mass transit introduction given the enormous size of the transit system and the grand development of New York City that appeared to occur simultaneous to subway inauguration. The main objective of this study was to determine the relationship between the growth of the New York City subway system and the establishment of class structure in residential patterns. Regional census data covering the first 16-year period of the subway's development was examined along with geographic statistics on subway line expansion and station openings. GIS (Geographic Information Systems) maps were used to illustrate the development of living spaces as a function of subway introduction into communities, and several Indices were computed to demonstrate the population growth and class disparity. The results revealed that the early years of transit development were entrepreneurial efforts coordinated by business interests. This led to transit first providing significant benefits mostly to the middle and upper classes, giving them a reasonable means by which to escape horrible tenement living conditions while turning a profit at the same time. Thus new settlements were stratified by class almost immediately after introduction. The cycle continued until years later when the automobile was introduced and the once expensive and luxurious, but now more reasonably priced and just functional, public transit system finally befit the population much lower on the socioeconomic scale. Class divisions still
Davidson, Carolyn; Steinberg, Daniel; Margolis, Robert
Over the past several years, third-party-ownership (TPO) structures for residential photovoltaic (PV) systems have become the predominant ownership model in the US residential market. Under a TPO contract, the PV system host typically makes payments to the third-party owner of the system. Anecdotal evidence suggests that the total TPO contract payments made by the customer can differ significantly from payments in which the system host directly purchases the system. Furthermore, payments can vary depending on TPO contract structure. To date, a paucity of data on TPO contracts has precluded studies evaluating trends in TPO contract cost. This study relies on a sample of 1113 contracts for residential PV systems installed in 2010-2012 under the California Solar Initiative to evaluate how the timing of payments under a TPO contract impacts the ultimate cost of the system to the customer. Furthermore, we evaluate how the total cost of TPO systems to customers has changed through time, and the degree to which contract costs have tracked trends in the installed costs of a PV system. We find that the structure of the contract and the timing of the payments have financial implications for the customer: (1) power-purchase contracts, on average, cost more than leases, (2) no-money-down contracts are more costly than prepaid contracts, assuming a customer’s discount rate is lower than 17% and (3) contracts that include escalator clauses cost more, for both power-purchase agreements and leases, at most plausible discount rates. In addition, all contract costs exhibit a wide range, and do not parallel trends in installed costs over time.
Davidson, Carolyn; Steinberg, Daniel; Margolis, Robert
Over the past several years, third-party-ownership (TPO) structures for residential photovoltaic (PV) systems have become the predominant ownership model in the US residential market. Under a TPO contract, the PV system host typically makes payments to the third-party owner of the system. Anecdotal evidence suggests that the total TPO contract payments made by the customer can differ significantly from payments in which the system host directly purchases the system. Furthermore, payments can vary depending on TPO contract structure. To date, a paucity of data on TPO contracts has precluded studies evaluating trends in TPO contract cost. This study relies on a sample of 1113 contracts for residential PV systems installed in 2010–2012 under the California Solar Initiative to evaluate how the timing of payments under a TPO contract impacts the ultimate cost of the system to the customer. Furthermore, we evaluate how the total cost of TPO systems to customers has changed through time, and the degree to which contract costs have tracked trends in the installed costs of a PV system. We find that the structure of the contract and the timing of the payments have financial implications for the customer: (1) power-purchase contracts, on average, cost more than leases, (2) no-money-down contracts are more costly than prepaid contracts, assuming a customer’s discount rate is lower than 17% and (3) contracts that include escalator clauses cost more, for both power-purchase agreements and leases, at most plausible discount rates. In addition, all contract costs exhibit a wide range, and do not parallel trends in installed costs over time. (letter)
Voergård-Olesen, Rikke Karen; Eskerod, Pernille
Many organizations state that they would like to develop a more inclusive culture when it comes to sexual orientation. In order to do this insight into non-heterosexual behaviors and considerations concerning disclosure is a prerequisite. As sexual orientation generally is invisible each person has...... a strategic choice concerning (non-)disclosure. Based on an empirical study, we contribute to the understanding of non-heterosexuals’ disclosure strategies and experiences at the workplace. Individual, semi-structured interviews on personal experiences and thoughts were conducted. The interviewees were eight...... non-heterosexual women, 34-44 years old, working in Denmark, open (to some degree) about their sexual orientation, and representing more industries and educational backgrounds. Even though the informants claimed openness, significant differences concerning disclosure were identified - across...
Wray, Craig P.; Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.
Currently, houses do not perform optimally or even as many codes and forecasts predict, largely because they are field assembled and there is no consistent process to identify problems or to correct them. Residential commissioning is a solution to this problem. This guide is the culmination of a 30-month project that began in September 1999. The ultimate objective of the project is to increase the number of houses that undergo commissioning, which will improve the quality, comfort, and safety of homes for California citizens. The project goal is to lay the groundwork for a residential commissioning industry in California focused on end-use energy and non-energy issues. As such, we intend this guide to be a beginning and not an end. Our intent is that the guide will lead to the programmatic integration of commissioning with other building industry processes, which in turn will provide more value to a single site visit for people such as home energy auditors and raters, home inspectors, and building performance contractors. Project work to support the development of this guide includes: a literature review and annotated bibliography, which facilitates access to 469 documents related to residential commissioning published over the past 20 years (Wray et al. 2000), an analysis of the potential benefits one can realistically expect from commissioning new and existing California houses (Matson et al. 2002), and an assessment of 107 diagnostic tools for evaluating residential commissioning metrics (Wray et al. 2002). In this guide, we describe the issues that non-experts should consider in developing a commissioning program to achieve the benefits we have identified. We do this by providing specific recommendations about: how to structure the commissioning process, which diagnostics to use, and how to use them to commission new and existing houses. Using examples, we also demonstrate the potential benefits of applying the recommended whole-house commissioning approach to
Li, Haochu; Chen, Xinguang; Yu, Bin
HIV stigma is widely believed to be related to HIV disclosure. However, there is a dearth of studies examining the mechanisms that link stigma to disclosure. This is a specific study to assess the relationship between perceived stigma and HIV disclosure to casual sex partners based on a social cognitive theory. HIV+ men who have sex with men (MSM) from two US cities (N = 297) completed questionnaires administered using audio computer-assisted self-interviewing. Path modeling analysis was used to assess the theory-based structural relationships. Perceived stigma was negatively associated with attitudes, intention and behavior of HIV disclosure to casual sex partners. The association was fully mediated by disclosure appraisal, including disclosure outcome expectations, costs and self-efficacy. Findings of this study add new knowledge regarding HIV stigma and disclosure, and provide timely data supporting more effective behavioral interventions to encourage HIV disclosure among MSM.
Full Text Available Purpose: In this paper, we investigate the development, the current state, and the potential of business model disclosures to illustrate where, why and how organizations might want to disclose their business models to their stakeholders. The description of the business model may be relevant to stakeholders if it helps them to comprehend the company ‘story’ and increase understanding of other provided data (i.e. financial statements, risk exposure, sustainability of operations. It can also aid stakeholders in the assessment of sustainability of business models and the whole company. To realize these goals, business model descriptions should fulfil requirements of users suggested by various guidelines. Design/Methodology/Approach: First, we review and analyse literature on business model disclosure and some of its antecedents, including voluntary disclosure of intellectual capital. We also discuss business model reporting incentives from the viewpoint of shareholders, stakeholders and legitimacy theory. Second, we compare and discuss reporting guidelines on strategic reports, intellectual capital reports, and integrated reports through the lens of their requirements for business model disclosure and the consequences of their use for corporate report users. Third, we present, analyse and compare examples of good corporate practices in business model reporting. Findings: In the examined reporting guidelines, we find similarities, e.g. mostly structural but also qualitative attributes, in their presented information: materiality, completeness, connectivity, future orientation and conciseness. We also identify important differences between their frameworks concerning the target audience of the reports, business model definitions and business model disclosure requirements. Discontinuation of intellectual capital reporting conforming to DATI guidelines provides important warnings for the proponents of voluntary disclosure – especially for
Austin, Jillian E.; Galijot, Ratka; Davies, W. Hobart
The relative effects of different autism disclosure methods on the perceptions of a mother-child dyad were investigated. Using three conditions, disclosure card, disclosure bracelet, and no disclosure, U.S. community parents (N = 383) were asked 18 questions about their perceptions of the dyad. An ANOVA revealed significant protection from stigma…
Davis, Jullet A
For many service-oriented firms, knowledge is a key commodity, and the process by which knowledge is codified is critical for firm survival. The administrator or top manager acts as the repository and disseminator of organizational knowledge. The purpose of this project is to examine the association between the administrator's educational attainment and innovation in residential care facilities. The study hypothesized that administrator academic education and certification or licensure would be positively associated with facility innovation. Data for this project comes from the 2010 National Survey of Residential Care Facilities. There were 2277 facilities included in the sample (weighted 30 811). Innovation, the dependent variable, was operationalized using 5 dichotomized measures: clinical information systems, pharmaceutical information systems, electronic health records, providing adult day care, and providing respite care. The data were analyzed using logistic regression. Overall, the results reveal that college education or certification/licensure increased the likelihood of technology use. In addition, those with a high school diploma and certification/licensure were more likely to use technology than were individuals who had, at a minimum, some college. The services models were not significant. It may be that the resources necessary to implement information systems vary substantially from the resources necessary to provide services.
Boll, Karen; Tell, Michael
This article discusses proactive public disclosure of taxpayer information and how this may form a new strategy for securing tax compliance by tax administrators. It reports a case study from the Danish Customs and Tax Administration in which consumers of services–over a short period of time...... proactive public disclosure is compatible with the Duty of Confidentiality, but incompatible with Good Public Governance. Furthermore, the analyses show that there are a number of strong organizational rationales for using proactive public disclosure, despite its apparent incompatibility with Good Public...
Full Text Available The purpose of the author’s research is to determine the actual content of sustainable architectural design for suburban residential development. In accordance with the methodology of area sustainable development the traditional architectural design according to the rules and regulations is completed with additional approaches and methods. As a result, methods of bio-positive design of buildings have been studied and defined, including: the principle of planning transformations, the use of environmentally friendly, local building materials and design concepts, energy-efficient architectural design, the use of alternative energy in building operation, the design of the energy intake and accumulationsystems, the architectural and landscape design that ensures stable functioning of autonomous, sustainable biosystems on the site, non-waste functioning of architectural objects, introduction of waste disposal systems in the project.
US Agency for International Development — USAID's FDTS identifies personal service contractors and local employees who should file disclosure reports. It tracks late filers and identifies those who must take...
Desi Alifia; Muhammad Khafid
Intellectual capital is an intangible asset which is able to increase company’s value. Intellectual capital inherent to skill, knowledge and experience that can create competitive advantage for company. The purposes of this study are to analyze the effect of ownership structure (managerial ownership, institutional ownership, government ownership, foreign ownership with the quality of audit committee as moderating variable on intellectual capital. The population of this study is financial comp...
Full Text Available The issue of corporate responsibility was a warm up for discussion. This study aimed to analyze the influence of company issuing sukuk, size, and profitability on the disclosure of Islamic Social Reporting. This study uses secondary data obtained through the site www.bapepam.go.id and www.idx.co.id by using purposive sampling. The results showed that only size that affect the disclosure of ISR, so the larger the total assets of the greater disclosure of Islamic Social Reporting. Sukuk issuance has no effect because the ownership structure of companies in Asia, including Indonesia tends to family ownership concentration. Profitability has no effect because the company has a perspective that is different to the Islamic Social Reporting.DOI: 10.15408/aiq.v9i1.3771
White, Andrew A; Gallagher, Thomas H
Errors occur commonly in healthcare and can cause significant harm to patients. Most errors arise from a combination of individual, system, and communication failures. Neurologists may be involved in harmful errors in any practice setting and should familiarize themselves with tools to prevent, report, and examine errors. Although physicians, patients, and ethicists endorse candid disclosure of harmful medical errors to patients, many physicians express uncertainty about how to approach these conversations. A growing body of research indicates physicians often fail to meet patient expectations for timely and open disclosure. Patients desire information about the error, an apology, and a plan for preventing recurrence of the error. To meet these expectations, physicians should participate in event investigations and plan thoroughly for each disclosure conversation, preferably with a disclosure coach. Physicians should also anticipate and attend to the ongoing medical and emotional needs of the patient. A cultural change towards greater transparency following medical errors is in motion. Substantial progress is still required, but neurologists can further this movement by promoting policies and environments conducive to open reporting, respectful disclosure to patients, and support for the healthcare workers involved. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Donalek, J G
Despite the pivotal importance of disclosure to incest treatment and healing, disclosure has never been studied from the victim's perspective. How do incest victims move from keeping the secret to speaking about their abuse? Nine adult women were asked to talk about the first time they each told about the incest. They often spoke, not of "telling" in the commonly understood sense (i.e. giving information to someone who understands one's meaning), but instead of a time when some form of knowledge of the incest first entered an interaction with another person. Colaizzi's (1978) phenomenological method was used to analyze the interviews. Seven themes emerged: (1) living in the silencing home; (2) I am totally and particularly alone; (3) my mother, the focus of need; (4) incest as burden; (5) the secret must be kept; (6) disclosure: trying to balance above a chasm; and (7) disclosure as loss: no matter what, I still lose. The themes were then integrated into an essential description of first incest disclosure. Implications for nursing practice are explored.
Md. Abdur Rouf
Full Text Available This is an exploratory study designed to investigate the extant and nature of corporate voluntary disclosure (CVD in corporate annual reports of Bangladesh. Specifically, examine the relationship between board diversity and corporate voluntary disclosures. The paper is based on a sample of 106 listed non-financial companies in Dhaka Stock Exchanges (DSE from the period 2007-2011 and all the companies are selected by Judgment Sampling. The study is used ordinary least squares regression model to examine the relationship between explanatory variables and voluntary disclosure. Using an unweighted relative disclosure index for measuring voluntary disclosure, the empirical results indicate that Percentage Female Director (PFD, Board Leadership Structure (BLS and Total Assets (TA are positively association with corporate voluntary disclosure (CVD. In contrast, the extent of corporate voluntary disclosure is negatively associated with a Percentage of equity owned by the insiders to all equity of the firm higher management ownership
Aerts, Walter; Clubb, C.; Imam, S.
Narrative accounting disclosures are an integral part of the corporate financial reporting package. They are deemed to provide a view of the company “through the eyes of management”. The narratives represent management's construal of corporate events and are largely discretionary. Research in
Lucas, Janet; DeGenaro, William
This article presents two essays that focus on the challenges presented by students' self-disclosures in their writing. The authors have read each other's essays and provided their brief responses. This cross talk between the writers continues, in a more deliberate way, the cross talk generated by their essays.
Enactment of mandated pre-procedure disclosures in abortion and assisted reproductive technology (ART) services has swelled in recent years. Calls to equally regard these mandates as neutral tools in furtherance of patient protection fail to acknowledge key substantive and structural differences in these reproduction-affecting mandates. While ART mandates permit physicians to use their medical judgment to protect presumptively vulnerable egg donors and gestational carriers, abortion disclosures impart scientifically suspect messaging aimed at dissuading women from pursuing pregnancy termination. These and other distinctions counsel in favor of regarding and analyzing abortion and ART mandated disclosures as separate and distinguishable informed consent tools. © 2015 American Society of Law, Medicine & Ethics, Inc.
... 32 National Defense 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disclosure accounting. 310.25 Section 310.25....25 Disclosure accounting. (a) Disclosure accountings. (1) Keep an accurate record of all disclosures made from any system of records except disclosures: (i) To DoD personnel for use in the performance of...
Full Text Available To date, research which integrates corporate governance and risk management has been limited. Yet, risk exposure and management are increasingly becoming the core function of modern business enterprises in various sectors and industries domestically and globally. Risk identification and management are crucial in any business strategy design and implementation. From the investors’ point of view, knowledge of the risk profile, risk appetite and risk management are key elements in making sound portfolio investment decisions. This paper examines the relationships between corporate governance mechanisms and risk disclosure behavior using a sample of Canadian publicly-traded companies (TSX 230. Results show that Canadian public companies are more likely to disclose risk management information over and above the mandatory risk disclosures, if they are larger in size and if their boards of directors have more independent members. Minority voting control ownership structures appear to negatively impact risk disclosure and CEO incentive compensation shows mixed results. The paper concludes that more research is needed to further assess the impact of various governance mechanisms on corporate risk management and disclosure behavior.
Executive Order 11222 prescribes standards of ethical conduct for Government officials and directs the Civil Service Commission to establish guidelines for agency financial disclosure systems. The financial disclosure system of the U.S. ERDA is discussed in this report. It is felt that the system is effective for detecting and resolving questionable financial interest held by employees. In many cases, however, employees were not advised in writing of potential conflicts and necessary remedial action. Also reviewing officials did not always report to the ethics counselor the results of efforts to resolve potential conflict problems. In addition, although agency regulations require employees to disqualify themselves from working on matters in which they have financial interests, not all reviewing officials have taken action to ensure that such disqualifications occurred. In view of the agency's recent actions to strengthen the system, no official recommendations are made. (RWR)
Bradley, N.; Kratz, M.P.J.
The legal dilemma that the year 2000 (Y2K) problem presents with regard to disclosure requirements is examined. In particular, this paper reviews the complexities involved for customers, suppliers and business partners to communicate about Y2K issues. The review prominently features the many levels of statutory, regulatory and legal overlay that must be considered before any communication takes place . One of the major barriers to disclosure is the threat that any statements made by one company or individual to another may give rise to various forms of liability, including limitation, defamation, misrepresentation, detrimental reliance, collateral contracts and warranties or representations. The paper also describes recent Canadian and U.S. Y2K disclosure requirements for public companies. While the legislation is intended to promote the voluntary sharing of Y2K information, it also sets out conditions limiting the extent to which Y2K statements can be used as the basis for liability. Canadian regulatory bodies also have several policies in effect that compel issuers of new securities to emphasize uncertainties which are likely to be factors in Y2K, and public companies to discuss and analyze risks, events and uncertainties within the management discussion and analysis section of their annual reports that would cause reported financial information to be not necessarily indicative of future operating results or conditions, should those uncertainties materialize. 8 refs
Through both interviews with primary and secondary mortgage market lending institutions and a search of the relevant literature, the major concerns and attitudes of financial institutions toward solar homes are reviewed, unique problems encountered in making loans on such structures are discussed and special requirements placed upon solar home loans are explored. At present, these are seen as centered around: (1) placing an appropriate valuation on a solar-heated home, (2) assessing the technical feasibility of a solar energy system, and (3) determining what energy savings might accrue through installation of a solar energy system and how such savings can best be integrated into the lending process. Some of the most pertinent literature on this subject is reviewed and the goals to be strived for in protecting solar access are set forth. Negative solar easements and restrictive covenants are seen as the most appropriate legal tools for assuring adequate solar access. Seven elements which must be addressed when describing the air space to be protected by an effective easement or covenant are identified. Appendices are included which show how one innovative lending institution has developed a policy for financing solar homes based upon these elements. Problems with regard to obtaining title insurance are discussed, and the enforceability and transferability of solar access rights are detailed.
Serovich, Julianne M.; Lim, Ji-Young; Mason, Tina L.
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the applicability of two theories of HIV disclosure previously tested with men. Participants included 125 HIV-positive women enrolled in a larger, longitudinal study of HIV disclosure and mental health. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the proposed theoretical models. The disease progression model contained two single-indicator exogenous variables (disease progression) and one endogenous latent variable (disclosure).The original conseq...
Hoben, Matthias; Estabrooks, Carole A.; Squires, Janet E.; Behrens, Johann
We translated the Canadian residential long term care versions of the Alberta Context Tool (ACT) and the Conceptual Research Utilization (CRU) Scale into German, to study the association between organizational context factors and research utilization in German nursing homes. The rigorous translation process was based on best practice guidelines for tool translation, and we previously published methods and results of this process in two papers. Both instruments are self-report questionnaires used with care providers working in nursing homes. The aim of this study was to assess the factor structure, reliability, and measurement invariance (MI) between care provider groups responding to these instruments. In a stratified random sample of 38 nursing homes in one German region (Metropolregion Rhein-Neckar), we collected questionnaires from 273 care aides, 196 regulated nurses, 152 allied health providers, 6 quality improvement specialists, 129 clinical leaders, and 65 nursing students. The factor structure was assessed using confirmatory factor models. The first model included all 10 ACT concepts. We also decided a priori to run two separate models for the scale-based and the count-based ACT concepts as suggested by the instrument developers. The fourth model included the five CRU Scale items. Reliability scores were calculated based on the parameters of the best-fitting factor models. Multiple-group confirmatory factor models were used to assess MI between provider groups. Rather than the hypothesized ten-factor structure of the ACT, confirmatory factor models suggested 13 factors. The one-factor solution of the CRU Scale was confirmed. The reliability was acceptable (>0.7 in the entire sample and in all provider groups) for 10 of 13 ACT concepts, and high (0.90–0.96) for the CRU Scale. We could demonstrate partial strong MI for both ACT models and partial strict MI for the CRU Scale. Our results suggest that the scores of the German ACT and the CRU Scale for nursing
Hoben, Matthias; Estabrooks, Carole A; Squires, Janet E; Behrens, Johann
We translated the Canadian residential long term care versions of the Alberta Context Tool (ACT) and the Conceptual Research Utilization (CRU) Scale into German, to study the association between organizational context factors and research utilization in German nursing homes. The rigorous translation process was based on best practice guidelines for tool translation, and we previously published methods and results of this process in two papers. Both instruments are self-report questionnaires used with care providers working in nursing homes. The aim of this study was to assess the factor structure, reliability, and measurement invariance (MI) between care provider groups responding to these instruments. In a stratified random sample of 38 nursing homes in one German region (Metropolregion Rhein-Neckar), we collected questionnaires from 273 care aides, 196 regulated nurses, 152 allied health providers, 6 quality improvement specialists, 129 clinical leaders, and 65 nursing students. The factor structure was assessed using confirmatory factor models. The first model included all 10 ACT concepts. We also decided a priori to run two separate models for the scale-based and the count-based ACT concepts as suggested by the instrument developers. The fourth model included the five CRU Scale items. Reliability scores were calculated based on the parameters of the best-fitting factor models. Multiple-group confirmatory factor models were used to assess MI between provider groups. Rather than the hypothesized ten-factor structure of the ACT, confirmatory factor models suggested 13 factors. The one-factor solution of the CRU Scale was confirmed. The reliability was acceptable (>0.7 in the entire sample and in all provider groups) for 10 of 13 ACT concepts, and high (0.90-0.96) for the CRU Scale. We could demonstrate partial strong MI for both ACT models and partial strict MI for the CRU Scale. Our results suggest that the scores of the German ACT and the CRU Scale for nursing
Wong, Brian M; Coffey, Maitreya; Nousiainen, Markku T; Brydges, Ryan; McDonald-Blumer, Heather; Atkinson, Adelle; Levinson, Wendy; Stroud, Lynfa
Residents' attitudes toward error disclosure have improved over time. It is unclear whether this has been accompanied by improvements in disclosure skills. To measure the disclosure skills of internal medicine (IM), paediatrics, and orthopaedic surgery residents, and to explore resident perceptions of formal versus informal training in preparing them for disclosure in real-world practice. We assessed residents' error disclosure skills using a structured role play with a standardized patient in 2012-2013. We compared disclosure skills across programs using analysis of variance. We conducted a multiple linear regression, including data from a historical cohort of IM residents from 2005, to investigate the influence of predictor variables on performance: training program, cohort year, and prior disclosure training and experience. We conducted a qualitative descriptive analysis of data from semistructured interviews with residents to explore resident perceptions of formal versus informal disclosure training. In a comparison of disclosure skills for 49 residents, there was no difference in overall performance across specialties (4.1 to 4.4 of 5, P = .19). In regression analysis, only the current cohort was significantly associated with skill: current residents performed better than a historical cohort of 42 IM residents ( P errors. Residents identified role modeling and a strong local patient safety culture as key facilitators for disclosure.
McNair, Ruth Patricia; Hegarty, Kelsey; Taft, Angela
Women's same-sex attraction is rarely raised within general practice consultations, despite a common desire for its inclusion. Same-sex attracted women are significantly more likely than heterosexual women to suffer a range of health inequalities, making disclosure of sexual orientation often clinically relevant. This research explored the influences on disclosure from the perspectives of GPs and their regular same-sex attracted female patients. We conducted in-depth semi-structured interviews between mid 2005 and late 2006 with 33 same-sex attracted Australian women, 27 GPs and 1 psychiatrist, including 24 patient-GP pairs. Analysis revealed three disclosure patterns by same-sex attracted women with their preferred GPs, which we labelled open (telling), passive (waiting to be asked) and private (not telling). The three main influences on disclosure patterns were women's sexual identity experience, the risk of disclosure perceived by women and GPs, and the quality of the patient-doctor relationship. We developed the Identity Disclosure model to explain the interactions between these three influences. The more important a woman's sexual identity, the more likely she was to prefer an open disclosure approach, while a lower level of identity importance led to a passive or private approach. Risk and relationship then counterbalanced the disclosure decision. A high level of perceived risk for women or GPs would reduce women's openness, or GPs' willingness to facilitate disclosure. Reciprocal knowing within the relationship would attenuate risk and increase openness. Reciprocity had the capacity to increase GPs' shared responsibility for disclosure, which was desired by many women. We suggest that the Identity Disclosure model will facilitate GPs' understanding of the complex influences on disclosure, and ultimately transform their consultations with same-sex attracted women beyond the habitual silence to a new level of sensitivity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All
N.S. Zourarakis (Nicolaos)
textabstractThis paper investigates the voluntary disclosure of Intellectual Capital (IC) of British firms and provides some evidence on an unexplored area of the literature; that of the association of Corporate Governance (CG) with IC disclosure. Inconsistent with expectations, the results show
Matlow, Anne; Stevens, Polly; Harrison, Christine; Laxer, Ronald M
The 1999 release of the Institute of Medicine's document To Err is Human was akin to removing the lid of Pandora's box. Not only were the magnitude and impact of medical errors now apparent to those working in the health care industry, but consumers or health care were alerted to the occurrence of medical events causing harm. One specific solution advocated was the disclosure to patients and their families of adverse events resulting from medical error. Knowledge of the historical perspective, ethical underpinnings, and medico-legal implications gives us a better appreciation of current recommendations for disclosing adverse events resulting from medical error to those affected.
Markard, Jochen; Holt, Edward
In this article we compare recent findings from focus group research on electricity information disclosure in Switzerland with consumer research in the US. On the basis of the results, we provide an overview of disclosure schemes in the US and in Europe. Our aim is to summarize the key issues of electricity disclosure from a residential customer's point of view and to underline the potential of consumer research for energy policy making. The results are as follows: Consumer preferences for electricity disclosure are very similar in Switzerland and the US. There is a basic demand for trustworthy information and market transparency. Consumers want to compare electricity products with regard to price, generation sources, and environmental and contractual attributes. Thus, the disclosure of critical information is important to improve competition by increasing consumer confidence in their ability to choose among electricity offerings. Even more, electricity disclosure is a key element of consumer protection in general, and is a useful educational tool in regulated electricity markets
Baker, Nicole Marie; Hastings, Sally O.
Most interpersonal communication course textbooks include a section or chapter on the topic of self-disclosure. Students are normally introduced to elements of self-disclosure, such as a definition, functions, or reasons for self-disclosure, risks of self-disclosure, and the role of self-disclosure in relationships. Historically, research on…
Arslan, Nihan; Kiper, Aydin
The aim of study is to investigate the relationship between self-disclosure and internet addiction. Self-Disclosure Scale and Internet Addiction Scale were applied to students. Results indicated a negative correlation between self-disclosure and internet addiction. Self-disclosure was negative predicted by internet addiction in the structural…
Venetis, Maria K; Chernichky-Karcher, Skye; Gettings, Patricia E
Within the context of mental illness disclosure between friends, this study tested the disclosure decision-making model (DD-MM; Greene, 2009) to comprehensively investigate factors that predict disclosure enactment strategies. The DD-MM describes how individuals determine whether they will reveal or conceal non-visible health information. Processes of revealing, called disclosures, take various forms including preparation and rehearsal, directness, third-party disclosure, incremental disclosures, entrapment, and indirect mediums (Afifi & Steuber, 2009). We explore the disclosure decision-making process to understand how college students select to disclose their mental illness information with a friend. Participants were 144 students at a Midwestern university who had disclosed their mental illness information to a friend. Structural equation modeling analyses revealed that college students choose strategies based on their evaluation of information assessment and closeness, and that for some strategies, efficacy mediates the relationship between information assessment and strategy. This manuscript discusses implications of findings and suggests direction for future research.
Full Text Available This research aims to investigate the relationship between firm’s characteristic (firm size, profitability, leverage, and company age and intellectual capital disclosure. This research also uses control variables such as board size, firm’s audit, and role of duality. Sample in this research are 34 Islamic bank’s annual reports collected by pooled data. Dependent variable in this research is intellectual capital disclosure. Dependent variable is measured by content analysis method. Content analysis is supported by disclosure index that measured variety of intellectual capital disclosure. It is also supported by word count that represented volume of intellectual capital disclosure respectively. Independent variable in this research are firm’s characteristic, consists of firm size, profitability, leverage, and company age. Data are analyzed by using SPSS program 16.00 version. Result of analysis indicates that there exist a significant relationship between variety of intellectual capital disclosure with all firm characteristic except for firm’s size. In other side, there is significant association volume of intellectual capital disclosure with all firm’s characteristic except for profitability. The influence of firm characteristic on intellectual capital mechanism on human, structural, and relational capital disclosure, based on two matrixes, is also explored.Keywords : Firm Characteristic, Intellectual Capital Disclosure, Content Analysis, Islamic Banking
Full Text Available About 40, ground plus one (G+1 residential units were designed using a hybrid structural framing system (RC frame and load bearing walls. A few months after the completion of the ground floor of the residential units, cracks appeared at several locations in the structure. Field and Laboratory testing was conducted to ascertain the in situ strength of concrete and steel reinforcement. The results of the experimental work were used in the analytical ETABS model for the structural stability calculations. The results indicated that residential units were marginally safe in the existing condition (completed ground floor, but the anticipated construction of the floor above the ground floor (G+1 could not be carried out as the strength of the structural system was inadequate. To increase the safety of existing ground floor and to provide the option of the construction of one floor above, rehabilitation and strengthening design was performed. The proposed strengthening design made use of welded wire fabric (WWF and carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP laminates/sheets for the strengthening of walls, columns and slabs. The residential units will be strengthened in the near future.
Bacová, Andrea; Puškár, Branislav; Vráblová, Edita
The housing estates in Bratislava saturated the housing needs of a large number of inhabitants who come after World War II to the city. Design of public spaces often did not have priority in the process of designing. The solutions for mentioned exterior spaces had been planned after blocks of flat realization, but many of them are not realized to this day. The article analyzes the example of the unrealized public spaces in existing housing estates Devinska Nova Ves and Petržalka (city districts of Bratislava) and offer practical solutions in relation to residencialization method. Residencialization of missing public places is an effective method of adding identities to settlements. It improves the quality of residential environment and public spaces. The main aim is to create better conditions for social activities in public areas, which are missing on the present. The research will be focused on the examination of the urban, cultural and construction potential of the existing residential enviroment in Bratislava. The main aim of residentialization is not only to enhance the quality of spatial and building structures in the selected residential area and maintain long-term sustainability in the pertinent programme area, but mainly to improve the quality of living for the residents. The outputs of the project are proposals and practical procedures developed with regard to planning documents for local municipal authorities and regional organizations. The solutions will have a positive impact on the enhancement of the quality of public spaces, attractive social activities and of a conceptual link - residentialization.
Brandt, Laura; Beima-Sofie, Kristin; Hamunime, Ndapewa; Shepard, Mark; Ferris, Larissa; Ingo, Paulina; John-Stewart, Grace; O'Malley, Gabrielle
To facilitate replication and adaptation of pediatric HIV disclosure interventions, we identified key components of a child-friendly cartoon book used to guide Namibian caregivers and healthcare workers (HCWs) through a gradual, structured disclosure process. Qualitative interviews were conducted with caregivers and HCWs from four high-volume pediatric HIV clinics in Namibia. Semi-structured in-depth interviews with 35 HCWs and 64 caregivers of HIV+ children aged 7-15 were analyzed using constant comparative and modified grounded theory analysis. Major barriers to disclosure were compared to accounts of intervention success, and themes related to key components were identified. The disclosure book overcomes barriers to disclosure by reducing caregiver resistance, increasing HIV and disclosure knowledge, and providing a gradual, structured framework for disclosure. The delayed mention of HIV-specific terminology overcomes caregiver fears associated with HIV stigma, thus encouraging earlier uptake of disclosure initiation. Caregivers value the book's focus on staying healthy, keeping the body strong, and having a future 'like other kids', thus capitalizing on evidence of the positive benefits of resilience and hopefulness rather than the negative consequences of HIV. The book's concepts and images resonate with children who readily adopt the language of 'body soldiers' and 'bad guys' in describing how important it is for them to take their medicine. Discussion cues ease communication between HCWs, caregivers, and pediatric patients. Given the urgent need for available pediatric HIV disclosure interventions, easily implementable tools like the Namibian disclosure book should be evaluated for utility in similar settings.
Korsgaard, Morten Timmermann
The aim of the present paper will be to engage the concept of inclusion and inclusive education through an interpretation of the political and educational writings of Hannah Arendt. Arendt’s view on the conditions of human beings seems to offer a singular and valuable starting point for such an e......The aim of the present paper will be to engage the concept of inclusion and inclusive education through an interpretation of the political and educational writings of Hannah Arendt. Arendt’s view on the conditions of human beings seems to offer a singular and valuable starting point...... here that the individualized take on inclusion that currently seems predominant works counterproductively, and that a focus on difference and disclosure, would enable a superior theoretical foundation for inclusion as well as point towards an actual conceptualization of what children need to practice...
Montgomery County of Maryland — The purpose of this Spending Disclosure Fiscal Year 12 dataset is to allow the public to search and view summary information on payments made to recipients (referred...
Dilaver, Zafer; Hunt, Lester C
This research investigates the relationship between Turkish residential electricity consumption, household total final consumption expenditure and residential electricity prices by applying the structural time series model to annual data over the period from 1960 to 2008. Household total final consumption expenditure, real energy prices and an underlying energy demand trend are found to be important drivers of Turkish residential electricity demand with the estimated short run and the long run total final consumption expenditure elasticities being 0.38 and 1.57, respectively, and the estimated short run and long run price elasticities being -0.09 and -0.38, respectively. Moreover, the estimated underlying energy demand trend, (which, as far as is known, has not been investigated before for the Turkish residential sector) should be of some benefit to Turkish decision makers in terms of energy planning. It provides information about the impact of past policies, the influence of technical progress, the impacts of changes in consumer behaviour and the effects of changes in economic structure. Furthermore, based on the estimated equation, and different forecast assumptions, it is predicted that Turkish residential electricity demand will be somewhere between 48 and 80 TWh by 2020 compared to 40 TWh in 2008. - Research highlights: → Estimated short run and long run expenditure elasticities of 0.38 and 1.57, respectively. → Estimated short run and long run price elasticities of -0.09 and -0.38, respectively. → Estimated UEDT has increasing (i.e. energy using) and decreasing (i.e. energy saving) periods. → Predicted Turkish residential electricity demand between 48 and 80 TWh in 2020.
German, a. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)
This research conducted by the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team evaluated mechanical air conditioner pre-cooling strategies in homes throughout the United States. EnergyPlus modeling evaluated two homes with different performance characteristics in seven climates. Results are applicable to new construction homes and most existing homes built in the last 10 years, as well as fairly efficient retrofitted homes.
This publication contains student and teacher instructional materials for a course in residential solar systems. The text is designed either as a basic solar course or as a supplement to extend student skills in areas such as architectural drafting, air conditioning and refrigeration, and plumbing. The materials are presented in four units…
Full Text Available Objective to elaborate the conceptual theoreticallegal provisions and scientific recommendations for the substantiating the inefficiency of mandated disclosure. Methods general dialectic method of cognition as well as the general scientific and specific legal methods of research based on it. Results the article explores the spectacular prevalence and failure of the single most common technique for protecting personal autonomy in modern society mandated disclosure. The article has four parts 1 a comprehensive summary of the recurring use of mandated disclosures in many forms and circumstances in the areas of consumer and borrower protection patient informed consent contract formation and constitutional rights 2 a survey of the empirical literature documenting the failure of the mandated disclosure regime in informing people and in improving their decisions 3 an account of the multitude of reasons mandated disclosures fail focusing on the political dynamics underlying the enactments of these mandates the incentives of disclosers to carry them out and most importantly on the ability of disclosees to use them and 4 an argument that mandated disclosure not only fails to achieve its stated goal but also leads to unintended consequences that often harm the very people it intends to serve. Scientific novelty the article elaborates and introduces into academic sphere the substantiation of the efficiency of mandated disclosure proves the failure of the mandated disclosure regime in informing people and in improving their decisions and reveals the unintended consequences that often harm the very people it intends to serve. Practical significance the provisions ad conclusions of the article can be used in scientific lawmaking and lawenforcement activities and in the educational process of institutions of higher education.
Full Text Available Objective to elaborate the conceptual theoreticallegal provisions and scientific recommendations for the substantiating the inefficiency of mandated disclosure. Methods general dialectic method of cognition as well as the general scientific and specific legal methods of research based on it. Results the article explores the spectacular prevalence and failure of the single most common technique for protecting personal autonomy in modern society mandated disclosure. The article has four parts 1 a comprehensive summary of the recurring use of mandated disclosures in many forms and circumstances in the areas of consumer and borrower protection patient informed consent contract formation and constitutional rights 2 a survey of the empirical literature documenting the failure of the mandated disclosure regime in informing people and in improving their decisions 3 an account of the multitude of reasons mandated disclosures fail focusing on the political dynamics underlying the enactments of these mandates the incentives of disclosers to carry them out and most importantly on the ability of disclosees to use them and 4 an argument that mandated disclosure not only fails to achieve its stated goal but also leads to unintended consequences that often harm the very people it intends to serve. Scientific novelty the article elaborates and introduces into academic sphere the substantiation of the efficiency of mandated disclosure proves the failure of the mandated disclosure regime in informing people and in improving their decisions and reveals the unintended consequences that often harm the very people it intends to serve. Practical significance the provisions ad conclusions of the article can be used in scientific lawmaking and lawenforcement activities and in the educational process of institutions of higher education.
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine: (1 to what extent Canadian oil and gas firms have adhered to the Canadian Institute of Chartered Accountant proposed guidelines respecting climate change disclosures in their annual reports, and (2 whether the disclosures of these firms can be influenced by their media visibility, the presence and operating characteristics of an environmental committee within the board of directors, their ownership structure, their audit firms, their political exposure and media visibility. The results show that the level of disclosure is very low; however, when the board of directors has an environment committee, the level of disclosure is higher. This is also the case for firms having significant political exposure and strong media visibility, and for those with a widely held ownership structure. Whether or not the audit firm is one of the Big Four, does not make any difference in the level of disclosure.
Chang, Yuan; Ries, Robert J.; Wang, Yaowu
In the context of rapid urbanization and new construction in rural China, residential building energy consumption has the potential to increase with the expected increase in demand. A process-based hybrid life-cycle assessment model is used to quantify the life-cycle energy use for both urban and rural residential buildings in China and determine the energy use characteristics of each life cycle phase. An input–output model for the pre-use phases is based on 2007 Chinese economic benchmark data. A process-based life-cycle assessment model for estimating the operation and demolition phases uses historical energy-intensity data. Results show that operation energy in both urban and rural residential buildings is dominant and varies from 75% to 86% of life cycle energy respectively. Gaps in living standards as well as differences in building structure and materials result in a life-cycle energy intensity of urban residential buildings that is 20% higher than that of rural residential buildings. The life-cycle energy of urban residential buildings is most sensitive to the reduction of operational energy intensity excluding heating energy which depends on both the occupants' energy-saving behavior as well as the performance of the building itself. -- Highlights: •We developed a hybrid LCA model to quantify the life-cycle energy for urban and rural residential buildings in China. •Operation energy in urban and rural residential buildings is dominant, varying from 75% to 86% of life cycle energy respectively. •Compared with rural residential buildings, the life-cycle energy intensity of urban residential buildings is 20% higher. •The life-cycle energy of urban residential buildings is most sensitive to the reduction of daily activity energy
In order to estimate the potential for future subsidence-related residential damage, a statistical analysis of past residential damage in the Boulder-Weld, Colorado, coal field was performed. The objectives of this study were to assess the difference in damage severity and frequency between undermined and non-undermined areas, and to determine, where applicable, which mining factors significantly influence the severity and frequency of residential damage. The results of this study suggest that undermined homes have almost three times the risk of having some type of structural damage than do non-undermined homes. The study also indicated that both geologic factors, such as the ratio of sandstone/claystone in the overburden, and mining factors, such as the mining feature (room, pillar, entry, etc.), can significantly affect the severity of overlying residential damage. However, the results of this study are dependent on local conditions and should not be applied elsewhere unless the geologic, mining, and residential conditions are similar
Full Text Available Purpose: This study aims to discover the Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR disclosure practices and the potential influence of Corporate Governance (CG, ownership structure, and corporate characteristics, in an emerging Arab country, Saudi Arabia. This study extends the extant literature by investigating the drivers of CSR disclosure in a country that lacks research in this area. Methodology: This study examines 267 annual reports of Saudi non-financial-listed firms during 2007- 2011 using manual content and multiple regression analyses and a checklist of 17 CSR disclosure items based on ISO 26000. Findings: The analysis finds that the CSR disclosure average is 24%, higher than 14.61% and 16% found by Al-Janadi et al. (2013 and Macarulla and Talalweh (2012 for two Saudi samples during 2006-2007 and during 2008, respectively. This improvement may be due to the application of Saudi CG code in 2007. The analysis also shows that government and family ownership, firm size, and firm age are positive determinants of CSR disclosure, firm leverage is a negative determinant, while effective AC, board independence, role duality, institutional ownership, firm profitability, and industry type are found not to be determinants of CSR disclosure. Originality/value: This study is important because it uses agency theory to ascertain the influence of specific board characteristics and ownership structures on disclosure. As a result it provides important implications for CG regulators and different stakeholders and provides an evaluation of the recently applied Saudi CG code from CSR disclosure perspective.
Ufere, Kalu Joseph; Alias, Buang; Godwin Uche, Aliagha
Climate change mitigation in developing economies is a balancing act, between economic development and environmental sustainability. The need for market friendly determinants for low carbon economy, without compromising economic development is of essence. The aim of the study is to determine market friendly factors, which motivates voluntary carbon information disclosure, in the real estate industry. The study modeled economic factor with three variables and financial market factor with three variables against voluntary carbon information disclosure in the real estate industry. Structural equation modeling was used for the modeling and content analysis was used to collect data on the level of voluntary carbon information disclosure, from 2013 annual reports of 126 real estate sector companies listed in the Kuala Lumpur Stock Exchange (KLSE). The model achieved a good fit, and was acceptable prediction. The results show that financial market factor has a significant predictive influence on voluntary carbon disclosure. The application of the result is that financial market factor is has a significantly positive influence on companies’ willingness to make voluntary carbon disclosure in the real estate industry. The result may be limited to the real estate industry that is highly leveraged on syndicated fund.
Data on residential loads has been collected from four residences in real time. The data, measured at 5-second intervals for 53 days of continuous operation, were statistically characterized. An algorithm was developed and incorporated into the modeling code SOLCEL. Performance simulations with SOLCEL using these data as well as previous data collected over longer time intervals indicate that no significant errors in system value are introduced through the use of long-term average data.
... REPORTING OF CURRENCY AND FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS General Provisions § 103.54 Disclosure. All reports required under this part and all records of such reports are specifically exempted from disclosure under section...
Keijsers, Loes; Voelkle, Manuel C; Maciejewski, Dominique; Branje, Susan; Koot, Hans; Hiemstra, Marieke; Meeus, Wim
This study aimed to gain a better understanding of the normative declines in adolescent disclosure and maternal knowledge over the course of adolescence, by assessing the underlying monitoring processes. Multilevel structural equation models were applied to 15 assessments among 479 families across 5 years (13 years at T1, 57% boys, 11% low socioeconomic status). Developmental declines in mother-perceived disclosure and knowledge were observed, which were partially explained by processes operating at the level of the family unit. On average, mothers were more knowledgeable in weeks with more disclosure and more solicitation, and adolescent disclosure was higher in weeks with more maternal solicitation and less control. The effect sizes and even the directions of these within-family correlations varied between families, however. This heterogeneity was partially explained by the level of maternal control and adolescent disclosure, and by the families' socioeconomic status. Within-family fluctuations in knowledge and disclosure were also correlated with fluctuations in relationship quality and adolescent and mother mood. Overall, these within-family processes explained up to 14% of the normative developmental decline in disclosure and 19% of the decline in knowledge. This study thus suggests that a wide variety in monitoring processes may drive normative declines in adolescent disclosure and maternal knowledge. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).
Lorenz, Rick; Grant, Eisha; Muyindike, Winnie; Maling, Samuel; Card, Claire; Henry, Carol; Nazarali, Adil J
Caregivers of HIV-positive children were interviewed in the Mbarara and Isingiro districts of Uganda to identify current trends in practices related to HIV testing and the disclosure of HIV status to the child. A total of 28 caregivers of at least one HIV-positive child participated in semi-structured interviews exploring when and why they tested the child for HIV, when the child was informed of their positive status, and what the caregiver did to prepare themselves and the child for status disclosure. For a majority (96%) of respondents, the decision to test the child for HIV was due to existing illness in either the child or a relative. Other common themes identified included the existence of stigma in the caregivers' communities and doubt that the children truly understood what was being explained to them when their status was disclosed. Most (65%) children were informed of their HIV status between the ages of 5 and 9, with the mean age of disclosure occurring at the age of 7. General provision of HIV information typically began at the same age as disclosure, and as many as two thirds (64%) of the caregivers sought advice from an HIV counsellor prior to disclosure. How a caregiver chose to prepare themselves and the child did not affect the caregiver's perception of whether the disclosure experience was beneficial or not. These findings suggest that the HIV disclosure experience in Mbarara and Isingiro districts differs from current guidelines, especially with respect to age of disclosure, how caregivers prepare themselves and the child, and approaching disclosure as an ongoing process. The doubts expressed by caregivers regarding the child's level of HIV understanding following the disclosure experience suggest the children may be insufficiently prepared at the time of the initial disclosure event. The findings also suggest that examining the content of pre-disclosure counselling and HIV education, and how health care professionals are trained to facilitate the
... 32 National Defense 5 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Disclosure accounting. 701.111 Section 701.111... THE NAVY DOCUMENTS AFFECTING THE PUBLIC DON Privacy Program § 701.111 Disclosure accounting. Disclosure accounting allows the individual to determine what agencies or persons have been provided...
... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Account disclosures. 230.4 Section 230.4 Banks... IN SAVINGS (REGULATION DD) § 230.4 Account disclosures. (a) Delivery of account disclosures—(1) Account opening. (i) General. A depository institution shall provide account disclosures to a consumer...
... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Account disclosures. 707.4 Section 707.4 Banks... § 707.4 Account disclosures. (a) Delivery of account disclosures—(1) Account opening. (i) General. A credit union must provide account disclosures to a member or potential member before an account is opened...
... form disclosures, and, if appropriate, a copy of the contract to the customer within 3 business days... requirements of the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act, 15 U.S.C. 7001 et seq. (d) Form... SUSPENSION AGREEMENTS § 37.6 Disclosures. (a) Content of short form of disclosures. The short form of...
Chelune, Gordon J.
Reactions of observers, classified as either high or low in self-disclosure flexibility, to high and low behavioral samples of self-disclosure to a stranger were examined. Results suggest self-disclosure flexibility reflects perceptual awareness of social-situational norms governing the appropriateness of self-disclosing behavior. (Author)
Souverein, F.A.; van der Helm, G.H.P.; Stams, G.J.J.M.
A debate about the effectiveness of secure residential youth care is currently going on. While some continue to support secure residential youth care, others conclude that ‘nothing works’ in secure residential youth care, and argue that non-residential treatment is superior to secure residential
There exists an abundance of literature on the health benefits of dog-ownership and the health benefits of self-disclosure however, there has been no research into the potential health benefits of self-disclosure to dogs. This thesis addresses that gap in the literature. Among the literature on the health benefits of dog-ownership there is often a focus on the benefits to people with clinical conditions or living in care facilities – much less investigated are the benefits to ‘normally-fun...
The EPA provides resources for handling residential demolitions or renovations. This includes planning, handling harmful materials, recycling, funding, compliance assistance, good practices and regulations.
Beck-Sagué, Consuelo M.; Dévieux, Jessy; Pinzón-Iregui, Maria Claudia; Lerebours-Nadal, Leonel; Abreu-Pérez, Rosa; Bertrand, Rachel; Rouzier, Vanessa; Gaston, Stephanie; Ibanez, Gladys; Halpern, Mina; Pape, Jean W.; Dorceus, Patricia; Preston, Sharice M.; Dean, Andrew G.; Nicholas, Stephen W.; Blasini, Ileana
Objectives To assess the safety, acceptability, and preliminary efficacy of a culturally-adapted disclosure intervention for perinatally HIV-infected combined antiretroviral therapy patients in Haiti and the Dominican Republic. Design A quasi-experimental trial was conducted comparing caregiver–youth pairs who completed the intervention [adapted Blasini disclosure model (aBDM)] to pairs who discontinued aBDM participation before disclosure. aBDM consists of five components: structured healthcare worker training; one-on one pre-disclosure intervention/education sessions for youth (describing pediatric chronic diseases including cancer, diabetes and HIV) and for caregivers (strengthening capacity for disclosure); a scheduled supportive disclosure session; and one-on-one postdisclosure support for caregivers and youth. Methods Caregivers of nondisclosed combined antiretroviral therapy patients aged 10.0–17.8 years were invited to participate. Data were collected by separate one-on-one face-to-face interviews of caregivers and youth by study staff and medical record review by pediatricians at enrollment and 3 months after disclosure or after intervention discontinuation. Results To date, 65 Dominican Republic and 27 Haiti caregiver–youth pairs have enrolled. At enrollment, only 46.4% of youth had viral suppression and 43.4% of caregivers had clinically significant depressive symptomatology. To date, two serious study-related adverse events have occurred. Seven of the 92 (7.6%, 6 in the Dominican Republic) enrolled pairs discontinued participation before disclosure and 39 had completed postdisclosure participation. Median plasma HIV-RNA concentration was lower in youth who completed aBDM than in youth who discontinued participation before aBDM disclosure (<40 versus 8673 copies/ml; P = 0.027). Completers expressed considerable satisfaction with aBDM. Conclusion Preliminary results suggest safety, acceptability, and possible effectiveness of the aBDM. PMID:26049543
This study estimates the electricity demand function for the residential sector of South Korea with the aim of examining the effects of improved energy efficiency, structural factors and household lifestyles on electricity consumption. In the study, time series data for the period from 1973 to 2007 is used in a structural time series model to estimate the long-term price and income elasticities and annual growth of underlying energy demand trend (UEDT) at the end of the estimation period. The result shows a long-term income elasticity of 1.33 and a long-term price elasticity of -0.27% with -0.93% as the percentage growth of UEDT at the end of the estimation period. This result suggests that, in order to encourage energy efficiency in the residential sector, the government should complement the market based pricing policies with non-market policies such as minimum energy efficiency standards and public enlightenment.
Sherman, Max H.
In the last quarter of a century, the western world has become increasingly aware of environmental threats to health and safety. During this period, people psychologically retreated away from outdoors hazards such as pesticides, smog, lead, oil spills, and dioxin to the seeming security of their homes. However, the indoor environment may not be healthier than the outdoor environment, as has become more apparent over the past few years with issues such as mold, formaldehyde, and sick-building syndrome. While the built human environment has changed substantially over the past 10,000 years, human biology has not; poor indoor air quality creates health risks and can be uncomfortable. The human race has found, over time, that it is essential to manage the indoor environments of their homes. ASHRAE has long been in the business of ventilation, but most of the focus of that effort has been in the area of commercial and institutional buildings. Residential ventilation was traditionally not a major concern because it was felt that, between operable windows and envelope leakage, people were getting enough outside air in their homes. In the quarter of a century since the first oil shock, houses have gotten much more energy efficient. At the same time, the kinds of materials and functions in houses changed in character in response to people's needs. People became more environmentally conscious and aware not only about the resources they were consuming but about the environment in which they lived. All of these factors contributed to an increasing level of public concern about residential indoor air quality and ventilation. Where once there was an easy feeling about the residential indoor environment, there is now a desire to define levels of acceptability and performance. Many institutions--both public and private--have interests in Indoor Air Quality (IAQ), but ASHRAE, as the professional society that has had ventilation as part of its mission for over 100 years, is the
Zhang, L.; Mol, A.P.J.; Yang, Shuai
The past decade has seen remarkable progress made in the field of environmental information disclosure in China. While the overall institutional changes and the motivation/willingness of the government to open up information are important conditions, China’s encounter with revolutionary Information
Plug, E.; Berkhout, P.
Gay/bisexual workers tend to earn less than other men. Does this occur because of discrimination or because of selection? In this paper we address this question and collect new information on workplace disclosure to separate out discrimination effects from selection effects. Using a large sample of
German, Alea [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States). Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI); Hoeschele, Marc [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States). Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI)
Residential air conditioning (AC) represents a challenging load for many electric utilities with poor load factors. Mechanical precooling improves the load factor by shifting cooling operation from on-peak to off-peak hours. This provides benefits to utilities and the electricity grid, as well as to occupants who can take advantage of time-of-use (TOU) electricity rates. Performance benefits stem from reduced compressor cycling, and shifting condensing unit operation to earlier periods of the day when outdoor temperatures are more favorable to operational efficiency. Finding solutions that save energy and reduce demand on the electricity grid is an important national objective and supports key Building America goals. The Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team evaluated mechanical AC precooling strategies in homes throughout the United States. EnergyPlus modeling was used to evaluate two homes with different performance characteristics in seven climates. Results are applicable to new construction homes and most existing homes built in the last 10 years, as well as fairly efficient retrofitted homes. A successful off-peak AC strategy offers the potential for increased efficiency and improved occupant comfort, and promotes a more reliable and robust electricity grid. Demand response capabilities and further integration with photovoltaic TOU generation patterns provide additional opportunities to flatten loads and optimize grid impacts.
Wang, ShanShan; Wei, DongTao; Li, WenFu; Li, HaiJiang; Wang, KangCheng; Xue, Song; Zhang, Qinglin; Qiu, Jiang
Self-disclosure is an important performance in human social communication. Generally, an individual is likely to have a good physical and mental health if he is prone to self-disclosure under stressful life events. However, as for now, little is known about the neural structure associated with self-disclosure. Therefore, in this study, we used voxel-based morphometry to explore regional gray matter volume (rGMV) and white matter volume (rWMV) associated with self-disclosure measured by the Jourard Self-disclosure Questionnaire in a large sample of college students. Results showed that individual self-disclosure was significantly and positively associated with rGMV of the left postcentral gyrus, which might be related to strengthen individual's ability of body feeling; while self-disclosure was significantly and negatively associated with rGMV of the right orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), which might be involved in increased positive emotion experience seeking (intrinsically rewarding). In addition, individual self-disclosure was also associated with smaller rWMV in the right inferior parietal lobule (IPL). These findings suggested a biological basis for individual self-disclosure, distributed across different gray and white matter areas of the brain.
... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Accounting of disclosures... RULES 9.2-Disclosure of Records § 51-9.202 Accounting of disclosures. (a) Except for disclosures made pursuant to paragraphs (a) and (b) of § 51-9.201 of this part, an accurate accounting of each disclosure...
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the extent and quality of intellectual capital disclosure at Czech public universities in relation to information need of identified stakeholders – students. This research is based on the theoretical framework for voluntary intellectual capital disclosure, the proposed intellectual capital disclosure index, the identification of stakeholders including their information need as well as the content analysis of the universities’ annual reports has been applied. The quality of disclosed information on intangible resources in public universities in the Czech Republic is in the middle level. In the highest quality is disclosed relational capital, followed by structural and human capital. Information need of students is highest for information falling under the relational capital followed by structural capital and human capital. This study opens new approach regarding intellectual capital disclosure including suggested recommendations for Czech public universities, as there was no research related to the issue conducted in the past.
Hielscher, Emily; Waghorn, Geoffrey
To first provide an overview of studies that explore mental health disclosure in the workplace; including factors that influence the decision to disclose, and differing approaches to disclosure (binary, multidimensional, and evolving and ongoing). Second, to provide a critical overview of existing tools designed to help clients manage their mental health disclosure decisions. Electronic searches of PubMed, PsycINFO and ScienceDirect were undertaken, excluding all articles published prior to 1990. The following search terms were used: mental health disclosure, employment, severe and persistent mental illness, psychosis, schizophrenia, supported employment, individual placement and support (IPS). We found that mental health disclosure involves a complex decision-making process, and yet clients of IPS supported employment are currently provided with little structured guidance on how to manage their personal information in the workplace. More extensive investigations are required of existing mental health disclosure tools before they can be developed into a standardized intervention for practitioners. However, preliminary evidence suggests that facilitating better disclosure decisions and management of personal information is a promising area of future research. This line of investigation is likely to find ways to enhance competitive employment outcomes in supported employment for people with severe and persistent mental illness. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).
Yoo, Seonyoung; Matsui, Yutaka
The present study focused on attitudes related to inhibiting spousal disclosure about stress as an influential factor for the mental health of firefighters. In a pilot study using semi-structured interviews (N = 14), we found that some firefighters usually did not talk about their stresses with their spouses. Some reasons were that they were hiding their weakness, were feeling sure of controlling their stress, out of consideration for their spouse, were giving up on the possibility for improving the situation after spousal disclosure, or hoped to distract themselves. In a subsequent questionnaire survey (N = 554), the results showed that attitudes about inhibiting spousal disclosure of stress have an effect on spousal disclosure about stress and the mental health of firefighters. The findings of the present study imply that spousal disclosure about interpersonal stress can be regarded as an effective factor, along with the disclosure to colleagues, for relieving stress. It is necessary to consider the importance of attitudes about inhibiting disclosure for stress as part of stress management for firefighters.
Full Text Available Privacy issues have become a major concern in the web of resource sharing, and users often have difficulty managing their information disclosure in the context of high-quality experiences from social media and Internet of Things. Recent studies have shown that users’ disclosure decisions may be influenced by heuristics from the crowds, leading to inconsistency in the disclosure volumes and reduction of the prediction accuracy. Therefore, an analysis of why this influence occurs and how to optimize the user experience is highly important. We propose a novel heuristic model that defines the data structures of items and participants in social media, utilizes a modified decision-tree classifier that can predict participants’ disclosures, and puts forward a correlation analysis for detecting disclosure inconsistences. The heuristic model is applied to real-time dataset to evaluate the behavioral effects. Decision-tree classifier and correlation analysis indeed prove that some participants’ behaviors in information disclosures became decreasingly correlated during item requesting. Participants can be “persuaded” to change their disclosure behaviors, and the users’ answers to the mildly sensitive items tend to be more variable and less predictable. Using this approach, recommender systems in social media can thus know the users better and provide service with higher prediction accuracy.
Kalu, Joseph Ufere; Buang, Alias; Aliagha, Godwin Uche
Corporate real estate management holds the tent that risk which is not understood cannot be measured or managed. The effect of global warming on real estate investment and need for climate change mitigation through disclosures by companies of carbon emission information has becomes a sine-qua-non for the management of companies' carbon footprint and reducing its overall effect on global warming. This study applied the structural equation modeling technique to determine the determinants influencing Carbon Disclosure in Real Estate Companies in a developing economy. The analysis was based on 2013 annual reports of 126 property sector companies listed in Malaysia stock exchange market. The model was validated through convergent validity, discriminant validity, composite reliability and goodness of fit. The result reveals that social and financial market were critical determinant factors for carbon disclosure while the economic and institutional factors did not achieve significant effect on voluntary carbon disclosure. The result is consistent with legitimacy theory and agency theories. The implication of this finding is that increase in public education and awareness will enhance community demand for disclosure from companies and they will increase level of disclosure; also as financial institutions consider sustainability practice as a viable investment and term for credit financing, companies will be motivated to increase disclosure. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Techniques for residential energy monitoring are an emerging field that is currently drawing significant attention. This paper is a description of the current efforts to monitor and compare the performance of three solar powered homes built at Missouri University of Science and Technology. The homes are outfitted with an array of sensors and a data logger system to measure and record electricity production, system energy use, internal home temperature and humidity, hot water production, and exterior ambient conditions the houses are experiencing. Data is being collected to measure the performance of the houses, compare to energy modeling programs, design and develop cost effective sensor systems for energy monitoring, and produce a cost effective home control system.
Sexton-Radek, Kathy; Hartley, Andrew
College students regularly report increased sleep disturbances as well as concomitant reductions in performance (e.g., academic grades) upon entering college. Sleep hygiene refers to healthy sleep practices that are commonly used as first interventions in sleep disturbances. One widely used practice of this sort involves arranging the sleep environment to minimize disturbances from excessive noise and light at bedtime. Communal sleep situations such as those in college residence halls do not easily support this intervention. Following several focus groups, a questionnaire was designed to gather self-reported information on sleep disturbances in a college population. The present study used The Young Adult Sleep Environment Inventory (YASEI) and sleep logs to investigate the sleep environment of college students living in residential halls. A summary of responses indicated that noise and light are significant sleep disturbances in these environments. Recommendations are presented related to these findings.
Reynaud, Arnaud; Renzetti, Steven; Villeneuve, Michel
In this paper, we show that the rate structure endogeneity may result in a misspecification of the residential water demand function. We propose to solve this endogeneity problem by estimating a probabilistic model describing how water rates are chosen by local communities. This model is estimated on a sample of Canadian local communities. We first show that the pricing structure choice reflects efficiency considerations, equity concerns, and, in some cases, a strategy of price discrimination across consumers by Canadian communities. Hence estimating the residential water demand without taking into account the pricing structures' endogeneity leads to a biased estimation of price and income elasticities. We also demonstrate that the pricing structure per se plays a significant role in influencing price responsiveness of Canadian residential consumers.
dissertation presents a bottom-up highly resolved model of a generic residential energy eco-system in the United States. The model is able to capture the entire energy footprint of an individual household, to include all appliances, space conditioning systems, in-home charging of plug-in electric vehicles, and any other energy needs, viewing residential and transportation energy needs as an integrated continuum. The residential energy eco-system model is based on a novel bottom-up approach that quantifies consumer energy use behavior. The incorporation of stochastic consumer behaviors allows capturing the electricity consumption of each residential specific end-use, providing an accurate estimation of the actual amount of available controllable resources, and for a better understanding of the potential of residential demand response programs. A dynamic energy management framework is then proposed to manage electricity consumption inside each residential energy eco-system. Objective of the dynamic energy management framework is to optimize the scheduling of all the controllable appliances and in-home charging of plug-in electric vehicles to minimize cost. Such an automated energy management framework is used to simulate residential demand response programs, and evaluate their impact on the electric power infrastructure. For instance, time-varying electricity pricing might lead to synchronization of the individual residential demands, creating pronounced rebound peaks in the aggregate demand that are higher and steeper than the original demand peaks that the time-varying electricity pricing structure intended to eliminate. The modeling tools developed in this study can serve as a virtual laboratory for investigating fundamental economic and policy-related questions regarding the interplay of individual consumers with energy use. The models developed allow for evaluating the impact of different energy policies, technology adoption, and electricity price structures on the total
Alyson Gomes de Souza
Full Text Available The present study sought to analyze adherence to CFC Resolution No. 1429/13 in elaboration and disclosure of Financial Statements by Brazilian clubs. Through a checklist inspired by Raschka, Wallner and Costa (2008, we analyzed this adherence in 2013. We observed that the specific criteria and procedures for the evaluation, accounting records and structuring of the Financial Statements of professional soccer entities 53.04% of the items recommended by CFC Resolution No. 1429/2013. The results pointed that there is a significant variation in the disclosure process between the clubs, which makes it difficult to understand accounting records and assess the shareholders’ equity of soccer clubs. This lack of standardization to the accounting practices in accordance with NBC ITG 2003 complicates any interpretation of accounting records and assessment of the heritage of soccer bodies, increasing the risk of a wrong decision making on the purchase, sale or training players. These decisions affect the club’s finances, and create barriers to investors, since they cannot identify the real situation of the club and calculate investments. Due to the economic importance, cultural and social development of soccer clubs, this study has greatly contributed to the development of a discussion on accounting level disclosure practiced in the club, as this new standard of conduct seeks to maximize the level of accounting disclosure as a requirement for behavioral change of both the leaders and the organizational, economical and financial development of sports entities.
Full Text Available The aim of this study is to examine the corporate governance influence on strategic management accounting disclosure. The strategic management accounting disclosure in this study was measured by the disclosure level regarding strategic management accounting published in the company's annual report according to the index (made by the author. The corporate governance is proxied by board size, independent board, and managerial ownership. The data of this study are 497 manufacturing companies in Indonesia in the period of 2011-2015 and the method employed in this study is regression analysis method. The findings show that board size has significant positive influence on the disclosure level of strategic management accounting of manufacturing companies in Indonesia, and the proportion of independent board does not influence SMA disclosure, while managerial ownership has negative influence the disclosure level of strategic management accounting.
This paper explores the pros and cons of self-disclosure and self revelation in the analyst. It takes as its starting point a paper by Jeffrey Stern that shows a mixed but generally positive outcome of an incident of self-disclosure. The trend in more recent times has been toward somewhat more self-disclosure, with modern analysts' views on a continuum. The author discusses an example from his own practice, in which he delayed self-disclosure for some time, but did reveal facts about himself, and how this had a mostly positive outcome. He concludes by distinguishing self-disclosure that entails stating facts about self from self-revelation, when the analyst tells his feelings about some specifics from his own life or in the patient's disclosure. Such revelation is not likely to be beneficial to the therapeutic alliance in its early stages, but may be of value as the analytic relationship and trust develop over longer time.
Miles McQueen; Jason L. Wright; Lawrence Wellman
Vulnerability research organizations Rapid7, Google Security team, and Zero Day Initiative recently imposed grace periods for public disclosure of vulnerabilities. The grace periods ranged from 45 to 182 days, after which disclosure might occur with or without an effective mitigation from the affected software vendor. At this time there is indirect evidence that the shorter grace periods of 45 and 60 days may not be practical. However, there is strong evidence that the recently announced Zero Day Initiative grace period of 182 days yields benefit in speeding up the patch creation process, and may be practical for many software products. Unfortunately, there is also evidence that the 182 day grace period results in more vulnerability announcements without an available patch.
Sowerbutts, Rhiannon; Zimmerman, Peter; Zer, Ilknur
Inadequate public disclosure by banks contributed to the financial crisis. This is because investors, unable to judge the risks that banks are bearing, withdraw lending in times of systemic stress. This article presents quantitative indices which allow for the comparison of disclosure between banks and over time. Internationally, disclosure has improved since 2000, particularly around banks’ valuation methods and funding risk. However, more information alone is not sufficient to solve the pro...
The legal disclosure requirements for merger and acquisition transactions involving Canadian public companies are described. The focus is on issues regarding merger and acquisition related disclosure, including the potential consequences of failing to provide proper information, Ontario Securities Commission Policy 9.1 considerations regarding valuation, review, and approval, cross border considerations and financing a merger and acquisition transaction. Legal and practical consequences for failing to provide proper disclosure, including the steps involved in establishing the due diligence defence, are also discussed
The purpose of this study is to discuss what kinds of information are demanded by the users of financial statements and what kinds of problems plague the companies using SPE (special purpose equity), while considering the actual situations of the consolidation and disclosure of SPE in Japan. At present, there is the trend of consolidating a broad range of SPE in Japan, etc., but some users of financial statements point out that it became difficult to understand consolidated financial stat...
..., accounting of certain disclosures, and definitions. 1003.1 Section 1003.1 Foreign Relations INTER-AMERICAN FOUNDATION RULES SAFEGUARDING PERSONAL INFORMATION IN IAF RECORDS § 1003.1 General policies, conditions of disclosure, accounting of certain disclosures, and definitions. (a) The Inter-American Foundation will...
Boerman, S.C.; van Reijmersdal, E.A.; Neijens, P.C.
This study investigates whether the timing of sponsorship disclosure affects viewers’ processing of sponsored content, and whether a disclosure influences the persuasive effect of the sponsored content. A model is proposed in which sponsorship disclosure enhances the recognition of sponsored
Smith, B.A.; Uhlaner, R.T.; Cason, T.N.; Courteau, S. (Quantum Consulting, Inc., Berkeley, CA (United States))
This report presents the research methods and results from the Residential Energy Usage Comparison (REUC) project, a joint effort by Southern California Edison Company (SCE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The REUC project design activities began in early 1986. The REUC project is an innovative demand-site project designed to measure and compare typical energy consumption patterns of energy efficient residential electric and gas appliances. 95 figs., 33 tabs.
Bittman, Barry; Dickson, Larry; Coddington, Kim
Obstacles to effectively rehabilitate inner-city adolescents in staff-secure residential treatment centers should not be underestimated. Effective evidence-based protocols are lacking to help juveniles who are often angry, detached, frustrated, and in direct conflict with their peers. Facing a myriad of issues ranging from youth delinquency offenses to trauma, abuse, drug/alcohol use, peer pressure/gang-related activities, lack of structure in home environments, mental health diagnoses, and cognitive functioning difficulties, these adolescents present extraordinary challenges to an over-stressed juvenile justice system. A randomized controlled crossover study is utilized to comprehensively evaluate the effectiveness of a novel creative musical expression protocol as a catalyst for nonverbal and verbal disclosure leading to improvements in quality of life for inner-city youth in a court-referred residential treatment program. A total of 52 (30 females and 22 males) African-American, Asian, Caucasian, and Puerto Rican subjects ranging in age from 12 to 18 (mean age 14.5) completed the study. Dependent variable measures included the Child and Adolescent Functional Assessment Scale (CAFAS), the Adolescent Psychopathology Scale (APS), the Adolescent Anger Rating Scale (AARS), the Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale, 2nd edition (RADS 2), and the Adolescent Visual-Analog Recreational Music Making Assessment (A-VARMMA). Statistically significant (experimental vs control) improvements in multiple parameters include school/work role performance, total depression, anhedonia/negative affect, negative self-evaluation, and instrumental anger. In addition, extended impact (experimental vs control) is characterized by statistically significant improvements 6 weeks after completion of the protocol, for school/work role performance, behavior toward others, anhedonia/negative affect, total anger, instrumental anger, anger, and interpersonal problems. The primary limitations of this
Full Text Available Using the City of Roanoke, Virginia as a study site, this paper quantifies the forest structure, ecosystem services and values of vacant and residential land. Single family residential land had more trees (1,683,000 than vacant land (210,000 due largely to the differences in land area (32.44 km2 of vacant land vs. 57.94 km2 residential. While the percentage of tree coverage was almost identical across land uses (30.6% in vacant to 32.3% in residential, the number of trees per ha is greater on residential land (290.3 than on vacant land (63.4. The average healthy leaf surface area on individual trees growing on vacant land was greater than that of individual trees on residential land. The fact that trees in vacant land were found to provide more ecosystem services per tree than residential trees was attributed to this leaf area difference. Trees on vacant land are growing in more natural conditions and there are more large trees per ha. Assessing the forest structure and ecosystem services of Roanoke’s vacant and residential land provides a picture of the current extent and condition of the vacant and residential land. Understanding these characteristics provides the information needed for improved management and utilization of urban vacant land and estimating green infrastructure value.
Full Text Available This paper discusses the mandatory risk disclosures in Canada under International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS. U.S. mandatory accounting disclosures of risk are also briefly examined, since some Canadian companies are cross-listed in the US. Mandatory disclosures of risk under the Basel II and Basel III Accords for the international regulation of banks are discussed as well as the assessment of ERM by Standard & Poor’s. The risk disclosures in the Management Discussion & Analysis (MD&A section of the annual report prescribed by the Canadian Securities Administrators (CSA in National Instrument 51-102 Continuous Disclosure Obligations are examined. Since these risk disclosures are voluntary, the actual disclosures in the MD&A section of the annual report are entirely at the discretion of management subject to effective board oversight.
Choi, Soe Yoon; Venetis, Maria K.; Greene, Kathryn; Magsamen-Conrad, Kate; Checton, Maria G.; Banerjee, Smita C.
This study applied the disclosure decision-making model (DD-MM) to explore how individuals plan to disclose nonvisible illness (Study 1), compared to planning to disclose personal information (Study 2). Study 1 showed that perceived stigma from the illness negatively predicted disclosure efficacy; closeness predicted anticipated response (i.e., provision of support) although it did not influence disclosure efficacy; disclosure efficacy led to reduced planning, with planning leading to scheduling. Study 2 demonstrated that when information was considered to be intimate, it negatively influenced disclosure efficacy. Unlike the model with stigma (Study 1), closeness positively predicted both anticipated response and disclosure efficacy. The rest of the hypothesized relationships showed a similar pattern to Study 1: disclosure efficacy reduced planning, which then positively influenced scheduling. Implications of understanding stages of planning for stigmatized information are discussed. PMID:27662447
Naturalistic and Supernaturalistic Disclosures: The Possibility of Relational Miracles. Amy Fisher Smith. Abstract. This paper explores naturalism and supernaturalism as modes of disclosure that reveal and conceal different aspects of relationality. Naturalism is presented as a worldview or set of philosophical assumptions ...
... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Advertising disclosures. 259.2 Section 259.2... ADVERTISING FOR NEW AUTOMOBILES § 259.2 Advertising disclosures. (a) No manufacturer or dealer shall make any express or implied representation in advertising concerning the fuel economy of any new automobile 1...
Self-disclosure is a rather difficult skill for both the counselor and the counselee in the psychological counseling process. In this study, the self-disclosure skill, which is an important concept in psychological counseling, and sharing with the public, i.e. with other people, will be studied. The data for the study, which is of a qualitative…
Martin J. Jennings; Edward E. Emmons; Gene R. Hatzenbeler; Clayton Edwards; Michael A. Bozek
We measured differences in nearshore littoral zone habitat among lakes with different amounts of residential development and different patterns of watershed land use. Sampling stations were located at randomly selected sites within the nearshore littoral zone of limnologically similar lakes. An index of development density (based on counts of residential structures)...
Beacroft, Monica; Dodd, Karen
This audit investigated residential staff beliefs around pain thresholds and strategies they adopt to recognise and manage pain in people with learning disabilities across Surrey. A structured interview was constructed to elicit information. Results demonstrated that pain is not being effectively recognised or managed by residential staff in…
Full Text Available The objective of this study is to investigate the relationship between corporate governance (CG, corporate social responsibility (CSR disclosure, and economic consequences. Broadly speaking, the CG variables consist of ownership structure and management/control structure. The CSR disclosure variables consist of economic, environmental, social, human rights, societal, and product responsibility dimensions. The economic consequences variables consist of bid-ask spreads, trading volume, and share price volatility. The hypotheses are tested using a structural equation modeling analysis with 210 samples of listed firms on the Indonesian Stock Exchange in 2014. The result of this study is as follows: (1 the effect of the proportion of board of directors from the board of commissioners and the audit committee on the CSR disclosure is positive and significant; (2 the effect of the proportion of independent commissioners and the audit committee from the board of commissioners, the audit committee, and the board of directors on CSR disclosure is positive and significant; and (3 the effect of CSR disclosure on trading volume is positive and significant. The main implication of this study is that CSR disclosure activities have a very important role in meeting stakeholders' interests and ensuring the sustainability of the company long-term. In addition, CSR disclosure is considered to be an assertion of a company’s brand differentiation, which means obtaining operating licenses both from the government and society, and the company’s risk management strategy.
Quatman, Teri; Swanson, Connie
Adolescents' dialogues with friends and classmates about their academic performance constitute a central arena of self-disclosure for developing teenagers. Yet researchers have generally limited the range of their study of academic self-disclosure to gifted students. This study brings together the literature on self-disclosure, academic achievement, and adolescent development to elucidate the overlapping elements at play in adolescents' everyday decisions to talk about their academic performance. With an ethnically diverse sample of San Francisco Bay Area ("Silicon Valley") 10th and 12th graders, the authors developed a 12-scenario instrument specifying both interpersonal context (attraction/friendship) and relative-intelligence relationship (more, less, or equally smart), querying degrees of academic self-disclosure associated with these contexts. The results indicated that self-disclosure was highly (positively) influenced by the achievement level of both the discloser and listener, modestly influenced by friendship versus romantic interest, and influenced in anticipated directions by gender and age.
Full Text Available This paper aims to assess the actual operational risk disclosure in Romanian banks. Therefore we focus on the operational risk information that Romanian banks reveal and if they conform to the requirements of the National Bank of Romania. The study methodology consists in testing the annual financial reports for Romanian commercial banks. The analysis shows that the financial reports of Romanian banks are not in consonance with the requirements of the National Bank of Romania relating to operational risk revealer and also there are many discrepancies between Romanian banks relating to the format of the financial report, which presents the operational risk disclosures. Commercial banks in Romania have different approaches of showing the disclosures of operational risk. Accordingly, they do not disclose the same types of information. Our study advice Romanian commercial banks to increase prevailing operational risk disclosure proceedings. The contribution of this paper is to highlight the Romanian commercial approaches of the operational risk disclosures.
Beyeler, Walter E; DeMenno, Mercy B.; Finley, Patrick D.
As with other large healthcare organizations, medical adverse events at the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) facilities can expose patients to unforeseen negative risks. VHA leadership recognizes that properly handled disclosure of adverse events can minimize potential harm to patients and negative consequences for the effective functioning of the organization. The work documented here seeks to help improve the disclosure process by situating it within the broader theoretical framework of issues management, and to identify opportunities for process improvement through modeling disclosure and reactions to disclosure. The computational model will allow a variety of disclosure actions to be tested across a range of incident scenarios. Our conceptual model will be refined in collaboration with domain experts, especially by continuing to draw on insights from VA Study of the Communication of Adverse Large-Scale Events (SCALE) project researchers.
Mehta, Veli; Mukherjee, Sumitava; Manjaly, Jaison A
With the advent of social networks where people disclose a lot of their information and opinions publicly, this research attempted to re-look at the effect of environmental lighting on willingness and actual disclosure of personal information. Previous literatures mostly addressed counseling setups and the findings were mixed. In order to clarify the effect of lighting on self-disclosure, two experiments were conducted with reported willingness to disclose (Experiment 1) as well as actual disclosure (Experiment 2) on a range of topics like social issues, body, money, work, and personality. While quite a handful of studies have reported differences in disclosure from very subtle environmental lighting manipulations, in both experiments we could not find any effect of ambient room lighting conditions on self-disclosure. These results call for caution both in over-interpreting subtle environmental effects and in increased generalization of perceptual metaphors to actual behavior.
Bhattacharyya, Subhes C.
Highlights: • The middle income group emerges as the dominant segment by 2030. • Commercial residential energy demand increases 3–4 folds compared to 2010. • Electricity and LPG demand grows above 6% per year in the reference scenario. • India faces the potential of displacing the domination of biomass by 2030. - Abstract: India’s recent macro-economic and structural changes are transforming the economy and bringing significant changes to energy demand behaviour. Life-style and consumption behaviour are evolving rapidly due to accelerated economic growth in recent times. The population structure is changing, thereby offering the country with the potential to reap the population dividend. The country is also urbanising rapidly, and the fast-growing middle class segment of the population is fuelling consumerism by mimicking international life-styles. These changes are likely to have significant implications for energy demand in the future, particularly in the residential sector. Using the end-use approach of demand analysis, this paper analyses how residential energy demand is likely to evolve as a consequence of India’s transformation and finds that by 2030, India’s commercial energy demand in the residential sector can quadruple in the high scenario compared to the demand in 2010. Demand for modern fuels like electricity and liquefied petroleum gas is likely to grow at a faster rate. However, there is a window of opportunity to better manage the evolution of residential demand in India through energy efficiency improvement
Sulstarova, Brikela; Poglia Mileti, Francesca; Mellini, Laura; Villani, Michela; Singy, Pascal
No study to date has focused specifically on the reasons for and against disclosure of HIV-positive status among sub-Saharan migrant women. Thirty HIV-positive women from 11 sub-Saharan countries living in French-speaking Switzerland participated in semi-structured individual interviews. The reasons women reported for disclosure or nondisclosure of their HIV serostatus were classified into three categories: social, medical, and ethical. The women identified the stigma associated with HIV as a major social reason for nondisclosure. However, this study identifies new trends related to disclosure for medical and ethical reasons. Being undetectable played an important role in the life of sub-Saharan migrant women, and analysis revealed their medical reasons for both disclosure and nondisclosure. Disclosure to new sexual partners occurred when women had a more positive perception about HIV and when they believed themselves to be in a long-term relationship. Women reported nondisclosure to family members when they did not need help outside the support provided by the medical and social fields. The results on ethical reasons suggested that challenging stigma was a reason for disclosure. Since the women' perceptions on HIV changed when they came to see it as a chronic disease, disclosure occurred in an attempt to normalize life with HIV in their communities in migration and to challenge racism and discrimination. Our findings can help health providers better understand the communication needs of sub-Saharan migrant women with respect to HIV/AIDS and sexuality and offer them adequate disclosure advice that takes into account migration and gender issues.
... in the performance of their duties. (b) This accounting of the disclosures will be retained for a... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting of disclosure. 2100.12 Section... PROCEDURES § 2100.12 Accounting of disclosure. (a) The AFRH or agency will maintain a record of disclosures...
was to determine the rate of HIV disclosure by the parents/caretakers to their children and other factors affecting disclosure. Methods: A cross sectional study ... judgment of the counselor and parent/guardian.14 The. Correaponding author: ..... depression resulting from disclosure and thoughts of dying after disclosure.
... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accounting of disclosures. 802.20 Section... COLUMBIA DISCLOSURE OF RECORDS Privacy Act § 802.20 Accounting of disclosures. (a) We will provide an accounting of all disclosures of a record for five years or until the record is destroyed, whichever is...
Background: Disclosure of HIV positive status has key role in the prevention and control of HIV/AIDS. Reports of non-disclosure and negative outcome of disclosure are common. Thus, disclosure of HIV positive status is a theme that demands investigation. Objective: The objective of this study was to determine the ...
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voluntary self-disclosure. 764.5... PROTECTIVE MEASURES § 764.5 Voluntary self-disclosure. (a) General policy. BIS strongly encourages disclosure... issued thereunder. Voluntary self-disclosure is a mitigating factor in determining what administrative...
Existing scales that measured self disclosure particularly of HIV/AIDS were reviewed. We conducted a qualitative study to determine salient concerns related to HIV disclosure in Nigeria. Themes were generated, and those related to barriers to disclosure were used to construct a12-item HIV self disclosure scale.
Rezaie, F.; Panahi, M.
The main issue in determining seismic vulnerability is having a comprehensive view of all probable damages related to earthquake occurrence. Therefore, taking into account factors such as peak ground acceleration at the time of earthquake occurrence, the type of structures, population distribution among different age groups, level of education and the physical distance to hospitals (or medical care centers) and categorizing them into four indicators of geotechnical, structural, social and physical distance to needed facilities and from dangerous ones will provide us with a better and more exact outcome. To this end, this paper uses the analytic hierarchy process to study the importance of criteria or alternatives and uses the geographical information system to study the vulnerability of Tehran to an earthquake. This study focuses on the fact that Tehran is surrounded by three active and major faults: Mosha, North Tehran and Rey. In order to comprehensively determine the vulnerability, three scenarios are developed. In each scenario, seismic vulnerability of different areas in Tehran is analyzed and classified into four levels: high, medium, low and safe. The results show that, regarding seismic vulnerability, the faults of Mosha, North Tehran and Rey make, respectively, 6, 16 and 10% of Tehran highly vulnerable, while 34, 14 and 27% is safe.
GIS modelling of seismic vulnerability of residential fabrics considering geotechnical, structural, social and physical distance indicators in Tehran city using multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) techniques
Rezaie, F.; Panahi, M.
The main issue in determining the seismic vulnerability is having a comprehensive view to all probable damages related to earthquake occurrence. Therefore, taking factors such as peak ground acceleration (PGA) in the time of earthquake occurrence, the type of structures, population distribution among different age groups, level of education, the physical distance to a hospitals (or medical care centers), etc. into account and categorized under four indicators of geotechnical, structural, social and physical distance to needed facilities and distance from dangerous ones will provide us with a better and more exact outcome. To this end in this paper using analytic hierarchy process (AHP), the amount of importance of criteria or alternatives are determined and using geographical information system (GIS), the vulnerability of Tehran metropolitan as a result of an earthquake, is studied. This study focuses on the fact that Tehran is surrounded by three active and major faults of the Mosha, North Tehran and Rey. In order to comprehensively determine the vulnerability, three scenarios are developed. In each scenario, seismic vulnerability of different areas in Tehran city is analysed and classified into four levels including high, medium, low and safe. The results show that regarding seismic vulnerability, the faults of Mosha, North Tehran and Rey respectively make 6, 16 and 10% of Tehran area highly vulnerable and also 34, 14 and 27% are safe.
..., accounting of record disclosures, and requests for accounting of record disclosures. 201.29 Section 201.29..., accounting of record disclosures, and requests for accounting of record disclosures. (a) It is the policy of... as federal employees, who have a need for the record in the performance of their duties, and any...
Mesch, Gustavo S.; Beker, Guy
This study investigated whether norms of self-disclosure of one's online and offline identity are linked to online disclosure of personal and intimate information. We expected online disclosure of personal and intimate information to be associated with norms of online disclosure. Secondary analysis of the 2006 Pew and American Life Survey of…
Full Text Available Organizations rely on contextual factors to promote employee disclosure of self-made errors, which induces a resource dilemma (i.e., disclosure entails costing one's own resources to bring others resources and a friendship dilemma (i.e., disclosure is seemingly easier through friendship, yet the cost of friendship is embedded. This study proposes that friendship at work enhances error disclosure and uses conservation of resources theory as underlying explanation. A three-wave survey collected data from 274 full-time employees with a variety of occupational backgrounds. Empirical results indicated that friendship enhanced error disclosure partially through relational mechanisms of employees’ attitudes toward coworkers (i.e., employee engagement and of coworkers’ attitudes toward employees (i.e., perceived social worth. Such effects hold when controlling for established predictors of error disclosure. This study expands extant perspectives on employee error and the theoretical lenses used to explain the influence of friendship at work. We propose that, while promoting error disclosure through both contextual and relational approaches, organizations should be vigilant about potential incongruence.
The study was carried out to examine Urban Renewal exercise and its effect on residential property values in Oke–Aro and Odopetu neighbourhoods in Akure, A structured questionnaire was administered on selected residents in the two neighbourhoods (Oke–Aro and Odopetu) using the Systematic Random Sampling ...
McLennan, Stuart R; Diebold, Martin; Rich, Leigh E; Elger, Bernice S
There is often a mismatch between patients' desire to be informed about errors and clinical reality. In closing the "disclosure gap" an understanding of the views of all members of the healthcare team regarding errors and their disclosure to patients is needed. However, international research on nurses' views regarding this issue is currently limited. Explore nurses' attitudes and experiences concerning disclosing errors to patients and perceived barriers to disclosure. Inductive, exploratory study employing semi-structured interviews with participants, followed by conventional content analysis in which investigators read and discussed transcribed data to identify important themes. Nursing departments from hospitals in two German-speaking cantons in Switzerland. Purposive sample of 18 nurses from a range of fields, positions in organisational hierarchy, work experience, hospitals, and religious perspectives. Data were collected via individual, face-to-face interviews using a researcher-developed semi-structured interview guide. Interviews were transcribed in German and analysed using the qualitative data analysis software package Atlas-Ti (Berlin) and conventional content analysis. The most illustrative quotes were translated into English. Nurses generally thought that patients should be informed about every error, but only a very few nurses actually reported disclosing errors in practice. Indeed, many nurses reported that most errors are not disclosed to the patient. Nurses identified a number of barriers to error disclosure that have already been reported in the literature among all clinicians, such as legal consequences and the fear of losing patients' trust. However, nurses in this study more frequently reported personal characteristics and a lack of guidance from the organisation as barriers to disclosure. Both issues suggest the need for a systematic institutional approach to error disclosure in which the decision to inform the patient stems from within the
Charl de Villiers
Shareholders prefer this information in a separate section of the annual report and on company websites. Shareholders want such disclosure to be prescribed by law and/or stock exchange rules. The most popular reason why they want environmental information disclosed, is to hold companies accountable for their environmental stewardship. A high percentage of shareholders also indicate that they want disclosure, because they are concerned about climate change. These findings imply that legislators and standard setters may have to consider changing disclosure laws and standards.
Full Text Available The complexity of economic environment and information asymmetry makes financial reporting and accounting disclosure policies crucial to stakeholders, hence the role of accounting disclosure quality in bankruptcy prediction realm has been investigated in this study. The Result of Genetic algorithm show that accounting disclosure quality significantly increases the accuracy of bankruptcy prediction model and it can be regarded as a complementary variable to other variables used in the bankruptcy literature. To examine the research hypotheses, the listed Companies of Tehran Stock Exchange have been investigated between 2004 and 2010.
Despite increasing attention to issues of patient safety, preventable adverse events (AEs) continue to occur, causing direct and consequential injuries to patients, families, and health care providers. Pediatricians generally agree that there is an ethical obligation to inform patients and families about preventable AEs and medical errors. Nonetheless, barriers, such as fear of liability, interfere with disclosure regarding preventable AEs. Changes to the legal system, improved communications skills, and carefully developed disclosure policies and programs can improve the quality and frequency of appropriate AE disclosure communications. Copyright © 2016 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.
野口, 恵美; Noguchi, Emi
This study investigated the questionnaire about the following three points in term of self-disclosure satisfaction. (1) Making of self-disclosure motive standard. (2) Clarifying gender difference in internet self-disclosure feature (concent of self-disclosure and motive) and the relation between satisfaction from face-to-face self-disclosure satisfaction and lonliness. As a result, 18 items that was divided into three factors "Negative feelings discharge", "Feedback", and "Selfshared" were ob...
Full Text Available The present article is a position paper aiming to initiate a professional debate related to the aspects related to the urban dysfunctions leading to the wear of the residential areas. The paper proposes a definition of the wear process, identify the main causes leading to its occurrence and propose a number of solutions to neutralise the dysfunctions. The three wearing phases of residential areas components are emphasized, exploring their lifecycle. In order to perform the study of urban wear, the status of the residential areas components can be established and monitored, and also the variables of the function that can mathematically model the specific wear process may be considered. The paper is considered a first step for the model adjustment, to be tested and validated in the following steps. Based on the mathematical method and model, there can be created, in a potential future research, the possibility of determining the precarity degree for residential areas/neighbourhoods and cities, by minimising the subjective component of the analyses preceding the decision for renovation or regeneration.
The article is based on Master’s research conducted during Scottish Housing Expo 2010. The aim of the research was to determine the prevailing trends in sustainable residential architecture. Each trend can be described by features detected during visual and technical observation of project data. Based on that architects may predict possible problems related to a specific trend.
Nowogońska, Beata; Cibis, Jerzy
Beauty, utility, durability - these are the features of good architecture and should also be the distinguishing qualities of every residential building. But do beauty and utility remain along with the passing of time? Performance characteristics are an indicator of both, the technical as well as aesthetic state of buildings. Aesthetic needs are in disagreement with the merciless aging process. The beauty of a city is formed not only by the original forms of new residential buildings, but also by existing tenement housing; thus preserving their aesthetics becomes a necessity. Time is continuously passing and along with it, aging intensifies. The aging process is a natural phenomenon for every material. The life expectancy of building materials is also limited. Along with the passing of time, the technical state of residential buildings continuously deteriorates. With the passing of time, the aesthetic values and preferences of users of flats change and the usability of the building decreases. The permanence of buildings, including residential buildings, is shaped not only by the forces of nature but also by activities of humans. A long lifespan is ensured by carrying out ongoing, systematic renovation-repair works. It is thanks to them that buildings derived from past centuries are still being used, and their market attractiveness is not decreasing.
Larsen, Morten Marott; Pilegaard, Ninette; Van Ommeren, Jos
we study how congestion and residential moving behaviour are interrelated, using a two-region job search model. Workers choose between interregional commuting and residential moving, in order to live closer to their place of work. This choice affects the external costs of commuting, due to conges......we study how congestion and residential moving behaviour are interrelated, using a two-region job search model. Workers choose between interregional commuting and residential moving, in order to live closer to their place of work. This choice affects the external costs of commuting, due...... to congestion. We focus on the equilibrium in which some workers currently living in one region accept jobs in the other, with a fraction of them choosing to commute from their current residence to the new job in the other region and the remainder choosing to move to the region in which the new job is located....... The welfare-maximising road tax is derived, which is essentially the Pigouvian tax, given the absence of a tax on moving. Given the presence of moving taxes, which are substantial in Europe, the optimal road tax for commuters is the Pigouvian tax plus the amortised value of the moving tax, evaluated...
Hartog, F.T.H. den; Balm, M.; Jong, C.M. de; Kwaaitaal, J.J.B.
A new OSI-based model is described that can be used for the classification of residential gateways. It is applied to analyze current gateway solutions and draw evolutionary paths for the medium to long term. From this it is concluded that particularly set-top boxes and broadband modems, as opposed
Joe Elling; David B. McKeever
New residential construction is a critical driver of the demand for lumber, structural panels and engineered wood products in Canada. For the period 2010 through 2013, residential construction accounted for roughly 23 percent of the lumber consumed in Canada and 47 percent of structural panel usage. Insufficient data concerning imports and exports prevent estimates of...
Full Text Available Our paper deals with aspects regarding risk and uncertainty. Many risk management methods are today implemented in organizations. This perspective reveals that managers are linked in different forms to the activities they are managing, depending on the conditions and levels of uncertainty they are in. Actually, these multiple levels of uncertainty lead to the conclusion that any situation in an organizational system can be classified in two different models of organizational phenomena: the organizational phenomena that are putting managers and stakeholders in conditions of risk and the organizational phenomena that are putting them in condition of uncertainty. Using content analyze in this paper we survey the disclosure level of risk management information in the annual report of top Romanian listed companies.
Full Text Available Islamic financial institutions (IFIs are established based on Islamic foundations and their corporate practices are expected to be aligned with Islamic laws and framework. This study seeks to understand the determinants for the CSR disclosure of IFIs in Malaysia. Using the 2010 annual reports of 37 IFIs, this study investigates the effects of financial performance and corporate governance mechanism (proxied by Shariah supervisory committee or SCC and ownership structure on CSR disclosure. Results reveal that between financial performance and SCC and ownership structure, only the latter significantly influences CSR disclosure. Overall, the findings offer insights into current reporting practices and propose ideas pertaining to the establishment of an Islamic-based CSR reporting framework. The significant factors influencing CSR disclosure may be used to develop effective practice among IFIs in Malaysia and other countries.
Full Text Available Caregivers of HIV-positive children were interviewed in the Mbarara and Isingiro districts of Uganda to identify current trends in practices related to HIV testing and the disclosure of HIV status to the child. A total of 28 caregivers of at least one HIV-positive child participated in semi-structured interviews exploring when and why they tested the child for HIV, when the child was informed of their positive status, and what the caregiver did to prepare themselves and the child for status disclosure. For a majority (96% of respondents, the decision to test the child for HIV was due to existing illness in either the child or a relative. Other common themes identified included the existence of stigma in the caregivers' communities and doubt that the children truly understood what was being explained to them when their status was disclosed. Most (65% children were informed of their HIV status between the ages of 5 and 9, with the mean age of disclosure occurring at the age of 7. General provision of HIV information typically began at the same age as disclosure, and as many as two thirds (64% of the caregivers sought advice from an HIV counsellor prior to disclosure. How a caregiver chose to prepare themselves and the child did not affect the caregiver's perception of whether the disclosure experience was beneficial or not. These findings suggest that the HIV disclosure experience in Mbarara and Isingiro districts differs from current guidelines, especially with respect to age of disclosure, how caregivers prepare themselves and the child, and approaching disclosure as an ongoing process. The doubts expressed by caregivers regarding the child's level of HIV understanding following the disclosure experience suggest the children may be insufficiently prepared at the time of the initial disclosure event. The findings also suggest that examining the content of pre-disclosure counselling and HIV education, and how health care professionals are trained
Full Text Available The article aims to present the issue of voluntary and mandatory disclosure of greenhouse gas emissions in UK companies’ reports and factors influencing it. In order to do it, CDP, CDSB, FRC and DEFRA guidelines are analysed. The article also investigates greenhouse gases disclosures by companies included in the FTSE4Good UK 50 index and factors affecting the amount of the disclosures. The research meth-ods used in the article are content analysis and multiple regression. The results of the research show thatthe vast majority of companies disclose information on the direct and indirect emissions resulting from the purchase of energy (scope 1 and 2 as well as different intensity indicators. Factors influencing signif-icantly the amount of disclosure of greenhouse gas emissions are emissions intensity and company size.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Invocon's Radiation Alert Immediate Disclosure (RAID) system is a miniature, low-power, real-time, active radiation badge. It is designed for monitoring personnel,...
Nielsen, Christian; Farooq, Omar
not only have high payout ratios, but also have a greater likelihood of increasing and paying dividends. Our findings are consistent with our hypothesis that lower information asymmetries of firms with high intellectual capital disclosure lead to more favourable dividend policies. In opposition......The purpose of this article is to document the relationship between intellectual capital disclosure and dividend policies of biotechnology firms listed on the Copenhagen Stock Exchange during the period between 2001 and 2010. The firms’ intellectual capital disclosures were computed from the annual...... financial reports, while data on dividend policies was retrieved from Worldscope. This paper defines dividend policies by three variables: (1) Dividend payout ratio, (2) Decision to pay dividend, and (3) Increase in dividend payout. The results show that firms with higher intellectual capital disclosures...
Full Text Available Limited published data exists on how HIV-positive parents perform disclosure to all their children. A couple’s HIV disclosure experience to all their children is presented. They participated in a larger study conducted to understand the lived experiences of HIV-positive parents and their children during the disclosure process. Each underwent individualized in-depth semi-structured interviews. Interviews were transcribed and transferred into NVivo 8 for analysis using the Van Kaam method. Three themes emerged including HIV testing, full disclosure delivery accompanied by marital disharmony, and post-disclosure psychological effects on the family. Marital disharmony and non-involvement of the father caused the mother to fully disclose their illnesses to their four oldest children. All children were affected by disclosure, one had a delayed emotional outburst, and another was still angry and withdrawn years later. HIV-positive parents with poor relationships within the families need intense counseling and support pre, during, and post-disclosure to improve outcomes.
Wray, Craig; Walker, Iain; Siegel, Jeff; Sherman, Max
In this report, we identify and describe 24 practical diagnostics that are ready now to evaluate residential commissioning metrics, and that we expect to include in the commissioning guide. Our discussion in the main body of this report is limited to existing diagnostics in areas of particular concern with significant interactions: envelope and HVAC systems. These areas include insulation quality, windows, airtightness, envelope moisture, fan and duct system airflows, duct leakage, cooling equipment charge, and combustion appliance backdrafting with spillage. Appendix C describes the 83 other diagnostics that we have examined in the course of this project, but that are not ready or are inappropriate for residential commissioning. Combined with Appendix B, Table 1 in the main body of the report summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of all 107 diagnostics. We first describe what residential commissioning is, its characteristic elements, and how one might structure its process. Our intent in this discussion is to formulate and clarify these issues, but is largely preliminary because such a practice does not yet exist. Subsequent sections of the report describe metrics one can use in residential commissioning, along with the consolidated set of 24 practical diagnostics that the building industry can use now to evaluate them. Where possible, we also discuss the accuracy and usability of diagnostics, based on recent laboratory work and field studies by LBNL staff and others in more than 100 houses. These studies concentrate on evaluating diagnostics in the following four areas: the DeltaQ duct leakage test, air-handler airflow tests, supply and return grille airflow tests, and refrigerant charge tests. Appendix A describes those efforts in detail. In addition, where possible, we identify the costs to purchase diagnostic equipment and the amount of time required to conduct the diagnostics. Table 1 summarizes these data. Individual equipment costs for the 24
Full Text Available Objective to elaborate the conceptual theoreticallegal provisions and scientific recommendations for the substantiating the inefficiency of mandated disclosure. Methods general dialectic method of cognition as well as the general scientific and specific legal methods of research based on it. Results the article explores the spectacular prevalence and failure of the single most common technique for protecting personal autonomy in modern society mandated disclosure. The article has four parts 1 a comprehensive summary of the recurring use of mandated disclosures in many forms and circumstances in the areas of consumer and borrower protection patient informed consent contract formation and constitutional rights 2 a survey of the empirical literature documenting the failure of the mandated disclosure regime in informing people and in improving their decisions 3 an account of the multitude of reasons mandated disclosures fail focusing on the political dynamics underlying the enactments of these mandates the incentives of disclosers to carry them out and most importantly on the ability of disclosees to use them and 4 an argument that mandated disclosure not only fails to achieve its stated goal but also leads to unintended consequences that often harm the very people it intends to serve. Scientific novelty the article elaborates and introduces into academic sphere the substantiation of the efficiency of mandated disclosure proves the failure of the mandated disclosure regime in informing people and in improving their decisions and reveals the unintended consequences that often harm the very people it intends to serve. Practical significance the provisions ad conclusions of the article can be used in scientific lawmaking and lawenforcement activities and in the educational process of institutions of higher education.
Wen, Roland; Buckland, Richard
Although there is a substantial body of work on preventing bribery and coercion of voters in cryptographic election schemes for plurality electoral systems, there are few attempts to construct such schemes for preferential electoral systems. The problem is preferential systems are prone to bribery and coercion via subtle signature attacks during the counting. We introduce a minimum disclosure counting scheme for the alternative vote preferential system. Minimum disclosure provides protection from signature attacks by revealing only the winning candidate.
Chen, Fang-Pei; Lai, Grace Ying-Chi; Yang, Lawrence
Support from social networks is imperative to mental health recovery of persons with mental illness. However, disclosing mental illness may damage a person's participation in networks due to mental illness stigma, especially in Chinese immigrant communities where social networks (the guanxi network) have specific social-cultural significance. This study focused on mental illness disclosure in Chinese immigrant communities in New York City. Fifty-three Chinese psychiatric patients were recruited consecutively from 2 Chinese bilingual psychiatric inpatient units from 2006 to 2010. Two bilingual psychologists interviewed each participant once in a semistructured interview, including 6 questions on mental illness disclosure. Conventional content analysis was applied to conceptualize the phenomenon. Results showed that participants voluntarily disclosed to a circle of people composed primarily of family and relatives. The decisions and strategies to disclose depended on participants' consideration of 3 critical elements of social relationships. Ganqing, affection associated with relationship building, ultimately determined who had the privilege to know. Renqing, the moral code of reciprocal kindness, further influenced disclosure decisions and what participants anticipated as responses to disclosure. Lastly, concerns over preserving face (lian), a construct representing personal and familial dignity, oftentimes prohibited disclosure. Additionally, in this tight-knit network, involuntary disclosure could happen without participants' permission or knowledge. Participants commonly suffered from stigma after disclosure. However, half of our participants reported situations in which they experienced little discriminatory treatment, and some experienced support and care as a result of cultural dynamics. Recommendations for culturally sensitive practice to facilitate mental illness disclosure among Chinese immigrants were discussed. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all
Mehta, Veli; Mukherjee, Sumitava; Manjaly, Jaison A.
With the advent of social networks where people disclose a lot of their information and opinions publicly, this research attempted to re-look at the effect of environmental lighting on willingness and actual disclosure of personal information. Previous literatures mostly addressed counseling setups and the findings were mixed. In order to clarify the effect of lighting on self-disclosure, two experiments were conducted with reported willingness to disclose (Experiment 1) as well as actual dis...
Brelsford, Gina M; Mahoney, Annette
This study examines the role of spiritual disclosure within older adolescent-mother relationships. Spiritual disclosure is defined as mutual disclosure of personal religious and spiritual beliefs and practices. Three hundred 18- to 20-year-old college students and 130 of their mothers reported on spiritual disclosure in their relationships. According to both parties, greater spiritual disclosure was related to higher relationship satisfaction, greater use of collaborative conflict resolution strategies, less dysfunctional communication patterns, less verbal aggression, and increased general disclosure in mother-adolescent relationships beyond global religiousness and demographics. Spiritual disclosure also predicted unique variance in collaborative conflict resolution strategies beyond these factors and general disclosure. The findings underscore the value of attending to the interpersonal dimension of religion/spirituality. More specifically, the results suggest that spiritual disclosure is an indicator of relationship quality, one that is tied to better relationship functioning, and one that merits further attention in studies of family dynamics.
Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to examine the effect of disclodure level to cost of equity and the significancy of the influence to companies with bluechips and nonbluechips stock. Thirty listed companies in Jakarta Stock Exchange (JSX selected based on certain criteria were used as research sample. Data are collected from documentation of financial statements and are analyzed by using statistical tool i.e. multiple regression. This research indicate that there is significant influence of disclosure level to cost of equity. However, this research cannot prove that there is a significant different of the influence of disclosure level to cost of equity to the companies with bluechips and nonbluechips stocks. Abstract in Bahasa Indonesia : Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk menguji pengaruh tingkat disclosure terhadap biaya ekuitas dan signifikansi pengaruh tersebut pada perusahaan yang sahamnya tergolong sebagai saham bluechip dan non-bluechip. Sebanyak tiga puluh perusahaan yang terdaftar pada Bursa Efek Jakarta (BEJ yang memenuhi kriteria yang ditetapkan diambil sebagai sampel. Pengumpulan data dilakukan dengan cara mengambil dokumentasi laporan keuangan dari Bursa Efek Jakarta (BEJ dan diolah dengan menggunakan uji statistik regresi berganda. Penelitian ini membuktikan bahwa terdapat pengaruh yang signifikan tingkat disclosure terhadap biaya ekuitas. Namun penelitian ini gagal untuk membuktikan akan adanya perbedaan signifikansi pengaruh tingkat disclosure pada biaya hutang pada perusahaan yang sahamnya tergolong sebagai saham bluechip dan nonbluechip. Kata kunci: Disclosure, Biaya ekuitas.
Sudibyo, Y. A.
The purpose of this research were to test empirically the relationship of Volume of Carbon emission, Carbon Management Practice disclosure and Carbon disclosure emission with firm value, especially in Indonesia as developing Country. This research using data from Indonesian sustainability Award in 2013-2015. The instrument of this research was adapted from CDP Questionnaires to score the disclosure of Carbon Management Practice. While the carbon emission disclosure instrument was dummy variable. For volume of carbon emission, this research used the quantity or volume of carbon reported in sustainability reporting. We find that Volume of carbon emission was not related to Firm value. Also Carbon disclosure Emission does not have relationship with Firm value. Both hypotheses were not consistent with  which was doing their research in Developed Country. While Carbon Management Practice Disclosure, using CDP Questionnaires, has positive relationship with Firm value. The conclusion is developing country as resource constraint need to be motivated to report and disclose carbon emission from voluntary reporting to mandatory by regulation from government, not just only for high sensitive industry but also low sensitive industry. Then developing country which has resource constraint need to have more proactive strategy to prevent carbon emission instead of reducing carbon emission.
This paper focuses on the relationship between the life experiences associated with residential proximity, and the perception and acceptability of the risks associated with generating electricity in nuclear power plants. Perceived risk is operationally defined in terms of estimated likelihood of occurrence, while acceptability of nuclear power is defined in terms of people's favorable or unfavorable opinions regarding nuclear power plants. In the context of a simple social-structural model of perceived and acceptable risk, four potential explanations for enhanced acceptability among those residentially proximate with nuclear facilities are examined: residents, through the experience of living with hazard, are reinforced toward assigning lower probabilities to the potential risks associated with nuclear facilities; the cognitive dissonance created by the acceptance of the risks associated with nuclear power is decreased by reducing perceived risk; nuclear neighbors are predisposed toward, educated about, and/or economically dependent upon nuclear power hence the more favorable attitudes toward it; nearby residents are systematically more altruistic--other oriented--than the general population and thus more willing to bear the risks associated with nuclear power
Nöstlinger, Christiana; Bakeera-Kitaka, Sabrina; Buyze, Jozefien; Loos, Jasna; Buvé, Anne
Adolescents living with HIV (ALHIV) face many psychosocial challenges, including HIV disclosure to others. Given the importance of socialization during the adolescent transition process, this study investigated the psychological and social factors influencing self-disclosure of own HIV status to peers. We examined social HIV self-disclosure to peers, and its relationship to perceived HIV-related stigma, self-efficacy to disclose, self-esteem, and social support among a sample of n = 582 ALHIV aged 13-17 years in Kampala, Uganda, and Western Kenya. Data were collected between February and April 2011. Among them, 39% were double orphans. We conducted a secondary data analysis to assess the degree of social disclosure, reactions received, and influencing factors. Interviewer-administered questionnaires assessed medical, socio-demographic, and psychological variables (Rosenberg self-esteem scale; self-efficacy to disclose to peers), HIV-related stigma (10-item stigma scale), and social support (family-life and friends). Descriptive, bivariate, and logistic regression analyses were performed with social self-disclosure to peers with gender as covariates. Almost half of ALHIV had told nobody (except health-care providers) about their HIV status, and about 18% had disclosed to either one of their friends, schoolmates, or a boy- or girlfriend. Logistic regression models revealed that having disclosed to peers was significantly related to being older, being a paternal orphan, contributing to family income, regular visits to the HIV clinic, and greater social support through peers. Low self-efficacy to disclose was negatively associated to the outcome variable. While social self-disclosure was linked to individual factors such as self-efficacy, factors relating to the social context and adolescents' access to psychosocial resources play an important role. ALHIV need safe environments to practice disclosure skills. Interventions should enable them to make optimal use of
Chen, Shuqin; Li, Nianping; Guan, Jun; Xie, Yanqun; Sun, Fengmei; Ni, Ji [Civil Engineering College, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan 410082 (China)
The purpose of this research is to found a national statistical system of energy consumption in the residential building sector of China, so as to look into the actuality of residential energy consumption, and to provide data support for building energy efficiency work in China. The frame of a national statistical system of residential energy consumption is presented in this paper, according to current status of the climate, social and historic conditions, and energy consumption characteristics in the five architecture climate divisions in China. The statistical index system of residential energy consumption is constituted which refers to housing unit characteristics, household characteristics, possession and utilization of energy consuming equipment, and residential energy consumption quantities. This index system suits for all the different utilization structures of residential energy consumption in different architecture climate divisions. On this base, a complete set of statistical reports is worked out to measure the energy consumption of cities, provinces and the country stage by stage. Finally the statistical method above is applied to measure residential energy consumption by case studies, in order to validate the feasibility of this method. The research in this paper covers the first step of the elaboration of the statistical method to investigate energy consumption in China, and more work will be done in future to further impel national statistics of residential energy consumption. (author)
McLennan, Stuart; Shaw, David; Leu, Agnes; Elger, Bernice
To examine medicolegal stakeholders' views about the impact of professional liability insurance in Switzerland on medical error disclosure. Purposive sample of 23 key medicolegal stakeholders in Switzerland from a range of fields between October 2012 and February 2013. Data were collected via individual, face-to-face interviews using a researcher-developed semi-structured interview guide. Interviews were transcribed and analysed using conventional content analysis. Participants, particularly those with a legal or quality background, reported that concerns relating to professional liability insurance often inhibited communication with patients after a medical error. Healthcare providers were reported to be particularly concerned about losing their liability insurance cover for apologising to harmed patients. It was reported that the attempt to limit the exchange of information and communication could lead to a conflict with patient rights law. Participants reported that hospitals could, and in some case are, moving towards self-insurance approaches, which could increase flexibility regarding error communication The reported current practice of at least some liability insurance companies in Switzerland of inhibiting communication with harmed patients after an error is concerning and requires further investigation. With a new ethic of transparency regarding medical errors now prevailing internationally, this approach is increasingly being perceived to be misguided. A move away from hospitals relying solely on liability insurance may allow greater transparency after errors. Legalisation preventing the loss of liability insurance coverage for apologising to harmed patients should also be considered.
... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false General policies, conditions of disclosure, accounting of certain disclosures, and definitions. 1.576 Section 1.576 Pensions... not limited to, his or her education, financial transactions, medical history, and criminal or...
Frey, Laura M; Hans, Jason D; Cerel, Julie
Existing literature has found a link between disclosure of a stigmatized identity and improved mental health; however, research on the impact of suicide disclosure to family members is scarce. Suicide attempt survivors (n = 74) in the United States were examined to assess whether family reaction moderates or mediates the relationship between suicide disclosure and subsequent depression symptoms. Family reaction did not moderate but did mediate the relationship between disclosure and depression symptoms while controlling for time since most recent attempt. Higher rates of disclosure predicted more positive family reactions, which in turn predicted less severe depression symptoms. Findings indicate that family members can play an essential role in the recovery process after an attempt occurs, which has important implications for both researchers and clinicians who seek to decrease stigma for attempt survivors while simultaneously decreasing the likelihood of future attempts. © 2015 The American Association of Suicidology.
Sun, Chuanwang; Lin, Boqiang
The Chinese households that make up approximately a quarter of world households are facing a residential power tariff reform in which a rising block tariff structure will be implemented, and this tariff mechanism is widely used around the world. The basic principle of the structure is to assign a higher price for higher income consumers with low price elasticity of power demand. To capture the non-linear effects of price and income on elasticities, we set up a translog demand model. The empirical findings indicate that the higher income consumers are less sensitive than those with lower income to price changes. We further put forward three proposals of Chinese residential electricity tariffs. Compared to a flat tariff, the reasonable block tariff structure generates more efficient allocation of cross-subsidies, better incentives for raising the efficiency of electricity usage and reducing emissions from power generation, which also supports the living standards of low income households. - Highlights: • We design a rising block tariff structure of residential electricity in China. • We set up a translog demand model to find the non-linear effects on elasticities. • The higher income groups are less sensitive to price changes. • Block tariff structure generates more efficient allocation of cross-subsidies. • Block tariff structure supports the living standards of low income households
Full Text Available The perspectives and practices of health care workers (HCWs regarding disclosure to HIV-infected children have not been adequately investigated ten years after the roll-out of pediatrics antiretroviral therapy (ART. The aim of the study was to examine the opinions of HCWs about disclosure to HIV-infected children and determine their role in disclosure to children accessing ART in health centers in South Africa. This was a cross-sectional survey using a semi-structured questionnaire among HCWs in ART centers at three hospitals and 48 primary health facilities in two provinces in South Africa. Of the 206 HCWs, 140 (68.2% were nurses, 44 (21.5% were lay counsellors, and 4 (2% were doctors. The majority (n = 183, 89.3% felt that disclosure benefits children and they should be told about their HIV status. Over half (n = 93, 51.4% recommended 11–18 years as the appropriate age to disclose. Half (n = 99, 48.5% said that caregivers should take the lead to disclose, 87 (42.7% said that disclosure is a shared responsibility of caregivers and HCWs, and 18 (8.8% said HCWs should lead disclosure. HCWs perceived their role as that of preparing the caregiver for disclosure and the child to understand the disease. However, the lack of guidelines and training on disclosure counselling for children affects their ability to fully participate in disclosure to children. There is a need to adopt the World Health Organizations’ disclosure guidelines for children and adapt them to the local cultural and community contexts and train HCWs to guide, support, and assist caregivers in their disclosure to HIV-infected children.
Oladele Vincent Adeniyi
Full Text Available Drawing from a baseline sample of a cohort study, the study examines the extent and correlates of serostatus non-disclosure to sex partners and family members, and reasons for non-disclosure among HIV-infected pregnant women in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa.This longitudinal cohort study recruited 1709 pregnant women living with HIV who attended three of the largest maternity centres in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, for delivery between September 2015 and May 2016. Relevant items on demographics, serostatus awareness, disclosure to sex partners and family members, and lifestyle behaviours were obtained using structured interviews. Age-stratified binary logistic regression models were used to determine the significant correlates of non-disclosure among the participants.A higher rate of HIV serostatus non-disclosure to sex partners (25.6% in comparison to family members (20% was reported by the participants. Younger age, not living with partners and alcohol use were significantly associated with non-disclosure of HIV serostatus to sex partners. Non-disclosure of HIV serostatus to sex partners was significantly (p<0.05 associated with poor adherence to the highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART, failure to keep clinic appointments and high viral load at the delivery of the baby. Perceived fear of intimate partner violence, fear of rejection, guilt of not disclosing at the onset of the relationship, sex partner's non-disclosure of HIV serostatus, and guilt of unfaithfulness were some of the reasons for non-disclosure of HIV serostatus to sex partners.Non-disclosure of HIV serostatus is a public health concern with serious implications for both mother-to-child transmission, as well as horizontal transmission, in our setting. Strategic efforts toward ending the epidemic of HIV and AIDS in South Africa should address the sociocultural and behavioural determinants of non-disclosure.
Iva A. E. Bicanic
Full Text Available Background: Delayed disclosure of rape has been associated with impaired mental health; it is, therefore, important to understand which factors are associated with disclosure latency. The purpose of this study was to compare various demographics, post-rape characteristics, and psychological functioning of early and delayed disclosers (i.e., more than 1-week post-rape among rape victims, and to determine predictors for delayed disclosure. Methods: Data were collected using a structured interview and validated questionnaires in a sample of 323 help-seeking female adolescents and young adults (12–25 years, who were victimized by rape, but had no reported prior chronic child sexual abuse. Results: In 59% of the cases, disclosure occurred within 1 week. Delayed disclosers were less likely to use medical services and to report to the police than early disclosers. No significant differences were found between delayed and early disclosers in psychological functioning and time to seek professional help. The combination of age category 12–17 years [odds ratio (OR 2.05, confidence intervals (CI 1.13–3.73], penetration (OR 2.36, CI 1.25–4.46, and closeness to assailant (OR 2.64, CI 1.52–4.60 contributed significantly to the prediction of delayed disclosure. Conclusion: The results point to the need of targeted interventions that specifically encourage rape victims to disclose early, thereby increasing options for access to health and police services.
Brohan, Elaine; Henderson, Claire; Slade, Mike; Thornicroft, Graham
Many mental health service users delay disclosing to employers or never do so due to previous experience of, or anticipation of discrimination. However, non-disclosure precludes requesting 'reasonable workplace adjustments'. Service users may experience conflicting needs and values in deciding whether to disclose. No evidence-based interventions exist to support this decision. A decision aid (CORAL, or COnceal or ReveAL) to support mental health service users in reaching disclosure decisions was developed and subjected to preliminary evaluation (n=15). The majority found the decision aid quick (60%) and relevant (60%) and would recommend it (80%). Eighty percent reported that they would definitely or probably use it in making disclosure decisions. Forty percent each were positive or neutral on its ease of use. Semi-structured interviews revealed a demand for more information on the legal implications of disclosure. The mean level of 'decisional conflict' regarding disclosure reduced from 52.0 to 35.5 and mean Stage of Decision-making Scale score from 4.6 to 4.3. The results suggest that the CORAL decision aid is feasible, relevant and valuable in supporting decisions about disclosing a mental illness to an employer. The decision aid could be deployed in routine care without significant resource implications. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available The purpose of our empirical study is to assess the relationship between ownership’features and the level of disclosure in case of banking institutions listed on London Stock Exchange,basing on the general statement that disclosure and quality of corporate governance system are twoclosely related concepts-the higher the level of transparency, the better the quality corporategovernance practices.The research methodology used for achieving our goal is based on econometric analysis usingstatistical tools-correlations for identifying the relationships and regressions for assessing them-allof these beingperformed using SPSS software. In this respect, we developed a disclosure index,considered structure and concentration as features for assessing ownership.The results of the performed analysis reveal significant positive influences of all features testedon thelevel of disclosure, thus confirming our assumptions that the higher the quality of ownership, thehigher the level of disclosure.Irrespective of prior studies, which were focused on various corporate governance features, our papercomes to add value in this respect by testing only ownership. Moreover, because the banking systemwas little explored on this topic before, we had another chance to enrich the research literature withthis empirical study.
Rosli Nurul Fida
Full Text Available Risk reporting is essential in notifying investors on how companies manage the risks they engage in. Even though companies nowadays release information through press releases, corporate websites, and other forms of communications, they still have to disclose more information in their annual reports. The objective of this study is to examine the determinants of voluntary risk disclosures of Shariah compliant companies (ShCCs in Malaysia, focusing on the religiosity factor and the ownership structure. A quantitative analysis using secondary data was employed as a method to assess the annual reports of 116 Shariah compliant companies in Malaysia for the financial years of 2012 and 2013. The findings of this study reveal that the voluntary risk disclosures in ShCCs on average are not more than sixty per cent. This study indicates no relationship between the religiosity of board members and directors’ ownership to the level of voluntary risk disclosure. More importantly, this study finds the relationship between the existence of government ownership and voluntary risk disclosure in ShCCs. The study adds value to the current body of knowledge in voluntary risk disclosures and suggests the importance of risk management information in the annual reports of ShCCs as Malaysia grows as a leading country in the Islamic economy.
Bicanic, Iva A. E.; Hehenkamp, Lieve M.; van de Putte, Elise M.; van Wijk, Arjen J.; de Jongh, Ad
Background Delayed disclosure of rape has been associated with impaired mental health; it is, therefore, important to understand which factors are associated with disclosure latency. The purpose of this study was to compare various demographics, post-rape characteristics, and psychological functioning of early and delayed disclosers (i.e., more than 1-week post-rape) among rape victims, and to determine predictors for delayed disclosure. Methods Data were collected using a structured interview and validated questionnaires in a sample of 323 help-seeking female adolescents and young adults (12–25 years), who were victimized by rape, but had no reported prior chronic child sexual abuse. Results In 59% of the cases, disclosure occurred within 1 week. Delayed disclosers were less likely to use medical services and to report to the police than early disclosers. No significant differences were found between delayed and early disclosers in psychological functioning and time to seek professional help. The combination of age category 12–17 years [odds ratio (OR) 2.05, confidence intervals (CI) 1.13–3.73], penetration (OR 2.36, CI 1.25–4.46), and closeness to assailant (OR 2.64, CI 1.52–4.60) contributed significantly to the prediction of delayed disclosure. Conclusion The results point to the need of targeted interventions that specifically encourage rape victims to disclose early, thereby increasing options for access to health and police services. PMID:25967381
Because of the multiple stigma attached to HIV/AIDS, disclosure of HIV-positive serostatus is a considerable social risk for those who disclose. While HIV/AIDS-related stigma affects all HIV-positive people, for people from minority cultures additional cultural factors may play a significant role in self-disclosure. This paper draws on data from semi-structured, in-depth interviews with HIV-positive people from minority cultures in Sydney. Disclosure decisions were influenced by gender, sexual orientation, as well as cultural background. Gay men drew on both collectivist and individualist notions of interdependence and self-reliance in different socio-cultural contexts. This enabled them to accommodate the imperative to maintain harmony with the family and meet their individual needs for support. Heterosexual men who had disclosed voluntarily or involuntarily experienced discrimination and avoidance, and interdependence with family and ethnic community was disrupted. Heterosexual women disclosed to no one outside the health care system and were anxious to avoid any disclosure in the future. For all participants, voluntary and involuntary disclosure caused potential and actual disruption of relationships with their families and ethnic communities. The paper concludes by arguing for an ecological perspective of health in which decisions are not located in rational decision making alone but in the broader context of family and community.
Amoon, A T; Oksuzyan, S; Crespi, C M; Arah, O A; Cockburn, M; Vergara, X; Kheifets, L
Studies of environmental exposures and childhood leukemia studies do not usually account for residential mobility. Yet, in addition to being a potential risk factor, mobility can induce selection bias, confounding, or measurement error in such studies. Using data collected for California Powerline Study (CAPS), we attempt to disentangle the effect of mobility. We analyzed data from a population-based case-control study of childhood leukemia using cases who were born in California and diagnosed between 1988 and 2008 and birth certificate controls. We used stratified logistic regression, case-only analysis, and propensity-score adjustments to assess predictors of residential mobility between birth and diagnosis, and account for potential confounding due to residential mobility. Children who moved tended to be older, lived in housing other than single-family homes, had younger mothers and fewer siblings, and were of lower socioeconomic status. Odds ratios for leukemia among non-movers living mobility, including dwelling type, increased odds ratios for leukemia to 2.61 (95% CI: 1.76-3.86) for living mobility of childhood leukemia cases varied by several sociodemographic characteristics, but not by the distance to the nearest power line or calculated magnetic fields. Mobility appears to be an unlikely explanation for the associations observed between power lines exposure and childhood leukemia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Dementiev N. P.
Full Text Available The article presents a comparative analysis of residential mortgages in Russia and the United States. The primary ways of mortgage refinancing are outlined. Predominance of the elements of two-level refinancing system of residential mortgage in Russia and the United States is shown. The activity of the Agency for Housing Mortgage Lending (AHML, the basic tool of the Russian government’s mortgage policy, is described in detail. In its objectives and functions the AHML is similar to the American mortgage agencies Ginnie Mae, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. Similarities were identified in the Russian and US residential mortgages in the pre-crisis period (high rates of mortgage growth, favourable economic conjuncture, low interest rates, large increase in house prices, speculative housing demand. During the mortgage crisis, the policies of the Russian and US governments and monetary authorities had also much in common (monetary policy easing, cheap central banks loans, extended facilities of mortgage refinancing on the part of state agencies, mortgage rescue scheme, social mortgage programs. But the scope of mortgage in Russia is enormously narrow as compared to the US mortgage. The most important reason for that - low incomes of the Russian population.
Louf, Rémi; Barthelemy, Marc
The spatial distribution of income shapes the structure and organisation of cities and its understanding has broad societal implications. Despite an abundant literature, many issues remain unclear. In particular, all definitions of segregation are implicitely tied to a single indicator, usually rely on an ambiguous definition of income classes, without any consensus on how to define neighbourhoods and to deal with the polycentric organization of large cities. In this paper, we address all these questions within a unique conceptual framework. We avoid the challenge of providing a direct definition of segregation and instead start from a definition of what segregation is not. This naturally leads to the measure of representation that is able to identify locations where categories are over- or underrepresented. From there, we provide a new measure of exposure that discriminates between situations where categories co-locate or repel one another. We then use this feature to provide an unambiguous, parameter-free method to find meaningful breaks in the income distribution, thus defining classes. Applied to the 2014 American Community Survey, we find 3 emerging classes-low, middle and higher income-out of the original 16 income categories. The higher-income households are proportionally more present in larger cities, while lower-income households are not, invalidating the idea of an increased social polarisation. Finally, using the density-and not the distance to a center which is meaningless in polycentric cities-we find that the richer class is overrepresented in high density zones, especially for larger cities. This suggests that density is a relevant factor for understanding the income structure of cities and might explain some of the differences observed between US and European cities.
White, Yohann; Sandfort, Theo; Morgan, Kai; Carpenter, Karen; Pierre, Russell
Gay and bisexual men in Jamaica encounter stigma and discrimination due to criminalization of and negative attitudes towards same-sex sexuality. Disclosure of sexual orientation may be self-affirming, but could increase exposure to negative responses and stressors. Outcomes of an online survey among 110 gay and bisexual Jamaican men ages 18 to 56 years suggest that disclosure to family is affected by level of economic independence. Furthermore, negative familial responses to sexual identity significantly predicted depression. Social and structural interventions, and efforts to strengthen positive family relationships, are needed to foster an environment that enables well-being among sexual minorities in Jamaica. PMID:28243342
Shellenberg, Kristen M; Moore, Ann M; Bankole, Akinrinola; Juarez, Fatima; Omideyi, Adekunbi Kehinde; Palomino, Nancy; Sathar, Zeba; Singh, Susheela; Tsui, Amy O
It is well recognised that unsafe abortions have significant implications for women's physical health; however, women's perceptions and experiences with abortion-related stigma and disclosure about abortion are not well understood. This paper examines the presence and intensity of abortion stigma in five countries, and seeks to understand how stigma is perceived and experienced by women who terminate an unintended pregnancy and influences her subsequent disclosure behaviours. The paper is based upon focus groups and semi-structured in-depth interviews conducted with women and men in Mexico, Nigeria, Pakistan, Peru and the United States (USA) in 2006. The stigma of abortion was perceived similarly in both legally liberal and restrictive settings although it was more evident in countries where abortion is highly restricted. Personal accounts of experienced stigma were limited, although participants cited numerous social consequences of having an abortion. Abortion-related stigma played an important role in disclosure of individual abortion behaviour.
Wahyu Manuhara Putra
Full Text Available Corporate governance gives certainty protection to shareholder and parties of creditor in investing at its company. Mechanism of corporate governance consisted of transparancy, disclosure and fairness. Corporate governance is key determinant and develope of stock market, capital and ownership structure, dividend policy and control gain of privat. Purpose of this article is to explain protection of investor through mechanism disclosure, law and dividend in some countries. Result of some researches indicate that United States, English and Japan has high law level of protection for investor while indonesia still weakening. The disclosure level broadness of financial information there is at United States, English and Japan. On The Contrary, Indonesia still less in disclosing its financial statements. The other result states that dividend payment policy indirectly relates to protection of investor, but influenced by law enforcement system and investment opportunitis.
Arthur Joseph Avwokeni
Full Text Available This study examines compliance with the corporate social disclosure requirement of the United Nations and whether their voluntary declaration by the International Accounting Standards Board detracts from compliance. Qualitative, financial and non-financial disclosures, based on core indicators developed by the United Nations Conference on Trade, Aid and Development, were garnered from financial statements prepared before and after IFRS adoption. Overall, corporate social disclosure on employment creation and labour practices; welfare, health and safety; and environment, improve during the IFRS regime. This improvement is associated with size of the firm, not audit identity, ownership or capital structure. This finding provides evidence to clinch anecdotal claims that even in the absence of laws some agents would still operate to meet the information needs of their principals; however, in line with organization theory, policies are needed to guide the actions of man, including the learning organization.
Elizabeth Morrison, Sarah; Bruce, Caroline; Wilson, Sarah
This study evaluates and synthesizes qualitative evidence addressing factors affecting a child's decision to disclose an experience of sexual abuse. Childhood sexual abuse is a devastating crime, with long-term negative impacts. Understanding the factors that affect a child's decision to disclose is vital. Disclosure enables access to support and protection, both therapeutically and legally. A systematic review was conducted focusing on factors affecting a child's decision to disclose an experience of sexual abuse. Seven studies were identified, quality appraisal undertaken, and meta-ethnography used to synthesize the studies. Six new super-ordinate themes were developed: Fear of what will happen; Others' reactions: fear of disbelief; Emotions and impact of the abuse; An opportunity to tell; Concern for self and others; and Feelings toward the abuser. Themes indicated the importance of support, structure, and opportunity to facilitate disclosure and should be utilized by agencies to develop practices that facilitate disclosures.
In 2006, the British Columbia (BC) government passed amendments to its Safety Standards Act. These amendments permit the routine disclosure of electrical usage information from electrical producers to BC's municipalities, ostensibly to identify and eradicate residential cannabis growing operations (grow ops). These amendments originated in a pilot project in Surrey, BC, known as the electrical and fire safety inspection initiative (EFSI), which drew together police, firefighters and others, to identify grow ops through the process of municipal electrical inspections. This paper draws on narrative analysis to critically explore how the report of the EFSI Surrey pilot project uses a series of linked claims to generate interpretative change in the definition of the problem of grow ops. This analysis also shows how claims about grow ops are constructed and gain their potency through links with other social problems, persons, and practices. Though the report of the EFSI project is a prohibitionist text replete with stock characters and themes from the history of Canadian drug policy, the problem of residential cannabis cultivation is made actionable by establishing grow operators as "superdeviants" constructed both as dangerous outsiders and as risks to a host of public safety concerns. These claims are then linked to the notion of an overwhelmed criminal justice system that establishes a "crisis" that justifies extraordinary methods of social control outside the due process of the criminal justice system. Construction of all cannabis cultivators as "dangerous" disavows other possibilities and shores up neo-liberal practices of government that draw on multi-partner initiatives to implement extraordinary methods of social control not necessarily subject to public accountability.
Bernard, J.T.; Bolduc, D.; Belanger, D.
An economic analysis of Quebec residential electricity demand was studied by micro-simulation models. These structural models describe all components which lead to decisions upon durable holdings and electric appliance usage. The demand for space and water heating systems was evaluated. Recent price change in favour of energy sources other than electricity were taken into account. Price and income elasticity ratios were found to be low, as expected when estimating short term use. The role played by socio-economic variables on the choice of space-water heating systems and electricity use was also examined. Recent conversions have indicated a trend toward preference by households in favour of natural gas or oil over electricity. 18 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig
R. Gamerschlag (Ramin); K. Möller (Klaus); F.H.M. Verbeeten (Frank)
textabstractCurrently, companies spend a great deal of effort on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) disclosures. CSR disclosure relates to the provision of information on companies' environmental and social performance. From an economic perspective, companies might disclose this information to
Gamerschlag, Ramin; Möller, Klaus; Verbeeten, Frank
Currently, companies spend a great deal of effort on Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) disclosures. CSR disclosure relates to the provision of information on companies' environmental and social performance. From an economic perspective, companies might disclose this information to avoid or
Owens, Peter M; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Gibson, Lucinda; Beach, Michael L; Beauregard, Sandy; Dalton, Madeline A
Studies involving the built environment have typically relied on US Census data to measure residential density. However, census geographic units are often unsuited to health-related research, especially in rural areas where development is clustered and discontinuous. We evaluated the accuracy of both standard census methods and alternative GIS-based methods to measure rural density. We compared residential density (units/acre) in 335 Vermont school neighborhoods using conventional census geographic units (tract, block group and block) with two GIS buffer measures: a 1-kilometer (km) circle around the school and a 1-km circle intersected with a 100-meter (m) road-network buffer. The accuracy of each method was validated against the actual residential density for each neighborhood based on the Vermont e911 database, which provides an exact geo-location for all residential structures in the state. Standard census measures underestimate residential density in rural areas. In addition, the degree of error is inconsistent so even the relative rank of neighborhood densities varies across census measures. Census measures explain only 61% to 66% of the variation in actual residential density. In contrast, GIS buffer measures explain approximately 90% of the variation. Combining a 1-km circle with a road-network buffer provides the closest approximation of actual residential density. Residential density based on census units can mask clusters of development in rural areas and distort associations between residential density and health-related behaviors and outcomes. GIS-defined buffers, including a 1-km circle and a road-network buffer, can be used in conjunction with census data to obtain a more accurate measure of residential density.
Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies involving the built environment have typically relied on US Census data to measure residential density. However, census geographic units are often unsuited to health-related research, especially in rural areas where development is clustered and discontinuous. Objective We evaluated the accuracy of both standard census methods and alternative GIS-based methods to measure rural density. Methods We compared residential density (units/acre in 335 Vermont school neighborhoods using conventional census geographic units (tract, block group and block with two GIS buffer measures: a 1-kilometer (km circle around the school and a 1-km circle intersected with a 100-meter (m road-network buffer. The accuracy of each method was validated against the actual residential density for each neighborhood based on the Vermont e911 database, which provides an exact geo-location for all residential structures in the state. Results Standard census measures underestimate residential density in rural areas. In addition, the degree of error is inconsistent so even the relative rank of neighborhood densities varies across census measures. Census measures explain only 61% to 66% of the variation in actual residential density. In contrast, GIS buffer measures explain approximately 90% of the variation. Combining a 1-km circle with a road-network buffer provides the closest approximation of actual residential density. Conclusion Residential density based on census units can mask clusters of development in rural areas and distort associations between residential density and health-related behaviors and outcomes. GIS-defined buffers, including a 1-km circle and a road-network buffer, can be used in conjunction with census data to obtain a more accurate measure of residential density.
Keijsers, Loes; Voelkle, Manuel C.; Maciejewski, Dominique; Branje, Susan; Koot, Hans; Hiemstra, Marieke; Meeus, Wim
This study aimed to gain a better understanding of the normative declines in adolescent disclosure and maternal knowledge over the course of adolescence, by assessing the underlying monitoring processes. Multilevel structural equation models were applied to 15 assessments among 479 families across 5 years (13 years at T1, 57% boys, 11% low…
McCahery, J.A.; Vermeulen, E.P.M.
Investor confidence in financial markets depends in large part on the existence of an accurate disclosure and reporting regime that provides transparency in the beneficial ownership and control structures of publicly listed companies. Today, a common post-financial crisis regulatory reform theme is
Background: HIV/AIDS is a disease that is characterised by discrimination and stigmatisation particularly in Africa. Objective: To determine rate of disclosure of HIV status among People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in Ilorin, Nigeria. Methods: A semi-structured, interviewer administered questionnaire containing 40 items ...
Keijsers, Loes; Voelkle, Manuel C.; Maciejewski, Dominique; Branje, Susan J. T.; Koot, Hans; Hiemstra, Marieke; Meeus, Wim H J
This study aimed to gain a better understanding of the normative declines in adolescent disclosure and maternal knowledge over the course of adolescence, by assessing the underlying monitoring processes. Multilevel structural equation models were applied to 15 assessments among 479 families across 5
Keijsers, L.G.M.T; Voelkle, Manuel C; Maciejewski, Dominique; Branje, Susan; Koot, Hans; Hiemstra, Marieke; Meeus, W.H.J.
This study aimed to gain a better understanding of the normative declines in adolescent disclosure and maternal knowledge over the course of adolescence, by assessing the underlying monitoring processes. Multilevel structural equation models were applied to 15 assessments among 479 families across 5
A communication framework was developed to examine the influence of maternal use of self-disclosure on adolescent intentions to smoke cigarettes and to engage in sexual intercourse. Data were collected from 516 Dominican and Puerto Rican mother-adolescent dyads. Statistical analyses were conducted in AMOS using structural equation modeling.…
Atalla, Tarek N.; Hunt, Lester C.
This paper aims at understanding the drivers of residential electricity demand in the Gulf Cooperation Council countries by applying the structural time series model. In addition to the economic variables of GDP and real electricity prices, the model accounts for population, weather, and a stochastic underlying energy demand trend as a proxy for efficiency and human behaviour. The resulting income and price elasticities are informative for policy makers given the paucity of previous estimates for a region with particular political structures and economies subject to large shocks. In particular, the estimates allow for a sound assessment of the impact of energy-related policies suggesting that if policy makers in the region wish to curtail future residential electricity consumption they would need to improve the efficiency of appliances and increase energy using awareness of consumers, possibly by education and marketing campaigns. Moreover, even if prices were raised the impact on curbing residential electricity growth in the region is likely to be very small given the low estimated price elasticities—unless, that is, prices were raised so high that expenditure on electricity becomes such a large proportion of income that the price elasticities increase (in absolute terms). - Highlights: • Residential electricity demand for Bahrain, Kuwait, Oman, and Saudi Arabia • Estimated residential electricity demand relationships using STSM/UEDT approach • LR income and price elasticities from 0.43 to 0.71 and − 0.16 to zero respectively • Impact CDD elasticities from 0.2 to 0.7 • Estimated UEDTs suggest exogenous electricity using behaviour.
Adeniyi, Oladele Vincent; Ajayi, Anthony Idowu; Selanto-Chairman, Nonkosi; Goon, Daniel Ter; Boon, Gerry; Fuentes, Yusimi Ordaz; Hofmeyr, George Justus; Avramovic, Gordana; Carty, Craig; Lambert, John
Drawing from a baseline sample of a cohort study, the study examines the extent and correlates of serostatus non-disclosure to sex partners and family members, and reasons for non-disclosure among HIV-infected pregnant women in the Eastern Cape Province, South Africa. This longitudinal cohort study recruited 1709 pregnant women living with HIV who attended three of the largest maternity centres in the Eastern Cape, South Africa, for delivery between September 2015 and May 2016. Relevant items on demographics, serostatus awareness, disclosure to sex partners and family members, and lifestyle behaviours were obtained using structured interviews. Age-stratified binary logistic regression models were used to determine the significant correlates of non-disclosure among the participants. A higher rate of HIV serostatus non-disclosure to sex partners (25.6%) in comparison to family members (20%) was reported by the participants. Younger age, not living with partners and alcohol use were significantly associated with non-disclosure of HIV serostatus to sex partners. Non-disclosure of HIV serostatus to sex partners was significantly (phealth concern with serious implications for both mother-to-child transmission, as well as horizontal transmission, in our setting. Strategic efforts toward ending the epidemic of HIV and AIDS in South Africa should address the sociocultural and behavioural determinants of non-disclosure.
de Heer-Wunderink, Charlotte; Caro-Nienhuis, Annemarie D.; Sytema, Sjoerd; Wiersma, Durk
Aims - Characteristics of patients living in residential care facilities and the availability of mental hospital- and residential beds in Italy and The Netherlands were compared to assess whether differences in the process of deinstitutionalisation have influenced the composition of their
Breger, Tiffany L; Newman, Jamie E; Mfangam Molu, Brigitte; Akam, Wilfred; Balimba, Ashu; Atibu, Joseph; Kiumbu, Modeste; Azinyue, Innocent; Hemingway-Foday, Jennifer; Pence, Brian W
Poor retention in care is common among HIV-positive adults in sub-Saharan Africa settings and remains a key barrier to HIV management. We quantify the associations of disclosure of HIV status and referral to disclosure counseling with successful retention in care using data from three Cameroon clinics participating in the Phase 1 International epidemiologic Databases to Evaluate AIDS Central Africa cohort. Of 1646 patients newly initiating antiretroviral therapy between January 2008 and January 2011, 43% were retained in care following treatment initiation. Self-disclosure of HIV status to at least one person prior to treatment initiation was associated with a minimal increase in the likelihood of being retained in care (risk ratio [RR] = 1.14; 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.94, 1.38). However, referral to disclosure counseling was associated with a moderate increase in retention (RR = 1.37; 95% CI: 1.21, 1.55) and was not significantly modified by prior disclosure status (p = .3). Our results suggest that while self-disclosure may not significantly improve retention among patients receiving care at these Cameroon sites, counseling services may play an important role regardless of prior disclosure status.
... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting of disclosure. 297.403 Section... PROCEDURES FOR PERSONNEL RECORDS Disclosure of Records § 297.403 Accounting of disclosure. (a) The Office or... of the Office or agency who have a need for the record in the performance of their duties. (b) This...
... mandatory compliance date of §§ 226.46, 47, and 48, the creditor need not make the following disclosures...) Form of disclosures. (1) The creditor shall make the disclosures required by this subpart clearly and... segregated from everything else, and shall not contain any information not directly related 37 to the...
... Department of Defense program for repayment of loans on the basis of military service, as provided for in 10... section; or (ii) The plain language disclosure approved by the Secretary under paragraph (g) of this... or electronic means. (g) Plain language disclosure. The plain language disclosure text, as approved...
... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accounting for disclosures. 401.80 Section 401.80 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION PRIVACY AND DISCLOSURE OF OFFICIAL RECORDS AND INFORMATION The Privacy Act § 401.80 Accounting for disclosures. (a) We will maintain an...
... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protection of invention disclosures. 27.305-4 Section 27.305-4 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION....C. 205, withhold from disclosure to the public any invention disclosures reported under the patent...
... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Translation of disclosure statements. 141.48 Section 141.48 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR FINANCIAL ACTIVITIES BUSINESS... Translation of disclosure statements. Disclosure required by §§ 141.46 and 141.47 shall be made in writing...
... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Accounting of disclosures. 1.25... Privacy Act § 1.25 Accounting of disclosures. (a) Accounting of certain disclosures. Each component, with respect to each system of records under its control, shall: (1) Keep an accurate accounting of: (i) The...
... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accounting of disclosures. 10.23 Section 10.23... INDIVIDUALS Maintenance of Records § 10.23 Accounting of disclosures. Each operating administration, the... accurate accounting of: (1) The date, nature, and purpose of each disclosure of a record to any person or...
... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accounting of certain disclosures. 503.4 Section... SUNSHINE REGULATIONS Privacy Act Regulations § 503.4 Accounting of certain disclosures. (a) Except for disclosures under § 503.3(a) and (b) of this part, the Administrative Officer will keep an accurate accounting...
... 8 Aliens and Nationality 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting for disclosures. 103.30 Section... DUTIES; AVAILABILITY OF RECORDS § 103.30 Accounting for disclosures. (a) An accounting of each disclosure of information for which accounting is required (see § 103.24 of this part) shall be attached to the...
... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting for disclosures. 792.61 Section 792... Accounting for disclosures. (a) Each system manager identified in the “Notice of Systems of Records” must establish a system of accounting for all disclosures of information or records under the Privacy Act made...
... 4 Accounts 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accounting of certain disclosures. 83.6 Section 83.6... Accounting of certain disclosures. (a) With respect to each system of personnel records, GAO shall, except for disclosures made under §§ 83.4(a) and 83.4(b), keep an accurate accounting of— (1) The date...
... COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW INFORMATION: AND TRADE SECRET DISCLOSURES TO HEALTH PROFESSIONALS Disclosure of Trade Secret Information to Health Professionals § 350.40 Disclosure to health professionals. (a... health professional receiving the trade secret information may disclose it to EPA only under the...
Background. The introduction of antiretroviral therapy (ART) for children has resulted in survival into adolescence. This is associated with the challenge of disclosing HIV status to infected children. Objectives. To establish whether HIV disclosure had occurred, the process of disclosure or reasons for non-disclosure, and the ...
Chimonas, Susan; Frosch, Zachary; Rothman, David J
It has become standard practice in medical journals to require authors to disclose their relationships with industry. However, these requirements vary among journals and often lack specificity. As a result, disclosures may not consistently reveal author-industry ties. We examined the 2007 physician payment information from 5 orthopedic device companies to evaluate the current journal disclosure system. We compared company payment information for recipients of $1 million or more with disclosures in the recipients' journal articles. Payment data were obtained from Biomet, DePuy, Smith & Nephew, Stryker, and Zimmer. Disclosures were obtained in the acknowledgments section, conflict of interest statements, and financial disclosures of recipients' published articles. We also assessed variations in disclosure by authorship position, payment-article relatedness, and journal disclosure policies. Of the 41 individuals who received $1 million or more in 2007, 32 had published articles relating to orthopedics between January 1, 2008, and January 15, 2009. Disclosures of company payments varied considerably. Prominent authorship position and article-payment relatedness were associated with greater disclosure, although nondisclosure rates remained high (46% among first-, sole-, and senior-authored articles and 50% among articles directly or indirectly related to payments). The accuracy of disclosures did not vary with the strength of journals' disclosure policies. Current journal disclosure practices do not yield complete or consistent information regarding authors' industry ties. Medical journals, along with other medical institutions, should consider new strategies to facilitate accurate and complete transparency.
...] Revised OIG's Provider Self-Disclosure Protocol AGENCY: Office of Inspector General (OIG), HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice announces the issuance of the updated Provider Self-Disclosure Protocol (the... on its Web site: http://oig.hhs.gov/compliance/self-disclosure-info/index.asp . FOR FURTHER...
... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voluntary self-disclosure. 30.74... CENSUS, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE FOREIGN TRADE REGULATIONS Penalties § 30.74 Voluntary self-disclosure. (a... of the FTR. Voluntary self-disclosure is a mitigating factor in determining what administrative...
Full Text Available The paper highlights theoretical aspects regarding corporate mandatory and voluntary disclosure. Since financial and business reporting are important information sources for different stakeholders, especially for publicly traded companies, the business reporting is increasingly oriented to the need of different users. In order to make rational investment decisions, users of corporate annual and interim reports require an extensive range of information. The increasing needs of the users persuade different international bodies and researchers to investigate the improvements that can be done in business reporting. The results of those studies usually were different reporting models. Because voluntary dimension of corporate disclosure involve the manifestation of free choice of the firm and its managers, we have considered as necessary to achieve a theoretical analysis of the main costs and profits of the voluntary disclosure policy.
Full Text Available Abstract Although growing, the literature on research into attitudes of general and specialized physicians towards disclosing the diagnosis of dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD, or the current practice on AD disclosure, remains limited. Moreover, information is also scarce on what caregivers, or indeed patients themselves, wish to know with regard to their diagnosis. The goal of the present article was to present a review of the current available literature on the topic of truth telling in dementia, especially in AD. The studies discussed in this review were mainly conducted in Europe, particularly in the United Kingdom, as well as the United States. Disclosure of AD diagnosis is not a common practice among physicians. In the clinical context, the discussion on diagnosis disclosure can be valuable for improving the care of AD patients and their families.
Full Text Available Objectives: The main aim of this study was to investigate and to compare elderly happiness and self-esteem among residential and non-residential. Methods & Materials: This research was designed as descriptive. Two groups were selected in convenience method. Member of residential elderly (416 elderly were chosen based on Morgan Table. Hundred-twenty elderly, 60 residential (30 men and 30 women and 60 non-residential (30 men and 30 women were chosen for study. Data used the three questionnaires, like Demographic questionnaires, Oxford Happiness Inventory and Self-esteem Scale’s Rozenberg. Data were gathered and analyzed with Pearson test, t-student test. Results: The results were indicated that a significant relationship between happiness and self-esteem, among residential and non- residential old people. The findings showed significant difference in happiness, self-esteem among residential and home participants in both groups (P<0.01. Conclusion: The results were showed that a significant relationship between social support and self-esteem, among residential and non-residential old people. Also, the results were indicated that significant difference between social support. In general, residential participants had lower social support and self-esteem than non-residential participants.
Stewart, James [Cadmus Group, Waltham, MA (United States); Todd, Annika [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)
Residential behavior-based (BB) programs use strategies grounded in the behavioral social sciences to influence household energy use. Strategies may include providing households with real-time or delayed feedback about their energy use; supplying energy-efficiency education and tips; rewarding households for reducing their energy use; comparing households to their peers; and establishing games, tournaments, and competitions. BB programs often target multiple energy end uses and encourage energy savings, demand savings, or both. Savings from BB programs are usually a small percentage of energy use, typically less than 5%.
R. Normala; C. Azlini; M. J. Nurul Jannah; Z. M. Lukman
The motivation for the study is to improve the quality of life for elderly in residential care particularly the mental health aspect. Hence, the aim of this study is to examine the prevalence of depression and to identify risk factors related to depression among Malay elderly in residential care. Changes in social structure and economic status have shifted the direction of care for elderly people, as the value of filial piety has gradually declined among the modern Malays. The researchers hyp...
Allen, Emily-Charlotte Frances; Arroll, Bruce
Background There is a debate in medicine about the use and value of self-disclosure by the physician as a communication tool. There is little empirical evidence about GPs and self-disclosure. Aim To explore what GPs’ attitudes, skills, and behaviour are with regard to self-disclosure during a clinical consultation and whether there is a need for the development of training resources. Design and setting Mixed methods using open-ended and semi-structured interviews in Auckland, New Zealand, and the surrounding districts. Method Sixteen GPs were interviewed on the issue of self-disclosure in clinical practice. A general inductive approach was used for data analysis. Results Self-disclosure was common in this group of GPs, contrary to training in some of the groups, and was seen as a potentially positive activity. Family and physical topics were most common, yet psychological and relationship issues were also discussed. Knowing patients made self-disclosure more likely, but a GP’s intuition played the main role in determining when to self-disclose, and to whom. GPs have developed their own guidelines, shaped by years of experience; however, there was a consensus that training would be helpful. Conclusion Self-disclosure is common and, in general, seen as positive. Major personal issues were acceptable for some GPs to self-disclose, especially to known patients. Although participants had developed their own guidelines, exposure of trainees to the issue of self-disclosure would be of value to prevent future mistakes and to protect both doctor and patient from any unintended harm, for example, developing a dependent relationship. PMID:26324497
Allen, Emily-Charlotte Frances; Arroll, Bruce
There is a debate in medicine about the use and value of self-disclosure by the physician as a communication tool. There is little empirical evidence about GPs and self-disclosure. To explore what GPs' attitudes, skills, and behaviour are with regard to self-disclosure during a clinical consultation and whether there is a need for the development of training resources. Mixed methods using open-ended and semi-structured interviews in Auckland, New Zealand, and the surrounding districts. Sixteen GPs were interviewed on the issue of self-disclosure in clinical practice. A general inductive approach was used for data analysis. Self-disclosure was common in this group of GPs, contrary to training in some of the groups, and was seen as a potentially positive activity. Family and physical topics were most common, yet psychological and relationship issues were also discussed. Knowing patients made self-disclosure more likely, but a GP's intuition played the main role in determining when to self-disclose, and to whom. GPs have developed their own guidelines, shaped by years of experience; however, there was a consensus that training would be helpful. Self-disclosure is common and, in general, seen as positive. Major personal issues were acceptable for some GPs to self-disclose, especially to known patients. Although participants had developed their own guidelines, exposure of trainees to the issue of self-disclosure would be of value to prevent future mistakes and to protect both doctor and patient from any unintended harm, for example, developing a dependent relationship. © British Journal of General Practice 2015.
Full Text Available Purpose – This paper investigates mandatory and voluntary disclosure practices of non-financial listed companies on the Belgrade Stock Exchange. The results help in determining the level of transparency of Serbian s listed companies and in formulating recommendations for improving the quality and relevance of disclosed information. Design/methodology/approach – We focus on modeling both mandatory and voluntary disclosure indices for financial and non-financial information in order to evaluate the level of disclosure of 63 Serbian companies for reporting period 2012. Findings – We found the low level of both mandatory and voluntary disclosures. Concerning mandatary disclosure, the information that is least frequently disclosed by the sample companies are those related to the material content of the financial statements (information on changes in accounting estimates and corrections of fundamental errors in the previous period, as well as related companies. Serbian companies usually disclose information that contributes to their greater visibility. Similar to the mandatory disclosure, usually published voluntary information are mostly "neutral" from the point of impact on the values reported in the financial statements, which do not contribute to a better understanding of the financial position, profitability and cash flows of the company. Research limitations/implications – There is a limitation concerning the sample size (which is generally intrinsic to Serbian capital market size and the sample structure (research is limited to listed non-financial companies. The study covers the annual reports for 2012 which in Serbia coincides with a crisis period. The same research methodology could be applied on a larger and comprehensive database (non-listed companies and include period after 2012, which will allow the analysis of evolution of disclosure practices by companies within new accounting framework. Originality/value – The authors give
Soenens, Bart; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Luyckx, Koen; Goossens, Luc
Parental monitoring, assessed as (perceived) parental knowledge of the child's behavior, has been established as a consistent predictor of problem behavior. However, recent research indicates that parental knowledge has more to do with adolescents' self-disclosure than with parents' active monitoring. Although these findings may suggest that parents exert little influence on adolescents' problem behavior, the authors argue that this conclusion is premature, because self-disclosure may in itself be influenced by parents' rearing style. This study (a) examined relations between parenting dimensions and self-disclosure and (b) compared 3 models describing the relations among parenting, self-disclosure, perceived parental knowledge, and problem behavior. Results in a sample of 10th- to 12th-grade students, their parents, and their peers demonstrated that high responsiveness, high behavioral control, and low psychological control are independent predictors of self-disclosure. In addition, structural equation modeling analyses demonstrated that parenting is both indirectly (through self-disclosure) and directly associated with perceived parental knowledge but is not directly related to problem behavior or affiliation with peers engaging in problem behavior. Copyright (c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved.
DeCou, Christopher R; Cole, Trevor T; Lynch, Shannon M; Wong, Maria M; Matthews, Kathleen C
Several studies have identified associations between social reactions to disclosure of sexual assault and psychological distress; however, no studies have evaluated shame as a mediator of this association. This study evaluated assault-related shame as a mediator of the associations between negative social reactions to disclosure of sexual assault and symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and global distress and hypothesized that there would be an indirect effect of social reactions to disclosure upon symptoms of psychopathology via assault-related shame. Participants were 207 female psychology undergraduates who reported past history of completed or attempted sexual assault and had disclosed the assault to at least 1 other person. Participants completed self-report measures of social reactions to sexual assault disclosure, assault-related shame, and symptoms of psychopathology. Participants reported significant histories of attempted or completed sexual assault and indicated clinically significant symptoms of depression and subthreshold symptoms of PTSD and global distress, on average. Evaluation of structural models confirmed the hypothesized indirect effect of negative social reactions to sexual assault disclosure upon symptoms of PTSD (z = 5.85, p shame. These findings offer new insight concerning the intervening role of assault-related shame and highlight the importance of shame as a target for therapeutic intervention. This study suggests the need for future research concerning the role of shame in the etiology of PTSD and process of disclosure among survivors of attempted or completed sexual assault. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Energy use in residential buildings is one of the major sources of greenhouse gas emission production from cities. Using microdata from the 2009 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), this study applies structural equation modeling to analyze the direct, indirect, and total impacts of household and building characteristics on residential energy consumption. Results demonstrate that the direct impact of household characteristics on residential energy consumption is significantly smaller than the corresponding impact from the buildings. However, accounting for the indirect impact of household characteristics on energy consumption, through choice of the housing unit characteristics, the total impact of households on energy consumption is just slightly smaller than that of buildings. Outcomes of this paper call for smart policies to incorporate housing choice processes in managing residential energy consumption. - Highlights: • Households indirectly influence residential energy use through housing choice. • Households' total impact on energy use is comparable to that of buildings. • Understanding households' indirect impact will enhance residential energy policy. • Smart energy policies are needed to target both direct and indirect effects
Kraus, Michal; Juhásová Šenitková, Ingrid
Quality on indoor environment is among others also defined by an acoustic comfort and noise emissions. The indoor noise loading in the residential prefabricated buildings is specific problem related to structural design of these buildings. Problems with noise level of sanitary systems are mostly associated with hydraulic shock such as water distribution and sewage drainage. Another very common cause of excessive noise is also flushing the toilet or water fall on enamelled steel (bath or shower). This paper aims to analyse the acoustic properties in the residential prefabricated buildings. Sanitary core of the assessed apartment is in original condition without any alterations. The sanitary core is based on a formica (high-pressure laminate). The study discusses the maximum sound levels in the three assessed rooms for the three different noise sources. The values of maximum noise level are measured for the corridor, bedroom and living room. Sources of noise are common activities relating to the operation of sanitary core - the toilet flush in the toilet, falling water from the shower in the bathroom and the water falling on the bottom of the kitchen sink in the kitchen. Other sources of noise are eliminated or minimized during the experiment. The digital sound level meter Testo 815 is used for measurements. The measured values of maximum sound level LA,max [dB] are adjusted by the correction coefficient. The obtained values are compared with the hygienic limits for day and night period. Night hygienic limit (30 dB) is exceeded in all the rooms for all noise sources. This limit is exceeded from 17 to 73%. The values in the bedroom and the living room meet the daily hygienic limit (40 dB). The daily limit is exceeded only in the corridor. The highest values of noise are identified for the toilet flushing.
Elizabeth M. Maguire
Full Text Available Abstract Background Many healthcare organizations have developed disclosure policies for large-scale adverse events, including the Veterans Health Administration (VA. This study evaluated VA’s national large-scale disclosure policy and identifies gaps and successes in its implementation. Methods Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with leaders, hospital employees, and patients at nine sites to elicit their perceptions of recent large-scale adverse events notifications and the national disclosure policy. Data were coded using the constructs of the Consolidated Framework for Implementation Research (CFIR. Results We conducted 97 interviews. Insights included how to handle the communication of large-scale disclosures through multiple levels of a large healthcare organization and manage ongoing communications about the event with employees. Of the 5 CFIR constructs and 26 sub-constructs assessed, seven were prominent in interviews. Leaders and employees specifically mentioned key problem areas involving 1 networks and communications during disclosure, 2 organizational culture, 3 engagement of external change agents during disclosure, and 4 a need for reflecting on and evaluating the policy implementation and disclosure itself. Patients shared 5 preferences for personal outreach by phone in place of the current use of certified letters. All interviewees discussed 6 issues with execution and 7 costs of the disclosure. Conclusions CFIR analysis reveals key problem areas that need to be addresses during disclosure, including: timely communication patterns throughout the organization, establishing a supportive culture prior to implementation, using patient-approved, effective communications strategies during disclosures; providing follow-up support for employees and patients, and sharing lessons learned.
McKone, Thomas E.; Sherman, Max H.
The goals of this scoping study are to identify research needed to develop improved ventilation standards for California's Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards. The 2008 Title 24 Standards are the primary target for the outcome of this research, but this scoping study is not limited to that timeframe. We prepared this scoping study to provide the California Energy Commission with broad and flexible options for developing a research plan to advance the standards. This document presents the findings of a scoping study commissioned by the Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) program of the California Energy Commission to determine what research is necessary to develop new residential ventilation requirements for California. This study is one of three companion efforts needed to complete the job of determining the ventilation needs of California residences, determining the bases for setting residential ventilation requirements, and determining appropriate ventilation technologies to meet these needs and requirements in an energy efficient manner. Rather than providing research results, this scoping study identifies important research questions along with the level of effort necessary to address these questions and the costs, risks, and benefits of pursuing alternative research questions. In approaching these questions and corresponding levels of effort, feasibility and timing were important considerations. The Commission has specified Summer 2005 as the latest date for completing this research in time to update the 2008 version of California's Energy Code (Title 24).
Full Text Available Key factors influencing electricity consumption in the residential sector in Poland have been identified. A fixed-effects model was used, which includes time effects, and a set of covariates, based on the model developed by Houthakker et al. This model estimates electricity demand by using lagged values of the dependent variable along with current and lagged values of electricity prices, and other variables that affect electricity demand such as: population, economic growth, income per capita, price of related goods, etc. The model has been identified according to the research results of the authors and those obtained by Bentzen and Engsted. The set of covariates was extended to the lagged electricity price given by a tariff (taken from two years previous to the time of interest and heating degree days index, a very important factor in European Union countries, where the climate is temperate. The authors propose four models of residential electricity demand, for which a confidence interval of 95% has been assumed. Estimation was based on Polish quarterly data for the years 2003-2013. (original abstract
Appleby, Lawrence; Desai, Prakash
In an exploration of residential instability and recidivism in chronic mental patients, 215 psychiatric admissions were followed for a year after the initial episode. In addition to an unusually high incidence of residential mobility, a relationship between mobility and number of hospitalizations was evident, as were isolation, disruptive family situations, and homelessness. The needed response of the mental health system is discussed.
Nelson, Ashlyn Aiko
Credit scores have a profound impact on home purchasing power and mortgage pricing, yet little is known about how credit scores influence households' residential location decisions. This study estimates the effects of credit scores on residential sorting behavior using a novel mortgage industry data set combining household demographic, credit, and…
the extent to which heightened levels of residential crowding might reflect “hidden homelessness.” I find mixed evidence to support this link, and, if anything, find some evidence to suggest that the link between residential crowding and hidden homelessness, if one exists, is strongest for the Canadian-born.
Full Text Available This study aims to measure the degree of operational risk disclosure and examine its impact on operating cash flow of banks listed on the UAE Abu Dhabi Stock Exchange (ADX and Dubai Financial Market (DFM during the period 2003-2016. The authors conducted content analysis of the annual reports to measure the degree of operational risk disclosure. In addition, they used dynamic panel data regressions to analyze the impact of operational risk disclosure on the operating cash flow generated by the banks. The results show a low degree of operational risk disclosure for all UAE banks, both Islamic and conventional. In addition, the results show no association between the levels of disclosure of operational risk and cash flow for all banks, conventional and Islamic. Operational risk disclosure of Islamic banks has not been examined by any prior researchers. In addition, this paper examines the potential impact of operational risk disclosure on the operating cash flow generated by the banks.
Full Text Available Corporate carbon disclosures have become increasingly commonplace and are often presented as a useful voluntary mechanism for internal and external decision making. The production of the data is said to assistcorporations position themselves strategically in terms of the carbon risks and opportunities they may face. External to the firm, carbon disclosures hold the promise of assisting capital allocation decisions that are ‘carbon responsible’. It is claimed that the process of disclosure can sensitise the market to globalenvironmental problems such as climate change. In order to consider these claims, the broad purpose of this paper is to question whether the voluntary information that is produced can live up to its expectations and provide a meaningful basis for climate change related decision making. To that end, this exploratory studyexamines the carbon disclosures of Australasian mining companies over three years in compliance with a voluntary carbon disclosure regime – the Carbon Disclosure Project (CDP – and assesses those disclosureswith respect to comparability, an important criterion for information usefulness.
Craig F. Berning
Full Text Available The debate as to whether to require mandatory labeling of genetically modified organism (GMO foods was partially settled on 29 July 2016, when President Obama signed the National Bioengineered Food Disclosure Standard into public law. In contrast to precipitating legislation passed by the State of Vermont that required disclosure of GMO ingredients on food shelves or food packages, the superseding National Standard allows firms to disclose bioengineered ingredients to consumers via symbols, electronic or digital links, or phone numbers, and further requires a study assessing the ability of consumers to access disclosure information by these means. This communication analyzes survey responses from 525 adults to investigate whether U.S. consumers are able to obtain information as per the disclosure methods allowed in the Federal legislation. The survey probes deeper to investigate consumer perceptions of genetically modified organisms and whether consumers would use the tools available to access disclosure about bioengineered ingredients. Findings from the survey show that 93.8% of respondents have the ability to access information via the disclosure methods permitted. Those in the lowest income group, and from the oldest age group are least likely to have such access. This provides the United State Department of Agriculture with information relevant to how they can implement the law and highlights particular demographic segments that may require additional attention to ensure the disclosed information is universally accessible.
... Commodity and Securities Exchanges COMMODITY FUTURES TRADING COMMISSION FOREIGN FUTURES AND FOREIGN OPTIONS TRANSACTIONS § 30.6 Disclosure. (a) Future commission merchants and introducing brokers. Except as provided in... introducing broker, may open a foreign futures or option account for a foreign futures or option customer...
... the asset-size exemption threshold by requiring a one-time adjustment of the $10 million figure based... requirements of Regulation C (Home Mortgage Disclosure). The staff commentary is amended to increase the asset... Consumer Price Index for Urban Wage Earners and Clerical Workers (CPIW). The adjustment from $39 million to...
Boot, A.W.A.; Thakor, A.V.
In this article we ask: what kind of information and how much of it should firms voluntarily disclose? Three types of disclosures are considered. One is information that complements the information available only to informed investors (to-be-processed complementary information). The second is
...) included in that price; (E) Transfer of remains to funeral home; (F) Embalming; (G) Other preparation of... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Price disclosures. 453.2 Section 453.2 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION TRADE REGULATION RULES FUNERAL INDUSTRY PRACTICES § 453.2 Price...
... prospective leverage customer a signed and dated copy of the risk disclosure statement contained in such... RISK AND ARE NOT SUITABLE FOR MANY MEMBERS OF THE PUBLIC. THE LEVERAGE CUSTOMER SHOULD BE AWARE THAT... customer,” and “or short” in the second sentence of the sixth paragraph of the required bold-faced risk...
Competitive pressure is lower in markets where goods are more differentiated. I analyze how a change in the degree of horizontal product differentiation affects the incentives of duopolists to disclose quality information. If disclosure is costly, then a firm discloses high qualities but conceals...
Jansen, Jos; Pollak, Andreas
We study the strategic disclosure of demand information and product-market strategies of duopolists. In a setting where firms may fail to receive information, we show that firms selectively disclose information in equilibrium in order to influence their competitor's product-market strategy...
I study the incentives of oligopolists to acquire and disclose information on a common demand intercept. Because firms may fail to acquire information even when they invest in information acquisition, firms can credibly conceal unfavorable news while disclosing favorable news. Firms may earn high...... Cournot duopolists prefer strategic disclosure, if their goods are sufficiently differentiated....
M.D.R.P. Dutordoir (Marie); P.G.J. Roosenboom (Peter); M. Teixeira de Vasconcelos (Manuel)
textabstractWe examine bidding firms’ motives for disclosing a synergy forecast when announcing a merger or acquisition. Our sample consists of 1,990 M&A deals, of which 345 announce synergy estimates. Our results suggest that synergy disclosures serve to obtain a more favorable market reception for
Despite the increasing concerns of truth disclosure, most cancer patients are not told the truth about their disease in Japan. The author has tried to provide some insight into this issue by evaluating results from questionnaires given to hospital patients, clients in a mass cancer survey, and doctors of a college hospital. Results showed that 72% of patients and 83% of clients wanted to be told the truth, but only 33% and 34% of them thought that the truth should be told to cancer patients. These attitudes of patients and clients regarding truth disclosure were more positive than those of the general public and health care workers in previous studies. At present, 13% of doctors inform cancer patients of their disease. These trends indicate that the Japanese attitude toward avoiding truth disclosure stems primarily from paternalism but is also influenced by social characteristics including insufficient understanding of this issue. Open discussion involving all factions of society is necessary to attain a better understanding of this issue and to promote eventual truth disclosure.
... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disclosure. 950.42 Section 950.42 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY STANDBY SUPPORT FOR CERTAIN NUCLEAR PLANT DELAYS Audit and Investigations and Other Provisions...) Subject to the requirements of law, information such as trade secrets, commercial and financial...
... allows certain wholly-owned subsidiaries to omit the disclosure of shareholder voting results. We also... conditions: 1. All of the registrant's equity securities are owned, either directly or indirectly, by a... subsidiaries, and there has not been any material default in the payment of rentals under material long-term...
Carey, Kevin; Kelly, Andrew P.
Recognizing that higher education is a market driven by consumer choice and reluctant to regulate college behavior directly, state and federal policymakers have created a host of college information disclosure and reporting requirements. Armed with better data, the theory goes, students and parents will vote with their wallets, putting pressure on…
Schaumburg-Müller, Peer; Werlauff, Erik
“on its own responsibility” in order not to damage the company’s legitimate interests – cf. on this Article 6(2) of Directive 2003/6/EC, which provides that “An issuer may, on his own responsibility, delay the public disclosure of inside information … so as not to prejudice his legitimate interests...
Harrison, Therese W.
With threats of being labeled abnormal or facing rejection, homosexual adolescents are pressured to hide their sexual identities. To provide optimal anticipatory guidance and support, professionals must understand the natural development of sexual attraction and the disclosure concerns and risks for developing homosexual adolescents (e.g., risk…
... Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF STATE INTERNATIONAL TRAFFIC IN ARMS REGULATIONS VIOLATIONS AND PENALTIES... sole discretion to consider whether “voluntary disclosure,” in context with other relevant information... shipment, doing business with a party denied U.S. export privileges, etc.); (ii) The exact circumstances...
...-related discrimination and miners' applications for compensation after a mine has been idled by a closure... Parts 229, 239 and 249 Mine Safety Disclosure; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 76, No. 249... 17 CFR Parts 229, 239 and 249 [Release Nos. 33-9286; 34-66019; File No. S7-41-10] RIN 3235-AK83 Mine...
... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employee Benefits Security Administration 29 CFR Part 2550 RIN 1210-AB38 Target Date Disclosure AGENCY: Employee Benefits Security Administration, Labor. ACTION: Proposed rule; reopening of comment period. SUMMARY: The Department of Labor's Employee Benefits Security Administration is...
Meijerink, F.; van Maanen, P.P.; van Vliet, A.J.; Nijholt, Antinus; Solodilova-Whiteley, I.
To talk and write about one’s feelings has a beneficial effect on one’s physical and psychological health. More specifically, conversation evoking disclosure of emotions and traumatic events has a positive effect on one’s health, rather than chitchat. Astronauts on a mission are exposed to stressful
Competitive pressure is lower in markets where goods are more differentiated. I analyze how a change in the degree of horizontal product differentiation affects the incentives of duopolists to disclose quality information. If disclosure is costly, then a firm discloses high qualities but conceals...
Sampaio Regina Augusta
Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the results of a study regarding vibration problems in a 17 storey residential building during pile driving in its vicinity. The structural design of the building was checked according to the Brazilian standards NBR6118 and NBR6123, and using commercial finite element software. An experimental analysis was also carried out using low frequency piezo-accelerometers attached to the building structure. Structure vibrations were recorded under ambient conditions. Four monitoring tests were performed on different days. The objective of the first monitoring test was an experimental modal analysis. To obtain de modal parameters, data was processed in the commercial software ARTEMIS employing two methods: the Stochastic Subspace Identification and the Frequency Domain Decomposition. Human comfort was investigated considering the International Standard ISO 2631. The Portuguese standard, NP2074, was also used as a reference, since it aims to limit the adverse effects of vibrations in structures caused by pile driving in the vicinity of the structure. The carried out experimental tests have shown that, according to ISO2301, the measure vibration levels are above the acceptance limits. However, velocity peaks are below the limits established by NP2074. It was concluded that, although the structure has adequate capacity to resist internal forces according to normative criteria, it has low horizontal stiffness, which could be verified by observing the vibration frequencies and mode shapes obtained with the finite element models, and its similarity with the experimental results. Thus, the analyses indicate the occurrence of discomfort by the residents.
Roelofs, Tineke Sm; Luijkx, Katrien G; Embregts, Petri Jcm
The experiences and needs of spouses of residential care facility residents with dementia, regarding friendship, love, intimacy, and sexuality were explored. Understanding of how spouses make sense of their experiences was pursued. Semi-structured interviews were held with nine spouses of people with dementia, living in high intensive 24-hour care units within residential care facilities. The results show that friendship, love, intimacy, and sexuality were still embedded in the couples' marital lives, but all in their own way. Changing roles and a shift in purpose of the relationship recurred. Although intimacy was found to be still important in the lives of spouses, emotional, and practical residential care facility barriers were experienced by the spouses, of which the absence of communication were most important. Our findings on the experiences of spouses with regard to intimacy and sexuality can help residential care facility staff and policymakers to recognize the needs of couples and take these into account.
Full Text Available Indoor human thermal comfort is an important factor in indoor air quality assessment. Thermal comfort affects human health work efficiency and overall wellbeing. Thermal discomfort in indoors lowers the emotional and physical health of the occupants. This paper targets to explore human thermal comfort in residential house buildings of Jimma town and state some possible mechanisms to improve the existing thermal discomfort in large number the houses. For the study 303 structured questionnaires were distributed to the residential houses in thirteen places of the town based on predetermined criteria. The study reveals that human thermal discomfort in residential houses Jimma town are mainly from poor architectural design and improper use of heat generating appliances in indoors. The uses architectural design that suites the present climatic conditions and use of materials that facilitates ventilations will enhance the realization of the required human thermal comfort in residential houses of the study area.
Wendt, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Lundell, C.; Lau, T.M. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States)
This paper provides an overview of the design and development of a manufactured residential utility wall system referred to as ResCore. ResCore is a self-contained, manufactured, residential utility wall that provides complete rough-in of utilities (power, gas, water, and phone) and other functions (exhaust, combustion make-up air, refrigerant lines, etc.) to serve the residential kitchen, bath, utility, and laundry rooms. Auburn University, Department of Industrial Design faculty and students, supported by a team of graduate student researchers and the project`s advisory team, developed the ResCore. The project was accomplished through a research subcontract from the US Department of Energy administered by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The ResCore wall system features a ``layered`` manufacturing technique that allows each major component group--structural, cold water, hot water, drain, gas, electric, etc.--to be built as a separate subassembly and easily brought together for final assembly. The two structural layers are reinforced with bridging that adds strength and also permits firm attachment of plumbing pipes and other systems to the wall frame.
Barriers to energy conservation in the residential and commercial sectors influence (1) the willingness of building occupants to modify their energy usage habits, and (2) the willingness of building owners/occupants to upgrade the thermal characteristics of the structures within which they live or work and the appliances which they use. The barriers that influence the willingness of building owners/occupants to modify the thermal efficiency characteristics of building structures and heating/cooling systems are discussed. This focus is further narrowed to include only those barriers that impede modifications to existing buildings, i.e., energy conservation retrofit activity. Eight barriers selected for their suitability for Federal action in the residential and commercial sectors and examined are: fuel pricing policies that in the short term do not provide enough incentive to invest in energy conservation; high finance cost; inability to evaluate contractor performance; inability to evaluate retrofit products; lack of well-integrated or one-stop marketing systems (referred to as lack of delivery systems); lack of precise or customized information; lack of sociological/psychological incentives; and use of the first-cost decision criterion (expanded to include short-term payback criterion for the commercial sector). The impacts of these barriers on energy conservation are separately assessed for the residential and commercial sectors.
Arvela, H.; Maekelaeinen, I.; Castren, O.
The study measured the indoor radon concentration in the dwellings of 3074 persons, selected randomly from the central population register of Finland. Alpha track detectors and two consecutive half year measuring periods were used. The national mean of indoor radon concentration for persons living in low-rise residential buildings as well as blocks of flats was 145 and 82 Bq/m 3 , respectively. The mean for the total population was 123 Bq/m 3 . Based on the decision of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health in 1992, the indoor radon concentration should not exceed 400 Bq/m 3 in already existing houses, the target for new construction being less than 200 Bq/m 3 . According to the study, the percentage of the Finnish population living in houses with an indoor radon concentration exceeding 200, 400 and 800 Bq/m 3 was 12.3 %, 3.6 % and 1.0 %
Iedema, Rick; Allen, Suellen; Britton, Kate; Piper, Donella; Baker, Andrew; Grbich, Carol; Allan, Alfred; Jones, Liz; Tuckett, Anthony; Williams, Allison; Manias, Elizabeth; Gallagher, Thomas H
To investigate patients' and family members' perceptions and experiences of disclosure of healthcare incidents and to derive principles of effective disclosure. Retrospective qualitative study based on 100 semi-structured, in depth interviews with patients and family members. Nationwide multisite survey across Australia. 39 patients and 80 family members who were involved in high severity healthcare incidents (leading to death, permanent disability, or long term harm) and incident disclosure. Recruitment was via national newspapers (43%), health services where the incidents occurred (28%), two internet marketing companies (27%), and consumer organisations (2%). Participants' recurrent experiences and concerns expressed in interviews. Most patients and family members felt that the health service incident disclosure rarely met their needs and expectations. They expected better preparation for incident disclosure, more shared dialogue about what went wrong, more follow-up support, input into when the time was ripe for closure, and more information about subsequent improvement in process. This analysis provided the basis for the formulation of a set of principles of effective incident disclosure. Despite growing prominence of open disclosure, discussion about healthcare incidents still falls short of patient and family member expectations. Healthcare organisations and providers should strengthen their efforts to meet patients' (and family members') needs and expectations.
Allen, Suellen; Britton, Kate; Piper, Donella; Baker, Andrew; Grbich, Carol; Allan, Alfred; Jones, Liz; Tuckett, Anthony; Williams, Allison; Manias, Elizabeth; Gallagher, Thomas H
Objectives To investigate patients’ and family members’ perceptions and experiences of disclosure of healthcare incidents and to derive principles of effective disclosure. Design Retrospective qualitative study based on 100 semi-structured, in depth interviews with patients and family members. Setting Nationwide multisite survey across Australia. Participants 39 patients and 80 family members who were involved in high severity healthcare incidents (leading to death, permanent disability, or long term harm) and incident disclosure. Recruitment was via national newspapers (43%), health services where the incidents occurred (28%), two internet marketing companies (27%), and consumer organisations (2%). Main outcome measures Participants’ recurrent experiences and concerns expressed in interviews. Results Most patients and family members felt that the health service incident disclosure rarely met their needs and expectations. They expected better preparation for incident disclosure, more shared dialogue about what went wrong, more follow-up support, input into when the time was ripe for closure, and more information about subsequent improvement in process. This analysis provided the basis for the formulation of a set of principles of effective incident disclosure. Conclusions Despite growing prominence of open disclosure, discussion about healthcare incidents still falls short of patient and family member expectations. Healthcare organisations and providers should strengthen their efforts to meet patients’ (and family members’) needs and expectations. PMID:21788260
Perry, Rachel; Murphy, Molly; Haider, Sadia; Harwood, Bryna
We sought to explore the experiences of women who disclosed that their pregnancies resulted from rape in the abortion care setting, as well as the experiences of professionals involved in care of women with rape-related pregnancy. In-depth interviews were conducted with 9 patients who had terminated rape-related pregnancies and 12 professionals working in abortion care or rape crisis advocacy (5 abortion providers, 4 rape crisis center advocates, 2 social workers, and 1 clinic administrator). Transcribed interviews were coded and analyzed for themes related to the experiences of disclosing rape and the consequences of disclosure in the abortion care setting. Patients and professionals involved in care of women with rape-related pregnancy described opportunities arising from disclosure, including interpersonal (explaining abortion decision making in the context of assault, belief, and caring by providers), as well as structural opportunities (funding assistance, legal options, and mental health options). Whereas most patients did not choose to pursue all three structural opportunities, both patients and professionals emphasized the importance of offering them. The most important consequence of disclosure for patients was being believed and feeling that providers cared about them. Rape-related pregnancy disclosure in the abortion care setting can lead to opportunities for interpersonal support and open options for funding, legal recourse, and mental health care. Those working in abortion care should create environments conducive to disclosure and opportunities for rape survivors to access these additional options if they desire. Copyright © 2015 Jacobs Institute of Women's Health. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Matos, Francisco M; Raemer, Daniel B
Physicians have an ethical duty to disclose adverse events to patients or families. Various strategies have been reported for teaching disclosure, but no instruments have been shown to be reliable for assessing them.The aims of this study were to report a structured method for teaching adverse event disclosure using mixed-realism simulation, develop and begin to validate an instrument for assessing performance, and describe the disclosure practice of anesthesiology trainees. Forty-two anesthesiology trainees participated in a 2-part exercise with mixed-realism simulation. The first part took place using a mannequin patient in a simulated operating room where trainees became enmeshed in a clinical episode that led to an adverse event and the second part in a simulated postoperative care unit where the learner is asked to disclose to a standardized patient who systematically moves through epochs of grief response. Two raters scored subjects using an assessment instrument we developed that combines a 4-element behaviorally anchored rating scale (BARS) and a 5-stage objective rating scale. The performance scores for elements within the BARS and the 5-stage instrument showed excellent interrater reliability (Cohen's κ = 0.7), appropriate range (mean range for BARS, 4.20-4.47; mean range for 5-stage instrument, 3.73-4.46), and high internal consistency (P realism simulation that engages learners in an adverse event and allows them to practice disclosure to a structured range of patient responses. We have developed a reliable 2-part instrument with strong psychometric properties for assessing disclosure performance.
Full Text Available This study investigated the influence of four firm characteristics (size, organisational structure, age and systemic importance on extent of performance disclosures by Nigerian banks using the balanced scorecard (BSC model. The population of the study comprised of publicly-listed banks in Nigeria, in operation from 2012 to 2014. Using a self-designed disclosure checklist, the annual reports of a sample of 15 publicly quoted banks in Nigeria were content-analysed for performance disclosure for the period 2012-2014. Descriptive statistics, t-test and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA were applied in data analysis, deducing inference at 5% significance level. It was observed that firms did not significantly differ in the extent of performance disclosure in each of the four BSC perspectives on one hand, and the overall BSC measure on the other hand, on the account of the four firm attributes examined. Considering that annual reports are mainstream amongst the media used to communicate firm performance to the public, it was recommended that preparers of such documents should consider disclosing financial and non-financial performance; this will not only provide a comprehensive basis to judge organisational performance, but will also assist in diffusing the clout created by asymmetry of information between preparers and users of performance reports.
Armistead, Lisa; Goodrum, Nada; Schulte, Marya; Marelich, William; LeCroix, Rebecca; Murphy, Debra A
Nondisclosure of maternal HIV status to young children can negatively impact child functioning; however, many mothers do not disclose due to lack of self-efficacy for the disclosure process. This study examines demographic variations in disclosure self-efficacy, regardless of intention to disclose, and assesses the relationship between self-efficacy and child adjustment via the parent-child relationship among a sample of HIV+ mothers and their healthy children (N = 181 pairs). Mothers completed demographic and self-efficacy measures; children completed measures assessing the parent-child relationship and child adjustment (i.e., worry, self-concept, depression). Across demographics, few mothers reported confidence in disclosure. Results from covariance structural modeling showed mothers endorsing higher self-efficacy had children who reported better relationship quality, and, in turn, reported fewer adjustment difficulties; higher levels of disclosure self-efficacy also directly predicted fewer adjustment problems. Findings offer support for interventions aimed at providing mothers with skills to enhance confidence for disclosing their HIV status.
Brohan, E; Evans-Lacko, S; Henderson, C; Murray, J; Slade, M; Thornicroft, G
Aims. Decisions regarding disclosure of a mental health problem are complex and can involve reconciling conflicting needs and values. This article provides a qualitative account of the beliefs and experiences of mental health service users regarding disclosure in employment contexts. Methods. Total sample of 45 individuals were interviewed in two study phases. In phase one, semi-structured interviews were carried out with 15 mental health service users. The transcripts were analysed using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA). In phase two, identified themes were further explored through interviews with mental health service users (n = 30) in three employment contexts: in paid employment (n = 10); in study or voluntary work (n = 10); and currently unemployed (n = 10). These were analysed using directed content analysis. Results. Four super-ordinate themes were drawn from phase one analysis: (1) public understanding of mental health problems; (2) the employment context; (3) personal impact of labelling and (4) disclosure needs. These themes were reflective of the content of phase two interviews. Conclusions. Greater emphasis needs to be placed on considering the societal, employment and interpersonal influences which form the basis for disclosure beliefs and experiences.
Ziemeļniece, Aija; Īle, Una
The totalitarian times of the 50s-80s of the 20th century have brought the building of high-rise residential blocks in Latvian cities, characterized by an uninteresting solution of standard buildings and the alien scale which does not meet the regional features. During the above period, areas of the residential courtyards have not been addressed. The conclusion of the research is that today the courtyards of the high-rise residential houses have become a stagnant, functionally irrelevant area that forms a depressing nature of the outdoor living space. The uncharted area of courtyards is not being used fully which highlights a wide range of issues that applies to car parks, recreation areas, and the green areas. With the development of the urban infrastructure, the creation of high-rise parking facilities and separate car parks are insufficiently addressed. Consequently, the implementation of improvements in courtyards of high-rise residential houses is not possible if the above issue on the removal of the car load from courtyards is not solved. Many building districts are characterized by the same compositional, architectural-spatial structure which even more influences and causes discomfort in these areas to stay. In recent years, the solution to the above issue is sought by the municipal authorities of Latvia to create a new courtyard zoning. It applies to the project development and construction works. In the research, courtyards of the city of Jelgava are analysed and evaluated which from the qualitative point of view demonstrates and is a vivid example where the issues of the research are readable. The city of Jelgava, located 45 km away from Riga, is an expressed satellite city and serves for the agglomeration of Riga as a huge high-rise residential district. Consequently, the research includes separate courtyards of high-rise residential buildings of the city of Jelgava and their study is carried out from the point of view of the architectural composition
Full Text Available Analyzed multi residential house renovation investment projects efficiency evaluation methods: economic-social, and environmental, as well as key financial valuation methods: simple pay-back period, the energy cost savings, the net present value, internal rate of return. Building walls condition regenerative rate which is used to evaluate investments in energy-saving measures is also discussed. According to reconstruction investments of multi residential house, three government financing programs of multi residential house are evaluated and selected the most effective program by comparing financial valuation methods taking and without taking into account building walls condition regenerative rate. Article in Lithuanian
Maguire, Elizabeth M.; Bokhour, Barbara G.; Wagner, Todd H.; Asch, Steven M.; Gifford, Allen L.; Gallagher, Thomas H.; Durfee, Janet M.; Martinello, Richard A.; Elwy, A. Rani
Background Many healthcare organizations have developed disclosure policies for large-scale adverse events, including the Veterans Health Administration (VA). This study evaluated VA?s national large-scale disclosure policy and identifies gaps and successes in its implementation. Methods Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with leaders, hospital employees, and patients at nine sites to elicit their perceptions of recent large-scale adverse events notifications and the nation...
... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Improved residential real estate. 541.16... REGULATIONS AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 541.16 Improved residential real estate. The term improved residential real estate means residential real estate containing offsite or other improvements...
... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Residential real estate. 541.23 Section 541.23... AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 541.23 Residential real estate. The terms residential real estate... home used in part for business); (c) Other real estate used for primarily residential purposes other...
Liu, Zengming; Zhao, Tao
Highlights: • Analysis about energy prices and the residential expenditure on energy in China. • Though the prices of energy declined, the price effect was negative. • The effect of price was the strongest restraining contribution. • Discussion on the proportion of energy expenditure in residential incomes. - Abstract: Since the establishment of the market economy in 1993, the residential consumption of commodities, including energy, has been highly influenced by prices in China. However, the contribution of the factors related to prices in residential energy consumption is relatively unexplored. This paper extends the KAYA identity with price and expenditure factors and then applies the LMDI method to a decomposition of residential energy consumption in China from 1993 to 2011. Our results show the following: (1) Though the prices of a majority of residential energy sources in China declined, the effect of energy prices restrained residential energy consumption because the expenditure structure changed during the period. (2) During the research period, the urban energy expenditure proportion experienced two progresses of rising and falling, and the rural proportion, which was stable before 2002, sharply increased. (3) The energy consumption intensity effect, which is the negative of the average energy price effect, contributed to most of the decrease in energy consumption, whereas residential income played a key role in the growth of consumption. According to the conclusions, we suggest further marketization and deregulation of energy prices, the promotion of advanced energy types and guidance for better energy consumption patterns
Lin, Ruoyun; Utz, Sonja
On social media, users can easily share their feelings, thoughts, and experiences with the public, including people who they have no previous interaction with. Such information, though often embedded in a stream of others' news, may influence recipients' perception toward the discloser. We used a special design that enables a quasi-experience of SNS browsing, and examined if browsing other's posts in a news stream can create a feeling of familiarity and (even) closeness toward the discloser. In addition, disclosure messages can vary in the degree of intimacy (from superficial to intimate) and narrativity (from a random blather to a story-like narrative). The roles of disclosure intimacy and narrativity on perceived closeness and social attraction were examined by a 2 × 2 experimental design. By conducting one lab study and another online replication, we consistently found that disclosure frequency, when perceived as appropriate, predicted familiarity and closeness. The effects of disclosure intimacy and narrativity were not stable. Further exploratory analyses showed that the roles of disclosure intimacy on closeness and social attraction were constrained by the perceived appropriateness, and the effects of narrativity on closeness and social attraction were mediated by perceived entertainment value.
Mkwanazi, Ntombizodumo B; Rochat, Tamsen J; Bland, Ruth M
The World Health Organization recommends disclosure of parental HIV to children aged 6-12 years. The maternal HIV-disclosure intervention (Amagugu), a lay counsellor-led, home-based intervention with six sessions, was implemented. The intervention included provision of disclosure tools, training and support for mothers, a family session and health promotion clinic visit for mothers and children. Amagugu demonstrated success as a maternal disclosure support programme but less is known about the experiences of participants. A sub-sample of HIV-infected mothers (n = 20) with primary school-aged HIV-uninfected children, from Amagugu, was purposely selected. Using semi-structured interviews and interview-guide, we explored maternal perceptions of disclosure prior to participation and experiences of participating in Amagugu. Audio-recorded interviews conducted in participants' homes, in isiZulu, were transcribed, and content analysis was undertaken. The most common reasons for prior non-disclosure were concerns about children's developmental capacity to understand HIV, fear of HIV-related stigma towards mothers and their families, and lack of skills to undertake disclosure. Intervention materials, rapport with counsellors, and flexibility of the proposed disclosure process motivated mothers to participate. While expressing satisfaction with the intervention, some mothers remained concerned about their children's understanding of HIV and ability to maintain confidentiality. Mothers also requested support in discussing sex-related topics with their children. Despite prior high rates of disclosure to other adults, mothers had little awareness about the importance of disclosure to children and lacked skills to undertake this. The intervention approach, rapport with counsellors, and practicality of the materials, helped overcome child disclosure barriers. Mothers reported their children as very supportive following disclosure and stated they would advise other women to
Myers, Jaime L; Buhi, Eric R; Marhefka, Stephanie; Daley, Ellen; Dedrick, Robert
Disclosure is often a challenge for individuals living with genital herpes. This study explores determinants of genital herpes disclosure with one's most recent sexual partner using an online questionnaire (n = 93). The majority of participants reported (80.4%) disclosure. Among non-disclosers, fear of negative partner reactions was the primary reason for non-disclosure. Age, relationship commitment, time in relationship, and expectations of partner's reaction were statistically significant predictors at the bivariate level. Reaction expectations and relationship commitment remained significant in the multivariate logistic regression model. Findings indicate that future disclosure research should focus on relationship context and managing negative expectations to increase disclosure. © The Author(s) 2015.
Background Today mental health is embedded in a discourse of disclosure. Many people with lived experience of mental illness have decided to move out of the closet to talk about their personal experiences. Aims To look at the context of disclosure and on the questions of why disclose and for whom....... How much do we know and how does our knowledge correspond with today's discourse of disclosure in mental health? Methods Narrative reviewing today's discourse of disclosure on the basis of both scientific and experience-based knowledge as well as from my personal experience. Results The scientific...... aware of different disclosure strategies and respond to the dilemmas. It is also crucial to emphasise that the planning and patterns of disclosure belong to the person with lived experience of mental illness and nobody else....
Nguyen, Melanie; Bin, Yu Sun; Campbell, Andrew
Disclosure of personal information is believed to be more frequent in online compared to offline communication. However, this assumption is both theoretically and empirically contested. This systematic review examined existing research comparing online and offline self-disclosure to ascertain the evidence for current theories of online communication. Studies that compared online and offline disclosures in dyadic interactions were included for review. Contrary to expectations, disclosure was not consistently found to be greater in online contexts. Factors such as the relationship between the communicators, the specific mode of communication, and the context of the interaction appear to moderate the degree of disclosure. In relation to the theories of online communication, there is support for each theory. It is argued that the overlapping predictions of each theory and the current state of empirical research highlights a need for an overarching theory of communication that can account for disclosure in both online and offline interactions.
Legal aspects and issues regarding public disclosure by Canadian and U.S. enterprises, including the petroleum industry, were the themes of this conference. Proper and complete transaction disclosure is mandatory to provide shareholders, investment advisors and other interested persons with the necessary information to make informed and reasoned investment decisions. Among the issues dealt with were disclosure of information about reserves, finding and development costs, disclosure requirements for merger and acquisition transactions, disclosure on the Internet, market making and market manipulation, insider trading, and the consequences of incomplete disclosure. Discussion of relevant Canadian and U.S. corporate and securities laws, regulations, rules and policies are featured as appropriate. The conference attracted 13 contributions. refs
The carbon disclosure project conducts an annual survey to determine the strategies and actions of major cap companies in relation to climate change. This report discussed initiatives implemented by Canada's largest companies to prepare for a carbon-constrained future. The report documented results from 97 companies. The aim of the report was to help companies make use of the disclosures as reference points for future carbon markets and regulations relating to reporting requirements. Results of the survey demonstrated that Canada's low-carbon and high-carbon impact sectors have implemented several significant initiatives and best practices for operations. However, widespread engagement in a comprehensive manner has yet to be achieved. Many respondents were in the process of developing a more balanced risk-opportunity agenda in relation to climate change, and nearly half of all respondents have implemented governance arrangements or personal incentives in both both the high-carbon and low-carbon impact sectors. 5 tabs., 26 figs.
Cheremisina T. P.
Full Text Available The composition of the residential real estate and the structure of Russian housing market do not match: primary and secondary markets are supplemented by a considerable in size non-market sector of residential real estate - the stock of dilapidated housing and buildings in a state of emergency that is filling up the secondary market with rapidly growing volume of worn out properties. While the developmental model of entrepreneurship is gradually settling in the primary housing market, and in general the “soviet” model of management (management companies are not that different from the soviet property management agencies is remaining in the secondary market, the non-market sector requires a formulation of an adequate management model that would allow the private and public management of residential real estate at the same time. Mega-project of renovation of the 5-storey buildings in Moscow will support the formation of such a model and the legal grounds for its existence.
Nazari, Seyed Saeed Hashemi; Mahmoodi, Mahmood; Naieni, Kourosh Holakouie
Measures of segregation are essential tools for evaluation of social equality. They describe complex structural patterns by single quantities and allow the comparison of inequalities over time or between residential places. In many countries, patterns of residential segregation are well described (e.g., South Africa, Great Britain, United States of America). In this study, for the first time in Iran, we measured residential segregation for some socioeconomic and health variables and described their pair wise correlation. We measured evenness dimension of segregation by generalized dissimilarity segregation index and information theory index and its ordinal equivalent for some determinants of socioeconomic status and health variables using data of last national census in Iran. Segregation indices were computed for 31 socioeconomic variables and four health indices. All the provinces were in the category of low segregation for individual and family disability and death of at least one offspring of mother, but for infant mortality half of the provinces were moderately or highly segregated. For some of socioeconomic variables, many provinces were in the category of moderate, high, or extreme segregation. There was significant correlation between segregation of heath indices and some socioeconomic variables. Correlation of segregation of determinants of socioeconomic status with segregation of health indices is an indicator of existence of hot zones of health problems across some provinces. Further studies using multilevel modeling and individual data in health outcomes at individual level and segregation measures at appropriate geographic levels are required to confirm these relations.
Full Text Available Indoor thermal environment is one of the criteria in sustainable building. This criterion is important in ensuring a healthy indoor environment for the occupants. The consideration of environmental concerns at the early design stage would effectively integrate the sustainability of the building environment. Global climate changes such as global warming do affect human comfort since people spend most of their time and activities in the building. The increasing of urban population required additional housing for households, as well as places to shop, office and other facilities. Occupants are now more conscious the importance of sustainability for a better quality of life. Good thermal environment is essential for human wellness and comfort. A residential environment will influence residents’ health and safety. The global warming increase the earth’s temperature and greenhouse emission to the atmosphere cause adverse effects to the outdoor environment. Residential developments modify the materials, structure and energy balance in urban climate effects of human economic activities. As an indoor environment is influenced by the outdoor condition, the factors affecting indoor thermal environment are crucial in improving a comfortable and healthy environment in residential building. The microclimatic of a site such as temperature and relative humidity, and wind movement led to the variation of indoor thermal environment in the building.
Nazari, Seyed Saeed Hashemi; Mahmoodi, Mahmood; Naieni, Kourosh Holakouie
Background: Measures of segregation are essential tools for evaluation of social equality. They describe complex structural patterns by single quantities and allow the comparison of inequalities over time or between residential places. In many countries, patterns of residential segregation are well described (e.g., South Africa, Great Britain, United States of America). In this study, for the first time in Iran, we measured residential segregation for some socioeconomic and health variables and described their pair wise correlation. Methods: We measured evenness dimension of segregation by generalized dissimilarity segregation index and information theory index and its ordinal equivalent for some determinants of socioeconomic status and health variables using data of last national census in Iran. Segregation indices were computed for 31 socioeconomic variables and four health indices. Results: All the provinces were in the category of low segregation for individual and family disability and death of at least one offspring of mother, but for infant mortality half of the provinces were moderately or highly segregated. For some of socioeconomic variables, many provinces were in the category of moderate, high, or extreme segregation. There was significant correlation between segregation of heath indices and some socioeconomic variables. Conclusions: Correlation of segregation of determinants of socioeconomic status with segregation of health indices is an indicator of existence of hot zones of health problems across some provinces. Further studies using multilevel modeling and individual data in health outcomes at individual level and segregation measures at appropriate geographic levels are required to confirm these relations. PMID:24049595
Flouri, Eirini; Mavroveli, Stella; Midouhas, Emily
Using data from the first two waves (in 2001/02 and 2004) of the UK's Millennium Cohort Study (MCS), we attempted to separate the effect of residential mobility from the effect of neighbourhood deprivation on children's emotional and behavioural problems. Our sample was 23,162 children (aged 3-16 years) clustered in 12,692 families. We measured neighbourhood deprivation with the Index of Multiple Deprivation, a measure of neighbourhood-level socio-economic disadvantage, and residential mobility as household move between waves. Being in a lower deprivation neighbourhood at Wave 1 was related to lower scores of both emotional and behavioural problems 2 years later, even after adjustment for child's age and sex, family adversity, family structure and maternal psychological distress. However, children whose families subsequently moved-even within or between lower deprivation neighbourhoods-were at higher risk of emotional and behavioural problems. Adjusting for family socio-economic disadvantage at Wave 1 explained the association of residential mobility with emotional but not with behavioural problems, which remained significant even after accounting for change in family's socio-economic disadvantage between waves. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
...'s primary residence is his or her principal residence. A primary residence may include a house, a... residence. A residential loan will not be made for a lease-to-buy option, unless the option to buy is being...
INTRODUCTION. The disparity between black and white women's adverse birth outcomes has been subject to much investigation, yet the factors underlying its persistence remain elusive, which has encouraged research on neighborhood-level influences, including racial residential segr...
Liao, Hua; Liu, Yanan; Gao, Yixuan; Hao, Yu; Ma, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Kan
In China, more than 80% electricity comes from coal which dominates the CO2 emissions. Residential electricity demand forecasting plays a significant role in electricity infrastructure planning and energy policy designing, but it is challenging to make an accurate forecast for developing countries. This paper forecasts the provincial residential electricity consumption of China in the 13th Five-Year-Plan (2016-2020) period using panel data. To overcome the limitations of widely used predication models with unreliably prior knowledge on function forms, a robust piecewise linear model in reduced form is utilized to capture the non-deterministic relationship between income and residential electricity consumption. The forecast results suggest that the growth rates of developed provinces will slow down, while the less developed will be still in fast growing. The national residential electricity demand will increase at 6.6% annually during 2016-2020, and populous provinces such as Guangdong will be the main contributors to the increments.
Radon concentrations have been studied extensively in single-family residential buildings, but relatively little work has been done in large buildings, including multistory residential buildings. The phenomena of radon transport in multistory residential buildings is made more complicated by the multizone nature of the airflow system and the numerous interzone airflow paths that must be characterized in such a system. This paper presents the results of a computer simulation of airflow and radon transport in a twelve-story residential building. Interzone airflow rates and radon concentrations were predicted using the multizone airflow and contaminant dispersal program (CON-TAM88). Limited simulations were conducted to study the influence of two different radon source terms, indoor-outdoor temperature difference and exterior wall leakage values on radon transport and radon concentration distributions
The article is the second in the series examining some of the issues relating to patient confidentiality and mental health. It explores the situations in which confidential patient information may be disclosed by nurses. First, disclosure with consent is considered. Second, disclosure where it is in 'the public interest' is explored. Third, those situations in which disclosure may be required by statute are discussed. The article concludes by suggesting that the whole area of confidentiality is ripe for reconsideration and perhaps statutory reform.
Hummel, Katrin; Festl-Pell, Diana Brigitte
This paper examines the sustainability disclosure in the banking industry with respect to potential greenwashing. We build a theoretical framework to assess the sustainability disclosure along materiali-ty criteria in the banking industry and apply this framework to the corporate sustainability reporting of two global systemically important banks. The results of our case study point toward the existence of greenwashing mainly in the most material area of the sustainability disclosure of our s...
Dahlia Sari; Christine Tjen
This study aims to examine the influence of the corporate taxpayers’ level of CSR disclosure and environmental performance on the level of tax aggressiveness. This study took a sample of non-financial companies listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange during 2009-2012. This study shows that the corporate taxpayers’ level of CSR disclosure has significant negative effect towards the tax aggressiveness. It means the higher the level of the CSR disclosure, the lower the company’s tax aggressivene...
Le Bo; Dan Shen; Jin Jun Bo
This paper aims to discuss effectiveness of social responsibility disclosure in promoting global production network. Through a critical review on the theoretical development from supply chain to global production network, the global supply chain management of Apple Inc., as a case, is investigated, with focus on corporate and NGOs’ social disclosure on the environmental and labor rights' issues of its suppliers in China. The paper concludes that effectiveness of corporate social disclosure on...
Chen, Fang-pei; Ying-Chi Lai, Grace; Yang, Lawrence
Support from social networks is imperative to mental health recovery of persons with mental illness. However, disclosing mental illness may damage a person’s participation in networks due to mental illness stigma, especially in Chinese-immigrant communities where social networks (the guanxi network) has specific social-cultural significance. This study focused on mental illness disclosure in Chinese-immigrant communities in New York City. Fifty-three Chinese psychiatric patients were recruite...
Jan Michalak; Gunnar Rimmel; Peter Beusch; Kristina Jonäll
Purpose: In this paper, we investigate the development, the current state, and the potential of business model disclosures to illustrate where, why and how organizations might want to disclose their business models to their stakeholders. The description of the business model may be relevant to stakeholders if it helps them to comprehend the company ‘story’ and increase understanding of other provided data (i.e. financial statements, risk exposure, sustainability of operations). It can also ai...
Eginli, Aysen Temel; Özsenler, S. Didem
Facebook is still the most popular social media tool among all types of social networks. Besides having an influence on managing online relationships, Facebook may also be determinative of people’s relationships and interactions in their daily lives. Self-disclosure underpins the establishment and maintenance of interpersonal communication. Social networks, especially Facebook, allow people to comfortably self-disclose. The Uses and Gratifications Theory, which focuses on motives and gains re...
Ding, Lei; Hwang, Jackelyn; Divringi, Eileen
Gentrification has provoked considerable controversy surrounding its effects on residential displacement. Using a unique individual-level, longitudinal data set, this study examines mobility rates and residential destinations of residents in gentrifying neighborhoods during the recent housing boom and bust in Philadelphia for various strata of residents and different types of gentrification. We find that vulnerable residents, those with low credit scores and without mortgages, are generally n...
Full Text Available This paper studies thermal environment of closed balconies that commonly exist in residential buildings, and designs a passive solar residential building. The design optimizes the architectural details of the house and passive utilization of solar energy to provide auxiliary heating for house in winter and cooling in summer. This design might provide a more sufficient and reasonable modification for microclimate in the house.
Harrison, Therese W
Development of sexual identity in middle childhood and early adolescence is a natural process. However, it is more stressful for homosexual adolescents. Society continues to stigmatize and marginalize homosexuality. To avoid rejection and hostility, homosexual adolescents are pressured to hide their sexual identities. This fact compounds the anticipated normal developmental concerns of adolescence, and can create unique problems for the homosexual adolescents. Homosexuality can place them at risk for social stigmatization, isolation, depression, suicide, abuse, and rejection by their families and friends. During this exceptionally stressful time, both adolescent students and their families need anticipatory guidance and support. In providing anticipatory guidance, this article discusses critical roles played by professionals who work with adolescents in community or school settings. Included are insights into development of this normal variant of sexual attraction and orientation, risks that homosexual adolescent students may face as well as their disclosure concerns, and possible reactions families may have following disclosure. Supporting homosexual adolescents and their families is emphasized with regard to sensitively providing information, disclosure decisions, coping with stigmatization, and resiliency factors.
VanDersarl, Jules J.; Xu, Alexander M.; Melosh, Nicholas A.; Tayebi, Noureddine
In accordance with the purpose(s) of the present disclosure, as embodied and broadly described herein, embodiments of the present disclosure, in one aspect, relate to methods of making a structure including nanotubes, a structure including nanotubes, methods of delivering a fluid to a cell, methods of removing a fluid to a cell, methods of accessing intracellular space, and the like.
Paul, Lisa A; Walsh, Kate; McCauley, Jenna L; Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Resnick, Heidi S; Kilpatrick, Dean G
Disclosure of a rape to informal support sources (e.g., friends) is a relatively common experience, but it is not well understood. This study expands our limited knowledge of the characteristics and life experiences of disclosure recipients among a national sample of 2,000 female college students. Over 40% of respondents reported having received a rape disclosure, and more than two thirds of these recipients encouraged victims to formally report their rapes to the police or other authorities. Correlates of disclosure receipt and encouragement of reporting, including personal assault history, mental health history, and substance use, are presented and discussed.
Reticence in disclosure of HIV infection and reasons for bereavement: impact on perinatally infected adolescents' mental health and understanding of HIV treatment and prevention in Johannesburg, South Africa.
Full Text Available Recent policy changes in sustainability reporting, such as the ones related to the new European Directive on non-financial disclosure (2014/95/EU, the standards issued by the American Sustainability Accounting Standard Board (SASB, the G4 guidelines issued by the Global Sustainability Standard Board (GSSB, and the framework of the International Integrated Reporting Council (IIRC stress the importance of extending the disclosure of ethical, social, and environmental risks within financial and social-environmental reporting. Institutional pressure has notably increased among organizations, in setting up risk management tools to understand sustainability risks within managerial and reporting practices. Given such institutional pressure, the corporate reaction in providing additional sustainability risk disclosure calls for attention and scrutiny. Therefore, this study aims at addressing such issues from an exploratory perspective. We based our analysis on a sample of large Italian organizations that issued sustainability disclosure in accordance with the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI, G4 guidelines, and we tested the relationship between their level of risk disclosure and other relevant variables. Consistently with the literature, we found that “experienced” sustainable reporters provide a significant volume of disclosure, and that disclosure quality on risk is positively influenced by their international presence and reporting experience. However, when accounting for specific risk-related areas of disclosure, only a few of them seem to adopt a managerial perspective linking strategy, risk metrics, and disclosure.
... for disclosure within DOD. (a) Criminal record information contained in military police documents will... limit the dissemination of information between military police, the USACIDC, and other law enforcement...
Lemay, Edward P; Melville, Michael C
Six studies demonstrate that perceivers' desire to bond with targets motivates perceivers to misconstrue their own self-disclosure in ways that maintain perceivers' security in targets' care and commitment. Perceivers who strongly valued relationships with targets reported high levels of global self-disclosure, consistent with many findings suggesting salutary effects of disclosure. However, these same perceivers reported low self-disclosure of needs and desires in hypothetical (Study 1) and actual (Study 2) situations characterized by targets' unresponsive behavior. Similarly, in daily report (Study 3) and behavioral observation (Study 4) studies, perceivers who valued relationships with targets perceived high levels of self-disclosure when targets were responsive, but they perceived low self-disclosure when targets were unresponsive, and these perceptions seemed partly illusory. In turn, these perceptions of low self-disclosure in situations characterized by partners' unresponsive behavior predicted decreased perceptions of diagnosticity of targets' behavior (Studies 1-3) and buffered the negative affective and interpersonal effects of unresponsive behavior (Study 4). Experimental manipulations (Studies 5 and 6) demonstrated the motivational nature of perceived self-disclosure. Collectively, the results suggest that a desire to bond with targets motivates perceivers to downplay the diagnosticity of targets' unresponsive behavior through diminishing their self-disclosure, in turn preserving perceivers' trust in targets' care and commitment.
Gutsche, Robert; Schulz, Jan-Frederic; Gratwohl, Michael
We examine in this paper the effects of corporate social responsibility (CSR) disclosure and CSR performance on firm value for S&P 500 firms from 2011 to 2014. We find that CSR disclosure is positively associated with firm value and that the effect of CSR disclosure on firm value is larger than the effect of CSR performance. On average, the overall firm value increase for one index point of Bloomberg's environmental, social, and governance (ESG) Disclosure Score is $260 million, whereas the i...
Stroud, Lynfa; Wong, Brian M; Hollenberg, Elisa; Levinson, Wendy
This scoping review identified published studies of error disclosure curricula targeting physicians-in-training (residents or medical students). In 2011, the authors searched electronic databases (e.g., MEDLINE, EMBASE, ERIC) for eligible studies published between 1960 and July 2011. From the studies that met their inclusion criteria, they extracted and summarized key aspects of each curriculum (e.g., level of learner, program discipline) and educational features (e.g., curriculum design, teaching and assessment methods, and learner outcomes). The authors identified 21 studies that met their inclusion criteria. These studies described 19 error disclosure curricula, which were either a stand-alone educational activity, part of a larger curriculum in patient safety or communication skills, or part of simulation training. Most curricula consisted of a brief, single encounter, combining didactic lectures or small-group discussions with role-play. Fourteen studies described learners' self-reported improvements in knowledge, skills, and attitudes. Five studies used a structured assessment and reported that learners' error disclosure skills improved after completing the curriculum; however, these studies were limited by their small to medium sample size and lack of assessment of skills retention. Attempts to assess the change in learners' error disclosure behavior in the clinical context were limited. Studies of existing error disclosure curricula demonstrate improvements in learners' knowledge, skills, and attitudes. A greater emphasis is needed on the more rigorous assessment of skills acquisition and behavior change to determine whether formal training leads to long-term effects on learner outcomes that translate into real-world clinical practice.
Zhao Xiaoli; Li Na; Ma, Chunbo
Residential energy consumption (REC) is the second largest energy use category (10%) in China and urban residents account for 63% of the REC. Understanding the underlying drivers of variations of urban REC thus helps to identify challenges and opportunities and provide advices for future policy measures. This paper applies the LMDI method to a decomposition of China's urban REC during the period of 1998–2007 at disaggregated product/activity level using data collected from a wide range of sources. Our results have shown an extensive structure change towards a more energy-intensive household consumption structure as well as an intensive structure change towards high-quality and cleaner energy such as electricity, oil, and natural gas, which reflects a changing lifestyle and consumption mode in pursuit of a higher level of comfort, convenience and environmental protection. We have also found that China's price reforms in the energy sector have contributed to a reduction of REC while scale factors including increased urban population and income levels have played a key role in the rapid growth of REC. We suggest that further deregulation in energy prices and regulatory as well as voluntary energy efficiency and conservation policies in the residential sector should be promoted. - Highlights: ► We examine china's residential energy consumption (REC) at detailed product level. ► Results show significant extensive and intensive structure changed. ► Price deregulation in the energy sector has contributed a reduction of REC. ► Growth of population and income played a key role in REC rapid growth. ► We provide policy suggestions to promote REC saving.
Royal, G. C., III
Sixteen conceptual designs of residential photovoltaic arrays are described. Each design concept was evaluated by an industry advisory panel using a comprehensive set of technical, economic and institutional criteria. Key electrical and mechanical concerns that effect further array subsystem development are also discussed. Three integrated array design concepts were selected by the advisory panel for further optimization and development. From these concepts a single one will be selected for detailed analysis and prototype fabrication. The three concepts selected are: (1) An array of frameless panels/modules sealed in a T shaped zipper locking neoprene gasket grid pressure fitted into an extruded aluminum channel grid fastened across the rafters. (2) An array of frameless modules pressure fitted in a series of zipper locking EPDM rubber extrusions adhesively bonded to the roof. Series string voltage is developed using a set of integral tongue connectors and positioning blocks. (3) An array of frameless modules sealed by a silicone adhesive in a prefabricated grid of rigid tape and sheet metal attached to the roof.
Full Text Available HIV is currently a chronic disease; an increasing number of people living with HIV (PLHIV are actively working. Disclosure of HIV status in the workplace is influenced by many factors. To explore experiences of PLHIV in their workplaces concerning disclosure and attendant consequences. A pre-tested, semi-structured, self-administered questionnaire that contained information on demography and social aspects of work was used to assess 327 PLWHIV attending ARV clinics in health institutions in Enugu, Nigeria. Out of 327 respondents, 161 (49.2% were females. The modal age range was 31-40 years. Most, (60.2% were married, 71.9% were government employees. Ten (3.1% were forced by employer to do HIV test while 18.0% changed their jobs because of their status. One hundred and eleven (33.9% disclosed their HIV status to management. Reasons for not disclosing include fear of being sacked (84.3%. Post and ndash; disclosure consequences include: dismissal, 18 (5.5% and change in work schedule, 112 (34.3%. Over 80% of respondents claimed that relationship with management and co-workers have been affected by disclosing their HIV status. Many PL HIV do not disclose their HIV status at workplace for fear of discrimination. Full implementation of HIV workplace policy should be enforced.
de Heer-Wunderink, Charlotte; Caro-Nienhuis, Annemarie D; Sytema, Sjoerd; Wiersma, Durk
Characteristics of patients living in residential care facilities and the availability of mental hospital- and residential beds in Italy and The Netherlands were compared to assess whether differences in the process of deinstitutionalisation have influenced the composition of their residential patient populations. Data from the Dutch UTOPIA-study (UTilization & Outcome of Patients In the Association of Dutch residential care providers) and the Italian PROGRES-study were used. Dutch residents were more likely to suffer from substance or alcohol abuse than Italian residents. The latter were more likely to suffer from schizophrenia or a related disorder, less likely to have experienced mental hospital admissions and showed an overall shorter duration of stay in residential care facilities. Contrary to our expectations Dutch residents, who still have good access to long stay beds in mental hospitals, are not less disabled than Italian residents. Finally, the number of beds in residential care facilities per 10,000 inhabitants in the Netherlands is twice (6) as high as in Italy (3). The Italian and Dutch deinstitutionalisation processes have resulted in a different availability in the number of residential beds. However, it did not influence the overall level of functioning of both residential populations.
Sneed, Carl D.; Willis, Leigh A.
This study investigated differences between residential and non-residential fathers on topics discussed during father-child sex communication and factors associated with child sexual socialisation. Young people (N = 159, 53% female) provided self-reports using computer surveys on the role of their fathers on father-child sex communication, general…
Keijsers, L.G.M.T.; Hiemstra, J.M.; Voelke, M; Maciejewski, D; Branje, S.J.T.; Koot, Hans M.; Van Lier, Pol; Meeus, W.H.J.
This study aimed to gain a better understanding of the normative declines in adolescent disclosure and maternal knowledge over the course of adolescence, by assessing the underlying monitoring processes. Multilevel structural equation models were applied to 15 assessments among 479 families across
Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop prediction mathematical equations to compute reinforcement steel quantity in traditional residential buildings based on 158 sets of data collected in the West Bank in Palestine. The records related to the quantities were collected from consultancy firms that provide reinforced concrete design services. The data were collected for residential buildings up to four floors. Linear regression analysis was chosen to show the correlation between the included variables. The following variables were used in the regression models: quantity of reinforcement steel (dependent variable, structural element volume (independent variable and floor area (independent variable. Fourteen models were developed; nine models were developed to compute the quantity of reinforcement steel in different structural elements: slabs, beams, columns and footings. The other five models were used to estimate the total steel quantity in a residential building. The coefficient of multiple determination (R2 of the developed models ranged from 0.70 to 0.82. This confirms a good correlation between the dependent and the independent variables. The accuracy of the developed models was tested using the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE test. With MAPE values ranging from 21% to 36%, the results compare favourably with past research that indicated that accuracy between ±25% and ±50% at the early stages is acceptable. The results also show that the models built on structural element size have better accuracy than the models using floor area. Such types of equations are very useful, especially in their simplicity and ability to be handled by calculators or simple computer programmes.
Lancaster, Ross; lutzenhiser, Loren; Moezzi, Mithra; Widder, Sarah H.; Chandra, Subrato; Baechler, Michael C.
This study examined a range of factors influencing energy consumption in households that had participated in residential energy-efficiency upgrades. The study was funded by a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and was conducted by faculty and staff of Portland State University Center for Urban Studies and Department of Economics. This work was made possible through the assistance and support of the Energy Trust of Oregon (ETO), whose residential energy-efficiency programs provided the population from which the sample cases were drawn. All households in the study had participated in the ETO Home Performance with Energy Star (HPwES) program. A number of these had concurrently pursued measures through other ETO programs. Post-retrofit energy outcomes are rarely investigated on a house-by-house basis. Rather, aggregate changes are ordinarily the focus of program impact evaluations, with deviation from aggregate expectations chalked up to measurement error, the vagaries of weather and idiosyncrasies of occupants. However, understanding how homes perform post-retrofit on an individual basis can give important insights to increase energy savings at the participant and the programmatic level. Taking a more disaggregated approach, this study analyzed energy consumption data from before and after the retrofit activity and made comparisons with engineering estimates for the upgrades, to identify households that performed differently from what may have been expected based on the estimates. A statistical analysis using hierarchal linear models, which accounted for weather variations, was performed looking separately at gas and electrical use during the periods before and after upgrades took place. A more straightforward comparison of billing data for 12-month periods before and after the intervention was also performed, yielding the majority of the cases examined. The later approach allowed total energy use and costs to be
Jacobson, Bonnie B.; Lundien, Barbara; Kaufman, Jeffrey; Kreczko, Adam; Ferrey, Steven; Morgan, Stephen
The Weatherization Residential Assistance Partnership,'' or WRAP program, is a fuel-blind conservation program designed to assist Northeast Utilities' low-income customers to use energy safely and efficiently. Innovative with respect to its collaborative approach and its focus on utilizing and strengthening the existing low-income weatherization service delivery network, the WRAP program offers an interesting model to other utilities which traditionally have relied on for-profit energy service contractors and highly centralized program implementation structures. This report presents appendices with surveys, participant list, and computers program to examine and predict potential energy savings.
Clark, Y.Y.; Vincent, W.
Electrical energy consumption data have been recorded for several hundred submetered residential structures in Middle Tennessee. All houses were constructed with a common energy package.'' Specifically, daily cooling usage data have been collected for 130 houses for the 1985 and 1986 cooling seasons, and monthly heating usage data for 186 houses have been recorded by occupant participation over a seven-year period. Cooling data have been analyzed using an SPSSx multiple regression analysis and results are compared to several cooling models. Heating, base, and total energy usage are also analyzed and regression correlation coefficients are determined as a function of several house parameters.
Sep 1, 2016 ... non-disclosure among infected children and adolescents in Enugu, southeast Nigeria, SAHARA-. J: Journal of Social Aspects of HIV/AIDS, 13:1, 136-141, DOI: 10.1080/17290376.2016.1226942. To link to this article: .... found to have higher self-esteem than infected children unaware of their status (COPA, ...
Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Davidson, Carolyn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McLaren, Joyce [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
With rapid growth in energy efficiency and distributed generation, electric utilities are anticipating stagnant or decreasing electricity sales, particularly in the residential sector. Utilities are increasingly considering alternative rates structures that are designed to recover fixed costs from residential solar photovoltaic (PV) customers with low net electricity consumption. Proposed structures have included fixed charge increases, minimum bills, and increasingly, demand rates - for net metered customers and all customers. This study examines the electricity bill implications of various residential rate alternatives for multiple locations within the United States. For the locations analyzed, the results suggest that residential PV customers offset, on average, between 60% and 99% of their annual load. However, roughly 65% of a typical customer's electricity demand is non-coincidental with PV generation, so the typical PV customer is generally highly reliant on the grid for pooling services.
The disclosure of sexual abuse in the world of sports is a process that has not been widely documented. This article presents the results of a document analysis of sport organization policies and interviews conducted with 27 sport stakeholders. The interviews focus on these stakeholders' perceptions of how the disclosure process would unfold if a…
Despite the cultural salience of Christianity in many parts of Africa and the expansion of antiretroviral treatment, few studies have examined experiences of religious participation among HIV-positive individuals. Correspondingly, most studies of HIV self-disclosure in sub-Saharan Africa focus primarily on disclosure to sexual ...
... parties. If any information necessary for accurate disclosure is unknown to the creditor, it shall make... been imposed. A periodic statement need not be sent for an account if the creditor deems it... between the parties. If any information necessary for accurate disclosure is unknown to the creditor, it...
Suijs, J.P.M.; Wielhouwer, J.L.
The argument of proprietary costs is commonly used by firms to object against proposed disclosure regulations. The goal of this paper is to improve our understanding of the welfare consequences of disclosure in duopoly markets and to identify market settings where proprietary costs are a viable
..., Family Advocacy. (j) AFI 41-210, Patient Administration Functions. (k) AFI 44-109, Mental Health and... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Records with special disclosure procedures. 806... ADMINISTRATION AIR FORCE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT PROGRAM § 806.28 Records with special disclosure procedures...
Double, Katelin B.
A mixed methodological approach was used to examine the impact of disclosure characteristics on mental health among individuals who have experienced campus sexual violence occurring at Christian and non-religiously affiliated universities. After completing an online survey, a sample of 97 participants qualified for the study. No disclosure and…
Today mental health is embedded in a discourse of disclosure. Many people with lived experience of mental illness have decided to move out of the closet to talk about their personal experiences. To look at the context of disclosure and on the questions of why disclose and for whom. How much do we know and how does our knowledge correspond with today's discourse of disclosure in mental health? Narrative reviewing today's discourse of disclosure on the basis of both scientific and experience-based knowledge as well as from my personal experience. The scientific and experience-based knowledge of the benefits and costs of disclosure is limited, but points to mixed results and many risks on a personal level. At the same time, it leaves us with several unanswered questions. There is a need to always define the context of disclosure and to make professionals aware of different disclosure strategies and respond to the dilemmas. It is also crucial to emphasise that the planning and patterns of disclosure belong to the person with lived experience of mental illness and nobody else.
... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Disclosure and privacy. 14.105 Section 14.105 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY MERCHANT MARINE OFFICERS AND SEAMEN SHIPMENT AND DISCHARGE OF MERCHANT MARINERS General § 14.105 Disclosure and privacy. The Coast Guard makes information...
... Disclosure of Data § 298.70 Public disclosure of data. (a) Detailed domestic on-flight market data and nonstop segment data except military data shall be made publicly available after processing. Domestic data... operations are reported under service codes N or R. (b) Detailed international on-flight market and nonstop...
... Disclosures at Automated Teller Machines (Regulation E) AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection... the EFTA to eliminate a requirement that a fee notice be posted on or at automated teller machines, leaving in place the requirement for a specific fee disclosure to appear on the screen of that machine or...
... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disclosures at automated teller machines. 205... SYSTEM ELECTRONIC FUND TRANSFERS (REGULATION E) § 205.16 Disclosures at automated teller machines. (a) Definition. Automated teller machine operator means any person that operates an automated teller machine at...
... section 1414(d); TILA section 129C(h). Disclosure regarding mandatory escrow or impound accounts. Dodd... escrow in connection with the transaction. Dodd-Frank Act section 1462; TILA section 129D(j)(1)(A). Disclosure regarding cancellation of escrow after consummation. Dodd-Frank Act section 1462; TILA section...
... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accounting of... IDENTIFIABLE PERSONAL INFORMATION Rules for Disclosure of Records § 3b.226 Accounting of disclosures. (a) The....225(b) (5) and (7). (b) Each system manager will retain the accounting made under paragraph (a) of...
Perceptions about children's vulnerability and will to protect them against stigma lead parents to delay disclosure and not to overwhelm them with their experience of living with HIV. Finally, without institutional counselling support, disclosure to children remains a challenge for both parents and children, which suggests a ...
... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cargo liability disclosure statement. 205.8... PROCEEDINGS) ECONOMIC REGULATIONS AIRCRAFT ACCIDENT LIABILITY INSURANCE § 205.8 Cargo liability disclosure statement. Every direct U.S. or foreign air carrier providing air cargo service in air transportation shall...
... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Accounting for disclosures. 700.269 Section 700.269... Privacy Act § 700.269 Accounting for disclosures. (a) Maintenance of an accounting. (1) Where a record is...), an accounting shall be made. (2) The accounting shall record (i) the date, nature, and purpose of...
Zhang, L.; Mol, A.P.J.; He, G.
Given its past as a so-called information-poor and authoritarian country, China has recently made remarkable progress in information disclosure and environmental transparency. Since enacting the Open Government Information Regulations and the Environmental Information Disclosure Measures in 2008,
... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Internet Web site disclosure requirements. 1304.45... OF REGISTRANTS Online Pharmacies § 1304.45 Internet Web site disclosure requirements. (a) Each online... the following information on the homepage of each Internet site it operates, or on a page directly...
... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Financial disclosure reports. 10.4 Section 10.4 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE THE BOARD OF GOVERNORS OF THE U.S. POSTAL SERVICE RULES OF CONDUCT FOR POSTAL SERVICE GOVERNORS (ARTICLE X) § 10.4 Financial disclosure reports. (a) Requirement of...
The investigators found that most of the caretakers. (90%), children (85%) and all health workers thought that disclosure had improved adherence. Paediatric. HIV providers believe that disclosure is important for helping children understand the need for ART and cre- ate trusting relationships that facilitate adherence,6,35 In.
... INFORMATION ACT Privacy Act § 2.57 Accounting for disclosures. (a) Maintenance of an accounting. (1) Where a... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Accounting for disclosures. 2.57 Section 2... § 2.56 (c), an accounting shall be made. (2) The accounting shall record (i) the date, nature, and...
253 therapeutic non-disclosure of adverse health information to an obstetric patient: case report. o.P. adudu and o.G. adudu. summarY the non-disclosure of foetal exomphalos discovered on intra-uterine ultrasound to the mother and anaesthesiologist in this case report, was based on the obstetricians' assumption that it will.
... control, the Foundation will keep an accurate accounting of routine disclosures, except those made to... required. (b) The Foundation will retain the accounting made under this section for at least 5 years or the...) Except for disclosure made under paragraph (g) of § 1503.3, the Foundation will make the accounting under...
Josephson, Gilda S.; Fong-Beyette, Margaret L.
Explored specific behaviors and characteristics of counselors that relate to adult, female clients' disclosure of incest during counseling. Suggests that factors related to initial disclosure and exploration of incest are client readiness, direct questioning by the counselor, specific counselor characteristics, and positive counselor reactions to…
Introduction: This study investigates the creation of alternative identities or possible selves on social networks by examining self-presentation and self-disclosure as elements of the information disclosure behaviour of Facebook users. Method. An online questionnaire was distributed amongst library and information science students at Bar-Ilan…
... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disclosure requirements for borrower stock. 615.5250 Section 615.5250 Banks and Banking FARM CREDIT ADMINISTRATION FARM CREDIT SYSTEM FUNDING AND... Disclosure requirements for borrower stock. (a) For sales of borrower stock, which for this subpart means...
Marra, T.; Suijs, J.
This paper analyzes how differences in disclosure environments affect the firm's choice between private and public capital. Disclosure requirements prescribe to what extent the firm has to release private information that may lead to the firm incurring proprietary costs. We examine which firm types
... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Disclosure of examination reports. 18.9 Section 18.9 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY DISCLOSURE OF... permitted under part 4 of this chapter, a national bank may not disclose any report of examination or report...
Allen, Adelaide; Court, Sue
The purpose of this paper is to explore the value of self disclosure within Peer Assisted Learning (PAL) sessions at Bournemouth University. We consider the role of self disclosure in education contexts in order to inform our understanding of this skill in PAL. Both qualitative and quantitative methods were employed in this research to investigate…
Rasmussen, Brian M.; Mishna, Faye
This paper explores the issue of the instructor's self-disclosure within a classroom. Theoretically, the paper offers a broad relational framework from which we discuss dynamics regarding the instructor's inevitable use of self-disclosure and its impact on the student-instructor relationship and the learning process. Further, we survey the…
Harper, Vernon B., Jr.; Harper, Erika J.
Significant research indicates that student self-disclosure plays an important role in the learning experience and producing positive learning outcomes. Blogging is an increasingly popular web tool that can potentially aid educators by encouraging student self-disclosure. Both content analysis and focus groups were used to assess whether student…
Spence, Nicola; Fox, John R E; Golding, Laura; Daiches, Anna
Clinical supervision is a multi-functional intervention within numerous psychotherapeutic professions, including clinical psychology. It often relies on supervisees' verbal disclosures of pertinent information. There is limited research on supervisee self-disclosure in the UK, and none using clinical psychology populations. This study aimed to address the limitations in the evidence base. It used a constructivist grounded theory methodology to investigate qualified UK clinical psychologists' use of self-disclosure in supervision in order to develop a theoretical understanding of their self-disclosure processes. Ten clinical psychologists from various time points across the career span were recruited to the study. Four core conceptual categories were identified in the analysis as being integral to participants' decision-making processes: 'Setting the Scene', 'Supervisory Relationship', 'Using Self-disclosure' and 'Reviewing Outcome of Self-disclosure'. These four categories are comprised of a number of subcategories. The study's findings are compared with the current literature base, and it is argued that there are tensions with the scientist-practitioner model as it could be interpreted to encourage an expert stance, which may limit the self-disclosure of qualified supervisees. The implications of this perspective are discussed. Supervision is a key process in supporting qualified clinical psychologists and the use of disclosure appears to be important in facilitating useful supervision. It appears that clinical psychologists go through a number of complex processes in deciding whether to self disclose. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
... MINE OPERATOR'S INSURANCE Authorization of Self-Insurers § 726.113 Disclosure of confidential... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disclosure of confidential information. 726... authorized self-insurer or applicant for the authorization of self-insurance obtained by the Office shall be...
... 28 Judicial Administration 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Positions requiring financial disclosure... INFORMATION AND ACCESS TO CLASSIFIED INFORMATION Access to Classified Information § 17.42 Positions requiring financial disclosure. (a) The Assistant Attorney General for Administration, in consultation with the...
... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Disclosure to government authorities. 181.122 Section 181.122 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Information § 181.122 Disclosure to government authorities. Nothing in § 181.121 of this part shall preclude...
Antunes C. H.
Full Text Available The increasing deployment of distributed generation systems based on renewables in the residential sector, the development of information and communication technologies and the expected evolution of traditional power systems towards smart grids are inducing changes in the passive role of end-users, namely with stimuli to change residential demand patterns. The residential user should be able to make decisions and efficiently manage his energy resources by taking advantages from his flexibility in load usage with the aim to minimize the electricity bill without depreciating the quality of energy services provided. The aim of this paper is characterizing electricity consumption in the residential sector and categorizing the different loads according to their typical usage, working cycles, technical constraints and possible degree of control. This categorization of end-use loads contributes to ascertain the availability of controllable loads to be managed as well as the different direct management actions that can be implemented. The ability to implement different management actions over diverse end-use load will increase the responsiveness of demand and potentially raises the willingness of end-users to accept such activities. The impacts on the aggregated national demand of large-scale dissemination of management systems that would help the end-user to make decisions regarding electricity consumption are predicted using a simulator that generates the aggregated residential sector electricity consumption under variable prices.
Full Text Available The use of the internet as a medium of dissemination of information to stakeholders is increasingly gaining grounds. This study extends existing literature on web disclosures by investigating the characteristics that predict the extent of web-based disclosures. In this study, corporate websites of top Nigerian firms are used as sources of data, while a regression analysis is employed to examine the extent of prediction. Results indicate that the firm size and industry type are significant determinants of web disclosures. However, other firm traits such as ownership dispersion and financial performance do not significantly explain the extent of internet disclosures. The study recommends that a regulatory template for corporate web disclosures be put in place by government regardless of the size or industry classification of the firm. This is with a view to considerably reduce agency conflicts arising from information asymmetry in publicly listed firms in Nigeria.
Full Text Available Increasing energy performance of the residential buildings by means of reducing heat consumption on the heating and ventilation is the last segment in the system of energy resources saving. The first segments in the energy saving process are heat producing and transportation over the main lines and outside distribution networks. In the period from 2006 to 2013. by means of the heat-supply schemes optimization and modernization of the heating systems. using expensive (200–300 $US per 1 m though hugely effective preliminary coated pipes. the economy reached 2.7 mln tons of fuel equivalent. Considering the multi-stage and multifactorial nature (electricity. heat and water supply of the residential sector energy saving. the reasonable estimate of the efficiency of the saving of residential buildings energy should be performed in tons of fuel equivalent per unit of time.
Ding, Lei; Hwang, Jackelyn; Divringi, Eileen
Gentrification has provoked considerable controversy surrounding its effects on residential displacement. Using a unique individual-level, longitudinal data set, this study examines mobility rates and residential destinations of residents in gentrifying neighborhoods during the recent housing boom and bust in Philadelphia for various strata of residents and different types of gentrification. We find that vulnerable residents, those with low credit scores and without mortgages, are generally no more likely to move from gentrifying neighborhoods compared with their counterparts in nongentrifying neighborhoods. When they do move, however, they are more likely to move to lower-income neighborhoods. Residents in gentrifying neighborhoods at the aggregate level have slightly higher mobility rates, but these rates are largely driven by more advantaged residents. These findings shed new light on the heterogeneity in mobility patterns across residents in gentrifying neighborhoods and suggest that researchers should focus more attention on the quality of residential moves and nonmoves for less advantaged residents, rather than mobility rates alone.
Whittaker, James K.; Holmes, Lisa; del Valle, Jorge F.
for Child and Family Research, Loughborough University in the U.K. for a Summit meeting on therapeutic residential care for children and youth funded by the Sir Halley Stewart Trust (UK). The focus centered on what is known about therapeutic residential care and what key questions should inform a priority......In many developed countries around the world, ‘group care’ interventions for children and adolescents have come under increasing scrutiny from central government, private philanthropic and child advocacy agencies desirous of (1) achieving better outcomes for vulnerable children and youth; (2) doing...... alternatives to serve high-resource needing youth has had unintended and negative consequences. It is within this context that a working group international experts representing research, policy, service delivery and families (International Work Group for Therapeutic Residential Care) convened at the Centre...
Coughlin, J.; Cory, K.
This report presents the information that homeowners and policy makers need to facilitate PV financing at the residential level. The full range of cash payments, bill savings, and tax incentives is covered, as well as potentially available solar attribute payments. Traditional financing is also compared to innovative solutions, many of which are borrowed from the commercial sector. Together, these mechanisms are critical for making the economic case for a residential PV installation, given its high upfront costs. Unfortunately, these programs are presently limited to select locations around the country. By calling attention to these innovative initiatives, this report aims to help policy makers consider greater adoption of these models to benefit homeowners interested installing a residential PV system.
Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend
a short account of the technical energy-saving possibilities that are present in existing dwellings and presents a financial methodology used for assessing energy-saving measures. In order to estimate the total savings potential detailed calculations have been performed in a case with two typical...... buildings representing the residential building stock and based on these calculations an assessment of the energy-saving potential is performed. A profitable savings potential of energy used for space heating of about 80% is identified over 45 years (until 2050) within the residential building stock......A large potential for energy savings exists in the Danish residential building stock due to the fact that 75% of the buildings were constructed before 1979 when the first important demands for energy performance of building were introduced. It is also a fact that many buildings in Denmark face...
Gignac, Monique A M; Cao, Xingshan
To examine arthritis self-disclosure at work, factors associated with disclosure, and prospective relationships of self-disclosure and work place support with changes to work place interactions, work transitions, and work place stress. Using a structured questionnaire, participants with osteoarthritis or inflammatory arthritis were interviewed at 4 time points, 18 months apart. At time 1, all participants (n = 490; 381 women, 109 men) were employed. Of the entire sample, 71% were retained throughout the study. Respondents were recruited using community advertising and from rheumatology and rehabilitation clinics. Self-disclosure and perceived support from managers and coworkers was assessed, as well as demographic, illness, work-context, and psychological variables. Generalized estimating equations modeled associations of disclosure and support on changes at work (e.g., job disruptions, work place stress). At each time point, 70.6-76.6% of participants had self-disclosed arthritis to their manager and 85.2-88.1% had told a coworker. Intraindividual variability in disclosure was considerable. Factors associated with self-disclosure were often inconsistent over time, with the exception of variables assessing the need to self-disclose (e.g., activity limitations) and perceived coworker support. Self-disclosure was not associated with changes to work. However, coworker support was related to fewer job disruptions, help with work tasks, and being less likely to reduce hours. Perceived managerial support was associated with less work place stress. Greater awareness is needed about issues related to self-disclosing arthritis at work. This study emphasizes the importance of a supportive work place, especially supportive coworkers, in decisions to discuss arthritis at work and in changes to work that might enable people to remain employed.
... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Full and fair disclosure of financial condition... CREDIT UNIONS PROMPT CORRECTIVE ACTION Reserves § 702.402 Full and fair disclosure of financial condition. (a) Full and fair disclosure defined. “Full and fair disclosure” is the level of disclosure which a...
The Strategy Guideline: High Performance Residential Lighting has been developed to provide a tool for the understanding and application of high performance lighting in the home. The high performance lighting strategies featured in this guide are drawn from recent advances in commercial lighting for application to typical spaces found in residential buildings. This guide offers strategies to greatly reduce lighting energy use through the application of high quality fluorescent and light emitting diode (LED) technologies. It is important to note that these strategies not only save energy in the home but also serve to satisfy the homeowner's expectations for high quality lighting.
Full Text Available A residential area feature morphing method based on steering angle function is presented. To residential area with the same representation under two different scales,transforming the representation of the residential area polygon from vector coordinates to steering angle function,then using the steering angle function to match,and finding out the similarity and the differences between the residential areas under different scale to get the steering angle function of the the residential areas under any middle scale,the final,transforming the middle scale steering angle function to vector coordinates form,and get the middle shape interpolation of the the residential area polygon.Experimental results show:the residential area morphing method by using steering angle function presented can realize the continuous multi-scale representation under the premise of keeping in shape for the residential area with the rectangular boundary features.
... the National Technical Information Service NCHS Use of Electronic Health Records in Residential Care Communities Recommend on ... Facilities Most residential care communities did not use electronic health records in 2010, and use varied by ...
This PR Notice is to advise registrants of an industry-wide joint venture, titled the Residential Exposure Joint Venture (REJV), which has developed a national survey regarding residential consumer use/usage data for pesticides.
Nancy Chun Feng
Full Text Available Going concern opinions (GCOs indicate that auditors have significant doubt about an entity’s ability to continue operation one year after the financial statement date. This study addresses the following research questions: What are the factors that motivate auditors to issue GCOs to governmental entities? Does a governmental entity disclose going concern uncertainty in the footnotes or the MD&A section of annual financial reports (AFRs either the year before or the year when the entity receives a GCO? To what extent does the entity disclose the GCO factors used by auditors? We find that auditors most often cited two reasons, “Deficiency in Funds” and “Losses or Revenue Declines,” accounting for the majority of reasons given for a going concern opinion. Further, the disclosure is most likely to be in the notes to the AFRs. In addition, we find that going concern reporting varies by auditor type (state auditors vs. public accounting firms, government size, and government type. We also find some evidence that going concern disclosures improve after the enactment of GASB No. 56. The results of our study should be of interest to stakeholders’ interested in lead indicators of fiscal distress.
Full Text Available This study uses stakeholder theory to explore how corporate governance [CG] characteristics influence corporate social responsibility disclosure [CSRD] in the context of a global financial crisis [GFC]. Empirical data are drawn from Portugal, a country strongly affected by the GFC. Portuguese companies are characterized by high ownership concentration. The largest shareholder is often the CEO and Board Chair (a phenomenon known as CEO duality. We analyse the association between CSRD (measured by a 40-item disclosure index and CG variables (board size, CEO duality, board independence, ownership concentration and presence of an audit committee or CSR committee for 48 of the 51 listed companies in Portugal. The control variables are company size and industry type. We find that CSRD is affected positively by board size, CEO duality, company size and industry type. This accords with suggestions implicit in stakeholder theory that a larger board will represent a broader diversity of stakeholders and will promote better monitoring, more assertive stakeholder management, greater transparency, and increased levels of CSRD. Larger companies and companies close-to-consumers are associated with high levels of CSRD, ostensibly because they are more visible and subject to greater societal monitoring during a period of financial crisis. We reveal that in a country characterized by high ownership concentration, CEO duality has a positive effect on CSRD.
Roelofs, T.S.M.; Luijkx, K.G.; Embregts, P.J.C.M.
The experiences and needs of spouses of residential care facility residents with dementia, regarding friendship, love, intimacy, and sexuality were explored. Understanding of how spouses make sense of their experiences was pursued. Semi-structured interviews were held with nine spouses of people
... Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY APPROVAL OF CONSTRUCTION IN THE TENNESSEE RIVER SYSTEM AND REGULATION OF STRUCTURES AND OTHER ALTERATIONS TVA-Owned Residential Access Shoreland § 1304.208 Shoreline... retaining wall shall not be located more than an average of two horizontal feet lakeward of the existing...
D. B. McKeever; R. G. Anderson
Large amounts of lumber and wood panel products are used annually for the repair and remodeling of residential structures and properties in the United States. In response to the need by government and industry for detailed information on this important market for timber products, a study was conducted by the Timber Demand and Technology...
Robert H. Falk; James J. Bridwell; John C. Hermanson
In the United States, tornadoes cause significant damage and result in many injuries and deaths. Although the development and use of tornado safe rooms and shelters have helped reduce the human toll associated with these events, the cost of these structures is often too high for many that could benefit from their use. The development of a residential tornado safe room...
Robert H. Falk; James J. Bridwell
In the United States, tornadoes cause significant damage and result in many injuries and deaths. Although the development and use of tornado safe rooms have helped decrease the human toll associated with these events, the cost of these structures is often too high for many that could benefit from their use. The development of a nonproprietary residential tornado safe...
David L. Azuma; Bianca N.I. Eskelson; Joel L. Thompson
Rural residential development in forests of Oregon and Washington continues to be a key driver of land use change. This type of development can have a variety of effects on the goods and services forests provide to the region. We used structure density from photo-interpreted points around forest inventory and analysis plots to examine differences in forest attributes...
Tekla Sebestyén Szép
Full Text Available The residential energy consumption is influenced by a lot of factors. Understanding and calculating these factors is essential to making conscious energy policy decisions and feedbacks. Since 2013 the energy prices for households have been controlled by the government in Hungary and as a result of the utility cost reduction program a sharp decline can be observed in residential electricity, district heating and natural gas prices. This paper applies the LMDI (~Logarithmic Mean Division Index method to decompose the absolute change of the residential energy consumption during the period of 2010-2015. We calculate the price, the intensive structure (it means the change of energy expenditure share on energy sources, the extensive structure (it is in connection with the change of energy expenditure share in total expenditure, expenditure (it is the change of per capita total expenditure and population effect. All of that shows the impact of the specific factor on the residential energy consumption by income deciles. Our results have verified the preliminary expectations: the decreasing energy prices for households have a positive impact on energy use and it has been strengthened by the expenditure effect as well. However, the intensive structure, the extensive structure and the population effect have largely offset it.
Schwarz, K.; Pickett, Steward T.A.; Lathrop, Richard G.; Weathers, Kathleen C.; Pouyat, Richard V.; Cadenasso, Mary L.
Lead contamination of urban residential soils is a public health concern. Consequently, there is a need to delineate hotspots in the landscape to identify risk and facilitate remediation. Land use is a good predictor of some environmental pollutants. However, in the case of soil lead, research has shown that land use is not a useful proxy. We hypothesize that soil lead is related to both individual landscape features at the parcel scale and the landscape context in which parcels are embedded. We sampled soil lead on 61 residential parcels in Baltimore, Maryland using field-portable x-ray fluorescence. Thirty percent of parcels had average lead concentrations that exceeded the USEPA limit of 400 ppm and 53% had at least one reading that exceeded 400 ppm. Results indicate that soil lead is strongly associated with housing age, distance to roadways, and on a parcel scale, distance to built structures. - Highlights: ► We investigated the effect of landscape heterogeneity on lead in residential soil. ► Landscape heterogeneity was considered at two different spatial scales. ► We sampled soil lead on residential parcels using field-portable x-ray fluorescence. ► Soil lead was associated with housing age and distance to roadways and buildings. ► Research has implications for land planning, health policies and predictive models. - We investigated the influence of landscape heterogeneity on lead in residential soil using x-ray fluorescence and identified important correlations with elements of urban land cover.
Manuel, Jennifer I; Yuan, Yeqing; Herman, Daniel B; Svikis, Dace S; Nichols, Obie; Palmer, Erin; Deren, Sherry
Although residential substance abuse treatment has been shown to improve substance use and other outcomes, relapse is common. This qualitative study explores factors that hinder and help individuals during the transition from long-term residential substance abuse treatment to the community. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 32 individuals from residential substance abuse treatment. Based on the socio-ecological model, barriers and facilitators to transition were identified across five levels: individual, interpersonal, organizational, community, and policy. The major results indicate that primary areas of intervention needed to improve outcomes for these high-risk individuals include access to stable housing and employment, aftercare services and positive support networks; expanded discharge planning services and transitional assistance; and funding to address gaps in service delivery and to meet individuals' basic needs. This study contributes to the literature by identifying transition barriers and facilitators from the perspectives of individuals in residential treatment, and by using the socio-ecological model to understand the complexity of this transition at multiple levels. Findings identify potential targets for enhanced support post-discharge from residential treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available At the end of the 19th century, Aydın was both a sanjak center and an important commercial center. It was connected to Izmir via Anatolia’s first railway line and was the commercial center through which the produce of central Anatolia was transferred to the port of İzmir. During the War of Independence, most of Aydin’s structures were destroyed and the center left almost entirely abandoned. After the foundation of the Turkish Republic, many efforts were made to rebuild and revitalize the settlement according to a new city plan. In the years following the war, as residential numbers increased, new housing was built as required. In this context, the current study aimed to define the architectural characteristics, value, potential and preservation problems of those registered residential buildings built between 1923 and 1950 in the city. The study presents a comprehensive look at the architectural characteristics of residential buildings in Aydın, and reveals how difficulties in identifying and registering architectural products of the Turkish Republican period is exemplified in the case of the city’s residential buildings. The study also shows that the architectural characteristics of residential buildings constructed between 1923 and 1950 represent both the new face of the Turkish Republic and the traditional living styles of the people of Aydın.
Savchenko, Olena; Zhelykh, Vasyl; Voll, Hendrik
The most common ventilation system in residential buildings in Ukraine is natural ventilation. In recent years, due to increased tightness of structures, an increase in the content of synthetic finishing materials in them, the quality of microclimate parameters deteriorated. One of the measures to improve the parameters of indoor air in residential buildings is the use of mechanical inflow and exhaust ventilation system. In this article the regulatory documents concerning the design of ventilation systems in Ukraine and Estonia and the requirements for air exchange in residential buildings are considered. It is established that the existing normative documents in Ukraine are analogous to European norms, which allow design the system of ventilation of residential buildings according to European standards. However, the basis for the design of ventilation systems in Ukraine is the national standards, in which mechanical ventilation, unfortunately, is provided only for the design of high-rise buildings. To maintain acceptable microclimate parameters in residential buildings, it is advisable for designers to apply the requirements for designing ventilation systems in accordance with European standards.
Full Text Available The most common ventilation system in residential buildings in Ukraine is natural ventilation. In recent years, due to increased tightness of structures, an increase in the content of synthetic finishing materials in them, the quality of microclimate parameters deteriorated. One of the measures to improve the parameters of indoor air in residential buildings is the use of mechanical inflow and exhaust ventilation system. In this article the regulatory documents concerning the design of ventilation systems in Ukraine and Estonia and the requirements for air exchange in residential buildings are considered. It is established that the existing normative documents in Ukraine are analogous to European norms, which allow design the system of ventilation of residential buildings according to European standards. However, the basis for the design of ventilation systems in Ukraine is the national standards, in which mechanical ventilation, unfortunately, is provided only for the design of high-rise buildings. To maintain acceptable microclimate parameters in residential buildings, it is advisable for designers to apply the requirements for designing ventilation systems in accordance with European standards.
This exploratory study used a cross-sectional survey design with self-report to (a) describe serostatus disclosure to recent sex partners (SPs) among a multiethnic group of HIV-infected men from Hawaii, (b) explore factors influencing disclosure, and (c) examine relationships between disclosure and condom use. Respondents recalled their sexual experiences with up to three most recent SPs in the 3 months before survey administration. The men (N = 93) reported a disclosure rate of approximately 50% with 228 SPs. Disclosure was significantly influenced by SP serostatus, relationship status, self-efficacy for disclosure decision making, and cocaine use before sex. Disclosure was also significantly associated with condom use, highlighting the transmission risk reduction benefit of disclosure for these participants. HIV caregivers should routinely address disclosure to SPs and offer interventions to enhance condom use. Interventions for strengthening efficacy beliefs for disclosure decision making should be tailored to help men with multiple SPs and those with recent cocaine use.
Wendt, Robert [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Lundell, Clark; Lau, Tin Man [Auburn Univ., AL (United States)
This paper describes the design and development of a manufactured residential utility wall system referred to as ResCore. ResCore is a self contained, manufactured, residential utility wall that provides complete rough-in of utilities (power, gas, water, and phone) and other functions (exhaust, combustion make-up air, refrigerant lines, etc.) to serve the kitchen, bath, utility, and laundry rooms. Auburn University, Department of Industrial Design faculty, students, supported by a team of graduate student researchers and the project`s advisory team, developed the ResCore. The project was accomplished through a research subcontract from the U.S. Department of Energy administered by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The ResCore wall system features a layered manufacturing technique that allows each major component group: structural, cold water, hot water, drain, gas, electric, etc. to be built as a separate subassembly and easily brought together for final assembly. The two structural layers are reinforced with bridging that adds strength and also permits firm attachment of plumbing pipes and other systems to the wall frame.
L. L. Ivy-Yap; H. A. Bekhet
As the Malaysian residential electricity consumption continued to increase rapidly, effective energy policies, which address factors affecting residential electricity consumption, is urgently needed. This study attempts to investigate the relationship between residential electricity consumption (EC), real disposable income (Y), price of electricity (Pe) and population (Po) in Malaysia for 1978-2011 period. Unlike previous studies on Malaysia, the current study focuses on the residential secto...
Matisoff, Daniel C.
This study assesses the effectiveness of two types information disclosure programs – state-based mandatory carbon reporting programs and the voluntary Carbon Disclosure Project, which uses investor pressure to push firms to disclose carbon emissions and carbon management strategies. I match firms in each program to control groups of firms that have not participated in each program. Using panel data methods and a difference in differences specification, I measure the impact of each program on plant-level carbon emissions, plant-level carbon intensity, and plant level output. I find that neither program has generated an impact on plant-level carbon emissions, emissions intensity, or output. Placing this study in contrast with others that demonstrate improvements from mandatory information disclosure, these results suggest that how information is reported to stakeholders has important implications for program effectiveness. - Highlights: ► This article evaluates the Carbon Disclosure Project and state carbon reporting requirements. ► Evaluation is conducted with propensity score matching and difference-in-differences. ► State Disclosure Programs fail to lead power plants to reduce carbon dioxide emissions. ► The Carbon Disclosure Project leads to decreases in carbon emissions and electricity output. ► Information disclosure and transparency may be important part of policy mix but have limitations
Yoon Soo Park
Full Text Available In response to views on public's right to know, there is growing attention to item disclosure – release of items, answer keys, and performance data to the public – in medical licensure examinations and their potential impact on the test's ability to measure competence and select qualified candidates. Recent debates on this issue have sparked legislative action internationally, including South Korea, with prior discussions among North American countries dating over three decades. The purpose of this study is to identify and analyze three issues associated with item disclosure in medical licensure examinations – 1 fairness and validity, 2 impact on passing levels, and 3 utility of item disclosure – by synthesizing existing literature in relation to standards in testing. Historically, the controversy over item disclosure has centered on fairness and validity. Proponents of item disclosure stress test takers’ right to know, while opponents argue from a validity perspective. Item disclosure may bias item characteristics, such as difficulty and discrimination, and has consequences on setting passing levels. To date, there has been limited research on the utility of item disclosure for large scale testing. These issues requires ongoing and careful consideration.
Brock, Douglas M; Quella, Alicia; Lipira, Lauren; Lu, Dave W; Gallagher, Thomas H
Evolving state law, professional societies, and national guidelines, including those of the American Medical Association and Joint Commission, recommend that patients receive transparent communication when a medical error occurs. Recommendations for error disclosure typically consist of an explanation that an error has occurred, delivery of an explicit apology, an explanation of the facts around the event, its medical ramifications and how care will be managed, and a description of how similar errors will be prevented in the future. Although error disclosure is widely endorsed in the medical and nursing literature, there is little discussion of the unique role that the physician assistant (PA) might play in these interactions. PAs are trained in the medical model and technically practice under the supervision of a physician. They are also commonly integrated into interprofessional health care teams in surgical and urgent care settings. PA practice is characterized by widely varying degrees of provider autonomy. How PAs should collaborate with physicians in sensitive error disclosure conversations with patients is unclear. With the number of practicing PAs growing rapidly in nearly all domains of medicine, their role in the error disclosure process warrants exploration. The authors call for educational societies and accrediting agencies to support policy to establish guidelines for PA disclosure of error. They encourage medical and PA researchers to explore and report best-practice disclosure roles for PAs. Finally, they recommend that PA educational programs implement trainings in disclosure skills, and hospitals and supervising physicians provide and support training for practicing PAs.
Hannawa, Annegret F; Beckman, Howard; Mazor, Kathleen M; Paul, Norbert; Ramsey, Joanne V
The disclosure of medical errors has attracted considerable research interest in recent years. However, the research to date has lacked interdisciplinary dialog, making translation of findings into medical practice challenging. This article lays out the disciplinary perspectives of the fields of medicine, ethics, law and communication on medical error disclosure and identifies gaps and tensions that occur at these interdisciplinary boundaries. This article summarizes the discussion of an interdisciplinary error disclosure panel at the 2012 EACH Conference in St. Andrews, Scotland, in light of the current literature across four academic disciplines. Current medical, ethical, legal and communication perspectives on medical error disclosure are presented and discussed with particular emphasis on the interdisciplinary gaps and tensions. The authors encourage interdisciplinary collaborations that strive for a functional approach to understanding and improving the disclosure of medical errors with the ultimate goal to improve quality and promote safer medical care. Interdisciplinary collaborations are needed to reconcile the needs of the stakeholders involved in medical error disclosure. A particular challenge is the effective translation of error disclosure research into practice. Concrete research questions are provided throughout the manuscript to facilitate a resolution of the tensions that currently impede interdisciplinary progress. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.
This study investigated the relationships between self-disclosure in ICQ ("I seek you") chat, level of loneliness, and ICQ usage. The Revised UCLA Loneliness Scale and the Revised Self-Disclosure Scale (RSDS) were administered to a multistaged stratified random sample of 576 college students. The results indicate that loneliness is not related to level of ICQ use, but inversely related to valence, accuracy, and the amount dimensions of self-disclosure in ICQ chat, and that ICQ usage is significantly related to control of depth and intent of disclosure. Specifically, it was found that the lonelier the student, the more dishonest, more negative, and the less revealing was the quality of the self-disclosure in their ICQ interaction. Conversely, appropriate, honest, positive, and accurate self-disclosure might lead to decreased loneliness when one feels understood, accepted, and cared about on ICQ. More important, as intimate relationships are based on high degrees of depth and intent of self-disclosure, heavy users of ICQ are usually open, personal, and consciously aware of what they are disclosing.
Konig, Andrea; Eonta, Alison; Dyal, Stephanie R.; Vrana, Scott R.
Writing about a personal stressful event has been found to have psychological and physical health benefits, especially when physiological response increases during writing. Response training was developed to amplify appropriate physiological reactivity in imagery exposure. The present study examined whether response training enhances the benefits of written emotional disclosure. Participants were assigned to either a written emotional disclosure condition (n = 113) or a neutral writing condition (n = 133). Participants in each condition wrote for 20 minutes on three occasions and received response training (n = 79), stimulus training (n = 84) or no training (n = 83). Heart rate and skin conductance were recorded throughout a 10-minute baseline, 20-minute writing, and a 10-minute recovery period. Self-reported emotion was assessed in each session. One month after completing the sessions, participants completed follow-up assessments of psychological and physical health outcomes. Emotional disclosure elicited greater physiological reactivity and self-reported emotion than neutral writing. Response training amplified physiological reactivity to emotional disclosure. Greater heart rate during emotional disclosure was associated with the greatest reductions in event-related distress, depression, and physical illness symptoms at follow-up, especially among response trained participants. Results support an exposure explanation of emotional disclosure effects and are the first to demonstrate that response training facilitates emotional processing and may be a beneficial adjunct to written emotional disclosure. PMID:24680230
Konig, Andrea; Eonta, Alison; Dyal, Stephanie R; Vrana, Scott R
Writing about a personal stressful event has been found to have psychological and physical health benefits, especially when physiological response increases during writing. Response training was developed to amplify appropriate physiological reactivity in imagery exposure. The present study examined whether response training enhances the benefits of written emotional disclosure. Participants were assigned to either a written emotional disclosure condition (n=113) or a neutral writing condition (n=133). Participants in each condition wrote for 20 minutes on 3 occasions and received response training (n=79), stimulus training (n=84) or no training (n=83). Heart rate and skin conductance were recorded throughout a 10-minute baseline, 20-minute writing, and a 10-minute recovery period. Self-reported emotion was assessed in each session. One month after completing the sessions, participants completed follow-up assessments of psychological and physical health outcomes. Emotional disclosure elicited greater physiological reactivity and self-reported emotion than neutral writing. Response training amplified physiological reactivity to emotional disclosure. Greater heart rate during emotional disclosure was associated with the greatest reductions in event-related distress, depression, and physical illness symptoms at follow-up, especially among response trained participants. Results support an exposure explanation of emotional disclosure effects and are the first to demonstrate that response training facilitates emotional processing and may be a beneficial adjunct to written emotional disclosure. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd.
Michael, Jennifer, Ed.
This issue of "Residential Group Care Quarterly" contains the following articles: (1) "Promising Practices for Adequately Funding and Reimbursing Residential Services" (Lloyd Bullard); (2) "Closing the Gender Gap" (Erin Andersen); (3) "Residential Child Care: Guidelines for Physical Techniques, Crisis Prevention, and Management" (Kurk Lalemand);…
Michielin, F.; Mulder, C.H.
Using data from retrospective surveys carried out in the Netherlands during the early 1990s, we describe how the residential mobility of couples—that is, short-distance moves—is affected by family events and how fertility is affected by residential mobility. The results show that residential moves
Mohd Faris Dziauddin
Full Text Available This study estimates the effect of locational attributes on residential property values in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Geographically weighted regression (GWR enables the use of the local parameter rather than the global parameter to be estimated, with the results presented in map form. The results of this study reveal that residential property values are mainly determined by the property’s physical (structural attributes, but proximity to locational attributes also contributes marginally. The use of GWR in this study is considered a better approach than other methods to examine the effect of locational attributes on residential property values. GWR has the capability to produce meaningful results in which different locational attributes have differential spatial effects across a geographical area on residential property values. This method has the ability to determine the factors on which premiums depend, and in turn it can assist the government in taxation matters.
Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands Dept. of Education, Saipan.
This curriculum guide on residential wiring for secondary students is one of six developed for inservice teachers at Marianas High School in Saipan. The guide provides the rationale, description, goals, and objectives of the program; the program of studies and performance objectives by levels; samples of lesson plans for effective delivery of…
Tüzün, Hakan; Çinar, Murat
This study shared unique design experiences by examining the process of transferring residential courses to the Web, and proposed a design model for individuals who want to transfer their courses into this environment. The formative research method was used in the study, and two project teams' processes of putting courses, which were being taught…
This report presents the findings of the study on the determinants of residential per capita water demand of Makurdi metropolis in Benue State, Nigeria. Data for the study was obtained by the use of questionnaires, oral interviews and observations. The data was analyzed using SPSS. Twenty variables were considered in ...
Staff Scientist; Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max; Dickerhoff, Darryl
The goal of this study was to develop a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller (RIVEC) to reduce the energy impact of required mechanical ventilation by 20percent, maintain or improve indoor air quality and provide demand response benefits. This represents potential energy savings of about 140 GWh of electricity and 83 million therms of natural gas as well as proportional peak savings in California. The RIVEC controller is intended to meet the 2008 Title 24 requirements for residential ventilation as well as taking into account the issues of outdoor conditions, other ventilation devices (including economizers), peak demand concerns and occupant preferences. The controller is designed to manage all the residential ventilation systems that are currently available. A key innovation in this controller is the ability to implement the concept of efficacy and intermittent ventilation which allows time shifting of ventilation. Using this approach ventilation can be shifted away from times of high cost or high outdoor pollution towards times when it is cheaper and more effective. Simulations, based on the ones used to develop the new residential ventilation requirements for the California Buildings Energy code, were used to further define the specific criteria and strategies needed for the controller. These simulations provide estimates of the energy, peak power and contaminant improvement possible for different California climates for the various ventilation systems. Results from a field test of the prototype controller corroborate the predicted performance.
Dimetrosky, Scott [Apex Analytics LLC, Boulder, CO (United States); Parkinson, Katie [Apex Analytics LLC, Boulder, CO (United States); Lieb, Noah [Apex Analytics LLC, Boulder, CO (United States)
In recent years, residential lighting has represented a significant share of ratepayer-funded energy-efficiency electricity savings. Utilities have achieved the majority of these savings by promoting the purchase and installation of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs), both standard 'twister' bulbs and specialty CFLs such as reflectors, A-Lamps, globes, and dimmable lights.
ABSTRACT. Research has shown that non-conventional factors like housing and residential experiences dur- ing childhood have impacts on children's success. Given the critical importance of human capi- tal accumulation in Ghana, it is significant from policy standpoint to recognise factors and mechanisms that are ...
Research has shown that non-conventional factors like housing and residential experiences during childhood have impacts on children's success. Given the critical importance of human capital accumulation in Ghana, it is significant from policy standpoint to recognise factors and mechanisms that are relevant to the next ...
Alexander, Stewart C.; Fortenberry, J. Dennis; Pollak, Kathryn I.; Østbye, Truls; Bravender, Terrill; Tulsky, James A.; Dolor, Rowena; Shields, Cleveland G.
Background Physicians can help guide teenagers in their emerging sexuality; however, teens rarely inform physicians about their sexual activity. Methods We audio-recorded annual visits between 365 teenagers and 49 physicians. sexual intercourse. Recordings were coded for teenage disclosures about previous sexual intercourse. We measured agreement between telephone survey responses and annual visit disclosures, and examined factors associated with agreement between the two. Results Fifty-six teenagers (15%) reported previous sexual intercourse in either the telephone survey or to their physician. Among those who reported sexual intercourse, 57% shared this information to both the telephone survey and their physician (κ = .72, confidence interval = 0.63–0.82). Conclusions Although a slight majority of teenagers disclosed their sexual activity to both the telephone survey and their doctor, a significant number disclosed to just one source. PMID:25857726
Alexander, Stewart C; Fortenberry, J Dennis; Pollak, Kathryn I; Østbye, Truls; Bravender, Terrill; Tulsky, James A; Dolor, Rowena; Shields, Cleveland G
Physicians can help guide teenagers in their emerging sexuality; however, teens rarely inform physicians about their sexual activity. We audio-recorded annual visits between 365 teenagers and 49 physicians. Before the recorded visit, the teens were asked in a confidential telephone survey whether they had ever engaged in sexual intercourse. Recordings were coded for teenage disclosures about previous sexual intercourse. We measured agreement between telephone survey responses and annual visit disclosures, and examined factors associated with agreement between the two. Fifty-six teenagers (15%) reported previous sexual intercourse in either the telephone survey or to their physician. Among those who reported sexual intercourse, 57% shared this information to both the telephone survey and their physician (κ = .72, confidence interval = 0.63-0.82). Although a slight majority of teenagers disclosed their sexual activity to both the telephone survey and their doctor, a significant number disclosed to just one source. © The Author(s) 2015.
Rossell, H.J.; Wilson, I.J.; Sellar, J.R.
High-resolution electron microscope images have been recorded of several cystalline samples of calcia-stabilized zirconia (Ca-CSZ) and of the fluorite-related superstructure phase φ 1 (CaZr 4 O 9 ). The contrast of the CSZ images has been enhanced markedly by the light-optical Talbot self-imaging technique. Is is demonstrated that the CSZ crystals contain a coherent dispersion of microdomains approximately 30 A in diameter, and that the structure of the microdomains is that of φ 1 . (orig.)
Nazuk, Ayesha; Shabbir, Javid
Website of Non-governmental organization (NGO) is a focal medium of sharing information in response to transparency demands and addressing trust deficits between stakeholders. Many researchers have proposed accountability approaches to measure information sharing trends through websites. This article discusses a new index to measure online disclosure trends along with the theoretical properties of the index and a practical application of data from NGOs working in Pakistan. The websites have been coded in 2016. Results show that NGOs with branch offices have better disclosure scores than single-office NGOs, and international NGOs score better than local NGOs. NGOs that are more often the subject of newspaper reports have better disclosure trends.
Hu, Jing-Jing; Yan, Guang-Le
In the paper, the research subject is the ecological relationship between the Small and Medium-sized Enterprises(SMEs) and the Large-scale Enterprises(Les). From the perspective of ecology, setting up the competitive model basic on the Logistic model, and carrying out further analysis about the voluntary information disclosure of listed company, then getting the strategic choice about the voluntary information disclosure and the ecological explanation of false information, and the dynamic mechanism and strategy of the voluntary information disclosure of listed company.
The imperfect appropriability of revenues from innovation affects the incentives of firms to invest, and to disclose information about their innovative productivity. It creates a free-rider effect in the competition for the innovation that countervails the familiar business-stealing effect....... Moreover, it affects the disclosure incentives such that full disclosure emerges for extreme revenue spillovers (e.g., full protection and no protection of intellectual property), but either partial disclosure or full concealment emerges for intermediate spillovers. I analyze the implications of imperfect...
Murakami, Yoshie; Okamura, Hitoshi; Sugano, Kokichi; Yoshida, Teruhiko; Kazuma, Keiko; Akechi, Tatsuo; Uchitomi, Yosuke
To the authors' knowledge, there have been few studies of the psychologic distress after disclosure of genetic test results for hereditary nonpolyposis colorectal carcinoma (HNPCC). The objectives of this study were to identify the prevalence rates and predictors of psychologic distress and to evaluate the feelings of guilt after disclosure of the test results in Japanese probands and unaffected relatives. Probands and unaffected relatives were interviewed immediately after the first genetic counseling session for HNPCC and again 1 month after disclosure of the genetic test results. The prevalence of major and minor depression, acute stress disorder (ASD), posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS) were assessed using the Structured Clinical Interview based on the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 3rd edition revised (DSM-III-R) or the DSM-IV; feelings of guilt were investigated using a numeric scale and a semistructured interview. Among 47 participants who completed the baseline interview, 42 participants (89%) completed the 1-month follow-up interview. Although none of the participants met the criteria for major depression, ASD, or PTSD at the follow-up interview, 3 of 42 participants (7%) met the criteria for minor depression and 2 participants (5%) had PTSS. The only predictor of psychologic distress found was the presence of a history of major or minor depression (odds ratio, 19.41; 95% confidence interval, 1.42-264.95; P depression and PTSS. Copyright 2004 American Cancer Society.
Cohen, D; Winstanley, S J; Greene, G
Understanding of doctors' attitudes towards disclosing their own mental illness has improved but assumptions are still made. To investigate doctors' attitudes to disclosing mental illness and the obstacles and enablers to seeking support. An anonymous, UK-wide online survey of doctors with and without a history of mental illness. The main outcome measure was likelihood of workplace disclosure of mental illness. In total, 1954 doctors responded and 60% had experienced mental illness. There was a discrepancy between how doctors think they might behave and how they actually behaved when experiencing mental illness. Younger doctors were least likely to disclose, as were trainees. There were multiple obstacles which varied across age and training grade. For all doctors, regardless of role, this study found that what they think they would do is different to what they actually do when they become unwell. Trainees, staff and associate speciality doctors and locums appeared most vulnerable, being reluctant to disclose mental ill health. Doctors continued to have concerns about disclosure and a lack of care pathways was evident. Concerns about being labelled, confidentiality and not understanding the support structures available were identified as key obstacles to disclosure. Addressing obstacles and enablers is imperative to shape future interventions. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society of Occupational Medicine. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Downing, Nancy R.; Williams, Janet K.; Daack-Hirsch, Sandra; Driessnack, Martha; Simon, Christian M.
Objective Evidence documenting management of incidental findings (IFs) from clinical genomic testing is limited. The aim of this study was to examine genetics specialists’ perspectives regarding current and preferred disclosure of clinical genomic IFs. Methods 50 genetics specialists, including medical geneticists, laboratory professionals, genetic counselors, and nurses participated in structured telephone interviews. Data were analyzed using qualitative content analysis and descriptive statistics. Results Most specialists had encountered IFs, but definitions of IFs varied. They discussed challenges with informing patients about the prospect of IFs and disclosing IFs to patients. Causing psychological harm to patients was a concern. Participants were divided on whether IFs needed to be clinically significant and/or actionable in order to be disclosed to patients. Creating formal disclosure guidelines was considered useful, but only if they were flexible. Additional counseling, more interdisciplinary communication, maintaining contact with patients, and a centralized database to interpret IFs were also proposed. Conclusion Genetics specialists offer insights into the challenges of defining IFs, knowing when and how to disclose them, and the potential need for flexible disclosure guidelines. Practice Implications Further discussion between practicing genetics specialists is needed to develop consensus on the development of best-practice guidelines for IF management. PMID:23068909
Riva, Maddalena; Caratozzolo, Salvatore; Cerea, Erica; Gottardi, Federica; Zanetti, Marina; Vicini Chilovi, Barbara; Cristini, Carlo; Padovani, Alessandro; Rozzini, Luca
In current Alzheimer disease (AD) research there is growing asymmetry between the modest benefits of the currently available treatments, in contrast to the possibility to diagnose AD early in its natural history. This complex situation brings along a number of important ethical issues about diagnosis disclosure and end-of-life decisions that need to be addressed. The principal aim of the study was to investigate the attitudes towards disclosure of a diagnosis of AD and disposition towards completion of advance care planning, in a sample of Italian citizens. A convenience sample of 1,111 Italian citizens recruited from a community hospital in Brescia were interviewed using a structured questionnaire with both yes/no and multiple choice format questions about AD. The majority of the sample (83 %) wanted disclosure for themselves. Women and caregivers were significantly less likely to agree that their hypothetically afflicted relative should be informed of a diagnosis of AD. The majority of the sample (81 %) was in favor of advance care planning completion, most of all younger participants and non-caregivers. Less than a third of the sample (24 %) was aware of the existence a judicially appointed guardian for patients affected by dementia. The majority of the participants wanted a potential diagnosis of AD to be disclosed to them and to their relatives if they were to be afflicted. The utility of completion of advance care planning and designation of a judicially appointed guardian is frequently endorsed by the sample.
Ubesie, A C; Iloh, K K; Emodi, I J; Ibeziako, N S; Obumneme-Anyim, I N; Iloh, O N; Ayuk, A C; Anikene, C J; Enemuo, J E
To determine the rate of HIV status disclosure, caregivers' reasons for non-disclosure, and factors influencing disclosure among a sample of HIV-infected children in Enugu, southeast Nigeria. Data were collected prospectively via a questionnaire on HIV-infected children and their caregivers who visited the pediatric HIV clinic of the University of Nigeria Teaching Hospital between July 1, 2012, and June 30, 2013. The data analysis was performed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences version 19 software. Caregivers of 107 children (age 5-16 years; mean 10.1 ± 3.2 years) were enrolled in the study. There were 53 (49.5%) boys and 54 (50.5%) girls. HIV status had been disclosed to 31 (29%) of them. The major reason for non-disclosure was the child being considered too young. Age (p < .001), age at HIV diagnosis (p < .001) and baseline CD4 count (p = .008) were seen as significant predictors of HIV disclosure. There is a low rate of HIV disclosure to infected children, and it was found to be lower for younger children. We recommend improving efforts for disclosure counseling to caregivers in pediatric HIV clinics.
The essays in this dissertation study information disclosure and environmental policy. The first chapter challenges the longstanding result that firms will, in general, voluntarily disclose information about product quality, in light of the unrealism of the assumption, common to much of the literature, that consumers are identical. When this assumption is relaxed, an efficiency-enhancing role may emerge for disclosure regulation, insofar as it can improve information provision and thus help protect consumers with "moderately atypical" preferences. The paper also endogenizes firms's choice of quality and suggests that disclosure regulation may also raise welfare indirectly, by inducing firms to improve product quality. The second chapter explores the significance of policy-induced technological change (ITC) for the design of carbon-abatement policies. The paper considers both R&D-based and learning-by-doing-based knowledge accumulation, examining each specification under both a cost-effectiveness and a benefit-cost policy criterion. We show analytically that the presence of ITC generally implies a lower profile of optimal carbon taxes, a shifting of abatement effort into the future (in the R&D scenarios), and an increase in the scale of abatement (in the benefit-cost scenarios). Numerical simulations indicate that the impact of ITC on abatement timing is very slight, but the effects on costs, optimal carbon taxes, and cumulative abatement can be large. The third chapter uses a World Bank dataset on Chinese state-owned enterprises to estimate price elasticities of industrial coal demand. A simple coal-demand equation is estimated in many forms, and significant price sensitivity is almost always found: the own-price elasticity is estimated to be roughly -0.5. A cost-function/share-equation system is also estimated, and although the function is frequently ill-behaved, indicating that firms may not be minimizing costs, the elasticity estimates again are large and
Vanderschaeghe, Gwendolien; Schaeverbeke, Jolien; Vandenberghe, Rik; Dierickx, Kris
Researchers currently are not obligated to share individual research results (IRR) with participants. This non-disclosure policy has been challenged on the basis of participants' rights to be aware and in control of their personal medical information. Here, we determined how patients view disclosure of research PET results of brain amyloid and why they believe it is advantageous or disadvantageous to disclose. As a part of a larger diagnostic trial, we conducted semi-structured interviews with patients with amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (aMCI). Participants had the option to receive their brain amyloid PET scan result (i.e., their IRR). Interviews were conducted before they received their IRR. A total of 38 aMCI patients (100% of study participants) wanted to know their IRR. The two most frequently mentioned reasons for choosing IRR disclosure were to better understand their brain health status and to be better able to make informed decisions about future personal arrangements (e.g., inheritance tax, moving into a smaller house, end-of-life decisions, etc.). Emotional risk was mentioned as the primary disadvantage of knowing one's IRR. On the other hand, non-disclosure was considered to be emotionally difficult also, as patients would be uncertain about their future health condition. Many patients diagnosed clinically with aMCI want to know their brain amyloid test results, even though this knowledge may be disadvantageous to them. Knowing what is going on with their health and the ability to make informed decisions about their future were the two principal advantages mentioned for obtaining their amyloid PET results. Because of the overwhelming consensus of aMCI patients was to disclose their brain amyloid PET scan results, researchers should strongly consider releasing this information to research subjects.
Full Text Available This study attempts to assess and compare the residential and non-residential schoolchildren in information-processing skills and creative thinking abilities. A sample of 80 children from Classes 5 and 7 were selected from two types of schools, residential/ashram (02 and non-residential/formal schools (02 in Bolpur subdivision of West Bengal in India where the medium of instruction is Bengali language/mother-tongue. All the children were individually administered the PASS (Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, Successive, Stroop, Matching Familiar Figure Test (MFFT-20, and creative thinking tasks. The residential school children were found to perform better both in information processing and creative thinking tasks. The developmental trend could not be clearly observed due to small sample size, but with increasing age, children were using better processing strategies. Due to ashram environment, creative pedagogy, and various co-curricular activities, the residential school children were found to be more creative than their formal school counterparts. Moreover, some significant positive correlations were found among information processing skills and creative thinking dimensions.
Riise Johansen, Thomas; Plenborg, Thomas
Drawing upon information economics, this paper presents a relative assessment of 24 of the most common disclosure items in the management commentary and notes sections of the annual report. We design and conduct an Internet survey using a large representative sample of users with an investment...... focus (n = 288) and preparers of annual reports (n = 89). Using cost-effectiveness analysis, an evaluation method widely used in healthcare economics, the balance between preparation costs and user satisfaction, relative to user demand is assessed. Our main findings show that corporate social...... to be a major concern. With regard to the notes, we find that business combinations (IFRS 3), financial instruments (IFRS 7) and impairment tests (IAS 36) are highly demanded but are also among the items most costly to prepare, and users are less satisfied with these notes. The findings have important...
Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to analyze the current state of consolidated reporting practice harmonization concerning the choice of presenting the income statement, the changes in equity, the methods used for presenting the cash flow statement, the extant methods for evaluating and reporting goodwill, the extant methods in which jointly controlled entities are accounted in the consolidated financial statements, or the choice for recognizing investments in subsidiaries, jointly controlled entities and associates in the separate statements of the parent company. In order to achieve our goal we selected the first 10 groups, in order of their capitalization value, that were listed on each of the following capital markets: London Stock Exchange, NYSE Euronext (Paris Stock Exchange and Deutsche Börse (Frankfurt Stock Exchange and we analyzed, in a qualitative and in a quantitative manner, for a period of six years starting with 2007, their consolidated financial statements with the design to establish exactly which of the aspects stated in the International Financial Reporting Standards were being used for the items presented above. In order to complete the empirical research part of the paper that addresses from a comparative perspective the evaluation of the degree of material harmony between the reporting practices of groups listed on the three stock exchanges above-mentioned, we used statistical and mathematical methods represented by the I Index first described by Van der Tas. Taking into account the fact that since 2005 all listed companies on the European stock exchanges were required to adopt the international accounting standards for their consolidated financial disclosures, the degree of material harmony was studied only in reference to those requirements that presented two methods or possibilities of disclosure.Our findings suggest that the groups analyzed present a high degree of material harmonization with respect to the reporting
Grigor’ev Vladimir Aleksandrovich
-choice. Therefore, variants with minimum and maximum values can be regarded as supporting. The researches showed that the difference between them is not so much in the technological scheme of construction, but in the gap between design and practical solutions. When creating an enlarged model of multisectional residential building construction we should keep in mind the following circumstances: a part of a residential building up to 6 sections is a section, and up to 4 sections - a division; selection of a division size is determined both by adjacent associated activities (sealing and embedment of joints, partitions creation, plumbing works, etc. and economic conditions (the cost of tooling, additional financial support, etc.; technological sequence of precast concrete structures installation can be applied depending on the design and space-planning decisions; floor assembling begins with panels of external walls with significant labor input when terminating their seams; installation of panels should closely match the tolerances of bottom and top; the process of installing concrete structures should be monitored using geodetic laser technologies (LT, LN, LSZ, etc.; elevators installation is advisable to carry out at the same time with the precast concrete structures installation on the areas free of installation.
Erwin, Philip G; Pressler, Shirley J
Previous research has shown a relationship between love styles and shyness. This study explored the possibility that this effect may be due to differences in patterns of self-disclosure associated with shyness. University student participants (N = 143) completed the Love Attitudes Scale, the Emotional Self-Disclosure Scale, and the Revised Cheek and Buss Shyness Scale. Correlations between the measures were calculated and significant results ranged from r = .18 to .30. Findings supported previous research in showing significant relationships between shyness and love styles; self-disclosure showed no relationship with shyness but did show some direct associations with love style scores. Results are discussed in relation to the importance of self-disclosure in relationship development.
...; except that where a jewelry product can be purchased without personally viewing the product, (e.g., direct mail catalogs, online services, televised shopping programs) disclosure should be made in the...
... revised disclosure document, after which a franchise seller may distribute only the revised document and..., the franchise seller shall notify the prospective franchisee of any material changes that the seller...
Coffelt, Tina A; Hess, Jon A
This study examines sexual communication by describing the content of sexual disclosures within marital relationships and assessing the association between sexual disclosures and relational outcomes, specifically relational satisfaction and closeness. A survey administered to 293 married individuals (58% female) who had an average age of 40 years (range = 20-73), 13.7 years of marriage (range = 1 month to 54 years), and who reported high levels of relational satisfaction assessed the relation between the content of sexual disclosures and satisfaction and closeness. While sexual disclosures are made infrequently, positive affect and sexual preferences are disclosed more than negative topics and disclosing sexual information is positively related to relationship satisfaction, rρ(280) =.26, p <.001; and closeness, rs(280) =.475, p <.01. Therapists can use these findings to show clients the positive relation between revealing sexual information and relationship satisfaction and closeness, as reported by individuals experiencing relationship satisfaction.
Von Solms, S
Full Text Available European countries. These disclosures exposed a massive NSA clandestine electronic surveillance data program called PRISM as well as evidence of secret treaties amongst countries sharing surveillance data. The Guardian source was a NSA contractor, Edward...
Full Text Available This research paper aims to understand the impact of corporate governance (CG on economic, social, and environmental sustainability disclosures. This paper adopted an explanatory sequential mixed methods approach. The data regarding corporate governance and sustainability disclosure were collected from top 100 companies listed on the Pakistan Stock Exchange (PSE for the period ranging from 2012 to 2015. In addition to the quantitative data, we collected qualitative data through interviews with five board members of different companies. Overall, our results indicate that CG elements enhance sustainability disclosures. This study concludes that a large board size consisting of a female director and a CSR committee (CSRC is better able to check and control management decisions regarding sustainability issues (be they economic, environment, or social and resulted in better sustainability disclosure. This paper, through quantitative and qualitative analysis, provides a methodological and empirical contribution to the literature on corporate governance and sustainability reporting in emerging and developing countries.
..., EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS TRADE SECRECY CLAIMS FOR EMERGENCY PLANNING AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW INFORMATION: AND TRADE SECRET DISCLOSURES TO HEALTH PROFESSIONALS Trade Secrecy...
... COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Trade Secret Hazardous Chemical § 47.84 Non-emergency disclosure. Upon request, the operator must disclose the identity of a trade secret chemical in a non-emergency situation to an exposed...
... TRAINING HAZARD COMMUNICATION (HazCom) Trade Secret Hazardous Chemical § 47.83 Disclosure in a medical... confidentiality agreement, the operator must immediately disclose the identity of a trade secret chemical to the...
Full Text Available Sustainability and corporate governance issues are now considered to be important and integral aspects of company performance. Both have established themselves as well-studied topics in the organisational and accountability areas. While there has been a growing interest to study the relationship between these two areas, research publication in this topic is still mainly focused on the Western societies. This study focuses on the corporate governance and sustainability disclosure practices in one of the emerging economies, Indonesia, and assesses the relationships between corporate governance variables and the extent of environmental disclosures made by the mining companies listed in the Indonesia Stock Exchange (IDX in their annual reports. The main findings of this study show that the extent of environmental disclosure made by these companies was moderate, and that there is a significant positive relationship between the size of board of directors and the extent of environmental disclosure.
Full Text Available This study aims to examine the influence of the corporate taxpayers’ level of CSR disclosure and environmental performance on the level of tax aggressiveness. This study took a sample of non-financial companies listed on the Indonesian Stock Exchange during 2009-2012. This study shows that the corporate taxpayers’ level of CSR disclosure has significant negative effect towards the tax aggressiveness. It means the higher the level of the CSR disclosure, the lower the company’s tax aggressiveness. This study also proves that good environmental performance will strengthen the negative effect of CSR disclosure on tax aggressiveness. The assessment of environmental performance is conducted by the Ministry of Environment as independent party. It means that the higher the score of company’s environmental performance, the higher the commitment to pay taxes. This study supports the view that more socially responsible corporations are likely to be less tax aggressive.
Banghøj, Jesper; Plenborg, Thomas
This paper examines if the level of voluntary disclosure affects the association between current returns and future earnings. Economic theory suggests that firms might find it advantageous to provide additional pieces of information (i.e., voluntary disclosure) to investors and analysts (Verrecch...... relevant information about future earnings or if investors are simply not capable of incorporating voluntary information in the firm value estimates. Key words: Disclosure, future earnings, informativeness...... 1983). Our results indicate that more voluntary disclosure does not improve the association between current returns and future earnings; i.e. current returns do not reflect more future earnings news. This finding raises the question whether voluntary information in the annual report contains value...
Verbeeten, F.H.M.; Gamerschlag, R.; Möller, K.
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to examine whether narrative corporate social responsibility (CSR) disclosures (the provision of textual information on companies’ environmental and social performance to external stakeholders) are associated with firm value in Germany.
... programs, in the course of administrative hearings held under the Social Security Act or to disclosures to the General Accounting Office as necessary to carry out its statutory responsibilities. (2) A QIO must...
Dealing with disclosure: Perspectives from HIV-positive children and their older carers living in rural south-western Uganda. Esther Dusabe-Richards, Rwamahe Rutakumwa, Flavia Zalwango, Allen Asiimwe, Elvis Kintu, Fatuma Ssembajja, Janet Seeley ...
Menon, Anitha; Glazebrook, Cristine; Campain, Nicholas; Ngoma, Mary
To examine emotional and behavioural difficulties in HIV positive Zambian adolescents and to determine the relationship between disclosure of HIV status and mental health. A cross-sectional survey. Participants were 127 HIV positive adolescents aged 11 to 15 years recruited through clinics in the Lusaka region. Mental health was assessed using the youth report version of the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ). Caregivers completed the parent SDQ. Sixty-two participants were invited for a semi-structured interview which probed views on attending a peer support group. Compared to a British community sample participants had increased mental health problems (OR, 2.1), particularly emotional symptoms (OR = 3.6) and peer problems (OR = 7.1). The majority of children (n = 94) were receiving antiretroviral (ARV) treatment, but only 48 children (37.8%) had their HIV status disclosed. Those who had not had their HIV status disclosed were younger (P disclosure status. High rates of emotional and peer problems were found in this sample but disclosure of HIV status did not have a negative effect on mental health. Interventions to promote disclosure could facilitate access to emotional and peer support.
ABSTRACT This essay describes my personal path towards becoming an openly lesbian therapist, the internalized homophobia that interfered with this evolution, and the impact of this process on my patients. I then explore the interplay between when and how the therapist and/or the patient disclose in therapy, the link between homophobia and shame to the fear of disclosure, and the subsequent development of a more trusting therapeutic relationship that results from disclosure.
Kane, Heidi S.; Slatcher, Richard B.; Reynolds, Bridget M.; Repetti, Rena L.; Robles, Theodore F.
Objective An emerging literature provides evidence for the association between romantic relationship quality and sleep, an important factor in health and well-being. However, we still know very little about the specific relationship processes that affect sleep behavior. Therefore, the goal of this study was to examine how self-disclosure, an important relational process linked to intimacy, relationship satisfaction and health, is associated with sleep behavior. Method As part of a larger study of family processes, wives (n=46) and husbands (n=38) from 46 cohabiting families completed 56 days of daily diaries. Spouses completed evening diaries assessing daily self-disclosure, relationship satisfaction, and mood and morning diaries assessing the prior night's sleep. Multilevel modeling was used to explore the effects of both daily variation in and average levels across the 56 days of self-disclosure on sleep. Results Daily variation in self-disclosure predicted sleep outcomes for wives, but not for husbands. On days when wives self-disclosed more to their spouses than their average level, their subjective sleep quality and sleep efficiency that night improved. Furthermore, daily self-disclosure buffered the negative effect of daily negative mood on sleep latency for wives, but not husbands. In contrast, higher average levels of self-disclosure predicted less waking during the night for husbands, but not for wives. Conclusion The association between self-disclosure and sleep is one mechanism by which daily relationship functioning may influence health and well-being. Gender may play a role in how self-disclosure is associated with sleep. PMID:25068453
Elisa Truant; Laura Corazza; Simone Domenico Scagnelli
Recent policy changes in sustainability reporting, such as the ones related to the new European Directive on non-financial disclosure (2014/95/EU), the standards issued by the American Sustainability Accounting Standard Board (SASB), the G4 guidelines issued by the Global Sustainability Standard Board (GSSB), and the framework of the International Integrated Reporting Council (IIRC) stress the importance of extending the disclosure of ethical, social, and environmental risks within financial ...
Kane, Heidi S; Slatcher, Richard B; Reynolds, Bridget M; Repetti, Rena L; Robles, Theodore F
An emerging literature provides evidence for the association between romantic relationship quality and sleep, an important factor in health and well-being. However, we still know very little about the specific relationship processes that affect sleep behavior. Therefore, the goal of this study was to examine how self-disclosure, an important relational process linked to intimacy, relationship satisfaction, and health, is associated with sleep behavior. As part of a larger study of family processes, wives (n = 46) and husbands (n = 38) from 46 cohabiting families completed 56 days of daily diaries. Spouses completed evening diaries assessing daily self-disclosure, relationship satisfaction, and mood and morning diaries assessing the prior night's sleep. Multilevel modeling was used to explore the effects of both daily variation in and average levels across the 56 days of self-disclosure on sleep. Daily variation in self-disclosure predicted sleep outcomes for wives, but not for husbands. On days when wives self-disclosed more to their spouses than their average level, their subjective sleep quality and sleep efficiency that night improved. Furthermore, daily self-disclosure buffered the effect of high negative mood on sleep latency for wives, but not husbands. In contrast, higher average levels of self-disclosure predicted less waking during the night for husbands, but not for wives. The association between self-disclosure and sleep is one mechanism by which daily relationship functioning may influence health and well-being. Gender may play a role in how self-disclosure is associated with sleep.
Konig, Andrea; Eonta, Alison; Dyal, Stephanie R.; Vrana, Scott R.
Writing about a personal stressful event has been found to have psychological and physical health benefits, especially when physiological response increases during writing. Response training was developed to amplify appropriate physiological reactivity in imagery exposure. The present study examined whether response training enhances the benefits of written emotional disclosure. Participants were assigned to either a written emotional disclosure condition (n = 113) or a neutral writing condit...
Kretzschmar, Gavin L.; Hatherly, David; Misund, Bard
Market risk exposures of balance sheet asset values are becoming an increasingly important accounting issue. In oil and gas, oilfield exposures to oil prices are specific and contractual, presenting a contingency problem for investors, financial analysts, standard setting bodies and government agencies. Our paper uses an extensive sample of 292 oilfields to provide evidence that the US Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC) supplementary disclosures do not capture the price sensitivities of oil and gas disclosures implicit in the two main forms of oilfield ownership, concession and production sharing contracts (PSCs). Current asset disclosures neither distinguish between global variations in oilfield ownership terms, nor on market risk implications for the value of oilfield assets. Importantly, we show that unlike concessions, reserve and production disclosures vary in response to oil price movements for PSC regimes. Our results highlight the need to differentiate PSC disclosures from concession fields, and to fully reflect price risks implicit in oilfield ownership contracts. We extend findings by Rajgopal [1999. Early evidence on the informativeness of the SEC's market risk disclosures: the case of commodity price risk exposure of oil and gas producers. The Accounting Review 74, 251-280] and propose refinements to capture market risk in financial reporting. (author)
Piper, Donella; Iedema, Rick; Bower, Kate
To analyse rural patients' and their families' experiences of open disclosure and offer recommendations to improve disclosure in rural areas. Retrospective qualitative study based on a subset of 13 semistructured, in-depth interviews with rural patients from a larger dataset. The larger data set form a nationwide, multisite, retrospective-qualitative study that included 100 semistructured, in-depth interviews with 119 patients and family members who were involved in high-severity health care incidents and incident disclosure. The larger study is known as the '100 Patient Stories' study. Interviews were transcribed verbatim and analysed by one analyst (D.P.) for recurrent experiences and concerns. Acute care. A sub-set of 13 of the 100 participants from the '100 Patient Stories' study who identified as experiencing an adverse incident in a rural or regional area. Patients' and family members' perceptions and experiences of health care incident disclosure, as expressed in interviews. Rural patients and clinicians experience additional challenges to metropolitan patients and clinicians in their experiences of health care incidents. These additional barriers include: a lack of resources at small hospitals; delays in diagnosis and transfer; distance between services; and a lack of communication between providers. These challenges impact not only upon how patients and their families experience incidents, but also how open disclosure is implemented. This analysis of 13 of the 100 Patient Stories interviews provides guidance to rural health services on how to conduct open disclosure. © 2014 National Rural Health Alliance Inc.
Full Text Available Statistical agencies are making increased use of the internet to disseminate census tabular outputs through web-based flexible table-generating servers that allow users to define and generate their own tables. The key questions in the development of these servers are: (1 what data should be used to generate the tables, and (2 what statistical disclosure control (SDC method should be applied. To generate flexible tables, the server has to be able to measure the disclosure risk in the final output table, apply the SDC method and then iteratively reassess the disclosure risk. SDC methods may be applied either to the underlying data used to generate the tables and/or to the final output table that is generated from original data. Besides assessing disclosure risk, the server should provide a measure of data utility by comparing the perturbed table to the original table. In this article, we examine aspects of the design and development of a flexible table-generating server for census tables and demonstrate a disclosure risk-data utility analysis for comparing SDC methods. We propose measures for disclosure risk and data utility that are based on information theory.
Forbes, Thomas L
Advances in vascular surgery are increasingly technology-driven, and the relationships between surgeons and the medical device industry can be complex. This study reviewed conflict of interest (COI) disclosure in the vascular surgery journals regarding several selected technology-driven topics, including endovascular stent grafts (EV), carotid artery stenting (CAS), and peripheral arterial interventions (PI), to suggest further directions. Authors' COI disclosures were reviewed from all clinical papers published in 2008 and 2009 in each of six vascular surgery journals, and pertaining to three selected topics (EV, CAS, and PI). Rate of COI disclosure was evaluated as a function of journal, topic, article type (randomized trial, case series, case report, review, or meta-analysis), and authors' region of origin. Secondarily, consistency of authors' disclosure was evaluated by reviewing papers by the same author and of the same topic. Six hundred thirty-five papers were reviewed from the six journals. A COI was declared in 125 (19.7%) of these papers. This rate differed between journals (range, 3.2%-34.1%; P journals (46.9%), or in the same journal (25%). Rates of disclosure of COI, and inconsistencies in disclosure in the vascular surgery literature are at least partially due to differences in journals' reporting policies, while a smaller proportion of these inconsistencies are due to individual author behavior. Journals should adopt a consistent requirement for a separate COI declaration where all relevant financial arrangements are disclosed. Copyright © 2011 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Nicholas P. Sisto
Full Text Available Infectious intestinal diseases (IID represent a widespread public health problem in Mexico. The country also faces major challenges with respect to the provision of residential water services (piped water and sewer—an essential input for hygiene and cleanliness in homes. This paper analyzes morbidity rates from several IID associated with unsanitary living conditions along with a series of residential water services indicators for Mexico’s 2,456 municipalities. With data obtained through a special request to the federal epidemiological authority as well as official census data for 2010, we find stark regional contrasts and identify interesting spatial structures for both IID morbidity and residential water services indicators. In particular, municipalities tend to present values similar to neighboring municipalities, forming clusters of relatively high-value (or low-value municipalities. Moreover we find that municipalities with a relatively high level of access to residential water services tend to present relatively low IID morbidity rates. These results have multiple public policy implications. In order to reduce the incidence of IID effectively and efficiently, interventions should explicitly consider the spatial structure of morbidity and target problem spots—which typically spill over state, municipal and other administrative boundaries. Moreover, improvements in the quality of access to piped water (for example, increasing the frequency of supply may be as important for reducing morbidity as the expansion of basic access to this service.
Serovich, Julianne M; Laschober, Tanja C; Brown, Monique J; Kimberly, Judy A
Disclosure is important in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission risk reduction. This randomized controlled intervention assessed changes in and predictors of disclosure and risky sexual behavior among Black men who have sex with men (BMSM) living with HIV in the U.S. BMSM were randomly assigned to either the disclosure intervention or attention control case management group. Predictors of three disclosure types (behavior, beliefs, intentions) and condomless anal intercourse (CAI) included disclosure consequences (rewards and costs), disclosure readiness, and safer sex readiness. Mixed-effect results showed no differences between the groups in any of the outcomes; although disclosure behavior increased over time. Relationships were found between readiness to change and CAI; disclosure consequences and different disclosure types; and disclosure behavior and receptive CAI. When working with BMSM living with HIV, practitioners and prevention specialists should consider the importance of disclosure pertaining to receptive CAI and factors that support overall disclosure and safer sex.
Full Text Available Compared to the Canadian-born, immigrants are under-represented among Canada’s homeless population, when their decline in economic wellbeing is considered alongside their relative absence in homeless shelters. One way to explain this oddity, proposed in both academic and popular literature, is that immigrant communities employ unique avoidance strategies, such as within-group co-residence, to help keep co-ethnics off the streets and out of homeless shelters. In this paper I use the 2001 census of Canada to investigate the extent to which heightened levels of residential crowding might reflect “hidden homelessness”. I find mixed evidence to support this link, and, if anything, find some evidence to suggest that the link between residential crowding and hidden homelessness, if one exists, is strongest for the Canadian-born.
Петр Матвеевич Мазуркин
Full Text Available According to the UN classification of 11 classes of soil cover, the first three are grass, trees and shrubs and forests. In the city they correspond to the three elements of vegetation: lawns, tree plantings (trees and shrubs. We have adopted zoning for city-building to identify statistical regularities. Map dimensions in GIS "Map 2011" Yoshkar-Ola was allocated to "residential zone" and "Area of construction of multi-storey residential buildings (cadastral 58 quart crystals". The parameters of the elements of the vegetation cover have been considered: the number of elements of different levels, area and perimeter, the absolute and relative form, and activity of vegetation. As the result, we have obtained equations of binomial rank distributions, conducted the ratings and selected the best of cadastral quarter on environmental conditions.
Ozone (O 3 ) is a colourless gas that reacts rapidly on surfaces and with other constituents in the air. Sources of indoor O 3 include devices sold as home air cleaners, and some types of office equipment. Outdoor O 3 is also an important contributor to indoor levels of O 3 , depending on the air exchange rate with indoor environments. This residential indoor air quality guideline examined factors that affect the introduction, dispersion and removal of O 3 indoors. The health effects of prolonged exposure to O 3 were discussed, and studies conducted to evaluate the population health impacts of O 3 were reviewed. The studies demonstrated that there is a significant association between ambient O 3 and adverse health impacts. Exposure guidelines for residential indoor air quality were discussed. 14 refs.
This is the final report of progress under Phase I of a project to develop and commercialize a micro-CHP system for residential applications that provides electrical power, heating, and cooling for the home. This is the first phase of a three-phase effort in which the residential micro-CHP system will be designed (Phase I), developed and tested in the laboratory (Phase II); and further developed and field tested (Phase III). The project team consists of Advanced Mechanical Technology, Inc. (AMTI), responsible for system design and integration; Marathon Engine Systems, Inc. (MES), responsible for design of the engine-generator subsystem; AO Smith, responsible for design of the thermal storage and water heating subsystems; Trane, a business of American Standard Companies, responsible for design of the HVAC subsystem; and AirXchange, Inc., responsible for design of the mechanical ventilation and dehumidification subsystem.
Carneiro Holanda, Camila; Magnusson, Lisa
IFRS 13 had its mandatory implementation in January 1st, 2013. The new accounting standard, which represents one step closer to the harmonization between U.S. GAAP and IFRS, aims to eliminate inconsistencies in fair value measurement and its related disclosures through the introduction of new reporting requirements, specifically for assets and liabilities with no active markets. Although these demands also encompass information concerning financial instruments, our focus laid on the disclosur...
Denham, woodrowW W
This is the third of three papers I have written recently that challenge and seek to supplant the presumption of closure, rigidity and simplicity in anthropological analyses of Australian Aboriginal social organization. The first dealt with generational closure in canonical Kariera and Aranda kinship models; the second dealt with societal closure, endogamy and the small-world problem; this one examines closure, rigidity and simplicity in residential group compositions. I argue that these thre...
Full Text Available This article is devoted to investigation of impact of electromagnetic fields around the electrical equipment used in a residential area and their impact on the human body. This paper was based on sets of measurements of magnetic induction B with magnetometer and on computational simulations in ANSYS for particular appliances often used in household. The results from measurements and simulations led to setting out the recommendations for practical action in the form of elimination of harmful electromagnetic radiation.
Full Text Available In this paper we present some aspects about the design of a small permanent magnet wind generator with axial magnetic flux often used in residential wind turbine. There are summarised the main steps of the magnetic and electric calculations with applications to a particular case: 0.6 kVA wind generator. The axial flux wind generator design starts with the characteristics of the rare earths permanent magnet existing on the market.
Aspects of an unbundled residential gas market were discussed, among them (1) the role of a local distribution company (LDC), (2) the context and the issues, (3) the customers'needs and desires, (4) long term planning responsibility, (5) consumer protection and dealing with abuses, (6) the obligation to serve, (7) the bad credit risk customer, (8) billing, credit and collection, and (9) metering and CIS
Tessmer, R.G. Jr.
Data sources and methodology for modeling annual residential heating demands are described. A small areal basis is chosen, census tract or minor civil division, to permit estimation of demand densities and economic evaluation of community district heating systems. The demand model is specified for the entire nation in order to provide general applicability and to permit validation with other published fuel consumption estimates for 1970.
Allen, Lee R.; Allen, Sharon
Infrared thermography has proven to be a valuable tool in the detection of heat loss in both commercial and residential buildings. The field of residential thermography has needed a simple method with which to report the deficiencies found during an infrared scan. Two major obstacles hindering the cost effectiveness of residential thermography have been 1) the ability to quickly transport some high resolution imaging system equipment from job site to job site without having to totally dismount the instruments at each area, and 2) the lack of a standard form with which to report the findings of the survey to the customer. Since the industry has yet to provide us with either, we believed it necessary to develop our own. Through trial and error, we have come up with a system that makes interior residential thermography a profitable venture at a price the homeowner can afford. Insulation voids, or defects can be instantly spotted with the use of a thermal imaging system under the proper conditions. A special hand-held device was developed that enables the thermographer to carry the equipment from house to house without the need to dismantle and set up at each stop. All the necessary components are attached for a total weight of about 40 pounds. The findings are then conveyed to a form we have developed. The form is simple enough that the client without special training in thermography can understand. The client is then able to locate the problems and take corrective measures or give it to a con-tractor to do the work.
Winkler, Jon [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Booten, Chuck [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)
Residential building codes and voluntary labeling programs are continually increasing the energy efficiency requirements of residential buildings. Improving a building's thermal enclosure and installing energy-efficient appliances and lighting can result in significant reductions in sensible cooling loads leading to smaller air conditioners and shorter cooling seasons. However due to fresh air ventilation requirements and internal gains, latent cooling loads are not reduced by the same proportion. Thus, it's becoming more challenging for conventional cooling equipment to control indoor humidity at part-load cooling conditions and using conventional cooling equipment in a non-conventional building poses the potential risk of high indoor humidity. The objective of this project was to investigate the impact the chosen design condition has on the calculated part-load cooling moisture load, and compare calculated moisture loads and the required dehumidification capacity to whole-building simulations. Procedures for sizing whole-house supplemental dehumidification equipment have yet to be formalized; however minor modifications to current Air-Conditioner Contractors of America (ACCA) Manual J load calculation procedures are appropriate for calculating residential part-load cooling moisture loads. Though ASHRAE 1% DP design conditions are commonly used to determine the dehumidification requirements for commercial buildings, an appropriate DP design condition for residential buildings has not been investigated. Two methods for sizing supplemental dehumidification equipment were developed and tested. The first method closely followed Manual J cooling load calculations; whereas the second method made more conservative assumptions impacting both sensible and latent loads.
Hard-rock mining for metals, such as gold, silver, copper, zinc, iron and others, is recognized to have a significant impact on the environmental media, soil and water, in particular. Toxic contaminants released from mine waste to surface water and groundwater is the primary concern, but human exposure to soil contaminants either directly, via inhalation of airborne dust particles, or indirectly, via food chain (ingestion of animal products and/or vegetables grown in contaminated areas), is also, significant. In this research, we analyzed data collected in 2007, as part of a larger environmental study performed in the Rosia Montana area in Transylvania, to provide the Romanian governmental authorities with data on the levels of metal contamination in environmental media from this historical mining area. The data were also considered in policy decision to address mining-related environmental concerns in the area. We examined soil and water data collected from residential areas near the mining sites to determine relationships among metals analyzed in these different environmental media, using the correlation procedure in SAS statistical software. Results for residential soil and water analysis indicate that the average values for arsenic (As) (85 mg/kg), cadmium (Cd) (3.2 mg/kg), mercury (Hg) (2.3 mg/kg) and lead (Pb) (92 mg/kg) exceeded the Romanian regulatory exposure levels [the intervention thresholds for residential soil in case of As (25 mg/kg) and Hg
Woo, C.K.; Ho, T.; Shiu, A.; Cheng, Y.S.; Horowitz, I.; Wang, J.
Hong Kong has almost perfect electricity reliability, the result of substantial investments ultimately financed by electricity consumers who may be willing to accept lower reliability in exchange for lower bills. But consumers with high outage costs are likely to reject the reliability reduction. Our ordered-logit regression analysis of the responses by 1876 households to a telephone survey conducted in June 2013 indicates that Hong Kong residents exhibit a statistically-significant preference for their existing service reliability and rate. Moreover, the average residential cost estimate for a 1-h outage is US$45 (HK$350), topping the estimates reported in 10 of the 11 studies published in the last 10 years. The policy implication is that absent additional compelling evidence, Hong Kong should not reduce its service reliability. - Highlights: • Use a contingent valuation survey to obtain residential preferences for reliability. • Use an ordered logit analysis to estimate Hong Kong's residential outage costs. • Find high outage cost estimates that imply high reliability requirements. • Conclude that sans new evidence, Hong Kong should not reduce its reliability
Singer, Brett C.; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Hotchi, Toshifumi; Ming, Katherine Y.; Sextro, Richard G.; Wood, Emily E.; Brown, Nancy J.
Experiments were conducted to characterize organic gas sorption in residential rooms studied "as-is" with furnishings and material surfaces unaltered and in a furnished chamber designed to simulate a residential room. Results are presented for 10 rooms (five bedrooms, two bathrooms, a home office, and two multi-function spaces) and the chamber. Exposed materials were characterized and areas quantified. A mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was rapidly volatilized within each room as it was closed and sealed for a 5-h Adsorb phase; this was followed by 30-min Flush and 2-h closed-room Desorb phases. Included were alkane, aromatic, and oxygenated VOCs representing a range of ambient and indoor air pollutants. Three organophosphorus compounds served as surrogates for Sarin-like nerve agents. Measured gas-phase concentrations were fit to three variations of a mathematical model that considers sorption occurring at a surface sink and potentially a second, embedded sink. The 3-parameter sink-diffusion model provided acceptable fits for most compounds and the 4-parameter two-sink model provided acceptable fits for the others. Initial adsorption rates and sorptive partitioning increased with decreasing vapor pressure for the alkanes, aromatics and oxygenated VOCs. Best-fit sorption parameters obtained from experimental data from the chamber produced best-fit sorption parameters similar to those obtained from the residential rooms.
Panagiotidou, K; Zervas, I
Social changes and developments in medical science prompted mental health professionals to adopt new roles in relation to their self-disclosure practices. The physician-patient relationship has balanced on a different level, promoting the equity and the autonomy of the second. The contemporary patient is better informed, asks more questions and requires more answers. The boundaries between "professional" and "personal" are less strict and patients believe that they have a right to know whether the personal experiences (educational, clinical, research) of their therapists enable them to understand and help them. Although the latest version of the American Psychological Association's Ethics Code (APA, 2002) offers no explicit guidance on therapist self-disclosure, it incorporates an implicit message that therapists can no longer choose non-disclosure without having considered the issue carefully. Non-disclosure is no longer the easy answer, as it may affect adversely the therapeutic relationship and the therapeutic effect. These new circumstances prompted representatives of all psychotherapeutic orientations to reconsider traditional positions on therapist self-disclosure, to adapt to the diverse needs of the patients and the modern requirements of the therapeutic process and to define the framework within which its conduct is not only safe but also effective. This review attempts to describe the concept of therapist self-disclosure and its use and its functions in Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy, following a history of the term in other major therapeutic schools (psychoanalytic, client-centered and systemic). As the focus of any psychotherapy is the patient himself, we added reports of patients' experiences by their therapists' disclosures. Those descriptions reveal clearly not only the benefits of therapist self-disclosure but also the dangers posed by improper use. Finally, we attempt to set a framework in the form of proposals, as these result from existing
Petronio, Sandra; Helft, Paul R; Child, Jeffrey T
To better understand the process of disclosing medical errors to patients, this research offers a case analysis using Petronios's theoretical frame of Communication Privacy Management (CPM). Given the resistance clinicians often feel about error disclosure, insights into the way choices are made by the clinicians in telling patients about the mistake has the potential to address reasons for resistance. Applying the evidenced-based CPM theory, developed over the last 35 years and dedicated to studying disclosure phenomenon, to disclosing medical mistakes potentially has the ability to reshape thinking about the error disclosure process. Using a composite case representing a surgical mistake, analysis based on CPM theory is offered to gain insights into conversational routines and disclosure management choices of revealing a medical error. The results of this analysis show that an underlying assumption of health information ownership by the patient and family can be at odds with the way the clinician tends to control disclosure about the error. In addition, the case analysis illustrates that there are embedded patterns of disclosure that emerge out of conversations the clinician has with the patient and the patient's family members. These patterns unfold privacy management decisions on the part of the clinician that impact how the patient is told about the error and the way that patients interpret the meaning of the disclosure. These findings suggest the need for a better understanding of how patients manage their private health information in relationship to their expectations for the way they see the clinician caring for or controlling their health information about errors. Significance for public healthMuch of the mission central to public health sits squarely on the ability to communicate effectively. This case analysis offers an in-depth assessment of how error disclosure is complicated by misunderstandings, assuming ownership and control over information
Fein, Stephanie P; Hilborne, Lee H; Spiritus, Eugene M; Seymann, Gregory B; Keenan, Craig R; Shojania, Kaveh G; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Wenger, Neil S
Patients want to know when errors happen in their care. Professional associations, ethicists, and patient safety experts endorse disclosure of medical error to patients. Surveys of physicians show that they believe harmful errors should be disclosed to patients, yet errors are often not disclosed. To understand the discrepancy between patients' expectations and physicians' behavior concerning error disclosure. We conducted focus groups to determine what constitutes disclosure of medical error. Twenty focus groups, 4 at each of 5 academic centers, included 204 hospital administrators, physicians, residents, and nurses. Qualitative analysis of the focus group transcripts with attention to examples of error disclosure by clinicians and hospital administrators. Clinicians and administrators considered various forms of communication about errors to be error disclosure. Six elements of disclosure identified from focus group transcripts characterized disclosures ranging from Full disclosure (including admission of a mistake, discussion of the error, and a link from the error to harm) to Partial disclosures, which included deferral, misleading statements, and inadequate information to "connect the dots." Descriptions involving nondisclosure of harmful errors were uncommon. Error disclosure may mean different things to clinicians than it does to patients. The various forms of communication deemed error disclosure by clinicians may explain the discrepancy between error disclosure beliefs and behaviors. We suggest a definition of error disclosure to inform practical policies and interventions.
We propose a new framework to model the exterior of residential buildings. The main goal of our work is to design a model that can be learned from data that is observable from the outside of a building and that can be trained with widely available data such as aerial images and street-view images. First, we propose a parametric model to describe the exterior of a building (with a varying number of parameters) and propose a set of attributes as a building representation with fixed dimensionality. Second, we propose a hierarchical graphical model with hidden variables to encode the relationships between building attributes and learn both the structure and parameters of the model from the database. Third, we propose optimization algorithms to generate three-dimensional models based on building attributes sampled from the graphical model. Finally, we demonstrate our framework by synthesizing new building models and completing partially observed building models from photographs.
Koontz, M.D.; Lee, S.M.; Spears, J.W.; Kesselring, J.P.
Energy recovery ventilators offer the prospect of tighter control over residential ventilation rates than manual methods, such as opening windows, with a lesser energy penalty. However, the appropriate size of such a ventilator is not readily apparent in most situations. Sizing of energy recovery ventilation software was developed to calculate the size of ventilator necessary to satisfy ASHRAE Standard 62-1989, Ventilation for Acceptable Air Quality, or a user-specified air exchange rate. Inputs to the software include house location, structural characteristics, house operations and energy costs, ventilation characteristics, and HVAC system COP/efficiency. Based on these inputs, the program estimates the existing air exchange rate for the house, the ventilation rate required to meet the ASHRAE standard or user-specified air exchange rate, the size of the ventilator needed to meet the requirement, and the expected changes in indoor air quality and energy consumption. In this paper an illustrative application of the software is provided
Xu, Minjie [School of Electrical Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing (China); State Power Economic Research Institute, Beijing (China); Hu, Zhaoguang [State Power Economic Research Institute, Beijing (China); Wu, Junyong; Zhou, Yuhui [School of Electrical Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing (China)
In this paper, a hybrid social model of econometric model and social influence model is proposed for evaluating the influence of pricing policy and public education policy on residential habit of electricity using in power resources management. And, a hybrid society simulation platform based on the proposed model, called residential electricity consumption multi-agent systems (RECMAS), is designed for simulating residential electricity consumption by multi-agent system. RECMAS is composed of consumer agent, power supplier agent, and policy maker agent. It provides the policy makers with a useful tool to evaluate power price policies and public education campaigns in different scenarios. According to an influenced diffusion mechanism, RECMAS can simulate the residential electricity demand-supply chain and analyze impacts of the factors on residential electricity consumption. Finally, the proposed method is used to simulate urban residential electricity consumption in China. (author)