WorldWideScience

Sample records for residential self-selection effects

  1. Analysis of the residential location choice and household energy consumption behavior by incorporating multiple self-selection effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Biying; Junyi Zhang; Fujiwara, Akimasa

    2012-01-01

    It is expected that the residential location choice and household energy consumption behavior might correlate with each other. Besides, due to the existence of self-selection effects, the observed inter-relationship between them might be the spurious result of the fact that some unobserved variables are causing both. These concerns motivate us to (1) consider residential location choice and household energy consumption behavior (for both in-home appliances and out-of-home cars) simultaneously and, (2) explicitly control self-selection effects so as to capture a relatively true effect of land-use policy on household energy consumption behavior. An integrated model termed as joint mixed Multinomial Logit-Multiple Discrete-Continuous Extreme Value model is presented here to identify the sensitivity of household energy consumption to land use policy by considering multiple self-selection effects. The model results indicate that land-use policy do play a great role in changing Beijing residents’ energy consumption pattern, while the self-selection effects cannot be ignored when evaluating the effect of land-use policy. Based on the policy scenario design, it is found that increasing recreational facilities and bus lines in the neighborhood can greatly promote household's energy-saving behavior. Additionally, the importance of “soft policy” and package policy is also emphasized in the context of Beijing. - Highlights: ► Representing residential choice and household energy consumption behavior jointly. ► Land use policy is found effective to control the household energy use in Beijing. ► Multiple self-selection effects are posed to get the true effect of land use policy. ► Significant self-selection effects call an attention to the soft policy in Beijing. ► The necessity of package policy on saving Beijing residents’ energy use is confirmed.

  2. Residential self-selection and travel : The relationship between travel-related attitudes, built environment characteristics and travel behaviour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohte, W.

    2010-01-01

    Most Western national governments aim to influence individual travel patterns – at least to some degree – through spatial planning in residential areas. Nevertheless, the extent to which the characteristics of the built environment influence travel behaviour remains the subject of some debate among

  3. The Effect of Vocabulary Self-Selection Strategy and Input Enhancement Strategy on the Vocabulary Knowledge of Iranian EFL Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masoudi, Golfam

    2017-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate empirically the effect of Vocabulary Self-Selection strategy and Input Enhancement strategy on the vocabulary knowledge of Iranian EFL Learners. After taking a diagnostic pretest, both experimental groups enrolled in two classes. Learners who practiced Vocabulary Self-Selection were allowed to…

  4. Effect of Music Tempo on Attentional Focus and Perceived Exertion during Self-selected Paced Walking

    OpenAIRE

    SILVA, ALDO COELHO; DOS SANTOS FERREIRA, SANDRO; ALVES, RAGAMI CHAVES; FOLLADOR, LUCIO; DA SILVA, SERGIO GREGORIO

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of music on the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and attentional focus during walking at a self-selected pace. Fifteen overweight and obese women volunteered to participate in the study. They underwent four sessions: the first for incremental maximal test and anthropometric measurement followed by three experimental sessions. After the first session, they were exposed to three 30-minute walking sessions at a self-selected pace in a counterbalanced order...

  5. ACUTE EFFECTS OF SELF-SELECTED REGIMEN OF RAPID BODY MASS LOSS IN COMBAT SPORTS ATHLETES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaan Ereline

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to assess the acute effects of the self-selected regimen of rapid body mass loss (RBML on muscle performance and metabolic response to exercise in combat sports athletes. Seventeen male athletes (20.8 ± 1.0 years; mean ± SD reduced their body mass by 5.1 ± 1.1% within 3 days. The RBML was achieved by a gradual reduction of energy and fluid intake and mild sauna procedures. A battery of tests was performed before (Test 1 and immediately after (Test 2 RBML. The test battery included the measurement of the peak torque of knee extensors for three different speeds, assessment of total work (Wtot performed during a 3-min intermittent intensity knee extension exercise and measurements of blood metabolites (ammonia, lactate, glucose and urea. Absolute peak torque was lower in Test 2 compared with Test 1 at angular velocities of 1.57 rad·s-1 (218.6 ± 40.9 vs. 234.4 ± 42.2 N·m; p = 0.013 and 3.14 rad·s-1 (100.3 ± 27.8 vs. 111.7 ± 26.2 N·m; p = 0.008. The peak torque in relation to body mass remained unchanged for any speed. Absolute Wtot was lower in Test 2 compared with Test 1 (6359 ± 2326 vs. 7452 ± 3080 J; p = 0.003 as well as Wtot in relation to body mass (89.1 ± 29.9 vs. 98.6 ± 36.4 J·kg-1; p = 0.034, respectively. As a result of RBML, plasma urea concentration increased from 4.9 to 5.9 mmol·l-1 (p = 0.003. The concentration of ammonia in a post-test sample in Test 2 tended to be higher in comparison with Test 1 (80.9 ± 29.1 vs. 67.6 ± 26.5 mmol·l-1; p = 0.082. The plasma lactate and glucose responses to exercise were similar in Test 1 and Test 2. We conclude that the self-selected regimen of RBML impairs muscle performance in 3-min intermittent intensity exercise and induces an increase in blood urea concentration in experienced male combat sports athletes

  6. A comparison of methods to separate treatment from self-selection effects in an online banking setting

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gensler, S.; Leeflang, P.S.H.; Skiera, B.

    The literature discusses several methods to control for self-selection effects but provides little guidance on which method to use in a setting with a limited number of variables. The authors theoretically compare and empirically assess the performance of different matching methods and instrumental

  7. Effects of musical tempo on physiological, affective, and perceptual variables and performance of self-selected walking pace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, Flávia Angélica Martins; Nunes, Renan Felipe Hartmann; Ferreira, Sandro Dos Santos; Krinski, Kleverton; Elsangedy, Hassan Mohamed; Buzzachera, Cosme Franklin; Alves, Ragami Chaves; Gregorio da Silva, Sergio

    2015-06-01

    [Purpose] This study investigated the effects of musical tempo on physiological, affective, and perceptual responses as well as the performance of self-selected walking pace. [Subjects] The study included 28 adult women between 29 and 51 years old. [Methods] The subjects were divided into three groups: no musical stimulation group (control), and 90 and 140 beats per minute musical tempo groups. Each subject underwent three experimental sessions: involved familiarization with the equipment, an incremental test to exhaustion, and a 30-min walk on a treadmill at a self-selected pace, respectively. During the self-selected walking session, physiological, perceptual, and affective variables were evaluated, and walking performance was evaluated at the end. [Results] There were no significant differences in physiological variables or affective response among groups. However, there were significant differences in perceptual response and walking performance among groups. [Conclusion] Fast music (140 beats per minute) promotes a higher rating of perceived exertion and greater performance in self-selected walking pace without significantly altering physiological variables or affective response.

  8. Effect of Music Tempo on Attentional Focus and Perceived Exertion during Self-selected Paced Walking

    Science.gov (United States)

    SILVA, ALDO COELHO; DOS SANTOS FERREIRA, SANDRO; ALVES, RAGAMI CHAVES; FOLLADOR, LUCIO; DA SILVA, SERGIO GREGORIO

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of music on the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and attentional focus during walking at a self-selected pace. Fifteen overweight and obese women volunteered to participate in the study. They underwent four sessions: the first for incremental maximal test and anthropometric measurement followed by three experimental sessions. After the first session, they were exposed to three 30-minute walking sessions at a self-selected pace in a counterbalanced order: fast-tempo music (FT), medium-tempo music (MT) and no-music control (NM). Borg’s RPE Scale and an Attentional Focus Questionnaire were used to measure the perceptual response and attentional focus, respectively. Results showed that the RPE was higher in the no-music control than in the medium-tempo music (12.05 ± 0.6 vs. 10.5 ± 0.5). Furthermore, dissociative attentional focus was greater for both conditions with music in comparison with the no-music control (NM= 39.0 ± 4.1; MT= 48.4 ± 4.1 and FT= 47.9 ± 4.5). The results indicated that the use of music during walking can modulate attentional focus, increasing dissociative thought, and medium-tempo music can reduce the RPE. PMID:27990220

  9. Effect of Music Tempo on Attentional Focus and Perceived Exertion during Self-selected Paced Walking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Aldo Coelho; Dos Santos Ferreira, Sandro; Alves, Ragami Chaves; Follador, Lucio; DA Silva, Sergio Gregorio

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the influence of music on the rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and attentional focus during walking at a self-selected pace. Fifteen overweight and obese women volunteered to participate in the study. They underwent four sessions: the first for incremental maximal test and anthropometric measurement followed by three experimental sessions. After the first session, they were exposed to three 30-minute walking sessions at a self-selected pace in a counterbalanced order: fast-tempo music (FT), medium-tempo music (MT) and no-music control (NM). Borg's RPE Scale and an Attentional Focus Questionnaire were used to measure the perceptual response and attentional focus, respectively. Results showed that the RPE was higher in the no-music control than in the medium-tempo music (12.05 ± 0.6 vs. 10.5 ± 0.5). Furthermore, dissociative attentional focus was greater for both conditions with music in comparison with the no-music control (NM= 39.0 ± 4.1; MT= 48.4 ± 4.1 and FT= 47.9 ± 4.5). The results indicated that the use of music during walking can modulate attentional focus, increasing dissociative thought, and medium-tempo music can reduce the RPE.

  10. New Evaluation of the Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR: Obtrusiveness, Compliance, and Participant Self-selection Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph H. Manson

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR is a method for collecting periodic brief audio snippets of participants’ daily lives using a portable recording device. The EAR can potentially intrude into people’s privacy, alter their natural behavior, and introduce self-selection biases greater than in other types of social science methods. Previous research (Mehl and Holleran, 2007, hereafter M&H has shown that participant non-compliance with, and perceived obtrusiveness of, an EAR protocol are both low. However, these questions have not been addressed in jurisdictions that require the consent of all parties to recording conversations. This EAR study required participants to wear a button bearing a microphone icon and the words “This conversation may be recorded” to comply with California’s all-party consent law. Results revealed self-reported obtrusiveness and non-compliance were actually lower in the present study than in the M&H study. Behaviorally assessed non-compliance did not differ between the two studies. Participants in the present study talked more about being in the study than participants in the M&H study, but such talk still comprised <2% of sampled conversations. Another potential problem with the EAR, participant self-selection bias, was addressed by comparing the EAR volunteers’ HEXACO personality dimensions to a non-volunteer sample drawn from the same student population. EAR volunteers were significantly and moderately higher in Conscientiousness, and lower in Emotionality, than non-volunteers. In conclusion, the EAR method can be successfully implemented in at least one all-party consent state (California. Interested researchers are encouraged to review this procedure with their own legal counsel.

  11. EFFECT OF SELF-SELECTED AND INDUCED SLOW AND FAST PADDLING ON STROKE KINEMATICS DURING 1000 M OUTRIGGER CANOEING ERGOMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca M. Sealey

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to identify the effect of different stroke rates on various kinematic parameters during 1000 m outrigger canoeing. Sixteen, experienced female outrigger canoeists completed three 1000 m outrigger ergometer time trials, one trial each using a self-selected, a Hawaiian ( 65 strokes·min-1 stroke rate. Stroke rate, stroke length, stroke time, proportion of time spent in propulsion and recovery, torso flexion angle and 'twist' were measured and compared with repeated measures ANOVAs. Stroke rate, stroke length and stroke time were significantly different across all interventions (p < 0.05 despite no difference in the percentage of time spent in the propulsive and recovery phases of the stroke. Stroke length and stroke time were negatively correlated to stroke rate for all interventions (r = -0.79 and -0.99, respectively. Female outrigger canoeists maintain consistent stroke kinematics throughout a 1000 m time trial, most likely as a learned skill to maximize crew paddling synchrony when paddling on-water. While the Hawaiian stroke rate resulted in the greatest trunk flexion movement and 'twist' action, this potential increased back injury risk may be offset by the slow stroke rate and long stroke length and hence slow rate of force development.

  12. The effect of self-selected soothing music on fistula puncture-related pain in hemodialysis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabandokht-Zarmi, Hosniyeh; Bagheri-Nesami, Masoumeh; Shorofi, Seyed Afshin; Mousavinasab, Seyed Nouraddin

    2017-11-01

    This study was intended to examine the effect of selective soothing music on fistula puncture-related pain in hemodialysis patients. This is a randomized clinical trial in which 114 participants were selected from two hemodialysis units by means of a non-random, convenience sampling method. The participants were then allocated in three groups of music (N = 38), headphone (N = 38), and control (N = 38). The fistula puncture-related pain was measured 1 min after venipuncture procedure in all three groups. The music group listened to their self-selected and preferred music 6 min before needle insertion into a fistula until the end of procedure. The headphone group wore a headphone alone without listening to music 6 min before needle insertion into a fistula until the end of procedure. The control group did not receive any intervention from the research team during needle insertion into a fistula. The pain intensity was measured immediately after the intervention in all three groups. This study showed a significant difference between the music and control groups, and the music and headphone groups in terms of the mean pain score after the intervention. However, the analysis did not indicate any significant difference between the headphone and control groups with regard to the mean pain score after the intervention. It is concluded that music can be used effectively for pain related to needle insertion into a fistula in hemodialysis patients. Future research should investigate the comparative effects of pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions on fistula puncture-related pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Well-being, problematic alcohol consumption and acute subjective drug effects in past-year ayahuasca users: a large, international, self-selecting online survey

    OpenAIRE

    Lawn, Will; Hallak, Jaime E.; Crippa, Jose A.; Dos Santos, Rafael; Porffy, Lilla; Barratt, Monica J.; Ferris, Jason A.; Winstock, Adam R.; Morgan, Celia J. A.

    2017-01-01

    Ayahuasca is a natural psychedelic brew, which contains dimethyltryptamine (DMT). Its potential as a psychiatric medicine has recently been demonstrated and its non-medical use around the world appears to be growing. We aimed to investigate well-being and problematic alcohol use in ayahuasca users, and ayahuasca’s subjective effects. An online, self-selecting, global survey examining patterns of drug use was conducted in 2015 and 2016 (n = 96,901). Questions were asked about: use of ayahuasca...

  14. Police officers' volunteering for (rather than being assigned to) Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) training: Evidence for a beneficial self-selection effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    T Compton, Michael; Bakeman, Roger; Broussard, Beth; D'Orio, Barbara; C Watson, Amy

    2017-09-01

    Officers' volunteering for Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) training-rather than being assigned-is assumed to be an important, beneficial self-selection bias. This bias remains poorly characterized, though CIT officers are more likely to be female and to have had exposure to the mental health field. We determined whether or not self-selection is beneficial with regard to knowledge, attitudes, and skills, as well as level of force used (i.e., no or low force versus any form of physical force) and disposition of subjects, in actual encounters. We compared CIT-trained officers who had volunteered with those who had been assigned using data from two prior, linked studies that compared CIT-trained and non-CIT officers on knowledge, attitudes, and skills (251 CIT-trained officers; 68% had volunteered), as well as behaviors (517 actual encounters provided by 91 CIT-trained officers; 70% had volunteered). Of 28 scores on knowledge, attitudes, and skills compared, six were statistically significantly different (p force as we had defined it (which included the use of handcuffs), when they did so they were more likely to refer to treatment services and less likely to make an arrest. These effects were apparent even when taking into account effects of gender, having had exposure to the mental health field, empathy, and other covariates. In conclusion, we found evidence for benefits of self-selection/volunteering that should be further characterized, as it appears to be associated with better outcomes with regard to key attitudes, skills, and behaviors. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  15. Well-being, problematic alcohol consumption and acute subjective drug effects in past-year ayahuasca users: a large, international, self-selecting online survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawn, Will; Hallak, Jaime E; Crippa, Jose A; Dos Santos, Rafael; Porffy, Lilla; Barratt, Monica J; Ferris, Jason A; Winstock, Adam R; Morgan, Celia J A

    2017-11-09

    Ayahuasca is a natural psychedelic brew, which contains dimethyltryptamine (DMT). Its potential as a psychiatric medicine has recently been demonstrated and its non-medical use around the world appears to be growing. We aimed to investigate well-being and problematic alcohol use in ayahuasca users, and ayahuasca's subjective effects. An online, self-selecting, global survey examining patterns of drug use was conducted in 2015 and 2016 (n = 96,901). Questions were asked about: use of ayahuasca, lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) and magic mushrooms; demographics, current well-being and past-year problematic alcohol use of past-year ayahuasca users and comparison drug users; and subjective effects of ayahuasca and comparison drugs. Ayahuasca users (n = 527) reported greater well-being than both classic psychedelic users (n = 18,138) and non-psychedelic drug-using respondents (n = 78,236). Ayahuasca users reported less problematic drinking than classic psychedelic users, although both groups reported greater problematic drinking than the other respondents. Ayahuasca's acute subjective effects usually lasted for six hours and were most strongly felt one hour after consumption. Within our online, self-selecting survey, ayahuasca users reported better well-being than comparison groups and less problematic drinking than classic psychedelic users. Future longitudinal studies of international samples and randomised controlled trials are needed to dissect the effects of ayahuasca on these outcomes.

  16. Effect of a Counseling Session Bolstered by Text Messaging on Self-Selected Health Behaviors in College Students: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandrick, Janice; Tracy, Doreen; Eliasson, Arn; Roth, Ashley; Bartel, Jeffrey; Simko, Melanie; Bowman, Tracy; Harouse-Bell, Karen; Kashani, Mariam; Vernalis, Marina

    2017-05-17

    The college experience is often the first time when young adults live independently and make their own lifestyle choices. These choices affect dietary behaviors, exercise habits, techniques to deal with stress, and decisions on sleep time, all of which direct the trajectory of future health. There is a need for effective strategies that will encourage healthy lifestyle choices in young adults attending college. This preliminary randomized controlled trial tested the effect of coaching and text messages (short message service, SMS) on self-selected health behaviors in the domains of diet, exercise, stress, and sleep. A second analysis measured the ripple effect of the intervention on health behaviors not specifically selected as a goal by participants. Full-time students aged 18-30 years were recruited by word of mouth and campuswide advertisements (flyers, posters, mailings, university website) at a small university in western Pennsylvania from January to May 2015. Exclusions included pregnancy, eating disorders, chronic medical diagnoses, and prescription medications other than birth control. Of 60 participants, 30 were randomized to receive a single face-to-face meeting with a health coach to review results of behavioral questionnaires and to set a health behavior goal for the 8-week study period. The face-to-face meeting was followed by SMS text messages designed to encourage achievement of the behavioral goal. A total of 30 control subjects underwent the same health and behavioral assessments at intake and program end but did not receive coaching or SMS text messages. The texting app showed that 87.31% (2187/2505) of messages were viewed by intervention participants. Furthermore, 28 of the 30 intervention participants and all 30 control participants provided outcome data. Among intervention participants, 22 of 30 (73%) showed improvement in health behavior goal attainment, with the whole group (n=30) showing a mean improvement of 88% (95% CI 39-136). Mean

  17. Compact development and VMT: environmental determinism, self-selection, or some of both?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewing, Reid; Hamidi, Shima; Grace, James B.

    2016-01-01

    There is a long-running debate in the planning literature about the effects of the built environment on travel behavior and the degree to which apparent effects are due to the tendency of households to self-select into neighborhoods that reinforce their travel preferences. Those who want to walk will choose walkable neighborhoods, and those who want to use transit will choose transit-served neighborhoods. These households might have walked or used transit more than their neighbors wherever they lived. Most previous studies have shown that individual attitudes attenuate the relationship between the residential environment and travel choices, and so the effect of the built environment on travel may be overestimated. But there are other researchers who argue the reverse, claiming that residential preferences reinforce built environmental influences. This study assesses the relative importance of the built environment and residential preferences/travel attitudes for a sample of 962 households in the Greater Salt Lake region using structural equation modeling. For the sake of simplicity, we extracted two factors using principal component analysis, one representing the built environment and the other representing residential preferences/attitudes. Our findings are consistent with the view that the neighborhood built environment and residential preferences both influence household’s travel, that the built environment is the stronger influence, and that the built environment affects travel through two causal pathways, one direct and the other indirect, through attitudes.

  18. Perceived public health effects of occupational and residential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was aimed at assessing the perceived public health effects of occupational and residential exposures to e-wastes in Alaba International and Computer Village markets, the two largest electronic markets in Lagos, Nigeria. A cross sectional, comparative study was carried out using questionnaire survey of randomly ...

  19. Comparing two psychological interventions in reducing impulsive processes of eating behaviour : Effects on self-selected portion size

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Koningsbruggen, G.M.; Veling, H.P.; Stroebe, Wolfgang; Aarts, Henk

    2014-01-01

    ObjectivePalatable food, such as sweets, contains properties that automatically trigger the impulse to consume it even when people have goals or intentions to refrain from consuming such food. We compared the effectiveness of two interventions in reducing the portion size of palatable food that

  20. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in South Carolina. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in South Carolina.

  1. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Nebraska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Nebraska. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Nebraska.

  2. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Wisconsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Wisconsin. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2006 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Wisconsin.

  3. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Pennsylvania. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Pennsylvania.

  4. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Nevada. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Nevada.

  5. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Texas. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Texas.

  6. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Oklahoma. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Oklahoma.

  7. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Missouri. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Missouri.

  8. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Rhode Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Rhode Island. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Rhode Island.

  9. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in New Mexico. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in New Mexico.

  10. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in North Dakota. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in North Dakota.

  11. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Ohio. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Ohio.

  12. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Massachusetts. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Massachusetts.

  13. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Vermont

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Vermont. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Vermont.

  14. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Mississippi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Mississippi. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Mississippi.

  15. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Virginia. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Virginia.

  16. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Wyoming. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Wyoming.

  17. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in West Virginia. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in West Virginia.

  18. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Utah. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 Utah State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Utah.

  19. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Tennessee. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2006 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Tennessee.

  20. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for South Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in South Dakota. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in South Dakota.

  1. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Michigan. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Michigan.

  2. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Minnesota. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Minnesota.

  3. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Montana. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2014 Montana State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Montana.

  4. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in New York. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in New York.

  5. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Alabama. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Alabama.

  6. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Louisiana. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Louisiana.

  7. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Delaware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Delaware. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Delaware.

  8. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Arizona. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Arizona.

  9. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Idaho. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2015 Idaho State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Idaho.

  10. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Georgia. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2011 Georgia State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Georgia.

  11. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Kansas. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Kansas.

  12. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Arkansas. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Arkansas.

  13. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Florida. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Florida.

  14. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Connecticut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Connecticut. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Connecticut.

  15. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Colorado. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Colorado.

  16. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Hawaii. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2006 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Hawaii.

  17. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V.; Zhao, Mingjie; Taylor, Zachary T.; Poehlman, Eric A.

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Indiana. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Indiana.

  18. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Illinois. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Illinois.

  19. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Maine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Maine. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Maine.

  20. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Maryland. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Maryland.

  1. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Iowa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Iowa. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2014 Iowa State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Iowa.

  2. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Alaska. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Alaska.

  3. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Kentucky. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Kentucky.

  4. Immigration And Self-Selection

    OpenAIRE

    George J. Borjas

    1988-01-01

    Self-selection plays a dominant role in determining the size and composition of immigrant flows. The United States competes with other potential host countries in the "immigration market". Host countries vary in their "offers" of economic opportunities and also differ in the way they ration entry through their immigration policies. Potential immigrants compare the various opportunities and are non-randomly sorted by the immigration market among the various host countries. This paper presents ...

  5. Expanded BPA residential weatherization program: summary of regional health effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandusky, W.F.; Thor, P.W.; Alton, C.C.; Mellinger, P.J.; Cross, F.T.

    1984-11-01

    The Final Environmental Impact Statement (FEIS) for the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Expanded Residential Weatherization Program has been completed, printed, and distributed. This document incorporates numerous revisions based on both oral and written comments received during the public comment of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement (DEIS). The estimates of regional health effects were revised to incorporate results of the second Pacific Northwest Residential Energy Survey (PNWRES). The FEIS now expresses the estimated regional health effects in terms of incidence of cancers per 100,000 people exposed, which allows comparison to be made to the annual average risk of fatality by other causes. The estimates of regional health effects are also compared to health effects resulting from supplying and operating a conventional coal plant at a power level equal to the amount of energy saved from installation of additional tightening measures. Numerical results for the estimated health effects described above are provided. A summary of the comments received on the DEIS is also provided, along with estimated health effects associated with the Environmentally Preferred and BPA Preferred Alternatives to the Proposed Action. 8 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs

  6. The effects of residential dual diagnosis treatment on alcohol abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoenthaler, Stephen J; Blum, Kenneth; Fried, Lyle; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Giordano, John; Modestino, Edward J.; Badgaiyan, Rajendra

    2017-01-01

    This multi-center study of dual diagnosis (DD) programs involved 804 residential patients with co-occurring alcohol and mental health disorders. The Addiction Severity Index was administered at admission and at one, six, and 12 months after discharge. Repeated measures analysis showed the intoxication rate per month stabilized between months six and 12 with 68% still in remission and an 88% mean reduction from baseline (F = 519, p treatment of both disorders and explained their effectiveness. Co-occurring DSM IV mood disorders such as anxiety and depression as well as drug abuse involving opioids or cocaine fell between 66 and 95% at months one, six, and twelve. PMID:28868159

  7. The Smart Residential Complex Effect on Personality Formation of Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Kasra Mirpadyab

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The interaction between human beings and the environment has been a question of all times; however, the Industrial Revolution has begun to change its way. It can be seen that the human beings were a part of their environment in the past, but now with the advancement of knowledge and technology, the man can dominate in their environment. But today, the man’s needs should be well known about the interaction with the natural environment and with respect to the position of the residential complexes in the modern society, these buildings are designed to create the psychological comfort and the formation of the personality. The authors of this paper believe the mentioned event will be happening in the future generation of the buildings. These buildings will be equipped with smart automation system for all their activities. This research conducted by grounded theories about the explanation of the smart residential complexes equipped with the BMS, which can be effective for shaping the managerial character of the children in their future.

  8. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for New Jersey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in New Jersey. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2015 New Jersey State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in New Jersey.

  9. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for New Hampshire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in New Hampshire. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2010 New Hampshire State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in New Hampshire.

  10. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for North Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in North Carolina. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 North Carolina State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in North Carolina.

  11. Effect of Organizational Climate on Youth Outcomes in Residential Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Neil; Leon, Scott C.; Epstein, Richard A.; Durkin, Elizabeth; Helgerson, Jena; Lakin-Starr, Brittany L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the association between organizational climate and changes in internalizing and externalizing behavior for youth in residential treatment centers (RTCs). The sample included 407 youth and 349 front-line residential treatment staff from 17 RTCs in Illinois. Youth behavior was measured using the Child Functional Assessment Rating…

  12. The "Residential" Effect Fallacy in Neighborhood and Health Studies: Formal Definition, Empirical Identification, and Correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaix, Basile; Duncan, Dustin; Vallée, Julie; Vernez-Moudon, Anne; Benmarhnia, Tarik; Kestens, Yan

    2017-11-01

    Because of confounding from the urban/rural and socioeconomic organizations of territories and resulting correlation between residential and nonresidential exposures, classically estimated residential neighborhood-outcome associations capture nonresidential environment effects, overestimating residential intervention effects. Our study diagnosed and corrected this "residential" effect fallacy bias applicable to a large fraction of neighborhood and health studies. Our empirical application investigated the effect that hypothetical interventions raising the residential number of services would have on the probability that a trip is walked. Using global positioning systems tracking and mobility surveys over 7 days (227 participants and 7440 trips), we employed a multilevel linear probability model to estimate the trip-level association between residential number of services and walking to derive a naïve intervention effect estimate and a corrected model accounting for numbers of services at the residence, trip origin, and trip destination to determine a corrected intervention effect estimate (true effect conditional on assumptions). There was a strong correlation in service densities between the residential neighborhood and nonresidential places. From the naïve model, hypothetical interventions raising the residential number of services to 200, 500, and 1000 were associated with an increase by 0.020, 0.055, and 0.109 of the probability of walking in the intervention groups. Corrected estimates were of 0.007, 0.019, and 0.039. Thus, naïve estimates were overestimated by multiplicative factors of 3.0, 2.9, and 2.8. Commonly estimated residential intervention-outcome associations substantially overestimate true effects. Our somewhat paradoxical conclusion is that to estimate residential effects, investigators critically need information on nonresidential places visited.

  13. The Effectiveness of Group Cognitive Hypnotherapy on Major Depression Referred to Residential and Semi-residential Addiction Recovery Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Haghighi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: Psychological consequences of addiction, such as major depression regardless of physical problems, economic, cultural and social is cause problems for both families and society. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of group cognitive hypnotherapy on major depression in residential and semi-residential addiction recovery centers in the city of Yasuj. Methods: The present quasi-experimental study was conducted using a pre-test, post-test and control group. The population included all patients drug dependent as residential and semi-residential referred to Yasuj addiction recovery centers. 40 patients were selected by convenience sampling and randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. The instrument used in this study included Beck Depression Inventory which depressed patients diagnosed and according to clinical interview they entered the study. Group cognitive Hypnotherapy intervention model was carried out on the experimental group for 8 sessions for one hour once a week, but there was no intervention on control group. After the intervention both experimental and control groups were assessed. Collected   data was analyzed using covariance analysis. Results: The results revealed that the cognitive hypnotherapy treatment of group, leading to depression reduced significantly in the experimental group compared control group significantly (p <0.001. The mean pre-test score of major depression in the experimental group and in control group was 39/5 ± 10/54 and 61/4 ± 20/52 respectively.  Whereas the mean and standard deviation of major depression and post-test scores in the experimental group 55/2 ± 05/25 and in the control group was 50/3 ± 55/51. Conclusion: Cognitive hypnotherapy can be used as adjunctive therapy in reducing major depression or used in addiction recovery centers.

  14. Residential segregation and the health of African-American infants: does the effect vary by prevalence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyarko, Kwame A; Wehby, George L

    2012-10-01

    Segregation effects may vary between areas (e.g., counties) of low and high low birth weight (LBW; birth (PTB; rates due to interactions with area differences in risks and resources. We assess whether the effects of residential segregation on county-level LBW and PTB rates for African-American infants vary by the prevalence of these conditions. The study sample includes 368 counties of 100,000 or more residents and at least 50 African-American live births in 2000. Residentially segregated counties are identified alternatively by county-level dissimilarity and isolation indices. Quantile regression is used to assess how residential segregation affects the entire distributions of county-level LBW and PTB rates (i.e. by prevalence). Residential segregation increases LBW and PTB rates significantly in areas of low prevalence, but has no such effects for areas of high prevalence. As a sensitivity analysis, we use metropolitan statistical area level data and obtain similar results. Our findings suggest that residential segregation has adverse effects mainly in areas of low prevalence of LBW and preterm birth, which are expected overall to have fewer risk factors and more resources for infant health, but not in high prevalence areas, which are expected to have more risk factors and fewer resources. Residential policies aimed at area resource improvements may be more effective.

  15. Identifying Cost-Effective Residential Energy Efficiency Opportunities for the Kauai Island Utility Cooperative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busche, S.; Hockett, S.

    2010-06-01

    This analysis is an update to the 2005 Energy Efficiency Potential Study completed by KEMA for the Kauai Island Utility Cooperative (KIUC) and identifies potential energy efficiency opportunities in the residential sector on Kauai (KEMA 2005). The Total Resource Cost (TRC) test is used to determine which of the energy efficiency measures analyzed in the KEMA report are cost effective for KIUC to include in a residential energy efficiency program. This report finds that there remains potential energy efficiency savings that could be cost-effectively incentivized through a utility residential demand-side management program on Kauai if implemented in such a way that the program costs per measure are consistent with the current residential program costs.

  16. The Effect of Income on Job Satisfaction and Residential Satisfaction: a Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Bahare Fallahi, Aida Mehrad

    2015-01-01

    The aim of present literature review paper is to identify vital role of income on the amount of job satisfaction and residential satisfaction. The findings of this study express that these two inner feeling factors have fundamental role on individual€™s life. In addition, this study focused on value of income and its effect on job satisfaction and residential satisfaction. Moreover, low levels of income leads to various difficulties such as low level of job satisfaction and decrease of reside...

  17. Optimal tariff design under consumer self-selection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raesaenen, M.; Ruusunen, J.; Haemaelaeinen, R.

    1995-12-31

    This report considers the design of electricity tariffs which guides an individual consumer to select the tariff designed for his consumption pattern. In the model the utility maximizes the weighted sum of individual consumers` benefits of electricity consumption subject to the utility`s revenue requirement constraints. The consumers` free choice of tariffs is ensured with the so-called self-selection constraints. The relationship between the consumers` optimal choice of tariffs and the weights in the aggregated consumers` benefit function is analyzed. If such weights exist, they will guarantee both the consumers` optimal choice of tariffs and the efficient consumption patterns. Also the welfare effects are analyzed by using demand parameters estimated from a Finnish dynamic pricing experiment. The results indicate that it is possible to design an efficient tariff menu with the welfare losses caused by the self-selection constraints being small compared with the costs created when some consumers choose tariffs other than assigned for them. (author)

  18. Effects of the Residential Environment on Health in Japan Linked with Travel Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez Barbosa, David; Zhang, Junyi; Seya, Hajime

    2016-02-03

    This paper aims to clarify how the residential environment is associated with overall health-related quality of life (QOL) via active travel (walking and cycling), by reflecting the influence of different trip purposes in Japan. The health-related QOL includes physical, mental, and social dimensions. For this study we implemented a questionnaire survey in 20 cities in Japan in 2010 and obtained valid answers from 1202 respondents. The residential environment is defined in terms of distances to and densities of different daily facilities extracted from both the survey and external GIS data. We found that the effects of residential environment on active travel behavior are mixed and limited, depending on types of trip makers. Unexpectedly, travel behavior has no direct effects on the health-related QOL. The residential environment, which is only observed indirectly via lifestyle habits for commuters, has limited effects on health. As for noncommuters, neither their travel behavior nor the residential environment influences their health-related QOL.

  19. Evaluating effects of residential treatment for juvenile offenders by statistical metaanalysis : A review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Grietens, H; Hellinckx, W

    Statistical metaanalyses on the effects of residential treatment for juvenile offenders were reviewed to examine the mean effect sizes and reductions of recidivism reported for this group. Five metaanalyses (three on North American and two on European studies) were selected and synthesized in a

  20. The effects of the urban built environment on the spatial distribution of lead in residential soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, K.; Pickett, Steward T.A.; Lathrop, Richard G.; Weathers, Kathleen C.; Pouyat, Richard V.; Cadenasso, Mary L.

    2012-01-01

    Lead contamination of urban residential soils is a public health concern. Consequently, there is a need to delineate hotspots in the landscape to identify risk and facilitate remediation. Land use is a good predictor of some environmental pollutants. However, in the case of soil lead, research has shown that land use is not a useful proxy. We hypothesize that soil lead is related to both individual landscape features at the parcel scale and the landscape context in which parcels are embedded. We sampled soil lead on 61 residential parcels in Baltimore, Maryland using field-portable x-ray fluorescence. Thirty percent of parcels had average lead concentrations that exceeded the USEPA limit of 400 ppm and 53% had at least one reading that exceeded 400 ppm. Results indicate that soil lead is strongly associated with housing age, distance to roadways, and on a parcel scale, distance to built structures. - Highlights: ► We investigated the effect of landscape heterogeneity on lead in residential soil. ► Landscape heterogeneity was considered at two different spatial scales. ► We sampled soil lead on residential parcels using field-portable x-ray fluorescence. ► Soil lead was associated with housing age and distance to roadways and buildings. ► Research has implications for land planning, health policies and predictive models. - We investigated the influence of landscape heterogeneity on lead in residential soil using x-ray fluorescence and identified important correlations with elements of urban land cover.

  1. Effects of Heterogeneity in Residential Preferences on an Agent-Based Model of Urban Sprawl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel G. Brown

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability of agent-based models (ABMs to represent heterogeneity in the characteristics and behaviors of actors enables analyses about the implications of this heterogeneity for system behavior. The importance of heterogeneity in the specification of ABMs, however, creates new demands for empirical support. An earlier analysis of a survey of residential preferences within southeastern Michigan revealed seven groups of residents with similar preferences on similar characteristics of location. In this paper, we present an ABM that represents the process of residential development within an urban system and run it for a hypothetical pattern of environmental variation. Residential locations are selected by residential agents, who evaluate locations on the basis of preference for nearness to urban services, including jobs, aesthetic quality of the landscape, and their similarity to their neighbors. We populate our ABM with a population of residential preferences drawn from the survey results in five different ways: (1 preferences drawn at random; (2 equal preferences based on the mean from the entire survey sample; (3 preferences drawn from a single distribution, whose mean and standard deviation are derived from the survey sample; (4 equal preferences within each of seven groups, based on the group means; and (5 preferences drawn from distributions for each of seven groups, defined by group means and standard deviations. Model sensitivity analysis, based on multiple runs of our model under each case, revealed that adding heterogeneity to agents has a significant effect on model outcomes, measured by aggregate patterns of development sprawl and clustering.

  2. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for the District of Columbia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in the District of Columbia. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2013 Washington DC Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in the District of Columbia.

  3. The Design of an Effective Family Reintegration and Aftercare Program for Youth Successfully Leaving Residential Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roley, Jeffrey H.

    The lack of support services following the release of adolescent youths from a residential treatment center back to their families is examined in this practicum. Consequently, the development of a family reintegration program for the treatment center is focused on the concept that effective aftercare begins at intake. Understandably, families…

  4. Effectiveness of the cigarette ignition propensity standard in preventing unintentional residential fires in Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, Hillel R; Christiani, David C; Orav, E John; Dockery, Douglas W; Connolly, Gregory N

    2014-04-01

    We evaluated the Massachusetts Fire Safe Cigarette Law's (FSCL's) effectiveness in preventing residential fires. We examined unintentional residential fires reported to the Massachusetts Fire Incident Reporting System from 2004 to 2010. We analyzed FSCL effect on the likelihood of cigarette- versus noncigarette-caused fires and effect modification by fire scenario factors by using an interrupted time series regression model. We analyzed the effect of FSCL on monthly fire rates with Poisson regression. Cigarettes caused 1629 unintentional residential fires during the study period. The FSCL was associated with a 28% (95% confidence interval = 12%, 41%) reduction in the odds of cigarette- versus noncigarette-caused fires, although not in analyses restricted to casualty fires, with smaller sample size. The largest reductions were among fires in which human factors were involved; that were first ignited on furniture, bedding, or soft goods; that occurred in living areas; or that occurred in the summer or winter. The FSCL appears to have decreased the likelihood of cigarette-caused residential fires, particularly in scenarios for which the ignition propensity standard was developed. Current standards should be adopted, and the need for strengthening should be considered.

  5. The effects of utility cost reduction on residential energy consumption in Hungary – a decomposition analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tekla Sebestyén Szép

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The residential energy consumption is influenced by a lot of factors. Understanding and calculating these factors is essential to making conscious energy policy decisions and feedbacks. Since 2013 the energy prices for households have been controlled by the government in Hungary and as a result of the utility cost reduction program a sharp decline can be observed in residential electricity, district heating and natural gas prices. This paper applies the LMDI (~Logarithmic Mean Division Index method to decompose the absolute change of the residential energy consumption during the period of 2010-2015. We calculate the price, the intensive structure (it means the change of energy expenditure share on energy sources, the extensive structure (it is in connection with the change of energy expenditure share in total expenditure, expenditure (it is the change of per capita total expenditure and population effect. All of that shows the impact of the specific factor on the residential energy consumption by income deciles. Our results have verified the preliminary expectations: the decreasing energy prices for households have a positive impact on energy use and it has been strengthened by the expenditure effect as well. However, the intensive structure, the extensive structure and the population effect have largely offset it.

  6. The effect of economic factors and energy efficiency programs on residential electricity consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Mihoko

    Many countries have implemented policies to correct market and behavioral failures that lead to inefficient energy use. It is important to know what factors and policies can effectively overcome such failures and improve energy efficiency; however, a comprehensive analysis has been difficult because of data limitations. Using state scores compiled by American organizations recently, and adopting fixed-effects regression models, I analyze the joint impacts of relevant factors and policy programs on residential electricity consumption in each U.S. state. The empirical results reveal that increases in electricity price have small and negative effects, and increases in personal income have positive effects on residential electricity sales per capita (a measure of energy efficiency). The results suggest that it may take time for economic factors to affect electricity sales. The effects of personal income suggest the difficulty of controlling residential electricity consumption; however, they also imply that there is some room in households to reduce electricity use. The study also finds that programs and budgets of several policies seem to be associated with electricity sales. The estimates from a model including interaction terms suggest the importance of including multiple policies when analyzing and designing policies to address electricity efficiency. The results also imply the possibility of rebound effects of some policies, whereby improvements in energy efficiency lead to increases in energy consumption due to the associated lower per unit cost. Future studies should analyze both short-term and long-term effects of economic factors and policies, based on improved and accumulated time series and panel data, in order to design more effective policies for improving residential electricity efficiency.

  7. Serial Entrepreneurship, Learning by Doing and Self-selection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocha, Vera; Carneiro, Anabela; Varum, Celeste

    2015-01-01

    of the person-specific effect, using information on individuals’ past histories in paid employment, confirm that serial entrepreneurs exhibit, on average, a larger person-specific effect than non-serial business owners. Moreover, ignoring serial entrepreneurs’ self-selection overestimates learning by doing......It remains a question whether serial entrepreneurs typically perform better than their novice counterparts owing to learning by doing effects or mostly because they are a selected sample of higher-than-average ability entrepreneurs. This paper tries to unravel these two effects by exploring a novel...... empirical strategy based on continuous time duration models with selection. We use a large longitudinal matched employer-employee dataset that allows us to identify about 220,000 individuals who have left their first entrepreneurial experience, out of which over 35,000 became serial entrepreneurs. We...

  8. Transport attitudes, residential preferences, and urban form effects on cycling and car use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Transport attitudes, residential preferences, and urban form effects on cycling and car use. Promotion of walking and cycling is part of policies at multiple levels and reasoned in public health as well as environmental sustainability outcomes. Urban form and neighborhood characteristics are thou....... Reduced car use seems to require a high degree of convenience of not driving – by means of very short, walkable distances to services...

  9. Modeling of Residential Water Demand Using Random Effect Model,Case Study: Arak City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hossein Sajadifar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study tries to apply the “Partial Adjustment Model” and “Random Effect Model” techniques to the Stone-Greay’s linear expenditure system, in order to estimate the "Residential Seasonal Demand" for water in Arak city. Per capita water consumption of family residences is regressed on marginal price, per capita income, price of other goods, average temperature and average rainfall. Panel data approaches based on a sample of 152 observations from Arak city referred to 1993-2003. From the estimation of the Elasticity-price of the residential water demand, we want to know how a policy of responsive pricing can lead to more efficient household water consumption inArakcity. Results also indicated that summer price elasticity was twice the winter and price and income elasticity was less than 1 in all cases.

  10. The effect of residential choice on the travel distance and the implications for sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eka Putra, Kaspan

    2018-03-01

    For Medan citizens, the choice of residence location depends on the ability to buy a house. House price is determined by the price of land where the housing is located. The more to the edge of the city the location of a house, then the price will be lower. So that the suburbs of Medan become the residential choice for the citizens of low-income. The residential choice will affect the distance of the journey to the workplace. This study analyzed the effect of residential choice on the travel distance and the implications for the implementation of sustainable development. The data used in this study is the primary data obtained through the survey held in Medan. The research approach is quantitative with the data analysis technique of Structural Equation Model (SEM). The results show that low-income citizens tend to choose the location of suburbs, while they work in the urban area. The location of the residence affects the daily travel distance is very high. The travel distance that is the very high effect the use of private vehicle mode. The use of private vehicles for long travel distance requires a huge energy. The use of very high fuel oils is a waste of energy and can increase air pollution. This is not in accordance with the concept of sustainable development.

  11. Use of Geographically Weighted Regression (GWR Method to Estimate the Effects of Location Attributes on the Residential Property Values

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Faris Dziauddin

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This study estimates the effect of locational attributes on residential property values in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Geographically weighted regression (GWR enables the use of the local parameter rather than the global parameter to be estimated, with the results presented in map form. The results of this study reveal that residential property values are mainly determined by the property’s physical (structural attributes, but proximity to locational attributes also contributes marginally. The use of GWR in this study is considered a better approach than other methods to examine the effect of locational attributes on residential property values. GWR has the capability to produce meaningful results in which different locational attributes have differential spatial effects across a geographical area on residential property values. This method has the ability to determine the factors on which premiums depend, and in turn it can assist the government in taxation matters.

  12. Measuring the Externality Effects of Commercial Land Use on Residential Land Value: A Case Study of Seoul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Jin Yang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Two contrasting theories purport to explain the effects of neighborhood non-residential use on residential property values. In traditional zoning theory, separating land from commercial land use is considered to protect residential environments from negative externalities such as noise, litter, and congestion. By contrast, contemporary planning principles including Smart Growth emphasize positive impacts of mixed land use on residential environment, which lead to more walkable and sustainable communities. This study attempts to empirically investigate how positive and negative externalities of commercial land use, referred to as “proximity effects” and “disamenity effects” respectively, affect residential land values. Using data gathered in Seoul, we pay attention to two particular aspects of commercial land use: spatial concentration and neighborhood scale. Spatial concentration is determined by the number of commercial employees present in the buffer zone around an individual residential parcel. We model four geographically distinct neighborhood scales as we compare spatial concentrations in and across commercial zones. Quadratic regression analyses of our data show the trade-off relationship that a higher spatial concentration of commercial land use in a neighborhood initially results in increased residential land values, but drops off beyond a threshold level by excessive noise or crowding.

  13. Modeling the Temperature Effect of Orientations in Residential Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabahat Arif

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Indoor thermal comfort in a building has been an important issue for the environmental sustainability. It is an accepted fact that their designs and planning consume a lot of energy in the modern architecture of 20th and 21st centuries. An appropriate orientation of a building can provide thermally comfortable indoor temperatures which otherwise can consume extra energy to condition these spaces through all the seasons. This experimental study investigates the potential effect of this solar passive design strategy on indoor temperatures and a simple model is presented for predicting indoor temperatures based upon the ambient temperatures.

  14. Response of residential electricity demand to price: The effect of measurement error

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberini, Anna; Filippini, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present an empirical analysis of the residential demand for electricity using annual aggregate data at the state level for 48 US states from 1995 to 2007. Earlier literature has examined residential energy consumption at the state level using annual or monthly data, focusing on the variation in price elasticities of demand across states or regions, but has failed to recognize or address two major issues. The first is that, when fitting dynamic panel models, the lagged consumption term in the right-hand side of the demand equation is endogenous. This has resulted in potentially inconsistent estimates of the long-run price elasticity of demand. The second is that energy price is likely mismeasured. To address these issues, we estimate a dynamic partial adjustment model using the Kiviet corrected Least Square Dummy Variables (LSDV) (1995) and the Blundell-Bond (1998) estimators. We find that the long-term elasticities produced by the Blundell-Bond system GMM methods are largest, and that from the bias-corrected LSDV are greater than that from the conventional LSDV. From an energy policy point of view, the results obtained using the Blundell-Bond estimator where we instrument for price imply that a carbon tax or other price-based policy may be effective in discouraging residential electricity consumption and hence curbing greenhouse gas emissions in an electricity system mainly based on coal and gas power plants. - Research Highlights: → Updated information on price elasticities for the US energy policy. → Taking into account measurement error in the price variable increase price elasticity. → Room for discouraging residential electricity consumption using price increases.

  15. Preventive Effect of Residential Green Space on Infantile Atopic Dermatitis Associated with Prenatal Air Pollution Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji-Young; Lamichhane, Dirga Kumar; Lee, Myeongjee; Ye, Shinhee; Kwon, Jung-Hyun; Park, Myung-Sook; Kim, Hwan-Cheol; Leem, Jong-Han; Hong, Yun-Chul; Kim, Yangho; Ha, Mina; Ha, Eunhee

    2018-01-09

    Few birth cohort studies have examined the role of traffic-related air pollution (TRAP) in the development of infantile atopic dermatitis (AD), but none have investigated the role of preventive factors such as green spaces. The aim of this study was to investigate whether exposure to nitrogen dioxide (NO₂) and particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of Health study. Subjects were geocoded to their residential addresses and matched with air pollution data modeled using land-use regression. Information on infantile AD was obtained by using a questionnaire administered to the parents or guardians of the children. The association between infantile AD and exposure to NO₂ and PM 10 was determined using logistic regression models. We assessed the effects of residential green spaces using stratified analyses and by entering product terms into the logistic regression models. The risk of infantile AD significantly increased with an increase in air pollution exposure during the first trimester of pregnancy. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were 1.219 (1.023-1.452) per 10 μg/m³ increase in PM 10 and 1.353 (1.027-1.782) per 10 ppb increase in NO₂. An increase in the green space within 200 m of residence was associated with a decreased risk of AD (OR = 0.996, 95% CI: 0.993-0.999). The stratified analysis of residential green space revealed stronger associations between infantile AD and PM 10 and NO₂ exposure during the first trimester in the areas in the lower tertiles of green space. This study indicated that exposure to TRAP during the first trimester of pregnancy is associated with infantile AD. Less residential green space may intensify the association between TRAP exposure and infantile AD.

  16. Response of residential electricity demand to price: The effect of measurement error

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberini, Anna [Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Maryland (United States); Centre for Energy Policy and Economics (CEPE), ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Gibson Institute and Institute for a Sustainable World, School of Biological Sciences, Queen' s University Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Filippini, Massimo, E-mail: mfilippini@ethz.ch [Centre for Energy Policy and Economics (CEPE), ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Department of Economics, University of Lugano (Switzerland)

    2011-09-15

    In this paper we present an empirical analysis of the residential demand for electricity using annual aggregate data at the state level for 48 US states from 1995 to 2007. Earlier literature has examined residential energy consumption at the state level using annual or monthly data, focusing on the variation in price elasticities of demand across states or regions, but has failed to recognize or address two major issues. The first is that, when fitting dynamic panel models, the lagged consumption term in the right-hand side of the demand equation is endogenous. This has resulted in potentially inconsistent estimates of the long-run price elasticity of demand. The second is that energy price is likely mismeasured. To address these issues, we estimate a dynamic partial adjustment model using the Kiviet corrected Least Square Dummy Variables (LSDV) (1995) and the Blundell-Bond (1998) estimators. We find that the long-term elasticities produced by the Blundell-Bond system GMM methods are largest, and that from the bias-corrected LSDV are greater than that from the conventional LSDV. From an energy policy point of view, the results obtained using the Blundell-Bond estimator where we instrument for price imply that a carbon tax or other price-based policy may be effective in discouraging residential electricity consumption and hence curbing greenhouse gas emissions in an electricity system mainly based on coal and gas power plants. - Research Highlights: > Updated information on price elasticities for the US energy policy. > Taking into account measurement error in the price variable increase price elasticity. > Room for discouraging residential electricity consumption using price increases.

  17. Registered Indian Children's School Success and Intergenerational Effects of Residential Schooling in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sacha Senécal

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Using the 2006 Aboriginal Peoples Survey, this study investigates factors associated with school success (as perceived by parents among off-reserve Registered Indian children aged 6 to 14 in Canada. Holding other factors constant, Registered Indian children were more likely to be doing well at school if they were living in households with high income, were living in adequately maintained dwellings, or spoke an Aboriginal language at home. Boys and older children, on the other hand, were less likely to be doing well at school, as were children who were living in larger households, experienced food insecurity, or had parents who attended residential school. Mediation analyses revealed that the negative intergenerational effect of parental residential schooling on children’s school success was partially attributable to household characteristics or economic status. Indeed, former residential school attendees were found to be more likely to live in households with a lower income, live in larger households, and report that their family had experienced food insecurity. These characteristics were, in turn, found to be negatively associated with children’s school success.

  18. The effects of landscaping on the residential cooling energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misni, A.

    2018-02-01

    This paper examines the effectiveness of landscaping on the air-conditioning energy saving of houses in a tropical environment. This case study involved looking at the construction and landscaping of three single-family houses in three sections of Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia. The houses ranged in age from 5 to 30 years old, which provided different examples of construction and maturity levels of the surrounding landscaping. Landscaping affects the thermal performance as well as on the air-conditioning energy of houses, in how it provides shade, channels wind, and evapotranspiration. While the construction of the three houses was similar, they were different in size and design, including their landscape design. These houses were chosen because they are representative of single-family tropical houses and landscaping styles in Malaysia since 30 years ago. Three houses were chosen; the 30-year-old house, the 10-year-old house, and the 5-year-old house. In a tropical country, landscaping is used to reduce the effects of the hot and humid climate. The houses spent 15-45% of the electricity cost on cooling. These results were influenced by human factors and the surrounding landscaping. Every type of vegetation, such as trees, grass, shrubs, groundcover, and turf, contributes to reducing air temperatures near the house and providing evaporative cooling.

  19. Remotely-Sensed Detection of Foreclosure Effects on Residential Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutts, B.; Minn, M.; Pavlovic, N. R.; Greenberg, J. A.; Fraterrigo, J.; Turner, V. K.

    2014-12-01

    This project aims to understand whether the foreclosure crisis of 2007-2010 led to change in yard management with consequences for property and neighborhood land cover. By triangulating across analyses that vary in spatial and temporal resolution, this study examines whether foreclosure has resulted in changes in household and neighborhood vegetation structure. One common hypothesis is that the of financial distress is a reduction in lawn management (mowing, irrigating, and fertilizing ) due to economic constraint, vacancy or abandonment. However, changes in these practices differ across space as they are mediated by individual idiosyncrasies as well as complex social norms encoded in formal and informal institutions. The aim of our broader research project is to gain understanding of how foreclosure changes yard management within the context of these institutions. This poster presents preliminary results of analyses that aim to understand the relationship between foreclosure and land cover change in Maricopa County (Phoenix), Arizona. We synthesize foreclosure data with other social data sources focused on demographics, property characteristics, and vacancy to quantify both general and spatially dependent signatures of foreclosure in remotely-sensed NDVI data from MODIS and LANDSAT. Through results from multiple sources of data, we aim to isolate and describe signals that can be correlated with housing distress and foreclosure-induced vacancy. Arizona is analytically advantageous as area with an arid climate where the vegetation changes resulting from cessation of lawn maintenance are often dramatic and clearly observable. Our preliminary analysis indicates that there are specific NDVI signatures reflecting differing landscape-maintenance responses to foreclosure, supporting our central thesis that foreclosure influences land cover. These results provide a foundation upon which we will engage in both detailed investigation of the environmental effects of this

  20. Inducing self-selected human engagement in robotic locomotion training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Steven H; Jackson, Rachel W

    2013-06-01

    Stroke leads to severe mobility impairments for millions of individuals each year. Functional outcomes can be improved through manual treadmill therapy, but high costs limit patient exposure and, thereby, outcomes. Robotic gait training could increase the viable duration and frequency of training sessions, but robotic approaches employed thus far have been less effective than manual therapy. These shortcomings may relate to subconscious energy-minimizing drives, which might cause patients to engage less actively in therapy when provided with corrective robotic assistance. We have devised a new method for gait rehabilitation that harnesses, rather than fights, least-effort tendencies. Therapeutic goals, such as increased use of the paretic limb, are made easier than the patient's nominal gait through selective assistance from a robotic platform. We performed a pilot test on a healthy subject (N = 1) in which altered self-selected stride length was induced using a tethered robotic ankle-foot orthosis. The subject first walked on a treadmill while wearing the orthosis with and without assistance at unaltered and voluntarily altered stride length. Voluntarily increasing stride length by 5% increased metabolic energy cost by 4%. Robotic assistance decreased energy cost at both unaltered and voluntarily increased stride lengths, by 6% and 8% respectively. We then performed a test in which the robotic system continually monitored stride length and provided more assistance if the subject's stride length approached a target increase. This adaptive assistance protocol caused the subject to slowly adjust their gait patterns towards the target, leading to a 4% increase in stride length. Metabolic energy consumption was simultaneously reduced by 5%. These results suggest that selective-assistance protocols based on targets relevant to rehabilitation might lead patients to self-select desirable gait patterns during robotic gait training sessions, possibly facilitating better

  1. Solar Community Organizations and active peer effects in the adoption of residential PV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noll, Daniel; Dawes, Colleen; Rai, Varun

    2014-01-01

    Solar Community Organizations (SCOs) are formal or informal organizations and citizen groups that help to reduce the barriers to the adoption of residential solar photovoltaic (PV) by (1) providing access to credible and transparent information about the localized benefits of residential PV and (2) actively campaigning to encourage adoption within their operational boundaries. We study the peer effect, or social interaction, process catalyzed by SCOs to understand the impact of these organizations on the residential PV market. Using a standardized search methodology across spatial scales (state; city; neighborhoods), we identify and characterize the operations of 228 SCOs formed in the U.S. between 1970 and 2012. We also present case studies of four successful SCOs and find that a common thread of why these SCOs are successful involves effectively leveraging trusted community networks combined with putting together a complete information and financial-tools package for use by interested communities. Finally, our findings suggest that empirical studies that attempt statistical identification and estimation of peer effects should pay close attention to the role of SCOs, as the social interactions engendered by SCOs may be correlated both with the level of social learning and the socio-demographic characteristics of the communities of interest. - Highlights: • New dataset on Solar Community Organizations (SCOs) in the U.S. during 1970–2012. • Shock events catalyze formation of SCOs. • SCOs-driven peer effects found to positively impact PV adoption. • Leveraging trust networks is crucial for the success of SCOs. • In addition to information provision, financing options also key for SCOs' success

  2. The Effect of Residential Concentration on Voter Turnout among Ethnic Minorities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatti, Yosef; Hansen, Kasper Møller

    2016-01-01

    Utilizing a large and unique dataset composed of government records, we study the widely contested effect of co-ethnic residential concentrations on voter turnout. Non-Western immigrants are moderately affected by the concentration of co-ethnic voters in their neighborhoods. As the local concentr......Utilizing a large and unique dataset composed of government records, we study the widely contested effect of co-ethnic residential concentrations on voter turnout. Non-Western immigrants are moderately affected by the concentration of co-ethnic voters in their neighborhoods. As the local...... concentration of same-ethnicity voters increases, so does the individual's propensity to turn out for the election. In general, the concentration of non-Western immigrants in the neighborhood has only a very limited impact on an immigrant's propensity to vote. Finally, we investigate the possible mobilizing...... effect of local candidates and, in particular, local co-ethnic candidates on voter turnout. We find that the presence of candidates in general and co-ethnic candidates running for office in a neighborhood has a moderate positive mobilization effect. However, taking this factor into account, the effect...

  3. Investigating the effect of banning non-reduced ignition propensity cigarettes on fatal residential fires in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonander, Carl M; Jonsson, Anders P; Nilson, Finn T

    2016-04-01

    Annually, 100 people die as a result of residential fires in Sweden and almost a third of the fatal fires are known to be caused by smoking. In an attempt to reduce the occurrence of these events, reduced ignition propensity (RIP) cigarettes have been developed. They are designed to reduce the risk of fire by preventing the cigarette from burning through the full length when left unattended. In November 2011, a ban was introduced, forbidding the production and sale of all non-RIP cigarettes in all member states of the European Union, including Sweden. Monthly data on all recorded residential fires and associated fatalities in Sweden from January 2000 to December 2013 were analyzed using an interrupted time series design. The effect of the intervention [in relative risk (RR)] was quantified using generalised additive models for location, shape and scale. There were no statistically significant intervention effects on residential fires (RR 0.95 [95% CI: 0.89-1.01]), fatal residential fires (RR 0.99 [95% CI: 0.80-1.23]), residential fires where smoking was a known cause (RR 1.10 [95% CI: 0.95-1.28]) or fatal residential fires where smoking was a known cause (RR 0.92 [95% CI: 0.63-1.35]). No evidence of an effect of the ban on all non-RIP cigarettes on the risk of residential fires in Sweden was found. The results may not be generalisable to other countries. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  4. Effects on residential property values of proximity to a site contaminated with radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, B.A.; Olshansky, S.J.; Segel, T.E.

    1985-01-01

    An issue often raised by the public regarding waste sites is whether distance from these sites affects residential property values. Previous research has studied changes in the housing market in communities near Three Mile Island after the 1979 accident and after the 1979 accident and legal precedents of compensation for loss of property value because of proximity to hazardous areas. However, this research has not addressed effects on residential property values of proximity specifically to hazardous chemical or radioactive waste sites. The effects of the proximity of residences to such a site in West Chicago, Illinois - used for many years for disposal of thorium waste from processing ores - were investigated in this study. Sales of single-family residences located within about 0.4 km and 1.6 km from the site. Trends in average annual selling prices were analyzed both before and after publicity appeared about the existence of the radioactive material at the site. Results indicate that older residences (built before 1950) located within about 0.4 km of the disposal site experienced a prolonged depression in selling prices after the publicity in comparison with older residences located farther from the site and with all transactions on newer residences. These results confirm to some extent public perceptions and potentially raise legal issues associated with property values. Suggestions are provided for mitigative measures to alleviate these issues

  5. Natural Ventilation Effectiveness of Round Wall-Mounted Vent Caps in Residential Kitchens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Pin Lin

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This study explores the effect of different numbers of wall-mounted vent caps and their installation locations on the indoor air environment in residential kitchens, for which limited information is available. Wind tunnel tests were performed to study the induced ventilation rates of a vent cap, and the impact of vent caps on the natural ventilation efficiency in residential kitchens was examined using computational fluid dynamics (CFD numerical simulations. The results were then applied to determine the appropriate quantity of vent caps and their proper installation location. The wind tunnel test results indicated that outdoor winds with speeds of 0–6 m/s that flow parallel to the wall with a vent cap induce indoor air to exit through the cap with ventilation rates of 0–20 m3/h; when the wind blows perpendicular to the wall, outdoor air with 0–31.9 m3/h flows indoors. CFD numerical simulations showed that the installation of kitchen vent caps can reduce the average carbon monoxide concentration in the cook’s breathing zone. A sufficient quantity of vent caps and the proper installation location are required to ensure the natural ventilation effectiveness of wall-mounted vent caps.

  6. Effects on residential property values of proximity to a site contaminated with radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Payne, B.A.; Olshansky, S.J.; Segel, T.E.

    1985-01-01

    An issue often raised by the public regarding projects that involve hazardous chemical or radioactive waste sites is whether distance from these sites affects residential property values. Previous research has studied changes in the housing market in communities near Three Mile Island after the 1979 accident and legal precedents of compensation for loss of property value because of proximity to hazardous areas. However, this research has not addressed effects on residential property values of proximity specifically to hazardous chemical or radioactive waste sites. The effects of the proximity of residence to such a site in West Chicago, Illinois - used for many years for disposal of thorium waste from processing ores - were investigated in this study. Single-family residence sales located within about 0.4 km of the West Chicago site were compared with residence sales located between 0.4 km and 1.6 km from the site. Trends in average annual selling prices were analyzed both before and after publicity appeared about the existence of the radioactive material at the site. Results indiate that older residences (built before 1950) located within about 0.4 km of the disposal site experienced a prolonged depression in selling prices after the publicity, in comparison with older residences located farther from the site and with all transactions on newer residences. These results confirm to some extent public perceptions and potentially raise legal issues associated with property values. Suggestions are provided for mitigative measures to alleviate these issues. 22 references, 1 figure

  7. Energy Impacts of Effective Range Hood Use for all U.S. Residential Cooking

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Logue, Jennifer M; Singer, Brett

    2014-06-01

    Range hood use during residential cooking is essential to maintaining good indoor air quality. However, widespread use will impact the energy demand of the U.S. housing stock. This paper describes a modeling study to determine site energy, source energy, and consumer costs for comprehensive range hood use. To estimate the energy impacts for all 113 million homes in the U.S., we extrapolated from the simulation of a representative weighted sample of 50,000 virtual homes developed from the 2009 Residential Energy Consumption Survey database. A physics-based simulation model that considered fan energy, energy to condition additional incoming air, and the effect on home heating and cooling due to exhausting the heat from cooking was applied to each home. Hoods performing at a level common to hoods currently in U.S. homes would require 19?33 TWh [69?120 PJ] of site energy, 31?53 TWh [110-190 PJ] of source energy; and would cost consumers $1.2?2.1 billion (U.S.$2010) annually in the U.S. housing stock. The average household would spend less than $15 annually. Reducing required airflow, e.g. with designs that promote better pollutant capture has more energy saving potential, on average, than improving fan efficiency.

  8. Modelling weather effects for impact analysis of residential time-of-use electricity pricing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, Reid; Golab, Lukasz; Rosenberg, Catherine

    2017-01-01

    Analyzing the impact of pricing policies such as time-of-use (TOU) is challenging in the presence of confounding factors such as weather. Motivated by a lack of consensus and model selection details in prior work, we present a methodology for modelling the effect of weather on residential electricity demand. The best model is selected according to explanatory power, out-of-sample prediction accuracy, goodness of fit and interpretability. We then evaluate the effect of mandatory TOU pricing in a local distribution company in southwestern Ontario, Canada. We use a smart meter dataset of over 20,000 households which is particularly suited to our analysis: it contains data from the summer before and after the implementation of TOU pricing in November 2011, and all customers transitioned from tiered rates to TOU rates at the same time. We find that during the summer rate season, TOU pricing results in electricity conservation across all price periods. The average demand change during on-peak and mid-peak periods is −2.6% and −2.4% respectively. Changes during off-peak periods are not statistically significant. These TOU pricing effects are less pronounced compared to previous studies, underscoring the need for clear, reproducible impact analyses which include full details about the model selection process. - Highlights: • We study models for the effect of weather on residential electricity demand. • We evaluate the effect of mandatory TOU pricing in a local distribution company in Ontario, Canada. • We find the effect of TOU pricing to be less pronounced compared to previous studies.

  9. Potential Settlement Due to Seismic Effects in the Residential Area of Ilgin (Konya, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Ozdemir

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ilgin lies on newly formed, loose, granular deposits, and there is a substantial risk for surface liquefaction and foundation settlements due to the seismic effects resulting from groundwater close to the surface. This study evaluates potential settlement due to seismic effects in the residential areas of Ilgin using the Standard Penetration Test (SPT performed on 45 geotechnical bores. In Turkey, where earthquakes occur frequently, the selection of residential areas is of great importance. In this research, the number of settlements was calculated considering an earthquake having a Local Magnitude of 6 (i.e., ML ≥ 6.0 and a ≥ 0.4 g under a 0.4 g seismic force, and a potential settlement map of the residential area was prepared. The amount of settlement exceeds 20 cm at locations near Ilgin Lake and in the northern section of Ilgin residential areas; downtown, the settlement ranges from 10-20 cm. The settlements presented here exceed the allowable threshold limits for structures constructed using adobe and brick in this district. Thus, improvements to minimize earthquake-induced damages are required for structures in Ilgin. Moreover, the selection of new residential areas, along with the proper design of the structures before construction, should be examined further to avoid ground liquefaction and structure damage due to settlement.    Resumen La localidad de Ilgin está ubicada sobre depósitos recién formados, granulares y no compactos, por lo que existe un riesgo sustancial de licuefacción de la superficie y la creación de asentamientos o deslizamientos debido a los efectos sísmicos resultantes del agua subterránea poco profunda. Este artículo evalúa el potencial de asentamiento debido a los efectos sísmicos en las áreas residenciales de Ilgin a través del Ensayo de Penetración Estándar (SPT, en inglés realizado en 45 perforaciones geotécnicas. En Turquía, donde los terremotos ocurren frecuentemente, la selección de

  10. Gender Differences in the Effect of Residential Segregation on Workplace Segregation among Newly Arrived Immigrants

    OpenAIRE

    Tammaru, Tiit; Strömgren, Magnus; van Ham, Maarten; Danzer, Alexander M.

    2015-01-01

    Contemporary cities are becoming more and more diverse in population as a result of immigration. Research also shows that within cities residential neighborhoods are becoming ethnically more diverse, but that residential segregation has remained persistently high. High levels of segregation are often seen as negative, preventing integration of immigrants in their host society and having a negative impact on people's lives. Segregation research often focuses on residential neighborhoods, but i...

  11. A Cost-Effective Electric Vehicle Charging Method Designed For Residential Homes with Renewable Energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lie, T. T.; Liang, Xiuli; Haque, M. H.

    2015-03-01

    Most of the electrical infrastructure in use around the world today is decades old, and may be illsuited to widespread proliferation of personal Electric Vehicles (EVs) whose charging requirements will place increasing strain on grid demand. In order to reduce the pressure on the grid and taking benefits of off peak charging, this paper presents a smart and cost effective EV charging methodology for residential homes equipped with renewable energy resources such as Photovoltaic (PV) panels and battery. The proposed method ensures slower battery degradation and prevents overcharging. The performance of the proposed algorithm is verified by conducting simulation studies utilizing running data of Nissan Altra. From the simulation study results, the algorithm is shown to be effective and feasible which minimizes not only the charging cost but also can shift the charging time from peak value to off-peak time.

  12. Short-term residential load forecasting: Impact of calendar effects and forecast granularity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lusis, Peter; Khalilpour, Kaveh Rajab; Andrew, Lachlan

    2017-01-01

    forecasting for a single-customer or even down at an appliance level. Access to high resolution data from smart meters has enabled the research community to assess conventional load forecasting techniques and develop new forecasting strategies suitable for demand-side disaggregated loads. This paper studies...... how calendar effects, forecasting granularity and the length of the training set affect the accuracy of a day-ahead load forecast for residential customers. Root mean square error (RMSE) and normalized RMSE were used as forecast error metrics. Regression trees, neural networks, and support vector...... regression yielded similar average RMSE results, but statistical analysis showed that regression trees technique is significantly better. The use of historical load profiles with daily and weekly seasonality, combined with weather data, leaves the explicit calendar effects a very low predictive power...

  13. Can Programmed or Self-Selected Physical Activity Affect Physical Fitness of Adolescents?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neto Cláudio F.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to verify the effects of programmed and self-selected physical activities on the physical fitness of adolescents. High school adolescents, aged between 15 and 17 years, were divided into two experimental groups: a a self-selected physical activity group (PAS with 55 students (aged 15.7 ± 0.7 years, who performed physical activities with self-selected rhythm at the following sports: basketball, volleyball, handball, futsal and swimming; and b a physical fitness training group (PFT with 53 students (aged 16.0 ± 0.7 years, who performed programmed physical fitness exercises. Both types of activity were developed during 60 min classes. To assess physical fitness the PROESP-BR protocol was used. The statistical analysis was performed by repeated measures ANOVA. The measurements of pre and post-tests showed significantly different values after PFT in: 9 minute running test, medicine ball throw, horizontal jump, abdominal endurance, running speed and flexibility. After PAS differences were detected in abdominal endurance, agility, running speed and flexibility. The intervention with programmed physical activity promoted more changes in the physical abilities; however, in the self-selected program, agility was improved probably because of the practice of sports. Therefore, physical education teachers can use PFT to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and power of lower and upper limbs and PAS to improve agility of high school adolescents.

  14. Can programmed or self-selected physical activity affect physical fitness of adolescents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Cláudio F; Neto, Gabriel R; Araújo, Adenilson T; Sousa, Maria S C; Sousa, Juliana B C; Batista, Gilmário R; Reis, Victor M M R

    2014-09-29

    The aim of this study was to verify the effects of programmed and self-selected physical activities on the physical fitness of adolescents. High school adolescents, aged between 15 and 17 years, were divided into two experimental groups: a) a self-selected physical activity group (PAS) with 55 students (aged 15.7 ± 0.7 years), who performed physical activities with self-selected rhythm at the following sports: basketball, volleyball, handball, futsal and swimming; and b) a physical fitness training group (PFT) with 53 students (aged 16.0 ± 0.7 years), who performed programmed physical fitness exercises. Both types of activity were developed during 60 min classes. To assess physical fitness the PROESP-BR protocol was used. The statistical analysis was performed by repeated measures ANOVA. The measurements of pre and post-tests showed significantly different values after PFT in: 9 minute running test, medicine ball throw, horizontal jump, abdominal endurance, running speed and flexibility. After PAS differences were detected in abdominal endurance, agility, running speed and flexibility. The intervention with programmed physical activity promoted more changes in the physical abilities; however, in the self-selected program, agility was improved probably because of the practice of sports. Therefore, physical education teachers can use PFT to improve cardiorespiratory fitness and power of lower and upper limbs and PAS to improve agility of high school adolescents.

  15. Biomarkers in assessing residential insecticide exposures during pregnancy and effects on fetal growth

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whyatt, R.M.; Camann, D.; Perera, F.P.; Rauh, V.A.; Tang, D; Kinney, P.L.; Garfinkel, R; Andrews, H.; Hoepner, L.; Barr, D.B.

    2005-01-01

    The Columbia Center for Children's Environmental Health is using a combination of environmental and biologic measures to evaluate the effects of prenatal insecticide exposures among urban minorities in New York City. Of the 571 women enrolled, 85% report using some form of pest control during pregnancy and 46% report using exterminators, can sprays, and/or pest bombs. Chlorpyrifos, diazinon, and propoxur were detected in 99.7-100% of 48-h personal air samples collected from the mothers during pregnancy (n = 394) and in 39-70% of blood samples collected from the mothers (n = 326) and/or newborns (n = 341) at delivery. Maternal and newborn blood levels are similar and highly correlated (r = 0.4-08, P 0.8). Results support recent regulatory action to phase out residential uses of these insecticides

  16. Children With Intellectual Disability and Hospice Utilization: The Moderating Effect of Residential Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, Lisa C

    2017-01-01

    Children with intellectual disability commonly lack access to pediatric hospice care services. Residential care may be a critical component in providing access to hospice care for children with intellectual disability. This research tested whether residential care intensifies the relationship between intellectual disability and hospice utilization (ie, hospice enrollment, hospice length of stay), while controlling for demographic characteristics. Multivariate regression analyses were conducted using 2008 to 2010 California Medicaid claims data. The odds of children with intellectual disability in residential care enrolling in hospice care were 3 times higher than their counterparts in their last year of life, when controlling for demographics. Residential care promoted hospice enrollment among children with intellectual disability. The interaction between intellectual disability and residential care was not related to hospice length of stay. Residential care did not attenuate or intensify the relationship between intellectual disability and hospice length of stay. The findings highlight the important role of residential care in facilitating hospice enrollment for children with intellectual disability. More research is needed to understand the capability of residential care staff to identify children with intellectual disability earlier in their end-of-life trajectory and initiate longer hospice length of stays.

  17. Residential Property Composition of School Districts: Its Effect on Tax Rate and Per Pupil Revenue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundeen, Virginia; And Others

    This study related tax rate and per pupil revenue to residential assessed valuation, percent residential of total assessed valuation, and selected socioeconomic independent variables for school districts in Cook, DeKalb, DuPage, Kane, and Lake counties in Illinois. Findings suggest that for homeowners and the students of these counties in 1976,…

  18. The impact of residential density on vehicle usage and fuel consumption: Evidence from national samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Jinwon; Brownstone, David

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of residential density on household vehicle usage and fuel consumption. We estimate a simultaneous equations system to account for the potential residential self-selection problem. While most previous studies focus on a specific region, this paper uses national...

  19. Effects of the accident at Three Mile Island on residential property values and sales. Final report, April 1980-January 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamble, H.B.; Downing, R.H.

    1981-04-01

    The study examined the effects of the accident at Three Mile Island on residential property values and number of sales within a 25-mile radius of the plant. Regression analyses, using data on 583 actual market sales of single family homes from 1977 through 1979, examined the effects before and after the accident on the basis of distance and direction from the plant and on three different property value classes. All valid single family property sales between 1975 and 1979 within the 25-mile area were examined in a time series analysis. Interviews were conducted with realtors, financial institution officials and building contractors in the area. The accident had no measurable effects, positive or negative, on the value of single family residential properties within a 25-mile radius of the plant, or in any direction from the plant, or on low, medium, or high value properties. The plant had no measurable effects on residential property values for the 2 years prior to the accident. Immediately following the accident there was a sharp decline in the number of residential sales within 10 miles of the plant, but the real estate market returned to near normal conditions within 4-8 weeks. The interviews basically confirmed the above findings

  20. Applicability of the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index for Quantification of Residential Mold Contamination in an Air Pollution Health Effects Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    As part of the Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS) investigating the respiratory health impacts of traffic-related air pollutants on asthmatic children in Detroit, Michigan, residential dust samples were collected to quantify mold exposure. Sett...

  1. [Preventive effects of sound insulation windows on the indoor noise levels in a street residential building in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bin; Huang, Jing; Guo, Xin-biao

    2015-06-18

    To evaluate the preventive effects of sound insulation windows on traffic noise. Indoor noise levels of the residential rooms (on both the North 4th ring road side and the campus side) with closed sound insulation windows were measured using the sound level meter, and comparisons with the simultaneously measured outdoor noise levels were made. In addition, differences of indoor noise levels between rooms with closed sound insulation windows and open sound insulation windows were also compared. The average outdoor noise levels of the North 4th ring road was higher than 70 dB(A), which exceeded the limitation stated in the "Environmental Quality Standard for Noise" (GB 3096-2008) in our country. However, with the sound insulation windows closed, the indoor noise levels reduced significantly to the level under 35 dB(A) (Pwindows had significant influence on the indoor noise levels (Pwindow, when the sound insulation windows were closed, the indoor noise levels reduced 18.8 dB(A) and 8.3 dB(A) in residential rooms facing North 4th ring road side and campus side, respectively. The results indicated that installation of insulation windows had significant noise reduction effects on street residential buildings especially on the rooms facing major traffic roads. Installation of the sound insulation windows has significant preventive effects on indoor noise in the street residential building.

  2. Residential Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids For Teens For Parents & Teachers Resolving Family Conflicts The Holidays and Alzheimer's Glossary Virtual Library Online ... longer an option Costs Choosing a care setting Types of residential care A good long-term care ...

  3. Effects of Residential Instability on Head Start Children and Their Relationships with Older Siblings: Influences of Child Emotionality and Conflict between Family Members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoneman, Zolinda; Brody, Gene H.; Churchill, Susan L.; Winn, Laura L.

    1999-01-01

    Examined influence of residential dislocations on child behavior problems, depression, peer competence, cognitive competence, and quality of sibling relationships among Head Start children and their older siblings. Found that child emotionality moderated the effects of residential mobility. Caregiver conflict was a less powerful moderator.…

  4. Inefficient Self-Selection into Education and Wage Inequality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordine, Patrizia; Rose, Giuseppe

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a theoretical framework where "within graduates" wage inequality is related to overeducation/educational mismatch in the labor market. We show that wage inequality may arise because of inefficient self-selection into education in the presence of ability-complementary technological progress and asymmetric information…

  5. Self-Selection and the Efficiency of Tournaments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksson, Tor Viking; Teyssier, Sabrina; Villeval, Marie-Claire

    2009-01-01

    The literature has shown that the overall efficiency of exogenously imposed tournaments is reduced by a high variance in performance. This article reports results from an experiment analyzing whether allowing subjects to self-select into different payment schemes is reducing the variability...... is efficiency enhancing since it increases the homogeneity of the contestants....

  6. Worker self-selection and the profits from cooperation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kosfeld, M.; von Siemens, F.A.

    2009-01-01

    We investigate a competitive labor market with team production. Workers differ in their motivation to exert team effort, and types are private information. We show that there can exist a separating equilibrium in which workers self-select into different firms and firms employing cooperative workers

  7. Between-mode-differences in the value of travel time: Self-selection or strategic behaviour?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; Hjorth, Katrine; Lyk-Jensen, Stéphanie Vincent

    2010-01-01

    Using stated preference survey data, we measure the value of travel time for several transport modes. We find, like many before us, that the value of travel time varies across modes in the opposite direction of what would be the consequence of differences in comfort. We examine three candidate...... causes for the observed differences: Comfort effects, self-selection and strategic behaviour of respondents. Using experiments with both the current and an alternative mode we find that the differences in the value of travel time are consistent with self-selection and comfort effects. Moreover......, respondents having bus as the current or the alternative mode seem not to value comfort differently across modes. Strategic behaviour seems to play no role....

  8. Residential Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde; Matsufuji, Y.

    2011-01-01

    are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing residential waste is faced with the problem that many residences already divert some waste away from the official collection systems, for example performing home composting of vegetable waste and garden waste, having their bundled newspaper picked up by the scouts...... twice a year or bringing their used furniture to the flea markets organized by charity clubs. Thus, much of the data available on residential waste represents collected waste and not necessarily all generated waste. The latter can only be characterized by careful studies directly at the source......, but such studies are very expensive if fair representation of both spatial and temporal variations should be obtained. In addition, onsite studies may affect the waste generation in the residence because of the increased focus on the issue. Residential waste is defined in different ways in different countries...

  9. On Self Selection of the Corrupt into the Public Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Banerjee, Ritwik; Baul, Tushi; Rosenblat, Tanya

    Do corrupt people self select themselves in professions where the scope of corruption is high? We conduct a corruption experiment with private sector job aspirants and aspirants of Indian bureaucracy. The game models embezzlement of resources in which “supervisors” evaluate the performance of “wo...... of “workers” and then pay them. We find that aspirant bureaucrats indulge in more corruption than private sector aspirants but the likelihood of being corrupt is same across two sectors....

  10. Asymmetric Information, Self-selection, and Pricing of Insurance Contracts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Donnelly, Catherine; Englund, Martin Kristian; Nielsen, Jens Perch

    2014-01-01

    This article presents an optional bonus-malus contract based on a priori risk classification of the underlying insurance contract. By inducing self-selection, the purchase of the bonus-malus contract can be used as a screening device. This gives an even better pricing performance than both...... an experience rating scheme and a classical no-claims bonus system. An application to the Danish automobile insurance market is considered....

  11. Effective information channels for reducing costs of environmentally- friendly technologies: evidence from residential PV markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, Varun; Robinson, Scott A

    2013-01-01

    Realizing the environmental benefits of solar photovoltaics (PV) will require reducing costs associated with perception, informational gaps and technological uncertainties. To identify opportunities to decrease costs associated with residential PV adoption, in this letter we use multivariate regression models to analyze a unique, household-level dataset of PV adopters in Texas (USA) to systematically quantify the effect of different information channels on aspiring PV adopters’ decision-making. We find that the length of the decision period depends on the business model, such as whether the system was bought or leased, and on special opportunities to learn, such as the influence of other PV owners in the neighborhood. This influence accrues passively through merely witnessing PV systems in the neighborhood, increasing confidence and motivation, as well as actively through peer-to-peer communications. Using these insights we propose a new framework to provide public information on PV that could drastically reduce barriers to PV adoption, thereby accelerating its market penetration and environmental benefits. This framework could also serve as a model for other distributed generation technologies. (letter)

  12. Effect of combustion condition on cytotoxic and inflammatory activity of residential wood combustion particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jalava, Pasi I.; Salonen, Raimo O.; Nuutinen, Kati; Pennanen, Arto S.; Happo, Mikko S.; Tissari, Jarkko; Frey, Anna; Hillamo, Risto; Jokiniemi, Jorma; Hirvonen, Maija-Riitta

    2010-05-01

    Residential heating is an important local source of fine particles and may cause significant exposure and health effects in populations. We investigated the cytotoxic and inflammatory activity of particulate emissions from normal (NC) and smouldering (SC) combustion in one masonry heater. The PM 1-0.2 and PM 0.2 samples were collected from the dilution tunnel with a high-volume cascade impactor (HVCI). Mouse RAW 264.7 macrophages were exposed to the PM-samples for 24 h. Inflammatory mediators, (IL-6, TNFα and MIP-2), and cytotoxicity (MTT-test), were measured. Furthermore, apoptosis and cell cycle of macrophages were analyzed. The HVCI particulate samples were characterized for ions, elements and PAH compounds. Assays of elemental and organic carbon were conducted from parallel low volume samples. All the samples displayed mostly dose-dependent inflammatory and cytotoxic activity. SC samples were more potent than NC samples at inducing cytotoxicity and MIP-2 production, while the order of potency was reversed in TNFα production. SC-PM 1-0.2 sample was a significantly more potent inducer of apoptosis than the respective NC sample. After adjustment for the relative toxicity with emission factor (mg MJ -1), the SC-PM emissions had clearly higher inflammatory and cytotoxic potential than the NC-PM emissions. Thus, operational practice in batch burning of wood and the resultant combustion condition clearly affect the toxic potential of particulate emissions.

  13. Air Distribution Effectiveness for Residential Mechanical Ventilation: Simulation and Comparison of Normalized Exposures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petithuguenin, T.D.P.; Sherman, M.H.

    2009-05-01

    The purpose of ventilation is to dilute indoor contaminants that an occupant is exposed to. Even when providing the same nominal rate of outdoor air, different ventilation systems may distribute air in different ways, affecting occupants' exposure to household contaminants. Exposure ultimately depends on the home being considered, on source disposition and strength, on occupants' behavior, on the ventilation strategy, and on operation of forced air heating and cooling systems. In any multi-zone environment dilution rates and source strengths may be different in every zone and change in time, resulting in exposure being tied to occupancy patterns.This paper will report on simulations that compare ventilation systems by assessing their impact on exposure by examining common house geometries, contaminant generation profiles, and occupancy scenarios. These simulations take into account the unsteady, occupancy-tied aspect of ventilation such as bathroom and kitchen exhaust fans. As most US homes have central HVAC systems, the simulation results will be used to make appropriate recommendations and adjustments for distribution and mixing to residential ventilation standards such as ASHRAE Standard 62.2.This paper will report on work being done to model multizone airflow systems that are unsteady and elaborate the concept of distribution matrix. It will examine several metrics for evaluating the effect of air distribution on exposure to pollutants, based on previous work by Sherman et al. (2006).

  14. Effective information channels for reducing costs of environmentally- friendly technologies: evidence from residential PV markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Varun; Robinson, Scott A.

    2013-03-01

    Realizing the environmental benefits of solar photovoltaics (PV) will require reducing costs associated with perception, informational gaps and technological uncertainties. To identify opportunities to decrease costs associated with residential PV adoption, in this letter we use multivariate regression models to analyze a unique, household-level dataset of PV adopters in Texas (USA) to systematically quantify the effect of different information channels on aspiring PV adopters’ decision-making. We find that the length of the decision period depends on the business model, such as whether the system was bought or leased, and on special opportunities to learn, such as the influence of other PV owners in the neighborhood. This influence accrues passively through merely witnessing PV systems in the neighborhood, increasing confidence and motivation, as well as actively through peer-to-peer communications. Using these insights we propose a new framework to provide public information on PV that could drastically reduce barriers to PV adoption, thereby accelerating its market penetration and environmental benefits. This framework could also serve as a model for other distributed generation technologies.

  15. FENOMENA, FEMINISME DAN POLITICAL SELF SELECTION BAGI PEREMPUAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurwani Idris - -

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Democracy needs all participation people in the country, women and men.  The political right for women, as we know was feminism hard and long time struggled, therefore now the women have the high quality live in politic, the economic and social.  All the country in the world have ratificated the PBB of law for political freedom for women as the same as men. Especially in Indonesia now there’s no formal barriers for women leadership, if they select to participate in politics but it was the phenomenon for the women among self selection in politics, the freedom to be participating and children, husband, housing, that still stronger; from which one barrier “self selection” or “culture and religion” responsibility where significantly. Minangkabau women, forward analysis we can aim self selection or children, husband and family responsibility.  It is indisputable that the women’s awareness and struggle in the politics are debt to the feminists’ endless efforts. The feminists have fostered the women to empower themselves by which they reach equal position compared with their counterparts, in nearly all aspects of the social life.   Keywords:  phenomenon, feminism, and political self selection.

  16. Modelling the cost-effectiveness of impact-absorbing flooring in Swedish residential care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryen, Linda; Svensson, Mikael

    2016-06-01

    Fall-related injuries among the elderly, specifically hip fractures, cause significant morbidity and mortality as well as imposing a substantial financial cost on the health care system. Impact-absorbing flooring has been advocated as an effective method for preventing hip fractures resulting from falls. This study identifies the cost-effectiveness of impact-absorbing flooring compared to standard flooring in residential care facilities for the elderly in a Swedish setting. An incremental cost-effectiveness analysis was performed comparing impact-absorbing flooring to standard flooring using a Markov decision model. A societal perspective was adopted and incremental costs were compared to incremental gains in quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Data on costs, probability transitions and health-related quality of life measures were retrieved from the published literature and from Swedish register data. Probabilistic sensitivity analysis was performed through a Monte Carlo simulation. The base-case analysis indicates that the impact-absorbing flooring reduces costs and increases QALYs. When allowing for uncertainty we find that 60% of the simulations indicate that impact-absorbing flooring is cost-saving compared to standard flooring and an additional 20% that it has a cost per QALY below a commonly used threshold value : Using a modelling approach, we find that impact-absorbing flooring is a dominant strategy at the societal level considering that it can save resources and improve health in a vulnerable population. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  17. Moderating Effect of Residential History on the Effects of a Fatherhood Program on Parenting Skills Satisfaction among Nonresident African American Fathers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Yiqing; De Loney, E Hill; Caldwell, Cleopatra Howard

    2018-02-09

    Nonresident African American (AA) fathers sometimes face challenges to achieving satisfaction with their parenting skills, which may inhibit their motivations for parenting. Studies have found that residential history of fathers is associated with parental involvement; however, current fatherhood programs rarely consider the influence of different residential history on fathering. In the current study, we examined whether nonresident AA fathers' residential history with their sons moderated their parenting skills satisfaction after participating in the Fathers and Sons Program. Our results indicated that after controlling for fathers' pretest parenting skills satisfaction, age, education, marital status, employment, and ever lived with their son's mother; there was a moderating effect of residential history on the intervention's effects on posttest parenting skills satisfaction. The regression analyses showed that fathers in the intervention group who had lived with their son increased their parenting skills satisfaction more at posttest compared with fathers who had never lived with their sons. However, fathers in the comparison group who had lived with their sons had lower posttest parenting skills satisfaction. Future fatherhood programs for nonresident AA fathers should develop more nuanced group-specific interventions that consider residential history as a critical factor to enhance their parenting skills satisfaction as a strategy for improving father involvement.

  18. Moderating Effect of Residential History on the Effects of a Fatherhood Program on Parenting Skills Satisfaction among Nonresident African American Fathers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiqing Qian

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Nonresident African American (AA fathers sometimes face challenges to achieving satisfaction with their parenting skills, which may inhibit their motivations for parenting. Studies have found that residential history of fathers is associated with parental involvement; however, current fatherhood programs rarely consider the influence of different residential history on fathering. In the current study, we examined whether nonresident AA fathers’ residential history with their sons moderated their parenting skills satisfaction after participating in the Fathers and Sons Program. Our results indicated that after controlling for fathers’ pretest parenting skills satisfaction, age, education, marital status, employment, and ever lived with their son’s mother; there was a moderating effect of residential history on the intervention’s effects on posttest parenting skills satisfaction. The regression analyses showed that fathers in the intervention group who had lived with their son increased their parenting skills satisfaction more at posttest compared with fathers who had never lived with their sons. However, fathers in the comparison group who had lived with their sons had lower posttest parenting skills satisfaction. Future fatherhood programs for nonresident AA fathers should develop more nuanced group-specific interventions that consider residential history as a critical factor to enhance their parenting skills satisfaction as a strategy for improving father involvement.

  19. Walking economy during cued versus non-cued self-selected treadmill walking in persons with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Paul M; McIsaac, Tara L; Garber, Carol Ewing

    2014-01-01

    Gait impairments related to Parkinson's disease (PD) include variable step length and decreased walking velocity, which may result in poorer walking economy. Auditory cueing is a common method used to improve gait mechanics in PD that has been shown to worsen walking economy at set treadmill walking speeds. It is unknown if auditory cueing has the same effects on walking economy at self-selected treadmill walking speeds. To determine if auditory cueing will affect walking economy at self-selected treadmill walking speeds and at speeds slightly faster and slower than self-selected. Twenty-two participants with moderate PD performed three, 6-minute bouts of treadmill walking at three speeds (self-selected and ± 0.22 m·sec-1). One session used cueing and the other without cueing. Energy expenditure was measured and walking economy was calculated (energy expenditure/power). Poorer walking economy and higher energy expenditure occurred during cued walking at a self-selected and a slightly faster walking speed, but there was no apparent difference at the slightly slower speed. These results suggest that potential gait benefits of auditory cueing may come at an energy cost and poorer walking economy for persons with PD at least at some treadmill walking speeds.

  20. Reconsidering the Neighborhood Effect: Does Exposure to Residential Unemployment Infuence Voters' Perceptions of the National Economy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Martin; Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2016-01-01

    The state of the national economy often directs voting. But how do citizens form perceptions of a complex and abstract macroeconomy? This study examines whether exposure to unemployment in citizens’ immediate residential surroundings shapes their perceptions of the national economy. Using novel...... data tapping the official proportion of unemployed people residing within radii between 80 and 2,500 meters of an individual’s place of residence, we confront common methodological and theoretical challenges in existing work. Findings show that citizens do rely on cues from their residential...

  1. Spatial Pattern of Residential Carbon Dioxide Emissions in a Rapidly Urbanizing Chinese City and Its Mismatch Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heli Lu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Cities undergoing rapid urbanization are characterized by quick successions of spatiotemporal patterns, meaning that traditional methods cannot adequately assess carbon emissions from urban residential areas, which prevents the study of spatial mismatch. Therefore, this study utilizes night-time lights to construct a spatial emissions model that enables the analysis of the evolution of emissions patterns in China. The results indicate that, compared to the traditional method, the spatial modeling based on night-time lights reflects the spatial emissions trajectories in a more timely and accurate manner in rapidly urbanizing cities. Additionally, we found a relatively low degree of spatial match between emissions and economic activities, with the former, which are greatly affected by urbanization, having a larger dynamism and instability than the latter. Such spatial mismatch effect illustrates that policy makers should focus on factors beyond economics in order to reduce residential carbon emissions during China’s rapid urbanization process.

  2. Green signalling effects in the market for energy-efficient residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuerst, Franz; Oikarinen, Elias; Harjunen, Oskari

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy efficiency (EE) levels are hypothesised to affect house transaction prices. • We estimate a hedonic model using Energy Performance Certificates from Finland. • A price premium is found for the most energy-efficient properties. • The empirical results are suggestive of a green signalling effect. • Demand for EE high performers appears to be segmented from lower tiers. - Abstract: Empirical evidence from recent studies suggests that the price premium on energy-efficient buildings is potentially higher than the pure capitalisation of energy savings but the empirical evidence on the size of the non-savings components is scant. This study aims to fill this research gap by investigating whether the mandatory energy efficiency ratings for residential properties imply benefits that go beyond energy savings. Using a sample of several thousand apartment transactions from Helsinki, Finland, we first test if higher ratings were significantly associated with higher prices. In addition to a large number of property and neighbourhood characteristics, this dataset contains information on building-level energy usage which allows us to distinguish between the cost savings effect of energy consumption and the value of more intangible factors associated with the energy label. The hedonic model yields a statistically significant 3.3% price premium for apartments in the top three energy-efficiency categories and 1.5% when a set of detailed neighbourhood characteristics are included. When maintenance costs containing energy usage costs are added, a robust and significant price premium of 1.3% persists whereas no differentiation is found for the medium and lower rating categories. These findings may be indicative of energy-efficient buildings having signalling value – and therefore an additional incentive to invest in such buildings – for ‘green’ consumers. However, a favourable energy rating did not appear to speed up the sales process in the

  3. ASSESSMENT OF EFFECTIVENESS OF TB POSTING DURING THE COMPULSORY ROTATORY RESIDENTIAL INTERNSHIP (CRRI PROGRAMME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pradeep Aggarwal

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: What is the effectiveness of TB posting during the Compulsory Rotatory Residential Internship (CRRI programme? Objectives: To assess the effectiveness of TB posting during the CRRI programme. To find out the need of making Tuberculosis & Respiratory Diseases Department posting mandatory during CRRI Programme. Study Design: Cross Sectional study. Study Duration: 12 months i.e. 01st April 2009 till 31st March 2010 Participants: 90 students who joined the CRRI programme formed the study group. Out of these 90 interns only 57 (64% of them joined their two months Compulsory Rotatory Internship in the Department of Community Medicine and these were posted in Tuberculosis & Respiratory Diseases Department for 15 days. Methodology: A pre-designed pre-tested self-administered questionnaire was administered to the participants on the first day and last day of their posting in Tuberculosis & Respiratory Diseases Department. The results were analysed by using suitable statistical package. Results: The mean pre-test score was 28 (49.6% and the mean post-test score was 38 (61.5%. It was observed that there was a 27% improvement in the knowledge of the participants when the question about the year of launching of RNTCP programme in India was asked. A remarkable improvement (46% was found in the difference between pre and post-test knowledge of the participants when the questions like “Who are the DOTS providers” and “What is the colour coding of boxes for different categories of patients” were asked. A significant difference in the knowledge was found in the pre and post-test assessment in reference to Tuberculosis and its National Programm

  4. The effectiveness of energy efficiency improvement in a developing country: Rebound effect of residential electricity use in South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, Sang-Hyeon

    2007-01-01

    The government of South Korea considers an energy efficiency improvement policy an effective economic measure for climate change like many other governments. But it is unaware of any 'rebound effect', the unexpected result of energy efficiency improvement. So the rebound effect of residential electricity use in South Korea was estimated using two different scales in this paper. At the macro level, the rebound effect was estimated indirectly by using price elasticity, and at the micro level, the rebound effect of individual home appliances was estimated directly by using a non-linear relationship between energy efficiency and energy use. At the macro level, the long- and short-term results of rebound effect were estimated at 30% and 38%, respectively. Also at the micro level, the rebound effect of air conditioners was 57-70%; while refrigerators showed only a composite of rebound and income effects. Finally, there was no backfire effect, and efficiency improvement brought energy reduction. In conclusion, these suggest that rebound effect is an important factor that the government of South Korea must consider when planning its energy efficiency improvement policy. (author)

  5. New Evidence of the Effect of Transaction Costs on Residential Mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ommeren, van Jos; Leuvensteijn, van Michiel

    2002-01-01

    Transaction costs have attracted considerably attention in the theoretical literature on residential mobility. In many European countries, these costs mainly consist of ad-valorem transaction costs. In the current paper, we demonstrate empirically for the Netherlands that the transaction costs have

  6. Effect of residential development on stream phosphorus dynamics in headwater suburbanizing watersheds of southern Ontario, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duval, Tim P

    2018-10-01

    Suburban landscapes are known to have degraded water quality relative to natural settings, including increased total phosphorus (TP) levels; however, the effect of subdivision construction activities on stream TP dynamics are less understood. This study measured TP and its constituents particulate, dissolved organic, and dissolved inorganic phosphorus (PP, DOP, and DIP, respectively) in two headwater streams of contrasting urbanization activity to examine whether the land-use conversion process itself contributed to TP concentrations and export. The nested watershed undergoing significant active residential community construction contained large areas of cleared former agricultural field and associated sediment mounds with elevated soil TP (~1000 mg kg -1 ), and twice as many stormwater management (SWM) ponds than the watershed with completed suburban communities. Daily stream sampling for six months revealed limited differences in TP between urbanized and urbanizing watersheds regardless of season or stream flow condition; however, the forms of TP varied significantly. The proportion of TP as DOP was consistently higher in the urbanizing stream relative to the urban stream, which was in line with significant decreases in DOP concentration as proportion of cleared former agricultural land decreased and density of SWM ponds increased. The DOP, and to a lesser extent DIP and PP, dynamics resulted in a 2.5× greater areal export of TP from a small watershed actively being suburbanized during the study period compared to the larger watershed with greater land urbanized 3-5 years ago. The results of this study suggest stream TP concentrations are relatively unresponsive to active versus established suburban cover, but the forms of TP can be quite different, and the period of home construction can increase phosphorus (P) delivery to and export through nearby streams. This information can aid land managers and urban planners update best management practices to

  7. Cost-effective FITL technologies for small business and residential customers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Niels E.; Woolnough, Peter; Seidenberg, Juergen; Ferreira, Mario F. S.

    1995-02-01

    FIRST is a RACE project where 5 main European telecoms operators, 4 equipment manufacturers and one university have joined up to define and test in a field trial in Portugal a cost effective Optical Access Network. The main design target has been a system which gives cost effective provision of wideband services for small and medium business customers. The system however, incorporates provision of telephone, ISDN and analog and digital video for residential customers as well. Technologies have been chosen with the objective of providing a simple, robust and flexible system where initial deployment costs are low and closely related to the service take up. The paper describes the main technical features of the system and network applications which shows how the system may be introduced in network planning. The system is based on Passive Optical Network technology where video is distributed in the 1550 nm window and telecoms services transmitted at 1300 nm in full duplex mode. The telecoms system provides high capacity, flexibility in loop length and robustness towards outside plant performance. The Subcarrier Multiple Access (SCMA) method is used for upstream transmission of bi-directional telecoms services. SCMA has advantages compared to the Time Division Multiple Access technology used in other systems. Bandwidth/cost tradeoff is better and the lower requirements to the outside plant increases the overall cost benefit. Optical beat noise due to overlapping of laser spectra which may be a problem for this technology has been addressed with success through the use of a suitable modulation and control technique. This technology is further validated in the field trial. The video system provides cost effective long distance transmission on standard fiber with externally modulated lasers and cascaded amplifiers. Coexistence of analog and digital video on one fiber with different modulation schemes i.e. BPSK, QPSK and 64 QAM have been validated. Total life cycle cost

  8. Self-selected speeds and metabolic cost of longboard skateboarding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Board, Wayne J; Browning, Raymond C

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine self-selected speeds, metabolic rate, and gross metabolic cost during longboard skateboarding. We measured overground speed and metabolic rate while 15 experienced longboarders traveled at their self-selected slow, typical and fast speeds. Mean longboarding speeds were 3.7, 4.5 and 5.1 m s(-1), during slow, typical and fast trials, respectively. Mean rates of oxygen consumption were 24.1, 29.1 and 37.2 ml kg(-1) min(-1) and mean rates of energy expenditure were 33.5, 41.8 and 52.7 kJ min(-1) at the slow, typical and fast speeds, respectively. At typical speeds, average intensity was ~8.5 METs. There was a significant positive relationship between oxygen consumption and energy expenditure versus speed (R(2) = 0.69 (P < 0.001), and R(2) = 0.78 (P < 0.001), respectively). The gross metabolic cost was ~2.2 J kg(-1) m(-1) at the typical speed, greater than that reported for cycling and ~50% smaller than that of walking. These results suggest that longboarding is a novel form of physical activity that elicits vigorous intensity, yet is economical compared to walking.

  9. Effectiveness of a low-threshold physical activity intervention in residential aged care – results of a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cichocki M

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Martin Cichocki,1 Viktoria Quehenberger,1 Michael Zeiler,1 Tanja Adamcik,1 Matthias Manousek,1 Tanja Stamm,2 Karl Krajic1 1Ludwig Boltzmann Institute Health Promotion Research, 2Medical University of Vienna & University of Applied Sciences FH Campus, Wien, Vienna, Austria Purpose: Research on effectiveness of low-threshold mobility interventions that are viable for users of residential aged care is scarce. Low-threshold is defined as keeping demands on organizations (staff skills, costs and participants (health status, discipline rather low. The study explored the effectiveness of a multi-faceted, low-threshold physical activity program in three residential aged-care facilities in Austria. Main goals were enhancement of mobility by conducting a multi-faceted training program to foster occupational performance and thus improve different aspects of health-related quality of life (QoL.Participants and methods: The program consisted of a weekly session of 60 minutes over a period of 20 weeks. A standardized assessment of mobility status and health-related QoL was applied before and after the intervention. A total of 222 of 276 participants completed the randomized controlled trial study (intervention group n=104, control group n=118; average age 84 years, 88% female.Results: Subjective health status (EuroQoL-5 dimensions: P=0.001, d=0.36 improved significantly in the intervention group, and there were also positive trends in occupational performance (Canadian Occupational Performance Measure. No clear effects were found concerning the functional and cognitive measures applied.Conclusion: Thus, the low-threshold approach turned out to be effective primarily on subjective health-related QoL. This outcome could be a useful asset for organizations offering low-threshold physical activity interventions. Keywords: physical activity, intervention, residential aged care, effectiveness, aged

  10. Cost-effectiveness of high-efficiency appliances in the U.S. residential sector: A case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNeil, Michael A.; Bojda, Nicholas

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis of the cost-effectiveness of high-efficiency appliances in the U.S. residential sector using cost and efficiency data developed as part of the regulatory process of the U.S. Department of Energy's Appliances and Commercial Equipment Standards Program. These data are presented as a case study in the development of an ‘efficiency technology database’ which can be expanded and published as a resource to other researchers and policy makers seeking scenarios that optimize efficiency policies and forecast their likely impacts on energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions. The use of this data to evaluate cost-effectiveness according to a variety of metrics is demonstrated using the example of one refrigerator–freezer product class. Cost-effectiveness is then evaluated in terms of cost of conserved energy for refrigerators, room air conditioners, water heaters, cooking equipment, central air conditioners and gas furnaces. The resulting potential of cost-effective improvement ranges from 1% to 53% of energy savings, with a typical potential of 15–20%. - Highlights: ► We determined the potential for cost-effective efficiency for residential appliances. ► We cover 6 appliance groups using cost of conserved energy as a metric for cost-effectiveness. ► Data are source from the DOE's Appliance and Commercial Equipment Standards Program. ► Between 15% and 20% additional cost-effective efficiency improvement is possible.

  11. City versus suburb : the effects of neighborhood location on place attachment and residential satisfaction

    OpenAIRE

    Aksel, Elif

    2017-01-01

    Cataloged from PDF version of article. Thesis (M.S.): Bilkent University, Department of Interior Architecture and Environmental Design, İhsan Doğramacı Bilkent University, 2017. Includes bibliographical references (leaves 60-76). Affective bonds of individuals to their environment have been investigated and certain terms were studied such as place attachment and residential satisfaction arousing interest especially in environmental psychology. The current study aims to investigate th...

  12. Urban Imperviousness Effects on Summer Surface Temperatures Nearby Residential Buildings in Different Urban Zones of Parma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Morabito

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid and unplanned urban growth is responsible for the continuous conversion of green or generally natural spaces into artificial surfaces. The high degree of imperviousness modifies the urban microclimate and no studies have quantified its influence on the surface temperature (ST nearby residential building. This topic represents the aim of this study carried out during summer in different urban zones (densely urbanized or park/rural areas of Parma (Northern Italy. Daytime and nighttime ASTER images, the local urban cartography and the Italian imperviousness databases were used. A reproducible/replicable framework was implemented named “Building Thermal Functional Area” (BTFA useful to lead building-proxy thermal analyses by using remote sensing data. For each residential building (n = 8898, the BTFA was assessed and the correspondent ASTER-LST value (ST_BTFA and the imperviousness density were calculated. Both daytime and nighttime ST_BTFA significantly (p < 0.001 increased when high levels of imperviousness density surrounded the residential buildings. These relationships were mostly consistent during daytime and in densely urbanized areas. ST_BTFA differences between urban and park/rural areas were higher during nighttime (above 1 °C than daytime (about 0.5 °C. These results could help to identify “urban thermal Hot-Spots” that would benefit most from mitigation actions.

  13. Assessing effects of military aircraft noise on residential property values near airbases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidell, Sanford; Tabachnick, Barbara; Silvati, Laura; Cook, Brenda

    The question, 'Does military aircraft noise exposure affect residential property values in the vicinity of Air Force bases?', can be asked and answered with varying degrees of generality and tolerable errors of inference. Definitive answers are difficult to develop because the question itself may not be meaningful in some circumstances: property values are affected by many factors other than aircraft noise which can fluctuate greatly in different areas and during different time periods; credible attribution of causality for changes in property values uniquely to aircraft noise requires many costly study design measures; and prior findings suggest that if a relationship exists, it is not a large or especially strong one. Thus, evidence of a simple geographic association between aircraft noise exposure and residential property values does not provide a conclusive answer to the question. In an effort to develop more compelling evidence, the US Air Force is planning to compare historical records of sale prices of properties in areas of differential aircraft noise exposure during specific time periods with predictions of sale prices derived from a validated statistical model of residential property values.

  14. Potential Effect and Analysis of High Residential Solar Photovoltaic (PV Systems Penetration to an Electric Distribution Utility (DU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Tamba Dellosa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Renewable Energy Act of 2008 in the Philippines provided an impetus for residential owners to explore solar PV installations at their own rooftops through the Net-Metering policy. The Net-Metering implementation through the law however presented some concerns with inexperienced electric DU on the potential effect of high residential solar PV system installations. It was not known how a high degree of solar integration to the grid can possibly affect the operations of the electric DU in terms of energy load management. The primary objective of this study was to help the local electric DU in the analysis of the potential effect of high residential solar PV system penetration to the supply and demand load profile in an electric distribution utility (DU grid in the province of Agusan del Norte, Philippines. The energy consumption profiles in the year 2015 were obtained from the electric DU operating in the area. An average daily energy demand load profile was obtained from 0-hr to the 24th hour of the day based from the figures provided by the electric DU. The assessment part of the potential effect of high solar PV system integration assumed four potential total capacities from 10 Mega Watts (MW to 40 MW generated by all subscribers in the area under study at a 10 MW interval. The effect of these capacities were measured and analyzed with respect to the average daily load profile of the DU. Results of this study showed that a combined installations beyond 20 MWp coming from all subscribers is not viable for the local electric DU based on their current energy demand or load profile. Based from the results obtained, the electric DU can make better decisions in the management of high capacity penetration of solar PV systems in the future, including investment in storage systems when extra capacities are generated. Article History: Received July 15th 2016; Received in revised form Sept 23rd 2016; Accepted Oct 1st 2016; Available online How to Cite

  15. The greener, the happier? The effects of urban green and abandoned areas on residential well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Krekel, Christian; Kolbe, Jens; Wüstemann, Henry

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of urban green and abandoned areas on residential well-being in major German cities, using panel data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) for the time period between 2000 and 2012 and cross-section data from the European Urban Atlas (EUA) for the year 2006. Using a Geographical Information System (GIS), it calculates the distance to urban green and abandoned areas, measured as the Euclidean distance in 100 metres between households and the border of...

  16. A panel study of migration, self-selection and household real income.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Axelsson, R; Westerlund, O

    1998-02-01

    "The impact of migration on income for Swedish multi-adult households is examined using panel data pertaining to a sample of stable household constellations during the period 1980-1990. In contrast to previous studies, data on household disposable income is employed in estimating the income function. The empirical results indicate no significant effect on real disposable income from migration. In addition, the hypothesis of no self-selection, or zero correlation between the errors in the decision function and the income function, cannot be rejected." excerpt

  17. Grid-connected photovoltaic systems for Malaysian residential sector: Effects of component costs, feed-in tariffs, and carbon taxes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, K.Y.; Muhamad, N.A.; Arief, Y.Z.; Tan, C.W.; Yatim, A.H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Blessed with abundant solar radiation, Malaysia has a huge potential for grid-connected PV (photovoltaic) installations, particularly for its fast-growing residential sector. Nevertheless, Malaysia's PV installation capacity is relatively small compared with the global PV capacity. Significantly, the pricing mechanisms for grid-connected PV projects need to be appropriately assessed to build up the public's confidence to invest in PV projects. In this paper, we analyze the effects of component costs, FiTs (feed-in tariffs), and carbon taxes on grid-connected PV systems in Malaysian residential sector using the HOMER (Hybrid Optimization of Multiple Energy Resources) software. Results demonstrate that the implementation of grid-connected PV systems is highly feasible with PV array costs of $ 1120/kW or lower. For higher PV array costs up to $ 2320/kW, introducing an FiT rate three times higher ($ 0.30/kWh) than the grid tariff for a 100 kW grid sale capacity will, NPC-wise, prioritize grid-connected PV systems over the utility grid. By implementing the FiT ($ 0.50/kWh) and the carbon tax ($ 36/metric ton) schemes simultaneously, grid-connected PV systems will remain as the optimal systems even for costly PV arrays (up to $ 4000/kW). The findings are of paramount importance as far as PV pricing variability is concerned. - Highlights: • Grid-connected PV for Malaysian residential sector has been analyzed using HOMER. • Component costs, feed-in tariffs, and carbon taxes affect optimal system types. • Grid-connected PV projects are feasible for low PV array costs ($ 1120/kW or lower). • For higher PV array and inverter costs, feed-in tariffs should be implemented. • Combining feed-in tariffs with carbon taxes are effective for further lowering NPCs.

  18. Residential greenhouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-02-01

    The following report examines the technical and economic viability of residential greenhouse additions in Whitehorse, Yukon. The greenhouse was constructed using the south facing wall of an existing residence as a common wall. Total construction costs were $18,000, including labour. Annual fuel demand for the residence has been reduced by about 10 per cent for an annual saving of $425. In addition, produce to the value of $1,000 is grown annually in the greenhouse for domestic consumption and commercial resale. Typically the greenhouse operates for nine months each year. There is a net thermal loss during the months of November, December and January as a result of the large area of glazing. As well as supplementing the heating supply solar greenhouses can provide additional cash crops which can be used to offset the cost of construction. Humidity problems are minimal and can be dealt with by exhausting high humidity air. One system which has been considered for the greenhouse is to use a standard residential heat pump to remove excess moisture and to pump heat into the house. This would have a secondary benefit of excluding the need to circulate greenhouse air through the house. Thus any allergenic reactions to the greenhouse air would be prevented. 8 refs., 3 figs, 2 tabs.

  19. ENERGY STAR Certified Residential Dishwashers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 6.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Residential Dishwashers that are effective as of...

  20. Renewable energy rebound effect?: Estimating the impact of state renewable energy financial incentives on residential electricity consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Beth A.

    Climate change is a well-documented phenomenon. If left unchecked greenhouse gas emissions will continue global surface warming, likely leading to severe and irreversible impacts. Generating renewable energy has become an increasingly salient topic in energy policy as it may mitigate the impact of climate change. State renewable energy financial incentives have been in place since the mid-1970s in some states and over 40 states have adopted one or more incentives at some point since then. Using multivariate linear and fixed effects regression for the years 2002 through 2012, I estimate the relationship between state renewable energy financial incentives and residential electricity consumption, along with the associated policy implications. My hypothesis is that a renewable energy rebound effect is present; therefore, states with renewable energy financial incentives have a higher rate of residential electricity consumption. I find a renewable energy rebound effect is present in varying degrees for each model, but the results do not definitively indicate how particular incentives influence consumer behavior. States should use caution when adopting and keeping renewable energy financial incentives as this may increase consumption in the short-term. The long-term impact is unclear, making it worthwhile for policymakers to continue studying the potential for renewable energy financial incentives to alter consumer behavior.

  1. Effects of types of ventilation system on indoor particle concentrations in residential buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J S; Jee, N-Y; Jeong, J-W

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the influence of ventilation systems on indoor particle concentrations in residential buildings. Fifteen occupied, single-family apartments were selected from three sites. The three sites have three different ventilation systems: unbalanced mechanical ventilation, balanced mechanical ventilation, and natural ventilation. Field measurements were conducted between April and June 2012, when outdoor air temperatures were comfortable. Number concentrations of particles, PM2.5 and CO2 , were continuously measured both outdoors and indoors. In the apartments with natural ventilation, I/O ratios of particle number concentrations ranged from 0.56 to 0.72 for submicron particles, and from 0.25 to 0.60 for particles larger than 1.0 μm. The daily average indoor particle concentration decreased to 50% below the outdoor level for submicron particles and 25% below the outdoor level for fine particles, when the apartments were mechanically ventilated. The two mechanical ventilation systems reduced the I/O ratios by 26% for submicron particles and 65% for fine particles compared with the natural ventilation. These results showed that mechanical ventilation can reduce exposure to outdoor particles in residential buildings. Results of this study confirm that mechanical ventilation with filtration can significantly reduce indoor particle levels compared with natural ventilation. The I/O ratios of particles substantially varied at the naturally ventilated apartments because of the influence of variable window opening conditions and unsteadiness of wind flow on the penetration of outdoor air particles. For better prediction of the exposure to outdoor particles in naturally ventilated residential buildings, it is important to understand the penetration of outdoor particles with variable window opening conditions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Physical and psychosocial function in residential aged-care elders: effect of Nintendo Wii Sports games.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keogh, Justin W L; Power, Nicola; Wooller, Leslie; Lucas, Patricia; Whatman, Chris

    2014-04-01

    This mixed-methods, quasi-experimental pilot study examined whether the Nintendo Wii Sports (NWS) active video game (exergame) system could significantly improve the functional ability, physical activity levels, and quality of life of 34 older adults (4 men and 30 women, 83 ± 8 yr) living in 2 residential aged-care (RAC) centers. Change score analyses indicated the intervention group had significantly greater increases in bicep curl muscular endurance, physical activity levels, and psychological quality of life than the control group (p games were fun and provided an avenue for greater socialization. These results add some further support to the utilization of NWS exergames in the RAC context.

  3. Effect of energy renovation on indoor air quality in multifamily residential buildings in Slovakia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Földváry, Veronika; Bekö, Gabriel; Langer, Sarka

    2017-01-01

    efficiency of these buildings rarely consider their impact on the indoor air quality (IAQ). The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of simple energy renovation on IAQ, air exchange rates (AER) and occupant satisfaction in Slovak residential buildings. Three pairs of identical naturally...... of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), formaldehyde and total and individual volatile organic compounds (VOC) were also measured. CO2 concentrations were significantly higher and AERs were lower in the renovated buildings. Formaldehyde concentrations increased after renovation and were positively correlated with CO2...

  4. Analysing socioeconomic diversity and scaling effects on residential electricity load profiles in the context of low carbon technology uptake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKenna, R.; Hofmann, L.; Merkel, E.; Fichtner, W.; Strachan, N.

    2016-01-01

    Adequately accounting for interactions between Low Carbon Technologies (LCTs) at the building level and the overarching energy system means capturing the granularity associated with decentralised heat and power supply in residential buildings. The approach presented here adds novelty in terms of a realistic socioeconomic differentiation by employing dwelling/household archetypes (DHAs) and neighbourhood clusters at the Output Area (OA) level. These archetypes are combined with a mixed integer linear program (MILP) to generate optimum (minimum cost) technology configurations and operation schedules. Even in the baseline case, without any LCT penetration, a substantial deviation from the standard load profile (SLP) is encountered, suggesting that for some neighbourhoods this profile is not appropriate. With the application of LCTs, including heat pumps, micro-CHP and photovoltaic (PV), this effect is much stronger, including more negative residual load, more variability, and higher ramps with increased LCT penetration, and crucially different between neighbourhood clusters. The main policy implication of the study is the importance of understanding electrical load profiles at the neighbourhood level, because of the consequences they have for investment in the overarching energy system, including transmission and distribution infrastructure, and centralised generation plant. Further work should focus on attaining a superior socioeconomic differentiation between households. - Highlights: • Low carbon technologies (LCTs) for heat/electricity in residential buildings. • Socioeconomic effects and interactions with overarching energy system. • Building thermal/electrical model combined with optimisation. • Significant differences between neighbourhood load profiles. • Policy implications: support for LCTs and investment in infrastructure.

  5. Effects of residential instability on Head Start children and their relationships with older siblings: influences of child emotionality and conflict between family caregivers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoneman, Z; Brody, G H; Churchill, S L; Winn, L L

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the influence that residential dislocations have on child behavior problems, depression, peer competence, cognitive competence, and the quality of sibling relations in a sample of 70 Head Start children, aged 32 to 67 months, and their older brothers and sisters, aged 48 to 155 months. This was the first study to investigate the sibling relationship in the context of high residential mobility. Information on child characteristics was obtained from mothers and teachers. Sibling data (warmth/harmony and conflict) were obtained from coding videotaped interactions. Child emotionality was found to be an important moderator of the effects of residential mobility on young, poor children and their siblings; caregiver conflict was a less powerful moderator of these effects. Residential instability seemed to compromise the warmth/harmony of the sibling relationship. It was concluded that the effects of residential instability are complex and cannot be understood without considering child characteristics, such as temperament, and the family context in which the child lives.

  6. How do individual-level sociodemographics and neighbourhood-level characteristics influence residential location behaviour in the context of the food and built environment? Findings from 25 years of follow-up in the CARDIA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rummo, Pasquale E; Guilkey, David K; Shikany, James M; Reis, Jared P; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2017-03-01

    Little is known about how diet-related and activity-related amenities relate to residential location behaviour. Understanding these relationships is essential for addressing residential self-selection bias. Using 25 years (6 examinations) of data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study (n=11 013 observations) and linked neighbourhood-level data from the 4 CARDIA baseline cities (Birmingham, Alabama; Chicago, Illinois; Minneapolis, Minnesota; Oakland, California, USA), we characterised participants' neighbourhoods as having low, average or high road connectivity and amenities using non-hierarchical cluster analysis. We then used repeated measures multinomial logistic regression with random effects to examine the associations between individual-level sociodemographics and neighbourhood-level characteristics with residential neighbourhood types over the 25-year period, and whether these associations differed by individual-level income. Being female was positively associated with living in neighbourhoods with low (vs high) road connectivity and activity-related and diet-related amenities among high-income individuals only. At all income levels, a higher percentage of neighbourhood white population and neighbourhood population behaviour related to neighbourhood connectivity and amenities at any income level. Neighbourhood-level factors appeared to play a comparatively greater role in shaping residential location behaviour than individual-level sociodemographics. Our study is an important step in understanding how residential locational behaviour relates to amenities and physical activity opportunities, and may help mitigate residential self-selection bias in built environment studies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  7. Income, self-selection, and return and onward interprovincial migration in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newbold, K B

    1996-06-01

    "Estimated returns to migration based on comparison of individual migrants may be biased owing to self-selection in the migration process. Using data derived from the 1986 Canadian census, I will study the effects of expected wage differentials in determining the return or onward migration decision of nonnative adults aged 20 to 64 years. Evidence was found that return migrations were in the 'right' direction, as they are observed to respond to provincial economic variables (that is, average employment growth and income levels) in a rational manner. After accounting for self-selectivity, I found that...return migrants...are negatively selected, and experience lower income levels, following the return migration, than onward migrants would have, had they chosen the return migration option. This drop in expected wages decreases the propensity associated with making a return migration. Despite this drop in income, the large proportion selecting the return migration option suggests the importance of the province of birth in the mental map of nonnative migrants." excerpt

  8. Preventing falls in residential construction: Effectiveness of engaging partners for a national social marketing campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macario, Everly; Hannon, Sandra Wills; Baker, Robin; Branche, Christine M; Trahan, Christina

    2015-08-01

    Falls are the leading cause of fatalities in construction. The Safety Pays, Falls Cost campaign aims to prevent falls in residential construction. A critical component of our social marketing approach was to involve 70 partners in reaching target audiences. We assessed partner engagement April 2012-August 2013 through: (1) baseline partnership quality interviews (eight partners); (2) pre-/post-partner "market" readiness in-depth interviews (three partners); (3) a pre-/post- (29/31 partners) online partner engagement survey; and (4) standardized metrics to measure partner activity. We found a high level of interest and engagement that increased with the addition of prompting to action through regular communication and new resources from organizers and formation of local partnerships that were able to tailor their activities to their own communities or regions. It is feasible to leverage government-labor-management partnerships that enjoy trust among target audiences to widely disseminate campaign materials and messages. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Selecting HVAC Systems to Achieve Comfortable and Cost-effective Residential Net-Zero Energy Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Wei; Skye, Harrison M; Domanski, Piotr A

    2018-02-15

    HVAC is responsible for the largest share of energy use in residential buildings and plays an important role in broader implementation of net-zero energy building (NZEB). This study investigated the energy, comfort and economic performance of commercially-available HVAC technologies for a residential NZEB. An experimentally-validated model was used to evaluate ventilation, dehumidification, and heat pump options for the NZEB in the mixed-humid climate zone. Ventilation options were compared to mechanical ventilation without recovery; a heat recovery ventilator (HRV) and energy recovery ventilator (ERV) respectively reduced the HVAC energy by 13.5 % and 17.4 % and reduced the building energy by 7.5 % and 9.7 %. There was no significant difference in thermal comfort between the ventilation options. Dehumidification options were compared to an air-source heat pump (ASHP) with a separate dehumidifier; the ASHP with dedicated dehumidification reduced the HVAC energy by 7.3 % and the building energy by 3.9 %. The ASHP-only option (without dedicated dehumidification) reduced the initial investment but provided the worst comfort due to high humidity levels. Finally, ground-source heat pump (GSHP) alternatives were compared to the ASHP; the GSHP with two and three boreholes reduced the HVAC energy by 26.0 % and 29.2 % and the building energy by 13.1 % and 14.7 %. The economics of each HVAC configuration was analyzed using installation cost data and two electricity price structures. The GSHPs with the ERV and dedicated dehumidification provided the highest energy savings and good comfort, but were the most expensive. The ASHP with dedicated dehumidification and the ERV (or HRV) provided reasonable payback periods.

  10. Physiological effects of a companion robot on blood pressure of older people in residential care facility: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Hayley; MacDonald, Bruce; Broadbent, Elizabeth

    2015-03-01

    To investigate the effects of interacting with the companion robot, Paro, on blood pressure and heart rate of older people in a residential care facility. This study used a repeated measures design. Twenty-one residents in rest home and hospital level care had their blood pressure taken three times; before, during and after interacting with the seal robot. Four residents who did not interact with the robot were excluded from the final analysis (final n = 17). The final analysis found that systolic and diastolic blood pressure changed significantly over time as did heart rate. Planned comparisons revealed that systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased significantly from baseline to when residents had Paro (systolic, P = 0.048; diastolic, P = 0.05). Diastolic blood pressure increased significantly after Paro was withdrawn (P = 0.03). Interacting with Paro has a physiological effect on cardiovascular measures, which is similar to findings with live animals. © 2013 ACOTA.

  11. Effect of Thermal Storage on the Performance of a Wood Pellet-fired Residential Boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Butcher [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Sustainable Energy Technologies Dept.

    2017-08-31

    Interest in the direct use of biomass for thermal applications as a renewable technology is increasing as is also focus on air pollutant emissions from these sources and methods to minimize the impact. This work has focused on wood pellet-fired residential boilers, which are the cleanest fuel in this category. In the residential application the load varies strongly over the course of a year and a high fraction of the load is typically under 15% of the maximum boiler capacity. Thermal storage can be used even with boilers which have modulation capacity typically to 30% of the boiler maximum. One common pellet boiler was tested at full load and also at the minimum load used in the U.S. certification testing (15%). In these tests the load was steady over the test period. Testing was also done with an emulated load profile for a home in Albany, N.Y. on a typical January, March, and April day. In this case the load imposed on the boiler varied hourly under computer control, based on the modeled load for the example case used. The boiler used has a nominal output of 25 kW and a common mixed hardwood/softwood commercial pellet was used. Moisture content was 3.77%. A dilution tunnel approach was used for the measurement of particulate emissions, in accordance with U.S. certification testing requirements. The test results showed that the use of storage strongly reduces cycling rates under part load conditions. The transients which occur as these boilers cycle contribute to increased particulate emissions and reduced efficiency. The time period of a full cycle at a given load condition can be increased by increasing the storage tank volume and/or increasing the control differential range. It was shown that increasing the period strongly increased the measured efficiency and reduced the particulate emission (relative to the no storage case). The impact was most significant at the low load levels. Storage tank heat loss is shown to be a significant factor in thermal efficiency

  12. Differential effects of air conditioning type on residential endotoxin levels in a semi-arid climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, J D; Kruman, B A; Nelson, M C; Merrill, R M; Graul, R J; Hoybjerg, T G; Tuttle, S C; Myers, S J; Cook, R B; Weber, K S

    2017-09-01

    Residential endotoxin exposure is associated with protective and pathogenic health outcomes. Evaporative coolers, an energy-efficient type of air conditioner used in dry climates, are a potential source of indoor endotoxins; however, this association is largely unstudied. We collected settled dust biannually from four locations in homes with evaporative coolers (n=18) and central air conditioners (n=22) in Utah County, Utah (USA), during winter (Jan-Apr) and summer (Aug-Sept), 2014. Dust samples (n=281) were analyzed by the Limulus amebocyte lysate test. Housing factors were measured by survey, and indoor temperature and relative humidity measures were collected during both seasons. Endotoxin concentrations (EU/mg) were significantly higher in homes with evaporative coolers from mattress and bedroom floor samples during both seasons. Endotoxin surface loads (EU/m 2 ) were significantly higher in homes with evaporative coolers from mattress and bedroom floor samples during both seasons and in upholstered furniture during winter. For the nine significant season-by-location comparisons, EU/mg and EU/m 2 were approximately three to six times greater in homes using evaporative coolers. A plausible explanation for these findings is that evaporative coolers serve as a reservoir and distribution system for Gram-negative bacteria or their cell wall components in homes. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Job Satisfaction and Self-Selection into the Public or Private Sector: Evidence from a Natural Experiment

    OpenAIRE

    Danzer, Natalia

    2013-01-01

    Are public sector jobs better than private sector jobs? To answer this question, this paper investigates observed differences in job satisfaction between public- and private-sector workers and disentangles the effect of worker sorting from the one caused by sector-specific job characteristics. A natural experiment – the massive privatization process in post-Soviet countries – allows correcting potential self-selection bias. Industry-specific privatization probabilities are assigned to workers...

  14. Towards socially and economically sustainable urban developments : impacts of toll pricing on residential developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The goal of this research is to investigate the effects of road pricing on residential land use choices and to : help select pricing policies that foster socially and economically sustainable residential development in : urbanized residential areas. ...

  15. Required coefficient of friction during turning at self-selected slow, normal, and fast walking speeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fino, Peter; Lockhart, Thurmon E

    2014-04-11

    This study investigated the relationship of required coefficient of friction to gait speed, obstacle height, and turning strategy as participants walked around obstacles of various heights. Ten healthy, young adults performed 90° turns around corner pylons of four different heights at their self selected normal, slow, and fast walking speeds using both step and spin turning strategies. Kinetic data was captured using force plates. Results showed peak required coefficient of friction (RCOF) at push off increased with increased speed (slow μ=0.38, normal μ=0.45, and fast μ=0.54). Obstacle height had no effect on RCOF values. The average peak RCOF for fast turning exceeded the OSHA safety guideline for static COF of μ>0.50, suggesting further research is needed into the minimum static COF to prevent slips and falls, especially around corners. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Development and perceived effects of an educational programme on quality and safety in medication handling in residential facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mygind, Anna; El-Souri, Mira; Rossing, Charlotte; Thomsen, Linda Aagaard

    2018-04-01

    To develop and test an educational programme on quality and safety in medication handling for staff in residential facilities for the disabled. The continuing pharmacy education instructional design model was used to develop the programme with 22 learning objectives on disease and medicines, quality and safety, communication and coordination. The programme was a flexible, modular seven + two days' course addressing quality and safety in medication handling, disease and medicines, and medication supervision and reconciliation. The programme was tested in five Danish municipalities. Municipalities were selected based on their application for participation; each independently selected a facility for residents with mental and intellectual disabilities, and a facility for residents with severe mental illnesses. Perceived effects were measured based on a questionnaire completed by participants before and after the programme. Effects on motivation and confidence as well as perceived effects on knowledge, skills and competences related to medication handling, patient empowerment, communication, role clarification and safety culture were analysed conducting bivariate, stratified analyses and test for independence. Of the 114 participants completing the programme, 75 participants returned both questionnaires (response rate = 66%). Motivation and confidence regarding quality and safety in medication handling significantly improved, as did perceived knowledge, skills and competences on 20 learning objectives on role clarification, safety culture, medication handling, patient empowerment and communication. The programme improved staffs' motivation and confidence and their perceived ability to handle residents' medication safely through improved role clarification, safety culture, medication handling and patient empowerment and communication skills. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  17. Make a Move: A Comprehensive Effect Evaluation of a Sexual Harassment Prevention Program in Dutch Residential Youth Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Lieshout, Sanne; Mevissen, Fraukje E F; van Breukelen, Gerard; Jonker, Marianne; Ruiter, Robert A C

    2016-06-27

    Sexual harassment-unwanted sexual comments, advances, or behaviors-and sexual violence are still prevalent worldwide, leading to a variety of physical, cognitive, and emotional problems among those being harassed. In particular, youth in care are at risk of becoming perpetrators (and victims) of sexual harassment. However, in general, there are very few interventions targeting this at-risk group, and no such programs exist in the Netherlands. To this end, a group intervention program-Make a Move-targeting determinants of sexual harassment was developed. This program was implemented and evaluated among boys (N = 177) in Dutch residential youth care (20 institutions). A pre-test, post-test, and 6-month follow-up design including an intervention and a waiting list control group with randomized assignment of institutions (cluster randomized trial) was used to measure the effects of the intervention on determinants of sexual harassment. Multilevel (mixed) regression analysis with Bonferroni correction for multiple testing (α = .005) showed no significant effects of Make a Move on determinants of sexual harassment (ps > .03, Cohen's ds < .44). Results are discussed in light of a three-way explanatory model focusing on intervention content, evaluation, and implementation as potential explanations for not finding any measurable intervention effects. © The Author(s) 2016.

  18. Cost Effectiveness of Falls and Injury Prevention Strategies for Older Adults Living in Residential Aged Care Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Church, Jody L; Haas, Marion R; Goodall, Stephen

    2015-12-01

    To evaluate the cost effectiveness of interventions designed to prevent falls and fall-related injuries among older people living in residential aged care facilities (RACFs) from an Australian health care perspective. A decision analytic Markov model was developed that stratified individuals according to their risk of falling and accounted for the risk of injury following a fall. The effectiveness of the interventions was derived from two Cochrane reviews of randomized controlled trials for falls/fall-related injury prevention in RACFs. Interventions were considered effective if they reduced the risk of falling or reduced the risk of injury following a fall. The interventions that were modelled included vitamin D supplementation, annual medication review, multifactorial intervention (a combination of risk assessment, medication review, vision assessment and exercise) and hip protectors. The cost effectiveness was calculated as the incremental cost relative to the incremental benefit, in which the benefit was estimated using quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). Uncertainty was explored using univariate and probabilistic sensitivity analysis. Vitamin D supplementation and medication review both dominated 'no intervention', as these interventions were both more effective and cost saving (because of healthcare costs avoided). Hip protectors are dominated (less effective and more costly) by vitamin D and medication review. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) for medication review relative to vitamin D supplementation is AU$2442 per QALY gained, and the ICER for multifactorial intervention relative to medication review is AU$1,112,500 per QALY gained. The model is most sensitive to the fear of falling and the cost of the interventions. The model suggests that vitamin D supplementation and medication review are cost-effective interventions that reduce falls, provide health benefits and reduce health care costs in older adults living in RACFs.

  19. The Effect of Electric Load Profiles on the Performance of Off-Grid Residential Hybrid Renewable Energy Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Treado

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the energy performance of off-grid residential hybrid renewable electric power systems, particularly the effect of electric load profiles on the ability to harvest available solar energy and avoid the consumption of auxiliary energy in the form of propane. The concepts are illustrated by an analysis of the energy performance of electric and propane-fired refrigerators. Off-grid electric power systems frequently incorporate a renewable source, such as wind or solar photovoltaic (PV, with a back-up power provided by a propane fueled motor/generator. Among other design decisions, residential consumers face the choice of employing an electric refrigerator with a conventional vapor compression refrigeration system, or a fuel-fired refrigerator operating as an absorption refrigeration system. One interesting question is whether it is more advantageous from an energy perspective to use electricity to run the refrigerator, which might be provided by some combination of the PV and propane motor/generator, thereby taking advantage of the relatively higher electric refrigerator Coefficient of Performance (COP and free solar energy but having to accept a low electrical conversion efficiency of the motor/generator, or use thermal energy from the combustion of propane to produce the refrigeration effect via an absorption system, albeit with a much lower COP. The analysis is complicated by the fact that most off-grid renewable electrical power systems utilize a battery bank to provide electrical power when it is not available from the wind turbine or PV system, so the state of charge of the battery bank will have a noticeable impact on what energy source is available at any moment in time. Daily electric load profiles combined with variable solar energy input determine the state of charge of the battery bank, with the degree of synchronization between the two being a critical factor in determining performance. The annual energy usage

  20. Applicability of the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index for Quantification of Residential Mold Contamination in an Air Pollution Health Effects Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Kamal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The Near-Road Exposures and Effects of Urban Air Pollutants Study (NEXUS investigated the impact of exposure to traffic-related air pollution on the respiratory health of asthmatic children in Detroit, Michigan. Since indoor mold exposure may also contribute to asthma, floor dust samples were collected in participants homes (n=112 to assess mold contamination using the Environmental Relative Moldiness Index (ERMI. The repeatability of the ERMI over time, as well as ERMI differences between rooms and dust collection methods, was evaluated for insights into the application of the ERMI metric. ERMI values for the standard settled floor dust samples had a mean ± standard deviation of 14.5±7.9, indicating high levels of mold contamination. ERMI values for samples collected from the same home 1 to 7 months apart (n=52 were consistent and without systematic bias. ERMI values for separate bedroom and living room samples were highly correlated (r=0.69, n=66. Vacuum bag dust ERMI values were lower than for floor dust but correlated (r=0.58, n=28. These results support the use of the ERMI to evaluate residential mold exposure as a confounder in air pollution health effects studies.

  1. Office white-coat effect tail and long-term cardiovascular risks in the Gubbio residential cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humbert, Xavier; Fedrizzi, Sophie; Alexandre, Joachim; Menotti, Alessandro; Manrique, Alain; Touzé, Emmanuel; Puddu, Paolo E

    2018-05-24

    The aim was to investigate whether office white-coat effect tail (OWCET), the waning of blood pressure (BP) after its waxing during office visit, predicted long-term major fatal and nonfatal events in the Gubbio residential cohort. There were 3572 persons (44% men, 54 ± 11 years old) included. OWCET was defined as a decrease of 10 mmHg or more in SBP between the third and first measurement out of a series obtained a few min apart in which the second and third were considered actual baseline SBP at enrollment. Cardiovascular (CVD), including strokes and coronary heart disease (CHD) hard criteria incidences and deaths along with all-cause deaths were considered. Over 185 months median follow-up, individuals with OWCET had significantly higher risk factors except for smoking, which was less frequent. OWCET was associated with an increased risk of both CVD [HR 1.25 (95% CI 1.02-1.52)] and CHD [HR 1.35 (95% CI 1.01-1.80)] events independently of traditional risk factors (age, sex, total cholesterol, HDL, cigarettes and BMI) including SBP. When effective antihypertensive treatment was considered, there was a significant higher CVD risk in individuals with OWCET (P < 0.037). In uncontrolled or untreated individuals, those with OWCET also had a higher risk (P < 0.073). In primary care, OWCET should be searched for as it can improve stratification of long-term CVD-CHD risks.

  2. Effective Recruitment Challenges Faced by the Hospitality Industry in Bangladesh: A Study on Selected Star Rated Residential Hotels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi HUDA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In Human Resource Management (HRM, Recruitment is the first and foremost issue to be considered with full of sincerity, because its role is to create a positive impression about the employer in the job market by ensuring effective stimuli for the job seekers. At the beginning, the study sets a picture that focuses on the importance of effective recruitment in the hospitality sector of Bangladesh and then the study details obligatory determinants of attracting efficient human resource for the development of this sector. The main objective of the paper is to study the status and the scopes of recruitment function in hospitality industry with focus towards star rated residential hotels. This study is based on primary data collection through a formal questionnaire. The questionnaire was of mixed mode with most questions in likert-type scale and few were dichotomous in nature. The key finding of the study is that recruitment is a highly challenging task in hospitality and it is quite evident that attractive compensation package is the key factor to attract potential employees. The need and scope to modernize the recruitment practices along with the line of company and employer branding ideas are also recommended in details. There is a long way to go on the way of conceptualizing and actualizing recruitment functions and practices. A paper like this can help to discuss and debate on the necessity of developing better recruitment cultural and conceptual change in these sectors.

  3. Effect of heat recovery water heater system on the performance of residential split air conditioner using hydrocarbon refrigerant (HCR22)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz, A.; Thalal; Amri, I.; Herisiswanto; Mainil, A. K.

    2017-09-01

    This This paper presents the performance of residential split air conditioner (RSAC) using hydrocarbon refrigerant (HCR22) as the effect on the use of heat recovery water heater system (HRWHS). In this study, RSAC was modified with addition of dummy condenser (trombone coil type) as heat recovery water heater system (HRWHS). This HRWHS is installed between a compressor and a condenser by absorbing a part of condenser waste heat. The results show that RSAC with HRWHS is adequate to generate hot water with the temperature range about 46.58˚C - 48.81˚C when compared to without HRWHS and the use of dummy condenser does not give significant effect to the split air conditioner performance. When the use of HRWHS, the refrigerant charge has increase about 19.05%, the compressor power consumption has slightly increase about 1.42% where cooling capacity almost the same with slightly different about 0.39%. The condenser heat rejection is lower about 2.68% and the COP has slightly increased about 1.05% when compared to without HRWHS. The use of HRWHS provide free hot water, it means there is energy saving for heating water without negative impact to the system performance of RSAC.

  4. Cost-effectiveness of food, supplement and environmental interventions to address malnutrition in residential aged care: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hugo, Cherie; Isenring, Elisabeth; Miller, Michelle; Marshall, Skye

    2018-05-01

    observational studies have shown that nutritional strategies to manage malnutrition may be cost-effective in aged care; but more robust economic data is needed to support and encourage translation to practice. Therefore, the aim of this systematic review is to compare the cost-effectiveness of implementing nutrition interventions targeting malnutrition in aged care homes versus usual care. residential aged care homes. systematic literature review of studies published between January 2000 and August 2017 across 10 electronic databases. Cochrane Risk of Bias tool and GRADE were used to evaluate the quality of the studies. eight included studies (3,098 studies initially screened) reported on 11 intervention groups, evaluating the effect of modifications to dining environment (n = 1), supplements (n = 5) and food-based interventions (n = 5). Interventions had a low cost of implementation (<£2.30/resident/day) and provided clinical improvement for a range of outcomes including weight, nutritional status and dietary intake. Supplements and food-based interventions further demonstrated a low cost per quality adjusted life year or unit of physical function improvement. GRADE assessment revealed the quality of the body of evidence that introducing malnutrition interventions, whether they be environmental, supplements or food-based, are cost-effective in aged care homes was low. this review suggests supplements and food-based nutrition interventions in the aged care setting are clinically effective, have a low cost of implementation and may be cost-effective at improving clinical outcomes associated with malnutrition. More studies using well-defined frameworks for economic analysis, stronger study designs with improved quality, along with validated malnutrition measures are needed to confirm and increase confidence with these findings.

  5. Effect of 1-week yoga-based residential program on cardiovascular variables of hypertensive patients: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashinath G Metri

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Hypertension (HTN is an important public health concern and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Yoga is a form of mind–body medicine shown to be effective in controlling blood pressure (BP and reduces cardiac risk factors in HTN. Integrated approach of Yoga therapy (IAYT is a residential yoga-based lifestyle intervention proven to be beneficial in several health conditions. Aim: To study the efficacy of 1 week of residential IAYT intervention on cardiovascular parameters in hypertensive patients. Methodology: Twenty hypertensive individuals (7 females within age range between 30 and 60 years (average; 46.62 ± 9.9 years, who underwent 1 week of IAYT treatment for HTN, were compared with age- gender-matched non-IAYT group (5 females; average age; 47.08 ± 9.69 years in terms of systolic BP (SBP, diastolic BP (DBP, mean arterial pressure (MAP, cardiac output (CO, stroke volume (SV, baroreflex sensitivity (BRS, and total peripheral vascular resistance (TPVR, IAYT program consisted of sessions of asanas, breathing practices, meditation and relaxation techniques, low salt, low-calorie diet, devotional session, and counseling. Individuals in non-IAYT group followed their normal routine. All the variables were assessed before and after one week. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. RM-ANOVA was applied to assess within group and between group changes after intervention. Results: There was a significant improvement in SBP (P = 0.004, DBP (P = 0.008, MAP (0.03, BRS (P < 0.001, and TPVR (P = 0.007 in IAYT, group whereas in control group, we did not find significant difference in any of the variables. Between-group comparison showed a significant improvement in SBP (P = 0.038, BRS (P = 0.034, and TPVR (P = 0.015 in IAYT group as compared to non-IAYT group. Conclusion: One-week IAYT intervention showed an improvement in baroreflex sensitivity, systolic BP, and total peripheral vascular resistance in hypertensive

  6. Effect of 1-Week Yoga-Based Residential Program on Cardiovascular Variables of Hypertensive Patients: A Comparative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metri, Kashinath G; Pradhan, Balaram; Singh, Amit; Nagendra, H R

    2018-01-01

    Hypertension (HTN) is an important public health concern and a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Yoga is a form of mind-body medicine shown to be effective in controlling blood pressure (BP) and reduces cardiac risk factors in HTN. Integrated approach of Yoga therapy (IAYT) is a residential yoga-based lifestyle intervention proven to be beneficial in several health conditions. Aim: To study the efficacy of 1 week of residential IAYT intervention on cardiovascular parameters in hypertensive patients. Twenty hypertensive individuals (7 females) within age range between 30 and 60 years (average; 46.62 ± 9.9 years), who underwent 1 week of IAYT treatment for HTN, were compared with age- gender-matched non-IAYT group (5 females; average age; 47.08 ± 9.69 years) in terms of systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), cardiac output (CO), stroke volume (SV), baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), and total peripheral vascular resistance (TPVR), IAYT program consisted of sessions of asanas, breathing practices, meditation and relaxation techniques, low salt, low-calorie diet, devotional session, and counseling. Individuals in non-IAYT group followed their normal routine. All the variables were assessed before and after one week. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16. RM-ANOVA was applied to assess within group and between group changes after intervention. There was a significant improvement in SBP ( P = 0.004), DBP ( P = 0.008), MAP (0.03), BRS ( P < 0.001), and TPVR ( P = 0.007) in IAYT, group whereas in control group, we did not find significant difference in any of the variables. Between-group comparison showed a significant improvement in SBP ( P = 0.038), BRS ( P = 0.034), and TPVR ( P = 0.015) in IAYT group as compared to non-IAYT group. One-week IAYT intervention showed an improvement in baroreflex sensitivity, systolic BP, and total peripheral vascular resistance in hypertensive patients. However, further randomized control

  7. The Oslo Health Study: The impact of self-selection in a large, population-based survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjertness Espen

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research on health equity which mainly utilises population-based surveys, may be hampered by serious selection bias due to a considerable number of invitees declining to participate. Sufficient information from all the non-responders is rarely available to quantify this bias. Predictors of attendance, magnitude and direction of non-response bias in prevalence estimates and association measures, are investigated based on information from all 40 888 invitees to the Oslo Health Study. Methods The analyses were based on linkage between public registers in Statistics Norway and the Oslo Health Study, a population-based survey conducted in 2000/2001 inviting all citizens aged 30, 40, 45, 59–60 and 75–76 years. Attendance was 46%. Weighted analyses, logistic regression and sensitivity analyses are performed to evaluate possible selection bias. Results The response rate was positively associated with age, educational attendance, total income, female gender, married, born in a Western county, living in the outer city residential regions and not receiving disability benefit. However, self-rated health, smoking, BMI and mental health (HCSL in the attendees differed only slightly from estimated prevalence values in the target population when weighted by the inverse of the probability of attendance. Observed values differed only moderately provided that the non-attending individuals differed from those attending by no more than 50%. Even though persons receiving disability benefit had lower attendance, the associations between disability and education, residential region and marital status were found to be unbiased. The association between country of birth and disability benefit was somewhat more evident among attendees. Conclusions Self-selection according to sociodemographic variables had little impact on prevalence estimates. As indicated by disability benefit, unhealthy persons attended to a lesser degree than healthy individuals

  8. The Oslo Health Study: The impact of self-selection in a large, population-based survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Søgaard, Anne Johanne; Selmer, Randi; Bjertness, Espen; Thelle, Dag

    2004-01-01

    Background Research on health equity which mainly utilises population-based surveys, may be hampered by serious selection bias due to a considerable number of invitees declining to participate. Sufficient information from all the non-responders is rarely available to quantify this bias. Predictors of attendance, magnitude and direction of non-response bias in prevalence estimates and association measures, are investigated based on information from all 40 888 invitees to the Oslo Health Study. Methods The analyses were based on linkage between public registers in Statistics Norway and the Oslo Health Study, a population-based survey conducted in 2000/2001 inviting all citizens aged 30, 40, 45, 59–60 and 75–76 years. Attendance was 46%. Weighted analyses, logistic regression and sensitivity analyses are performed to evaluate possible selection bias. Results The response rate was positively associated with age, educational attendance, total income, female gender, married, born in a Western county, living in the outer city residential regions and not receiving disability benefit. However, self-rated health, smoking, BMI and mental health (HCSL) in the attendees differed only slightly from estimated prevalence values in the target population when weighted by the inverse of the probability of attendance. Observed values differed only moderately provided that the non-attending individuals differed from those attending by no more than 50%. Even though persons receiving disability benefit had lower attendance, the associations between disability and education, residential region and marital status were found to be unbiased. The association between country of birth and disability benefit was somewhat more evident among attendees. Conclusions Self-selection according to sociodemographic variables had little impact on prevalence estimates. As indicated by disability benefit, unhealthy persons attended to a lesser degree than healthy individuals, but social inequality in

  9. Self-Selection Patterns of College Roommates as Identified by the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anchors, W. Scott; Hale, John, Jr.

    1985-01-01

    Investigated patterns and processes by which students (N=422) made unassisted roommate pairings within residence halls using the Myers-Briggs Type Indicator. Results indicated introverts, intuitives, feelers, and perceivers each tended to self-select. (BL)

  10. Effects of spatial configuration of imperviousness and green infrastructure networks on hydrologic response in a residential sewershed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Theodore C.; Welty, Claire

    2017-09-01

    Green infrastructure (GI) is an approach to stormwater management that promotes natural processes of infiltration and evapotranspiration, reducing surface runoff to conventional stormwater drainage infrastructure. As more urban areas incorporate GI into their stormwater management plans, greater understanding is needed on the effects of spatial configuration of GI networks on hydrological performance, especially in the context of potential subsurface and lateral interactions between distributed facilities. In this research, we apply a three-dimensional, coupled surface-subsurface, land-atmosphere model, ParFlow.CLM, to a residential urban sewershed in Washington DC that was retrofitted with a network of GI installations between 2009 and 2015. The model was used to test nine additional GI and imperviousness spatial network configurations for the site and was compared with monitored pipe-flow data. Results from the simulations show that GI located in higher flow-accumulation areas of the site intercepted more surface runoff, even during wetter and multiday events. However, a comparison of the differences between scenarios and levels of variation and noise in monitored data suggests that the differences would only be detectable between the most and least optimal GI/imperviousness configurations.

  11. Effects of dialectical behavior therapy skills training on outcomes for mental health staff in a child and adolescent residential setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haynos, Ann F; Fruzzetti, Alan E; Anderson, Calli; Briggs, David; Walenta, Jason

    2016-04-01

    Training in Dialectical Behavior Therapy (DBT) skills coaching is desirable for staff in psychiatric settings, due to the efficacy of DBT in treating difficult patient populations. In such settings, training resources are typically limited, and staff turnover is high, necessitating brief training. This study evaluated the effects of a brief training in DBT skills coaching for nursing staff working in a child and adolescent psychiatric residential program. Nursing staff ( n = 22) completed assessments of DBT skill knowledge, burnout, and stigma towards patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) before and after a six-week DBT skills coaching training. Repeated measure ANOVAs were conducted to examine changes on all measures from pre- to post- treatment and hierarchical linear regressions to examine relationships between pre- training DBT knowledge, burnout, and BPD stigma and these same measures post-training. The brief DBT skill coaching training significantly increased DBT knowledge ( p = .007) and decreased staff personal ( p = .02) and work ( p = .03) burnout and stigma towards BPD patients ( p = .02). Burnout indices and BPD stigma were highly correlated at both time points ( p training BPD stigma significantly predicted post-training client burnout ( p = .04), pre-training burnout did not predict post-training BPD stigma. These findings suggest that brief training of psychiatric nursing staff in DBT skills and coaching techniques can result in significant benefits, including reduced staff burnout and stigma toward patients with BPD-related problems, and that reducing BPD stigma may particularly promote lower burnout.

  12. Modeling Residential Electricity Consumption Function in Malaysia: Time Series Approach

    OpenAIRE

    L. L. Ivy-Yap; H. A. Bekhet

    2014-01-01

    As the Malaysian residential electricity consumption continued to increase rapidly, effective energy policies, which address factors affecting residential electricity consumption, is urgently needed. This study attempts to investigate the relationship between residential electricity consumption (EC), real disposable income (Y), price of electricity (Pe) and population (Po) in Malaysia for 1978-2011 period. Unlike previous studies on Malaysia, the current study focuses on the residential secto...

  13. The effectiveness of environment assessment tools to guide refurbishment of Australian residential aged care facilities: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neylon, Samantha; Bulsara, Caroline; Hill, Anne-Marie

    2017-06-01

    To determine applicability of environment assessment tools in guiding minor refurbishments of Australian residential aged care facilities. Studies conducted in residential aged care settings using assessment tools which address the physical environment were eligible for inclusion in a systematic review. Given these studies are limited, tools which have not yet been utilised in research settings were also included. Tools were analysed using a critical appraisal screen. Forty-three publications met the inclusion criteria. Ten environment assessment tools were identified, of which four addressed all seven minor refurbishment domains of lighting, colour and contrast, sound, flooring, furniture, signage and way finding. Only one had undergone reliability and validity testing. There are four tools which may be suitable to use for minor refurbishment of Australian residential aged care facilities. Data on their reliability, validity and quality are limited. © 2017 AJA Inc.

  14. Effects of feedback on residential electricity demand—Findings from a field trial in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schleich, Joachim; Klobasa, Marian; Gölz, Sebastian; Brunner, Marc

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effects of providing feedback on electricity consumption in a field trial involving more than 1500 households in Linz, Austria. About half of these households received feedback together with information about electricity-saving measures (pilot group), while the remaining households served as a control group. Participation in the pilot group was random, but households were able to choose between two types of feedback: access to a web portal or written feedback by post. Results from cross section OLS regression suggest that feedback provided to the pilot group corresponds with electricity savings of around 4.5% for the average household. Our results from quantile regressions imply that for households in the 30th to the 70th percentile of electricity consumption, feedback on electricity consumption is statistically significant and effects are highest in absolute terms and as a share of electricity consumption. For percentiles below or above this range, feedback appears to have no effect. Finally, controlling for a potential endogeneity bias induced by non random participation in the feedback type groups, we find no difference in the effects of feedback provided via the web portal and by post. - Highlights: • We estimate the effects of feedback on household electricity use in a field trial in Linz, Austria. • Providing feedback on electricity use corresponds with average savings of around 4.5%. • Effects of feedback are most pronounced in the 30th to the 70th percentile. • Feedback provided via a web portal and by post appears equally effective

  15. Evaluation of a residential nutrition rehabilitation center in rural Bolivia: short-term effectiveness and follow-up results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forney, Kristen M; Polansky, Lauren S; Rebolledo, Paulina A; Huamani, Katherine Foy; Mues, Katherine E; Ramakrishnan, Usha; Leon, Juan S

    2014-06-01

    Nutrition rehabilitation centers (NRCs) have shown mixed results in reducing morbidity and mortality among undernourished children in the developing world. Follow-up on children after leaving these programs remains undocumented. To assess the nutritional improvement of children attending the Centro de Rehabilitación Infantil Nutricional (CRIN), a residential NRC in rural Bolivia, from entrance to exit and to a household follow-up visit 1 month to 6 years later, and to identify factors associated with nutritional improvement. A retrospective analysis was conducted of clinical records collected by CRIN staff from 135 children under 3 years of age attending CRIN in rural Cochabamba, Bolivia, from 2003 to 2009, and of clinical records of household follow-up measurements on a subset of 26 children that were taken between 1 month and 6 years postexit. Nutritional status was evaluated by calculating z-scores for weight-for-height (WHZ), weight-for-age (WAZ), and height-for-age (HAZ). Children with z-scores < -2 were considered to be wasted, underweight, or stunted, respectively. The prevalence of wasting decreased significantly, while the prevalence of stunting did not change significantly between entrance and exit from the program. From entrance to exit, the mean changes in WHZ (0.79) and WAZ (1.08) were statistically significant, while the mean change in HAZ (-0.02) was not significant. Linear regression analysis suggested that nutritional status and diarrhea at entrance had the greatest effect on WHZ and HAZ changes between entrance and exit. Children maintained their nutritional gains from the program between exit and follow-up and showed statistically significant improvement in WAZ (but not HAZ). CRIN is effective at rehabilitating nutritional deficits associated with wasting, but not those associated with stunting.

  16. The effects of spaced retrieval training in improving hyperphagia of people living with dementia in residential settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chia-Ning; Lin, Li-Chan; Wu, Shiao-Chi

    2017-10-01

    To investigate the effectiveness of spaced retrieval for improving hyperphagia in patients with dementia in residential care settings. Although 10-30% of patients with dementia have hyperphagia, most studies have focused on eating difficulties. Only a few studies have focused on hyperphagia. Various memory problems cause hyperphagia in patients with dementia. Spaced retrieval, a cognitive technique for information learning, can be used as a training method to improve memory loss. Recent studies showed that patients who received the training successfully memorised information learned in the training and correctly applied it to their daily lives. Single-blind experiments were performed. The 97 subjects with dementia were recruited from seven institutions. All research participants were stratified into three groups according to cognitive impairment severity and Hyperphagic Behavior Scale scores and then randomly assigned to the experimental and control groups. The experimental group received a six-week one-by-one spaced retrieval training for hyperphagia behaviour. The control group received routine care. After the intervention, the frequency and severity of hyperphagia in the patients with dementia, and food intake were significantly lower in the experimental group than in the control group. However, body mass index did not significantly differ. Our results suggest that the spaced retrieval training could decrease the frequency and severity of hyperphagia in patients with dementia. The content of this training programme is consistent with the normal manner of eating in daily life and is easy for patients to understand and perform. Therefore, it can be applied in residents' daily lives. This study confirms the efficacy of the spaced retrieval training protocol for hyperphagia in patients with dementia. In future studies, the follow-up duration can be increased to determine the long-term effectiveness of the intervention. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Simulation of the effects of proposed tide gates on circulation, flushing, and water quality in residential canals, Cape Coral Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Carl R.

    1991-01-01

    Decades of dredging and filling of Florida's low-lying coastal wetlands have produced thousands of miles of residential tidal canals and adjacent waterfront property. Typically, these canals are poorly flushed, and over time, accumulated organic-rich bottom materials, contribute to an increasingly severe degraded water quality. One-dimensional hydrodynamic and constituent-transport models were applied to two dead-end canal systems to determine the effects of canal system interconnection using tide gates on water circulation and constituent flushing. The model simulates existing and possible future circulation and flushing conditions in about 29 miles of the approximately 130 miles of tidally influenced canals in Cape Coral, located on the central west coast of peninsular Florida. Model results indicate that tidal water-level differences between the two canal systems can be converted to kinetic energy, in the form of increased water circulation, but the use of one-way tide gate interconnections. Computations show that construction of from one to four tide gates will cause replacement of a volume of water equivalent to the total volume of canals in both systems in 15 to 9 days, respectively. Because some canals flush faster than others, 47 and 21 percent of the original canal water will remain in both systems 50 days after start of operation of one and four tide gates, respectively. Some of the effects that such increased flushing are expected to have include reduced density stratification and associated dissolved-oxygen depletion in canal bottom waters, increased localized reaeration, and more efficient discharge of stormwater runoff entering the canals.

  18. Residential Energy Performance Metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Wright

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Techniques for residential energy monitoring are an emerging field that is currently drawing significant attention. This paper is a description of the current efforts to monitor and compare the performance of three solar powered homes built at Missouri University of Science and Technology. The homes are outfitted with an array of sensors and a data logger system to measure and record electricity production, system energy use, internal home temperature and humidity, hot water production, and exterior ambient conditions the houses are experiencing. Data is being collected to measure the performance of the houses, compare to energy modeling programs, design and develop cost effective sensor systems for energy monitoring, and produce a cost effective home control system.

  19. Long-term effects of the Moving to Opportunity residential mobility experiment on crime and delinquency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sciandra, Matthew; Sanbonmatsu, Lisa; Duncan, Greg J; Gennetian, Lisa A; Katz, Lawrence F; Kessler, Ronald C; Kling, Jeffrey R; Ludwig, Jens

    2013-12-01

    Using data from a randomized experiment, to examine whether moving youth out of areas of concentrated poverty, where a disproportionate amount of crime occurs, prevents involvement in crime. We draw on new administrative data from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development's Moving to Opportunity (MTO) experiment. MTO families were randomized into an experimental group offered a housing voucher that could only be used to move to a low-poverty neighborhood, a Section 8 housing group offered a standard housing voucher, and a control group . This paper focuses on MTO youth ages 15-25 in 2001 ( n = 4,643) and analyzes intention to treat effects on neighborhood characteristics and criminal behavior (number of violent- and property-crime arrests) through 10 years after randomization. We find the offer of a housing voucher generates large improvements in neighborhood conditions that attenuate over time and initially generates substantial reductions in violent-crime arrests and sizable increases in property-crime arrests for experimental group males. The crime effects attenuate over time along with differences in neighborhood conditions. Our findings suggest that criminal behavior is more strongly related to current neighborhood conditions (situational neighborhood effects) than to past neighborhood conditions (developmental neighborhood effects). The MTO design makes it difficult to determine which specific neighborhood characteristics are most important for criminal behavior. Our administrative data analyses could be affected by differences across areas in the likelihood that a crime results in an arrest.

  20. RETROKIT- retrofitting residential multi-family building - Evaluation of effects on indoor environmental quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluizenaar, Y. de; Jong, P. de; Vliet, M.R.A. de

    2016-01-01

    Energy efficiency retrofitting of post war multi-family homes provides a great opportunity not only in terms of energy saving potential, but also in terms of improvement of IEQ, comfort and quality of living. However, insight is needed in potential unexpected adverse effects that may occur, for the

  1. Interactive effects of reward sensitivity and residential fast-food restaurant exposure on fast-food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paquet, Catherine; Daniel, Mark; Knäuper, Bärbel; Gauvin, Lise; Kestens, Yan; Dubé, Laurette

    2010-03-01

    Local fast-food environments have been increasingly linked to obesity and related outcomes. Individuals who are more sensitive to reward-related cues might be more responsive to such environments. This study aimed to assess the moderating role of sensitivity to reward on the relation between residential fast-food restaurant exposure and fast-food consumption. Four hundred fifteen individuals (49.6% men; mean age: 34.7 y) were sampled from 7 Montreal census tracts stratified by socioeconomic status and French/English language. The frequency of fast-food restaurant visits in the previous week was self-reported. Sensitivity to reward was self-reported by using the Behavioral Activation System (BAS) scale. Fast-food restaurant exposure within 500 m of the participants' residence was determined by using a Geographic Information System. Main and interactive effects of the BAS and fast-food restaurant exposure on fast-food consumption were tested with logistic regression models that accounted for clustering of observations and participants' age, sex, education, and household income. Regression results showed a significant interaction between BAS and fast-food restaurant exposure (P food restaurant exposure and consumption was positive for the highest tertile (odds ratio: 1.49; 95% CI: 1.20, 1.84; P < 0.001) but null for the intermediate (odds ratio: 1.03; 95% CI: 0.80, 1.34; P = 0.81) and lowest (odds ratio: 0.84; 95% CI: 0.51, 1.37; P = 0.49) tertiles. Reward-sensitive individuals may be more responsive to unhealthful cues in their immediate environment.

  2. Wind Energy Facilities and Residential Properties: The Effect of Proximity and View on Sales Prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoen, Ben; Wiser, Ryan; Cappers, Peter; Thayer, Mark; Sethi, Gautam

    2010-04-01

    With an increasing number of communities considering nearby wind power developments, there is a need to empirically investigate community concerns about wind project development. One such concern is that property values may be adversely affected by wind energy facilities, and relatively little research exists on the subject. The present research investigates roughly 7,500 sales of single-family homes surrounding 24 existing U.S. wind facilities. Across four different hedonic models the results are consistent: neither the view of the wind facilities nor the distance of the home to those facilities is found to have a statistically significant effect on home sales prices.

  3. Wind Energy Facilities and Residential Properties: The Effect of Proximity and View on Sales Prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    San Diego State University; Bard Center for Environmental Policy at Bard College; Hoen, Ben; Wiser, Ryan; Cappers, Peter; Thayer, Mark; Sethi, Gautam

    2011-06-23

    With increasing numbers of communities considering wind power developments, empirical investigations regarding related community concerns are needed. One such concern is that proximate property values may be adversely affected, yet relatively little research exists on the subject. The present research investigates roughly 7,500 sales of single-family homes surrounding 24 existing U.S. wind facilities. Across four different hedonic models, and a variety of robustness tests, the results are consistent: neither the view of the wind facilities nor the distance of the home to those facilities is found to have a statistically significant effect on sales prices, yet further research is warranted.

  4. Effect of passive cooling strategies on overheating in low energy residential buildings for Danish climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Avantaggiato, Marta; de Carli, Michele

    2014-01-01

    creating not negligible thermal discomfort. In the present work the effect of passive strategies, such as solar shading and natural night-time ventilation, are evaluated through computer simulations. The analyses are performed for 1½-storey single-family house in Copenhagen’s climate. The main result......Climate changes have progressively produced an increase of outdoors temperature resulting in tangible warmer summers even in cold climate regions. An increased interest for passive cooling strategies is rising in order to overcome the newly low energy buildings’ overheating issue. The growing level...

  5. A prospective economic assessment of residential PV self-consumption with batteries and its systemic effects, and the implications for public policies: the French case in 2030

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Hyun Jin Julie

    2017-01-01

    Over the last decade, the price of PV modules has fallen largely due to the globalization of the PV sector. If residential PV systems coupled with batteries become economically competitive in the near future, end-users will be willing to switch to the self-consumption of PV electricity instead of using power from the network. If the transition of PV self-consumption in the residential sector occurs massively or suddenly, the national energy system would be faced with a radical change. This article analyses the economic feasibility of French residential PV systems combined with Li-ion batteries in 2030 to anticipate the possible change in future energy systems. It also includes a stakeholder analysis with respect to the PV self-consumption model to analyse the systemic effects of PV integration into the electricity system. Our study provides a theoretical explanation of the impact on the current electricity market and quantifies the expected impact on the most influential stakeholder group. The ultimate objective is to help policy-makers forecast possible scenarios for PV self-consumption so they can prepare for the future transition with strategic actions. By way of conclusion, we discuss the policy implications and elaborate policy recommendations based on the results of this study. (author)

  6. An Analysis of the Effects of Photovoltaic Energy Systems on Residential Selling Prices in California.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cappers, Peter; Wiser, Ryan; Thayer, Mark; Hoen, Ben

    2011-04-12

    An increasing number of homes with existing photovoltaic (PV) energy systems have sold in the U.S., yet relatively little research exists that estimates the marginal impacts of those PV systems on the sales price. A clearer understanding of these effects might influence the decisions of homeowners, home buyers and PV home builders. This research analyzes a large dataset of California homes that sold from 2000 through mid-2009 with PV installed. Across a large number of hedonic and repeat sales model specifications and robustness tests, the analysis finds strong evidence that homes with PV systems sold for a premium over comparable homes without. The effects range, on average, from approximately $3.9 to $6.4 per installed watt (DC), with most models coalescing near $5.5/watt, which corresponds to a premium of approximately $17,000 for a 3,100 watt system. The research also shows that, as PV systems age, the premium enjoyed at the time of home sale decreases. Additionally, existing homes with PV systems are found to have commanded a larger sales price premium than new homes with similarly sized PV systems. Reasons for this discrepancy are suggested, yet further research is warranted in this area as well as a number of other areas that are highlighted.

  7. Long term fuel price elasticity: effects on mobility tool ownership and residential location choice - Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erath, A.; Axhausen, K. W.

    2010-04-15

    This comprehensive final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the long-term effects of fuel price elasticity. The study analyses how mobility tool usage and ownership as well as residence location choice are affected by rising fuel costs. Based on econometric models, long-term fuel price elasticity is derived. The authors quote that the demand reactions to higher fuel prices mainly observed are the reduction of mileage and the consideration of smaller-engined and diesel-driven cars. As cars with natural gas powered engines and electric drives were hardly considered in the survey, the results of the natural gas model can, according to the authors, only serve as a trend. No stable model could be estimated for the demand and usage of electric cars. A literature overview is presented and the design of the survey is discussed, whereby socio-demographical variables and the effects of price and residence changes are discussed. Modelling of mobility tool factors and results obtained are looked at. Finally, residence choice factors are modelled and discussed. Several appendices complete the report.

  8. Wind Energy Facilities and Residential Properties: The Effect of Proximity and View on Sales Prices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoen, Ben; Wiser, Ryan; Cappers, Peter; Thayer, Mark; Sethi, Gautam

    2010-04-01

    With wind energy expanding rapidly in the U.S. and abroad, and with an increasing number of communities considering nearby wind power developments, there is a need to empirically investigate community concerns about wind project development. One such concern is that property values may be adversely affected by wind energy facilities, and relatively little existing research exists on the subject. The present research is based on almost 7,500 sales of single-family homes situated within ten miles of 24 existing wind facilities in nine different U.S. states. The conclusions of the study are drawn from four different hedonic pricing models. The model results are consistent in that neither the view of the wind facilities nor the distance of the home to those facilities is found to have a statistically significant effect on home sales prices.

  9. Effects of heat and electricity saving measures in district-heated multistory residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truong, Nguyen Le; Dodoo, Ambrose; Gustavsson, Leif

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We analyzed the potential for energy savings in district heated buildings. • Measures that reduce more peak load production give higher primary energy savings. • Efficient appliances increase heat demand but give net primary energy savings. • Efficient appliances give the largest net primary energy savings. - Abstract: The effects of heat and electricity saving measures in district-heated buildings can be complex because these depend not only on how energy is used on the demand side but also on how energy is provided from the supply side. In this study, we analyze the effects of heat and electricity saving measures in multistory concrete-framed and wood-framed versions of an existing district-heated building and examine the impacts of the reduced energy demand on different district heat (DH) production configurations. The energy saving measures considered are for domestic hot water reduction, building thermal envelope improvement, ventilation heat recovery (VHR), and household electricity savings. Our analysis is based on a measured heat load profile of an existing DH production system in Växjö, Sweden. Based on the measured heat load profile, we model three minimum-cost DH production system using plausible environmental and socio-political scenarios. Then, we investigate the primary energy implications of the energy saving measures applied to the two versions of the existing building, taking into account the changed DH demand, changed cogenerated electricity, and changed electricity use due to heat and electricity saving measures. Our results show that the difference between the final and primary energy savings of the concrete-framed and wood-framed versions of the case-study building is minor. The primary energy efficiency of the energy saving measures depends on the type of measure and on the composition of the DH production system. Of the various energy saving measures explored, electricity savings give the highest primary energy savings

  10. Employment impacts of energy conservation schemes in the residential sector. Calculation of direct and indirect employment effects using a dedicated input/output simulation approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeeninga, H.; Weber, C.; Maeenpaeae, I.; Rivero Garcia, F.; Wiltshire, V.; Wade, J.

    1999-10-01

    The relationship between investments in energy efficiency and employment is investigated. The employment effects of several energy conservation schemes implemented in the residential sector are determined by means of a dedicated input/output simulation approach. The employment effects of energy conservation schemes were determined for France, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain and the United Kingdom. Within the time frame of the project, it was not feasible to perform a comparable analysis for Greece, Ireland and Austria. For Finland, the employment effects of energy auditing schemes were investigated by means of a macro economic simulation model. The main driving force behind the positive employment effect of investment in energy efficiency in the residential sector is the fact that the energy sector has a rather low labour intensity. The resulting shift of expenditures from the energy sector to other sectors with higher labour intensity leads to increased employment. The main mechanisms that determine the net shift in employment resulting from investments in energy conservation are: 1. The employment effect related to the initial investment in energy efficiency; 2. The energy saving effect. Due to lower energy bill, a shift in expenditure pattern will occur from the labour extensive energy sector towards sectors with higher labour intensity, thus inducing a net positive effect on employment; 3. The effects of money transfers between sectors. For example, when the investment is subsidised by the government, money is transferred from the governmental sector to the residential sector; 4. Changes in the total government budget as a result of changes in total tax revenue and expenditures on unemployment benefits. Different financing methods for the investment in energy efficiency are analysed. The initial investment can be financed from the general household consumption budget, by means of a loan, using a subsidy or using private savings. The following input parameters

  11. The effects of electric vehicles on residential households in the city of Indianapolis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Shisheng; Safiullah, Hameed; Xiao Jingjie; Hodge, Bri-Mathias S.; Hoffman, Ray; Soller, Joan; Jones, Doug; Dininger, Dennis; Tyner, Wallace E.; Liu, Andrew; Pekny, Joseph F.

    2012-01-01

    There is an increasing impetus to transform the U.S transportation sector and transition away from the uncertainties of oil supply. One of the most viable current solutions is the adoption of electric vehicles (EVs). These vehicles allow for a transportation system that would be flexible in its fuel demands. However, utilities may need to address questions such as distribution constraints, electricity tariffs and incentives and public charging locations before large scale electric vehicle adoption can be realized. In this study, the effect of electric vehicles on households in Indianapolis is examined. A four-step traffic flow model is used to characterize the usage characteristics of vehicles in the Indianapolis metropolitan area. This data is then used to simulate EV usage patterns which can be used to determine household electricity usage characteristics. These results are differentiated by the zones with which the households are associated. Economic costs are then calculated for the individual households. Finally, possible public charging locations are examined. - Highlights: ► Traffic flow modeling is used to accurately characterize EV usage in Indianapolis. ► EV usage patterns are simulated to determine household electricity usage patterns. ► Economic costs are calculated for the households for electric vehicles. ► Possible public charging locations are examined.

  12. A new approach to measuring the rebound effect associated to energy efficiency improvements: An application to the US residential energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orea, Luis; Llorca, Manuel; Filippini, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    This paper brings attention to the fact that the energy demand frontier model introduced by Filippini and Hunt (2011, 2012) is closely connected to the measurement of the so-called rebound effect associated with improvements in energy efficiency. In particular, we show that their model implicitly imposes a zero rebound effect, which contradicts most of the available empirical evidence on this issue. We relax this restrictive assumption through the modelling of a rebound-effect function that mitigates or intensifies the effect of an efficiency improvement on energy consumption. We illustrate our model with an empirical application that aims to estimate a US frontier residential aggregate energy demand function using panel data for 48 states over the period 1995 to 2011. Average values of the rebound effect in the range of 56–80% are found. Therefore, policymakers should be aware that most of the expected energy reduction from efficiency improvements may not be achieved. - Highlights: • A new approach to measuring rebound effects in energy consumption is presented. • We illustrate our proposal with an application to US residential energy demand. • Relatively large rebound effects in the range of 56–80% are found. • Energy-inefficient states tend to exhibit low rebound effects. • We identify states where energy-saving policies should be more effective

  13. 77 FR 28519 - Test Procedure Guidance for Room Air Conditioners, Residential Dishwashers, and Residential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... Guidance for Room Air Conditioners, Residential Dishwashers, and Residential Clothes Washers: Public... procedures for room air conditioners, residential dishwashers, and residential clothes washers. DATES: DOE...'s existing test procedures for residential room air conditioners, residential dishwashers, and...

  14. Self-selection and intermunicipal migration in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M N; Choudhury, S A

    1991-02-01

    "This paper investigates individual intermunicipal migration behaviour in Canada within the context of a human capital model that adjusts for the migrant's selectivity in computing expected income gains. In addition to the typical regional determinants of migration, housing and labour market characteristics are found to influence intermunicipal migration significantly, the effects differing with age. Structural coefficients remained more or less stable during the decade 1971-1981. It is shown that the failure to adjust income gains for selectivity bias results in an underestimation of the migration-impacts of income gains and municipal-specific factors." excerpt

  15. Intersession reliability of self-selected and narrow stance balance testing in older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riemann, Bryan L; Piersol, Kelsey

    2017-10-01

    Despite the common practice of using force platforms to assess balance of older adults, few investigations have examined the reliability of postural screening tests in this population. We sought to determine the test-retest reliability of self-selected and narrow stance balance testing with eyes open and eyes closed in healthy older adults. Thirty older adults (>65 years) completed 45 s trials of eyes open and eyes closed stability tests using self-selected and narrow stances on two separate days (1.9 ± .7 days). Average medial-lateral center of pressure velocity was computed. The ICC results ranged from .74 to .86, and no significant systematic changes (P eyes open and closed balance testing using self-selected and narrow stances in older adults was established which should provide a foundation for the development of fall risk screening tests.

  16. Interdisciplinary Residential Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Traumatic Brain Injury: Effects on Symptom Severity and Occupational Performance and Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speicher, Sarah M.; Walter, Kristen H.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This study examined outcomes of an 8-wk residential treatment program for veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHOD. Twenty-six veterans completed the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure, Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale, Beck Depression Inventory–2nd Edition, and PTSD Checklist before and after treatment. RESULTS. Veterans demonstrated significant improvements in occupational performance and satisfaction with their performance, as well as in PTSD and depression symptom severity after residential PTSD/TBI treatment. Additionally, improvements in occupational performance and satisfaction were associated with decreases in depression symptom severity. CONCLUSION. Although preliminary, results suggest that veterans with PTSD and a history of TBI experienced significant decreases in PTSD and depression symptom severity and improvement in self-perception of performance and satisfaction in problematic occupational areas. Changes in occupational areas and depression symptom severity were related, highlighting the importance of interdisciplinary treatment. PMID:25005504

  17. Effect of Fuel Wobbe Number on Pollutant Emissions from Advanced Technology Residential Water Heaters: Results of Controlled Experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rapp, Vi H.; Singer, Brett C.

    2014-03-01

    The research summarized in this report is part of a larger effort to evaluate the potential air quality impacts of using liquefied natural gas in California. A difference of potential importance between many liquefied natural gas blends and the natural gas blends that have been distributed in California in recent years is the higher Wobbe number of liquefied natural gas. Wobbe number is a measure of the energy delivery rate for appliances that use orifice- or pressure-based fuel metering. The effect of Wobbe number on pollutant emissions from residential water heaters was evaluated in controlled experiments. Experiments were conducted on eight storage water heaters, including five with “ultra low-NO{sub X}” burners, and four on-demand (tankless) water heaters, all of which featured ultra low-NO{sub X} burners. Pollutant emissions were quantified as air-free concentrations in the appliance flue and fuel-based emission factors in units of nanogram of pollutant emitter per joule of fuel energy consumed. Emissions were measured for carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub X}), nitrogen oxide (NO), formaldehyde and acetaldehyde as the water heaters were operated through defined operating cycles using fuels with varying Wobbe number. The reference fuel was Northern California line gas with Wobbe number ranging from 1344 to 1365. Test fuels had Wobbe numbers of 1360, 1390 and 1420. The most prominent finding was an increase in NO{sub X} emissions with increasing Wobbe number: all five of the ultra low-NO{sub X} storage water heaters and two of the four ultra low-NO{sub X} on-demand water heaters had statistically discernible (p<0.10) increases in NO{sub X} with fuel Wobbe number. The largest percentage increases occurred for the ultra low-NO{sub X} water heaters. There was a discernible change in CO emissions with Wobbe number for all four of the on-demand devices tested. The on-demand water heater with the highest CO emissions also had the largest CO increase

  18. Use of nutrient self selection as a diet refining tool in Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A new method to refine existing dietary supplements for improving production of the yellow mealworm, Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae), was tested. Self selected ratios of 6 dietary ingredients by T. molitor larvae were used to produce a dietary supplement. This supplement was compared...

  19. Continuous Self-Selection Processes in Teacher Education: The Way for Survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zak, Itai

    1981-01-01

    Three selection phases were found in a study investigating the selection process of students into the teaching profession: (1) self selection by the potential teacher; (2) admission to the teacher-training program; and (3) election to undergo the course of instruction. Results suggest that personality traits are more important than cognitive…

  20. Vocational Preferences and College Expectations: An Extension of Holland's Principle of Self-Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pike, Gary R.

    2006-01-01

    Holland's theory of vocational preferences provides a powerful framework for studying students' college experiences. A basic proposition of Holland's theory is that individuals actively seek out and select environments that are congruent with their personality types. Although studies consistently support the self-selection proposition, they have…

  1. Treadmill Adaptation and Verification of Self-Selected Walking Speed: A Protocol for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorim, Paulo Roberto S.; Hills, Andrew; Byrne, Nuala

    2009-01-01

    Walking is a common activity of daily life and researchers have used the range 3-6 km.h[superscript -1] as reference for walking speeds habitually used for transportation. The term self-selected (i.e., individual or comfortable walking pace or speed) is commonly used in the literature and is identified as the most efficient walking speed, with…

  2. Learning by Exporting or Self Selection? Which Way for the Kenyan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The results obtained show some significant differences between exporters and non exporters. The results also show some evidence for learning-by-doing hypothesis and evidence for self-selection of more efficient firms into exporting. On the policy front the paper calls for more focus on improving exports in order for Kenya ...

  3. Effectiveness of interventions to improve family-staff relationships in the care of people with dementia in residential aged care: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Mynhi; Pachana, Nancy A; Beattie, Elizabeth; Fielding, Elaine; Ramis, Mary-Anne

    2015-11-01

    The objective of this review is to identify and appraise existing evidence regarding the effectiveness of interventions designed to enhance staff-family relationships for people with dementia living in residential aged care facilities.More specifically, the objectives are to identify the effectiveness of constructive communication, cooperation programs, and practices or strategies to enhance family-staff relationships. The effectiveness of these interventions will be measured by comparing the intervention to no intervention, comparing one intervention with another, or comparing pre- and post-interventions.Specifically the review question is: What are the most effective interventions for improving communication and cooperation to enhance family-staff relationships in residential aged care facilities? In our aging world, dementia is prevalent and is a serious health concern affecting approximately 35.6 million people worldwide. This figure is expected to increase two-fold by 2030 and three-fold by 2050. Although younger-onset dementia is increasingly recognized, dementia is most commonly a disease that affects the elderly. Among those aged 65 to 85, the prevalence of dementia increases exponentially, and doubles with every five-year increase in age.Dementia is defined as a syndrome, commonly chronic or progressive in nature, and caused by a range of brain disorders that affect memory, thinking and the ability to perform activities of daily living. While the rate of progression and manifestation of decline differs, all cases of dementia share a similar trajectory of decline. The progressive decline in cognitive functions and ultimately physical function that these people face affects not only the person with the disease but also their family caregivers and health care staff.The manifestation of dementia presents unique and extreme challenges for the family caregiver. Generally it causes great physical, emotional and social strain because the caregiving process is long

  4. Effect of Air Cleaning Technologies in Conjunction With the Use of Rotary Heat Exchangers in Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshari, Alireza; Bergsøe, Niels Christian; Ekberg, Lars

    2013-01-01

    This study is part of a research project concerning the possibilities of applying efficient air cleaning technologies using rotary heat exchanger in residential buildings. The purpose of this project was to identify and adapt new air-cleaning technologies for implementation in HVAC systems...... with rotary air-to-air heat exchangers. For this purpose, a mechanical filter with low pressure drop and a 4 cm thick activated carbon filter were selected for testing in a laboratory environment. The measurements included testing of the filters, separately and combined, in a ductwork to study the efficiency...

  5. To Whom Is Contact Use Beneficial? The Impacts of Self-Selected Contact Use on Gender Income Differentials in the Transitional Economy of Urban China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Shen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we examined the effect of contact use on the gender earnings gap in urban China, by taking into account the existence of self-selection effect. We theorised two sources of individuals’ self-selected job obtainment behaviour; namely, the structuralised gender-segregated employment environment and one’s internalisation of the structural constraints. Based on data collected from the highly marketized Chinese city Xiamen, our estimations from the Endogenous Switching Regression model show that there is indeed a significant tendency, in which women with marketable qualifications use social contacts to find jobs, even though their obtained income would have increased significantly had they chosen not to rely on contacts to find jobs. Men enjoyed premiums from their job search strategies, whether they relied on contact use or not.

  6. Electronic Information Systems Use in Residential Care Facilities: The Differential Effect of Ownership Status and Chain Affiliation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Jullet A; Zakoscielna, Karolina; Jacobs, Lindsey

    2016-03-01

    The use of electronic information systems (EISs) including electronic health records continues to increase in all sectors of the health care industry. Research shows that EISs may be useful for improving care delivery and decreasing medical errors. The purpose of this project is twofold: First, we describe the prevalence of EIS use among residential care facilities (RCFs), and second, we explore utilization differences by ownership status and chain affiliation. We anticipate that RCFs that are non-profit and non-chain will use more EIS than other categories of RCFs. Data for this project come from the 2010 National Survey of Residential Care Facilities. The sample consists of 2,300 facilities. Overall use of EIS was greatest among RCFs that are non-profit and chain-affiliated. Conversely, the use was lowest among for-profit RCFs that were also non-chain affiliated. This may suggest that these facilities lack the necessary resources or motivation to invest in information systems. © The Author(s) 2014.

  7. The effects of the urban built environment on the spatial distribution of lead in residential soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, K; Pickett, Steward T A; Lathrop, Richard G; Weathers, Kathleen C; Pouyat, Richard V; Cadenasso, Mary L

    2012-04-01

    Lead contamination of urban residential soils is a public health concern. Consequently, there is a need to delineate hotspots in the landscape to identify risk and facilitate remediation. Land use is a good predictor of some environmental pollutants. However, in the case of soil lead, research has shown that land use is not a useful proxy. We hypothesize that soil lead is related to both individual landscape features at the parcel scale and the landscape context in which parcels are embedded. We sampled soil lead on 61 residential parcels in Baltimore, Maryland using field-portable x-ray fluorescence. Thirty percent of parcels had average lead concentrations that exceeded the USEPA limit of 400 ppm and 53% had at least one reading that exceeded 400 ppm. Results indicate that soil lead is strongly associated with housing age, distance to roadways, and on a parcel scale, distance to built structures. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Residential mobility and childhood leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoon, A T; Oksuzyan, S; Crespi, C M; Arah, O A; Cockburn, M; Vergara, X; Kheifets, L

    2018-07-01

    Studies of environmental exposures and childhood leukemia studies do not usually account for residential mobility. Yet, in addition to being a potential risk factor, mobility can induce selection bias, confounding, or measurement error in such studies. Using data collected for California Powerline Study (CAPS), we attempt to disentangle the effect of mobility. We analyzed data from a population-based case-control study of childhood leukemia using cases who were born in California and diagnosed between 1988 and 2008 and birth certificate controls. We used stratified logistic regression, case-only analysis, and propensity-score adjustments to assess predictors of residential mobility between birth and diagnosis, and account for potential confounding due to residential mobility. Children who moved tended to be older, lived in housing other than single-family homes, had younger mothers and fewer siblings, and were of lower socioeconomic status. Odds ratios for leukemia among non-movers living mobility, including dwelling type, increased odds ratios for leukemia to 2.61 (95% CI: 1.76-3.86) for living mobility of childhood leukemia cases varied by several sociodemographic characteristics, but not by the distance to the nearest power line or calculated magnetic fields. Mobility appears to be an unlikely explanation for the associations observed between power lines exposure and childhood leukemia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effectiveness of meaningful occupation interventions for people living with dementia in residential aged care: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travers, Catherine; Brooks, Deborah; Hines, Sonia; O'Reilly, Maria; McMaster, Mitchell; He, Wei; MacAndrew, Margaret; Fielding, Elaine; Karlsson, Lina; Beattie, Elizabeth

    2016-12-01

    The ability to participate in valued activities, whether for work, leisure or family, is an important aspect of personal identity. In dementia, progressive memory loss means that abilities developed over a lifetime begin to be lost as well, contributing to the loss of self and identity. Some studies have reported that activities or interventions tailored to be meaningful to the person with dementia (defined as any activity important to the individual) are more effective in addressing behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) and improving quality of life (QoL) than those that are not so tailored. However, the effectiveness of individualizing interventions or activities for this population is not known. In response to consumer feedback by the Consumer Dementia Research Network that this question ought to be addressed, this review was undertaken, the aim of which was to determine the effectiveness of meaningful occupation interventions for people living with dementia in residential aged care facilities (RACFs). People living with dementia in RACFs (nursing homes).Any intervention that was individualized to be meaningful to the participant, versus any active control condition or usual care.Experimental and observational studies. Quality of life, BPSD (such as agitation, aggression, depression, wandering and apathy), mood, function, cognition and sleep. The search strategy aimed to identify both published and unpublished studies, with the following 12 databases extensively searched: PubMed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, ISI Web of Science, OTSeeker, Embase, Cochrane CENTRAL, clinicaltrials.gov, Mednar, OpenSIGLE, New York Academy of Medicine Library Gray Literature Report, ProQuest Dissertations and Theses. The search strategy was limited to papers published in English between 2004 and January 31, 2015. All studies were assessed independently by two reviewers for relevance, eligibility and methodological quality. Data from included papers were extracted using a

  10. Advancing aging society and its effect on the residential use energy demand; Shintensuru koreika shakai to kateiyo energy juyo eno eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The paper analyzed various factors regulating the energy demand in aged households and viewed the future residential use energy demand in the aging society. In Part 1, based on the family budget survey annual report, a study was made of the energy consumption situation of aged people and the trend of the future residential energy consumption. In Part 2, a study was conducted based on survey data on the U.K., France, Sweden and Denmark. In Western countries which are the developed countries of aging, the energy conservation policy effectively worked for the space heating demand which is highest of all, and factors of the energy consumption increase by aging were absorbed. However, since in Japan, aging is rapidly advancing and further there are relatively more factors which connect to an increase in energy consumption in aged households as compared with Western countries, it is thought that Japan is in a situation where the energy consumption increases more often, influenced by aged households. 91 refs., 130 figs., 41 tabs.

  11. Payment mechanism and GP self-selection: capitation versus fee for service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, Marie; Jelovac, Izabela; Léger, Pierre-Thomas

    2014-06-01

    This paper analyzes the consequences of allowing gatekeeping general practitioners (GPs) to select their payment mechanism. We model GPs' behavior under the most common payment schemes (capitation and fee for service) and when GPs can select one among them. Our analysis considers GP heterogeneity in terms of both ability and concern for their patients' health. We show that when the costs of wasteful referrals to costly specialized care are relatively high, fee for service payments are optimal to maximize the expected patients' health net of treatment costs. Conversely, when the losses associated with failed referrals of severely ill patients are relatively high, we show that either GPs' self-selection of a payment form or capitation is optimal. Last, we extend our analysis to endogenous effort and to competition among GPs. In both cases, we show that self-selection is never optimal.

  12. Effects of residential wastewater treatment systems on ground-water quality in west-central Jefferson County, Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Dennis C.; Hillier, D.E.; Nickum, Edward; Dorrance, W.G.

    1981-01-01

    The use of residential wastewater-treatment systems in Evergreen Meadows, Marshdale, and Herzman Mesa, Colo., has degraded ground-water quality to some extent in each community. Age of community; average lot size; slope of land surface; composition, permeability, and thickness of surficial material; density, size , and orientation of fractures; maintenance of wastewater-treatment systems; and presence of animals are factors possibly contributing to the degradation of ground-water quality. When compared with effluent from aeration-treatment tanks, effluent fom septic-treatment tanks is characterized by greater biochemical oxygen demand and greater concentrations of detergents. When compared with effluent from septic-treatment tanks, effluent from aeration-treatment tanks is characterized by greater concentrations of dissolved oxygen, nitrite, nitrate, sulfate, and dissolved solids. (USGS)

  13. The Urban Enclave, a Spatio–Temporal Logic of the Urbanized Periphery: Effects on Residential Segregation and Urban Fragmentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guénola Capron

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The production of the metropolitan peripheries in Latin America has been characterized by the development of urban, residential and commercial enclaves. These enclaves encompass both large urban housing projects of social interest and subdivisions and gated communities for high–income populations. Both peripheries respond to very different social reasons but have a common spatial logic: the enclave, which deepens the isolation and social distance with its surroundings, generating segregation and fragmentation. We seek to rescue the social and spatial processes of ‘enclosing’ or ‘insularity’ in two cases: a gated community in the northeast — Zona Esmeralda— and a social housing urban complex in the east —San Buenaventura—, both bordering the metropolitan area of the Mexico Valley.

  14. Effects of peak shaving technologies in the residential and commercial sector; Minsei bumon no fuka heijunka gijutsu no donyu koka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagata, Y. [Kyoto University, Kyoto (Japan); Takahashi, M.; Uchiyama, Y. [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-09-01

    This paper analyzes how much of the power demand could be reduced in the future by improving efficiencies of electric power utilizing appliances used in the residential and commercial sector. It discusses whether the reduction would lead to load leveling. Annual load rate in the power demand is continuing to decrease because of power demand increase in the residential and commercial sector, and increase in demand for air conditioning in summer. If a technology to improve electric appliance efficiency is proliferated to its maximum scope, the annual load rate in fiscal 2014 may be improved by 1.1 percent point. Since the improvement allows new power generation facility installation cost to be deferred, the power generation unit cost can be reduced by 0.11 yen per kwh. If a heat storage type air conditioning technology is proliferated to its maximum scope, the annual load rate in fiscal 2014 can be improved by 1.8 percent point, and the power generation cost may also be reduced. If the device efficiency improving technology and the heat storage type air conditioning technology are introduced to their maximum simultaneously, the annual load rate in fiscal 2014 can be improved by 2.5 percent point, and the power generation cost may also be reduced by 0.24 yen per kwh. If a promotion policy is taken on proliferation of a specific device efficiency improving technology having excellent economic performance by providing subsidy, the reduction amount of cumulative power generation expense will be much greater than the required subsidy amount. 10 refs., 9 figs., 22 tabs.

  15. Not looking yourself: The cost of self-selecting photographs for identity verification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, David; Burton, Amy L; Kemp, Richard I

    2016-05-01

    Photo-identification is based on the premise that photographs are representative of facial appearance. However, previous studies show that ratings of likeness vary across different photographs of the same face, suggesting that some images capture identity better than others. Two experiments were designed to examine the relationship between likeness judgments and face matching accuracy. In Experiment 1, we compared unfamiliar face matching accuracy for self-selected and other-selected high-likeness images. Surprisingly, images selected by previously unfamiliar viewers - after very limited exposure to a target face - were more accurately matched than self-selected images chosen by the target identity themselves. Results also revealed extremely low inter-rater agreement in ratings of likeness across participants, suggesting that perceptions of image resemblance are inherently unstable. In Experiment 2, we test whether the cost of self-selection can be explained by this general disagreement in likeness judgments between individual raters. We find that averaging across rankings by multiple raters produces image selections that provide superior identification accuracy. However, benefit of other-selection persisted for single raters, suggesting that inaccurate representations of self interfere with our ability to judge which images faithfully represent our current appearance. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  16. Regionalised tertiary psychiatric residential facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesage, Alain; Groden, David; Goldner, Elliot M; Gelinas, Daniel; Arnold, Leslie M

    2008-01-01

    Psychiatric hospitals remain the main venue for long-term mental health care and, despite widespread closures and downsizing, no country that built asylums in the last century has done away with them entirely--with the recent exception of Italy. Differentiated community-based residential alternatives have been developed over the past decades, with staffing levels that range from full-time professional, to daytime only, to part-time/on-call. This paper reviews the characteristics of community-based psychiatric residential care facilities as an alternative to long-term care in psychiatric hospitals. It describes five factors decision makers should consider: 1. number of residential places needed; 2. staffing levels; 3. physical setting; 4. programming; and 5. governance and financing. In Italy, facilities with full-time professional staff have been developed since the mid-1990s to accommodate the last cohorts of patients discharged from psychiatric hospitals. In the United Kingdom, experiments with hostel wards since the 1980s have shown that home-like, small-scale facilities with intensive treatment and rehabilitation programming can be effective for the most difficult-to-place patients. More recently in Australia, Community Care Units (CCUs) have been applying this concept. In the Canadian province of British Columbia (BC), Tertiary Psychiatric Residential Facilities (TPRFs) have been developed as part of an effort to regionalise health and social services and downsize and ultimately close its only psychiatric hospital. This type of service must be further developed in addition to the need for forensic, acute-care and intermediate-level beds, as well as for community-based care such as assertive community treatment and intensive case management. All these types of services, together with long-term community-based residential care, constitute the elements of a balanced mental health care system. As part of a region's balanced mental health care plan, these Tertiary

  17. Moving to an active lifestyle? A systematic review of the effects of residential relocation on walking, physical activity and travel behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ding; Nguyen, Binh; Learnihan, Vincent; Bauman, Adrian E; Davey, Rachel; Jalaludin, Bin; Gebel, Klaus

    2018-06-01

    To synthesise the literature on the effects of neighbourhood environmental change through residential relocation on physical activity, walking and travel behaviour. Systematic review following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines (PROSPERO registration number CRD42017077681). Electronic databases for peer-reviewed and grey literature were systematically searched to March 2017, followed by forward and backward citation tracking. A study was eligible for inclusion if it (1) measured changes in neighbourhood built environment attributes as a result of residential relocation (either prospectively or retrospectively); (2) included a measure of physical activity, walking, cycling or travel modal change as an outcome; (3) was quantitative and (4) included an English abstract or summary. A total of 23 studies was included in the review. Among the eight retrospective longitudinal studies, there was good evidence for the relationship between relocation and walking (consistency score (CS)>90%). For the 15 prospective longitudinal studies, the evidence for the effects of environmental change/relocation on physical activity or walking was weak to moderate (CS mostly <45%), even weaker for effects on other outcomes, including physical activity, cycling, public transport use and driving. Results from risk of bias analyses support the robustness of the findings. The results are encouraging for the retrospective longitudinal relocation studies, but weaker evidence exists for the methodologically stronger prospective longitudinal relocation studies. The evidence base is currently limited, and continued longitudinal research should extend the plethora of cross-sectional studies to build higher-quality evidence. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  18. Family ties and residential locations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, C.H.; Cooke, T.J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, and in the Special Issue it introduces, the focus is on the role of family ties in residential location choice and, conversely, the role of residential locations in maintaining family ties. Not only do events in the nuclear family trigger residential relocations, but nearby family

  19. Does Self-Selection Affect Samples’ Representativeness in Online Surveys? An Investigation in Online Video Game Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Singer, Mathias; Chatton, Anne; Achab, Sophia; Zullino, Daniele; Rothen, Stephane; Khan, Riaz; Billieux, Joel; Thorens, Gabriel

    2014-01-01

    Background The number of medical studies performed through online surveys has increased dramatically in recent years. Despite their numerous advantages (eg, sample size, facilitated access to individuals presenting stigmatizing issues), selection bias may exist in online surveys. However, evidence on the representativeness of self-selected samples in online studies is patchy. Objective Our objective was to explore the representativeness of a self-selected sample of online gamers using online players’ virtual characters (avatars). Methods All avatars belonged to individuals playing World of Warcraft (WoW), currently the most widely used online game. Avatars’ characteristics were defined using various games’ scores, reported on the WoW’s official website, and two self-selected samples from previous studies were compared with a randomly selected sample of avatars. Results We used scores linked to 1240 avatars (762 from the self-selected samples and 478 from the random sample). The two self-selected samples of avatars had higher scores on most of the assessed variables (except for guild membership and exploration). Furthermore, some guilds were overrepresented in the self-selected samples. Conclusions Our results suggest that more proficient players or players more involved in the game may be more likely to participate in online surveys. Caution is needed in the interpretation of studies based on online surveys that used a self-selection recruitment procedure. Epidemiological evidence on the reduced representativeness of sample of online surveys is warranted. PMID:25001007

  20. Does self-selection affect samples' representativeness in online surveys? An investigation in online video game research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazaal, Yasser; van Singer, Mathias; Chatton, Anne; Achab, Sophia; Zullino, Daniele; Rothen, Stephane; Khan, Riaz; Billieux, Joel; Thorens, Gabriel

    2014-07-07

    The number of medical studies performed through online surveys has increased dramatically in recent years. Despite their numerous advantages (eg, sample size, facilitated access to individuals presenting stigmatizing issues), selection bias may exist in online surveys. However, evidence on the representativeness of self-selected samples in online studies is patchy. Our objective was to explore the representativeness of a self-selected sample of online gamers using online players' virtual characters (avatars). All avatars belonged to individuals playing World of Warcraft (WoW), currently the most widely used online game. Avatars' characteristics were defined using various games' scores, reported on the WoW's official website, and two self-selected samples from previous studies were compared with a randomly selected sample of avatars. We used scores linked to 1240 avatars (762 from the self-selected samples and 478 from the random sample). The two self-selected samples of avatars had higher scores on most of the assessed variables (except for guild membership and exploration). Furthermore, some guilds were overrepresented in the self-selected samples. Our results suggest that more proficient players or players more involved in the game may be more likely to participate in online surveys. Caution is needed in the interpretation of studies based on online surveys that used a self-selection recruitment procedure. Epidemiological evidence on the reduced representativeness of sample of online surveys is warranted.

  1. GREEN RETROFITTING RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    When compared with the rest of the world, the United States consumes a disproportionately large amount of energy and is a major source of greenhouse gases from fossil fuel combustion. As much as two thirds of U.S. electricity production is consumed by residential and commerci...

  2. Residential Mechanical Precooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, a. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This research conducted by the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team evaluated mechanical air conditioner pre-cooling strategies in homes throughout the United States. EnergyPlus modeling evaluated two homes with different performance characteristics in seven climates. Results are applicable to new construction homes and most existing homes built in the last 10 years, as well as fairly efficient retrofitted homes.

  3. Performance Evaluation of Public-Private Partnership Projects from the Perspective of Efficiency, Economic, Effectiveness, and Equity: A Study of Residential Renovation Projects in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuhui Cong

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available The performance evaluation index system was established on the basis of 4E (Efficiency, Economic, Effectiveness, Equity theory to improve performance evaluation of Public-Private Partnership Projects for Residential Renovation (4P2R. Moreover, the index weighting model was demonstrated based on Ordered Weighted Averaging (OWA. Finally, the cloud model was used for performance evaluation, through the cloud uncertainty reasoning to determine the quantitative performance evaluation index value, the positive reverse cloud to calculate the qualitative performance evaluation index value, and the normal cloud to measure the project performance. The proof-of-concept application shows that the performance evaluation index system and evaluation model can better identify the deficiencies in the project, and provide targeted improvement measures for similar projects in the future.

  4. RESULTS OF A PILOT FIELD STUDY TO EVALUATE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CLEANING RESIDENTIAL HEATING AND AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEMS AND THE IMPACT ON INDOOR AIR QUALITY AND SYSTEM PERFORMANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses and gives results of a pilot field study to evaluate the effectiveness of air duct cleaning (ADC) as a source removal technique in residential heating and air-conditioning (HAC) systems and its impact on airborne particle, fiber, and bioaerosol concentrations...

  5. The Use of Biomass for Electricity Generation: A Scoping Review of Health Effects on Humans in Residential and Occupational Settings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Freiberg

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of biomass for power generation has become more prevalent globally. To survey the status of evidence concerning resulting health impacts and to depict potential research needs, a scoping-review was conducted. Biomass life cycle phases of interest were the conversion and combustion phases. Studies from occupational and residential settings were considered. The scoping review was conducted systematically, comprising an extensive literature search, a guided screening process, in-duplicate data extraction, and critical appraisal. Two reviewers executed most review steps. Nine articles of relevance were identified. In occupational settings of biomass plants, exposure to endotoxins and fungi might be associated with respiratory disorders. An accidental leakage of hydrogen sulfide in biogas plants may lead to fatalities or severe health impacts. Living near biomass power plants (and the accompanied odorous air pollution may result in an increased risk for several symptoms and odor annoyance, mediated by perception about air pollution or an evaluation of a resulting health risk. The methodological quality of included studies varied a lot. Overall, the body of evidence on the topic is sparse and future high-quality research is strongly recommended.

  6. A Qualitative Study of the Effects of Residential Mobility on the Quality of Life Among the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raúl Lardiés Bosque

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Improving the quality of life of the elderly has become a challenge for service providers and an academic subject of great interest for researchers. Moreover, as the life span is increasing due to better economic and social conditions the elderly are becoming increasingly mobile in relation to their living arrangements (i.e. their residence. However, few studies have investigated how increased mobility contributes to this improvement in different aspects of the lives of the elderly from the global approach of the quality of life. The aim of this contribution is to better understand the influence of residential mobility in various dimensions of their life, noting how living conditions have been modified and are affecting the quality of life. A qualitative method was used in this study, applying thematic analysis. Twenty in-depth interviews concerning mobility were conducted with people over the age of 60 years moving from Madrid to other areas of Spain. URN: urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs0802227

  7. The Use of Biomass for Electricity Generation: A Scoping Review of Health Effects on Humans in Residential and Occupational Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freiberg, Alice; Scharfe, Julia; Murta, Vanise C; Seidler, Andreas

    2018-02-16

    The utilization of biomass for power generation has become more prevalent globally. To survey the status of evidence concerning resulting health impacts and to depict potential research needs, a scoping-review was conducted. Biomass life cycle phases of interest were the conversion and combustion phases. Studies from occupational and residential settings were considered. The scoping review was conducted systematically, comprising an extensive literature search, a guided screening process, in-duplicate data extraction, and critical appraisal. Two reviewers executed most review steps. Nine articles of relevance were identified. In occupational settings of biomass plants, exposure to endotoxins and fungi might be associated with respiratory disorders. An accidental leakage of hydrogen sulfide in biogas plants may lead to fatalities or severe health impacts. Living near biomass power plants (and the accompanied odorous air pollution) may result in an increased risk for several symptoms and odor annoyance, mediated by perception about air pollution or an evaluation of a resulting health risk. The methodological quality of included studies varied a lot. Overall, the body of evidence on the topic is sparse and future high-quality research is strongly recommended.

  8. Residential Mobility, Inhibitory Control, and Academic Achievement in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Sara A.; Finders, Jennifer K.; McClelland, Megan M.

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The present study investigated the direct effects of residential mobility on children's inhibitory control and academic achievement during the preschool year. It also explored fall inhibitory control and academic skills as mediators linking residential mobility and spring achievement. Participants included 359 preschool children…

  9. 77 FR 9700 - Large Residential Washers From Korea and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ...)] Large Residential Washers From Korea and Mexico Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed... reasonable indication that an industry is materially injured by reason of imports from Mexico of large... imports of large residential washers from Mexico. Accordingly, effective December 30, 2011, the Commission...

  10. Residentialization of Public Spaces: Bratislava Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacová, Andrea; Puškár, Branislav; Vráblová, Edita

    2017-10-01

    The housing estates in Bratislava saturated the housing needs of a large number of inhabitants who come after World War II to the city. Design of public spaces often did not have priority in the process of designing. The solutions for mentioned exterior spaces had been planned after blocks of flat realization, but many of them are not realized to this day. The article analyzes the example of the unrealized public spaces in existing housing estates Devinska Nova Ves and Petržalka (city districts of Bratislava) and offer practical solutions in relation to residencialization method. Residencialization of missing public places is an effective method of adding identities to settlements. It improves the quality of residential environment and public spaces. The main aim is to create better conditions for social activities in public areas, which are missing on the present. The research will be focused on the examination of the urban, cultural and construction potential of the existing residential enviroment in Bratislava. The main aim of residentialization is not only to enhance the quality of spatial and building structures in the selected residential area and maintain long-term sustainability in the pertinent programme area, but mainly to improve the quality of living for the residents. The outputs of the project are proposals and practical procedures developed with regard to planning documents for local municipal authorities and regional organizations. The solutions will have a positive impact on the enhancement of the quality of public spaces, attractive social activities and of a conceptual link - residentialization.

  11. Effects of Vernacular Climatic Strategies (VCS on Energy Consumption in Common Residential Buildings in Southern Iran: The Case Study of Bushehr City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Mohammadi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to use the vernacular climatic strategies (VCS of traditional dwellings in Bushehr, in the common residential buildings of this southern Iranian city (which is characterized by its hot and humid climate, and provide answers to the following question: What effects do VCS have in terms of energy consumption in these buildings? This study has been conducted at three levels. At the first level, three context-based climatic solutions including shading, natural ventilation, and insulation of external walls and roofs were identified and selected based on bibliographic study. At the second level, a case study reflecting the current typology of common residential buildings in Bushehr city was selected. A combination of the mentioned climatic solutions was used in the baseline case to create a developed model. Based on the space layout of the developed model and some design criteria, a series of proposed models was also created and modeled. The selected case study building was also used to establish a local weather station at a height of 12 m based on the roof, collecting local climate data which were then used for simulation to improve simulation accuracy. Finally, all models were simulated with the use of Design Builder software under natural ventilation conditions during moderate climatic periods of the year while split air-conditioning systems were used during hot and humid periods. The results showed reductions of 16% in energy consumption and 22% in CO2 emissions for the developed model, and reductions of 24–26% in energy consumption and 32–34% in CO2 emissions for the proposed models, as compared with the baseline model. Furthermore, all proposed models achieved lower annual energy consumption when compared with a selection of international sustainable low energy standards and domestic energy performance references for the Middle East region. Further studies are also recommended, and there is potential for combining VCS with

  12. Perils and potentials of self-selected entry to epidemiological studies and surveys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Keiding, Niels; Louis, Thomas A.

    2016-01-01

    Low front-end cost and rapid accrual make Web-based surveys and enrolment in studies attractive, but participants are often self-selected with little reference to a well-defined study base. Of course, high quality studies must be internally valid (validity of inferences for the sample at hand......), but Web-based enrolment reactivates discussion of external validity (generalization of within-study inferences to a target population or context) in epidemiology and clinical trials. Survey research relies on a representative sample produced by a sampling frame, prespecified sampling process and weighting...

  13. Overview about bias in Customer Satisfaction Surveys and focus on self-selection error

    OpenAIRE

    Giovanna Nicolini; Luciana Dalla Valle

    2009-01-01

    The present paper provides an overview of the main types of surveys carried out for customer satisfaction analyses. In order to carry out these surveys it is possible to plan a census or select a sample. The higher the accuracy of the survey, the more reliable the results of the analysis. For this very reason, researchers pay special attention to surveys with bias due to non sampling errors, in particular to self-selection errors. These phenomena are very frequent especially in web surveys. S...

  14. "Poverty and Choice of Marital Status: A Self-Selection Model"

    OpenAIRE

    Joan R. Rodgers

    1990-01-01

    Over the last few decades in the United States, the poverty rate for female-headed families has been about five times the poverty rate for other family types. This paper addresses the question of why, in general, female-headed families are so much poorer than other families. Recognizing that individuals choose their own marital status, a self-selection model is used to identify the factors which determine the poverty rates for married- couple families, families headed by females with no husba...

  15. Is self-selection the main driver of positive interpretations of general health checks?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bender, Anne Mette; Jørgensen, Torben; Pisinger, Charlotta

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate if the lower mortality among participants of a health check followed by lifestyle intervention of high risk persons is explained by self-selection. METHODS: All persons residing in the study area (Copenhagen; Denmark) were randomized to intervention (n=11,629) or control...... group (n=47,987). Persons in the intervention group were invited for a health check and individual lifestyle counselling. At baseline, 52.5% participated. Differences between participants and control group in 10-year all-cause and disease specific mortality was assessed. In survival analyses we...... was seen both for lifestyle related and non-lifestyle related diseases....

  16. Estimation of energy efficiency of residential buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glushkov Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing energy performance of the residential buildings by means of reducing heat consumption on the heating and ventilation is the last segment in the system of energy resources saving. The first segments in the energy saving process are heat producing and transportation over the main lines and outside distribution networks. In the period from 2006 to 2013. by means of the heat-supply schemes optimization and modernization of the heating systems. using expensive (200–300 $US per 1 m though hugely effective preliminary coated pipes. the economy reached 2.7 mln tons of fuel equivalent. Considering the multi-stage and multifactorial nature (electricity. heat and water supply of the residential sector energy saving. the reasonable estimate of the efficiency of the saving of residential buildings energy should be performed in tons of fuel equivalent per unit of time.

  17. Gentrification and Residential Mobility in Philadelphia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lei; Hwang, Jackelyn; Divringi, Eileen

    2016-11-01

    Gentrification has provoked considerable controversy surrounding its effects on residential displacement. Using a unique individual-level, longitudinal data set, this study examines mobility rates and residential destinations of residents in gentrifying neighborhoods during the recent housing boom and bust in Philadelphia for various strata of residents and different types of gentrification. We find that vulnerable residents, those with low credit scores and without mortgages, are generally no more likely to move from gentrifying neighborhoods compared with their counterparts in nongentrifying neighborhoods. When they do move, however, they are more likely to move to lower-income neighborhoods. Residents in gentrifying neighborhoods at the aggregate level have slightly higher mobility rates, but these rates are largely driven by more advantaged residents. These findings shed new light on the heterogeneity in mobility patterns across residents in gentrifying neighborhoods and suggest that researchers should focus more attention on the quality of residential moves and nonmoves for less advantaged residents, rather than mobility rates alone.

  18. Service Differentiation in Residential Broadband Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdsson, Halldór Matthias

    2004-01-01

    As broadband gains widespread adoption with residential users, revenue generating voice- and video-services have not yet taken off. This slow uptake is often attributed to lack of Quality of Service management in residential broadband networks. To resolve this and induce service variety, network...... access providers are implementing service differentiation in their networks where voice and video gets prioritised before data. This paper discusses the role of network access providers in multipurpose packet based networks and the available migration strategies for supporting multimedia services...... in digital subscriber line (DSL) based residential broadband networks. Four possible implementation scenarios and their technical characteristics and effects are described. To conclude, the paper discusses how network access providers can be induced to open their networks for third party service providers....

  19. Residential Electricity Consumption in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Ropuszyńska-Surma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Key factors influencing electricity consumption in the residential sector in Poland have been identified. A fixed-effects model was used, which includes time effects, and a set of covariates, based on the model developed by Houthakker et al. This model estimates electricity demand by using lagged values of the dependent variable along with current and lagged values of electricity prices, and other variables that affect electricity demand such as: population, economic growth, income per capita, price of related goods, etc. The model has been identified according to the research results of the authors and those obtained by Bentzen and Engsted. The set of covariates was extended to the lagged electricity price given by a tariff (taken from two years previous to the time of interest and heating degree days index, a very important factor in European Union countries, where the climate is temperate. The authors propose four models of residential electricity demand, for which a confidence interval of 95% has been assumed. Estimation was based on Polish quarterly data for the years 2003-2013. (original abstract

  20. Analysis and proposal of implementation effects of heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit of existing residential buildings in northern heating areas of China in “the 11th Five-Year Plan” period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Lingling; Zhao Jing; Zhu Neng

    2012-01-01

    In China, northern heating region contains approximately 6.5 billion m 2 residential building areas accounting for 15% of the total residential living areas of urban and rural. About 70% of the urban residential buildings in north China are high energy consumption buildings. The task of heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit of 0.15 billion m 2 existing residential buildings in northern heating areas of China in “the 11th Five-Year Plan” period was proposed by the Ministry of Housing and Urban–Rural Development (MOHURD) in 2007 and completed in 2010. This paper introduced both central and local governments' efforts on organization, implementation and finance, etc. Then several retrofitting effects involving improving the people's livelihood, mobilizing the enthusiasm of residents for the retrofit and driving the development of relevant industries were presented. Finally, on the basis of analyzing the issues encountered in the progress of the retrofit in the past 4 years, the paper gave some policy proposals on organization system, financing models, reward mechanism, and heating system reformation to help to promote the energy efficiency retrofit in “the 12th Five-Year Plan” period. - Highlights: ► Specific approaches of heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit (HMEER) at central and local level are introduced. ► Main HMEER effects are presented. ► Analyzing several issues encountered in the progress of the HMEER. ► Corresponding proposals are provided.

  1. Guidelines for residential commissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wray, Craig P.; Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.

    2003-01-31

    Currently, houses do not perform optimally or even as many codes and forecasts predict, largely because they are field assembled and there is no consistent process to identify problems or to correct them. Residential commissioning is a solution to this problem. This guide is the culmination of a 30-month project that began in September 1999. The ultimate objective of the project is to increase the number of houses that undergo commissioning, which will improve the quality, comfort, and safety of homes for California citizens. The project goal is to lay the groundwork for a residential commissioning industry in California focused on end-use energy and non-energy issues. As such, we intend this guide to be a beginning and not an end. Our intent is that the guide will lead to the programmatic integration of commissioning with other building industry processes, which in turn will provide more value to a single site visit for people such as home energy auditors and raters, home inspectors, and building performance contractors. Project work to support the development of this guide includes: a literature review and annotated bibliography, which facilitates access to 469 documents related to residential commissioning published over the past 20 years (Wray et al. 2000), an analysis of the potential benefits one can realistically expect from commissioning new and existing California houses (Matson et al. 2002), and an assessment of 107 diagnostic tools for evaluating residential commissioning metrics (Wray et al. 2002). In this guide, we describe the issues that non-experts should consider in developing a commissioning program to achieve the benefits we have identified. We do this by providing specific recommendations about: how to structure the commissioning process, which diagnostics to use, and how to use them to commission new and existing houses. Using examples, we also demonstrate the potential benefits of applying the recommended whole-house commissioning approach to

  2. Acute psychological benefits of exercise performed at self-selected workloads: implications for theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabo, Attila

    2003-09-01

    Given that most studies to date examined the connection between exercise and affect without considering the participants' preferred exercise workload, in this research the affective-benefits of jogging or running at a participant-selected pace were investigated in a pilot field and a laboratory experiment. Ninety-six male and female students (19.5 yrs) took part in the pilot field experiment whereas 32 women (20.3 yrs) completed the laboratory experiment. In both experiments, the participants ran/jogged for 20 minutes at a self-selected pace. They completed an abbreviated version of a 'right now form' of the Profile of Mood States (POMS - Grove and Prapavessis, 1992) inventory before and after exercise. In both experiments all dependent measures changed significantly from pre- to post-exercise, except 'fatigue' and 'vigor' that did not change in the laboratory. Total mood disturbance (TMD) decreased significantly in both experiments (68% and 89%). No significant correlations were found between exercise intensity (expressed as percent (%) of maximal heart rate reserve) and the magnitude of changes seen in the dependent measures. It is concluded that exercising at a self-selected workload yields positive changes in affect that are unrelated to exercise intensity. These results suggest that the physiological theories linking exercise with positive changes in affect, in which exercise intensity is instrumental, could not account for the acute affective benefits of exercise. It is proposed that a 'cognitive appraisal hypothesis' may be more appropriate in explaining the acute affective benefits of exercise.

  3. A vacancy-modulated self-selective resistive switching memory with pronounced nonlinear behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Haili; Feng, Jie; Gao, Tian; Zhu, Xi

    2017-12-01

    In this study, we report a self-selective (nonlinear) resistive switching memory cell, with high on-state half-bias nonlinearity of 650, sub-μA operating current, and high On/Off ratios above 100×. Regarding the cell structure, a thermal oxidized HfO x layer in combination with a sputtered Ta2O5 layer was configured as an active stack, with Pt and Hf as top and bottom electrodes, respectively. The Ta2O5 acts as a selective layer as well as a series resistor, which could make the resistive switching happened in HfO x layer. Through the analysis of the physicochemical properties and electrical conduction mechanisms at each state, a vacancy-modulated resistance switching model was proposed to explain the switching behavior. The conductivity of HfO x layer was changed by polarity-dependent drift of the oxygen vacancy ( V o), resulting in an electron hopping distance change during switching. With the help of Ta2O5 selective layer, high nonlinearity observed in low resistance state. The proposed material stack shows a promising prospect to act as a self-selective cell for 3D vertical RRAM application.

  4. Modelling and forecasting Turkish residential electricity demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilaver, Zafer; Hunt, Lester C

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates the relationship between Turkish residential electricity consumption, household total final consumption expenditure and residential electricity prices by applying the structural time series model to annual data over the period from 1960 to 2008. Household total final consumption expenditure, real energy prices and an underlying energy demand trend are found to be important drivers of Turkish residential electricity demand with the estimated short run and the long run total final consumption expenditure elasticities being 0.38 and 1.57, respectively, and the estimated short run and long run price elasticities being -0.09 and -0.38, respectively. Moreover, the estimated underlying energy demand trend, (which, as far as is known, has not been investigated before for the Turkish residential sector) should be of some benefit to Turkish decision makers in terms of energy planning. It provides information about the impact of past policies, the influence of technical progress, the impacts of changes in consumer behaviour and the effects of changes in economic structure. Furthermore, based on the estimated equation, and different forecast assumptions, it is predicted that Turkish residential electricity demand will be somewhere between 48 and 80 TWh by 2020 compared to 40 TWh in 2008. - Research highlights: → Estimated short run and long run expenditure elasticities of 0.38 and 1.57, respectively. → Estimated short run and long run price elasticities of -0.09 and -0.38, respectively. → Estimated UEDT has increasing (i.e. energy using) and decreasing (i.e. energy saving) periods. → Predicted Turkish residential electricity demand between 48 and 80 TWh in 2020.

  5. VAAs as sources of volatility and fragmentation: self-selection effects and genuine effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleinnijenhuis, J.; van de Pol, J.; van Hoof, A.; Krouwel, A.

    2017-01-01

    Recent studies show that using Voting Advice Applications (VAAs) affects party preferences of voters, and hence leads to party switching. Party switching is a necessary but insufficient condition for volatility (a net switch of voters to other parties) and fragmentation (more parties gaining seats)

  6. Residential heat pumps in the future Danish energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrovic, Stefan; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard

    2016-01-01

    for politically agreed targets which include: at least 50% of electricity consumption from wind power starting from 2020, fossil fuel free heat and power sector from 2035 and 100% renewable energy system starting from 2050. Residential heat pumps supply around 25% of total residential heating demand after 2035......Denmark is striving towards 100% renewable energy system in 2050. Residential heat pumps are expected to be a part of that system.We propose two novel approaches to improve the representation of residential heat pumps: Coefficients of performance (COPs) are modelled as dependent on air and ground...... temperature while installation of ground-source heat pumps is constrained by available ground area. In this study, TIMES-DK model is utilised to test the effects of improved modelling of residential heat pumps on the Danish energy system until 2050.The analysis of the Danish energy system was done...

  7. Re-thinking residential mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ham, Maarten; Findlay, Allan M.

    2015-01-01

    While researchers are increasingly re-conceptualizing international migration, far less attention has been devoted to re-thinking short-distance residential mobility and immobility. In this paper we harness the life course approach to propose a new conceptual framework for residential mobility research. We contend that residential mobility and immobility should be re-conceptualized as relational practices that link lives through time and space while connecting people to structural conditions. Re-thinking and re-assessing residential mobility by exploiting new developments in longitudinal analysis will allow geographers to understand, critique and address pressing societal challenges. PMID:27330243

  8. Large-Scale Residential Demolition

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA provides resources for handling residential demolitions or renovations. This includes planning, handling harmful materials, recycling, funding, compliance assistance, good practices and regulations.

  9. Residential electricity demand in Singapore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ang, B.W.; Goh, T.N.; Liu, X.Q.

    1992-01-01

    Residential electricity consumption in Singapore increased at a rate of 8.8% per year between 1972 and 1990. Estimates of the long-run income and price elasticities are 1.0 and -0.35, respectively. The energy-conservation campaigns that have been launched are found to have marginal effects on consumption. A statistical analysis shows that the consumption is sensitive to small changes in climatic variables, particularly the temperature, which is closely linked to the growing diffusion of electric appliances for environmental controls. There has been a temporal increase in the ownership levels of appliances associated with increasing household incomes. However, other factors were involved since the ownership levels would also increase over time after the elimination of the income effect. A large part of the future growth in electricity demand will arise from the growing need for air-conditioning, which will lead to increasingly large seasonal variations in electricity use. (author)

  10. The effects of combining dynamic pricing, AC load control, and real-time energy feedback. SMUD'S 2011 Residential Summer Solutions Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herter, K. [Herter Energy Research Solutions, El Dorado Hills, CA (United States); Wood, V. [Sacramento Municipal Utility District, Sacramento, CA (United States); Blozis, S. [University of California, Davis, CA (United States)

    2013-11-15

    The 2011 Residential Summer Solutions Study compared the hourly load effects of three different real-time information treatments and two program options. The information treatments included: Baseline information (no real-time data), real-time Home information (whole-house data), and real-time Appliance information (data for the whole house plus three individual appliances). Compared to the Baseline group, real-time Home information lowered overall energy use by about 4 %. Real-time information at both the Home and Appliance levels had a significant effect on non-event peak loads: compared to the Baseline group, real-time Home data lowered peak load by 5 %, while Appliance data lowered peak load by 7 %. All three information treatments averaged a 1-kW (40 %) load shed during events. The customer-chosen program options included a dynamic time-of-use rate and a load control incentive program. Customers were more likely to sign up for the dynamic rate, and those who did saved significantly more peak load on both event days (>50 % savings) and non-event days (>20 % savings) than did those on the load control program alone. In addition, those on the dynamic rate saved twice as much on their summer bills as did those who chose to remain on the standard tiered rate. At the end of the summer, more than 90 % of participants signed up to participate again the following year.

  11. Employee influenza vaccination in residential care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apenteng, Bettye A; Opoku, Samuel T

    2014-03-01

    The organizational literature on infection control in residential care facilities is limited. Using a nationally representative dataset, we examined the organizational factors associated with implementing at least 1 influenza-related employee vaccination policy/program, as well as the effect of vaccination policies on health care worker (HCW) influenza vaccine uptake in residential care facilities. The study was a cross-sectional study using data from the 2010 National Survey of Residential Care Facilities. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to address the study's objectives. Facility size, director's educational attainment, and having a written influenza pandemic preparedness plan were significantly associated with the implementation of at least 1 influenza-related employee vaccination policy/program, after controlling for other facility-level factors. Recommending vaccination to employees, providing vaccination on site, providing vaccinations to employees at no cost, and requiring vaccination as a condition of employment were associated with higher employee influenza vaccination rates. Residential care facilities can improve vaccination rates among employees by adopting effective employee vaccination policies. Copyright © 2014 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. ASHRAE and residential ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max H.

    2003-10-01

    In the last quarter of a century, the western world has become increasingly aware of environmental threats to health and safety. During this period, people psychologically retreated away from outdoors hazards such as pesticides, smog, lead, oil spills, and dioxin to the seeming security of their homes. However, the indoor environment may not be healthier than the outdoor environment, as has become more apparent over the past few years with issues such as mold, formaldehyde, and sick-building syndrome. While the built human environment has changed substantially over the past 10,000 years, human biology has not; poor indoor air quality creates health risks and can be uncomfortable. The human race has found, over time, that it is essential to manage the indoor environments of their homes. ASHRAE has long been in the business of ventilation, but most of the focus of that effort has been in the area of commercial and institutional buildings. Residential ventilation was traditionally not a major concern because it was felt that, between operable windows and envelope leakage, people were getting enough outside air in their homes. In the quarter of a century since the first oil shock, houses have gotten much more energy efficient. At the same time, the kinds of materials and functions in houses changed in character in response to people's needs. People became more environmentally conscious and aware not only about the resources they were consuming but about the environment in which they lived. All of these factors contributed to an increasing level of public concern about residential indoor air quality and ventilation. Where once there was an easy feeling about the residential indoor environment, there is now a desire to define levels of acceptability and performance. Many institutions--both public and private--have interests in Indoor Air Quality (IAQ), but ASHRAE, as the professional society that has had ventilation as part of its mission for over 100 years, is the

  13. Estimating the Determinants of Residential Water Demand in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Giulia Romano; Nicola Salvati; Andrea Guerrini

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the determinants of residential water demand for chief towns of every Italian province, in the period 2007–2009, using the linear mixed-effects model estimated with the restricted-maximum-likelihood method. Results confirmed that the applied tariff had a negative effect on residential water consumption and that it was a relevant driver of domestic water consumption. Moreover, income per capita had a positive effect on water consumption. Among measured cli...

  14. In-reach specialist nursing teams for residential care homes: uptake of services, impact on care provision and cost-effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson Sara

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A joint NHS-Local Authority initiative in England designed to provide a dedicated nursing and physiotherapy in-reach team (IRT to four residential care homes has been evaluated. The IRT supported 131 residents and maintained 15 'virtual' beds for specialist nursing in these care homes. Methods Data captured prospectively (July 2005 to June 2007 included: numbers of referrals; reason for referral; outcome (e.g. admission to IRT bed, short-term IRT support; length of stay in IRT; prevented hospital admissions; early hospital discharges; avoided nursing home transfers; and detection of unrecognised illnesses. An economic analysis was undertaken. Results 733 referrals were made during the 2 years (range 0.5 to 13.0 per resident per annum resulting in a total of 6,528 visits. Two thirds of referrals aimed at maintaining the resident's independence in the care home. According to expert panel assessment, 197 hospital admissions were averted over the period; 20 early discharges facilitated; and 28 resident transfers to a nursing home prevented. Detection of previously unrecognised illnesses accounted for a high number of visits. Investment in IRT equalled £44.38 per resident per week. Savings through reduced hospital admissions, early discharges, delayed transfers to nursing homes, and identification of previously unrecognised illnesses are conservatively estimated to produce a final reduction in care cost of £6.33 per resident per week. A sensitivity analysis indicates this figure might range from a weekly overall saving of £36.90 per resident to a 'worst case' estimate of £2.70 extra expenditure per resident per week. Evaluation early in implementation may underestimate some cost-saving activities and greater savings may emerge over a longer time period. Similarly, IRT costs may reduce over time due to the potential for refinement of team without major loss in effectiveness. Conclusion Introduction of a specialist nursing in

  15. Bacteria-instructed synthesis of polymers for self-selective microbial binding and labelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magennis, E. Peter; Fernandez-Trillo, Francisco; Sui, Cheng; Spain, Sebastian G.; Bradshaw, David; Churchley, David; Mantovani, Giuseppe; Winzer, Klaus; Alexander, Cameron

    2014-01-01

    The detection and inactivation of pathogenic strains of bacteria continues to be an important therapeutic goal. Hence, there is a need for materials that can bind selectively to specific microorganisms, for diagnostic or anti-infective applications, but which can be formed from simple and inexpensive building blocks. Here, we exploit bacterial redox systems to induce a copper-mediated radical polymerisation of synthetic monomers at cell surfaces, generating polymers in situ that bind strongly to the microorganisms which produced them. This ‘bacteria-instructed synthesis’ can be carried out with a variety of microbial strains, and we show that the polymers produced are self-selective binding agents for the ‘instructing’ cell types. We further expand on the bacterial redox chemistries to ‘click’ fluorescent reporters onto polymers directly at the surfaces of a range of clinical isolate strains, allowing rapid, facile and simultaneous binding and visualisation of pathogens. PMID:24813421

  16. Bacteria-instructed synthesis of polymers for self-selective microbial binding and labelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magennis, E. Peter; Fernandez-Trillo, Francisco; Sui, Cheng; Spain, Sebastian G.; Bradshaw, David J.; Churchley, David; Mantovani, Giuseppe; Winzer, Klaus; Alexander, Cameron

    2014-07-01

    The detection and inactivation of pathogenic strains of bacteria continues to be an important therapeutic goal. Hence, there is a need for materials that can bind selectively to specific microorganisms for diagnostic or anti-infective applications, but that can be formed from simple and inexpensive building blocks. Here, we exploit bacterial redox systems to induce a copper-mediated radical polymerization of synthetic monomers at cell surfaces, generating polymers in situ that bind strongly to the microorganisms that produced them. This ‘bacteria-instructed synthesis’ can be carried out with a variety of microbial strains, and we show that the polymers produced are self-selective binding agents for the ‘instructing’ cell types. We further expand on the bacterial redox chemistries to ‘click’ fluorescent reporters onto polymers directly at the surfaces of a range of clinical isolate strains, allowing rapid, facile and simultaneous binding and visualization of pathogens.

  17. ACUTE PSYCHOLOGICAL BENEFITS OF EXERCISE PERFORMED AT SELF-SELECTED WORKLOADS: IMPLICATIONS FOR THEORY AND PRACTICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Szabo

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available Given that most studies to date examined the connection between exercise and affect without considering the participants' preferred exercise workload, in this research the affective-benefits of jogging or running at a participant-selected pace were investigated in a pilot field and a laboratory experiment. Ninety-six male and female students (19.5 yrs took part in the pilot field experiment whereas 32 women (20.3 yrs completed the laboratory experiment. In both experiments, the participants ran/jogged for 20 minutes at a self-selected pace. They completed an abbreviated version of a 'right now form' of the Profile of Mood States (POMS - Grove and Prapavessis, 1992 inventory before and after exercise. In both experiments all dependent measures changed significantly from pre- to post-exercise, except 'fatigue' and 'vigor' that did not change in the laboratory. Total mood disturbance (TMD decreased significantly in both experiments (68% and 89%. No significant correlations were found between exercise intensity (expressed as percent (% of maximal heart rate reserve and the magnitude of changes seen in the dependent measures. It is concluded that exercising at a self-selected workload yields positive changes in affect that are unrelated to exercise intensity. These results suggest that the physiological theories linking exercise with positive changes in affect, in which exercise intensity is instrumental, could not account for the acute affective benefits of exercise. It is proposed that a 'cognitive appraisal hypothesis' may be more appropriate in explaining the acute affective benefits of exercise

  18. Gait performance is not influenced by working memory when walking at a self-selected pace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubaugh, Jordan; Rhea, Christopher K

    2014-02-01

    Gait performance exhibits patterns within the stride-to-stride variability that can be indexed using detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA). Previous work employing DFA has shown that gait patterns can be influenced by constraints, such as natural aging or disease, and they are informative regarding a person's functional ability. Many activities of daily living require concurrent performance in the cognitive and gait domains; specifically working memory is commonly engaged while walking, which is considered dual-tasking. It is unknown if taxing working memory while walking influences gait performance as assessed by DFA. This study used a dual-tasking paradigm to determine if performance decrements are observed in gait or working memory when performed concurrently. Healthy young participants (N = 16) performed a working memory task (automated operation span task) and a gait task (walking at a self-selected speed on a treadmill) in single- and dual-task conditions. A second dual-task condition (reading while walking) was included to control for visual attention, but also introduced a task that taxed working memory over the long term. All trials involving gait lasted at least 10 min. Performance in the working memory task was indexed using five dependent variables (absolute score, partial score, speed error, accuracy error, and math error), while gait performance was indexed by quantifying the mean, standard deviation, and DFA α of the stride interval time series. Two multivariate analyses of variance (one for gait and one for working memory) were used to examine performance in the single- and dual-task conditions. No differences were observed in any of the gait or working memory dependent variables as a function of task condition. The results suggest the locomotor system is adaptive enough to complete a working memory task without compromising gait performance when walking at a self-selected pace.

  19. Effect of age, gender, economic group and tenure on thermal comfort: A field study in residential buildings in hot and dry climate with seasonal variations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Indraganti, Madhavi; Rao, Kavita Daryani [Architecture Department, Jawaharlal Nehru Architecture and Fine Arts University, Hyderabad (India)

    2010-03-15

    Energy consumption in Indian residential buildings is one of the highest and is increasing phenomenally. Indian standards specify comfort temperatures between 23 and 26 C for all types of buildings across the nation. However, thermal comfort research in India is very limited. A field study in naturally ventilated apartments was done in 2008, during the summer and monsoon seasons in Hyderabad in composite climate. This survey involved over 100 subjects, giving 3962 datasets. They were analysed under different groups: age, gender, economic group and tenure. Age, gender and tenure correlated weakly with thermal comfort. However, thermal acceptance of women, older subjects and owner-subjects was higher. Economic level of the subjects showed significant effect on the thermal sensation, preference, acceptance and neutrality. The comfort band for lowest economic group was found to be 27.3-33.1 C with the neutral temperature at 30.2 C. This is way above the standard. This finding has far reaching energy implications on building and HVAC systems design and practice. Occupants' responses for other environmental parameters often depended on their thermal sensation, often resulting in a near normal distribution. The subjects displayed acoustic and olfactory obliviousness due to habituation, resulting in higher satisfaction and acceptance. (author)

  20. Residential Mechanical Precooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, Alea [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States). Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI); Hoeschele, Marc [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States). Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI)

    2014-12-01

    Residential air conditioning (AC) represents a challenging load for many electric utilities with poor load factors. Mechanical precooling improves the load factor by shifting cooling operation from on-peak to off-peak hours. This provides benefits to utilities and the electricity grid, as well as to occupants who can take advantage of time-of-use (TOU) electricity rates. Performance benefits stem from reduced compressor cycling, and shifting condensing unit operation to earlier periods of the day when outdoor temperatures are more favorable to operational efficiency. Finding solutions that save energy and reduce demand on the electricity grid is an important national objective and supports key Building America goals. The Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team evaluated mechanical AC precooling strategies in homes throughout the United States. EnergyPlus modeling was used to evaluate two homes with different performance characteristics in seven climates. Results are applicable to new construction homes and most existing homes built in the last 10 years, as well as fairly efficient retrofitted homes. A successful off-peak AC strategy offers the potential for increased efficiency and improved occupant comfort, and promotes a more reliable and robust electricity grid. Demand response capabilities and further integration with photovoltaic TOU generation patterns provide additional opportunities to flatten loads and optimize grid impacts.

  1. Development of a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staff Scientist; Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max; Dickerhoff, Darryl

    2011-12-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller (RIVEC) to reduce the energy impact of required mechanical ventilation by 20percent, maintain or improve indoor air quality and provide demand response benefits. This represents potential energy savings of about 140 GWh of electricity and 83 million therms of natural gas as well as proportional peak savings in California. The RIVEC controller is intended to meet the 2008 Title 24 requirements for residential ventilation as well as taking into account the issues of outdoor conditions, other ventilation devices (including economizers), peak demand concerns and occupant preferences. The controller is designed to manage all the residential ventilation systems that are currently available. A key innovation in this controller is the ability to implement the concept of efficacy and intermittent ventilation which allows time shifting of ventilation. Using this approach ventilation can be shifted away from times of high cost or high outdoor pollution towards times when it is cheaper and more effective. Simulations, based on the ones used to develop the new residential ventilation requirements for the California Buildings Energy code, were used to further define the specific criteria and strategies needed for the controller. These simulations provide estimates of the energy, peak power and contaminant improvement possible for different California climates for the various ventilation systems. Results from a field test of the prototype controller corroborate the predicted performance.

  2. Do lower-extremity joint dynamics change when stair negotiation is initiated with a self-selected comfortable gait speed?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallabhajosula, Srikant; Yentes, Jennifer M; Momcilovic, Mira; Blanke, Daniel J; Stergiou, Nicholas

    2012-02-01

    Previous research on the biomechanics of stair negotiation has ignored the effect of the approaching speed. We examined if initiating stair ascent with a comfortable self-selected speed can affect the lower-extremity joint moments and powers as compared to initiating stair ascent directly in front of the stairs. Healthy young adults ascended a custom-built staircase instrumented with force platforms. Kinematics and kinetics data were collected simultaneously for two conditions: starting from farther away and starting in front of the stairs and analyzed at the first and second ipsilateral steps. Results showed that for the first step, participants produced greater peak knee extensor moment, peak hip extensor and flexor moments and peak hip positive power while starting from farther away. Also, for both the conditions combined, participants generated lesser peak ankle plantiflexor, greater peak knee flexor moment, lesser peak ankle negative power and greater peak hip negative power while encountering the first step. These results identify the importance of the starting position in experiments dealing with biomechanics of stair negotiation. Further, these findings have important implications for studying stair ascent characteristics of other populations such as older adults. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Residential energy demand in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arouca, M.; Gomes, F.M.; Rosa, L.P.

    1981-01-01

    The energy demand in Brazilian residential sector is studied, discussing the methodology for analyzing this demand from some ideas suggested, for developing an adequate method to brazilian characteristics. The residential energy consumption of several fuels in Brazil is also presented, including a comparative evaluation with the United States and France. (author)

  4. Studying feasibility and effects of a two-stage nursing staff training in residential geriatric care using a 30 month mixed-methods design [ISRCTN24344776

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hantikainen Virpi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transfer techniques and lifting weights often cause back pain and disorders for nurses in geriatric care. The Kinaesthetics care conception claims to be an alternative, yielding benefits for nurses as well as for clients. Starting a multi-step research program on the effects of Kinaesthetics, we assess the feasibility of a two-stage nursing staff training and a pre-post research design. Using quantitative and qualitative success criteria, we address mobilisation from the bed to a chair and backwards, walking with aid and positioning in bed on the staff level as well as on the resident level. In addition, effect estimates should help to decide on and to prepare a controlled trial. Methods/Design Standard basic and advanced Kinaesthetics courses (each comprising four subsequent days and an additional counselling day during the following four months are offered to n = 36 out of 60 nurses in a residential geriatric care home, who are in charge of 76 residents. N = 22 residents needing movement support are participating to this study. On the staff level, measurements include focus group discussions, questionnaires, physical strain self-assessment (Borg scale, video recordings and external observation of patient assistance skills using a specialised instrument (SOPMAS. Questionnaires used on the resident level include safety, comfort, pain, and level of own participation during mobilisation. A functional mobility profile is assessed using a specialised test procedure (MOTPA. Measurements will take place at baseline (T0, after basic training (T1, and after the advanced course (T2. Follow-up focus groups will be offered at T1 and 10 months later (T3. Discussion Ten criteria for feasibility success are established before the trial, assigned to resources (missing data, processes (drop-out of nurses and residents and science (minimum effects criteria. This will help to make rational decision on entering the next stage of the research

  5. Comparison between predicted duct effectiveness from proposed ASHRAE Standard 152P and measured field data for residential forced air cooling systems; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, Jeffrey A.; McWilliams, Jennifer A.; Walker, Iain S.

    2002-01-01

    The proposed ASHRAE Standard 152P ''Method of Test for Determining the Design and Seasonal Efficiencies of Residential Thermal Distribution Systems'' (ASHRAE 2002) has recently completed its second public review. As part of the standard development process, this study compares the forced air distribution system ratings provided by the public review draft of Standard 152P to measured field results. 58 field tests were performed on cooling systems in 11 homes in the summers of 1998 and 1999. Seven of these houses had standard attics with insulation on the attic floor and a well-vented attic space. The other four houses had unvented attics where the insulation is placed directly under the roof deck and the attic space is not deliberately vented. Each house was tested under a range of summer weather conditions at each particular site, and in some cases the amount of duct leakage was intentionally varied. The comparison between 152P predicted efficiencies and the measured results includes evaluation of the effects of weather, duct location, thermal conditions, duct leakage, and system capacity. The results showed that the difference between measured delivery effectiveness and that calculated using proposed Standard 152P is about 5 percentage points if weather data, duct leakage and air handler flow are well known. However, the accuracy of the standard is strongly dependent on having good measurements of duct leakage and system airflow. Given that the uncertainty in the measured delivery effectiveness is typically also about 5 percentage points, the Standard 152P results are acceptably close to the measured data

  6. Geometry directed self-selection in the coordination-driven self-assembly of irregular supramolecular polygons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yao-Rong; Northrop, Brian H; Yang, Hai-Bo; Zhao, Liang; Stang, Peter J

    2009-05-01

    The self-assembly of irregular metallo-supramolecular hexagons and parallelograms has been achieved in a self-selective manner upon mixing 120 degrees unsymmetrical dipyridyl ligands with 60 degrees or 120 degrees organoplatinum acceptors in a 1:1 ratio. The polygons have been characterized using (31)P and (1)H multinuclear NMR spectroscopy and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) as well as X-ray crystallography. Geometric features of the molecular subunits direct the self-selection process, which is supported by molecular force field computations.

  7. Physiological and perceptual responses of sedentary women while walking at a self-selected pace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiane Hallage

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the physiological and perceptual responses of sedentary women while walking at a self-selected pace. The sample was made up of forty-one women with a median age of 32.6 ± 8.6 years. Subjects underwent an incremental test until exhaustion on a treadmill in order to determine their maximum physiological and perceptual responses. The subjects then a 20-minute walking test at their self-selected pace to determine physiological and perceptual responses. Descriptive analysis was in the form of measures of central tendency, variability and relative frequency. Mean exercise intensity during the walking bout was 57.3 ± 12.1% of peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak and 74.4 ± 9.3% of peak heart rate (HRpeak, corresponding to 88.4 ± 19.8% and 85.6 ± 21.6% of the fi gures obtained at ventilatory threshold (VT, respectively. Nevertheless, the rating of perceived effort (RPE and affective valence (AV during the walking session returned mean values of 11.9 ± 2.1 and 2.4 ± 2.0, which correspond to 100.7 ± 20.0% and 96.0 ± 2.0% of the fi gures obtained at VT, respectively. In conclusion, the exercise intensity that was self-selected by this group of sedentary women meets current recommendations for moderate intensity exercise and was associated with increased pleasure.RESUMO O objetivo desse estudo foi verifi car os parâmetros fi siológicos e perceptivos durante a realização de caminhada de intensidade preferida por mulheres adultas, previamente sedentárias. Foram investigados 41 sujeitos (idade 32,6 ± 8,6 anos, os quais realizaram, inicialmente, um teste de esteira incremental até a exaustão para a determinação de respostas fi siológicas e perceptivas máximas e, posteriormente, um teste de caminhada em esteira por 20 minutos em uma intensidade auto-selecionada, no qual parâmetros fi siológicos e perceptivos foram obtidos. Medidas de tendência central e variabilidade foram empregadas para a an

  8. Adjustment problems and residential care environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Sebastian Novotný

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem: Residential care environment represents a specific social space that is associated with a number of negative consequences, covering most aspects of children and youth functioning. The paper analyzes of the presence of adjustment problems among adolescents from institutional care environment and compares this results with a population of adolescents who grew up in a family. Methods: The sample consisted of two groups of adolescents. The first group included 285 adolescents currently growing up in an residential care environment, aged 13 to 21 (M = 16.23, SD = 1.643. The second group consisted of 214 adolescents growing up in a family, aged 15 to 20 (M = 17.07, SD = 1.070. We used a questionnaire Youth Self Report. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and MANOVA. Results: Results showed that adolescents in residential care exhibit higher average values in all adjustment problems. Also, in the context of diagnostic categories are the residential care adolescents more frequently in non-normal range (borderline and clinical, primarily in the border range. The greatest differences were reflected in the Thought problems and Rule-breaking behavior. MANOVA showed a significant multivariate effect between groups of adolescents, Hotelling's T = .803, F(8, 490 = 49.202, p <.001, d = .445 (large effect. Univariate analysis further showed a significant effect for Withdrawn/depressed (p = .044, d = .089, small effect, Somatic complaints (p = .002, d = .139, medium effect, Social problems (p = 004, d = .127, a small effect, Thought problems (p <.001, d = .633, strong effect, Attention problems (p <.001, d = .320,strong effect, Rule-breaking behavior (p <.001 , d = .383, strong effect, and Aggressive behavior (p = 015, d = .110, small effect. Results for the dimension of Anxious/depressed were not significant (p = .159. Discussion: The results didn’t confirmed the assumption that more than 30% of residential care adolescents have adjustment

  9. Should we provide oral health training for staff caring for people with intellectual disabilities in community based residential care? A cost-effectiveness analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mac Giolla Phadraig, Caoimhin; Nunn, June; Guerin, Suzanne; Normand, Charles

    2016-04-01

    Oral health training is often introduced into community-based residential settings to improve the oral health of people with intellectual disabilities (ID). There is a lack of appropriate evaluation of such programs, leading to difficulty in deciding how best to allocate scarce resources to achieve maximum effect. This article reports an economic analysis of one such oral health program, undertaken as part of a cluster randomized controlled trial. Firstly, we report a cost-effectiveness analysis of training care-staff compared to no training, using incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). Effectiveness was measured as change in knowledge, reported behaviors, attitude and self-efficacy, using validated scales (K&BAS). Secondly, we costed training as it was scaled up to include all staff within the service provider in question. Data were collected in Dublin, Ireland in 2009. It cost between €7000 and €10,000 more to achieve modest improvement in K&BAS scores among a subsample of 162 care-staff, in comparison to doing nothing. Considering scaled up first round training, it cost between €58,000 and €64,000 to train the whole population of staff, from a combined dental and disability service perspective. Less than €15,000-€20,000 of this was additional to the cost of doing nothing (incremental cost). From a dental perspective, a further, second training cycle including all staff would cost between €561 and €3484 (capital costs) and €5815 (operating costs) on a two yearly basis. This study indicates that the program was a cost-effective means of improving self-reported measures and possibly oral health, relative to doing nothing. This was mainly due to low cost, rather than the large effect. In this instance, the use of cost effectiveness analysis has produced evidence, which may be more useful to decision makers than that arising from traditional methods of evaluation. There is a need for CEAs of effective interventions to allow comparison

  10. The effectiveness of an integrated collaborative care model vs. a shifted outpatient collaborative care model on community functioning, residential stability, and health service use among homeless adults with mental illness: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiopoulos, Vicky; Schuler, Andrée; Nisenbaum, Rosane; deRuiter, Wayne; Guimond, Tim; Wasylenki, Donald; Hoch, Jeffrey S; Hwang, Stephen W; Rouleau, Katherine; Dewa, Carolyn

    2015-08-28

    Although a growing number of collaborative mental health care models have been developed, targeting specific populations, few studies have utilized such interventions among homeless populations. This quasi-experimental study compared the outcomes of two shelter-based collaborative mental health care models for men experiencing homelessness and mental illness: (1) an integrated multidisciplinary collaborative care (IMCC) model and (2) a less resource intensive shifted outpatient collaborative care (SOCC) model. In total 142 participants, 70 from IMCC and 72 from SOCC were enrolled and followed for 12 months. Outcome measures included community functioning, residential stability, and health service use. Multivariate regression models were used to compare study arms with respect to change in community functioning, residential stability, and health service use outcomes over time and to identify baseline demographic, clinical or homelessness variables associated with observed changes in these domains. We observed improvements in both programs over time on measures of community functioning, residential stability, hospitalizations, emergency department visits and community physician visits, with no significant differences between groups over time on these outcome measures. Our findings suggest that shelter-based collaborative mental health care models may be effective for individuals experiencing homelessness and mental illness. Future studies should seek to confirm these findings and examine the cost effectiveness of collaborative care models for this population.

  11. Greenhouse gas emissions and energy use associated with production of individual self-selected US diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, Martin C.; Willits-Smith, Amelia; Meyer, Robert; Keoleian, Gregory A.; Rose, Donald

    2018-04-01

    Human food systems are a key contributor to climate change and other environmental concerns. While the environmental impacts of diets have been evaluated at the aggregate level, few studies, and none for the US, have focused on individual self-selected diets. Such work is essential for estimating a distribution of impacts, which, in turn, is key to recommending policies for driving consumer demand towards lower environmental impacts. To estimate the impact of US dietary choices on greenhouse gas emissions (GHGE) and energy demand, we built a food impacts database from an exhaustive review of food life cycle assessment (LCA) studies and linked it to over 6000 as-consumed foods and dishes from 1 day dietary recall data on adults (N = 16 800) in the nationally representative 2005–2010 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Food production impacts of US self-selected diets averaged 4.7 kg CO2 eq. person‑1 day‑1 (95% CI: 4.6–4.8) and 25.2 MJ non-renewable energy demand person‑1 day‑1 (95% CI: 24.6–25.8). As has been observed previously, meats and dairy contribute the most to GHGE and energy demand of US diets; however, beverages also emerge in this study as a notable contributor. Although linking impacts to diets required the use of many substitutions for foods with no available LCA studies, such proxy substitutions accounted for only 3% of diet-level GHGE. Variability across LCA studies introduced a ±19% range on the mean diet GHGE, but much of this variability is expected to be due to differences in food production locations and practices that can not currently be traced to individual dietary choices. When ranked by GHGE, diets from the top quintile accounted for 7.9 times the GHGE as those from the bottom quintile of diets. Our analyses highlight the importance of utilizing individual dietary behaviors rather than just population means when considering diet shift scenarios.

  12. Gender Differences in the Effect of Residential Segregation on Workplace Segregation among Newly Arrived Immigrants (discussion paper)

    OpenAIRE

    Tammaru, T.; Strömgren, M.; Van Ham, M.; Danzer, A.

    2015-01-01

    The research leading to these results has received funding from the European Research Council under the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP/2007-2013) / ERC Grant Agreement n. 615159 (ERC Consolidator Grant DEPRIVEDHOODS, Socio-spatial inequality, deprived neighbourhoods, and neighbourhood effects) and from the Marie Curie programme under the European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP/2007-2013) / Career Integration Grant n.PCIG10-GA-2011-303728 (CIG Grant NBHCHOICE, Neighb...

  13. The psychophysiological effects of Tai-chi and exercise in residential Schizophrenic patients: a 3-arm randomized controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ho, Rainbow Tin Hung; Wan, Adrian Ho Yin; Au-Yeung, Friendly So Wah; Lo, Phyllis Hau Yan; Siu, Pantha Joey Chung Yue; Wong, Cathy Pui Ki; Ng, Winnie Yuen Han; Cheung, Irene Kit Man; Ng, Siu Man; Chan, Cecilia Lai Wan; Chen, Eric Yu Hai

    2014-01-01

    Background Patients with schizophrenia are characterized by high prevalence rates and chronicity that often leads to long-term institutionalization. Under the traditional medical model, treatment usually emphasizes the management of psychotic symptoms through medication, even though anti-psychotic drugs are associated with severe side effects, which can diminish patients’ physical and psychological well-being. Tai-chi, a mind-body exercise rooted in Eastern health philosophy, emphasizes the m...

  14. [Effects of an intensive therapy program for behaviorally disordered mentally handicapped patients on staff personnel in residential care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elbing, U; Rohmann, U H

    1994-03-01

    This study evaluates the effects of an intensive therapy program designed for mentally handicapped persons with severely disturbed or autistic behavior on their staff personal which had an active role in the program. The staff members rated their professional competence, quality of interaction with the client, team culture and work satisfaction before and after being engaged in the program, with additional ratings of their personal aims at the beginning of the program. Three sets of data were obtained with the program being conducted three times in a row. The testings of the related as well as the independent samples show differentiated program effects. The main effect is an increase of the professional competence and quality of interaction, especially by the qualified staff members. Trainees put emphasis on the development of their personal relationship with the client. The results are discussed in terms of the impact of learning processes specific to the roles of the staff members and motivational factors on learning and therapy outcome, along with institutional conditions influencing successful learning. Thus the program facilitates the professional and interpersonal learning process of staff members in a specific way with success as well as with limitations.

  15. Effectiveness and safety of a high-dose weekly vitamin D (20,000 IU) protocol in older adults living in residential care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Fabio; Moore, Crystal; da Silva, Liz; Gaspard, Gina; Gustafson, Larry; Singh, Sonia; Barr, Susan I; Kitts, David D; Li, Wangyang; Weiler, Hope A; Green, Timothy J

    2014-08-01

    To report 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentrations, an indicator of vitamin D status, in older adults living in residential care 1 year after a protocol of weekly 20,000 IU of vitamin D was started. Cross-sectional. Five residential care facilities in British Columbia, Canada. Residents aged 65 and older from five facilities (N=236). Participants provided a blood sample. Demographic and health information was obtained from the medical record. Mean 25OHD was 102 nmol/L (95% confidence interval (CI)=98-106 nmol/L). Three percent of residents had a 25OHD concentration of less than 40 nmol/L, 6% 2.6 mmol/L), a potential consequence of too much vitamin D, was present in 14%, although 25OHD levels did not differ in those with and without hypercalcemia (108 vs 101 nmol/L; P=.17). Twelve months after implementation of a 20,000-IU/wk vitamin D protocol for older adults in residential care, mean 25OHD concentrations were high, and there was no evidence of poor vitamin D status. Given the absence of demonstrated benefit of high 25OHD concentrations to the residential care population, dosages less than 20,000 IU/wk of vitamin D are recommended. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  16. The effect of West Nile virus perceptions and knowledge on protective behavior and mosquito breeding in residential yards in Upstate New York

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuiten, W.; Koenraadt, C.J.M.; McComas, K.; Harrington, L.C.

    2009-01-01

    A knowledge, attitudes, and practices (KAP) questionnaire combined with entomological surveys of residential mosquito-breeding sites were conducted in two Upstate New York neighborhoods. We tested the hypothesis that “correct” West Nile virus (WNV) knowledge and perceptions correspond with the use

  17. Self-selection in size and structure in argon clusters formed on amorphous carbon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krainyukova, Nina V.; Waal, Benjamin W. van de

    2004-07-01

    Argon clusters formed on an amorphous carbon substrate as deposited from the vapor phase were studied by means of transmission high energy electron diffraction using the liquid helium cryostat. Electron diffractograms were analysed on the basis of assumption that there exist a cluster size distribution in samples formed on substrate and multi-shell structures such as icosahedra, decahedra, fcc and hcp were probed for different sizes up to {approx}15 000 atoms. The experimental data were considered as a result of a superposition of diffracted intensities from clusters of different sizes and structures. The comparative analysis was based on the R-factor minimization that was found to be equal to 0.014 for the best fit between experiment and modelling. The total size and structure distribution function shows the presence of 'non-crystallographic' structures such as icosahedra and decahedra with five-fold symmetry that was found to prevail and a smaller amount of fcc and hcp structures. Possible growth mechanisms as well as observed general tendency to self-selection in sizes and structures are presumably governed by confined pore-like geometry in an amorphous carbon substrate.

  18. The Effect of Fast-Food Availability on Obesity: An Analysis by Gender, Race, and Residential Location

    OpenAIRE

    Richard A. Dunn

    2010-01-01

    This paper employs an identification strategy based on county-level variation in the number of fast-food restaurants to investigate the effect of fast-food availability on weight outcomes by geographic location, gender, and race/ethnicity. The number of interstate exits in the county of residence is employed as an instrument for restaurant location. Using the 2004--2006 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and self-collected data on the number of fast-food restaurants, I find that avail...

  19. Dietary self-selection by broilers at normal and high temperature changes feed intake behavior, nutrient intake, and performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Syafwan, W.; Wermink, G.J.D.; Kwakkel, R.P.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    2012-01-01

    Self-selection assumes that at high ambient temperature, birds are able to select a diet from different sources to minimize the heat load associated with the ingested nutrient metabolism. The objective was to test the hypothesis that young chickens are able to compose an adequate ration by adjusting

  20. Self-selection of two diet components by Tennebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae and its impact on fitness

    Science.gov (United States)

    We studied the ability of Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) to self-select optimal ratios of two dietary components to approach nutritional balance and maximum fitness. Life table analysis was used to determine the fitness of T. molitor developing in diet mixtures comprised of four dif...

  1. Does Personality Matter? Applying Holland's Typology to Analyze Students' Self-Selection into Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, P. Daniel; Simpson, Patricia A.

    2015-01-01

    This study utilized John Holland's personality typology and the Social Cognitive Career Theory (SCCT) to examine the factors that may affect students' self-selection into science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) majors. Results indicated that gender, race/ethnicity, high school achievement, and personality type were statistically…

  2. The effect of utility time-varying pricing and load control strategies on residential summer peak electricity use. A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Newsham, Guy R.; Bowker, Brent G.

    2010-01-01

    Peak demand for electricity in North America is expected to grow, challenging electrical utilities to supply this demand in a cost-effective, reliable manner. Therefore, there is growing interest in strategies to reduce peak demand by eliminating electricity use, or shifting it to non-peak times. This strategy is commonly called 'demand response'. In households, common strategies are time-varying pricing, which charge more for energy use on peak, or direct load control, which allows utilities to curtail certain loads during high demand periods. We reviewed recent North American studies of these strategies. The data suggest that the most effective strategy is a critical peak price (CPP) program with enabling technology to automatically curtail loads on event days. There is little evidence that this causes substantial hardship for occupants, particularly if they have input into which loads are controlled and how, and have an override option. In such cases, a peak load reduction of at least 30% is a reasonable expectation. It might be possible to attain such load reductions without enabling technology by focusing on household types more likely to respond, and providing them with excellent support. A simple time-of-use (TOU) program can only expect to realise on-peak reductions of 5%. (author)

  3. Assessing the effects of customer innovativeness, environmental value and ecological lifestyles on residential solar power systems install intention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Kee Kuo

    2014-01-01

    To understand the impact of environmental value, ecological lifestyle, customer innovativeness on customer intention to install solar power system (SPS) in their private houses, an empirical model was proposed. Customer innovativeness was treated as a second-order construct with two first-order dimensions, with each of the latter being measured by means of reflective indicators. Using structural equation modeling, data collected from 203 college students and faculties at a University of Taiwan were tested against the model. We found that environmental value has a positive impact on ecological lifestyle and SPS install intention. Although ecological lifestyle associates positively with SPS install intention, the effect disappears when environmental value is included in the model. The effect of customer innovativeness on SPS install intention results from the tendency of customer novelty seeking, while the impact of customer independent judgment-making on SPS install intention is insignificant. The model explained 76% of the total variations within SPS install intention. Managerial implications for promoting of SPS are considered, and suggestions for further research provided. - Highlights: • We integrate customer innovativeness into an environmental behavior model. • The impact of customer innovativeness on SPS install intention was confirmed. • The impact of novelty seeking on SPS install intention has been found. • Environmental value is the most important factor for SPS install intention. • The model explained 76% of the total variations within SPS install intention

  4. After-School and Informal STEM Projects: the Effect of Participant Self-Selection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vallett, David B.; Lamb, Richard; Annetta, Leonard

    2017-12-01

    This research represents an unforeseen outcome of the authors' National Science Foundation Innovation Technology Experiences for Students and Teachers (ITEST) program grant in science education. The grant itself focused on the use of serious educational games (SEGs) in the science classroom, both during and after school, to teach science content and affect student perceptions of science and technology. This study consists of a Bayesian artificial neural network analysis, using the preintervention measures of affect, interest, personality, and cognitive ability, in members of both the treatment and comparison groups to generate the probabilities that students would opt into the treatment group or choose not to participate. It appears, from this sample and the sampling methods of other related studies within the field, that despite sometimes profound results from technology interventions in science, interventions are affecting only those who already have a strong interest in STEM due to the manner in which participants are recruited.

  5. Does Discretion in Lending Increase Bank Risk? Borrower Self-Selection and Loan Officer Capture Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gropp, R.; Grundl, C.; Guttler, A.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: In this paper we analyze whether discretionary lending increases bank risk. We use a panel dataset of matched bank and borrower data. It offers the chief advantages that we can directly identify soft information in banks’ lending decisions and that we observe ex post defaults of borrowers.

  6. Does Discretion in Lending Increase Bank Risk? Borrower Self-Selection and Loan Officer Capture Effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gropp, R.; Grundl, C.; Guttler, A.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we analyze whether discretionary lending increases bank risk. We use a panel dataset of matched bank and borrower data. It offers the chief advantages that we can directly identify soft information in banks’ lending decisions and that we observe ex post defaults of borrowers.Consistent

  7. Research Notes ~ The Effect of Self-selection on Student Satisfaction and Performance in Online Classes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pan G. Yatrakis

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines student performance, satisfaction, and retention of information in online classes as a function of student choice as to the format of instruction. Student outcomes are studied for two groups enrolled in online classes: those who were allowed to choose between an online and a ground-based format and who chose the online format voluntarily; and those who were obliged to take classes in the online format without being afforded the opportunity to choose.

  8. ENERGY STAR Certified Residential Freezers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 5.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Residential Refrigerators and Freezers that are...

  9. ENERGY STAR Certified Residential Refrigerators

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 5.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Residential Refrigerators and Freezers that are...

  10. Costs of day hospital and community residential chemical dependency treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaskutas, Lee Ann; Zavala, Silvana K; Parthasarathy, Sujaya; Witbrodt, Jane

    2008-03-01

    at residential versus day hospital programs were similar for women and for Whites. For non-Whites, and marginally for men, a preference for residential care would appear to come at a higher cost. Lengths of stay in residential treatment were significantly longer than in day hospital, but costs per week were lower. Women and Whites appear to be equally well-served in residential and day hospital programs, with no significant cost differential. Provision of residential treatment for non-Whites may be more costly than day hospital, because their residential stays are likely to be 3 times longer than they would be if treated in day hospital. For men, residential care will be marginally more costly. IMPLICATIONS FOR HEALTH POLICY FORMULATION: Residential treatment appears to represent a cost-effective alternative to day hospital for female and White clients with severe alcohol and drug problems who are not at environmental risk. The much shorter stays in day hospital than at residential among non-Whites highlight the need for research to better understand how to best meet the needs and preferences of non-White clients when considering both costs and outcomes.

  11. Panethnicity, Ethnic Diversity and Residential Segregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ann H.; White, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    We consider the theoretical and empirical implications of the structural basis of panethnicity and of the layering of ethnic boundaries in residential patterns while simultaneously evaluating the ‘panethnic hypothesis’, that is, the extent to which homogeneity within panethnic categories can be assumed. Our results do show a panethnic effect – greater residential proximity is evident within panethnic boundaries than between, net of ethnic group size and metropolitan area, but this association clearly depends on immigration. While findings generally show a lower degree of social distance between panethnic subgroups, particularly for blacks, whites and Latinos and less for Asians, ethno-national groups continue to maintain some degree of distinctiveness within a racialized context. PMID:20503650

  12. Electricity demand for South Korean residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sa'ad, Suleiman

    2009-01-01

    This study estimates the electricity demand function for the residential sector of South Korea with the aim of examining the effects of improved energy efficiency, structural factors and household lifestyles on electricity consumption. In the study, time series data for the period from 1973 to 2007 is used in a structural time series model to estimate the long-term price and income elasticities and annual growth of underlying energy demand trend (UEDT) at the end of the estimation period. The result shows a long-term income elasticity of 1.33 and a long-term price elasticity of -0.27% with -0.93% as the percentage growth of UEDT at the end of the estimation period. This result suggests that, in order to encourage energy efficiency in the residential sector, the government should complement the market based pricing policies with non-market policies such as minimum energy efficiency standards and public enlightenment.

  13. Residential indoor air quality guideline : carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a tasteless, odourless, and colourless gas that can be produced by both natural and anthropogenic processes, but is most often formed during the incomplete combustion of organic materials. In the indoor environment, CO occurs directly as a result of emissions from indoor sources or as a result of infiltration from outdoor air containing CO. Studies have shown that the use of specific sources can lead to increased concentrations of CO indoors. This residential indoor air quality guideline examined the factors influencing the introduction, dispersion and removal of CO indoors. The health effects of exposure to low and higher concentrations of CO were discussed. Residential maximum exposure limits for CO were presented. Sources and concentrations in indoor environments were also examined. 17 refs., 2 tabs.

  14. Electricity demand for South Korean residential sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sa' ad, Suleiman [Surrey Energy Economics Centre (SEEC), Department of Economics, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-15

    This study estimates the electricity demand function for the residential sector of South Korea with the aim of examining the effects of improved energy efficiency, structural factors and household lifestyles on electricity consumption. In the study, time series data for the period from 1973 to 2007 is used in a structural time series model to estimate the long-term price and income elasticities and annual growth of underlying energy demand trend (UEDT) at the end of the estimation period. The result shows a long-term income elasticity of 1.33 and a long-term price elasticity of -0.27% with -0.93% as the percentage growth of UEDT at the end of the estimation period. This result suggests that, in order to encourage energy efficiency in the residential sector, the government should complement the market based pricing policies with non-market policies such as minimum energy efficiency standards and public enlightenment. (author)

  15. Residential indoor air quality guideline : ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Ozone (O 3 ) is a colourless gas that reacts rapidly on surfaces and with other constituents in the air. Sources of indoor O 3 include devices sold as home air cleaners, and some types of office equipment. Outdoor O 3 is also an important contributor to indoor levels of O 3 , depending on the air exchange rate with indoor environments. This residential indoor air quality guideline examined factors that affect the introduction, dispersion and removal of O 3 indoors. The health effects of prolonged exposure to O 3 were discussed, and studies conducted to evaluate the population health impacts of O 3 were reviewed. The studies demonstrated that there is a significant association between ambient O 3 and adverse health impacts. Exposure guidelines for residential indoor air quality were discussed. 14 refs.

  16. Effects of a high‐intensity functional exercise program on depressive symptoms among people with dementia in residential care: a randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conradsson, Mia; Hörnsten, Carl; Rosendahl, Erik; Lindelöf, Nina; Holmberg, Henrik; Nordström, Peter; Gustafson, Yngve; Littbrand, Håkan

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study is to evaluate the effect of a high‐intensity functional exercise program on depressive symptoms among older care facility residents with dementia. Methods Residents (n = 186) with a diagnosis of dementia, age ≥ 65 years, Mini‐Mental State Examination score ≥ 10, and dependence in activities of daily living were included. Participants were randomized to a high‐intensity functional exercise program or a non‐exercise control activity conducted 45 min every other weekday for 4 months. The 15‐item Geriatric Depression Scale (GDS) and the Montgomery–Åsberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) were administered by blinded assessors at baseline, 4, and 7 months. Results No difference between the exercise and control activity was found in GDS or MADRS score at 4 or 7 months. Among participants with GDS scores ≥ 5, reductions in GDS score were observed in the exercise and control groups at 4 months (–1.58, P = 0.001 and –1.54, P = 0.004) and 7 months (–1.25, P = 0.01 and –1.45, P = 0.007). Among participants with MADRS scores ≥ 7, a reduction in MADRS score was observed at 4 months in the control group (–2.80, P = 0.009) and at 7 months in the exercise and control groups (–3.17, P = 0.003 and –3.34, P = 0.002). Conclusions A 4‐month high‐intensity functional exercise program has no superior effect on depressive symptoms relative to a control activity among older people with dementia living in residential care facilities. Exercise and non‐exercise group activities may reduce high levels of depressive symptoms. PMID:26644304

  17. Dynamic management of integrated residential energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Matteo

    This study combines principles of energy systems engineering and statistics to develop integrated models of residential energy use in the United States, to include residential recharging of electric vehicles. These models can be used by government, policymakers, and the utility industry to provide answers and guidance regarding the future of the U.S. energy system. Currently, electric power generation must match the total demand at each instant, following seasonal patterns and instantaneous fluctuations. Thus, one of the biggest drivers of costs and capacity requirement is the electricity demand that occurs during peak periods. These peak periods require utility companies to maintain operational capacity that often is underutilized, outdated, expensive, and inefficient. In light of this, flattening the demand curve has long been recognized as an effective way of cutting the cost of producing electricity and increasing overall efficiency. The problem is exacerbated by expected widespread adoption of non-dispatchable renewable power generation. The intermittent nature of renewable resources and their non-dispatchability substantially limit the ability of electric power generation of adapting to the fluctuating demand. Smart grid technologies and demand response programs are proposed as a technical solution to make the electric power demand more flexible and able to adapt to power generation. Residential demand response programs offer different incentives and benefits to consumers in response to their flexibility in the timing of their electricity consumption. Understanding interactions between new and existing energy technologies, and policy impacts therein, is key to driving sustainable energy use and economic growth. Comprehensive and accurate models of the next-generation power system allow for understanding the effects of new energy technologies on the power system infrastructure, and can be used to guide policy, technology, and economic decisions. This

  18. COMBINED EFFECT OF THE AIRBORNE AND IMPACT NOISE PRODUCED ONTO THE SOUND INSULATION OF INSERTED FLOORS OF RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS: THEORETICAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saltykov Ivan Petrovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The indoor environment of residential buildings is a complex system. It consists of diverse though related elements. An optimal correlation of parameters of the indoor space converts into the appropriate equilibrium and harmonious human living free from any stimulating or irritating factors that interfere with any working and/or relaxation processes. The author has selected the following three principal factors of the indoor environment. They include heat, daylight and sound. The research has revealed a strong linkn between these factors. Noise pollution of residential houses is taken into account through the introduction of the airborne insulation index and the impact sound index underneath the inserted floor. The findings of theoretical researches and experiments have proven a strong functional relationship between airborne and impact sound values.

  19. The importance of engaging residential energy customers' hearts and minds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olaniyan, Monisola J.; Evans, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    In an attempt to reduce the contribution of residential greenhouse gas emissions the EU has implemented a variety of policy measures. The focus has been to promote domestic energy efficiency and ultimately a reduction in residential energy demand. In this study we estimate residential energy demand using Underlying Energy Demand Trend (UEDT) and Asymmetric Price Responses for 14 European OECD countries between 1978 and 2008. Our results support the conclusion that policies to reduce residential energy consumption and the consequent emissions need to account for behavioural, lifestyle and cultural factors in order to be effective. - Highlights: • Residential energy demand is estimated for 14 European OECD countries between 1978 and 2008. • Investigate the relative contributions of Underlying Energy Demand Trend (UEDT) which captures exogenous technical progress. • The most effective policies target behavioural, lifestyle and cultural factors to reduce residential energy consumption

  20. Development Of Economic Techniques For Residential Thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Lee R.; Allen, Sharon

    1983-03-01

    Infrared thermography has proven to be a valuable tool in the detection of heat loss in both commercial and residential buildings. The field of residential thermography has needed a simple method with which to report the deficiencies found during an infrared scan. Two major obstacles hindering the cost effectiveness of residential thermography have been 1) the ability to quickly transport some high resolution imaging system equipment from job site to job site without having to totally dismount the instruments at each area, and 2) the lack of a standard form with which to report the findings of the survey to the customer. Since the industry has yet to provide us with either, we believed it necessary to develop our own. Through trial and error, we have come up with a system that makes interior residential thermography a profitable venture at a price the homeowner can afford. Insulation voids, or defects can be instantly spotted with the use of a thermal imaging system under the proper conditions. A special hand-held device was developed that enables the thermographer to carry the equipment from house to house without the need to dismantle and set up at each stop. All the necessary components are attached for a total weight of about 40 pounds. The findings are then conveyed to a form we have developed. The form is simple enough that the client without special training in thermography can understand. The client is then able to locate the problems and take corrective measures or give it to a con-tractor to do the work.

  1. The effects of window alternatives on energy efficiency and building economy in high-rise residential buildings in moderate to humid climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaşar, Yalçın; Kalfa, Sibel Maçka

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We investigated energy and economy efficiency of window alternatives in Trabzon. ► Energy consumptions of eight window alternatives were simulated and discussed. ► Window alternatives’s life cycle costs were calculated and compared. ► We suggested appropriate energy and economy efficient window alternatives. ► The study defines useful guidelines to select appropriate window alternatives. - Abstract: Currently, focused efforts are being made to determine the influence of windows on the energy consumption and economy of high-rise buildings. Certain window designs and appropriate glazing systems reduce building energy consumption for heating and cooling and contribute to building economy. This paper addresses double-glazed window units that are composed of tinted glass; clear reflective glass; low emissivity (low-e) glass; and smart glass (one surface consists of a high-performance, heat-reflective glass, and other surface has a low-emissivity coated). These materials reduce the heating and cooling loads of buildings by providing solar control and heat conservation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of these alternative units, rather than readily available double-glazed units, in two types of flats. The flats have the same construction and operating system, but they have different plan types with regard to building energy consumption and building economy as it relates to life cycle cost analysis. For this study, we selected buildings in Trabzon, in Climate Region II of Turkey, due to its moderate-humid climate. F- and C-type high-rise residential blocks, with flats composed of two to three bedrooms, constructed by the Republic of Turkey’s Prime Ministry Housing Development Administration of Turkey (TOKİ) are used as models for the simulation. The flat plans in these blocks are modeled using DesignBuilder v.1.8 energy simulation software. The simulation results show that smart-glazed units and those with low emissivity

  2. Self-selected music-induced reduction of perceived exertion during moderate-intensity exercise does not interfere with post-exercise improvements in inhibitory control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Daichi; Tsukamoto, Hayato; Suga, Tadashi; Takenaka, Saki; Hamaoka, Takafumi; Hashimoto, Takeshi; Isaka, Tadao

    2018-05-26

    Acute aerobic exercise improves inhibitory control (IC). This improvement is often associated with increases in perceived exertion during exercise. However, listening to music during aerobic exercise mitigates an exercise-induced increase in perceived exertion. Thus, it is hypothesized that such effects of music may interfere with exercise-induced improvements in IC. To test this hypothesis, we examined the effect of music on post-exercise IC improvements that were induced by moderate-intensity exercise. Fifteen healthy young men performed cycle ergometer exercise with music or non-music. The exercise was performed using a moderate-intensity of 60% of VO 2 peak for 30 min. The music condition was performed while listening to self-selected music. The non-music condition involved no music. To evaluate IC, the Stroop task was administered before exercise, immediately after exercise, and during the 30-min post-exercise recovery period. The rate of perceived exertion immediately before moderate-intensity exercise completed was significantly lower in music condition than in non-music condition. The IC significantly improved immediately after exercise and during the post-exercise recovery period compared to before exercise in both music and non-music conditions. The post-exercise IC improvements did not significantly differ between the two conditions. These findings indicate that self-selected music-induced mitigation of the increase in perceived exertion during moderate-intensity exercise dose not interfere with exercise-induced improvements in IC. Therefore, we suggest that listening to music may be a beneficial strategy in mitigating the increase in perceived exertion during aerobic exercise without decreasing the positive effects on IC. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Statistical study on the self-selection bias in FDG-PET cancer screening by a questionnaire survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kita, Tamotsu; Yano, Fuzuki; Watanabe, Sadahiro; Soga, Shigeyoshi; Hama, Yukihiro; Shinmoto, Hiroshi; Kosuda, Shigeru

    2008-01-01

    A questionnaire survey was performed to investigate the possible presence of self-selection bias in 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) cancer screening (PET cancer screening). Responders to the questionnaires survey consisted of 80 healthy persons, who answered whether they undergo PET cancer screening, health consciousness, age, sex, and smoking history. The univariate and multivariate analyses on the four parameters were performed between the responders who were to undergo PET cancer screening and the responders who were not. Statistically significant difference was found in health consciousness between the above-mentioned two groups by both univariate and multivariate analysis with the odds ratio of 2.088. The study indicated that self-selection bias should exist in PET cancer screening. (author)

  4. Self-selection of two diet components by Tenebrio molitor (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) larvae and its impact on fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales-Ramos, J A; Rojas, M G; Shapiro-Ilan, D I; Tedders, W L

    2011-10-01

    We studied the ability of Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) to self-select optimal ratios of two dietary components to approach nutritional balance and maximum fitness. Relative consumption of wheat bran and dry potato flakes was determined among larvae feeding on four different ratios of these components (10, 20, 30, and 40% potato). Groups of early instars were provided with a measured amount of food and the consumption of each diet component was measured at the end of 4 wk and again 3 wk later. Consumption of diet components by T. molitor larvae deviated significantly from expected ratios indicating nonrandom self-selection. Mean percentages of dry potato consumed were 11.98, 19.16, 19.02, and 19.27% and 11.89, 20.48, 24.67, and 25.97% during the first and second experimental periods for diets with 10, 20, 30, and 40% potato, respectively. Life table analysis was used to determine the fitness of T. molitor developing in the four diet mixtures in a no-choice experiment. The diets were compared among each other and a control diet of wheat bran only. Doubling time was significantly shorter in groups consuming 10 and 20% potato than the control and longer in groups feeding on 30 and 40% potato. The self-selected ratios of the two diet components approached 20% potato, which was the best ratio for development and second best for population growth. Our findings show dietary self-selection behavior in T. molitor larvae, and these findings may lead to new methods for optimizing dietary supplements for T. molitor.

  5. Self-selection contributes significantly to the lower adiposity offaster, longer-distanced, male and female walkers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Paul T.

    2006-01-06

    Although cross-sectional studies show active individuals areleaner than their sedentary counterparts, it remains to be determined towhat extent this is due to initially leaner men and women choosing toexercise longer and more intensely (self-selection bias). In this reportwalking volume (weekly distance) and intensity (speed) were compared tocurrent BMI (BMIcurrent) and BMI at the start of walking (BMIstarting) in20,353 women and 5,174 men who had walked regularly for exercise for 7.2and 10.6 years,respectively. The relationships of BMIcurrent andBMIstarting with distance and intensity were nonlinear (convex). Onaverage, BMIstarting explained>70 percent of the association betweenBMIcurrent and intensity, and 40 percent and 17 percent of theassociation between BMIcurrent and distance in women and men,respectively. Although the declines in BMIcurrent with distance andintensity were greater among fatter than leaner individuals, the portionsattributable to BMIstarting remained relatively constant regardless offatness. Thus self-selection bias accounts for most of the decline in BMIwith walking intensity and smaller albeit significant proportions of thedecline with distance. This demonstration of self-selection is germane toother cross-sectional comparisons in epidemiological research, givenself-selection is unlikely to be limited to weight or peculiar tophysical activity.

  6. Blood pressure in young adulthood and residential greenness in the early-life environment of twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijnens, Esmée M; Nawrot, Tim S; Loos, Ruth Jf; Gielen, Marij; Vlietinck, Robert; Derom, Catherine; Zeegers, Maurice P

    2017-06-05

    Previous research shows that, besides risk factors in adult life, the early-life environment can influence blood pressure and hypertension in adults. However, the effects of residential traffic exposure and residential greenness in the early-life on blood pressure in young adulthood are currently unknown. Ambulatory (24-h) blood pressures of 278 twins (132 pairs) of the East Flanders Prospective Twins Study were obtained at the age of 18 to 25 years. Prenatal and adulthood residential addresses were geocoded and used to assign prenatal and postnatal traffic and greenness indicators. Mixed modelling was performed to investigate blood pressure in association with greenness while adjusting for potential confounding factors. Night-time systolic blood pressure was inversely associated with greenness at the residential address in twins living at the same address their entire life (non-movers, n = 97, 34.9%). An interquartile increase in residential greenness exposure (1000 m radius) was associated with a 3.59 mmHg (95% CI: -6.0 to -1.23; p = 0.005) lower adult night systolic blood pressure. Among twins who were living at a different address than their birth address at time of the measurement (n = 181, 65.1%), night-time blood pressure was inversely associated with residential surrounding greenness at adult age as well as with residential greenness in early-life. However after additional adjustment for residential greenness exposure in adulthood, only residential greenness exposure in early-life was significantly associated with night systolic blood pressure. While no significant effect of adult residential greenness with adult blood pressure was observed, while accounting for the early-life greenness exposure. Lower residential greenness in the early-life environment was independently associated with a higher adult blood pressure. This indicates that residential greenness has persistent effects on blood pressure.

  7. Risks from Radon: Reconciling Miner and Residential Epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, Douglas B.; Harley, Naomi H.

    2008-01-01

    Everyone is exposed to radon, an inert radioactive gas that occurs naturally and is present everywhere in the atmosphere. The annual dose from radon and its (short-lived) decay products is typically about one-half of the dose received by members of the public from all natural sources of ionizing radiation. Data on exposures and consequent effects have recently been reviewed by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). Studies of underground miners provides a well-established basis for estimating risks from occupational exposures to radon and for studying factors that may affect the dose response relationship such as the reduction of risk (coefficients) with increasing time since exposure. Miners' studies previously formed the basis for estimating risks to people exposed to radon at home, with downward extrapolation from exposures in mines to residential levels of radon. Presently, the risk estimates from residential studies are adequate to estimate radon risks in homes. Although there are major uncertainties in extrapolating the risks of exposure to radon from the miner studies to assessing risks in the home, there is remarkably good agreement between the average of risk factors derived from miner studies and those from pooled residential case-control studies. There are now over 20 analytical studies of residential radon and lung cancer. These studies typically assess the relative risk from exposure to radon based on estimates of residential exposure over a period of 25 to 30 years prior to diagnosis of lung cancer. Recent pooled analyses of residential case-control studies support a small but detectable lung cancer risk from residential exposure, and this risk increases with increasing concentrations. The excess relative risk of lung cancer from long-term residential exposure is about the same for both smokers and non-smokers; however, because the

  8. A One Year Study of Mode Deactivation Therapy: Adolescent Residential Patients with Conduct and Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Christopher J.; Siv, Alexander M.

    2011-01-01

    This case study is to evaluate the effectiveness of Mode Deactivation Therapy (MDT) implementation in a child and adolescent residential treatment unit and provide preliminary effectiveness data on MDT versus treatment as usual (TAU). This case study compared the efficacy of two treatment methodologies for adolescent males in residential treatment…

  9. Consequences of residential development for biodiversity and human well-being

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liba Pejchar; Sarah E. Reed; Patrick Bixler; Lindsay Ex; Miranda H. Mockrin

    2015-01-01

    Residential development is a leading driver of land-use change, with important implications for biodiversity, ecosystem processes, and human well-being. We reviewed over 500 published scientific articles on the biophysical, economic, and social effects of residential development and open space in the US. We concluded that current knowledge of the effects of this type...

  10. On public space design for Chinese urban residential area based on integrated architectural physics environment evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, J. Y.; Cheng, W.; Ma, C. P.; Tan, Y. T.; Xin, L. S.

    2017-04-01

    The residential public space is an important part in designing the ecological residence, and a proper physics environment of public space is of greater significance to urban residence in China. Actually, the measure to apply computer aided design software into residential design can effectively avoid an inconformity of design intent with actual using condition, and a negative impact on users due to bad architectural physics environment of buildings, etc. The paper largely adopts a design method of analyzing architectural physics environment of residential public space. By analyzing and evaluating various physics environments, a suitability assessment is obtained for residential public space, thereby guiding the space design.

  11. Determinants of residential electricity consumption: Using smart meter data to examine the effect of climate, building characteristics, appliance stock, and occupants' behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavousian, Amir; Rajagopal, Ram; Fischer, Martin

    2013-01-01

    We propose a method to examine structural and behavioral determinants of residential electricity consumption, by developing separate models for daily maximum (peak) and minimum (idle) consumption. We apply our method on a data set of 1628 households' electricity consumption. The results show that weather, location and floor area are among the most important determinants of residential electricity consumption. In addition to these variables, number of refrigerators and entertainment devices (e.g., VCRs) are among the most important determinants of daily minimum consumption, while number of occupants and high-consumption appliances such as electric water heaters are the most significant determinants of daily maximum consumption. Installing double-pane windows and energy-efficient lights helped to reduce consumption, as did the energy-conscious use of electric heater. Acknowledging climate change as a motivation to save energy showed correlation with lower electricity consumption. Households with individuals over 55 or between 19 and 35 years old recorded lower electricity consumption, while pet owners showed higher consumption. Contrary to some previous studies, we observed no significant correlation between electricity consumption and income level, home ownership, or building age. Some otherwise energy-efficient features such as energy-efficient appliances, programmable thermostats, and insulation were correlated with slight increase in electricity consumption. - Highlights: • Weather, location and floor area are the most important determinants of residential electricity use. • Daily minimum and maximum are explained by different factors. • Number of refrigerators and entertainment devices explain daily minimum the best. • Number of occupants and high-consumption appliances explain daily maximum the best. • Other factors such as energy efficient features and household's socioeconomic status are examined

  12. A Community Landscape Model of Pro-Environmental Behavior: The Effects of Landscape and Community Interaction on Residential Energy Behaviors in Two Pennsylvania Towns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainzer, Stephen P.

    We are using more energy every year. Between 2001 and 2011, Pennsylvania residential electricity sales increased by two and a half times the number of new customers, accounting for almost one third of the state's total electricity consumption. Our ability to meet demand by acquiring new energy sources faces several challenges. Confusion surrounds the physical and economic accessibility of remaining fossil fuel sources. Immense land use requirements and subsequent environmental impacts challenge a total shift to renewable energy sources. The laws of thermodynamics limit the potential for new technology to efficiently convert raw energy to consumable sources. As a result, any rational strategy to meet future energy demands must involve conservation. Conservation is a pro-environmental behavior, an act intended to benefit the environment surrounding a person. I posit that a transdisciplinary model, the community landscape model of the pro-environmental behavior, unifies the conceptually analogous - yet disparate - fields of landscape, community, and behavior towards explaining residential energy conservation actions. Specifically, the study attempted to describe links between the physical environment, social environment, and conservation behaviors through a mixed-method framework. Two Pennsylvania townships - Spring and East Buffalo townships - were selected from an analysis of housing, electricity consumption, and land cover trends. Key informants from both townships informed the design of a survey instrument that captured the utility consumption, residential conservation actions, energy and environmental values, types and levels of community engagement, perceived barriers, and socio-demographic information from 107 randomly selected households. A mixed-method analysis produced evidence that place-based values and intention to participate in the community were significantly linked to lower utility consumption in households. People who cared deeply about their town

  13. Massage, a complementary therapy effectively promoting the health and well-being of older people in residential care settings: a review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFeeters, Sarah; Pront, Leeanne; Cuthbertson, Lesley; King, Lindy

    2016-12-01

    To explore the potential benefits of massage within daily routine care of the older person in residential care settings. Globally, the proportion of people over 65 years is rapidly rising. Increased longevity means older people may experience a rise in physiological and psychological health problems. These issues potentially place an increased demand for quality long-term care for the older person. Complementary approaches such as massage appear to be needed in quality residential care. A critical literature review was undertaken. A literature review pertaining to massage in the older resident was conducted using a range of online databases. Fourteen studies dated 1993-2012 met the inclusion criteria and were critically evaluated as suitable resources for this review. Evidence suggests massage may be advantageous from client and nursing perspectives. Clients' perceive massage to positively influence factors such as pain, sleep, emotional status and psychosocial health. Evidence also demonstrates massage to benefit the client and organisation by reducing the necessity for restraint and pharmacological intervention. Massage may be incorporated into care provision and adopted by care providers and family members as an additional strategy to enhance quality of life for older people. Massage offers a practical activity that can be used to enhance the health and well-being of the older person in residential care. Massage offers benefit for promoting health and well-being of the older person along with potential increased engagement of family in care provision. Integration of massage into daily care activities of the older person requires ongoing promotion and implementation. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Effectiveness of professional oral health care intervention on the oral health of residents with dementia in residential aged care facilities: a systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi Mohammadi, Joanna Jin; Franks, Kay; Hines, Sonia

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this review is to critically appraise and synthesize evidence on the effectiveness of professional oral health care intervention on the oral health of aged care residents with dementia.More specifically the objectives are to identify the efficacy of professional oral health care interventions on general oral health, the presence of plaque and the number of decayed or missing teeth. Dementia poses a significant challenge for health and social policy in Australia. The quality of life of individuals, their families and friends is impacted by dementia. Older people with dementia often have other health comorbidities resulting in the need for a higher level of care. From 2009 to 2010, 53% of permanent residents in Residential Aged Care Facilities (RACFs) had dementia on admission. Older Australians are retaining more of their natural teeth, therefore residents entering RACFs will have more of their natural teeth and require complex dental work than they did in previous generations. Data from the Australian Institute of Health and Welfare showed that more than half the residents in RACFs are now partially dentate with an average of 12 teeth each. Furthermore, coronal and root caries are significant problems, especially in older Australians who are cognitively impaired.Residents in aged care facilities frequently have poor oral health and hygiene with moderate to high levels of oral disease and overall dental neglect. This is reinforced by aged care staff who acknowledge that the demands of feeding, toileting and behavioral issues amongst residents often take precedence over oral health care regimens. Current literature shows that there is a general reluctance on the part of aged care staff to prioritize oral care due to limited knowledge as well as existing psychological barriers to working on another person's mouth. Although staff routinely deal with residents' urinary and faecal incontinence, deep psychological barriers exist when working on someone

  15. The effects of residential real-time pricing contracts on transco loads, pricing, and profitability: Simulations using the N-ABLE trademark agent-based model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ehlen, Mark A.; Scholand, Andrew J.; Stamber, Kevin L.

    2007-01-01

    An agent-based model is constructed in which a demand aggregator sells both uniform-price and real-time price (RTP) contracts to households as means for adding price elasticity in residential power use sectors, particularly during peak-price hours of the day. Simulations suggest that RTP contracts help a demand aggregator (1) shift its long-term contracts toward off-peak hours, thereby reducing its cost of power and (2) increase its short-run profits if it is one of the first aggregators to have large numbers of RTP contracts; but (3) create susceptibilities to short-term market demand and price volatilities. (author)

  16. Understanding Residential Polarization in a Globalizing City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Rotimi Aliu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the spatial polarization that characterizes the dwellings in the African leading megacity of Lagos. Data were collected through an extensive housing survey carried out on 1,485 household residences in 56 wards within 12 administrative units in Lagos megacity. The spatial dimension of residential density in the city generates three unique residential patterns which are low residential density (LRD, medium residential density (MRD, and high residential density (HRD areas. Descriptive and multivariate inferential statistics were used to render explanations for the spatial variations in the residential quality variables in the study area. Findings indicated that a clear difference exists in the residential quality within the three residential density areas of Lagos. High correlations exist among the residential quality indicators and housing type. The principal component analysis shows that residential polarizations that occur in the LRD, MRD, and HRD are based on the location, dwelling facility, interior and exterior quality, neighborhood integrity, social bond, barrier to entry, and security. The practical implications of residential polarizations along the residential density areas are explicitly expressed.

  17. Measuring urban tree loss dynamics across residential landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossola, Alessandro; Hopton, Matthew E

    2018-01-15

    The spatial arrangement of urban vegetation depends on urban morphology and socio-economic settings. Urban vegetation changes over time because of human management. Urban trees are removed due to hazard prevention or aesthetic preferences. Previous research attributed tree loss to decreases in canopy cover. However, this provides little information about location and structural characteristics of trees lost, as well as environmental and social factors affecting tree loss dynamics. This is particularly relevant in residential landscapes where access to residential parcels for field surveys is limited. We tested whether multi-temporal airborne LiDAR and multi-spectral imagery collected at a 5-year interval can be used to investigate urban tree loss dynamics across residential landscapes in Denver, CO and Milwaukee, WI, covering 400,705 residential parcels in 444 census tracts. Position and stem height of trees lost were extracted from canopy height models calculated as the difference between final (year 5) and initial (year 0) vegetation height derived from LiDAR. Multivariate regression models were used to predict number and height of tree stems lost in residential parcels in each census tract based on urban morphological and socio-economic variables. A total of 28,427 stems were lost from residential parcels in Denver and Milwaukee over 5years. Overall, 7% of residential parcels lost one stem, averaging 90.87 stems per km 2 . Average stem height was 10.16m, though trees lost in Denver were taller compared to Milwaukee. The number of stems lost was higher in neighborhoods with higher canopy cover and developed before the 1970s. However, socio-economic characteristics had little effect on tree loss dynamics. The study provides a simple method for measuring urban tree loss dynamics within and across entire cities, and represents a further step toward high resolution assessments of the three-dimensional change of urban vegetation at large spatial scales. Published by

  18. Technical Problems of Residential Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowogońska, Beata; Cibis, Jerzy

    2017-10-01

    Beauty, utility, durability - these are the features of good architecture and should also be the distinguishing qualities of every residential building. But do beauty and utility remain along with the passing of time? Performance characteristics are an indicator of both, the technical as well as aesthetic state of buildings. Aesthetic needs are in disagreement with the merciless aging process. The beauty of a city is formed not only by the original forms of new residential buildings, but also by existing tenement housing; thus preserving their aesthetics becomes a necessity. Time is continuously passing and along with it, aging intensifies. The aging process is a natural phenomenon for every material. The life expectancy of building materials is also limited. Along with the passing of time, the technical state of residential buildings continuously deteriorates. With the passing of time, the aesthetic values and preferences of users of flats change and the usability of the building decreases. The permanence of buildings, including residential buildings, is shaped not only by the forces of nature but also by activities of humans. A long lifespan is ensured by carrying out ongoing, systematic renovation-repair works. It is thanks to them that buildings derived from past centuries are still being used, and their market attractiveness is not decreasing.

  19. Main challenges of residential areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Luca

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article is a position paper aiming to initiate a professional debate related to the aspects related to the urban dysfunctions leading to the wear of the residential areas. The paper proposes a definition of the wear process, identify the main causes leading to its occurrence and propose a number of solutions to neutralise the dysfunctions. The three wearing phases of residential areas components are emphasized, exploring their lifecycle. In order to perform the study of urban wear, the status of the residential areas components can be established and monitored, and also the variables of the function that can mathematically model the specific wear process may be considered. The paper is considered a first step for the model adjustment, to be tested and validated in the following steps. Based on the mathematical method and model, there can be created, in a potential future research, the possibility of determining the precarity degree for residential areas/neighbourhoods and cities, by minimising the subjective component of the analyses preceding the decision for renovation or regeneration.

  20. Residential solar-heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Complete residential solar-heating and hot-water system, when installed in highly-insulated energy-saver home, can supply large percentage of total energy demand for space heating and domestic hot water. System which uses water-heating energy storage can be scaled to meet requirements of building in which it is installed.

  1. Convergence of Residential Gateway Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, F.T.H. den; Balm, M.; Jong, C.M. de; Kwaaitaal, J.J.B.

    2004-01-01

    A new OSI-based model is described that can be used for the classification of residential gateways. It is applied to analyze current gateway solutions and draw evolutionary paths for the medium to long term. From this it is concluded that particularly set-top boxes and broadband modems, as opposed

  2. Convergence of residential gateway technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, den F.T.H.; Balm, M.; Jong, de C.M.; Kwaaitaal, J.J.B.

    2004-01-01

    A new OSI-based model is described that can be used for the classification of residential gateways. It is applied to analyze current gateway solutions and draw evolutionary paths for the medium to long term. From this it is concluded that particularly set-top boxes and broadband modems, as opposed

  3. Trends of Sustainable Residential Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Narvydas, A

    2014-01-01

    The article is based on Master’s research conducted during Scottish Housing Expo 2010. The aim of the research was to determine the prevailing trends in sustainable residential architecture. Each trend can be described by features detected during visual and technical observation of project data. Based on that architects may predict possible problems related to a specific trend.

  4. Reduce tax on residential mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ewijk, C.; van Leuvensteijn, M.

    2010-01-01

    How can Europe increase structural growth? This column argues that labour market flexibility is key. As a major barrier to labour movement is rigidity in the housing market, abolishing transfer taxes on residential property could result in gains of up to 0.4% of GDP.

  5. Zones 30 : urban residential areas.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2006-01-01

    Sustainable Safety uses a road categorization in which through traffic is concentrated on motorways and other main roads. In residential areas, which have a living, shopping, or work function, through traffic is discouraged by setting a speed limit of 30 km/h, and by speed reducing measures such as

  6. Effects of ground surface decontamination on the air radiation dose rate. Results of a decontamination trial at a playground lot in a Fukushima residential area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagawa, Akihiro

    2012-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency decontaminated schools, playgrounds, swimming pools, and houses in nonevacuated, less-contaminated areas in Fukushima for environmental restoration. A small, 150 m 2 playground lot in the residential area was chosen for decontamination demonstration, which used routinely available tools and commodities to carry out the work. The surfaces of playground lot equipment, such as swings, slides, and horizontal iron bars, were completely decontaminated by brushing with water and/or detergent. Side gutters around the playground lot were cleaned by removing the mud and then brushed and washed with a high-pressure water jet (7 MPa). The air dose rate at the playground lot was dominated by radiation from the ground surface and adjacent surroundings, such as apartments and rice fields. Two or three centimeters of the surface soil contaminated with cesium was removed manually with shovels, hoes, and other gardening tools. This significantly reduced the average air dose rate of the entire playground lot from 1.5 μSv/h before decontamination to 0.6 μSv/h. These results showed that ground surface decontamination can contribute measurably to the reduction in air dose rate in relatively small areas in residential areas. (author)

  7. Residential energy consumption: A convergence analysis across Chinese regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrerias, M.J.; Aller, Carlos; Ordóñez, Javier

    2017-01-01

    The process of urbanization and the raise of living standards in China have led an increasing trend in the patterns of residential consumption. Projections for the population growth rate in urban areas do not paint a very optimistic picture for energy conservation policies. In addition, the concentration of economic activities around coastal areas calls for new prospects to be formulated for energy policy. In this context, the objective of this paper is twofold. First, we analyse the effect of the urbanization process of the Chinese economy in terms of the long-run patterns of residential energy consumption at national level. By using the concept of club convergence, we examine whether electricity and coal consumption in rural and urban areas converge to the same long-run equilibrium or whether in fact they diverge. Second, the impact of the regional concentration of the economic activity on energy consumption patterns is also assessed by source of energy across Chinese regions from 1995 to 2011. Our results suggest that the process of urbanization has led to coal being replaced by electricity in urban residential energy consumption. In rural areas, the evidence is mixed. The club convergence analysis confirms that rural and urban residential energy consumption converge to different steady-states. At the regional level, we also confirm the effect of the regional concentration of economic activity on residential energy consumption. The existence of these regional clusters converging to different equilibrium levels is indicative of the need of regional-tailored set of energy policies in China.

  8. Residential firewood use in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipfert, F W; Dungan, J L

    1983-03-25

    An empirical relation between residential firewood use and population density was developed from survey data for 64 counties in New England and was corroborated by data from other states. The results indicate that usage is concentrated in urbanized areas of the Northeast and north central states and that about 9.0 to 11.0 percent of U.S. space heating input is from firewood. No constraints due to the supply of wood were apparent in 1978-1979. These findings have implications for effects on air quality.

  9. First-Year University Students Who Self-Select into Health Studies Have More Desirable Health Measures and Behaviors at Baseline but Experience Similar Changes Compared to Non-Self-Selected Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary-Jon Ludy

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies demonstrate that first-year university students are at high risk for weight gain. These reports typically rely on self-selected participants. The purpose of this study was to explore if students who chose to participate in a health-based research study had more desirable health measures and behaviors than students who completed health assessments as part of a first-year seminar course. Health measures included blood pressure (BP, body mass index (BMI, and percent body fat. Health behaviors included dietary patterns (Starting the Conversation questionnaire and alcohol use (Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test-Consumption. A total of 191 (77% female participants completed testing in the self-selected “Health Study” group, whereas 73 of the 91 students (80%, 55% female enrolled in the “Seminar” allowed their data to be used for research purposes. Baseline measures favored Health Study participants, including but not limited to fewer participants with undesirable BMI (≥25.0 kg/m2; males and females and a smaller percentage of participants with undesirable BP (systolic ≥120 mmHg and/or diastolic ≥80 mmHg; females only. Differences in dietary behaviors at baseline were inconsistent, but Seminar students engaged in more problematic alcohol-use behaviors. While both groups experienced undesirable changes in health measures over time, the degree of change did not differ between groups. Changes in health behaviors over time typically resulted in undesirable changes in the Seminar group, but the magnitude of change over time did not differ between groups. Thus, results from first-year university students who self-select into health studies likely underestimate the seriousness of undesirable health measures and behaviors but may accurately reflect the degree of change over time.

  10. Belongingness--The Critical Variable in the Residential Treatment of Alcoholism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machell, David F.

    Many alcohol treatment programs have stressed a sense of belongingness as a means for successful treatment of alcoholics in a residential setting. An examination of the effectiveness of this strategy in highly structured and less structured programs involved 200 chronic, recidivistic male adult alcoholics in a residential program. Subjects were…

  11. A Hierarchical Transactive Energy Management System for Energy Sharing in Residential Microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Most Nahida Akter

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical framework to develop a hierarchical energy management system (EMS for energy sharing among neighbouring households in residential microgrids. The houses in residential microgrids are categorized into three different types, traditional, proactive and enthusiastic, based on the inclusion of solar photovoltaic (PV systems and battery energy storage systems (BESSs. Each of these three houses has an individual EMS, which is defined as the primary EMS. Two other EMSs (secondary and tertiary are also considered in the proposed hierarchical energy management framework for the purpose of effective energy sharing. The intelligences of each EMS are presented in this paper for the purpose of energy sharing in a residential microgrid along with the priorities. The effectiveness of the proposed hierarchical framework is evaluated on a residential microgrid in Australia. The analytical results clearly reflect that the proposed scheme effectively and efficiently shares the energy among neighbouring houses in a residential microgrid.

  12. The value of residential photovoltaic systems: A comprehensive assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, C. S.

    1983-01-01

    Utility-interactive photovoltaic (PV) arrays on residential rooftops appear to be a potentially attractive, large-scale application of PV technology. Results of a comprehensive assessment of the value (i.e., break-even cost) of utility-grid connected residential photovoltaic power systems under a variety of technological and economic assumptions are presented. A wide range of allowable PV system costs are calculated for small (4.34 kW (p) sub ac) residential PV systems in various locales across the United States. Primary factor in this variation are differences in local weather conditions, utility-specific electric generation capacity, fuel types, and customer-load profiles that effect purchase and sell-back rates, and non-uniform state tax considerations. Additional results from this analysis are: locations having the highest insolation values are not necessary the most economically attractive sites; residential PV systems connected in parallel to the utility demonstrate high percentages of energy sold back to the grid, and owner financial and tax assumptions cause large variations in break-even costs. Significant cost reduction and aggressive resolution of potential institutional impediments (e.g., liability, standards, metering, and technical integration) are required for a residential PV marker to become a major electric-grid-connected energy-generation source.

  13. Energy literacy, awareness, and conservation behavior of residential households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brounen, Dirk; Kok, Nils; Quigley, John M.

    2013-01-01

    The residential sector accounts for one-fifth of global energy consumption, resulting from the requirements to heat, cool, and light residential dwellings. It is therefore not surprising that energy efficiency in the residential market has gained importance in recent years. In this paper, we examine awareness, literacy and behavior of households with respect to their residential energy expenditures. Using a detailed survey of 1721 Dutch households, we measure the extent to which consumers are aware of their energy consumption and whether they have taken measures to reduce their energy costs. Our results show that “energy literacy” and awareness among respondents is low: just 56% of the respondents are aware of their monthly charges for energy consumption, and 40% do not appropriately evaluate investment decisions in energy efficient equipment. We document that demographics and consumer attitudes towards energy conservation, but not energy literacy and awareness, have direct effects on behavior regarding heating and cooling of the home. The impact of a moderating factor, measured by thermostat settings, ultimately results in strong variation in the energy consumption of private consumers. - Highlights: • We use a detailed survey of 1,721 Dutch households to measure awareness and conservation behavior in energy consumption. • Energy literacy and awareness among residential households is low. • 40 percent of the sample does not appropriately evaluate investment decisions in energy efficient equipment • Demographics and consumer attitudes affect behavior regarding heating and cooling of a home

  14. Comparison of Psychological and Physiological Responses to Imposed vs. Self-selected High-Intensity Interval Training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Erin; Cantacessi, Cheyann; McNamer, Olivia; Holmes, Heather; von Bargen, Robert; Ramirez, Richard; Gallagher, Daren; Vargas, Stacy; Santia, Ben; Rodriguez, Karen; Astorino, Todd A

    2018-05-08

    Kellogg, E, Cantacessi, C, McNamer, O, Holmes, H, von Bargen, R, Ramirez, R, Gallagher, D, Vargas, S, Santia, B, Rodriguez, K, and Astorino, TA. Comparison of psychological and physiological responses to imposed vs. self-selected high-intensity interval training. J Strength Cond Res XX(X): 000-000, 2018-High-intensity interval training elicits similar physiological adaptations as moderate intensity continuous training (MICT). Some studies report greater enjoyment to a bout of high-intensity interval exercise (HIIE) vs. MICT, which is surprising considering that HIIE is more intense and typically imposed on the participant. This study compared physiological and perceptual responses between imposed and self-selected HIIE. Fourteen adults (age = 24 ± 3 years) unfamiliar with HIIE initially performed ramp exercise to exhaustion to measure maximal oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O2max) followed by 2 subsequent sessions whose order was randomized. Imposed HIIE consisted of eight 60 seconds bouts at 80 percent peak power output (%PPO) separated by 60 seconds recovery at 10 %PPO. Self-selected HIIE (HIIESS) followed the same structure, but participants freely selected intensity in increments of 10 %PPO to achieve a rating of perceived exertion (RPE) ≥7. During exercise, heart rate, V[Combining Dot Above]O2, blood lactate concentration (BLa), affect (+5 to -5), and RPE were assessed. Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale was measured after exercise. Results showed higher V[Combining Dot Above]O2 (+10%, p = 0.013), BLa (p = 0.001), and RPE (p = 0.001) in HIIESS vs. HIIEIMP, and lower affect (p = 0.01), and enjoyment (87.6 ± 15.7 vs. 95.7 ± 11.7, p = 0.04). There was a significantly higher power output in self-selected vs. imposed HIIE (263.9 ± 81.4 W vs. 225.2 ± 59.6 W, p < 0.001). Data suggest that intensity mediates affective responses rather than the mode of HIIE performed by the participant.

  15. Fertility expectations and residential mobility in Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ermisch

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is plausible that people take into account anticipated changes in family size in choosing where to live. But estimation of the impact of anticipated events on current transitions in an event history framework is challenging because expectations must be measured in some way and, like indicators of past childbearing, expected future childbearing may be endogenous with respect to housing decisions. Objective: The objective of the study is to estimate how expected changes in family size affect residential movement in Great Britain in a way which addresses these challenges. Methods: We use longitudinal data from a mature 18-wave panel survey, the British Household Panel Survey, which incorporates a direct measure of fertility expectations. The statistical methods allow for the potential endogeneity of expectations in our estimation and testing framework. Results: We produce evidence consistent with the idea that past childbearing mainly affects residential mobility through expectations of future childbearing, not directly through the number of children in the household. But there is heterogeneity in response. In particular, fertility expectations have a much greater effect on mobility among women who face lower costs of mobility, such as private tenants. Conclusions: Our estimates indicate that expecting to have a(nother child in the future increases the probability of moving by about 0.036 on average, relative to an average mobility rate of 0.14 per annum in our sample. Contribution: Our contribution is to incorporate anticipation of future events into an empirical model of residential mobility. We also shed light on how childbearing affects mobility.

  16. Coping modeling problem solving versus mastery modeling: effects on adherence, in-session process, and skill acquisition in a residential parent-training program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, C E; Davis, J R; Bremner, R; Dunn, K W; Rzasa, T

    1993-10-01

    This trial compared two approaches used to introduce parenting skills in a residential staff training program. Fifty staff were randomly assigned to: mastery modelling in which videotaped models demonstrated new skills, coping modelling problem solving (CMPS) in which participants formulated their own solutions to the errors depicted by videotaped models, or a waiting-list control group. In both, leaders used modelling, role playing, and homework projects to promote mastery and transfer of new skills. The skills of all groups improved, but CMPS participants attended more sessions, were late to fewer sessions, completed more homework, engaged in more cooperative in-session interaction, rated the program more positively, and reported higher job accomplishment scores. These data suggest that CMPS allowing participants to formulate their own solutions may enhance adherence and reduce the resistance observed in more didactic programs.

  17. A comparison of four methods to evaluate the effect of a utility residential air-conditioner load control program on peak electricity use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newsham, Guy R., E-mail: guy.newsham@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca [National Research Council Canada-Institute for Research in Construction, Building M24, 1200 Montreal Road, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0R6 (Canada); Birt, Benjamin J. [National Research Council Canada-Institute for Research in Construction, Building M24, 1200 Montreal Road, Ottawa, Ontario, K1A 0R6 (Canada); Rowlands, Ian H. [University of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)

    2011-10-15

    We analyzed the peak load reductions due to a residential direct load control program for air-conditioners in southern Ontario in 2008. In this program, participant thermostats were increased by 2 deg. C for four hours on five event days. We used hourly, whole-house data for 195 participant households and 268 non-participant households, and four different methods of analysis ranging from simple spreadsheet-based comparisons of average loads on event days, to complex time-series regression. Average peak load reductions were 0.2-0.9 kWh/h per household, or 10-35%. However, there were large differences between event days and across event hours, and in results for the same event day/hour, with different analysis methods. There was also a wide range of load reductions between individual households, and only a minority of households contributed to any given event. Policy makers should be aware of how the choice of an analysis method may affect decisions regarding which demand-side management programs to support, and how they might be incentivized. We recommend greater use of time-series methods, although it might take time to become comfortable with their complexity. Further investigation of what type of households contribute most to aggregate load reductions would also help policy makers better target programs. - Highlights: > We analyzed peak load reductions due to residential a/c load control. > We used four methods, ranging from simple comparisons to time-series regression. > Average peak load reductions were 0.2-0.9 kW per household, varying by method. > We recommend a move towards time-series regression for future studies. > A minority of participant households contributed to a given load control event.

  18. The Sensitivity of Residential Electricity Demand in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stranti Nastiti Kusumaningrum

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Since 2013, the residential electricity price for High VA (Volt-Ampere households has changed due to changes in pricing policies. This paper analyzes the responsiveness of residential electricity demand to the change in electricity prices and income among two different household groups (Low VA and High VA in 2011 and 2014. Using an electricity consumption model and the Quantile Regression method, the results show that residential electricity demand is price and income inelastic. Income elasticity is lower than price elasticity. Furthermore, the effects on price elasticity also found in the Low VA group, whose rate remained stable. At the same time, evidence proves the impact of the change in pricing policy on income elasticity remains unclear. This result implies that the government has to be more careful in regulating electricity prices for the low VA group, while maintaining economic stability.DOI: 10.15408/sjie.v7i2.6048

  19. Development of a Smart Residential Fire Protection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhwan Oh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Embedded system is applied for the development of smart residential fire detection and extinguishing system. Wireless communication capability is integrated into various fire sensors and alarm devices. The system activates the fire alarm to warn occupants, executes emergency and rescue calls to remote residents and fire-fighting facility in an intelligent way. The effective location of extra-sprinklers within the space of interest for the fire extinguishing system is also investigated. Actual fire test suggests that the developed wireless system for the smart residential fire protection system is reliable in terms of sensors and their communication linkage.

  20. Economic aspects of possible residential heating conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkowicz, M.; Szul, A. [Technical Univ., Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    The paper presents methods of evaluation of energy and economy related effects of different actions aimed at conservation in residential buildings. It identifies also the method of selecting the most effective way of distribution funds assigned to weatherization as well as necessary improvements to be implemented within the heating node and the internal heating system of the building. The analysis of data gathered for four 11-stories high residential buildings of {open_quotes}Zeran{close_quotes} type being subject of the Conservation Demonstrative Project, included a differentiated scope of weatherization efforts and various actions aimed at system upgrading. Basing upon the discussion of the split of heat losses in a building as well as the established energy savings for numerous options of upgrading works, the main problem has been defined. It consists in optimal distribution of financial means for the discussed measures if the total amount of funds assigned for modifications is defined. The method based upon the principle of relative increments has been suggested. The economical and energy specifications of the building and its components, required for this method have also been elaborated. The application of this method allowed to define the suggested optimal scope of actions within the entire fund assigned for the comprehensive weatherization.

  1. RESIDENTIAL MORTGAGE IN MODERN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dementiev N. P.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a comparative analysis of residential mortgages in Russia and the United States. The primary ways of mortgage refinancing are outlined. Predominance of the elements of two-level refinancing system of residential mortgage in Russia and the United States is shown. The activity of the Agency for Housing Mortgage Lending (AHML, the basic tool of the Russian government’s mortgage policy, is described in detail. In its objectives and functions the AHML is similar to the American mortgage agencies Ginnie Mae, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. Similarities were identified in the Russian and US residential mortgages in the pre-crisis period (high rates of mortgage growth, favourable economic conjuncture, low interest rates, large increase in house prices, speculative housing demand. During the mortgage crisis, the policies of the Russian and US governments and monetary authorities had also much in common (monetary policy easing, cheap central banks loans, extended facilities of mortgage refinancing on the part of state agencies, mortgage rescue scheme, social mortgage programs. But the scope of mortgage in Russia is enormously narrow as compared to the US mortgage. The most important reason for that - low incomes of the Russian population.

  2. Resident Satisfaction and Its Components in Residential Aged Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Shu-Chiung; Boldy, Duncan P.; Lee, Andy H.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the direction and magnitude of the effects among the components of resident satisfaction in residential aged care and to examine if the relationships among satisfaction components vary according to facility type (i.e., nursing home and hostel). Briefly, a hostel is a low-care facility in which…

  3. Impact of HVOTLs on Residential Property Rental Values in High ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study encouraged the use of buried armour cables instead of overhead power-lines in future and the strict enforcement of ROWs within Lagos metropolis where power-lines already exist, in a bid to abate the effect of power line on property investments. Keywords: HVOTLs, Power-line, Residential, Property, Rental ...

  4. Public Response to Residential Grid-Tied PV Systems in Colorado: A Qualitative Market Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farhar, Barbara C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Buhrmann, Jan [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    1998-07-01

    The early adopters of residential grid-tied photovoltaics (PV) have complex motivations to pay today's costs, including altruistic, environmental, and financial reasons. Focused interviews were conducted with a self-selected purposive sample interested in purchasing 2-kW or 3-kW PV systems with an installed cost of $8,000 to $12,000. The sample tended to be men or married couples ranging in age from their early thirties to their mid-eighties; professionals, managers, or small business owners; relatively financially secure, with experience with energy efficiency and renewable energy. Product attributes they preferred were net metering, warranties, guarantees, utility financing, maintenance, an option to own or lease, a battery option, and an aesthetically pleasing system. Potential PV customers needed more information before making a purchase decision.

  5. Micro-CHP systems for residential applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paepe, Michel de; D'Herdt, Peter; Mertens, David

    2006-01-01

    Micro-CHP systems are now emerging on the market. In this paper, a thorough analysis is made of the operational parameters of 3 types of micro-CHP systems for residential use. Two types of houses (detached and terraced) are compared with a two storey apartment. For each building type, the energy demands for electricity and heat are dynamically determined. Using these load profiles, several CHP systems are designed for each building type. Data were obtained for two commercially available gas engines, two Stirling engines and a fuel cell. Using a dynamic simulation, including start up times, these five system types are compared to the separate energy system of a natural gas boiler and buying electricity from the grid. All CHP systems, if well sized, result in a reduction of primary energy use, though different technologies have very different impacts. Gas engines seem to have the best performance. The economic analysis shows that fuel cells are still too expensive and that even the gas engines only have a small internal rate of return (<5%), and this only occurs in favourable economic circumstances. It can, therefore, be concluded that although the different technologies are technically mature, installation costs should at least be reduced by 50% before CHP systems become interesting for residential use. Condensing gas boilers, now very popular in new homes, prove to be economically more interesting and also have a modest effect on primary energy consumption

  6. Risks and radiation doses due to residential radon in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, T.R.

    2017-01-01

    The population-averaged risk rate and the annual average effective dose due to residential radon in Germany were calculated. The calculations were based on an epidemiological approach taking into account the age- and gender-specific lung cancer incidence rates for the German population and the excess relative risk of 0.16 per 100 Bq.m"-"3 for residential radon. In addition, the risk estimates adjusted for the smoking habits were determined. The population-averaged risk rate for the whole population was estimated with 4.1.10"-"5 y"-"1 (95% confidence interval (CI) 1.4.10"-"5 - 7.6.10"-"5 y"-"1). Residential radon causes a detriment per year of 3.3.10"-"5 y"-"1 (95% CI 1.1.10"-"5 - 6.0.10"-"5 y"-"1), which corresponds to an annual average effective dose of 0.6 mSv (95% CI 0.2-1.1 mSv). Annually, ∼3400 lung cancer incidences are attributed to residential radon. The results from the epidemiological approach exercised in this study are considerably lower than the effective dose, which would be obtained from the dose conversion coefficient calculated using biokinetic and dosimetric models. (author)

  7. Residential care : Dutch and Italian residents of residential care facilities compared

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Heer-Wunderink, Charlotte; Caro-Nienhuis, Annemarie D.; Sytema, Sjoerd; Wiersma, Durk

    2008-01-01

    Aims - Characteristics of patients living in residential care facilities and the availability of mental hospital- and residential beds in Italy and The Netherlands were compared to assess whether differences in the process of deinstitutionalisation have influenced the composition of their

  8. The relation between residential property and its surroundings and day- and night-time residential burglary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montoya, Lorena; Junger, Marianne; Ongena, Yfke

    This article examines how residential property and its surroundings influence day- and night-time residential burglary. Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) principles of territoriality, surveillance, access control, target hardening, image maintenance, and activity support underpin

  9. The Relation Between Residential Property and its Surroundings and Day- and Night-Time Residential Burglary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montoya, L.; Junger, Marianne; Ongena, Yfke

    This article examines how residential property and its surroundings influence day- and night-time residential burglary. Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) principles of territoriality, surveillance, access control, target hardening, image maintenance, and activity support underpin

  10. The impact of residential combustion emissions on atmospheric aerosol, human health, and climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. W. Butt

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Combustion of fuels in the residential sector for cooking and heating results in the emission of aerosol and aerosol precursors impacting air quality, human health, and climate. Residential emissions are dominated by the combustion of solid fuels. We use a global aerosol microphysics model to simulate the impact of residential fuel combustion on atmospheric aerosol for the year 2000. The model underestimates black carbon (BC and organic carbon (OC mass concentrations observed over Asia, Eastern Europe, and Africa, with better prediction when carbonaceous emissions from the residential sector are doubled. Observed seasonal variability of BC and OC concentrations are better simulated when residential emissions include a seasonal cycle. The largest contributions of residential emissions to annual surface mean particulate matter (PM2.5 concentrations are simulated for East Asia, South Asia, and Eastern Europe. We use a concentration response function to estimate the human health impact due to long-term exposure to ambient PM2.5 from residential emissions. We estimate global annual excess adult (>  30 years of age premature mortality (due to both cardiopulmonary disease and lung cancer to be 308 000 (113 300–497 000, 5th to 95th percentile uncertainty range for monthly varying residential emissions and 517 000 (192 000–827 000 when residential carbonaceous emissions are doubled. Mortality due to residential emissions is greatest in Asia, with China and India accounting for 50 % of simulated global excess mortality. Using an offline radiative transfer model we estimate that residential emissions exert a global annual mean direct radiative effect between −66 and +21 mW m−2, with sensitivity to the residential emission flux and the assumed ratio of BC, OC, and SO2 emissions. Residential emissions exert a global annual mean first aerosol indirect effect of between −52 and −16 mW m−2, which is sensitive to the

  11. Economic potential of energy-efficient retrofitting in the Swiss residential building sector: The effects of policy instruments and energy price expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amstalden, Roger W.; Kost, Michael; Nathani, Carsten; Imboden, Dieter M.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the profitability of energy-efficient retrofit investments in the Swiss residential building sector from the house owner's perspective. Different energy price expectations, policy instruments such as subsidies, income tax deduction and a carbon tax, as well as potential future cost degression of energy efficiency measures were taken into account. The discounted cash flow method was used for the investment analysis of different retrofit packages applied to a model building scheduled for renovation, i.e. a single-family house constructed between 1948 and 1975. The results show that present Swiss policy instruments push investments for energy-efficient retrofitting to profitability. Cost degression has a minor significance for investment profitability. However, the most relevant factor for the investment analysis is the expected energy price. Expecting a future fuel oil price at the level of 2005, efficiency investments are close to profitability even without policy support. If higher energy prices were expected, energy-efficient retrofitting would be an attractive investment opportunity

  12. Effect of a Residential Integrated Yoga Program on Blood Glucose Levels, Physiological Variables, and Anti-Diabetic Medication Score of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Singh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a highly prevalent disease characterized by chronic hyperglycemia. Yoga is a form of mind-body intervention shown to have a positive impact on several health conditions in both healthy and diseased patients. The present study is intended to assess the effects of the Residential Integrated Yoga Program (RIYP on blood glucose levels in patients with T2DM. Material and Methods: Data of 598 (186 females T2DM patients from a holistic health center in Bengaluru, India, who attended a 15-day RIYP between January 2013 and December 2015 was obtained retrospectively. Average age of the participants was 56.45 ± 11.02 years. All subjects underwent a 15-day RIYP which involved yoga-based lifestyle changes with components of regulated sleep, balanced diet, asanas, pranayama, relaxation techniques, meditations, yogic cleaning procedures, and tuning to the nature. Fasting and post-prandial blood sugar, medication score, symptom score, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pulse rate, and respiratory rate were assessed before and after intervention. Result: There was a significant decrease in fasting (p < 0.001 and post-prandial blood sugar levels (p < 0.001 along with a significant reduction in medication and symptom scores after 15 days of RIYP compared to baseline. Conclusion: The present study indicates that 2 weeks of a yoga-based residential program improves blood glucose levels, blood pressure, and medication score in patients with T2DM. However, further randomized controlled studies need to be performed in order to confirm the present findings.

  13. Influence of BMI and dietary restraint on self-selected portions of prepared meals in US women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbe, David; Rytz, Andréas; Brunstrom, Jeffrey M; Forde, Ciarán G; Martin, Nathalie

    2017-04-01

    The rise of obesity prevalence has been attributed in part to an increase in food and beverage portion sizes selected and consumed among overweight and obese consumers. Nevertheless, evidence from observations of adults is mixed and contradictory findings might reflect the use of small or unrepresentative samples. The objective of this study was i) to determine the extent to which BMI and dietary restraint predict self-selected portion sizes for a range of commercially available prepared savoury meals and ii) to consider the importance of these variables relative to two previously established predictors of portion selection, expected satiation and expected liking. A representative sample of female consumers (N = 300, range 18-55 years) evaluated 15 frozen savoury prepared meals. For each meal, participants rated their expected satiation and expected liking, and selected their ideal portion using a previously validated computer-based task. Dietary restraint was quantified using the Dutch Eating Behaviour Questionnaire (DEBQ-R). Hierarchical multiple regression was performed on self-selected portions with age, hunger level, and meal familiarity entered as control variables in the first step of the model, expected satiation and expected liking as predictor variables in the second step, and DEBQ-R and BMI as exploratory predictor variables in the third step. The second and third steps significantly explained variance in portion size selection (18% and 4%, respectively). Larger portion selections were significantly associated with lower dietary restraint and with lower expected satiation. There was a positive relationship between BMI and portion size selection (p = 0.06) and between expected liking and portion size selection (p = 0.06). Our discussion considers future research directions, the limited variance explained by our model, and the potential for portion size underreporting by overweight participants. Copyright © 2016 Nestec S.A. Published by Elsevier Ltd

  14. Explaining the Immigrant Health Advantage: Self-selection and Protection in Health-Related Factors Among Five Major National-Origin Immigrant Groups in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riosmena, Fernando; Kuhn, Randall; Jochem, Warren C.

    2017-01-01

    Despite being newcomers, immigrants often exhibit better health relative to native-born populations in industrialized societies. We extend prior efforts to identify whether self-selection and/or protection explain this advantage. We examine migrant height and smoking levels just prior to immigration to test for self-selection; and we analyze smoking behavior since immigration, controlling for self-selection, to assess protection. We study individuals aged 20–49 from five major national origins: India, China, the Philippines, Mexico, and the Dominican Republic. To assess self-selection, we compare migrants, interviewed in the National Health and Interview Surveys (NHIS), with nonmigrant peers in sending nations, interviewed in the World Health Surveys. To test for protection, we contrast migrants’ changes in smoking since immigration with two counterfactuals: (1) rates that immigrants would have exhibited had they adopted the behavior of U.S.-born non-Hispanic whites in the NHIS (full —assimilation ); and (2) rates that migrants would have had if they had adopted the rates of nonmigrants in sending countries (no-migration scenario). We find statistically significant and substantial self-selection, particularly among men from both higher-skilled (Indians and Filipinos in height, Chinese in smoking) and lower-skilled (Mexican) undocumented pools. We also find significant and substantial protection in smoking among immigrant groups with stronger relative social capital (Mexicans and Dominicans). PMID:28092071

  15. Possibility of hydrogen supply by shared residential fuel cell systems for fuel cell vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ono Yusuke

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Residential polymer electrolyte fuel cells cogeneration systems (residential PEFC systems produce hydrogen from city gas by internal gas-reformer, and generate electricity, the hot water at the same time. From the viewpoint of the operation, it is known that residential PEFC systems do not continuously work but stop for long time, because the systems generate enough hot water for short operation time. In other words, currently residential PEFC systems are dominated by the amount of hot water demand. This study focuses on the idle time of residential PEFC systems. Since their gas-reformers are free, the systems have potential to produce hydrogen during the partial load operations. The authors expect that residential PEFC systems can take a role to supply hydrogen for fuel cell vehicles (FCVs before hydrogen fueling stations are distributed enough. From this perspective, the objective of this study is to evaluate the hydrogen production potential of residential PEFC systems. A residential PEFC system was modeled by the mixed integer linear programming to optimize the operation including hydrogen supply for FCV. The objective function represents annual system cost to be minimized with the constraints of energy balance. It should be noted that the partial load characteristics of the gas-reformer and the fuel cell stack are taken into account to derive the optimal operation. The model was employed to estimate the possible amount of hydrogen supply by a residential PEFC system. The results indicated that the system could satisfy at least hydrogen demand for transportation of 8000 km which is as far as the average annual mileage of a passenger car in Japan. Furthermore, hydrogen production by sharing a residential PEFC system with two households is more effective to reduce primary energy consumption with hydrogen supply for FCV than the case of introducing PEFC in each household.

  16. Beyond the Call of Duty? Essays on motivation and self-selection of bureaucrats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.W.J.M. Buurman (Margaretha)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractThe existence and effects of public service motivation (PSM), or altruism, among bureaucrats, is a well-debated topic among economists and administrative scientists (see e.g. Perry and Hondeghem 2008a, Besley and Ghatak 2005, Francois 2000 and 2007). However, the debate about motivation

  17. Do loyalty programs really enhance behavioral loyalty? An empirical analysis accounting for self-selecting members

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leenheer, Jorna; van Heerde, Harald J.; Bijmolt, Tammo H. A.; Smidts, Ale

    One of the pressing issues in marketing is whether loyalty programs really enhance behavioral loyalty. Loyalty program members may have a much higher share-of-wallet at the firm with the loyalty program than non-members have, but this does not necessarily imply that loyalty programs are effective.

  18. Weight loss is coupled with improvements to affective state in obese participants engaged in behavior change therapy based on incremental, self-selected "small changes".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paxman, Jenny R; Hall, Anna C; Harden, Charlotte J; O'Keeffe, Jean; Simper, Trevor N

    2011-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a group behavior change intervention involving self-selected, contextualized, and mediated goal setting on anthropometric, affective, and dietary markers of health. It was hypothesized that the intervention would elicit changes consistent with accepted health recommendations for obese individuals. A rolling program of 12-week "Small Changes" interventions during 24 months recruited 71 participants; each program accommodated 10 to 13 adults (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 30 kg/m²). Fifty-eight participants completed Small Changes. Repeated measures were made at baseline, 6 and 12 weeks. Anthropometric measures included height and weight (to calculate BMI), body composition, waist circumference, and blood pressure. Affective state was monitored using relevant validated questionnaires. Dietary assessment used 3-day household measures food diaries with Schofield equations to monitor underreporting. Relevant blood measures were recorded throughout. Across the measurement period, Small Changes elicited a significant reduction in body weight (baseline, 102.95 ± 15.47 vs 12 weeks 100.09 ± 16.01 kg, P framing the future of weight management. Long-term follow-up of Small Changes is warranted. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Beyond self-selection in video game play: an experimental examination of the consequences of massively multiplayer online role-playing game play.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smyth, Joshua M

    2007-10-01

    There is burgeoning interest in the study of video games. Existing work is limited by the use of correlational designs and is thus unable to make causal inferences or remove self-selection biases from observed results. The recent development of online, socially integrated video games (massively multiplayer online role-playing games [MMORPGs]) has created a new experience for gamers. This randomized, longitudinal study examined the effects of being assigned to play different video game types on game usage, health, well-being, sleep, socializing, and academics. One hundred 18- to 20-year-old participants (73% male; 68% Caucasian) were randomly assigned to play arcade, console, solo computer, or MMORPG games for 1 month. The MMORPG group differed significantly from other groups after 1 month, reporting more hours spent playing, worse health, worse sleep quality, and greater interference in "real-life" socializing and academic work. In contrast, this group also reported greater enjoyment in playing, greater interest in continuing to play, and greater acquisition of new friendships. MMORPGs represent a different gaming experience with different consequences than other types of video games and appear to pose both unique risks and benefits from their use.

  20. Exploring the impact of residential relocation on modal shift in commute trips : Evidence from a quasi-longitudinal analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, M.; Wu, J.; Rasouli, S.; Cirillo, C.; Li, D.

    2017-01-01

    A growing number of studies have been devoted to the effects of residential relocation on travel behavior. However, most of these studies only focus on the direct effects of personal and system characteristics; while, residential relocation may trigger several interrelated changes in activity-travel

  1. Residential ventilation standards scoping study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, Thomas E.; Sherman, Max H.

    2003-10-01

    The goals of this scoping study are to identify research needed to develop improved ventilation standards for California's Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards. The 2008 Title 24 Standards are the primary target for the outcome of this research, but this scoping study is not limited to that timeframe. We prepared this scoping study to provide the California Energy Commission with broad and flexible options for developing a research plan to advance the standards. This document presents the findings of a scoping study commissioned by the Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) program of the California Energy Commission to determine what research is necessary to develop new residential ventilation requirements for California. This study is one of three companion efforts needed to complete the job of determining the ventilation needs of California residences, determining the bases for setting residential ventilation requirements, and determining appropriate ventilation technologies to meet these needs and requirements in an energy efficient manner. Rather than providing research results, this scoping study identifies important research questions along with the level of effort necessary to address these questions and the costs, risks, and benefits of pursuing alternative research questions. In approaching these questions and corresponding levels of effort, feasibility and timing were important considerations. The Commission has specified Summer 2005 as the latest date for completing this research in time to update the 2008 version of California's Energy Code (Title 24).

  2. Nonmaternal Care's Association With Mother's Parenting Sensitivity: A Case of Self-Selection Bias?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomaguchi, Kei M; Demaris, Alfred

    2013-06-01

    Although attachment theory posits that the use of nonmaternal care undermines quality of mothers' parenting, empirical evidence for this link is inconclusive. Using data from the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development ( N = 1,233), the authors examined the associations between nonmaternal care characteristics and maternal sensitivity during the first 3 years of children's lives, with special attention to selection effects and moderation by resource levels. Findings from fixed-effects regression models suggested that, on average, there is little relationship between nonmaternal care characteristics and maternal sensitivity, once selection factors are held constant. Some evidence of moderation effects was found, however. Excellent-quality care is related to more sensitivity for mothers with lower family income. Poor-quality care is related to lower sensitivity for single mothers, but not partnered mothers. In sum, nonmaternal care characteristics do not seem to have as much influence on mothers' parenting as attachment theory claims.

  3. Residential mobility and migration of the separated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten van Ham

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Separation is known to have a disruptive effect on the housing careers of those involved, mainly because a decrease in resources causes (temporary downward moves on the housing ladder. Little is known about the geographies of the residential mobility behaviour of the separated. Applying a hazard analysis to retrospective life-course data for the Netherlands, we investigate three hypotheses: individuals who experienced separation move more often than do steady singles and people in intact couple relationships, they are less likely to move over long distances, and they move more often to cities than people in intact couple relationships. The results show that separation leads to an increase in mobility, to moves over short distance for men with children, and to a prevalence of the city as a destination of moves.

  4. Profitability Analysis of Residential Wind Turbines with Battery Energy Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    She, Ying; Erdem, Ergin; Shi, Jing

    Residential wind turbines are often accompanied by an energy storage system for the off-the-grid users, instead of the on-the-grid users, to reduce the risk of black-out. In this paper, we argue that residential wind turbines with battery energy storage could actually be beneficial to the on-the-grid users as well in terms of monetary gain from differential pricing for buying electricity from the grid and the ability to sell electricity back to the grid. We develop a mixed-integer linear programming model to maximize the profit of a residential wind turbine system while meeting the daily household electricity consumption. A case study is designed to investigate the effects of differential pricing schemes and sell-back schemes on the economic output of a 2-kW wind turbine with lithium battery storage. Overall, based on the current settings in California, a residential wind turbine with battery storage carries more economical benefits than the wind turbine alone.

  5. Performance-based potential for residential energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Performance-based potential for residential energy efficiency

    2013-01-15

    Energy performance contracts (EPCs) have proven an effective mechanism for increasing energy efficiency in nearly all sectors of the economy since their introduction nearly 30 years ago. In the modern form, activities undertaken as part of an EPC are scoped and implemented by experts with specialized technical knowledge, financed by commercial lenders, and enable a facility owner to limit risk and investment of time and resources while receiving the rewards of improved energy performance. This report provides a review of the experiences of the US with EPCs and discusses the possibilities for the residential sector to utilize EPCs. Notably absent from the EPC market is the residential segment. Historically, research has shown that the residential sector varies in several key ways from markets segments where EPCs have proven successful, including: high degree of heterogeneity of energy use characteristics among and within households, comparatively small quantity of energy consumed per residence, limited access to information about energy consumption and savings potential, and market inefficiencies that constrain the value of efficiency measures. However, the combination of recent technological advances in automated metering infrastructure, flexible financing options, and the expansion of competitive wholesale electricity markets to include energy efficiency as a biddable supply-side resource present an opportunity for EPC-like efforts to successfully engage the residential sector, albeit following a different model than has been used in EPCs traditionally.(Author)

  6. Integration of motor traffic in residential areas.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    In stead of banning the cars from residential areas, the plan is to integrate them in such a way that they can still be used, but that they will loose their predominant position. The areas where this integration is to take place are called residential yards. This paper concentrates on the lighting

  7. The Duration of Self-Selected Music Needed to Reduce Preoperative Anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClurkin, Sylva L; Smith, Claudia D

    2016-06-01

    Preoperative anxiety affects patients both physically and psychologically. It may also influence the patient's perioperative experience and result in reduced patient satisfaction with care and potentially delayed recovery. Previous research indicates that patients who listen to music in the perioperative setting experience less anxiety than patients who do not listen to music. Research does not address the duration of music required to effectively reduce anxiety in this population. A randomized control trial was used. Two intervention groups (15-minute music and 30-minute music) and one control group (no music) were compared. Patients (n = 133) demonstrated less anxiety after listening to either 15 or 30 minutes of music (P music demonstrated less anxiety than those who did not listen to music (P = .005), whereas patients (n = 41) who listened to 30 minutes of music demonstrated less anxiety than those who did not listen to music (P music preoperatively is an effective method to reduce anxiety in patients who are about to have surgery. Copyright © 2016 American Society of PeriAnesthesia Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Therapeutic Residential Care for Children and Youth:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whittaker, James K.; Holmes, Lisa; del Valle, Jorge F.

    2016-01-01

    so in closer collaboration with their families and in closer proximity to their home communities; and, (3) with the hope of reducing the high costs often associated with group residential provision. In some jurisdictions, efforts to reduce residential care resources in the absence of sufficient...... alternatives to serve high-resource needing youth has had unintended and negative consequences. It is within this context that a working group international experts representing research, policy, service delivery and families (International Work Group for Therapeutic Residential Care) convened at the Centre...... for Child and Family Research, Loughborough University in the U.K. for a Summit meeting on therapeutic residential care for children and youth funded by the Sir Halley Stewart Trust (UK). The focus centered on what is known about therapeutic residential care and what key questions should inform a priority...

  9. Capitalization of Charter Schools into Residential Property Values

    OpenAIRE

    Scott A. Imberman; Michael Naretta; Margaret O’Rourke

    2015-01-01

    While prior research has found clear impacts of schools and school quality on property values, little is known about whether charter schools have similar effects. Using sale price data for residential properties in Los Angeles County from 2008 to 2011 we estimate the neighborhood level impact of charter schools on housing prices. Using an identification strategy that relies on census block fixed-effects and variation in charter penetration over time, we find little evidence that the availabil...

  10. Psychotropic medication in a randomly selected group of citizens receiving residential or home care

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Futtrup, Tina Bergmann; Schultz, Hanne; Jensen, Margit Bak

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Treatment with one or more psychotropic medications (PMs), especially in the elderly, is associated with risk, and the effects of treatment are poorly validated. The aim of this article was to describe the use of PM in a population of citizens receiving either residential care or home...... care with focus on the prevalence of drug use, the combination of different PMs and doses in relation to current recommendations. METHODS: The medication lists of 214 citizens receiving residential care (122) and home care (92) were collected together with information on age, gender and residential...

  11. Using Machine Learning and Data Analysis to Improve Customer Acquisition and Marketing in Residential Solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigrin, Benjamin O [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-18

    High customer acquisition costs remain a persistent challenge in the U.S. residential solar industry. Effective customer acquisition in the residential solar market is increasingly achieved with the help of data analysis and machine learning, whether that means more targeted advertising, understanding customer motivations, or responding to competitors. New research by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Vanderbilt University, University of Pennsylvania, and the California Center for Sustainable Energy and funded through the U.S. Department of Energy's Solar Energy Evolution and Diffusion (SEEDS) program demonstrates novel computational methods that can help drive down costs in the residential solar industry.

  12. Residential Mobility and Turnout: The Relevance of Social Costs, Timing and Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jonas Hedegaard

    2016-01-01

    Residential mobility has substantial negative effects on voter turnout. However, existing studies have been unable to disentangle whether this is due to social costs, informational costs or convenience costs that are related to re-registration. This article analyzes the relevance of the different...... moved from the old neighborhood and it does not matter if citizens change municipality. Thus, the disruption of social ties is the main explanation for the negative effect of moving on turnout. Furthermore, the timing of residential mobility is important as the effect on turnout declines quickly after...... settling down. This illustrates that large events in citizens’ everyday life close to Election Day can distract them from going to the polling station. Finally, residential mobility mostly affects the turnout of less educated citizens. Consequentially, residential mobility increases inequalities in voter...

  13. An intervention targeting fundamental values among caregivers at residential facilities: effects of a cluster-randomized controlled trial on residents' self-reported empowerment, person-centered climate and life satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roos, Charlotte; Silén, Marit; Skytt, Bernice; Engström, Maria

    2016-07-07

    In Sweden the national fundamental values for care of older people state that care should ensure that they can live in dignity and with a sense of well-being. Our hypothesis was that a caregiver intervention targeting the national fundamental values would improve perceived empowerment, person-centered climate and life satisfaction among older people living in residential facilities. The study was a cluster-randomized controlled trial with a pre- and one post-test design, conducted in 27 units (17 study units) at 12 residential facilities for older people in five municipalities in central Sweden. The units in each municipality were randomly assigned to intervention or control group. The caregiver intervention was carried out using an interpretative approach with eight guided face-to-face seminars, where self-reflection and dialogue were used. Data were collected using questionnaires. The number of residents was 43 (78 %) in the intervention group and 37 (71 %) in the control group. The Chi-square test and Mann-Whitney U-tests were performed to detect differences between groups and Wilcoxon signed rank tests to explore differences in change over time within groups. Furthermore, generalized estimating equation (GEE) models were used to study effects of the intervention controlling for clustering effects. Primary outcome measures were empowerment, person-centered climate and life satisfaction. In the intervention group, improvements at follow-up were found in residents' self-reported empowerment (n = 42; p = 0.001, Median difference 4.0, 95 % CI 1.5;6.0), person-centered climate (n = 42; p ≤0.001, Median difference 8.0, 95 % CI 4.5;11.4) and life satisfaction regarding the factor quality of everyday activities (n = 40; p = 0.033, Median difference 9.7, 95 % CI 1.0;21.9) while disempowerment decreased (n = 43; p = 0.018, Median difference -1.3, 95 % CI -2.0;0.0). In the control group person-centered climate decreased (n = 37; p

  14. Building and household X-factors and energy consumption at the residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estiri, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Energy use in residential buildings is one of the major sources of greenhouse gas emission production from cities. Using microdata from the 2009 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), this study applies structural equation modeling to analyze the direct, indirect, and total impacts of household and building characteristics on residential energy consumption. Results demonstrate that the direct impact of household characteristics on residential energy consumption is significantly smaller than the corresponding impact from the buildings. However, accounting for the indirect impact of household characteristics on energy consumption, through choice of the housing unit characteristics, the total impact of households on energy consumption is just slightly smaller than that of buildings. Outcomes of this paper call for smart policies to incorporate housing choice processes in managing residential energy consumption. - Highlights: • Households indirectly influence residential energy use through housing choice. • Households' total impact on energy use is comparable to that of buildings. • Understanding households' indirect impact will enhance residential energy policy. • Smart energy policies are needed to target both direct and indirect effects

  15. Contribution of price/expenditure factors of residential energy consumption in China from 1993 to 2011: A decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Zengming; Zhao, Tao

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Analysis about energy prices and the residential expenditure on energy in China. • Though the prices of energy declined, the price effect was negative. • The effect of price was the strongest restraining contribution. • Discussion on the proportion of energy expenditure in residential incomes. - Abstract: Since the establishment of the market economy in 1993, the residential consumption of commodities, including energy, has been highly influenced by prices in China. However, the contribution of the factors related to prices in residential energy consumption is relatively unexplored. This paper extends the KAYA identity with price and expenditure factors and then applies the LMDI method to a decomposition of residential energy consumption in China from 1993 to 2011. Our results show the following: (1) Though the prices of a majority of residential energy sources in China declined, the effect of energy prices restrained residential energy consumption because the expenditure structure changed during the period. (2) During the research period, the urban energy expenditure proportion experienced two progresses of rising and falling, and the rural proportion, which was stable before 2002, sharply increased. (3) The energy consumption intensity effect, which is the negative of the average energy price effect, contributed to most of the decrease in energy consumption, whereas residential income played a key role in the growth of consumption. According to the conclusions, we suggest further marketization and deregulation of energy prices, the promotion of advanced energy types and guidance for better energy consumption patterns

  16. Residential radon survey in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvela, H.; Maekelaeinen, I.; Castren, O.

    1993-02-01

    The study measured the indoor radon concentration in the dwellings of 3074 persons, selected randomly from the central population register of Finland. Alpha track detectors and two consecutive half year measuring periods were used. The national mean of indoor radon concentration for persons living in low-rise residential buildings as well as blocks of flats was 145 and 82 Bq/m 3 , respectively. The mean for the total population was 123 Bq/m 3 . Based on the decision of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health in 1992, the indoor radon concentration should not exceed 400 Bq/m 3 in already existing houses, the target for new construction being less than 200 Bq/m 3 . According to the study, the percentage of the Finnish population living in houses with an indoor radon concentration exceeding 200, 400 and 800 Bq/m 3 was 12.3 %, 3.6 % and 1.0 %

  17. Estimating the Determinants of Residential Water Demand in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Romano

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the determinants of residential water demand for chief towns of every Italian province, in the period 2007–2009, using the linear mixed-effects model estimated with the restricted-maximum-likelihood method. Results confirmed that the applied tariff had a negative effect on residential water consumption and that it was a relevant driver of domestic water consumption. Moreover, income per capita had a positive effect on water consumption. Among measured climatic and geographical features, precipitation and altitude exerted a strongly significant negative effect on water consumption, while temperature did not influence water demand. Further, data show that small towns in terms of population served were characterized by lower levels of consumption. Water utilities ownership itself did not have a significant effect on water consumption but tariffs were significantly lower and residential water consumption was higher in towns where the water service was managed by publicly owned water utilities. However, further research is needed to gain a better understanding of the connection between ownership of water utilities and water prices and water consumption.

  18. Generalisability of the results of the Dutch-Belgian randomised controlled lung cancer CT screening trial (NELSON) : Does self-selection play a role?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Aalst, C. M.; van Iersel, C. A.; van Klaveren, R. J.; Frenken, F. J. M.; Fracheboud, J.; Otto, S. J.; de Jong, P. A.; Oudkerk, M.; de Koning, H. J.

    The degree of self-selection in the Dutch-Belgian randomised controlled lung cancer screening trial (NELSON) was determined to assess the generalisability of the study results. 335,441 (mainly) men born in 1928-1953 received a questionnaire. Of the respondents (32%), eligible subjects were invited

  19. 12 CFR 541.23 - Residential real estate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Residential real estate. 541.23 Section 541.23... AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 541.23 Residential real estate. The terms residential real estate... home used in part for business); (c) Other real estate used for primarily residential purposes other...

  20. 12 CFR 541.16 - Improved residential real estate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Improved residential real estate. 541.16... REGULATIONS AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 541.16 Improved residential real estate. The term improved residential real estate means residential real estate containing offsite or other improvements...

  1. The Impact of a Shopping Centre on the Value of Adjacent Residential Properties

    OpenAIRE

    M. C. Sale

    2015-01-01

    One of the most significant changes in the South African retail landscape over the past few decades is the increase in the number and size of retail shopping centres situated in, or close to, residential areas. These shopping centres have the potential to generate both positive and negative externalities which may, in turn, be capitalised into adjacent residential property prices. However, policy makers are still unsure as to the effect of commercial land uses such as shopping centres on surr...

  2. Mitigating residential exposure to secondhand tobacco smoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepeis, Neil E.; Nazaroff, William W.

    In a companion paper, we used a simulation model to explore secondhand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposures for typical conditions in residences. In the current paper, we extend this analysis to evaluate the effectiveness of physical mitigation approaches in reducing nonsmokers' exposure to airborne SHS particulate matter in a hypothetical 6-zone house. Measures investigated included closing doors or opening windows in response to smoking activity, modifying location patterns to segregate the nonsmoker and the active smoker, and operating particle filtration devices. We first performed 24 scripted simulation trials using hypothetical patterns of occupant location. We then performed cohort simulation trials across 25 mitigation scenarios using over 1000 pairs of nonsmoker and smoker time-location patterns that were selected from a survey of human activity patterns in US homes. We limited cohort pairs to cases where more than 10 cigarettes were smoked indoors at home each day and the nonsmoker was at home for more than two thirds of the day. We evaluated the effectiveness of each mitigation approach by examining its impact on the simulated frequency distribution of residential SHS particle exposure. The two most effective strategies were the isolation of the smoker in a closed room with an open window, and a ban on smoking whenever the nonsmoker was at home. The use of open windows to supply local or cross ventilation, or the operation of portable filtration devices in smoking rooms, provided moderate exposure reductions. Closed doors, by themselves, were not effective.

  3. Development of a Smart Residential Fire Protection System

    OpenAIRE

    Juhwan Oh; Zhongwei Jiang; Henry Panganiban

    2013-01-01

    Embedded system is applied for the development of smart residential fire detection and extinguishing system. Wireless communication capability is integrated into various fire sensors and alarm devices. The system activates the fire alarm to warn occupants, executes emergency and rescue calls to remote residents and fire-fighting facility in an intelligent way. The effective location of extra-sprinklers within the space of interest for the fire extinguishing system is also investigated. Actual...

  4. Changes in the utilization of residential energy in nine countries of the OECD and its possible effects in Mexico; Cambios en el uso de la energia residencial en nueve paises de la OECD y sus posibles efectos en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schipper, Lee; Sheinbaum, Claudia [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    This paper analyzes the changes in the residential energy utilization in nine countries of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) between 1973 and 1990. An analysis is presented for the end uses and the changes for the periods 1973-1979, 1979-1985 and 1985-1990 are studied. The influence of the energy saving and conservation programs as well as the changes in the price of the energy is also discussed. It is also described how in the last period the rate of decrement in the energy intensity has diminished due to the lower energy prices. Finally the potential effects of this experience in the Third World Countries, specially in Mexico, are studied. [Espanol] En este trabajo se analizan los cambios en el uso de la energia residencial en nueve paises de la Organizacion para la Cooperacion y el Desarrollo Economico (OECD) entre 1973 y 1990. Se presenta un analisis por usos finales y se estudian los cambios en los periodos 1973-1979, 1979-1985 y 1985-1990. Se discute la influencia de los programas de ahorro y conservacion asi como de los cambios en el precio de la energia. Se describe como en el ultimo periodo la tasa de decremento de la intensidad energetica ha disminuido debido al bajo precio de la energia. Finalmente se discuten los posibles efectos de esta experiencia en los paises del Tercer Mundo, en especial en Mexico.

  5. Effects on annual cost of solar/air-heat utilization system of carbon tax and interest rate for a residential house; Jutakuyo taiyo/taikinetsu riyo system no nenkan keihi ni oyobosu tansozei kinri no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Q; Kenmoku, Y; Sakakibara, T [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Nakagawa, S [Maizuru National College of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Kawamoto, T [Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-27

    In recent years, a system has been proposed that utilizes river heat, air-heat, exhaust heat from a cooler, etc., in addition to natural energy for the heat pump. With the introduction of such system, the amount of energy used and that of CO2 exhaust will be greatly reduced, but annual expenses will be increased as it stands. In order to improve the cost efficiency of the system, a proposal has been made for the introduction of an economic policy such as the carbon tax and a low interest financing system. With these matters in the background, the subject study predicts the production of solar cells in the future and, on the basis of this production, determines the price, conversion efficiency and equipment energy of solar cells in the future. Using these values and taking into consideration the introduction of the carbon tax and the low interest financing system, the optimum area was determined for solar cells and heat concentrators in a future residential solar/air-heat energy system. The carbon tax, being imposed on all CO2 discharges, had a large effect. Moreover, as the tax increased, annual expenses decreased for the solar/air-heat system. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  6. Changes in the utilization of residential energy in nine countries of the OECD and its possible effects in Mexico; Cambios en el uso de la energia residencial en nueve paises de la OECD y sus posibles efectos en Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schipper, Lee; Sheinbaum, Claudia [Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1993-12-31

    This paper analyzes the changes in the residential energy utilization in nine countries of the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) between 1973 and 1990. An analysis is presented for the end uses and the changes for the periods 1973-1979, 1979-1985 and 1985-1990 are studied. The influence of the energy saving and conservation programs as well as the changes in the price of the energy is also discussed. It is also described how in the last period the rate of decrement in the energy intensity has diminished due to the lower energy prices. Finally the potential effects of this experience in the Third World Countries, specially in Mexico, are studied. [Espanol] En este trabajo se analizan los cambios en el uso de la energia residencial en nueve paises de la Organizacion para la Cooperacion y el Desarrollo Economico (OECD) entre 1973 y 1990. Se presenta un analisis por usos finales y se estudian los cambios en los periodos 1973-1979, 1979-1985 y 1985-1990. Se discute la influencia de los programas de ahorro y conservacion asi como de los cambios en el precio de la energia. Se describe como en el ultimo periodo la tasa de decremento de la intensidad energetica ha disminuido debido al bajo precio de la energia. Finalmente se discuten los posibles efectos de esta experiencia en los paises del Tercer Mundo, en especial en Mexico.

  7. Community pharmacists as educators in Danish residential facilities: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mygind, Anna; El-Souri, Mira; Pultz, Kirsten; Rossing, Charlotte; Thomsen, Linda A

    2017-08-01

    To explore experiences with engaging community pharmacists in educational programmes on quality and safety in medication handling in residential facilities for the disabled. A secondary analysis of data from two Danish intervention studies where community pharmacists were engaged in educational programmes. Data included 10 semi-structured interviews with staff, five semi-structured interviews and three open-ended questionnaires with residential facility managers, and five open-ended questionnaires to community pharmacists. Data were thematically coded to identify key points pertaining to the themes 'pharmacists as educators' and 'perceived effects of engaging pharmacists in competence development'. As educators, pharmacists were successful as medicines experts. Some pharmacists experienced pedagogical challenges. Previous teaching experience and obtained knowledge of the local residential facility before teaching often provided sufficient pedagogical skills and tailored teaching to local needs. Effects of engaging community pharmacists included in most instances improved cooperation between residential facilities and community pharmacies through a trustful relationship and improved dialogue about the residents' medication. Other effects included a perception of improved patient safety, teaching skills and branding of the pharmacy. Community pharmacists provide a resource to engage in educational programmes on medication handling in residential facilities, which may facilitate improved cooperation between community pharmacies and residential facilities. However, development of pedagogical competences and understandings of local settings are prerequisites for facilities and pharmacists to experience the programmes as successful. © 2016 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  8. Indoor Thermal Environment in Tropical Climate Residential Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamaludin Nazhatulzalkis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indoor thermal environment is one of the criteria in sustainable building. This criterion is important in ensuring a healthy indoor environment for the occupants. The consideration of environmental concerns at the early design stage would effectively integrate the sustainability of the building environment. Global climate changes such as global warming do affect human comfort since people spend most of their time and activities in the building. The increasing of urban population required additional housing for households, as well as places to shop, office and other facilities. Occupants are now more conscious the importance of sustainability for a better quality of life. Good thermal environment is essential for human wellness and comfort. A residential environment will influence residents’ health and safety. The global warming increase the earth’s temperature and greenhouse emission to the atmosphere cause adverse effects to the outdoor environment. Residential developments modify the materials, structure and energy balance in urban climate effects of human economic activities. As an indoor environment is influenced by the outdoor condition, the factors affecting indoor thermal environment are crucial in improving a comfortable and healthy environment in residential building. The microclimatic of a site such as temperature and relative humidity, and wind movement led to the variation of indoor thermal environment in the building.

  9. Development of Residential SOFC Cogeneration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Takashi; Miyachi, Itaru; Suzuki, Minoru; Higaki, Katsuki

    2011-06-01

    Since 2001 Kyocera has been developing 1kW class Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) for power generation system. We have developed a cell, stack, module and system. Since 2004, Kyocera and Osaka Gas Co., Ltd. have been developed SOFC residential co-generation system. From 2007, we took part in the "Demonstrative Research on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells" Project conducted by New Energy Foundation (NEF). Total 57 units of 0.7kW class SOFC cogeneration systems had been installed at residential houses. In spite of residential small power demand, the actual electric efficiency was about 40%(netAC,LHV), and high CO2 reduction performance was achieved by these systems. Hereafter, new joint development, Osaka Gas, Toyota Motors, Kyocera and Aisin Seiki, aims early commercialization of residential SOFC CHP system.

  10. Development of Residential SOFC Cogeneration System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Takashi; Miyachi, Itaru; Suzuki, Minoru; Higaki, Katsuki

    2011-01-01

    Since 2001 Kyocera has been developing 1kW class Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) for power generation system. We have developed a cell, stack, module and system. Since 2004, Kyocera and Osaka Gas Co., Ltd. have been developed SOFC residential co-generation system. From 2007, we took part in the 'Demonstrative Research on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells' Project conducted by New Energy Foundation (NEF). Total 57 units of 0.7kW class SOFC cogeneration systems had been installed at residential houses. In spite of residential small power demand, the actual electric efficiency was about 40%(netAC,LHV), and high CO2 reduction performance was achieved by these systems. Hereafter, new joint development, Osaka Gas, Toyota Motors, Kyocera and Aisin Seiki, aims early commercialization of residential SOFC CHP system.

  11. Forecasting residential electricity demand in provincial China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hua; Liu, Yanan; Gao, Yixuan; Hao, Yu; Ma, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Kan

    2017-03-01

    In China, more than 80% electricity comes from coal which dominates the CO2 emissions. Residential electricity demand forecasting plays a significant role in electricity infrastructure planning and energy policy designing, but it is challenging to make an accurate forecast for developing countries. This paper forecasts the provincial residential electricity consumption of China in the 13th Five-Year-Plan (2016-2020) period using panel data. To overcome the limitations of widely used predication models with unreliably prior knowledge on function forms, a robust piecewise linear model in reduced form is utilized to capture the non-deterministic relationship between income and residential electricity consumption. The forecast results suggest that the growth rates of developed provinces will slow down, while the less developed will be still in fast growing. The national residential electricity demand will increase at 6.6% annually during 2016-2020, and populous provinces such as Guangdong will be the main contributors to the increments.

  12. Influence of Macroeconomic Factors on Residential Property ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sultan

    exerted by macroeconomic factors on residential property returns in Abuja. The backward .... explanatory power and positive influence of employment and ...... Project. Management In Property Development: the Nigeria experience. Ibadan:.

  13. Plasma Processing of Model Residential Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerle, V. E.; Mossé, A. L.; Nikonchuk, A. N.; Ustimenko, A. B.; Baimuldin, R. V.

    2017-09-01

    The authors have tested the technology of processing of model residential solid waste. They have developed and created a pilot plasma unit based on a plasma chamber incinerator. The waste processing technology has been tested and prepared for commercialization.

  14. Architectural design of passive solar residential building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Jing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies thermal environment of closed balconies that commonly exist in residential buildings, and designs a passive solar residential building. The design optimizes the architectural details of the house and passive utilization of solar energy to provide auxiliary heating for house in winter and cooling in summer. This design might provide a more sufficient and reasonable modification for microclimate in the house.

  15. Key Residential Building Equipment Technologies for Control and Grid Support PART I (Residential)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Onar, Omer C [ORNL; DeVault, Robert C [ORNL

    2011-09-01

    based on the largest electrical energy consumers in the residential sector are space heating and cooling, washer and dryer, water heating, lighting, computers and electronics, dishwasher and range, and refrigeration. As the largest loads, these loads provide the highest potential for delivering demand response and reliability services. Many residential loads have inherent flexibility that is related to the purpose of the load. Depending on the load type, electric power consumption levels can either be ramped, changed in a step-change fashion, or completely removed. Loads with only on-off capability (such as clothes washers and dryers) provide less flexibility than resources that can be ramped or step-changed. Add-on devices may be able to provide extra demand response capabilities. Still, operating residential loads effectively requires awareness of the delicate balance of occupants health and comfort and electrical energy consumption. This report is Phase I of a series of reports aimed at identifying gaps in automated home energy management systems for incorporation of building appliances, vehicles, and renewable adoption into a smart grid, specifically with the intent of examining demand response and load factor control for power system support. The objective is to capture existing gaps in load control, energy management systems, and sensor technology with consideration of PHEV and renewable technologies to establish areas of research for the Department of Energy. In this report, (1) data is collected and examined from state of the art homes to characterize the primary residential loads as well as PHEVs and photovoltaic for potential adoption into energy management control strategies; and (2) demand response rules and requirements across the various demand response programs are examined for potential participation of residential loads. This report will be followed by a Phase II report aimed at identifying the current state of technology of energy management systems

  16. The 1986 residential occupant survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivey, D.L.; Alley, P.K.

    1987-04-01

    In 1986, Pacific Northwest Laboratory developed the Residential Occupant Survey-Spring '86, which was implemented. The overall purpose of the study was to collect demographic, attitudinal, and behavioral data related to the use and conservation of electricity in dwellings participating in the Bonneville Power Administration's End-Use Load and Conservation Assessment Program (ELCAP). Information was collected on the respondents' perceptions of the energy efficiency of their dwelling, temperature the dwelling was kept when people were at home and awake during the last heating season, which rooms, if any, were not heated during the last heating season, number of times the dwelling was unoccupied for at least one week, number of times pets were let out of the dwelling per day, attitudes toward energy use and conservation and several socio-demographic variables such as age, sex, and total household income. The results of the data analyses showed age to be an important factor for reported indoor temperature and perceived energy efficiency of the dwelling. The results also showed that almost 60% of the ELCAP occupants do not heat one or more rooms during the heating season, and almost 45% of the ELCAP dwellings were unoccupied for at least one week during the reporting period. In terms of the reported allocation of household income for household energy expenses, the results showed that the reported dollar amount spent for the expenses remained relatively constant over income levels.

  17. Exploring the Metabolic and Perceptual Correlates of Self-Selected Walking Speed under Constrained and Un-Constrained Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David T Godsiff, Shelly Coe, Charlotte Elsworth-Edelsten, Johnny Collett, Ken Howells, Martyn Morris, Helen Dawes

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms underpinning self-selected walking speed (SSWS are poorly understood. The present study investigated the extent to which SSWS is related to metabolism, energy cost, and/or perceptual parameters during both normal and artificially constrained walking. Fourteen participants with no pathology affecting gait were tested under standard conditions. Subjects walked on a motorized treadmill at speeds derived from their SSWS as a continuous protocol. RPE scores (CR10 and expired air to calculate energy cost (J.kg-1.m-1 and carbohydrate (CHO oxidation rate (J.kg-1.min-1 were collected during minutes 3-4 at each speed. Eight individuals were re-tested under the same conditions within one week with a hip and knee-brace to immobilize their right leg. Deflection in RPE scores (CR10 and CHO oxidation rate (J.kg-1.min-1 were not related to SSWS (five and three people had deflections in the defined range of SSWS in constrained and unconstrained conditions, respectively (p > 0.05. Constrained walking elicited a higher energy cost (J.kg-1.m-1 and slower SSWS (p 0.05. SSWS did not occur at a minimum energy cost (J.kg-1.m-1 in either condition, however, the size of the minimum energy cost to SSWS disparity was the same (Froude {Fr} = 0.09 in both conditions (p = 0.36. Perceptions of exertion can modify walking patterns and therefore SSWS and metabolism/ energy cost are not directly related. Strategies which minimize perceived exertion may enable faster walking in people with altered gait as our findings indicate they should self-optimize to the same extent under different conditions.

  18. Optimal Scheduling of Residential Microgrids Considering Virtual Energy Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiliang Liu

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The increasingly complex residential microgrids (r-microgrid consisting of renewable generation, energy storage systems, and residential buildings require a more intelligent scheduling method. Firstly, aiming at the radiant floor heating/cooling system widely utilized in residential buildings, the mathematical relationship between the operative temperature and heating/cooling demand is established based on the equivalent thermodynamic parameters (ETP model, by which the thermal storage capacity is analyzed. Secondly, the radiant floor heating/cooling system is treated as virtual energy storage system (VESS, and an optimization model based on mixed-integer nonlinear programming (MINLP for r-microgrid scheduling is established which takes thermal comfort level and economy as the optimization objectives. Finally, the optimal scheduling results of two typical r-microgrids are analyzed. Case studies demonstrate that the proposed scheduling method can effectively employ the thermal storage capacity of radiant floor heating/cooling system, thus lowering the operating cost of the r-microgrid effectively while ensuring the thermal comfort level of users.

  19. PowerChoice Residential Customer Response to TOU Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Jane S.; Moezzi, Mithra; Lutzenhiser, Susan; Woods, James; Dethman, Linda; Kunkle, Rick

    2009-10-01

    Research Into Action, Inc. and the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) worked together to conduct research on the behaviors and energy use patterns of SMUD residential customers who voluntarily signed on to a Time-of-Use rate pilot launched under the PowerChoice label. The project was designed to consider the how and why of residential customers ability and willingness to engage in demand reduction behaviors, and to link social and behavioral factors to observed changes in demand. The research drew on a combination of load interval data and three successive surveys of participating households. Two experimental treatments were applied to test the effects of increased information on households ability to respond to the Time-of-Use rates. Survey results indicated that participants understood the purpose of the Time-of-Use rate and undertook substantial appropriate actions to shift load and conserve. Statistical tests revealed minor initial price effects and more marked, but still modest, adjustments to seasonal rate changes. Tests of the two information interventions indicated that neither made much difference to consumption patterns. Despite the lackluster statistical evidence for load shifting, the analysis points to key issues for critical analysis and development of residential Time-of-Use rates, especially pertinent as California sets the stage for demand response in more California residences.

  20. Residential mobility, neighbourhood deprivation and children's behaviour in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Mavroveli, Stella; Midouhas, Emily

    2013-03-01

    Using data from the first two waves (in 2001/02 and 2004) of the UK's Millennium Cohort Study (MCS), we attempted to separate the effect of residential mobility from the effect of neighbourhood deprivation on children's emotional and behavioural problems. Our sample was 23,162 children (aged 3-16 years) clustered in 12,692 families. We measured neighbourhood deprivation with the Index of Multiple Deprivation, a measure of neighbourhood-level socio-economic disadvantage, and residential mobility as household move between waves. Being in a lower deprivation neighbourhood at Wave 1 was related to lower scores of both emotional and behavioural problems 2 years later, even after adjustment for child's age and sex, family adversity, family structure and maternal psychological distress. However, children whose families subsequently moved-even within or between lower deprivation neighbourhoods-were at higher risk of emotional and behavioural problems. Adjusting for family socio-economic disadvantage at Wave 1 explained the association of residential mobility with emotional but not with behavioural problems, which remained significant even after accounting for change in family's socio-economic disadvantage between waves. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Reforming residential electricity tariff in China: Block tariffs pricing approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Chuanwang; Lin, Boqiang

    2013-01-01

    The Chinese households that make up approximately a quarter of world households are facing a residential power tariff reform in which a rising block tariff structure will be implemented, and this tariff mechanism is widely used around the world. The basic principle of the structure is to assign a higher price for higher income consumers with low price elasticity of power demand. To capture the non-linear effects of price and income on elasticities, we set up a translog demand model. The empirical findings indicate that the higher income consumers are less sensitive than those with lower income to price changes. We further put forward three proposals of Chinese residential electricity tariffs. Compared to a flat tariff, the reasonable block tariff structure generates more efficient allocation of cross-subsidies, better incentives for raising the efficiency of electricity usage and reducing emissions from power generation, which also supports the living standards of low income households. - Highlights: • We design a rising block tariff structure of residential electricity in China. • We set up a translog demand model to find the non-linear effects on elasticities. • The higher income groups are less sensitive to price changes. • Block tariff structure generates more efficient allocation of cross-subsidies. • Block tariff structure supports the living standards of low income households

  2. Differences between Residential and Non-Residential Fathers on Sexual Socialisation of African American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneed, Carl D.; Willis, Leigh A.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated differences between residential and non-residential fathers on topics discussed during father-child sex communication and factors associated with child sexual socialisation. Young people (N = 159, 53% female) provided self-reports using computer surveys on the role of their fathers on father-child sex communication, general…

  3. Effects of peer health education on perception and practice of screening for cervical cancer among urban residential women in south-east Nigeria: a before and after study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbachu, Chinyere; Dim, Cyril; Ezeoke, Uche

    2017-06-09

    Effective female education on cervical cancer prevention has been shown to increase awareness and uptake of screening. However, sustaining increase in uptake poses a challenge to control efforts. Peer health education has been used as an effective tool for ensuring sustained behavior change. This study was undertaken to assess the effectiveness of peer health education on perception, willingness to screen and uptake of cervical cancer screening by women. A before and after intervention study was undertaken in 2 urban cities in Enugu state, Nigeria among women of reproductive age attending women's meeting in Anglican churches. Multistage sampling was used to select 300 women. Peer health education was provided once monthly for 3 consecutive sessions over a period of 3 months. Data was collected at baseline and after the intervention using pre-tested questionnaires. Descriptive statistics and tests of significance of observed differences and associations were done at p-value of education, employment status and parity (p education is an effective strategy for increasing women's perception of benefits of early detection of cervical cancer through screening. It is also effective for increasing their practice of screening for cervical cancer.

  4. Exploring utility organization electricity generation, residential electricity consumption, and energy efficiency: A climatic approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, Christopher A.; Feng, Song

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Study examined impact of electricity fuel sources and consumption on emissions. • 97.2% of variability in emissions explained by coal and residential electricity use. • Increasing cooling degree days significantly related to increased electricity use. • Effectiveness of state-level energy efficiency programs showed mixed results. - Abstract: This study examined the impact of electricity generation by fuel source type and electricity consumption on carbon emissions to assess the role of climatic variability and energy efficiency (EE) in the United States. Despite high levels of greenhouse gas emissions, residential electricity consumption continues to increase in the United States and fossil fuels are the primary fuel source of electricity generation. 97.2% of the variability in carbon emissions in the electricity industry was explained by electricity generation from coal and residential electricity consumption. The relationships between residential electricity consumption, short-term climatic variability, long-term climatic trends, short-term reduction in electricity from EE programs, and long-term trends in EE programs was examined. This is the first study of its nature to examine these relationships across the 48 contiguous United States. Inter-year and long-term trends in cooling degree days, or days above a baseline temperature, were the primary climatic drivers of residential electricity consumption. Cooling degree days increased across the majority of the United States during the study period, and shared a positive relationship with residential electricity consumption when findings were significant. The majority of electricity reduction from EE programs was negatively related to residential electricity consumption where findings were significant. However, the trend across the majority of states was a decrease in electricity reduction from EE while residential electricity consumption increased. States that successfully reduced consumption

  5. Post-Retrofit Residential Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lancaster, Ross; lutzenhiser, Loren; Moezzi, Mithra; Widder, Sarah H.; Chandra, Subrato; Baechler, Michael C.

    2012-04-30

    This study examined a range of factors influencing energy consumption in households that had participated in residential energy-efficiency upgrades. The study was funded by a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and was conducted by faculty and staff of Portland State University Center for Urban Studies and Department of Economics. This work was made possible through the assistance and support of the Energy Trust of Oregon (ETO), whose residential energy-efficiency programs provided the population from which the sample cases were drawn. All households in the study had participated in the ETO Home Performance with Energy Star (HPwES) program. A number of these had concurrently pursued measures through other ETO programs. Post-retrofit energy outcomes are rarely investigated on a house-by-house basis. Rather, aggregate changes are ordinarily the focus of program impact evaluations, with deviation from aggregate expectations chalked up to measurement error, the vagaries of weather and idiosyncrasies of occupants. However, understanding how homes perform post-retrofit on an individual basis can give important insights to increase energy savings at the participant and the programmatic level. Taking a more disaggregated approach, this study analyzed energy consumption data from before and after the retrofit activity and made comparisons with engineering estimates for the upgrades, to identify households that performed differently from what may have been expected based on the estimates. A statistical analysis using hierarchal linear models, which accounted for weather variations, was performed looking separately at gas and electrical use during the periods before and after upgrades took place. A more straightforward comparison of billing data for 12-month periods before and after the intervention was also performed, yielding the majority of the cases examined. The later approach allowed total energy use and costs to be

  6. Energy and exergy utilization efficiencies in the Japanese residential/commercial sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Kumiko

    2009-01-01

    Unlike the manufacturing sector, the residential/commercial sectors of Japan struggle to meet their environmental requirements. For instance, their CO 2 emission levels have increased tremendously since 1990. This research estimates energy and 'exergy (available energy)' efficiencies in Japan's residential/commercial sectors during the period 1990-2006. Since an exergy analysis reveals 'available energy losses', it is an effective tool to achieve sustainable societies. The primary objective of this paper is to examine the potential for advancing the 'true' energy efficiency in Japan's residential/commercial sectors-by observing energy and exergy efficiency disparities. The results show large differences between the overall energy and exergy efficiencies in the residential (60.12%, 6.33%)/commercial sectors (51.78%, 5.74%) in 2006. This implies great potential for energy savings in both sectors. Furthermore, this research suggests that the residential sector may face more difficulties than the commercial sector, although the latter appears to be less energy-efficient, according to recent statistics. This is because the disparity between energy and exergy efficiencies has expanded in the residential sector since 2000. This study illustrates the importance of exergy analyses in promoting sustainable energy policies and new adaptation strategies.

  7. Alcohol perceptions and behavior in a residential peer social network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Shannon R; Ott, Miles; Meisel, Matthew K; Barnett, Nancy P

    2017-01-01

    Personalized normative feedback is a recommended component of alcohol interventions targeting college students. However, normative data are commonly collected through campus-based surveys, not through actual participant-referent relationships. In the present investigation, we examined how misperceptions of residence hall peers, both overall using a global question and those designated as important peers using person-specific questions, were related to students' personal drinking behaviors. Participants were 108 students (88% freshman, 54% White, 51% female) residing in a single campus residence hall. Participants completed an online baseline survey in which they reported their own alcohol use and perceptions of peer alcohol use using both an individual peer network measure and a global peer perception measure of their residential peers. We employed network autocorrelation models, which account for the inherent correlation between observations, to test hypotheses. Overall, participants accurately perceived the drinking of nominated friends but overestimated the drinking of residential peers. Consistent with hypotheses, overestimating nominated friend and global residential peer drinking predicted higher personal drinking, although perception of nominated peers was a stronger predictor. Interaction analyses showed that the relationship between global misperception and participant self-reported drinking was significant for heavy drinkers, but not non-heavy drinkers. The current findings explicate how student perceptions of peer drinking within an established social network influence drinking behaviors, which may be used to enhance the effectiveness of normative feedback interventions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. An innovative educational program for residential energy efficiency. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laquatra, J.; Chi, P.S.K.

    1996-09-01

    Recognizing the importance of energy conservation, under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy, Cornell University conducted a research and demonstration project entitled An Innovative Educational Program for Residential Energy Efficiency. The research project examined the amount of residential energy that can be saved through changes in behavior and practices of household members. To encourage these changes, a workshop was offered to randomly-selected households in New York State. Two surveys were administered to household participants (Survey 1 and Survey 2, Appendix A) and a control group; and a manual was developed to convey many easy but effective ways to make a house more energy efficient (see Residential Manual, Appendix B). Implementing methods of energy efficiency will help reduce this country`s dependence on foreign energy sources and will also reduce the amount of money that is lost on inefficient energy use. Because Cornell Cooperative Extension operates as a component of the land-grant university system throughout the US, the results of this research project have been used to develop a program that can be implemented by the Cooperative Extension Service nationwide. The specific goals and objectives for this project will be outlined, the population and sample for the research will be described, and the instruments utilized for the survey will be explained. A description of the workshop and manual will also be discussed. This report will end with a summary of the results from this project and any observed changes and/or recommendations for future surveys pertaining to energy efficiency.

  9. Study of the Effect of Time-Based Rate Demand Response Programs on Stochastic Day-Ahead Energy and Reserve Scheduling in Islanded Residential Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vahedipour-Dahraie, Mostafa; Najafi, Hamid Reza; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad

    2017-01-01

    In recent deregulated power systems, demand response (DR) has become one of the most cost-effective and efficient solutions for smoothing the load profile when the system is under stress. By participating in DR programs, customers are able to change their energy consumption habits in response...

  10. Residential exposures to pesticides and childhood leukaemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metayer, C.; Buffler, P. A.

    2008-01-01

    Like many chemicals, carcinogenicity of pesticides is poorly characterised in humans, especially in children, so that the present knowledge about childhood leukaemia risk derives primarily from epidemiological studies. Overall, case-control studies published in the last decade have reported positive associations with home use of insecticides, mostly before the child's birth, while findings for herbicides are mixed. Previous studies relied solely on self-reports, therefore lacking information on active ingredients and effects of potential recall bias. Few series to date have examined the influence of children's genetic susceptibility related to transport and metabolism of pesticides. To overcome these limitations, investigators of the Northern California Childhood Leukaemia Study (NCCLS) have undertaken, in collaboration with a multidisciplinary team, a comprehensive assessment of residential pesticide exposure, including: (1) quality control of self-reports; (2) home pesticide inventory and linkage to the Environmental Protection Agency to obtain data on active ingredients; (3) collection and laboratory analyses of ∼600 home dust samples for over 60 pesticides and (4) geographic information studies using California environmental databases to assess exposure to agricultural pesticides. The NCCLS is also conducting large-scale geno-typing to evaluate the role of genes in xenobiotic pathways relevant to the transport and metabolism of pesticides. A better quantification of children's exposures to pesticides at home is critical to the evaluation of childhood leukaemia risk, especially for future gene-environment interaction studies. (authors)

  11. Optimizing Hydronic System Performance in Residential Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, L.; Faakye, O.

    2013-10-01

    Even though new homes constructed with hydronic heat comprise only 3% of the market (US Census Bureau 2009), of the 115 million existing homes in the United States, almost 14 million of those homes (11%) are heated with steam or hot water systems according to 2009 US Census data. Therefore, improvements in hydronic system performance could result in significant energy savings in the US. When operating properly, the combination of a gas-fired condensing boiler with baseboard convectors and an indirect water heater is a viable option for high-efficiency residential space heating in cold climates. Based on previous research efforts, however, it is apparent that these types of systems are typically not designed and installed to achieve maximum efficiency. Furthermore, guidance on proper design and commissioning for heating contractors and energy consultants is hard to find and is not comprehensive. Through modeling and monitoring, CARB sought to determine the optimal combination(s) of components - pumps, high efficiency heat sources, plumbing configurations and controls - that result in the highest overall efficiency for a hydronic system when baseboard convectors are used as the heat emitter. The impact of variable-speed pumps on energy use and system performance was also investigated along with the effects of various control strategies and the introduction of thermal mass.

  12. Is the residential combined (psychotherapy plus medication) treatment of patients with severe personality disorder effective in terms of suicidality and impulsivity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaslamatzis, Grigorios; Theodoropoulos, Panayiotis; Vondikaki, Stamatia; Karamanolaki, Hara; MiliaTsanira, Myrto; Gourounti, Kleanthi

    2014-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of combined treatment-medication plus psychodynamic psychotherapy-and psychodynamic psychotherapy alone on the outcome variables of suicidality and impulsivity in a population of adult inpatients with severe personality disorder (SPD). This is a naturalistic-empirical (observational) study under the conditions of clinical practice (an intensive specialized inpatient psychotherapeutic program [SIPP]). The sample consisted of 33 inpatients with SPD who were allocated to two subgroups (groups A and B). The patients in group A received psychodynamic psychotherapy and adjunctive pharmacotherapy, whereas the patients in group B received multimodal psychodynamic psychotherapy only. A statistically significant reduction in suicidality score was observed in the patients in group A, whereas a tendency for significant reduction in impulsivity score was observed in group B after the SIPP termination. Pharmacotherapy combined with multimodal psychodynamic psychotherapy, always within the SIPP, seems more effective in the case of suicidality rather than impulsivity.

  13. Integration of fuel cells into residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, J.M.; Entchev, E.; Gusdorf, J.; Szadkowski, F.; Swinton, M.; Kalbfleisch, W.; Marchand, R.

    2004-01-01

    Integration of small combined heat and power systems (CHP) into residential buildings is challenging as the loads are small, the load diversity is limited and there are a number of unresolved issues concerning sizing, control, peak loads, emergency operation, grid connection and export, etc. Natural Resources Canada has undertaken an initiative to investigate and develop techniques for the integration of small CHP systems into residential buildings using a highly instrumented house modified to allow quick installation and thorough monitoring of CHP integration techniques as well determining the performance of the CHP systems themselves when operating in a house. The first CHP system installed was a Stirling engine residential CHP system. It was used to examine the completeness of the CHP modifications to the house, to evaluate various building integration techniques and to measure the performance of the CHP system itself. The testing demonstrated the modified house to be an excellent facility for the development of CHP building integration techniques and the testing of residential CHP systems. The Stirling engine CHP system was found to operate well and produce meaningful input to the house. A second system (residential fuel cell) is presently being installed and building integration techniques and the performance of the fuel cell will be tested over the coming year. (author)

  14. Integrated Management of Residential Energy Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antunes C. H.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The increasing deployment of distributed generation systems based on renewables in the residential sector, the development of information and communication technologies and the expected evolution of traditional power systems towards smart grids are inducing changes in the passive role of end-users, namely with stimuli to change residential demand patterns. The residential user should be able to make decisions and efficiently manage his energy resources by taking advantages from his flexibility in load usage with the aim to minimize the electricity bill without depreciating the quality of energy services provided. The aim of this paper is characterizing electricity consumption in the residential sector and categorizing the different loads according to their typical usage, working cycles, technical constraints and possible degree of control. This categorization of end-use loads contributes to ascertain the availability of controllable loads to be managed as well as the different direct management actions that can be implemented. The ability to implement different management actions over diverse end-use load will increase the responsiveness of demand and potentially raises the willingness of end-users to accept such activities. The impacts on the aggregated national demand of large-scale dissemination of management systems that would help the end-user to make decisions regarding electricity consumption are predicted using a simulator that generates the aggregated residential sector electricity consumption under variable prices.

  15. Consumer behavior and energy conservation. A policy-oriented field experimental study on the effectiveness of behavioral interventions promoting residential energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ester, P

    1984-01-01

    The primary goal of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of behavioral interventions aimed at promoting energy conservation by consumers. It is argued that energy conservation has many advantages over other energy policy options, especially with respect to sociopolitical, economic, technical, safety and environmental considerations. Theories are discussed which deal with micromotives behind individual energy consumption and their macroconsequences. Antecedent and consequence behavioral interventions (information/education, prompting, modeling, feedback, self-monitoring, reinforcement/punishment) for promoting energy conservation by consumers are analyzed, and an extensive review is presented of behavioral experiments conducted in this area. Discussed is how the field experiment, which was conducted in five cities in the Netherlands with appr. 400 subjects, has been implemented. Hypotheses are tested regarding belief structures with respect to energy conservation. Provided are data about the absolute and relative effectiveness of energy conservation information, biweekly and monthly feedback, and self-monitoring in encouraging consumers to conserve energy. Hypotheses are tested about cognitive aspects related to responsiveness to behavioral interventions and attitude change toward energy conservation. Conclusions are presented and some energy policy recommendations and directions for future research are formulated. (J.C.R.)

  16. Effectiveness of air vapor barriers combined with ventilated crawlspaces in decreasing residential exposure to radon daughters to radon daughters: preliminary report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sterling, T.D.; Arundel, A.; McIntyre, D.; Sterling, E.; Sterling, T.D.

    1986-01-01

    Radon gas is present in many homes. Concentrations may be increased in airtight, energy-efficient structures. This is especially true in cold climates where energy conservation is an important factor leading to the widespread application of sealing and tightening techniques both in older renovated homes and new construction. To reduce radon concentrations, it may be effective to ventilate crawlspaces and prevent infiltration of radon gas into the house by means of an air/vapor barrier. The authors report first results of comparing radon levels in homes with and without ventilated crawlspaces and air/vapor barriers. Radon emissions were measured in a tightly sealed home with ventilated crawlspaces and an air/vapor barrier and in two homes without such vapor barriers and ventilated crawlspaces, but differing in ventilation. Preliminary results suggest that use of ventilated crawlspaces and bottomside vapor barriers may reduce indoor radon levels by approximately 60%. 15 references, 1 table

  17. Particulate and gaseous emissions from residential biomass combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boman, Christoffer

    2005-04-01

    Biomass is considered to be a sustainable energy source with significant potentials for replacing electricity and fossil fuels, not at least in the residential sector. However, present wood combustion is a major source of ambient concentrations of hydrocarbons (e.g. VOC and PAH) and particulate matter (PM) and exposure to these pollutants have been associated with adverse health effects. Increased focus on combustion related particulate emissions has been seen concerning the formation, characteristics and implications to human health. Upgraded biomass fuels (e.g. pellets) provide possibilities of more controlled and optimized combustion with less emission of products of incomplete combustion (PICs). For air quality and health impact assessments, regulatory standards and evaluations concerning residential biomass combustion, there is still a need for detailed emission characterization and quantification when using different fuels and combustion techniques. This thesis summarizes the results from seven different papers. The overall objective was to carefully and systematically study the emissions from residential biomass combustion with respect to: i) experimental characterization and quantification, ii) influences of fuel, appliance and operational variables and iii) aspects of ash and trace element transformations and aerosol formation. Special concern in the work was on sampling, quantification and characterization of particulate emissions using different appliances, fuels and operating procedures. An initial review of health effects showed epidemiological evidence of potential adverse effect from wood smoke exposure. A robust whole flow dilution sampling set-up for residential biomass appliances was then designed, constructed and evaluated, and subsequently used in the following emission studies. Extensive quantifications and characterizations of particulate and gases emissions were performed for residential wood and pellet appliances. Emission factor ranges for

  18. Residential neighbourhoods in Kathmandu: Key design guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijaya K. Shrestha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Residential neighbourhoods developed using various techniques in Kathmandu by both the public and private sectors have not only provided a poor urban setting and failed to address socio-cultural needs, but are also poor at building a community and creating links to the built environment, with the result that the planned areas lack a sense of place and the inhabitants lack a feeling of home. Although traditional neighbourhoods in the historic core area had many features of a good residential neighbourhood in the past, they are currently undergoing rapid destruction. The residents of these neighbourhoods have little awareness of these issues. The existing legal and institutional frameworks are inadequate and ineffective and cannot address these problems, and so the formulation of design guidelines, their strict implementation, and enhancement of socio-cultural events including social networking are recommended for future residential neighbourhood development.

  19. Expressions of Prayer in Residential Care Homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer-Kirkham, Sheryl; Sharma, Sonya; Smith, Brenda; Schutt, Kelly; Janzen, Kyla

    2018-01-01

    Although the value of spiritual care in the care of older adults is supported by research, few studies have focused specifically on prayer in residential care settings. This ethnographic study with fifteen chaplains and administrators in eleven residential care homes involved analyses of walking interviews and research diaries. Findings revealed the spaces in which prayer happens and the forms it takes. The identities of chaplains-their own spiritual practices, religious beliefs, and positioning within the facility-shaped their dis/comfort with prayer and how they located prayer within public and private spaces. Where organizational leadership endorsed the legitimacy of chaplaincy services, prayer was more likely to be offered. Even in these circumstances, however, religious diversity and questions about secularism left chaplains ambivalent about the appropriateness of prayer. The results demonstrate the relevance of religion and spirituality to residential care, and illustrate how prayer functions as an opportunity for connection and understanding.

  20. Solar Photovoltaic Financing: Residential Sector Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, J.; Cory, K.

    2009-03-01

    This report presents the information that homeowners and policy makers need to facilitate PV financing at the residential level. The full range of cash payments, bill savings, and tax incentives is covered, as well as potentially available solar attribute payments. Traditional financing is also compared to innovative solutions, many of which are borrowed from the commercial sector. Together, these mechanisms are critical for making the economic case for a residential PV installation, given its high upfront costs. Unfortunately, these programs are presently limited to select locations around the country. By calling attention to these innovative initiatives, this report aims to help policy makers consider greater adoption of these models to benefit homeowners interested installing a residential PV system.

  1. Energy savings in Danish residential building stock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    2006-01-01

    a short account of the technical energy-saving possibilities that are present in existing dwellings and presents a financial methodology used for assessing energy-saving measures. In order to estimate the total savings potential detailed calculations have been performed in a case with two typical...... buildings representing the residential building stock and based on these calculations an assessment of the energy-saving potential is performed. A profitable savings potential of energy used for space heating of about 80% is identified over 45 years (until 2050) within the residential building stock......A large potential for energy savings exists in the Danish residential building stock due to the fact that 75% of the buildings were constructed before 1979 when the first important demands for energy performance of building were introduced. It is also a fact that many buildings in Denmark face...

  2. Effects of topographic position and geology on shaking damage to residential wood-framed structures during the 2003 San Simeon earthquake, western San Luis obispo county, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCrink, T.P.; Wills, C.J.; Real, C.R.; Manson, M.W.

    2010-01-01

    A statistical evaluation of shaking damage to wood-framed houses caused by the 2003 M6.5 San Simeon earthquake indicates that both the rate and severity of damage, independent of structure type, are significantly greater on hilltops compared to hill slopes when underlain by Cretaceous or Tertiary sedimentary rocks. This increase in damage is interpreted to be the result of topographic amplification. An increase in the damage rate is found for all structures built on Plio-Pleistocene rocks independent of topographic position, and this is interpreted to be the result of amplified shaking caused by geologic site response. Damage rate and severity to houses built on Tertiary rocks suggest that amplification due to both topographic position and geologic site response may be occurring in these rocks, but effects from other topographic parameters cannot be ruled out. For all geologic and topographic conditions, houses with raised foundations are more frequently damaged than those with slab foundations. However, the severity of damage to houses on raised foundations is only significantly greater for those on hill slopes underlain by Tertiary rocks. Structures with some damage-resistant characteristics experienced greater damage severity on hilltops, suggesting a spectral response to topographic amplification. ?? 2010, Earthquake Engineering Research Institute.

  3. Efficient Energy Management for a Grid-Tied Residential Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, an effective energy management system (EMS) for application in integrated building and microgrid system is introduced and implemented as a multi-objective optimization problem. The proposed architecture covers different key modelling aspects such as distributed heat and electricity......’s objectives, the effectiveness and applicability of the proposed model is studied and validated compared to the existing residential EMSs. The simulation results demonstrate that the proposed EMS has the capability not only to conserve energy in sustainable homes and microgrid system and to reduce energy...

  4. Biomarkers of PAH exposure and hematologic effects in subjects exposed to combustion emission during residential (and professional) cooking practices in Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamal, Atif; Cincinelli, Alessandra; Martellini, Tania; Malik, Riffat Naseem

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the exposure of household women and professional male workers to combustion emission in the indoor and semi-outdoor environments, respectively, by using biochemical parameters and the biomarkers of exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH). Female (WR n = 60) and male "cooks" (WC n = 60) exposed to the combustion emission of fuel wood and coal in rural/suburban areas of Pakistan were recruited in this study and compared to non-exposed female (CF) and male (CM) groups (n = 32 and 34, respectively). Urinary biomarkers of PAH exposure including 1-hyroxypyrene (1-OHPyr), α-naphthol, and β-naphthol were analyzed together with the biomarkers of effect, including the serum c-reactive proteins (CRP), white blood cells (WBCs), hemoglobin (Hb), red blood cells (RBC), and platelet (PLT) count. In addition, blood superoxide dismutase (SOD) and urinary level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) were evaluated to determine the oxidative stress and DNA damage, respectively. A questionnaire was used to document demographic-, health-, and exposure-related information. The results showed that urinary β-naphthol was almost 44% higher in WR subjects than WC (median 7.69 vs. 3.39 μmol/mol-Cr, respectively; p = 0.01) and respective controls (CF). Higher urinary 8-OHdG were observed in WR (71.1 ng/mg-Cr) than WC (56.37 ng/mg-Cr) (p cooking (due to occupational requirement) than WR.

  5. Strategy Guideline: High Performance Residential Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holton, J.

    2012-02-01

    The Strategy Guideline: High Performance Residential Lighting has been developed to provide a tool for the understanding and application of high performance lighting in the home. The high performance lighting strategies featured in this guide are drawn from recent advances in commercial lighting for application to typical spaces found in residential buildings. This guide offers strategies to greatly reduce lighting energy use through the application of high quality fluorescent and light emitting diode (LED) technologies. It is important to note that these strategies not only save energy in the home but also serve to satisfy the homeowner's expectations for high quality lighting.

  6. Comparison of economic instruments to reduce PM_2_._5 from industrial and residential sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mardones, Cristian; Saavedra, Andrés

    2016-01-01

    In the literature, it is possible to find different studies that compare economic instruments performance applied to the industrial sources regulation; however, evidence about pollution from residential sources is scarce. For this reason, the present study simulates and compares an emission permit system (EPS) and an ambient permit system (APS) when fine particulate matter pollution (PM_2_._5) is generated from industrial and residential sources. Thus, this research contributes to the spatial, economic and environmental assessment of industrial and residential emissions. The options to reduce pollution include replacement of heating devices in residential sources and installing end-of-pipe technologies in industrial sources. The results in terms of total cost and technological chosen options are similar under an APS and EPS for targets lesser to 80%. This is explained because it is more cost-effective to reduce emissions in residential sources than in industrial sources, and additionally, residential pollution has only local impact. However, some industrial sources should install abatement technologies for more demanding targets; in this case as industrial pollution are scattered in different areas, the total cost of an APS are lower than the total cost of an EPS. - Highlights: • The impact of wood burning on air quality can be significant in urban areas. • Residential and industrial sources in regulatory schemes to PM_2_._5 are analyzed. • Wood smoke pollution can be reduced by changing to more efficient heating devices. • Wood heater replacement is more cost-effective than abatement technologies. • The results are similar under APS and EPS for targets lesser to 80%.

  7. Sustainable residential districts : the residents' role in project success

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abdalla, G.

    2012-01-01

    Sustainable residential districts have been realized worldwide. These districts are promoted to be efficient in the use of natural materials and sustainable energy resources. Realization of sustainable residential districts can strongly contribute to achieve environmental objectives as imposed by

  8. PRN 2011-1: Residential Exposure Joint Venture

    Science.gov (United States)

    This PR Notice is to advise registrants of an industry-wide joint venture, titled the Residential Exposure Joint Venture (REJV), which has developed a national survey regarding residential consumer use/usage data for pesticides.

  9. Steering Angle Function Algorithm of Morphing of Residential Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XIE Tian

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A residential area feature morphing method based on steering angle function is presented. To residential area with the same representation under two different scales,transforming the representation of the residential area polygon from vector coordinates to steering angle function,then using the steering angle function to match,and finding out the similarity and the differences between the residential areas under different scale to get the steering angle function of the the residential areas under any middle scale,the final,transforming the middle scale steering angle function to vector coordinates form,and get the middle shape interpolation of the the residential area polygon.Experimental results show:the residential area morphing method by using steering angle function presented can realize the continuous multi-scale representation under the premise of keeping in shape for the residential area with the rectangular boundary features.

  10. Suggestions on Strengthening Greening Construction of Ecological Residential Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Greening construction is an important part of the construction of ecological residential areas, but there exist some misunderstandings in greening construction of ecological residential districts at present. Based on the description of functions of green space in ecological residential areas, the summarization of principles of greening design, and the discussion of questions in greening construction of ecological residential districts, some suggestions as well as specific measures for strengt...

  11. Indoor Residential Chemical Exposures as Risk Factors for Asthmaand Allergy in Infants and Children: a Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendell, M.J.

    2006-03-01

    Most research into effects of residential indoor air exposures on asthma and allergies has focused on exposures to biologic allergens, moisture and mold, endotoxin, or combustion byproducts. This paper briefly reviews reported findings on associations of asthma or allergy in infants or children with risk factors related to indoor chemical emissions from residential materials or surface coatings. Associations, some strong (e.g., odds ratios up to 13), were reported. The most frequently identified risk factors were formaldehyde, aromatic organic compounds such as toluene and benzene, plastic materials and plasticizers, and recent painting. Exposures and consequent effects from indoor sources may be exacerbated by decreased ventilation. Identified risk factors may be proxies for correlated exposures. Findings suggest the frequent occurrence of important but preventable effects on asthma and allergy in infants and children worldwide from modern residential building materials and coatings.

  12. Analyzing Residential End-Use Energy Consumption Data to Inform Residential Consumer Decisions and Enable Energy Efficiency Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Derrick R.

    While renewable energy is in the process of maturing, energy efficiency improvements may provide an opportunity to reduce energy consumption and consequent greenhouse gas emissions to bridge the gap between current emissions and the reductions necessary to prevent serious effects of climate change and will continue to be an integral part of greenhouse gas emissions policy moving forward. Residential energy is a largely untapped source of energy reductions as consumers, who wish to reduce energy consumption for monetary, environmental, and other reasons, face barriers. One such barrier is a lack of knowledge or understanding of how energy is consumed in a home and how to reduce this consumption effectively through behavioral and technological changes. One way to improve understanding of residential energy consumption is through the creation of a model to predict which appliances and electronics will be present and significantly contribute to the electricity consumption of a home on the basis of various characteristics of that home. The basis of this model is publically available survey data from the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS). By predicting how households are likely to consume energy, homeowners, policy makers, and other stakeholders have access to valuable data that enables reductions in energy consumption in the residential sector. This model can be used to select homes that may be ripe for energy reductions and to predict the appliances that are the basis of these potential reductions. This work suggests that most homes in the U.S. have about eight appliances that are responsible for about 80% of the electricity consumption in that home. Characteristics such as census region, floor space, income, and total electricity consumption affect which appliances are likely to be in a home, however the number of appliances is generally around 8. Generally it takes around 4 appliances to reach the 50% threshold and 12 appliances to reach 90% of electricity

  13. 24 CFR 40.2 - Definition of “residential structure”.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... OWNED RESIDENTIAL STRUCTURES § 40.2 Definition of “residential structure”. (a) As used in this part, the term residential structure means a residential structure (other than a privately owned residential structure and a residential structure on a military reservation): (1) Constructed or altered by or on behalf...

  14. Residential Preferences and Moving Behavior: A Family Life Cycle Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuley, William J.; Nutty, Cheri L.

    The relationship of family life cycle changes to housing preferences and residential mobility is examined. Two residential decision-making issues are explored in detail--how family life cycle stages influence what people view as important to their choice of residential setting and what individuals at different family life cycle stages view as the…

  15. 38 CFR 36.4357 - Combination residential and business property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Reporting § 36.4357 Combination residential and business property. If otherwise eligible, a loan for the purchase or construction of a combination of residential property and business property which the veteran... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Combination residential...

  16. Family events and the residential mobility of couples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielin, F.; Mulder, C.H.

    2008-01-01

    Using data from retrospective surveys carried out in the Netherlands during the early 1990s, we describe how the residential mobility of couples—that is, short-distance moves—is affected by family events and how fertility is affected by residential mobility. The results show that residential moves

  17. Price and income elasticities of residential energy demand in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schulte, Isabella; Heindl, Peter

    2017-01-01

    We apply a quadratic expenditure system to estimate price and expenditure elasticities of residential energy demand (electricity and heating) in Germany. Using official expenditure data from 1993 to 2008, we estimate an expenditure elasticity for electricity of 0.3988 and of 0.4055 for space heating. The own price elasticity for electricity is −0.4310 and −0.5008 in the case of space heating. Disaggregation of households by expenditure and socio-economic composition reveals that the behavioural response to energy price changes is weaker (stronger) for low-income (top-income) households. There are considerable economies of scale in residential energy use but scale effects are not well approximated by the new OECD equivalence scale. Real increases in energy prices show a regressive pattern of incidence, implying that the welfare consequences of direct energy taxation are larger for low income households. The application of zero-elasticities in assessments of welfare consequences of energy taxation strongly underestimates potential welfare effects. The increase in inequality is 22% smaller when compared to the application of disaggregated price and income elasticities as estimated in this paper. - Highlights: • We estimate price, income, and expenditure elasticities for residential energy demand in Germany. • We differentiate elasticities by income groups and household type. • Electricity and space heating are necessary goods since the expenditure elasticities are smaller than unity. • Low-income households show a weaker reaction to changing prices when compared to high-income households. • Direct energy taxation has regressive effects, meaning that larger burdens fall upon low-income households.

  18. Fear and overprotection in Australian residential aged-care facilities: The inadvertent impact of regulation on quality continence care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostaszkiewicz, Joan; O'Connell, Beverly; Dunning, Trisha

    2016-06-01

    Most residents in residential aged-care facilities are incontinent. This study explored how continence care was provided in residential aged-care facilities, and describes a subset of data about staffs' beliefs and experiences of the quality framework and the funding model on residents' continence care. Using grounded theory methodology, 18 residential aged-care staff members were interviewed and 88 hours of field observations conducted in two facilities. Data were analysed using a combination of inductive and deductive analytic procedures. Staffs' beliefs and experiences about the requirements of the quality framework and the funding model fostered a climate of fear and risk adversity that had multiple unintended effects on residents' continence care, incentivising dependence on continence management, and equating effective continence care with effective pad use. There is a need to rethink the quality of continence care and its measurement in Australian residential aged-care facilities. © 2015 AJA Inc.

  19. Hydrological processes at the urban residential scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Q. Xiao; E.G. McPherson; J.R. Simpson; S.L. Ustin

    2007-01-01

    In the face of increasing urbanization, there is growing interest in application of microscale hydrologic solutions to minimize storm runoff and conserve water at the source. In this study, a physically based numerical model was developed to understand hydrologic processes better at the urban residential scale and the interaction of these processes among different...

  20. Does Fall History Influence Residential Adjustments?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leland, Natalie; Porell, Frank; Murphy, Susan L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose of the study: To determine whether reported falls at baseline are associated with an older adult's decision to make a residential adjustment (RA) and the type of adjustment made in the subsequent 2 years. Design and Methods: Observations (n = 25,036) were from the Health and Retirement Study, a nationally representative sample of…

  1. Condition assessment and strengthening of residential units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatheer Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available About 40, ground plus one (G+1 residential units were designed using a hybrid structural framing system (RC frame and load bearing walls. A few months after the completion of the ground floor of the residential units, cracks appeared at several locations in the structure. Field and Laboratory testing was conducted to ascertain the in situ strength of concrete and steel reinforcement. The results of the experimental work were used in the analytical ETABS model for the structural stability calculations. The results indicated that residential units were marginally safe in the existing condition (completed ground floor, but the anticipated construction of the floor above the ground floor (G+1 could not be carried out as the strength of the structural system was inadequate. To increase the safety of existing ground floor and to provide the option of the construction of one floor above, rehabilitation and strengthening design was performed. The proposed strengthening design made use of welded wire fabric (WWF and carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP laminates/sheets for the strengthening of walls, columns and slabs. The residential units will be strengthened in the near future.

  2. Chapter 6: Residential Lighting Evaluation Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimetrosky, Scott [Apex Analytics LLC, Boulder, CO (United States); Parkinson, Katie [Apex Analytics LLC, Boulder, CO (United States); Lieb, Noah [Apex Analytics LLC, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, residential lighting has represented a significant share of ratepayer-funded energy-efficiency electricity savings. Utilities have achieved the majority of these savings by promoting the purchase and installation of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs), both standard 'twister' bulbs and specialty CFLs such as reflectors, A-Lamps, globes, and dimmable lights.

  3. Residential and Light Commercial HVAC. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, David; Fulkerson, Dan, Ed.

    This curriculum guide contains 18 units of instruction for a competency-based course in residential and light commercial heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC). Introductory materials include a competency profile and an instructional/task analysis that correlates job training with related information for this course. Each instructional…

  4. DETERMINANTS OF RESIDENTIAL PER CAPITA WATER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This report presents the findings of the study on the determinants of residential per capita water demand of Makurdi metropolis in Benue State, Nigeria. Data for the study was obtained by the use of questionnaires, oral interviews and observations. The data was analyzed using SPSS. Twenty variables were considered in ...

  5. Consumer Decision Rules and Residential Finance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Jeanette A.; Jaffe, Austin J.

    1979-01-01

    As guidelines for residential financing, the authors compare different approaches to understanding and figuring the costs of home ownership: the relation of income to house price and housing costs, interest rate, and mortgage term. Instead of the traditional method, they recommend the time value of money approach. (MF)

  6. Vibration Analysis of a Residential Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampaio Regina Augusta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the results of a study regarding vibration problems in a 17 storey residential building during pile driving in its vicinity. The structural design of the building was checked according to the Brazilian standards NBR6118 and NBR6123, and using commercial finite element software. An experimental analysis was also carried out using low frequency piezo-accelerometers attached to the building structure. Structure vibrations were recorded under ambient conditions. Four monitoring tests were performed on different days. The objective of the first monitoring test was an experimental modal analysis. To obtain de modal parameters, data was processed in the commercial software ARTEMIS employing two methods: the Stochastic Subspace Identification and the Frequency Domain Decomposition. Human comfort was investigated considering the International Standard ISO 2631. The Portuguese standard, NP2074, was also used as a reference, since it aims to limit the adverse effects of vibrations in structures caused by pile driving in the vicinity of the structure. The carried out experimental tests have shown that, according to ISO2301, the measure vibration levels are above the acceptance limits. However, velocity peaks are below the limits established by NP2074. It was concluded that, although the structure has adequate capacity to resist internal forces according to normative criteria, it has low horizontal stiffness, which could be verified by observing the vibration frequencies and mode shapes obtained with the finite element models, and its similarity with the experimental results. Thus, the analyses indicate the occurrence of discomfort by the residents.

  7. Discover the benefits of residential wood heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This publication described how residential wood-heating systems are being used to reduce energy costs and increase home comfort. Biomass energy refers to all forms are renewable energy that is derived from plant materials. The source of fuel may include sawmills, woodworking shops, forest operations and farms. The combustion of biomass is also considered to be carbon dioxide neutral, and is not considered to be a major producer of greenhouse gases (GHG) linked to global climate change. Wood burning does, however, release air pollutants, particularly if they are incompletely burned. Incomplete combustion of wood results in dense smoke consisting of toxic gases. Natural Resources Canada helped create new safety standards and the development of the Wood Energy Technical Training Program to ensure that all types of wood-burning appliances are installed correctly and safely to reduce the risk of fire and for effective wood heating. In Canada, more than 3 million families heat with wood as a primary or secondary heating source in homes and cottages. Wood heating offers security from energy price fluctuations and electrical power failures. This paper described the benefits of fireplace inserts that can transform old fireplaces into modern heating systems. It also demonstrated how an add-on wood furnace can be installed next to oil furnaces to convert an oil-only heating system to a wood-oil combination system, thereby saving thousands of dollars in heating costs. Wood pellet stoves are another wood burning option. The fuel for the stoves is produced from dried, finely ground wood waste that is compressed into hard pellets that are loaded into a hopper. The stove can run automatically for up to 24 hours. New high-efficiency advanced fireplaces also offer an alternative heating system that can reduce heating costs while preserving Canada's limited supply of fossil fuels such as oil and gas. 13 figs

  8. Historic trends in the residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    In the OECD countries, income-driven growth in equipment ownership (heating, appliances) and home size drove household energy use up, but higher energy prices and conservation programs had a restraining effect. The results were mixed, with consumption per capita significantly lower in a few countries (United States, France), but higher in others. There was a significant decline in the intensity of space heating (30-40%) and a small decline in the intensity of electric applicances. Changes in the size and features of many appliances offset much of the improvement in technical energy efficiency. Not all of the decline in heating intensity was a result of technical change; the author estimates that about 25% was caused by change in heating behavior. In all, there were significant improvements in efficiency, but these were offset somewhat by structural change. In the Former East Bloc, there is far less residential space and amenity than in OECD countries, and efficiency of space heating and water heating is low, in part due to lake of energy pricing. Electric appliances are simple and relatively inefficient. Unlike in the OECD countries, there is little sign of improved efficiency in the 1970s and 1980s. In the LDCs, patterns of energy use, and changes in them, are very different in rural and urban areas, and vary among regions as well. Biomass is still the dominant fuel in rural areas. In urban areas, Western-like patterns of electricity (and even gas) use have emerged for appliances, cooking, and water heating among the affluent, and TV and refrigerators have become more common among the less-affluent. In many countries, especially in Southeast Asia, there has been very rapid growth in ownership of appliances. Most appliances are cheaply made and inefficient compared to similar appliances sold in the OECD countries, though there are signs of some improvement in the past decade. 16 refs., 11 figs., 9 figs

  9. Integration of Solar Photovoltaics and Electric Vehicles in Residential Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Huang, Shaojun; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    In the last few years, there is an increased penetration of solar photovoltaic (SPV) units in low voltage (LV) distribution grids. Also electric vehicles (EVs) are introduced to these LV networks. This has caused the distribution networks to be more active and complex as these local generation...... and load units are characterised by unpredictable and diverse operating characteristics. This paper analyses the combined effect of SPVs and EVs in LV Danish residential grids. The EVs charging needs based on typical driving patterns of passenger cars and SPV power profiles during winter/summer days...

  10. A Decentralized Storage Strategy for Residential Feeders with Photovoltaics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marra, Francesco; Yang, Guangya; Træholt, Chresten

    2014-01-01

    . The power sizing of the ESSs is performed with linear programming (LP) method, based on voltage sensitivity analysis. A Belgian residential LV feeder with private PV systems is used as a case study to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed strategy. Quantification of the required energy levels...... domestic energy storage systems (ESS). The traditional way of operating a domestic ESS to increase the local consumption rate does not take into account the need of voltage support in a feeder; the proposed storage concept improves the traditional one, by mitigating voltage rise due to PV in the feeder...

  11. Impact of Rooftop Solar PV on Residential Distribution Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    Increased environmental awareness in recent years has encouraged rapid growth of renewable energy sources especially solar PV and wind. Among them, small scale solar PV has been gaining more momentum especially at residential level. Even today moderate penetration of grid tied rooftop solar PV has...... become reality in many countries. In spite of various benefits, higher penetration of rooftop PVs might come up with number of detrimental effects, with power quality and overcurrent protection being the major ones. Therefore, it is reasonable to quantify both drawback and benefits of rooftop PV...

  12. Stochastic analysis of residential micro combined heat and power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karami, H.; Sanjari, M. J.; Gooi, H. B.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper the combined heat and power functionality of a fuel-cell in a residential hybrid energy system, including a battery, is studied. The demand uncertainties are modeled by investigating the stochastic load behavior by applying Monte Carlo simulation. The colonial competitive algorithm...... algorithm. The optimized scheduling of different energy resources is listed in an efficient look-up table for all time intervals. The effects of time of use and the battery efficiency and its size are investigated on the operating cost of the hybrid energy system. The results of this paper are expected...

  13. Residential response to voluntary time-of-use electricity rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mostafa Baladi, S. [Laurits R. Christensen Associates, Inc. Ames, IA 50011-1070 (United States); Herriges, Joseph A. [Iowa State University, 280D Heady Hall, Department of Economics, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011-1070 (United States); Sweeney, Thomas J. [MidAmerican Energy, Des Moines, Iowa (United States)

    1998-09-01

    The response of residential households to voluntary Time-of-Use (TOU) electricity rates is estimated using data from a recent experiment at Midwest Power Systems of Iowa. The study`s design allows us to examine both the participation decision and the customer`s load pattern changes once the TOU rate structure was in effect. Substitution elasticities between on-peak and off-peak electricity usage are estimated and compared to those obtained in earlier mandatory programs, indicating whether program volunteers are more responsive to TOU pricing than the typical household. Attitudinal questionnaires allow us to examine the role of usage perceptions in program participation

  14. Residential radon in Finland: sources, variation, modelling and dose comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvela, H

    1995-09-01

    The study deals with sources of indoor radon in Finland, seasonal variations in radon concentration, the effect of house construction and ventilation and also with the radiation dose from indoor radon and terrestrial gamma radiation. The results are based on radon measurements in approximately 4000 dwellings and on air exchange measurements in 250 dwellings as well as on model calculations. The results confirm that convective soil air flow is by far the most important source of indoor radon in Finnish low-rise residential housing. (97 refs., 61 figs., 30 tabs.).

  15. Residential radon in Finland: sources, variation, modelling and dose comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvela, H.

    1995-09-01

    The study deals with sources of indoor radon in Finland, seasonal variations in radon concentration, the effect of house construction and ventilation and also with the radiation dose from indoor radon and terrestrial gamma radiation. The results are based on radon measurements in approximately 4000 dwellings and on air exchange measurements in 250 dwellings as well as on model calculations. The results confirm that convective soil air flow is by far the most important source of indoor radon in Finnish low-rise residential housing. (97 refs., 61 figs., 30 tabs.)

  16. Information Processing and Creative Thinking Abilities of Residential and Non-Residential School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atasi Mohanty

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to assess and compare the residential and non-residential schoolchildren in information-processing skills and creative thinking abilities. A sample of 80 children from Classes 5 and 7 were selected from two types of schools, residential/ashram (02 and non-residential/formal schools (02 in Bolpur subdivision of West Bengal in India where the medium of instruction is Bengali language/mother-tongue. All the children were individually administered the PASS (Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, Successive, Stroop, Matching Familiar Figure Test (MFFT-20, and creative thinking tasks. The residential school children were found to perform better both in information processing and creative thinking tasks. The developmental trend could not be clearly observed due to small sample size, but with increasing age, children were using better processing strategies. Due to ashram environment, creative pedagogy, and various co-curricular activities, the residential school children were found to be more creative than their formal school counterparts. Moreover, some significant positive correlations were found among information processing skills and creative thinking dimensions.

  17. Impact of Uncoordinated Plug-in Electric Vehicle Charging on Residential Power Demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muratori, Matteo [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-22

    Electrification of transport offers opportunities to increase energy security, reduce carbon emissions, and improve local air quality. Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are creating new connections between the transportation and electric sectors, and PEV charging will create opportunities and challenges in a system of growing complexity. Here, I use highly resolved models of residential power demand and PEV use to assess the impact of uncoordinated in-home PEV charging on residential power demand. While the increase in aggregate demand might be minimal even for high levels of PEV adoption, uncoordinated PEV charging could significantly change the shape of the aggregate residential demand, with impacts for electricity infrastructure, even at low adoption levels. Clustering effects in vehicle adoption at the local level might lead to high PEV concentrations even if overall adoption remains low, significantly increasing peak demand and requiring upgrades to the electricity distribution infrastructure. This effect is exacerbated when adopting higher in-home power charging.

  18. Impact of uncoordinated plug-in electric vehicle charging on residential power demand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Matteo

    2018-03-01

    Electrification of transport offers opportunities to increase energy security, reduce carbon emissions, and improve local air quality. Plug-in electric vehicles (PEVs) are creating new connections between the transportation and electric sectors, and PEV charging will create opportunities and challenges in a system of growing complexity. Here, I use highly resolved models of residential power demand and PEV use to assess the impact of uncoordinated in-home PEV charging on residential power demand. While the increase in aggregate demand might be minimal even for high levels of PEV adoption, uncoordinated PEV charging could significantly change the shape of the aggregate residential demand, with impacts for electricity infrastructure, even at low adoption levels. Clustering effects in vehicle adoption at the local level might lead to high PEV concentrations even if overall adoption remains low, significantly increasing peak demand and requiring upgrades to the electricity distribution infrastructure. This effect is exacerbated when adopting higher in-home power charging.

  19. Stochastic analysis of residential micro combined heat and power system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karami, H.; Sanjari, M.J.; Gooi, H.B.; Gharehpetian, G.B.; Guerrero, J.M.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Applying colonial competitive algorithm to the problem of optimal dispatching. • Economic modeling of the residential integrated energy system. • Investigating differences of stand-alone and system-connected modes of fuel cell operation. • Considering uncertainty on the electrical load. • The effects of battery capacity and its efficiency on the system is investigated. - Abstract: In this paper the combined heat and power functionality of a fuel-cell in a residential hybrid energy system, including a battery, is studied. The demand uncertainties are modeled by investigating the stochastic load behavior by applying Monte Carlo simulation. The colonial competitive algorithm is adopted to the hybrid energy system scheduling problem and different energy resources are optimally scheduled to have optimal operating cost of hybrid energy system. In order to show the effectiveness of the colonial competitive algorithm, the results are compared with the results of the harmony search algorithm. The optimized scheduling of different energy resources is listed in an efficient look-up table for all time intervals. The effects of time of use and the battery efficiency and its size are investigated on the operating cost of the hybrid energy system. The results of this paper are expected to be used effectively in a real hybrid energy system.

  20. Residential radon and lung cancer incidence in a Danish cohort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braeuner, Elvira V., E-mail: ole@cancer.dk [Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark); Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University (Denmark); Andersen, Claus E. [Center for Nuclear Technologies, Radiation Research Division, Riso National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Roskilde (Denmark); Sorensen, Mette [Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark); Jovanovic Andersen, Zorana [Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark); Center for Epidemiology Screening, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Gravesen, Peter [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Copenhagen (Denmark); Ulbak, Kaare [National Institute of Radiation Protection, Herlev (Denmark); Hertel, Ole [Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Pedersen, Camilla [Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark); Overvad, Kim [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Tjonneland, Anne; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole [Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2012-10-15

    High-level occupational radon exposure is an established risk factor for lung cancer. We assessed the long-term association between residential radon and lung cancer risk using a prospective Danish cohort using 57,053 persons recruited during 1993-1997. We followed each cohort member for cancer occurrence until 27 June 2006, identifying 589 lung cancer cases. We traced residential addresses from 1 January 1971 until 27 June 2006 and calculated radon at each of these addresses using information from central databases regarding geology and house construction. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for lung cancer risk associated with residential radon exposure with and without adjustment for sex, smoking variables, education, socio-economic status, occupation, body mass index, air pollution and consumption of fruit and alcohol. Potential effect modification by sex, traffic-related air pollution and environmental tobacco smoke was assessed. Median estimated radon was 35.8 Bq/m{sup 3}. The adjusted IRR for lung cancer was 1.04 (95% CI: 0.69-1.56) in association with a 100 Bq/m{sup 3} higher radon concentration and 1.67 (95% CI: 0.69-4.04) among non-smokers. We found no evidence of effect modification. We find a positive association between radon and lung cancer risk consistent with previous studies but the role of chance cannot be excluded as these associations were not statistically significant. Our results provide valuable information at the low-level radon dose range.

  1. Residential radon and lung cancer incidence in a Danish cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bräuner, Elvira V.; Andersen, Claus E.; Sørensen, Mette; Jovanovic Andersen, Zorana; Gravesen, Peter; Ulbak, Kaare; Hertel, Ole; Pedersen, Camilla; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2012-01-01

    High-level occupational radon exposure is an established risk factor for lung cancer. We assessed the long-term association between residential radon and lung cancer risk using a prospective Danish cohort using 57,053 persons recruited during 1993–1997. We followed each cohort member for cancer occurrence until 27 June 2006, identifying 589 lung cancer cases. We traced residential addresses from 1 January 1971 until 27 June 2006 and calculated radon at each of these addresses using information from central databases regarding geology and house construction. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for lung cancer risk associated with residential radon exposure with and without adjustment for sex, smoking variables, education, socio-economic status, occupation, body mass index, air pollution and consumption of fruit and alcohol. Potential effect modification by sex, traffic-related air pollution and environmental tobacco smoke was assessed. Median estimated radon was 35.8 Bq/m 3 . The adjusted IRR for lung cancer was 1.04 (95% CI: 0.69–1.56) in association with a 100 Bq/m 3 higher radon concentration and 1.67 (95% CI: 0.69–4.04) among non-smokers. We found no evidence of effect modification. We find a positive association between radon and lung cancer risk consistent with previous studies but the role of chance cannot be excluded as these associations were not statistically significant. Our results provide valuable information at the low-level radon dose range.

  2. Micro-CHP Systems for Residential Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy DeValve; Benoit Olsommer

    2007-09-30

    Integrated micro-CHP (Cooling, Heating and Power) system solutions represent an opportunity to address all of the following requirements at once: conservation of scarce energy resources, moderation of pollutant release into our environment, and assured comfort for home-owners. The objective of this effort was to establish strategies for development, demonstration, and sustainable commercialization of cost-effective integrated CHP systems for residential applications. A unified approach to market and opportunity identification, technology assessment, specific system designs, adaptation to modular product platform component conceptual designs was employed. UTRC's recommendation to U.S. Department of Energy is to go ahead with the execution of the proposed product development and commercialization strategy plan under Phase II of this effort. Recent indicators show the emergence of micro-CHP. More than 12,000 micro-CHP systems have been sold worldwide so far, around 7,500 in 2004. Market projections predict a world-wide market growth over 35% per year. In 2004 the installations were mainly in Europe (73.5%) and in Japan (26.4%). The market in North-America is almost non-existent (0.1%). High energy consumption, high energy expenditure, large spark-spread (i.e., difference between electricity and fuel costs), big square footage, and high income are the key conditions for market acceptance. Today, these conditions are best found in the states of New York, Pennsylvania, New Jersey, Wisconsin, Illinois, Indiana, Michigan, Ohio, New England states. A multiple stage development plan is proposed to address risk mitigation. These stages include concept development and supplier engagement, component development, system integration, system demonstration, and field trials. A two stage commercialization strategy is suggested based on two product versions. The first version--a heat and power system named Micro-Cogen, provides the heat and essential electrical power to the

  3. Outdoor and indoor sources of residential radiofrequency electromagnetic fields, personal cell phone and cordless phone use, and cognitive function in 5-6 years old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guxens, Mònica; Vermeulen, Roel; van Eijsden, Manon; Beekhuizen, Johan; Vrijkotte, Tanja G. M.; van Strien, Rob T.; Kromhout, Hans; Huss, Anke

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the exposure of young children to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) and potentially associated health effects. We assessed the relationship between residential RF-EMF exposure from mobile phone base stations, residential presence of indoor sources, personal cell

  4. Outdoor and indoor sources of residential radiofrequency electromagnetic fields, personal cell phone and cordless phone use, and cognitive function in 5-6 years old children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guxens, Mònica; Vermeulen, Roel; van Eijsden, Manon; Beekhuizen, Johan; Vrijkotte, Tanja G M; van Strien, Rob T; Kromhout, Hans; Huss, Anke

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Little is known about the exposure of young children to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) and potentially associated health effects. We assessed the relationship between residential RF-EMF exposure from mobile phone base stations, residential presence of indoor sources,

  5. An ecology of prestige in New York City: Examining the relationships among population density, socio-economic status, group identity, and residential canopy cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Morgan Grove; Dexter H. Locke; Jarlath P.M. O' Neil-Dunne

    2014-01-01

    Several social theories have been proposed to explain the uneven distribution of vegetation in urban residential areas: population density, social stratification, luxury effect, and ecology of prestige. We evaluate these theories using a combination of demographic and socio-economic predictors of vegetative cover on all residential lands in New York City. We use...

  6. A Randomized Controlled Trial of a Mindfulness and Acceptance Group Therapy for Residential Substance Use Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C; Elmquist, Joanna; Gawrysiak, Michael J; Strauss, Catherine; Haynes, Ellen; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L

    2017-09-19

    Substance use disorders are understood as a chronically relapsing condition that is difficult to treat. However, in recent years there have been promising developments in the treatment of substance use disorders, specifically with interventions based on mindfulness and acceptance and commitment therapy. Little research has examined whether these types of interventions may positively impact residential substance use treatment outcomes. Thus, in the current study we developed and examined, in a randomized controlled trial, a 4-week, eight-session, adjunctive mindfulness and acceptance group therapy for patients in residential substance use treatment. Our primary outcomes were substance use cravings, psychological flexibility, and dispositional mindfulness at treatment discharge. Patients (N = 117) from a private residential substance use facility were randomized to receive the adjunctive mindfulness and acceptance group or treatment-as-usual. Patients were assessed at treatment intake and at discharge from a 28-30-day residential program. Although treatment groups did not statistically differ at discharge on any primary outcome, small effect sizes favored the mindfulness and acceptance group on cravings and psychological flexibility. Conclusions/Importance: Continued research is needed to determine whether the addition of mindfulness and acceptance-based interventions improve outcomes long term following residential substance use treatment.

  7. Changes in Objectively-Determined Walkability and Physical Activity in Adults: A Quasi-Longitudinal Residential Relocation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Gavin R; McLaren, Lindsay; Salvo, Grazia; Blackstaffe, Anita

    2017-05-22

    Causal evidence for the built environment's role in supporting physical activity is needed to inform land use and transportation policies. This quasi-longitudinal residential relocation study compared within-person changes in self-reported transportation walking, transportation cycling, and overall physical activity during the past 12 months among adults who did and did not move to a different neighbourhood. In 2014, a random sample of adults from 12 neighbourhoods (Calgary, AB, Canada) with varying urban form and socioeconomic status provided complete self-administered questionnaire data ( n = 915). Participants, some of whom moved neighbourhood during the past 12 months ( n = 95), reported their perceived change in transportation walking and cycling, and overall physical activity during that period. The questionnaire also captured residential self-selection, and sociodemographic and health characteristics. Walk Scores ® were linked to each participant's current and previous neighbourhood and three groups identified: walkability "improvers" ( n = 48); "decliners" ( n = 47), and; "maintainers" ( n = 820). Perceived change in physical activity was compared between the three groups using propensity score covariate-adjusted Firth logistic regression (odds ratios: OR). Compared with walkability maintainers, walkability decliners (OR 4.37) and improvers (OR 4.14) were more likely ( p walkability decliners were also more likely (OR 3.17) to report decreasing their transportation walking since moving. Walkability improvers were more likely than maintainers to increase their transportation cycling since moving neighbourhood (OR 4.22). Temporal changes in neighbourhood walkability resulting from residential relocation appear to be associated with reported temporal changes in transportation walking and cycling in adults.

  8. Residential segregation and birth weight among racial and ethnic minorities in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Emily

    2009-12-01

    Racial and ethnic minorities are often residentially segregated from whites in urban settings, a fact which has important health consequences. Research on the relationship between residential segregation and health outcomes lacks national-level investigation of racial and ethnic minority groups other than African Americans. I use multilevel analyses to examine the associations of residential isolation and clustering with birth weight among Asian, black, and Latino Americans using data from the National Center for Health Statistics' Natality Files and the U.S. Census. Findings indicate that segregation has a negative effect on the likelihood of having a low birth weight baby among Asian Americans, suggesting a possible concentration of social and structural resources in highly-segregated communities. On the contrary, segregation marginally increases the odds of low birth weight among African Americans, but only in the presence of higher poverty rates. Segregation does not affect birth weight among Latino Americans.

  9. Diffusion of environmentally-friendly energy technologies: buy versus lease differences in residential PV markets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Varun; Sigrin, Benjamin

    2013-03-01

    Diffusion of microgeneration technologies, particularly rooftop photovoltaic (PV), represents a key option in reducing emissions in the residential sector. We use a uniquely rich dataset from the burgeoning residential PV market in Texas to study the nature of the consumer’s decision-making process in the adoption of these technologies. In particular, focusing on the financial metrics and the information decision-makers use to base their decisions upon, we study how the leasing and buying models affect individual choices and, thereby, the adoption of capital-intensive energy technologies. Overall, our findings suggest that the leasing model more effectively addresses consumers’ informational requirements and that, contrary to some other studies, buyers and lessees of PV do not necessarily differ significantly along socio-demographic variables. Instead, we find that the leasing model has opened up the residential PV market to a new, and potentially very large, consumer segment—those with a tight cash-flow situation.

  10. Diffusion of environmentally-friendly energy technologies: buy versus lease differences in residential PV markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, Varun; Sigrin, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    Diffusion of microgeneration technologies, particularly rooftop photovoltaic (PV), represents a key option in reducing emissions in the residential sector. We use a uniquely rich dataset from the burgeoning residential PV market in Texas to study the nature of the consumer’s decision-making process in the adoption of these technologies. In particular, focusing on the financial metrics and the information decision-makers use to base their decisions upon, we study how the leasing and buying models affect individual choices and, thereby, the adoption of capital-intensive energy technologies. Overall, our findings suggest that the leasing model more effectively addresses consumers’ informational requirements and that, contrary to some other studies, buyers and lessees of PV do not necessarily differ significantly along socio-demographic variables. Instead, we find that the leasing model has opened up the residential PV market to a new, and potentially very large, consumer segment—those with a tight cash-flow situation. (letter)

  11. Profits or preferences? Assessing the adoption of residential solar thermal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Bradford F.; Schleich, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    Solar thermal technologies offer the potential to meet a substantial share of residential water and space heating needs in the EU, but current levels of adoption are low. This paper uses data from a large sample of German households to assess the effects of geographic, residence, and household characteristics on the adoption of solar thermal water and space heating technologies. In addition, the impact of solar thermal technology adoption on household energy expenditures is estimated after controlling for observed household heterogeneity in geographic, residential, and household characteristics. While evidence is found of moderate household energy expenditure savings from combined solar water and space heating systems, the findings generally confirm that low in-home energy cost savings and fixed housing stocks limit the diffusion of residential solar thermal technologies. Little evidence is found of differential adoption by distinct socio-economic groups.

  12. Customer baseline load models for residential sector in a smart-grid environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sharifi

    2016-11-01

    In this paper, a new method is presented for the calculation of CBL for customers in residential sector in the context of a smart grid, considering the impact of weather changes. The results clearly show the high impact of changes in weather conditions on the calculation of CBL, and also show the extent of effect of buildings’ improved insulation on this parameter. It is also indicated that implementing DR programs can increase the willingness of customers in residential sector to improve the insulations of their buildings.

  13. Residential Radon and Brain Tumour Incidence in a Danish Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira V.; Andersen, Zorana J.; Andersen, Claus Erik

    2013-01-01

    Background: Increased brain tumour incidence over recent decades may reflect improved diagnostic methods and clinical practice, but remain unexplained. Although estimated doses are low a relationship between radon and brain tumours may exist. Objective: To investigate the long-term effect of expo...... significant associations and exposure-response patterns between long-term residential radon exposure radon in a general population and risk of primary brain tumours, adding new knowledge to this field. This finding could be chance and needs to be challenged in future studies.......Background: Increased brain tumour incidence over recent decades may reflect improved diagnostic methods and clinical practice, but remain unexplained. Although estimated doses are low a relationship between radon and brain tumours may exist. Objective: To investigate the long-term effect...... of exposure to residential radon on the risk of primary brain tumour in a prospective Danish cohort. Methods: During 1993–1997 we recruited 57,053 persons. We followed each cohort member for cancer occurrence from enrolment until 31 December 2009, identifying 121 primary brain tumour cases. We traced...

  14. Chelant-aided enhancement of lead mobilization in residential soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sarkar, Dibyendu; Andra, Syam S.; Saminathan, Sumathi K.M.; Datta, Rupali

    2008-01-01

    Chelation of metals is an important factor in enhancing solubility and hence, availability to plants to promote phytoremediation. We compared the effects of two chelants, namely, ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and ethylenediaminedisuccinic acid (EDDS) in enhancing mobilized lead (Pb) in Pb-based paint contaminated residential soils collected from San Antonio, Texas and Baltimore, Maryland. Batch incubation studies were performed to investigate the effectiveness of the two chelants in enhancing mobilized Pb, at various concentrations and treatment durations. Over a period of 1 month, the mobilized Pb pool in the San Antonio study soils increased from 52 mg kg -1 to 287 and 114 mg kg -1 in the presence of 15 mM kg -1 EDTA and EDDS, respectively. Stepwise linear regression analysis demonstrated that pH and organic matter content significantly affected the mobilized Pb fraction. The regression models explained a large percentage, from 83 to 99%, of the total variation in mobilized Pb concentrations. - Complexation by a biodegradable chelating agent, EDDS enhances mobilized Pb concentrations in Pb-paint contaminated residential soils

  15. Integrated evaluation of radiative heating systems for residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anastaselos, Dimitrios; Theodoridou, Ifigeneia; Papadopoulos, Agis M.; Hegger, Manfred

    2011-01-01

    Based on the need to reduce CO 2 emissions and minimize energy dependency, the EU Member States have set ambitious energy policies goals and have developed respective, specific regulations, in order to improve the energy performance of the building sector. Thus, specific measures regarding the buildings' envelope, the use of efficient HVAC technologies and the integration of renewable energy systems are being constantly studied and promoted. The effective combination of these three main aspects will consequently result in maximum energy efficiency. Germany has played a key role in this development, with intensive work focusing in the improvement of the energy behaviour of the residential building stock. In this paper, the use of radiative heating systems placing special emphasis on infrared is being studied as part of the energy renovation of residential buildings from the 1970's. This is done by applying an integrated assessment model to evaluate specific interventions regarding the improvement of the energy behaviour of the buildings' envelope and the use of radiative heating systems, based on a thorough Life Cycle Analysis according to criteria of energy, economic and environmental performance, as well as thermal comfort. -- Highlights: → Assessment of energy, economic and environmental performance of heating systems. → Life Cycle Analysis in combination with the quality of thermal comfort. → Effectiveness of interventions in already partially insulated buildings.

  16. Staff satisfaction and its components in residential aged care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Shu-Chiung; Boldy, Duncan P; Lee, Andy H

    2002-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the direction and magnitude of the effects among the components of staff satisfaction in residential aged care and to examine whether the relationships among satisfaction components vary according to facility type (i.e. nursing homes and hostels). A hostel is a low care facility in which residents are more independent, have a lower level of care needs, and receive personal but not nursing care. A cross-sectional survey design was adopted to collect the required information, and a stratified random sampling approach was utilized to select facilities. Structural equation modeling was used to examine relationships among satisfaction components. Seventy residential aged care facilities in Western Australia. The sample includes 610 nursing home and 373 hostel care staff. The relationships among satisfaction components are different for nursing home and hostel staff. Professional support is found to have a strong and positive effect on all other aspects of staff satisfaction. The findings lead to an improved understanding of the interrelationship among staff satisfaction components, which has important implications through enhancing professional support. This needs to be recognized and emphasized by managers, care providers, and policy makers so as to maintain stable personnel and continuity of care.

  17. Life Cycle Assessment of Residential Heating and Cooling Systems in Minnesota A comprehensive analysis on life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and cost-effectiveness of ground source heat pump (GSHP) systems compared to the conventional gas furnace and air conditioner system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mo

    Ground Source Heat Pump (GSHP) technologies for residential heating and cooling are often suggested as an effective means to curb energy consumption, reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and lower homeowners' heating and cooling costs. As such, numerous federal, state and utility-based incentives, most often in the forms of financial incentives, installation rebates, and loan programs, have been made available for these technologies. While GSHP technology for space heating and cooling is well understood, with widespread implementation across the U.S., research specific to the environmental and economic performance of these systems in cold climates, such as Minnesota, is limited. In this study, a comparative environmental life cycle assessment (LCA) is conducted of typical residential HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning) systems in Minnesota to investigate greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions for delivering 20 years of residential heating and cooling—maintaining indoor temperatures of 68°F (20°C) and 75°F (24°C) in Minnesota-specific heating and cooling seasons, respectively. Eight residential GSHP design scenarios (i.e. horizontal loop field, vertical loop field, high coefficient of performance, low coefficient of performance, hybrid natural gas heat back-up) and one conventional natural gas furnace and air conditioner system are assessed for GHG and life cycle economic costs. Life cycle GHG emissions were found to range between 1.09 × 105 kg CO2 eq. and 1.86 × 10 5 kg CO2 eq. Six of the eight GSHP technology scenarios had fewer carbon impacts than the conventional system. Only in cases of horizontal low-efficiency GSHP and hybrid, do results suggest increased GHGs. Life cycle costs and present value analyses suggest GSHP technologies can be cost competitive over their 20-year life, but that policy incentives may be required to reduce the high up-front capital costs of GSHPs and relatively long payback periods of more than 20 years. In addition

  18. MICRO-CHP System for Residential Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Gerstmann

    2009-01-31

    This is the final report of progress under Phase I of a project to develop and commercialize a micro-CHP system for residential applications that provides electrical power, heating, and cooling for the home. This is the first phase of a three-phase effort in which the residential micro-CHP system will be designed (Phase I), developed and tested in the laboratory (Phase II); and further developed and field tested (Phase III). The project team consists of Advanced Mechanical Technology, Inc. (AMTI), responsible for system design and integration; Marathon Engine Systems, Inc. (MES), responsible for design of the engine-generator subsystem; AO Smith, responsible for design of the thermal storage and water heating subsystems; Trane, a business of American Standard Companies, responsible for design of the HVAC subsystem; and AirXchange, Inc., responsible for design of the mechanical ventilation and dehumidification subsystem.

  19. FACTOR ANALYSIS OF MULTISTOREY RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Петр Матвеевич Мазуркин

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available According to the UN classification of 11 classes of soil cover, the first three are grass, trees and shrubs and forests. In the city they correspond to the three elements of vegetation: lawns, tree plantings (trees and shrubs. We have adopted zoning for city-building to identify statistical regularities. Map dimensions in GIS "Map 2011" Yoshkar-Ola was allocated to "residential zone" and "Area of construction of multi-storey residential buildings (cadastral 58 quart crystals". The parameters of the elements of the vegetation cover have been considered: the number of elements of different levels, area and perimeter, the absolute and relative form, and activity of vegetation. As the result, we have obtained equations of binomial rank distributions, conducted the ratings and selected the best of cadastral quarter on environmental conditions.

  20. Residential environmental evaluation of local cities considering regional characteristic and personal residential preference-a case study of Saga City,Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Jian; HOKAO Kazunori

    2004-01-01

    Questionnaire surveys and subjective evaluations on residential environment were performed in order to grasp the main factors of residential environment of small local cities. The suitable evaluation index system was established, and the regional residential environment characteristics and personal residential preference types were analyzed, so that their influence on residential environment evaluation could be grasped. The results can be applied to the residential environment planning, construction and monitoring of local cities.