WorldWideScience

Sample records for residential passive solar

  1. Architectural design of passive solar residential building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Jing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies thermal environment of closed balconies that commonly exist in residential buildings, and designs a passive solar residential building. The design optimizes the architectural details of the house and passive utilization of solar energy to provide auxiliary heating for house in winter and cooling in summer. This design might provide a more sufficient and reasonable modification for microclimate in the house.

  2. Advanced phase change materials and systems for solar passive heating and cooling of residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salyer, I.O.; Sircar, A.K.; Dantiki, S.

    1988-01-01

    During the last three years under the sponsorship of the DOE Solar Passive Division, the University of Dayton Research Institute (UDRI) has investigated four phase change material (PCM) systems for utility in thermal energy storage for solar passive heating and cooling applications. From this research on the basis of cost, performance, containment, and environmental acceptability, we have selected as our current and most promising series of candidate phase change materials, C-15 to C-24 linear crystalline alkyl hydrocarbons. The major part of the research during this contract period was directed toward the following three objectives. Find, test, and develop low-cost effective phase change materials (PCM) that melt and freeze sharply in the comfort temperature range of 73--77{degree}F for use in solar passive heating and cooling of buildings. Define practical materials and processes for fire retarding plasterboard/PCM building products. Develop cost-effective methods for incorporating PCM into building construction materials (concrete, plasterboard, etc.) which will lead to the commercial manufacture and sale of PCM-containing products resulting in significant energy conservation.

  3. Field Measurement and Evaluation of the Passive and Active Solar Heating Systems for Residential Building Based on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijian Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Passive and active solar heating systems have drawn much attention and are widely used in residence buildings in the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau due to its high radiation intensity. In fact, there is still lack of quantitative evaluation of the passive and active heating effect, especially for residential building in the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau areas. In this study, three kinds of heating strategies, including reference condition, passive solar heating condition and active solar heating condition, were tested in one demonstration residential building. The hourly air temperatures of each room under different conditions were obtained and analyzed. The results show the indoor air temperature in the living room and bedrooms (core zones was much higher than that of other rooms under both passive and active solar heating conditions. In addition, the heating effect with different strategies for core zones of the building was evaluated by the ratio of indoor and outdoor degree hour, which indicates that solar heating could effectively reduce the traditional energy consumption and improve the indoor thermal environment. The passive solar heating could undertake 49.8% degree hours for heating under an evaluation criterion of 14 °C and the active solar heating could undertake 75% degree hours for heating under evaluation criterion of 18 °C, which indicated that solar heating could effectively reduce the traditional energy consumption and improve the indoor thermal environment in this area. These findings could provide reference for the design and application of solar heating in similar climate areas.

  4. Interior design for passive solar homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breen, J. C.

    1981-07-01

    The increasing emphasis on refinement of passive solar systems has brought recognition to interior design as an integral part of passive solar architecture. Interior design can be used as a finetuning tool minimizing many of the problems associated with passive solar energy use in residential buildings. In addition, treatment of interior space in solar model homes may be a prime factor in determining sales success. A new style of interior design is evolving in response to changes in building form incorporating passive solar design features. The psychology behind passive solar architecture is reflected in interiors, and selection of interior components increasingly depends on the functional suitability of various interior elements.

  5. Interior design for passive solar homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breen, J. C.

    1981-07-01

    The increasing emphasis on refinement of passive solar systems brought recognition to interior design as an integral part of passive solar architecture. Interior design can be used as a finetuning tool minimizing many of the problems associated with passive solar energy use in residential buildings. In addition, treatment of interior space in solar model homes may be a prime factor in determining sales success. A new style of interior design is evolving in response to changes in building from incorporating passive solar design features. The psychology behind passive solar architecture is reflected in interiors, and selection of interior components increasingly depends on the functional suitably of various interior elements.

  6. Passive solar technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, D

    1981-04-01

    The present status of passive solar technology is summarized, including passive solar heating, cooling and daylighting. The key roles of the passive solar system designer and of innovation in the building industry are described. After definitions of passive design and a summary of passive design principles are given, performance and costs of passive solar technology are discussed. Passive energy design concepts or methods are then considered in the context of the overall process by which building decisions are made to achieve the integration of new techniques into conventional design. (LEW).

  7. Passive solar construction handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, E.; Evans, D.; Gardstein, C.

    1981-08-01

    Many of the basic elements of passive solar design are reviewed. The unique design constraints presented in passive homes are introduced and many of the salient issues influencing design decisions are described briefly. Passive solar construction is described for each passive system type: direct gain, thermal storage wall, attached sunspace, thermal storage roof, and convective loop. For each system type, important design and construction issues are discussed and case studies illustrating designed and built examples of the system type are presented. Construction details are given and construction and thermal performance information is given for the materials used in collector components, storage components, and control components. Included are glazing materials, framing systems, caulking and sealants, concrete masonry, concrete, brick, shading, reflectors, and insulators. The Load Collector Ratio method for estimating passive system performance is appended, and other analysis methods are briefly summarized. (LEW)

  8. Passive solar heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiberg, K

    1981-11-10

    The present work treats the possibilities for heating according to the passive solar heating method. Problems of 'spatial organization in an energy-saving society' are distinguished from among other social problems. The final delimination of the actual problems under investigation consists of the use of passive solar heating and especially the 'consequences of such solar heating exploitation upon the form and structures' of planning and construction. In the concluding chapter an applied example shows how this method can be used in designing an urban area and what are its limitations. The results indicate the possibilities and difficulties in attempting to transfer this ideal and general method into models and directives for form and structure from which examples of the actual possibilities in practical planning can be given.

  9. Residential solar-heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Complete residential solar-heating and hot-water system, when installed in highly-insulated energy-saver home, can supply large percentage of total energy demand for space heating and domestic hot water. System which uses water-heating energy storage can be scaled to meet requirements of building in which it is installed.

  10. Passive-solar construction handbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levy, E.; Evans, D.; Gardstein, C.

    1981-02-01

    Many of the basic elements of passive solar design are reviewed. Passive solar construction is covered according to system type, each system type discussion including a general discussion of the important design and construction issues which apply to the particular system and case studies illustrating designed and built examples of the system type. The three basic types of passive solar systems discussed are direct gain, thermal storage wall, and attached sunspace. Thermal performance and construction information is presented for typical materials used in passive solar collector components, storage components, and control components. Appended are an overview of analysis methods and a technique for estimating performance. (LEW)

  11. Residential solar hot water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-06-01

    This report examines the feasibility of using solar energy to preheat domestic water coming from the city supply at a temperature of approximately 4{degree}C. Four solar collectors totalling 7 m{sup 2} were installed on a support structure facing south at an angle of 60{degree} from the horizontal. The system worked most efficiently in the spring and early summer when the combination of long hours of sunshine, clean air and clear skies allowed for maximum availability of solar radiation. Performance dropped in late summer and fall mainly due to cloudier weather conditions. The average temperature in the storage tank over the 10 months of operation was 42{degree}C, ranging from a high of 83{degree}C in July to a low of 6{degree}C in November. The system provided a total of 7.1 GJ, which is approximately one-third the annual requirement for domestic hot water heating. At the present time domestic use of solar energy to heat water does not appear to be economically viable. High capital costs are the main problem. As a solar system with present day technology can only be expected to meet half to two-thirds of the hot water energy demand the savings are not sufficient for the system to pay for itself within a few years. 5 figs.

  12. Protocol Monitoring Passive Solar Energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Ham, E.R.; Bosselaar, L.

    1998-01-01

    A method has been developed by means of which the contribution of passive solar energy to the Dutch energy balance can be quantified univocally. The contribution was 57 PJ in 1990 and also 57 PJ in 1995. The efficiency of passive solar energy systems increased from -31.5% to -28.1% in the period 1990-1995, mainly as a result of the use of extra insulating glazing. As a result of the reduction of energy consumption for heating in houses it is expected that the extra contribution of 2 PJ will not be realized in the year 2010. It is suggested that the method to determine the absolute contribution of passive solar energy to the energy demand of dwellings is to be included in the protocol monitoring renewable energy. For the method to be included in the energy statistics of Statistics Netherlands (CBS) it can be considered only to take into account the difference compared to 1990. 11 refs

  13. Passive solar offices: integrated design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, B

    1992-05-06

    Passive solar design in out-of-town offices can remove the need for air-conditioning by making greater use of daylight and natural ventilation. To promote the use of passive solar energy a series of design studies are being run by the Energy Technology Support Unit on behalf of the Department of Energy. The three reported here are designs for out-of-town business buildings. Each is a hypothetical building designed to a realistic brief for an organisation taking the role of real client. (author).

  14. Competitive solar heating systems for residential buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Thür, Alexander; Fiedler, Frank

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes the ongoing research project “Competitive solar heating systems for residential buildings”. The aim of the project is to develop competitive solar combisystems which are attractive to buyers. The solar combisystems must be attractive compared to traditional energy systems, both....... In Denmark and Norway the focus is on solar heating/natural gas systems, and in Sweden and Latvia the focus is on solar heating/pellet systems. Additionally, Lund Institute of Technology and University of Oslo are studying solar collectors of various types being integrated into the roof and facade......, are the universities: Technical University of Denmark, Dalarna University, University of Oslo, Riga Technical University and Lund Institute of Technology, as well as the companies: Metro Therm A/S (Denmark), Velux A/S (Denmark), Solentek AB (Sweden) and SolarNor (Norway). The project consists of a number of Ph...

  15. Deep influence of passive low energy consumption multi-storey residential building in cold region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Zhang; Lihua, Zhao; Rong, Jin; Dong, Junyan

    2018-02-01

    The example of passive architecture demonstration building in Jilin Province, China, based on the practical experience of this project, the control index of passive and low energy consumption residential buildings in cold and passive buildings is referenced by reference to the German construction standard and the Chinese residence construction document, “passive ultra-low energy consumption green Building Technology Guide (Trial)”. The requirement of passive low energy residential buildings on the ground heat transfer coefficient limits is determined, and the performance requirements of passive residential buildings are discussed. This paper analyzes the requirement of the passive low energy residential building on the ground heat transfer coefficient limit, and probes into the influence factors of the ground thermal insulation of the passive low energy consumption residential building. The construction method of passive low energy consumption residential building is proposed.

  16. Comprehensive Planning for Passive Solar Architectural Retrofit

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-05-01

    technical information, and the natural environ- ment. Since the Air Force Energy plan stresses Passive Solar (Architecture) before using Active Solar...retrofitted by-1990, and the Air Force Energy Plan stresses Passive Solar Applications. Bdcause of this requirement, you must consider the following retrofit...OF THI SUN AT NOON ON O CUMIN 21 EXAWMKU[ AT 3M. AN I S - W Figure 12-4 12-3 Skylight- use a reflector ,with horizontal skylights to ,iincrease solar

  17. Solar Energy Systems for Ohioan Residential Homeowners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckett, Rickey D.

    Dwindling nonrenewable energy resources and rising energy costs have forced the United States to develop alternative renewable energy sources. The United States' solar energy industry has seen an upsurge in recent years, and photovoltaic holds considerable promise as a renewable energy technology. The purpose of this case study was to explore homeowner's awareness of the benefits of solar energy. Disruptive-innovation theory was used to explore marketing strategies for conveying information to homeowners about access to new solar energy products and services. Twenty residential homeowners were interviewed face-to-face to explore (a) perceived benefits of solar energy in their county in Ohio, and (b) perceptions on the rationale behind the marketing strategy of solar energy systems sold for residential use. The study findings used inductive analyses and coding interpretation to explore the participants' responses that revealed 3 themes: the existence of environmental benefits for using solar energy systems, the expensive cost of equipment associated with government incentives, and the lack of marketing information that is available for consumer use. The implications for positive social change include the potential to enable corporate leaders, small business owners, and entrepreneurs to develop marketing strategies for renewable energy systems. These strategies may promote use of solar energy systems as a clean, renewable, and affordable alternative electricity energy source for the 21st century.

  18. Solar Photovoltaic Financing: Residential Sector Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, J.; Cory, K.

    2009-03-01

    This report presents the information that homeowners and policy makers need to facilitate PV financing at the residential level. The full range of cash payments, bill savings, and tax incentives is covered, as well as potentially available solar attribute payments. Traditional financing is also compared to innovative solutions, many of which are borrowed from the commercial sector. Together, these mechanisms are critical for making the economic case for a residential PV installation, given its high upfront costs. Unfortunately, these programs are presently limited to select locations around the country. By calling attention to these innovative initiatives, this report aims to help policy makers consider greater adoption of these models to benefit homeowners interested installing a residential PV system.

  19. Design and optimization of zero-energy-consumption based solar energy residential building systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, D. L.; Yu, L. J.; Tan, H. W.

    2017-11-01

    Energy consumption of residential buildings has grown fast in recent years, thus raising a challenge on zero energy residential building (ZERB) systems, which aim at substantially reducing energy consumption of residential buildings. Thus, how to facilitate ZERB has become a hot but difficult topic. In the paper, we put forward the overall design principle of ZERB based on analysis of the systems’ energy demand. In particular, the architecture for both schematic design and passive technology is optimized and both energy simulation analysis and energy balancing analysis are implemented, followed by committing the selection of high-efficiency appliance and renewable energy sources for ZERB residential building. In addition, Chinese classical residential building has been investigated in the proposed case, in which several critical aspects such as building optimization, passive design, PV panel and HVAC system integrated with solar water heater, Phase change materials, natural ventilation, etc., have been taken into consideration.

  20. Applicability research on passive design of residential buildings in hot summer and cold winter zone in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Huihui; Zhou, Xuan

    2017-04-01

    Passive design has long been a concern as an effective way of building energy efficiency. However, different urban climate characteristics determine the time-effectiveness of passive design. According to the climate characteristics of hot summer and cold winter zone in China, this research chose five cities, Shanghai, Wuhan, Chongqing, Nanjing and Changsha, to analyze their residential building energy consumption and thermal environment conditions. Based on Weather Tool calculation and analysis, the purpose of this research is to put forward the concept of Suitable Degree (SD), namely the applicability of the passive design. In addition, five cities’ SD of passive design technology had been analyzed from aspect of ventilation, temperature, solar radiation and envelope, then passive design strategies and methods of five cities’ residential building were discussed.

  1. Surface Passivation for Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deligiannis, D.

    2017-01-01

    Silicon heterojunction solar cells (SHJ) are currently one of the most promising solar cell technologies in the world. The SHJ solar cell is based on a crystalline silicon (c-Si) wafer, passivated on both sides with a thin intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) layer. Subsequently, p-type

  2. Results of the Washington Passive Solar Design/Build Competition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nylen, N.

    1981-01-01

    In an effort to encourage the design, construction, and marketing of moderately priced passive solar homes in Washington state, the Western Solar Utilization Network (Western SUN) recently sponsored the Washington Passive Solar Design/Build Competition. The competition drew an overwhelming response from designers and builders throughout Washington. Thermal performance of the designs was evaluated by a technical review committee, and final selections were made by the Competition Jury in accordance with the following criteria: perceived market acceptance, thermal performance, cost effectiveness, simplicity of design and operation, and completeness of the passive concept. Design contract awards totaling $50,000 were made available to winners in four categories, including single and multi-family, new and remodeled residences. In order to receive the award in its entirety, winning design/build teams are required to construct their design by April, 1983. As a result of the competition, a great deal was learned about the attitudes and knowledge of professionals and the general public regarding the use of solar energy in Washington state. Among the points that will be highlighted in this paper are the following: (1) a design/build competition is an effective vehicle for promoting solar energy among professionals in the housing community as well as the general public; (2) passive solar techniques can contribute significantly to the heating and cooling needs of residential housing throughout the state of Washington; (3) there is a great deal of interest and talent among the designers and builders of solar residences in Washington; and (4) follow-up activities, including the promotion of winning designs, the systematic collection of performance data, and identification of the major obstacles confronting designers and builders of solar homes, are critical to the success of the program in achieving both its short-term and long-term goals.

  3. Protocol Monitoring Passive Solar Energy. Background document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van den Ham, E.R.

    1998-01-01

    A method has been developed by means of which the contribution of passive solar energy to the Dutch energy balance can be quantified univocally. The monitoring will be directed at the absolute amount of used solar energy, the relative contribution of passive solar energy to the energy demand in the Netherlands, and the average efficiency of passive solar energy systems. Based on a model of the total building stock the quantities to be monitored can be determined. The most important parameters in the model are: the window surface per orientation, the average U-value (heat transfer coefficient) of windows, the average ZTA-value (incoming solar radiation factor) of windows, and the presence of sun lounges and atriums

  4. Passive and Hybrid Solar Energy Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-11-01

    The background and scope of the program is presented in general terms. The Program Plan is summarized describing how individual projects are categorized into mission-oriented tasks according to market sector categories. The individual projects funded by DOE are presented as follows: residential buildings, commercial buildings, solar products, solar cities and towns, and agricultural buildings. A summary list of projects by institution (contractors) and indexed by market application area is included. (MHR)

  5. Radiation resistant passivation of silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swanson, R.M.; Gan, J.Y.; Gruenbaum, P.E.

    1991-01-01

    This patent describes a silicon solar cell having improved stability when exposed to concentrated solar radiation. It comprises a body of silicon material having a major surface for receiving radiation, a plurality of p and n conductivity regions in the body for collecting electrons and holes created by impinging radiation, and a passivation layer on the major surface including a first layer of silicon oxide in contact with the body and a polycrystalline silicon layer on the first layer of silicon oxide

  6. Passivated emitters in silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    King, R.R.; Gruenbaum, P.E.; Sinton, R.A.; Swanson, R.M.

    1990-01-01

    In high-efficiency silicon solar cells with low metal contact coverage fractions and high bulk lifetimes, cell performance is often dominated by recombination in the oxide-passivated diffusions on the cell surface. Measurements of the emitter saturation current density, J o , of oxide-passivated, boron and phosphorus diffusions are presented, and from these measurements, the dependence of surface recombination velocity on dopant concentration was extracted. The lowest observed values of J o which are stable under UV light are given for both boron- and phosphorus-doped, oxide-passivated diffusions, for both textured and untextured surfaces. Contour plots which incorporate the above data have been applied to two types of backside-contact solar cells with large area (37.5 cm 2 ) and one-sun efficiencies up to 22.7%

  7. Passive solar energy information user study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belew, W.W.; Wood, B.L.; Marle, T.L.; Reinhardt, C.L.

    1980-11-01

    The results of a series of telephone interviews with groups of users of information on passive solar heating and cooling are described. These results, part of a larger study on many different solar technologies, identify types of information each group needed and the best ways to get information to each group. The overall study provides baseline data about information needs in the solar community. An earlier study identified the information user groups in the solar community and the priority (to accelerate solar energy commercialization) of getting information to each group. In the current study only high-priority groups were examined. Results from seven passive groups respondents are analyzed in this report: Federally Funded Researchers, Manufacturer Representatives, Architects, Builders, Educators, Cooperative Extension Service County Agents, and Homeowners. The data will be used as input to the determination of information products and services the Solar Energy Research Institute, the Solar Energy Information Data Bank Network, and the entire information outreach community should be preparing and disseminating.

  8. Solar passive buildings for developing countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, C.L.

    1993-01-01

    This paper is meant to be an indicative survey of developments in solar passive building technology relevant to developing countries. The evolution of this area during the last fifty years is reported along with the scientific principles and design concepts underlying these developments. Factors to be considered for design strategies such as direct gain, isolated gain, indirect gain and roof evaporative systems are then described. Rating parameters for assessing the performance and benefit and cost parameters are then outlined. Successful examples illustrating each of the design concepts, mainly from Indian buildings constructed during the last fifteen years, are then detailed along with their performance based on actual monitoring, if available. Concluding remarks indicate the current and future trends. A survey is made of papers marking significant milestones in the development of solar passive building technology relevant to developing countries. (author). 48 refs., 14 figs., 3 tabs

  9. Costs of Residential Solar PV Plants in Distribution Grid Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Søren Bækhøj; Yang, Guangya; Ipsen, Hans Henrik

    2015-01-01

    In this article we investigate the impact of residential solar PV plants on energy losses in distribution networks and their impact on distribution transformers lifetime. Current guidelines in Denmark states that distribution transformers should not be loaded with more than 67% solar PV power...

  10. Nanolayer surface passivation schemes for silicon solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dingemans, G.

    2011-01-01

    This thesis is concerned with nanolayer surface passivation schemes and corresponding deposition processes, for envisaged applications in crystalline silicon solar cells. Surface passivation, i.e. the reduction of electronic recombination processes at semiconductor surfaces, is essential for

  11. A passive solar heater-refrigerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Isep, F.; Sertorio, L.

    1983-01-01

    In this paper it is studied the nonequilibrium thermodynamic steady-state behaviour of a model system representing a core surrounded by an envelope in which the envelope interacts with the solar radiation and with an external bath having a given temperature profile. The heat flow between core and envelope can be controlled by varying the thermal conductivity of their interface. It is shown that this system acts as a passive heat pump raising the core average temperature with respect to the average equilibrium value corresponding to a fixed value of the interface conductivity, at the same time flattening its oscillation in time. By changing the time dependence of the conductivity the system vice versa acts as a refrigerator. It is shown how the limits of this performance depend on the passive parameters such as surfaces, conductivities, heat capacities. The periodicity considered in this study is the daily cycle

  12. Approach to interior design for passive direct gain solar homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachadorian, C.C.

    1980-01-01

    In response to requests from buyers and builders of direct gain passive solar homes interior design criteria either specific to, or emphasized by, passive solar buildings are investigated. Problems of high sunlight penetration, secondary illumination, material selection, sound control and psychology are approached. Material deterioration, fading, glare, noise, and a sense of spacial confinement can be minimized, contributing to the appeal and saleability of passive solar homes.

  13. Passive-solar: lessons from the past

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, R.

    The article reports on a research project conducted in Tunisia, in which ancient underground Roman homes in Bulla Reggia and similar inhabited Berber homes in Matmata were studied. Data were gathered on the passive-solar gain, compass orientations, and room measurements of the homes, and on natural lighting techniques, ventilation systems, earth-sheltered construction methods, cooling concepts, and domestic water collection systems used for these ancient dwellings. In addition, numerous sun-facing hill towns, cliff dwellings, and underground villages in Italy, France, and Spain were visited, with data recorded on window, shutter, and vent details, vegetation for climate control, and design concepts for climate-responsive town planning.

  14. Hydrogen passivation of silicon sheet solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuo, Y.S.; Milstein, J.B.

    1984-01-01

    Significant improvements in the efficiencies of dendritic web and edge-supported-pulling silicon sheet solar cells have been obtained after hydrogen ion beam passivation for a period of ten minutes or less. We have studied the effects of the hydrogen ion beam treatment with respect to silicon material damage, silicon sputter rate, introduction of impurities, and changes in reflectance. The silicon sputter rate for constant ion beam flux of 0.60 +- 0.05 mA/cm 2 exhibits a maximum at approximately 1400-eV ion beam energy

  15. Actual performance and economic feasibility of residential solar water heaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anhalt, J.

    1987-01-01

    Four residential solar water heaters currently available on the Brazilian market have been evaluated to their possible use for substituting the common electric shower head. The tests were carried out with the solar systems mounted side by side on an artificial roof. The hot water demand was simulated following a consumer profile which represents a Brazilian family with an income of seven minimum salaries. The data, which was collected automatically and presented in the form of graphs and tables, shows that an optimized solar water heater could save as much as 65% of the energy demand for residential water heating in the state of Sao Paulo. An economical study concludes that the installation and maintenance of such a solar system is feasible if long term financing is available. (author)

  16. Energy Conservation and Passive Solar Techniques in Campus Renovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Probasco, Jack; And Others

    1981-01-01

    The analysis of a building from an energy conservation and passive solar potential has three aspects: building envelope, landscaping, and room utilization. Typical conservation and solar control modifications are listed. (Author/MLF)

  17. Residential Solar Design Review: A Manual on Community Architectural Controls and Solar Energy Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffe, Martin; Erley, Duncan

    Presented are architectural design issues associated with solar energy use, and procedures for design review committees to consider in examining residential solar installation in light of existing aesthetic goals for their communities. Recommended design review criteria include the type of solar system being used and the ways in which the system…

  18. Solar '95: Proceedings of the 20. national passive solar conference. Volume 20

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Campbell-Howe, R.; Wilkins-Crowder, B.

    1995-01-01

    This book contains the proceedings of the 20th National Passive Solar Conference, 1995, of the American Solar Energy Society. The topics of the papers include historical aspects of solar energy, daylighting, examination of passive system designs, sustainability concepts, building components, building design, application of solar architecture, case studies, education, and design tools

  19. Impact of Rooftop Solar PV on Residential Distribution Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    Increased environmental awareness in recent years has encouraged rapid growth of renewable energy sources especially solar PV and wind. Among them, small scale solar PV has been gaining more momentum especially at residential level. Even today moderate penetration of grid tied rooftop solar PV has...... become reality in many countries. In spite of various benefits, higher penetration of rooftop PVs might come up with number of detrimental effects, with power quality and overcurrent protection being the major ones. Therefore, it is reasonable to quantify both drawback and benefits of rooftop PV...

  20. On the Modern History of Passive Solar Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marsh, Rob

    2017-01-01

    This article examines the paradox of passive solar architecture within the Nordic context of Denmark, Norway and Sweden. Regulative developments to reduce space heating demand since the 1970s oil crisis are explored, highlighting architectural responses and the rise in prom-inence of passive solar...... design. An empirical study of passive solar housing schemes docu-ments architectural strategy, energy savings and extensive problems with overheating. A theo-retical study examines how passive solar was seen as advantageous when viewed with the 1985-2005 space heating paradigm, but actually resulted...... of Nordic modernism meant that passive solar architecture became the de-facto visual, aesthetic and functional expression of environmental design at that time. The article concludes by explor-ing the implications of the environmental paradigm for the architectural profession. By positing the architectural...

  1. Passive and hybrid solar technologies program summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-05-01

    The goal of the national energy policy is to foster an adequate supply of energy at reasonable prices. This policy recognizes that adequate supply requires flexibility, with no undue reliance on any single source of supply. The goal of reasonable prices suggests economic efficiency so that consumers, individuals, commercial and industrial users alike, are not penalized by government regulation or subside. The strategies for achieving this energy policy goal are: (1) to minimize federal regulation in energy pricing while maintaining public health and safety and environmental quality, and (2) to promote a balanced and mixed energy resource system through research and development. One of the keys to energy sufficiently is the scientific application of passive solar energy techniques.

  2. Thermal analysis and design of passive solar buildings

    CERN Document Server

    Athienitis, AK

    2013-01-01

    Passive solar design techniques are becoming increasingly important in building design. This design reference book takes the building engineer or physicist step-by-step through the thermal analysis and design of passive solar buildings. In particular it emphasises two important topics: the maximum utilization of available solar energy and thermal storage, and the sizing of an appropriate auxiliary heating/cooling system in conjunction with good thermal control.Thermal Analysis and Design of Passive Solar Buildings is an important contribution towards the optimization of buildings as systems th

  3. Passive solar ranch house for the mass market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albanes, M.N.

    1981-01-01

    To promote the building of passive solar housing in the Denver metropolitan area, a solar ranch style house was designed for a builder, Unique Homes, as part of a group of thirteen passive solar houses built for the mass market under SERI's Denver Metro Home Builders Program. The project, process of design, thermal performance analysis, cost and consumer/media response are reviewed. The final design was a direct gain, attached greenhouse system that used brick as interior mass.

  4. The value of price transparency in residential solar photovoltaic markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O’Shaughnessy, Eric; Margolis, Robert

    2018-06-01

    Installed prices for residential solar photovoltaic (PV) systems have declined significantly in recent years. However price dispersion and limited customer access to PV quotes prevents some prospective customers from obtaining low price offers. This study shows that improved customer access to prices - also known as price transparency - is a potential policy lever for further PV price reductions. We use customer search and strategic pricing theory to show that PV installation companies face incentives to offer lower prices in markets with more price transparency. We test this theoretical framework using a unique residential PV quote dataset. Our results show that installers offer lower prices to customers that are expected to receive more quotes. Our study provides a rationale for policies to improve price transparency in residential PV markets.

  5. Development of a solar-powered residential air conditioner

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The initial objective of the program was the optimization (in terms of cost and performance) of a Rankine cycle mechanical refrigeration system which utilizes thermal energy from a flat solar collector for air conditioning residential buildings. However, feasibility investigations of the adsorption process revealed that a dessicant-type air conditioner offers many significant advantages. As a result, limited efforts were expended toward the optimization of such a system.

  6. Comparative economic performance of selected passive solar heating and cooling technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, W.

    1981-05-01

    The economic performance of selected passive solar heating and cooling technologies which incorporate energy storage is assessed by using a set of uniform assumptions and methodologies. Where data are available, a given system is assessed at more than one geographical location. Results are obtained in the form of both payback period and net present value for residential applications, and in terms of net present value only for industrial/commercial uses. Results indicate that ventilated trombe walls, solar roof ponds, and certain night effect/floor storage strategies are cost effective, but night effect/rock bed cooling is not. Results also show that, although direct gain out-performs trombe walls in most parts of the country, both direct gain and trombe walls usually produce a net savings in the residential sector. Generally, however, tax regulations result in net economic loss for direct gain and trombe walls used to heat industrial and commercial buildings.

  7. THE USE OF PASSIVE SOLAR HEATING SYSTEMS AS PART OF THE PASSIVE HOUSE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryzgalin Vladislav Viktorovich

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Subject: systems of passive solar heating, which can, without the use of engineering equipment, capture and accumulate the solar heat used for heating buildings. Research objectives: study of the possibility to reach the passive house standard (buildings with near zero energy consumption for heating in climatic conditions of Russia using the systems of passive solar heating in combination with other solutions for reduction of energy costs of building developed in the past. Materials and methods: search and analysis of literature, containing descriptions of various passive solar heating systems, examples of their use in different climatic conditions and the resulting effect obtained from their use; analysis of thermophysical processes occurring in these systems. Results: we revealed the potential of using the solar heating systems in the climatic conditions of parts of the territories of the Russian Federation, identified the possibility of cheaper construction by the passive house standard with the use of these systems. Conclusions: more detailed analysis of thermophysical and other processes that take place in passive solar heating systems is required for creation of their computational models, which will allow us to more accurately predict their effectiveness and seek the most cost-effective design solutions, and include them in the list of means for achieving the passive house standard.

  8. Solar Adoption and Energy Consumption in the Residential Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAllister, Joseph Andrew

    This dissertation analyzes the energy consumption behavior of residential adopters of solar photovoltaic systems (solar-PV). Based on large data sets from the San Diego region that have been assembled or otherwise acquired by the author, the dissertation quantifies changes in energy consumption after solar-PV installation and determines whether certain household characteristics are correlated with such changes. In doing so, it seeks to answer two related questions: First, "Do residential solar adopters increase or decrease their electricity consumption after they install a solar-PV system?" Assuming that certain categories of residential adopters increase and others decrease, the second question is "Which residential adopters increase and which decrease their consumption and why?" The database that was used to conduct this analysis includes information about 5,243 residential systems in San Diego Gas & Electric's (SDG&E) service territory installed between January 2007 and December 2010. San Diego is a national leader in the installation of small-scale solar-electric systems, with over 12,000 systems in the region installed as of January 2012, or around 14% of the total number installed in California. The author performed detailed characterization of a significant subset of the solar installations in the San Diego region. Assembled data included technical and economic characteristics of the systems themselves; the solar companies that sold and installed them; individual customer electric utility billing data; metered PV production data for a subgroup of these solar systems; and data about the properties where the systems are located. Primarily, the author was able to conduct an electricity consumption analysis at the individual household level for 2,410 PV systems installed in SDG&E service territory between January 2007 and December 2010. This analysis was designed to detect changes in electricity consumption from the pre-solar to the post-installation period. To

  9. Window structure for passivating solar cells based on gallium arsenide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Allen M. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    Passivated gallium arsenide solar photovoltaic cells with high resistance to moisture and oxygen are provided by means of a gallium arsenide phosphide window graded through its thickness from arsenic rich to phosphorus rich.

  10. Evaluation of Factors that Influence Residential Solar Panel Installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morton, April M. [ORNL; Omitaomu, Olufemi A. [ORNL; Kotikot, Susan M. [ORNL; Held, Elizabeth L. [ORNL; Bhaduri, Budhendra L. [ORNL

    2018-03-01

    Though rooftop photovoltaic (PV) systems are the fastest growing source of distributed generation, detailed information about where they are located and who their owners are is often known only to installers and utility companies. This lack of detailed information is a barrier to policy and financial assessment of solar energy generation and use. To bridge the described data gap, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) was sponsored by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Energy Policy and Systems Analysis (EPSA) to create an automated approach for detecting and characterizing buildings with installed solar panels using high-resolution overhead imagery. Additionally, ORNL was tasked with using machine learning techniques to classify parcels on which solar panels were automatically detected in the Washington, DC, and Boston areas as commercial or residential, and then providing a list of recommended variables and modeling techniques that could be combined with these results to identify attributes that motivate the installation of residential solar panels. This technical report describes the methodology, results, and recommendations in greater detail, including lessons learned and future work.

  11. Using passive cooling strategies to improve thermal performance and reduce energy consumption of residential buildings in U.A.E. buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan M. Taleb

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Passive design responds to local climate and site conditions in order to maximise the comfort and health of building users while minimising energy use. The key to designing a passive building is to take best advantage of the local climate. Passive cooling refers to any technologies or design features adopted to reduce the temperature of buildings without the need for power consumption. Consequently, the aim of this study is to test the usefulness of applying selected passive cooling strategies to improve thermal performance and to reduce energy consumption of residential buildings in hot arid climate settings, namely Dubai, United Arab Emirates. One case building was selected and eight passive cooling strategies were applied. Energy simulation software – namely IES – was used to assess the performance of the building. Solar shading performance was also assessed using Sun Cast Analysis, as a part of the IES software. Energy reduction was achieved due to both the harnessing of natural ventilation and the minimising of heat gain in line with applying good shading devices alongside the use of double glazing. Additionally, green roofing proved its potential by acting as an effective roof insulation. The study revealed several significant findings including that the total annual energy consumption of a residential building in Dubai may be reduced by up to 23.6% when a building uses passive cooling strategies.

  12. Using a Ventilation Controller to Optimize Residential Passive Ventilation For Energy and Indoor Air Quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, William [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-08-01

    One way to reduce the energy impact of providing residential ventilation is to use passive and hybrid systems. However, these passive and hybrid (sometimes called mixed-mode) systems must still meet chronic and acute health standards for ventilation. This study uses a computer simulation approach to examine the energy and indoor air quality (IAQ) implications of passive and hybrid ventilation systems, in 16 California climate zones. Both uncontrolled and flow controlled passive stacks are assessed. A new hybrid ventilation system is outlined that uses an intelligent ventilation controller to minimise energy use, while ensuring chronic and acute IAQ standards are met. ASHRAE Standard 62.2-2010 – the United States standard for residential ventilation - is used as the chronic standard, and exposure limits for PM2.5, formaldehyde and NO2 are used as the acute standards.The results show that controlled passive ventilation and hybrid ventilation can be used in homes to provide equivalent IAQ to continuous mechanical ventilation, for less use of energy.

  13. Past, present and future of passive homes in solar village 3, Athens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalogridis, Achilles

    Solar village 3 in Pefki, Athens, was part of an ambitious program for the promotion of solar technology, applied to a large scale social housing scheme, designed in mid 80's and firstly inhabited in the early 1990's. Among the aims of the project was the demonstration of the latest of technology in active solar systems and passive techniques, incorporated in a new settlement's layout and houses' building envelop, in order to create an energy saving, comfortable environment. More than fifteen years later, the housing complex remains the largest residential development of bioclimatic "solar" architecture in Athens, with the active and passive solar systems providing space and water heating for about 1750 inhabitants. The study focuses in the passive solar systems that have been applied to a number of the buildings of the settlement. The systems provide space heating with no need of any active mechanism, however with demand of the participation of the end users for their proper operation. The essay reviews various previous studies, monitoring reports and criticisms that have appeared throughout the past years, and identifies how the houses perform today, through a recent survey, sample monitoring and thermal comfort simulation. The report records things that have changed, features which worked well or others that did not and comments on the residents' behaviour. Interesting findings come into question, regarding the passive solar systems, their integration into the building's design, their current condition and their contribution to energy savings and thermal comfort conditions. Finally, current plans concerning the future of the settlement are highlighted, and considerations about the houses sustainability are suggested.

  14. Profitability of Residential Battery Energy Storage Combined with Solar Photovoltaics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christoph Goebel

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Lithium-ion (Li-Ion batteries are increasingly being considered as bulk energy storage in grid applications. One such application is residential energy storage combined with solar photovoltaic (PV panels to enable higher self-consumption rates, which has become financially more attractive recently due to decreasing feed-in subsidies. Although residential energy storage solutions are commercially mature, it remains unclear which system configurations and circumstances, including aggregator-based applications such as the provision of ancillary services, lead to profitable consumer investments. Therefore, we conduct an extensive simulation study that is able to jointly capture these aspects. Our results show that, at current battery module prices, even optimal system configurations still do not lead to profitable investments into Li-Ion batteries if they are merely used as a buffer for solar energy. The first settings in which they will become profitable, as prices are further declining, will be larger households at locations with higher average levels of solar irradiance. If the batteries can be remote-controlled by an aggregator to provide overnight negative reserve, their profitability increases significantly.

  15. Solar access of residential rooftops in four California cities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levinson, Ronnen; Akbari, Hashem; Pomerantz, Melvin

    2010-05-14

    Shadows cast by trees and buildings can limit the solar access of rooftop solar-energy systems, including photovoltaic panels and thermal collectors. This study characterizes residential rooftop shading in Sacramento, San Jose, Los Angeles and San Diego, CA. Our analysis can be used to better estimate power production and/or thermal collection by rooftop solar-energy equipment. It can also be considered when designing programs to plant shade trees. High-resolution orthophotos and LiDAR (Light Detection And Ranging) measurements of surface height were used to create a digital elevation model of all trees and buildings in a well-treed 2.5-4 km{sup 2} residential neighborhood. On-hour shading of roofing planes (the flat elements of roofs) was computed geometrically from the digital elevation model. Values in future years were determined by repeating these calculations after simulating tree growth. Parcel boundaries were used to determine the extent to which roofing planes were shaded by trees and buildings in neighboring parcels. For the subset of S+SW+W-facing planes on which solar equipment is commonly installed for maximum solar access, absolute light loss in spring, summer and fall peaked about two to four hours after sunrise and about two to four hours before sunset. The fraction of annual insolation lost to shading increased from 0.07-0.08 in the year of surface-height measurement to 0.11-0.14 after 30 years of tree growth. Only about 10% of this loss results from shading by trees and buildings in neighboring parcels.

  16. Integration of Solar Photovoltaics and Electric Vehicles in Residential Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Huang, Shaojun; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    In the last few years, there is an increased penetration of solar photovoltaic (SPV) units in low voltage (LV) distribution grids. Also electric vehicles (EVs) are introduced to these LV networks. This has caused the distribution networks to be more active and complex as these local generation...... and load units are characterised by unpredictable and diverse operating characteristics. This paper analyses the combined effect of SPVs and EVs in LV Danish residential grids. The EVs charging needs based on typical driving patterns of passenger cars and SPV power profiles during winter/summer days...

  17. Hydrogen passivation of multi-crystalline silicon solar cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡志华; 廖显伯; 刘祖明; 夏朝凤; 陈庭金

    2003-01-01

    The effects of hydrogen passivation on multi-crystalline silicon (mc-Si) solar cells are reported in this paper.Hydrogen plasma was generated by means of ac glow discharge in a hydrogen atmosphere. Hydrogen passivation was carried out with three different groups of mc-Si solar cells after finishing contacts. The experimental results demonstrated that the photovoltaic performances of the solar cell samples have been improved after hydrogen plasma treatment, with a relative increase in conversion efficiency up to 10.6%. A calculation modelling has been performed to interpret the experimental results using the model for analysis of microelectronic and photonic structures developed at Pennsylvania State University.

  18. Passive Solar Construction--Design and Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    Presented is a list of books and reports intended to serve as technical sources of information for the building professional interested in energy conservation. These publications are grouped under these headings: (1) energy-conserving building design; (2) passive systems/design; (3) passive systems/performance; and (4) proceedings (of the American…

  19. Cheap type solar bioclimatic individual houses for residential areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailescu Teofil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Romanian architectural practice for individual houses in residential areas, designing the architectural object in order to function together with the nature is neglected in the majority of the situations. This happens despite of a great variety of the solar bioclimatic solutions materialized in the traditional houses of all the Romanian geographical regions in a history of over 2000 years of traditional architecture. Unfortunately, in the local real estate realities, other choices are preferred in instead those of the solar bioclimatic architecture. The approach starts with a historical approach, analyzing several examples of traditional houses from all the regions of Romania, in order to identify the traditional bioclimatic solutions used to better adapt to the environment. This constitutes the source of inspiration for the modern cheap type solar bioclimatic houses presented. But a way of thinking should be changed for it, with the help of the Romanian state transformed in financial and legislative realities. These cheap type solar bioclimatic individual houses are destined for the middle class families and involve minimum costs for building and living, creating the best premises to efficiently use one or all of the complementary systems for producing, storage and/or transforming the energy from the environment (using solar, wind, water and/or earth energy.

  20. Solar Heating and Cooling of Residential Buildings: Sizing, Installation and Operation of Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins. Solar Energy Applications Lab.

    This training course and a companion course titled "Design of Systems for Solar Heating and Cooling of Residential Buildings," are designed to train home designers and builders in the fundamentals of solar hydronic and air systems for space heating and cooling and domestic hot water heating for residential buildings. Each course, organized in 22…

  1. Development of climatic zones and passive solar design in Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakoto-Joseph, O.; Garde, F.; David, M.; Adelard, L.; Randriamanantany, Z.A.

    2009-01-01

    Climate classification is extremely useful to design buildings for thermal comfort purposes. This paper presents the first work for a climate classification of Madagascar Island. This classification is based on the meteorological data measured in different cities of this country. Three major climatic zones are identified. Psychometric charts for the six urban areas of Madagascar are proposed, and suited passive solar designs related to each climate are briefly discussed. Finally, a total of three passive design zones have been identified and appropriate design strategies such as solar heating, natural ventilation, thermal mass are suggested for each zone. The specificity of this work is that: it is the first published survey on the climate classification and the passive solar designs for this developing country

  2. Carrier population control and surface passivation in solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Cuevas, Andres

    2018-05-02

    Controlling the concentration of charge carriers near the surface is essential for solar cells. It permits to form regions with selective conductivity for either electrons or holes and it also helps to reduce the rate at which they recombine. Chemical passivation of the surfaces is equally important, and it can be combined with population control to implement carrier-selective, passivating contacts for solar cells. This paper discusses different approaches to suppress surface recombination and to manipulate the concentration of carriers by means of doping, work function and charge. It also describes some of the many surface-passivating contacts that are being developed for silicon solar cells, restricted to experiments performed by the authors.

  3. Enhanced Charge Collection with Passivation Layers in Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Hui; Luo, Jingshan; Son, Min-Kyu; Gao, Peng; Cho, Kyung Taek; Seo, Jiyoun; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M; Grätzel, Michael; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja

    2016-05-01

    The Al2 O3 passivation layer is beneficial for mesoporous TiO2 -based perovskite solar cells when it is deposited selectively on the compact TiO2 surface. Such a passivation layer suppressing surface recombination can be formed by thermal decomposition of the perovskite layer during post-annealing. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Passive Solar still: Recent advancement in design and related Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awasthi, Anuradha; Kumari, Kanchan; Panchal, Hitesh; Sathyamurthy, Ravishankar

    2018-05-31

    Present review paper mainly focuses on different varieties of solar stills and highlights mostly the passive solar still with advanced modifications in the design and development of material, single and multi-effect solar still with augmentation of different materials, energy absorbing, insulators, mechanisms of heat and mass transfer to improve the loss of heat and enhance the productivity of solar still. The cost-benefit analysis along with the progressive advancement for solar stills is the major highlights of this review. To increase the output of solar still nowadays, applications of advance modifications is one of the promising tools, and it is anticipated that shortly more vigor will be added in this area with the modifications in designs of solar stills.

  5. Progress in passive solar energy systems. Volume 8. Part 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, J.; Andrejko, D.A.

    1983-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference sponsored by the US DOE, the Solar Energy Research Institute, SolarVision, Inc., and the Southern California Solar Energy Society. The topics considered at the conference included sizing solar energy systems for agricultural applications, a farm scale ethanol production plant, the EEC wind energy RandD program, the passive solar performance assessment of an earth-sheltered house, the ARCO 1 MW photovoltaic power plant, the performance of a dendritic web photovoltaic module, second generation point focused concentrators, linear fresnel lens concentrating photovoltaic collectors, photovoltaic conversion efficiency, amorphous silicon thin film solar cells, a photovoltaic system for a shopping center, photovoltaic power generation for the utility industry, spectral solar radiation, and the analysis of insolation data.

  6. Using Machine Learning and Data Analysis to Improve Customer Acquisition and Marketing in Residential Solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sigrin, Benjamin O [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-10-18

    High customer acquisition costs remain a persistent challenge in the U.S. residential solar industry. Effective customer acquisition in the residential solar market is increasingly achieved with the help of data analysis and machine learning, whether that means more targeted advertising, understanding customer motivations, or responding to competitors. New research by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Sandia National Laboratories, Vanderbilt University, University of Pennsylvania, and the California Center for Sustainable Energy and funded through the U.S. Department of Energy's Solar Energy Evolution and Diffusion (SEEDS) program demonstrates novel computational methods that can help drive down costs in the residential solar industry.

  7. Passivation Using Molecular Halides Increases Quantum Dot Solar Cell Performance

    KAUST Repository

    Lan, Xinzheng; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Kiani, Amirreza; Garcí a de Arquer, F. Pelayo; Abbas, Abdullah Saud; Kim, Gi-Hwan; Liu, Mengxia; Yang, Zhenyu; Walters, Grant; Xu, Jixian; Yuan, Mingjian; Ning, Zhijun; Fan, Fengjia; Kanjanaboos, Pongsakorn; Kramer, Illan; Zhitomirsky, David; Lee, Philip; Perelgut, Alexander; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Sargent, Edward H.

    2015-01-01

    © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Here we report a solution-based passivation scheme is developed featuring the use of molecular iodine and PbS colloidal quantum dots (CQDs). The improved passivation translates into a longer carrier diffusion length in the solid film. This allows thicker solar-cell devices to be built while preserving efficient charge collection, leading to a certified power conversion efficiency of 9.9%, which is a new record in CQD solar cells.

  8. Passivation Using Molecular Halides Increases Quantum Dot Solar Cell Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Xinzheng; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Kiani, Amirreza; García de Arquer, F Pelayo; Abbas, Abdullah Saud; Kim, Gi-Hwan; Liu, Mengxia; Yang, Zhenyu; Walters, Grant; Xu, Jixian; Yuan, Mingjian; Ning, Zhijun; Fan, Fengjia; Kanjanaboos, Pongsakorn; Kramer, Illan; Zhitomirsky, David; Lee, Philip; Perelgut, Alexander; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Sargent, Edward H

    2016-01-13

    A solution-based passivation scheme is developed featuring the use of molecular iodine and PbS colloidal quantum dots (CQDs). The improved passivation translates into a longer carrier diffusion length in the solid film. This allows thicker solar-cell devices to be built while preserving efficient charge collection, leading to a certified power conversion efficiency of 9.9%, which is a new record in CQD solar cells. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Passivation Using Molecular Halides Increases Quantum Dot Solar Cell Performance

    KAUST Repository

    Lan, Xinzheng

    2015-11-18

    © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim. Here we report a solution-based passivation scheme is developed featuring the use of molecular iodine and PbS colloidal quantum dots (CQDs). The improved passivation translates into a longer carrier diffusion length in the solid film. This allows thicker solar-cell devices to be built while preserving efficient charge collection, leading to a certified power conversion efficiency of 9.9%, which is a new record in CQD solar cells.

  10. Application of various surface passivation layers in solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ji Youn; Lee, Soo Hong

    2004-01-01

    In this work, we have used different techniques for surface passivation: conventional thermal oxidation (CTO), rapid thermal oxidation (RTO), and plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD). The surface passivation qualities of eight different single and combined double layers have been investigated both on phosphorus non-diffused p-type Float Zone (FZ) silicon wafers and on diffused emitters (100 Ω/□ and 40 Ω/□). CTO/SiN 1 passivates very well not only on a non-diffused surface (τ eff = 1361 μs) but also on an emitter (τ eff = 414 μs). However, we concluded that RTO/SiN 1 and RTO/SiN 2 stacks were more suitable than CTO/SiN stacks for surface passivation in solar cells since those stacks had relatively good passivation qualities and suitable optical reflections. RTO/SiN 1 for rear-surface passivation and RTO/SiN 2 for front-surface passivation were applied to the fabrication of solar cells. We achieved efficiencies of 18.5 % and 18.8 % on 0.5 Ω-cm (FZ) silicon with planar and textured front surfaces, respectively. An excellent open circuit voltage (V oc ) of 675.6 mV was obtained for the planar cell.

  11. Development of a solar powered residential air conditioner (General optimization)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowen, D. J.

    1976-01-01

    A commercially available 3-ton residential Lithium Bromide (LiBr) absorption air conditioner was modified for use with lower temperature solar heated water. The modification included removal of components such as the generator, concentration control chamber, liquid trap, and separator; and the addition of a Chrysler designed generator, an off-the-shelf LiBr-solution pump. The design goal of the modified unit was to operate with water as the heat-transfer fluid at a target temperature of 85 C (185 F), 29.4 C (85 F) cooling water inlet, producing 10.5 kW (3 tons) of cooling. Tests were performed on the system before and after modification to provide comparative data. At elevated temperatures (96 C, 205 F), the test results show that Lithium Bromide was carried into the condenser due to the extremely violent boiling and degraded the evaporator performance.

  12. Solar photovoltaic/thermal residential experiment. Phase I. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darkazalli, G.

    1980-07-01

    Month-by-month energy transfer data between an occupied residence and its energy supply systems are presented. The data were obtained during the first phase of photovoltaic/thermal residential research conducted at the University of Texas at Arlington/Solar Energy Research Facility. This research was part of the US Department of Energy Photovoltaic/Thermal Project managed by the M.I.T. Lincoln Laboratory. Energy transfer data are divided into different categories depending on how the energy is consumed. Energy transfers between some system components are also categorized. These components include a flat-plate thermal collector array, a flat-plate photovoltaic array, a dc-to-ac inverter, thermal storage tanks, and a series heat pump. System operations included directing surplus electrical energy (generated by the photovoltaic array) into the local utility grid. The heat pump used off-peak utility power to chill water during the cooling season.

  13. Hydrogen passivation of polycrystalline Si thin film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorka, Benjamin

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen passivation is a key process step in the fabrication of polycrystalline Si (poly-Si) thin film solar cells. In this work a parallel plate rf plasma setup was used for the hydrogen passivation treatment. The main topics that have been investigated are (i) the role of plasma parameters (like hydrogen pressure, electrode gap and plasma power), (ii) the dynamics of the hydrogen treatment and (iii) passivation of poly-Si with different material properties. Passivation was characterized by measuring the open-circuit voltage V OC of poly-Si reference samples. Optimum passivation conditions were found by measurements of the breakdown voltage V brk of the plasma for different pressures p and electrode gaps d. For each pressure, the best passivation was achieved at a gap d that corresponded to the minimum in V brk . Plasma simulations were carried out, which indicate that best V OC corresponds to a minimum in ion energy. V OC was not improved by a larger H flux. Investigations of the passivation dynamic showed that a plasma treatment in the lower temperature range (≤400 C) is slow and takes several hours for the V OC to saturate. Fast passivation can be successfully achieved at elevated temperatures around 500 C to 600 C with a plateau time of 10 min. It was found that prolonged hydrogenation leads to a loss in V OC , which is less pronounced within the observed optimum temperature range (500 C-600 C). Electron beam evaporation has been investigated as an alternative method to fabricate poly-Si absorbers. The material properties have been tuned by alteration of substrate temperature T dep =200-700 C and were characterized by Raman, ESR and V OC measurements. Largest grains were obtained after solid phase crystallization (SPC) of a-Si, deposited in the temperature range of 300 C. The defect concentration of Si dangling bonds was lowered by passivation by about one order of magnitude. The lowest dangling bond concentration of 2.5.10 16 cm -3 after passivation was

  14. Energy savings solutions: passive solar design in Iranian cold climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nassehzadeh Tabriz, Shahram [Department of Architecture, Miyaneh Branch, Islamic Azad University (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], email: sh_nassehzadeh@m-iau.ac.ir; Mahdavi Tabatabaei Fard, Fariborz [SABAT TARH CO. (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], email: sabat_arc@yahoo.com; Aliyev, Fagan [International Eco-energy Academy (Azerbaijan)], email: ie_academy@yahoo.com

    2011-07-01

    In recent years, there has been a significant increase in the cost of fuel gas, fuel oil and electricity and much thought has been given to the use of solar energy. Living in a solar heated house gives peace of mind and body and it makes good sense in mountainous regions. Severe winters in such regions make more energy for standard living activities in buildings necessary. This paper discusses passive solar building design as an energy saving solution. In this type of design, windows, walls and floors act as storage and distribution devices for solar energy in winter and deflect solar heat in summer. Passive solar design techniques influence the choice of building site, design and materials within the general framework of enriching the quality of life of the inhabitants. As a result, natural resources are saved and the environment is conserved for future generations. In conclusion, it is seen that passive design keeps a home cool and comfortable in summer and warm and cozy in winter with minimal heating and cooling requirements.

  15. Effect of passive cooling strategies on overheating in low energy residential buildings for Danish climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Avantaggiato, Marta; de Carli, Michele

    2014-01-01

    creating not negligible thermal discomfort. In the present work the effect of passive strategies, such as solar shading and natural night-time ventilation, are evaluated through computer simulations. The analyses are performed for 1½-storey single-family house in Copenhagen’s climate. The main result......Climate changes have progressively produced an increase of outdoors temperature resulting in tangible warmer summers even in cold climate regions. An increased interest for passive cooling strategies is rising in order to overcome the newly low energy buildings’ overheating issue. The growing level...

  16. Critical analysis about solutions and models of solar shades in non-residential buildings from tropical regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañon, J A B; Caldeira, L F D; Gervásio, M F; Brum, F M

    2012-01-01

    Whereas the non-residential buildings consume a significant percentage of the total energy produced by the city, is important that these buildings have for such consumption is reduced or consumed in a conscious way. To do so, using concepts of energy efficiency, this work is to explain passive strategies with the use of flexible solar shades that help to get a favorable outcome with respect to the performance of the building right in the initial stages of planning and design. Once initial gains can be obtained and the architecture constants that value at the same time provide better working conditions and indoor comfort.

  17. evaluation of a modified passive solar housing system for poultry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    The hourly efficiency of the solar brick passive system was estimated at about 78.42% in a day of May and ... to high cost and unavailability of kerosene in most developing .... sulted in intermittent rainfall, cloud cover and sunshine. From the ...

  18. Passive solar energy-efficient architectural building Design ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper analyses have been done on the climate data for various climatic regions in North Cyprus to obtain physical architectural building design specification with a view to develop passive solar energy-efficient building. It utilizes a computer program, ARCHIPAK, together with climate data (for 25 year period) to get ...

  19. Surface Passivation of CIGS Solar Cells Using Gallium Oxide

    KAUST Repository

    Garud, Siddhartha

    2018-02-27

    This work proposes gallium oxide grown by plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition, as a surface passivation material at the CdS buffer interface of Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS) solar cells. In preliminary experiments, a metal-insulator-semiconductor (MIS) structure is used to compare aluminium oxide, gallium oxide, and hafnium oxide as passivation layers at the CIGS-CdS interface. The findings suggest that gallium oxide on CIGS may show a density of positive charges and qualitatively, the least interface trap density. Subsequent solar cell results with an estimated 0.5 nm passivation layer show an substantial absolute improvement of 56 mV in open-circuit voltage (VOC), 1 mA cm−2 in short-circuit current density (JSC), and 2.6% in overall efficiency as compared to a reference (with the reference showing 8.5% under AM 1.5G).

  20. Proceedings of the 18th national passive solar conference. Volume 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burley, S.; Arden, M.E.

    1993-01-01

    The American Solar Energy Society conducts the National Solar Energy Conference as an annual forum for exchange of information about advances in solar energy technologies, programs, and concepts. The SOLAR 93 conference presented papers on the following topics: passive design tools; passive performance; building case studies; passive components, construction and glazing; daylighting; passive cooling; sustainability theory; sustainability projects; vernacular architecture; emerging architecture; and education. A total of forty-nine papers were indexed separately for the data base

  1. Automatic Residential/Commercial Classification of Parcels with Solar Panel Detections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2018-03-25

    A computational method to automatically detect solar panels on rooftops to aid policy and financial assessment of solar distributed generation. The code automatically classifies parcels containing solar panels in the U.S. as residential or commercial. The code allows the user to specify an input dataset containing parcels and detected solar panels, and then uses information about the parcels and solar panels to automatically classify the rooftops as residential or commercial using machine learning techniques. The zip file containing the code includes sample input and output datasets for the Boston and DC areas.

  2. Incentive Pass-through for Residential Solar Systems in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, C. G. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Rai, Varun [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2014-10-01

    The deployment of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems has grown rapidly over the last decade, partly because of various government incentives. In the United States, among the largest and longest-running incentives have been those established in California. Building on past research, this report addresses the still-unanswered question: to what degree have the direct PV incentives in California been passed through from installers to consumers? This report helps address this question by carefully examining the residential PV market in California (excluding a certain class of third-party-owned PV systems) and applying both a structural-modeling approach and a reduced-form regression analysis to estimate the incentive pass-through rate. The results suggest an average pass-through rate of direct incentives of nearly 100%, though with regional differences among California counties. While these results could have multiple explanations, they suggest a relatively competitive market and well-functioning subsidy program. Further analysis is required to determine whether similar results broadly apply to other states, to other customer segments, to all third-party-owned PV systems, or to all forms of financial incentives for solar (considering not only direct state subsidies, but also utility electric bill savings and federal tax incentives).

  3. Solar heating and cooling of residential buildings: sizing, installation and operation of systems. 1980 edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-01

    This manual was prepared as a text for a training course on solar heating and cooling of residential buildings. The course and text are directed toward sizing, installation, operation, and maintenance of solar systems for space heating and hot water supply, and solar cooling is treated only briefly. (MHR)

  4. Passivation Layers for Indoor Solar Cells at Low Irradiation Intensities

    OpenAIRE

    Rühle, K.; Rauer, M.; Rüdiger, M.; Giesecke, J.; Niewelt, T.; Schmiga, C.; Glunz, S.W.; Kasemann, M.

    2012-01-01

    The passivation mechanisms and qualities of Al2O3, SiNx, SiO2 and a-Si:H(i) on p- and n-type silicon are investigated by quasi-steady-state photoluminescence measurements. This technique allows effective lifetime measurements in an extremely large injection range between 1010 cm-3 and 1017 cm-3. The measurements are discussed focusing on injections below 1012 cm-3 in order to determine the most effective passivation layer for solar cells arranged for indoor applications. Fixed negative charge...

  5. Passive solar homes in Michigan's Upper Peninsula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kindred, G.F. [Garfield Kindred Associates, Hancock, MI (United States)

    2001-07-01

    This paper discussed the construction and design of 3 affordable passive solar homes located in high latitudes: (1) the Kindred house located in a wooded subdivision in Hancock, Michigan; (2) the Autio house located in Laurium, Michigan; and the Mikkola house located in South Range, Michigan. The award-winning houses were part of the United States federal government's Energy Star program. The houses were constructed with common building materials in order to introduce the general public to the principles of energy-conscious passive solar design strategies and sustainable construction technologies. Super-insulation was used to retain solar heat gain in the houses. Air infiltration was minimized through the use of an airtight drywall sealing technique. Large windows were a prominent feature of the southern facades of the houses. The windows used fixed and casement low-e argon-filled insulated glazing. Average bills for the Kindred home are US$960 per year. It was concluded that passive solar design and construction strategies are now being used more often in the area as a result of the positive media coverage that the homes has received. 5 refs.

  6. Solar power and policy powerlessness − perceptions of persuasion in distributed residential solar energy policy development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simpson Genevieve

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Distributed residential solar energy (photovoltaic technologies have been praised as a mechanism to not only increase the penetration of renewable energy but engage the community in a clean energy revolution. In spite of this it is unclear how much potential there is for stakeholders to influence processes around the adoption of solar energy, including policy development and regulation. As part of a wider research project assessing the social acceptance of residential solar energy in Western Australia a variety of stakeholders, including public servants, network operators, Members of Parliament, energy advocates, renewable energy industry members and community members, were asked whether they thought they had the potential to influence solar policy. The objective of this research was to highlight positions of influence over policy development. In total 23 interviews with regional Western Australian householders and 32 interviews with members of industry and government were undertaken between May and October 2015. Most respondents believed that they had previously, or could in future, influence solar policy by taking advantage of networks of influence. However, stakeholders perceived as having policy influence did not necessarily demonstrate the capacity to influence policy beyond providing information to decision-makers, namely Cabinet members. Instead, networks of renewable energy advocates, industry and community members could apply political pressure through petitions, media coverage and liaising with parliamentarians to develop support for policy changes. Furthermore, while policies for the promotion of solar energy, and renewable energy more generally, could be implemented at various levels of government, only those policies delivered at the state level could address socio-political barriers to renewable energy adoption. These barriers include: a lack of political will and funding to overcome technical issues with network connection

  7. Controlling indoor climate. Passive cooling of residential buildings in hot-humid climates in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhiwu, Wang

    1996-10-01

    Overheating is a paramount problem in residential buildings in hot and humid climates in China during summer. This study aims to deal with the overheating problem and the problem of poor air quality in dwellings. The main objective is to improve indoor thermal conditions by passive cooling approaches, climatisation techniques in buildings without auxiliary cooling from air conditioning equipment. This thesis focuses on the study of cross-ventilation in apartments, which is one of the most effective ways of natural cooling in a hot humid climate, but is also one of the least understood parts in controlling indoor climate. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technique is used, which is a new approach, since cross-ventilation studies have been conventionally made by wind tunnel tests. The validations of the CFD technique are examined by a comparison between wind tunnel tests and computer simulations. The factors influencing indoor air movement are investigated for a single room. Cross-ventilation in two apartments is studied, and the air change efficiency in a Chinese kitchen is calculated with CFD techniques. The thermal performance of ventilated roofs, a simple and widely used type of roof in the region, is specially addressed by means of a full-scale measurement, wind tunnel tests and computer simulations. An integrated study of passive cooling approaches and factors affecting indoor thermal comfort is carried out through a case study in a southern Chinese city, Guangzhou. This thesis demonstrates that passive cooling measure have a high potential in significantly improving indoor thermal conditions during summer. This study also gives discussions and conclusions on the evaluation of indoor thermal environment; effects influencing cross-ventilation in apartments; design guidelines for ventilated roofs and an integrated study of passive cooling. 111 refs, 83 figs, 65 tabs

  8. Environmentally friendly education: A passive solar, straw-bale school

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stone, L.; Dickinson, J.

    1999-07-01

    The Waldorf students in the Roaring Fork Valley of western Colorado are learning their reading, writing and arithmetic in the cozy confines of a solar heated, naturally lit, straw-bale school. The Waldorf education system, founded in 1919 by Austrian Rudolph Steiner, stresses what's appropriate for the kids, not what's easiest to teach. In constructing a new school, the Waldorf community wanted a building that would reflect their philosophy. There was a long list of requirements: natural, energy efficient, light, warm, alive, and earthy. Passive solar straw-bale construction brought together all those qualities.

  9. Solarize Guidebook: A Community Guide to Collective Purchasing of Residential PV Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irvine, L.; Sawyer, A.; Grove, J.

    2011-02-01

    This handbook is intended as a road map for project planners and solar advocates who want to convert interest into action, to break through market barriers and permanently transform the market for residential solar installations in their communities. It describes the key elements of the Solarize campaigns in Portland, and offers several program refinements from projects beyond Portland. The handbook provides lessons, considerations, and step-by-step plans for project organizers to replicate the success of Solarize Portland.

  10. Profits or preferences? Assessing the adoption of residential solar thermal technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mills, Bradford F.; Schleich, Joachim

    2009-01-01

    Solar thermal technologies offer the potential to meet a substantial share of residential water and space heating needs in the EU, but current levels of adoption are low. This paper uses data from a large sample of German households to assess the effects of geographic, residence, and household characteristics on the adoption of solar thermal water and space heating technologies. In addition, the impact of solar thermal technology adoption on household energy expenditures is estimated after controlling for observed household heterogeneity in geographic, residential, and household characteristics. While evidence is found of moderate household energy expenditure savings from combined solar water and space heating systems, the findings generally confirm that low in-home energy cost savings and fixed housing stocks limit the diffusion of residential solar thermal technologies. Little evidence is found of differential adoption by distinct socio-economic groups.

  11. Performance of passive solar and energy conserving houses in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, S.; Newcomb, C.; Shea, M.; Mort, D.

    1983-11-01

    This report provides a technical description of the methodology and the results of a two year effort to collect field data on the performance of passive solar and energy conserving houses in California. Sixty-three passive solar houses were visited and several hours were spent with the homeowner obtaining building details, management procedures, architectural plans, photographs, and at least a year of billing data. With this information thermal performance parameters were calculated for each of the houses. Eleven of the above sixty-three Class C sites (nine passive solar and two energy conserving houses) were instrumented and monitored using the SERI Class B methodology as a guideline. Continuous data were collected for one year using up to 18 different sensors to measure temperatures, electric power, insolation, and the status of fans, gas burners, and moveable insulation. In addition careful one time measurements were made to determine the loss coefficient, infiltration rate, and furnace efficiency. Analysis of this data giving comfort conditions maintained and energy uses for a complete heating and cooling season for each of the houses is presented.

  12. Hydrogen passivation of polycrystalline Si thin film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorka, Benjamin

    2010-12-15

    Hydrogen passivation is a key process step in the fabrication of polycrystalline Si (poly-Si) thin film solar cells. In this work a parallel plate rf plasma setup was used for the hydrogen passivation treatment. The main topics that have been investigated are (i) the role of plasma parameters (like hydrogen pressure, electrode gap and plasma power), (ii) the dynamics of the hydrogen treatment and (iii) passivation of poly-Si with different material properties. Passivation was characterized by measuring the open-circuit voltage V{sub OC} of poly-Si reference samples. Optimum passivation conditions were found by measurements of the breakdown voltage V{sub brk} of the plasma for different pressures p and electrode gaps d. For each pressure, the best passivation was achieved at a gap d that corresponded to the minimum in V{sub brk}. Plasma simulations were carried out, which indicate that best V{sub OC} corresponds to a minimum in ion energy. V{sub OC} was not improved by a larger H flux. Investigations of the passivation dynamic showed that a plasma treatment in the lower temperature range ({<=}400 C) is slow and takes several hours for the V{sub OC} to saturate. Fast passivation can be successfully achieved at elevated temperatures around 500 C to 600 C with a plateau time of 10 min. It was found that prolonged hydrogenation leads to a loss in V{sub OC}, which is less pronounced within the observed optimum temperature range (500 C-600 C). Electron beam evaporation has been investigated as an alternative method to fabricate poly-Si absorbers. The material properties have been tuned by alteration of substrate temperature T{sub dep}=200-700 C and were characterized by Raman, ESR and V{sub OC} measurements. Largest grains were obtained after solid phase crystallization (SPC) of a-Si, deposited in the temperature range of 300 C. The defect concentration of Si dangling bonds was lowered by passivation by about one order of magnitude. The lowest dangling bond concentration

  13. A completely passive continuous flow solar water purification system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duff, William S.; Hodgson, David A. [Dept. of Mechanical Enginnering, Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States)

    2008-07-01

    Water-borne pathogens in developing countries cause several billion cases of disease and up to 10 million deaths each year, at least half of which are children. Solar water pasteurization is a potentially cost-effective, robust and reliable solution to these problems. A completely passively controlled solar water pasteurization system with a total collector area of 0.45 m{sup 2} has been constructed. The system most recently tested produced 337 litres per m{sup 2} of collector area of treated water on a sunny day. We developed our completely passive density-driven solar water pasteurization system over a five year span so that it now achieves reliable control for all possible variations in solar conditions. We have also substantially increased its daily pure water production efficiency over the same period. We will discuss the performance of our water purification system and provide an analyses that demonstrates that the system insures safe purified water production at all times. (orig.)

  14. Reconciling Consumer and Utility Objectives in the Residential Solar PV Market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Michael R.

    Today's energy market is facing large-scale changes that will affect all market players. Near the top of that list is the rapid deployment of residential solar photovoltaic (PV) systems. Yet that growing trend will be influenced multiple competing interests between various stakeholders, namely the utility, consumers and technology provides. This study provides a series of analyses---utility-side, consumer-side, and combined analyses---to understand and evaluate the effect of increases in residential solar PV market penetration. Three urban regions have been selected as study locations---Chicago, Phoenix, Seattle---with simulated load data and solar insolation data at each locality. Various time-of-use pricing schedules are investigated, and the effect of net metering is evaluated to determine the optimal capacity of solar PV and battery storage in a typical residential home. The net residential load profile is scaled to assess system-wide technical and economic figures of merit for the utility with an emphasis on intraday load profiles, ramp rates and electricity sales with increasing solar PV penetration. The combined analysis evaluates the least-cost solar PV system for the consumer and models the associated system-wide effects on the electric grid. Utility revenue was found to drop by 1.2% for every percent PV penetration increase, net metering on a monthly or annual basis improved the cost-effectiveness of solar PV but not battery storage, the removal of net metering policy and usage of an improved the cost-effectiveness of battery storage and increases in solar PV penetration reduced the system load factor. As expected, Phoenix had the most favorable economic scenario for residential solar PV, primarily due to high solar insolation. The study location---solar insolation and load profile---was also found to affect the time of year at which the largest net negative system load was realized.

  15. Passive Residential Houses with the Accumulation Properties of Ground as a Heat Storage Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochab, Piotr; Kokoszka, Wanda; Kogut, Janusz; Skrzypczak, Izabela; Szyszka, Jerzy; Starakiewicz, Aleksander

    2017-12-01

    Solar radiation is the primary source of life energy on Earth. The irradiance of the upper atmosphere is about 1360 W/m2, and it is estimated that about 1000 W/m2 reaches the ground. Long-term storage of heat energy is related to the use of a suitable thermal energy carrier. It may be either artificial or natural water tank, or artificial gravel-water tank, or aquifer or soil. It is justified to store the generated energy in large heating systems due to the nature of solar thermal energy. Typically, in such a solution storage space is a large solar collector farm. The reason for this is the proportionally small unit profits, which only in the case of large number of units provides sufficient energy that can be accumulated. It should be noted that Poland, a country located in a temperate and less harsh climate such as Scandinavia and Canada, has a relatively high potential for solar revenue. In the last decade, it has caused mainly small and individual heating installations. However, much of the municipal and industrial economy continues to rely on energy from non-renewable resources. This is due not only to the lack of a high-efficiency alternative to non-renewable energy resources, but also to the thermal state of buildings throughout the country, where old buildings require thermomodernization. This has the effect of both polluting the environment and the occurrence of smog, as well as pollutants in water and soil. This directly affects the occurrence of civilization diseases and other societal health problems. Therefore, the surplus of thermal clean energy that occurs during the spring and summer period should not only be used on a regular basis, but also stored for later winter use. The paper presents the concept of housing estate, which consists of 32 twin housing units. The solid character of buildings consistently refers to passive construction, and the materials meet the requirements for the passive buildings.

  16. Beyond the EPBD: The low energy residential settlement Borgo Solare

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aste, Niccolo; Adhikari, R.S.; Buzzetti, Michela

    2010-01-01

    The European Directive on Energy Performance of Buildings (EPBD) imposes the adoption of measures for improving the energy efficiency in buildings. These measures should take into account the local weather conditions as well as internal thermal environment and cost-effectiveness. In this respect, Italy is a very interesting benchmark. For Northern Italy, the climatic context is particularly difficult to deal with cold winters and hot summers. The legislations are changing very rapidly, but has not fully adapted to the local context. The considered methodology still involves winter heating while summer cooling is addressed in incomplete and inadequate ways. The energy issue is addressed only partially as final energy consumption, but with little attention to LCA. Moreover, the belief that the buildings with high energy savings are too expensive, and therefore not attractive from economic point of view. For these reasons, it is very important to develop case studies to demonstrate the effectiveness of sustainable energy in architecture, according to a holistic approach. This paper describes a detailed techno-economic analysis for Borgo Solare project, an extremely advanced and innovative residential settlement designed on sustainable architecture concepts. One of the most innovative aspects of the project is that it is not just an experimental operation but Borgo Solare is a real urban district, which will be built without public funds and should be inhabited by common people. Excellent energy performance, therefore, must be accompanied by affordable market prices. The energy and economical analysis is presented taking into account also the embodied energy of the building. The results on the performance of a sample building (case study) of this settlement are reported, according to different construction standards: prior to EPBD, present from the EPBD and more efficient developed specifically for the project. It has been shown that using the better design practices

  17. Supplementary material on passive solar heating concepts. A compilation of published articles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-05-01

    A compilation of published articles and reports dealing with passive solar energy concepts for heating and cooling buildings is presented. The following are included: fundamental of passive systems, applications and technical analysis, graphic tools, and information sources. (MHR)

  18. Experimental Analysis of Cool Traditional Solar Shading Systems for Residential Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Laura Pisello

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been a growing interest in the development and thermal-energy analysis of passive solutions for reducing building cooling needs and thus improving indoor thermal comfort conditions. In this view, several studies were carried out about cool roofs and cool coatings, producing acknowledged mitigation effects on urban heat island phenomenon. The purpose of this work is to investigate the thermal-energy performance of cool louvers of shutters, usually installed in residential buildings, compared to dark color traditional shading systems. To this aim, two full-scale prototype buildings were continuously monitored under summer conditions and the role of the cool shutter in reducing the overheating of the shading system and the energy requirements for cooling was analyzed. After an in-lab optical analysis of the cool coating, showing a huge solar reflectance increase with respect to the traditional configuration, i.e., by about 75%, field monitoring results showed that the cool shutter is able to decrease the indoor air temperature up to 2 °C under free floating conditions. The corresponding energy saving was about 25%, with even much higher peaks during very hot summer conditions.

  19. SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS IN ACCORDANCE WITH OPERATING CONDITIONS OF THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Rutkowski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar systems are actively applied for heat supply of buildings in Europe. Usage of solar energy for heat supply of residential buildings is considered as rather efficient for the Republic of Belarus because total amount of direct and scattered solar radiation entering horizontal surface is equivalent to an average European index for the climate of Belarus. The paper analyzes an existing dependence on determination of solar system efficiency and proposes an amended formula for calculations while designing solar consumption systems and its legitimacy has been experimentally proved. A scheme of an experimental unit with explanations and a brief description for execution of experiments and main results of the completed investigations have been presented in the paper. Experiments have been carried out for solar systems with natural and forced coolant circulation. Attention has been paid to obtaining maximum possible temperature potential of the coolant during operation of the solar system within periods of high and low solar radiation intensity. Recommendations on practical application of solar systems for multi-storey residential buildings houses and mansion-type houses have been given in the paper. The paper presents technological principles of constructing “passive” solar heating devices. A comparison of traditionally applied and proposed alternative solar systems has been made for operational conditions in Belarus. The paper proposes a solar system for hot water supply of multi-storey buildings. The proposed system has found its first realization in the Republic while designing and constructing an energy-efficient demonstration 10-storey residential building in Mogilev within the framework of the UN Development Program project and Global Environment Fund “Improvement of energy efficiency for residential buildings in the Republic of Belarus”

  20. Residential Solar Photovoltaics: Comparison of Financing Benefits, Innovations, and Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speer, B.

    2012-10-01

    This report examines relatively new, innovative financing methods for residential photovoltaics (PV) and compares them to traditional self-financing. It provides policymakers with an overview of the residential PV financing mechanisms, describes relative advantages and challenges, and analyzes differences between them where data is available. Because these innovative financing mechanisms have only been implemented in a few locations, this report can inform their wider adoption.

  1. The impact of changing solar screen rotation angle and its opening aspect ratios on Daylight Availability in residential desert buildings

    KAUST Repository

    Sherif, Ahmed H.; Sabry, Hanan M.; Gadelhak, Mahmoud I.

    2012-01-01

    usually used to diffuse and prevent direct solar penetration into spaces. This paper investigates the impact of changing solar screen axial rotation angle and screen opening aspect ratio on daylighting performance in a typical residential living room space

  2. Double benefit. Passive houses in the stock: Residential and office house; Doppelter Nutzen. Passivhaus im Bestand: Wohn- und Geschaeftshaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegele, Klaus

    2012-06-15

    When searching for a new home for family and office, the Passive House Planner Roland Matzig (Mannheim, Federal Republic of Germany) encounter a dilapidated semi-detached house in Almendorf, a suburb of Mannheim (Federal Republic of Germany). The enhanced final energy demand by more than 320 kWh/(a m{sup 2}) encouraged him, to retrofit the post-war building energetically to the level of a passive houses. The residential and office building also benefits architecturally from the alterations and extensions - a perfect example of how to make of buildings sustainable and to receive their value.

  3. Device physics underlying silicon heterojunction and passivating-contact solar cells: A topical review

    KAUST Repository

    Chavali, Raghu V. K.; De Wolf, Stefaan; Alam, Muhammad A.

    2018-01-01

    The device physics of commercially dominant diffused-junction silicon solar cells is well understood, allowing sophisticated optimization of this class of devices. Recently, so-called passivating-contact solar cell technologies have become prominent

  4. Residential solar energy users: a review of empirical research and related literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unseld, C.T.; Crews, R.

    1979-12-01

    This report reviews 15 empirical studies of residential solar energy users and related literature on residential solar energy use. The purpose of the review is to summarize and analyze the experiences of residential solar users for helping formulate policies concerning the accelerated commercialization of solar technologies. Four of the studies employed case histories or focus group techniques. The 11 questionnaire studies represented interviews with over 1,600 owners of solar systems. The demographic characteristics of samples are listed and compared; research findings and conclusions are presented. Findings on user satisfaction and system performance, possible reasons for evidence of lacking correlation between them, and implications for consumer protection and future research are discussed. General findings are: (1) systematic research on the experiences of solar users is lacking - much research remains to be done; (2) the reported overall experiences of users has been very positive; (3) user reports indicate that system performance is generally good but there is some evidence that user reports are not accurate measures of actual performance; (4) a need exists for adequate consumer protection; (5) design or installation problems are evidenced in significant numbers of early solar installations; and (6) these problems evidently are resolvable. An annotated bibliography describes 10 other studies in progress.

  5. Solarize Guidebook: A Community Guide to Collective Purchasing of Residential PV Systems (Book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2012-05-01

    This guidebook is intended as a road map for project planners and solar advocates who want to convert 'interest' into 'action,' to break through market barriers and permanently transform the market for residential solar installations in their communities. It describes the key elements of the Solarize campaigns in Portland, and offers several program refinements from projects beyond Portland. The guidebook provides lessons, considerations, and step-by-step plans for project organizers to replicate the success of Solarize Portland.

  6. Cost-Reduction Roadmap for Residential Solar Photovoltaics (PV),

    Science.gov (United States)

    Office (SETO) residential 2030 photovoltaics (PV) cost target of $0.05 per kilowatt-hour by identifying could influence system costs in key market segments. This report examines two key market segments that demonstrate significant opportunities for cost savings and market growth: installing PV at the time of roof

  7. Analysis of Bright Harvest Remote Analysis for Residential Solar Installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nangle, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Simon, Joseph [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-06-17

    Bright Harvest provides remote shading analysis and design products for residential PV system installers. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) through the NREL Commercialization Assistance Program, completed comparative assessments between on-site measurements and remotely calculated values to validate the accuracy of Bright Harvest’s remote shading and power generation.

  8. Molecular monolayers for electrical passivation and functionalization of silicon-based solar energy devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veerbeek, Janneke; Firet, Nienke J.; Vijselaar, Wouter; Elbersen, R.; Gardeniers, Han; Huskens, Jurriaan

    2017-01-01

    Silicon-based solar fuel devices require passivation for optimal performance yet at the same time need functionalization with (photo)catalysts for efficient solar fuel production. Here, we use molecular monolayers to enable electrical passivation and simultaneous functionalization of silicon-based

  9. Development of a solar-powered residential air conditioner. Program review

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Progress in the effort to develop a residential solar-powered air conditioning system is reported. The topics covered include the objectives, scope and status of the program. The results of state-of-art, design, and economic studies and component and system data are also presented.

  10. Solar Passive Modification Increase Radiation Safety Standards Inside Accelerator Building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eid, A. F.; Keshk, A. B.

    2010-01-01

    Irradiation processing by accelerated electrons is considering one of the most important and useful industrial irradiation treatments. It is depending on two principle attachment elements which are architecture of irradiation building and the accelerator characteristic that was arranged inside irradiation building. Negative environmental measurements were recorded inside the main building and were exceeded the international standards (humidity, air speed, high thermal effects and ozone concentration). The study showed that it is essential to improve the natural environmental standards inside the main irradiation building in order to improve the work environment and to reduce ozone concentration from 220 ppb to international standard. The main goals and advantages were achieved by using environmental architecture (desert architecture) indoor the irradiation building. The work depends on passive solar system which is economic, same architectural elements, comfort / health, and radiation safety, and without mechanical means. The experimental work was accomplished under these modifications. The registered results of various environmental concentrations have proved their normal standards.

  11. Wallboard with Latent Heat Storage for Passive Solar Applications; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kedl, R.J.

    2001-01-01

    Conventional wallboard impregnated with octadecane paraffin[melting point-23 C (73.5 F)] is being developed as a building material with latent heat storage for passive solar and other applications. Impregnation was accomplished simply by soaking the wallboard in molten wax. Concentrations of wax in the combined product as high as 35% by weight can be achieved. Scale-up of the soaking process, from small laboratory samples to full-sized 4- by 8-ft sheets, has been successfully accomplished. The required construction properties of wallboard are maintained after impregnation, that is, it can be painted and spackled. Long-term, high-temperature exposure tests and thermal cycling tests showed no tendency of the paraffin to migrate within the wallboard, and there was no deterioration of thermal energy storage capacity. In support of this concept, a computer model was developed to handle thermal transport and storage by a phase change material (PCM) dispersed in a porous media. The computer model was confirmed by comparison with known analytical solutions and also by comparison with temperatures measured in wallboard during an experimentally generated thermal transient. Agreement between the model and known solution was excellent. Agreement between the model and thermal transient was good, only after the model was modified to allow the PCM to melt over a temperature range, rather than at a specific melting point. When the melting characteristics of the PCM (melting point, melting range, and heat of fusion), as determined from a differential scanning calorimeter plot, were used in the model, agreement between the model and transient data was very good. The confirmed computer model may now be used in conjunction with a building heating and cooling code to evaluate design parameters and operational characteristics of latent heat storage wallboard for passive solar applications

  12. Public acceptance of residential solar photovoltaic technology in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salman Ahmad

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – Gaining independence from fossil fuels and combating climate change are the main factors to increase the generation of electricity from renewable fuels. Amongst the renewable technologies, solar photovoltaic (PV is believed to have the largest potential. However, the number of people adopting solar PV technologies is still relatively low. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to examine the household consumers’ acceptance of solar PV technology being installed on their premises. Design/methodology/approach – To examine the solar PV technology acceptance, this study uses technology acceptance model (TAM as a reference framework. A survey was conducted to gather data and to validate the research model. Out of 780 questionnaires distributed across Malaysia, 663 were returned and validated. Findings – The analysis revealed that perceived ease of use, perceived usefulness and attitude to use significantly influenced behavioural intention to use solar PV technology. Research limitations/implications – This study contributes by extending the understanding of public inclination towards the adoption of solar PV technology. Also, this study contributes in identifying the areas which need to be examined further. However, collecting data from urban peninsular Malaysian respondents only limits the generalization of the results. Practical implications – On the policy front, this study reveals that governmental support is needed to trigger PV acceptance. Originality/value – This paper uses TAM to analyse the uptake of solar PV technology in Malaysian context.

  13. Securitization of residential solar photovoltaic assets: Costs, risks and uncertainty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alafita, T.; Pearce, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    Limited access to low-cost financing is an impediment to high-velocity technological diffusion and high grid penetration of solar photovoltaic (PV) technology. Securitization of solar assets provides a potential solution to this problem. This paper assesses the viability of solar asset-backed securities (ABS) as a lower cost financing mechanism and identifies policies that could facilitate implementation of securitization. First, traditional solar financing is examined to provide a baseline for cost comparisons. Next, the securitization process is modeled. The model enables identification of several junctures at which risk and uncertainty influence costs. Next, parameter values are assigned and used to generate cost estimates. Results show that, under reasonable assumptions, securitization of solar power purchase agreements (PPA) can significantly reduce project financing costs, suggesting that securitization is a viable mechanism for improving the financing of PV projects. The clear impediment to the successful launch of a solar ABS is measuring and understanding the riskiness of underlying assets. This study identifies three classes of policy intervention that lower the cost of ABS by reducing risk or by improving the measurement of risk: (i) standardization of contracts and the contracting process, (ii) improved access to contract and equipment performance data, and (iii) geographic diversification. - Highlights: • Limited access to low-cost financing is hampering penetration of solar PV. • Solar asset-backed securities (ABS) provide a low cost financing mechanism. • Results for securitization of solar leases and power purchase agreements (PPA). • Securitization can significantly reduce project financing costs. • Identifies policy intervention that lower cost of ABS by reducing risk

  14. Residential heating costs: A comparison of geothermal solar and conventional resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloomster, C. H.; Garrett-Price, B. A.; Fassbender, L. L.

    1980-08-01

    The costs of residential heating throughout the United States using conventional, solar, and geothermal energy were determined under current and projected conditions. These costs are very sensitive to location, being dependent on the local prices of conventional energy supplies, local solar insolation, climate, and the proximity and temperature of potential geothermal resources. The sharp price increases in imported fuels during 1979 and the planned decontrol of domestic oil and natural gas prices have set the stage for geothermal and solar market penetration in the 1980's.

  15. Solar passive ceiling system. Final report. [Passive solar heating system with venetian blind reflectors and latent heat storage in ceiling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, A.R.

    1980-01-01

    The construction of a 1200 square foot building, with full basement, built to be used as a branch library in a rural area is described. The primary heating source is a passive solar system consisting of a south facing window system. The system consists of: a set of windows located in the south facing wall only, composed of double glazed units; a set of reflectors mounted in each window which reflects sunlight up to the ceiling (the reflectors are similar to venetian blinds); a storage area in the ceiling which absorbs the heat from the reflected sunlight and stores it in foil salt pouches laid in the ceiling; and an automated curtain which automatically covers and uncovers the south facing window system. The system is totally passive and uses no blowers, pumps or other active types of heat distribution equipment. The building contains a basement which is normally not heated, and the north facing wall is bermed four feet high around the north side.

  16. Molecular Monolayers for Electrical Passivation and Functionalization of Silicon-Based Solar Energy Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerbeek, Janneke; Firet, Nienke J; Vijselaar, Wouter; Elbersen, Rick; Gardeniers, Han; Huskens, Jurriaan

    2017-01-11

    Silicon-based solar fuel devices require passivation for optimal performance yet at the same time need functionalization with (photo)catalysts for efficient solar fuel production. Here, we use molecular monolayers to enable electrical passivation and simultaneous functionalization of silicon-based solar cells. Organic monolayers were coupled to silicon surfaces by hydrosilylation in order to avoid an insulating silicon oxide layer at the surface. Monolayers of 1-tetradecyne were shown to passivate silicon micropillar-based solar cells with radial junctions, by which the efficiency increased from 8.7% to 9.9% for n + /p junctions and from 7.8% to 8.8% for p + /n junctions. This electrical passivation of the surface, most likely by removal of dangling bonds, is reflected in a higher shunt resistance in the J-V measurements. Monolayers of 1,8-nonadiyne were still reactive for click chemistry with a model catalyst, thus enabling simultaneous passivation and future catalyst coupling.

  17. Passive solar design strategies: Remodeling guidelines for conserving energy at home

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-01-01

    The idea of passive solar is simple, but applying it effectively does require information and attention to the details of design and construction. Some passive solar techniques are modest and low-cost, and require only small changes in remodeler's typical practice. At the other end of the spectrum, some passive solar systems can almost eliminate a house's need for purchased heating (and in some cases, cooling) energy -- but probably at a relatively high first cost. In between are a broad range of energy-conserving passive solar techniques. Whether or not they are cost-effective, practical and attractive enough to offer a market advantage to any individual remodeler depends on very specific factors such as local costs, climate, and market characteristics. Passive solar design strategies: Remodeling Guidelines For Conserving Energy At Homes is written to help give remodelers the information they need to make these decisions. Passive Solar Design Strategies is a package in three basic parts: The Guidelines contain information about passive solar techniques and how they work, and provides specific examples of systems which will save various percentages of energy; The Worksheets offer a simple, fill-in-the-blank method to pre-evaluate the performance of a specific design; The Worked Example demonstrates how to complete the worksheets for a typical residence.

  18. Passive solar design strategies: Remodeling guidelines for conserving energy at home. [Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    The idea of passive solar is simple, but applying it effectively does require information and attention to the details of design and construction. Some passive solar techniques are modest and low-cost, and require only small changes in remodeler`s typical practice. At the other end of the spectrum, some passive solar systems can almost eliminate a house`s need for purchased heating (and in some cases, cooling) energy -- but probably at a relatively high first cost. In between are a broad range of energy-conserving passive solar techniques. Whether or not they are cost-effective, practical and attractive enough to offer a market advantage to any individual remodeler depends on very specific factors such as local costs, climate, and market characteristics. Passive solar design strategies: Remodeling Guidelines For Conserving Energy At Homes is written to help give remodelers the information they need to make these decisions. Passive Solar Design Strategies is a package in three basic parts: The Guidelines contain information about passive solar techniques and how they work, and provides specific examples of systems which will save various percentages of energy; The Worksheets offer a simple, fill-in-the-blank method to pre-evaluate the performance of a specific design; The Worked Example demonstrates how to complete the worksheets for a typical residence.

  19. Passive solar design strategies: Remodeling guidelines for conserving energy at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    The idea of passive solar is simple, but applying it effectively does require information and attention to the details of design and construction. Some passive solar techniques are modest and low-cost, and require only small changes in remodeler's typical practice. At the other end of the spectrum, some passive solar systems can almost eliminate a house's need for purchased heating (and in some cases, cooling) energy - but probably at a relatively high first cost. In between are a broad range of energy-conserving passive solar techniques. Whether or not they are cost-effective, practical, and attractive enough to offer a market advantage to any individual remodeler depends on very specific factors such as local costs, climate, and market characteristics. Passive Solar Design Strategies: Remodeling Guidelines For Conserving Energy At Home is written to help give remodelers the information they need to make these decisions. Passive Solar Design Strategies is a package in three basic parts: the guidelines contain information about passive solar techniques and how they work, and provides specific examples of systems which will save various percentages of energy; the worksheets offer a simple, fill-in-the-blank method to pre-evaluate the performance of a specific design; and the worked example demonstrates how to complete the worksheets for a typical residence.

  20. Enhancing Stability of Perovskite Solar Cells to Moisture by the Facile Hydrophobic Passivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Insung; Jeong, Inyoung; Lee, Jinwoo; Ko, Min Jae; Yong, Kijung

    2015-08-12

    In this study, a novel and facile passivation process for a perovskite solar cell is reported. Poor stability in ambient atmosphere, which is the most critical demerit of a perovskite solar cell, is overcome by a simple passivation process using a hydrophobic polymer layer. Teflon, the hydrophobic polymer, is deposited on the top of a perovskite solar cell by a spin-coating method. With the hydrophobic passivation, the perovskite solar cell shows negligible degradation after a 30 day storage in ambient atmosphere. Suppressed degradation of the perovskite film is proved in various ways: X-ray diffraction, light absorption spectrum, and quartz crystal microbalance. This simple but effective passivation process suggests new kind of approach to enhance stability of perovskite solar cells to moisture.

  1. Combined Active and Passive Solar Space Heating and Solar Hot Water Systems for an Elementary School in Boise, Idaho.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smull, Neil A.; Armstrong, Gerald L.

    1979-01-01

    Amity Elementary School in Boise, Idaho, features a solar space heating and domestic hot water system along with an earth covering to accommodate the passive aspects of energy conservation. (Author/MLF)

  2. Residential solar air conditioning: Energy and exergy analyses of an ammonia–water absorption cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aman, J.; Ting, D.S.-K.; Henshaw, P.

    2014-01-01

    Large scale heat-driven absorption cooling systems are available in the marketplace for industrial applications but the concept of a solar driven absorption chiller for air-conditioning applications is relatively new. Absorption chillers have a lower efficiency than compression refrigeration systems, when used for small scale applications and this restrains the absorption cooling system from air conditioning applications in residential buildings. The potential of a solar driven ammonia–water absorption chiller for residential air conditioning application is discussed and analyzed in this paper. A thermodynamic model has been developed based on a 10 kW air cooled ammonia–water absorption chiller driven by solar thermal energy. Both energy and exergy analyses have been conducted to evaluate the performance of this residential scale cooling system. The analyses uncovered that the absorber is where the most exergy loss occurs (63%) followed by the generator (13%) and the condenser (11%). Furthermore, the exergy loss of the condenser and absorber greatly increase with temperature, the generator less so, and the exergy loss in the evaporator is the least sensitive to increasing temperature. -- Highlights: • 10 kW solar thermal driven ammonia–water air cooled absorption chiller is investigated. • Energy and exergy analyses have been done to enhance the thermal performance. • Low driving temperature heat sources have been optimized. • The efficiencies of the major components have been evaluated

  3. Assessing the PACE of California residential solar deployment: Impacts of Property Assessed Clean Energy programs on residential solar photovoltaic deployment in California, 2010-2015

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deason, Jeff; Murphy, Sean

    2018-04-04

    A new study by Berkeley Lab found that residential Property Assessed Clean Energy (R-PACE) programs increased deployment of residential solar photovoltaic (PV) systems in California, raising it by about 7-12% in cities that adopt these programs. R-PACE is a financing mechanism that uses a voluntary property tax assessment, paid off over time, to facilitate energy improvements and, in some jurisdictions, water and resilience measures. While previous studies demonstrated that early, regional R-PACE programs increased solar PV deployment, this new analysis is the first to demonstrate these impacts from the large, statewide R-PACE programs dominating the California market today, which use private capital to fund the upfront costs of the improvements. Berkeley Lab estimated the impacts using econometric techniques on two samples: -Large cities only, allowing annual demographic and economic data as control variables -All California cities, without these annual data Analysis of both samples controls for several factors other than R-PACE that would be expected to drive solar PV deployment. We infer that on average, cities with R-PACE programs were associated with greater solar PV deployment in our study period (2010-2015). In the large cities sample, solar PV deployment in jurisdictions with R-PACE programs was higher by 1.1 watts per owner-occupied household per month, or 12%. Across all cities, solar PV deployment in jurisdictions with R-PACE programs was higher by 0.6 watts per owner-occupied household per month, or 7%. The large cities results are statistically significant at conventional levels; the all-cities results are not. The estimates imply that the majority of solar PV deployment financed by R-PACE programs would likely not have occurred in their absence. Results suggest that R-PACE programs have increased PV deployment in California even in relatively recent years, as R-PACE programs have grown in market share and as alternate approaches for financing solar PV

  4. Selecting Solar. Insights into Residential Photovoltaic (PV) Quote Variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, Carolyn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-01

    This analysis leverages available data from EnergySage, an online solar marketplace, to offer the first data-driven characterization of quote variation faced by prospective PV customers, lending early insight into the decisions customers face once they have initial buy-in.

  5. The development of a solar residential heating and cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The MSFC solar heating and cooling facility was assembled to demonstrate the engineering feasibility of utilizing solar energy for heating and cooling buildings, to provide an engineering evaluation of the total system and the key subsystems, and to investigate areas of possible improvement in design and efficiency. The basic solar heating and cooling system utilizes a flat plate solar energy collector, a large water tank for thermal energy storage, heat exchangers for space heating, and an absorption cycle air conditioner for space cooling. A complete description of all systems is given. Development activities for this test system included assembly, checkout, operation, modification, and data analysis, all of which are discussed. Selected data analyses for the first 15 weeks of testing are included, findings associated with energy storage and the energy storage system are outlined, and conclusions resulting from test findings are provided. An evaluation of the data for summer operation indicates that the current system is capable of supplying an average of 50 percent of the thermal energy required to drive the air conditioner. Preliminary evaluation of data collected for operation in the heating mode during the winter indicates that nearly 100 percent of the thermal energy required for heating can be supplied by the system.

  6. Economics of residential solar hot water heating systems in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdulmula, Ahmed Mohamed Omer; Sopian, Kamaruzzaman; Haj Othman, Mohd Yosof

    2006-01-01

    Malaysia has favorable climatic conditions for the development of solar energy due to the abundant sunshine and is considered good for harnessing energy from the sun. This is because solar hot water can represent the large energy consumer in Malaysian households but, because of the high initial cost of Solar Water Heating Systems (SWHSs) and easily to install and relatively inexpensive to purchase electric water heaters, many Malyaysian families are still using Electric Water Heaters to hot their water needs. This paper is presented the comparing of techno-economic feasibility of some models of SWHS from Malaysian's market with the Electric Water Heaters )EWH) by study the annual cost of operation for both systems. The result shows that the annual cost of the electrical water heater becomes greater than than the annual cost of the SWHS for all models in long-team run so it is advantageous for the family to use the solar water heater, at least after 4 years. In addition with installation SWHS the families can get long-term economical benefits, environment friendly and also can doing its part to reduce this country's dependence on foreign oil that is price increase day after day.(Author)

  7. Phase-change drywalls in a passive-solar building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darkwa, K.; O' Callaghan, P.W.; Tetlow, D. [School of the Built Environment, The Applied Energy and Environmental Engineering Group, Nottingham Trent University, Burton Street, Nottingham NG1 4BU (United Kingdom)

    2006-05-15

    Integration of phase-change materials (PCMs) into building fabrics is considered to be one of the potential and effective ways of minimising energy-consumption and CO{sub 2}-emissions in the building sector. In order to assess the thermal effectiveness of this concept, composite PCM drywall samples (i.e., randomly mixed and laminated PCM drywalls) have been evaluated in a model passive-solar building. For a broader assessment, the effects of three phase-change zones (narrow, intermediate and wide) of the PCM sample were considered. The results showed that the laminated PCM sample with a narrow phase-change zone was capable of increasing the minimum room temperature by about 17% more than the randomly mixed type. Even though there was some display of a non-isothermal phase-change process, the laminated system proved to be thermally more effective in terms of evolution and utilisation of latent heat. A further heat-transfer enhancement process is, however, required for the development of the laminated system. . (author)

  8. Simulation of phase change drywalls in a passive solar building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darkwa, K.; O' Callaghan, P.W. [School of the Built Environment, The Applied Energy and Environmental Engineering Group, Nottingham Trent University, Burton Street, Nottingham NG1 4BU (United Kingdom)

    2006-06-15

    Integration of phase change materials (PCMs) into building fabrics is considered to be one of the potential and effective ways of minimizing energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions in the building sector. In order to assess the thermal effectiveness of this concept, composite PCM drywall samples (i.e. randomly-mixed and laminated PCM drywalls) have been evaluated in a model passive solar building. For a broader assessment, effects of three phase change zones (narrow, intermediate and wide) of the PCM sample were considered. The results showed that the laminated PCM sample with a narrow phase change zone was capable of increasing the minimum room temperature by about 17% more than the randomly-mixed type. Even though there was some display of non-isothermal phase change process, the laminated system proved to be thermally more effective in terms of evolution and utilization of latent heat. Further heat transfer enhancement process is however required towards the development of the laminated system. [Author].

  9. Innovative Sustainable Water Management Practices in Solar Residential Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Jason Mabry

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper communicates the results of an architectural research project which sought innovative design strategies for achieving energy and resource efficiencies in water management systems traditionally used in single-family housing. It describes the engineering of an efficient, multifaceted, and fully integrated water management system for a domesticenvironment of 800 sq. ft., entirely powered by solar energy. The four innovations whose details are conveyed include the use of alternate materials for piping distribution and collection, the use of water in solar energy generation, the design of a building skin which capitalizes on water’s capacity to store heat as well as the design of a ecological groundscape which re-usesand filters waste water and rain water.Keywords: energy, plumbing, home design

  10. Using Residential Solar PV Quote Data to Analyze the Relationship Between Installer Pricing and Firm Size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Shaughnessy, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-05-19

    We use residential solar photovoltaic (PV) quote data to study the role of firm size in PV installer pricing. We find that large installers (those that installed more than 1,000 PV systems in any year from 2013 to 2015) quote higher prices for customer-owned systems, on average, than do other installers. The results suggest that low prices are not the primary value proposition of large installers.

  11. Effect of Organic and Inorganic Passivation in Quantum-Dot-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Fuente, Mauricio Solis; Sánchez, Rafael S; González-Pedro, Victoria; Boix, Pablo P; Mhaisalkar, S G; Rincón, Marina E; Bisquert, Juan; Mora-Seró, Iván

    2013-05-02

    The effect of semiconductor passivation on quantum-dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs) has been systematically characterized for CdS and CdS/ZnS. We have found that passivation strongly depends on the passivation agent, obtaining an enhancement of the solar cell efficiency for compounds containing amine and thiol groups and, in contrast, a decrease in performance for passivating agents with acid groups. Passivation can induce a change in the position of TiO2 conduction band and also in the recombination rate and nature, reflected in a change in the β parameter. Especially interesting is the finding that β, and consequently the fill factor can be increased with the passivation treatment. Applying this strategy, record cells of 4.65% efficiency for PbS-based QDSCs have been produced.

  12. The Private Net Benefits of Residential Solar PV: The Role of Electricity Tariffs, Tax Incentives and Rebates

    OpenAIRE

    Severin Borenstein

    2015-01-01

    With dramatic declines in the cost of solar PV technology over the last 5 years, the electricity industry is in the midst of discussions about whether to use this low-polluting renewable energy source in grid-scale generation or in distributed generation (DG), mostly with rooftop solar PV. California has led the growth in DG solar in the U.S. I use 2007 to early 2014 residential data from Pacific Gas & Electric – the utility with largest number of residential solar customers in the U.S. – to ...

  13. Cost-Reduction Roadmap for Residential Solar Photovoltaics (PV), 2017-2030

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, Jeffrey J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ardani, Kristen B. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fu, Ran [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-03

    The installed cost of solar photovoltaics (PV) has fallen rapidly in recent years and is expected to continue declining in the future. In this report, we focus on the potential for continued PV cost reductions in the residential market. From 2010 to 2017, the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for residential PV declined from 52 cents per kilowatt-hour (cents/kWh) to 16 cents/kWh (Fu et al. 2017). The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Solar Energy Technologies Office (SETO) recently set new LCOE targets for 2030, including a target of 5 cents/kWh for residential PV. We present a roadmap for achieving the SETO 2030 residential PV target. Because the 2030 target likely will not be achieved under business-as-usual trends (NREL 2017), we examine two key market segments that demonstrate significant opportunities for cost savings and market growth: installing PV at the time of roof replacement and installing PV as part of the new home construction process. Within both market segments, we identify four key cost-reduction opportunities: market maturation, business model integration, product innovation, and economies of scale. To assess the potential impact of these cost reductions, we compare modeled residential PV system prices in 2030 to the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) quarter one 2017 (Q1 2017) residential PV system price benchmark (Fu et al. 2017). We use a bottom-up accounting framework to model all component and project-development costs incurred when installing a PV system. The result is a granular accounting for 11 direct and indirect costs associated with installing a residential PV system in 2030. All four modeled pathways demonstrate significant installed-system price savings over the Q1 2017 benchmark, with the visionary pathways yielding the greatest price benefits. The largest modeled cost savings are in the supply chain, sales and marketing, overhead, and installation labor cost categories. When we translate these

  14. Solar heating and cooling of residential buildings: design of systems, 1980 edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-01

    This manual was prepared primarily for use in conducting a practical training course on the design of solar heating and cooling systems for residential and small office buildings, but may also be useful as a general reference text. The content level is appropriate for persons with different and varied backgrounds, although it is assumed that readers possess a basic understanding of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems of conventional (non-solar) types. This edition is a revision of the manual with the same title, first printed and distributed by the US Government Printing Office in October 1977. The manual has been reorganized, new material has been added, and outdated information has been deleted. Only active solar systems are described. Liquid and air-heating solar systems for combined space and service water heating or service water heating are included. Furthermore, only systems with proven experience are discussed to any extent.

  15. Use of passive solar architecture design in energy saving, Morena tourist village

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mina, M.B.

    1993-12-31

    This document deals with energy saving in buildings,more precisely in the Morena tourist village. The concept of passive solar technology is developed in villas. The first prototype enabled to have measurements of temperatures and thermal graphs. A comparison between the initial architectural design and this prototype shows the efficiency of the use of passive solar energy (energy and money saving). (TEC). 5 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Use of passive solar architecture design in energy saving, Morena tourist village

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mina, M B

    1994-12-31

    This document deals with energy saving in buildings,more precisely in the Morena tourist village. The concept of passive solar technology is developed in villas. The first prototype enabled to have measurements of temperatures and thermal graphs. A comparison between the initial architectural design and this prototype shows the efficiency of the use of passive solar energy (energy and money saving). (TEC). 5 figs., 1 tab.

  17. Passive Solar Techniques to Improve Thermal Comfort and Reduce Energy Consumption of Domestic Use

    OpenAIRE

    Naci Kalkan; Ihsan Dagtekin

    2016-01-01

    Passive design responds to improve indoor thermal comfort and minimize the energy consumption. The present research analyzed the how efficiently passive solar technologies generate heating and cooling and provide the system integration for domestic applications. In addition to this, the aim of this study is to increase the efficiency of solar systems system with integration some innovation and optimization. As a result, outputs of the project might start a new sector to provide environmentall...

  18. IBC c-Si solar cells based on ion-implanted poly-silicon passivating contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yang, G.; Ingenito, A.; Isabella, O.; Zeman, M.

    2016-01-01

    Ion-implanted poly-crystalline silicon (poly-Si), in combination with a tunnel oxide layer, is investigated as a carrier-selective passivating contact in c-Si solar cells based on an interdigitated back contact (IBC) architecture. The optimized poly-Si passivating contacts enable low interface

  19. Can passive house be the solution to our energy problems, and particularly with solar energy?

    OpenAIRE

    Merciadri, Luca

    2007-01-01

    A description about the main characteristics of the passive house concept. The aim of this document is to answer to the question ``Can passive house be the solution to our energy problems, and particularly with solar energy ?'' in an objective way.

  20. Passive solar power in the shade of French energy policy, 1945-1986

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teissier, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    The installation in 1949 of the LES (solar energy laboratory) on Mont Louis-Odeillo in the Pyrenees, was emblematic of public commitment to passive solar power. Throughout the 1950's solar furnaces were supported for research into materials and solar powered homes, moving in phase with colonial policy. Then, with the construction at Odeillo of a giant solar furnace as part of the 'policy of grandeur', policy swung in the opposite direction. The study concludes with the role that the LES played at the time of the energy crisis in the 1970's and questions the French model of not developing solar energy

  1. Comparative economic analysis of supporting policies for residential solar PV in the United States: Solar Renewable Energy Credit (SREC) potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, John Edward; Kang, Jin-Su

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies and market reports suggest that the solar photovoltaic markets rely heavily, if not entirely, upon governmental support policies at present. Unlike in other countries where these policies are enacted at a national level, the 50 states in the US pursue different policies in an attempt to foster the growth of renewable energy, and specifically solar photovoltaics. This paper provides an economic and financial analysis of the US federal and state level policies in states with solar-targeted policies that have markets. After putting a value on SRECs, this study further compares solar carve-outs with other incentives including the federal tax credit, net metering, and state personal tax credits. Our findings show that SREC markets can certainly be strong, with New Jersey, Delaware, and Massachusetts having the most potential. Despite their strong potential as effective renewable policies, the lack of a guaranteed minimum and the uncertainty attached are major drawbacks of SREC markets. However, the leveraging of this high value offers hope that the policies will indeed stimulate residential solar photovoltaic markets. - Highlights: ► We measure solar support incentives in eight US states with set-asides that include SREC policies. ► Compare each financial incentive using DCF, NPV, IRR, and Present Value/Watt-capacity. ► Most US SREC markets have strong potential to stimulate solar photovoltaics. ► SREC success requires price floors to alleviate uncertainty issues. ► Private financial entities can leverage SRECs to provide necessary price floors.

  2. Economic performance and policies for grid-connected residential solar photovoltaic systems in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitscher, Martin; Rüther, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the economic competitiveness of grid-connected, distributed solar photovoltaic generation through small-scale rooftop installations in five Brazilian state-capitals. The locations represent a comprehensive set of the two essential parameters for the economic viability of PV—solar irradiation and local electricity tariffs. Levelized electricity costs (LEC) for PV generation and net present values (NPV) for a specific PV system are presented. The analysis comprises three different interest rate scenarios reflecting different conditions for capital acquisition to finance the generators; subsidized, mature market and country-specific risk-adjusted interest. In the NPV analysis, revenue flow is modeled by the sale of PV electricity at current residential tariffs assuming net metering. Using subsidized interest rates, the analysis shows that solar PV electricity is already competitive in Brazil, while in the country-specific risk-adjusted rate, the declining, but still high capital costs of PV make it economically unfeasible. At a mature market interest rate, PV competitiveness is largely dependent on the residential tariff. Economic competitiveness in this scenario is given for locations with high residential tariffs. We demonstrate the high potential of distributed generation with photovoltaic installations in Brazil, and show that under certain conditions, grid-connected PV can be economically competitive in a developing country. - Highlights: ► Debt financed grid-connected PV on Brazilian rooftops can be economically feasible since 2011. ► The cost of capital in Brazil is the decisive parameter in PV competitiveness with conventional generation sources. ► Low-cost, long-term financing is an essential requirement for PV to become an economically justifiable generation alternative. ► The Brazilian market holds huge potential for distributed, residential rooftop PV systems of small size.

  3. Selecting Solar: Insights into Residential Photovoltaic (PV) Quote Variation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davidson, Carolyn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-10-01

    Before investing in a system, a prospective PV customer must not only have initial concept 'buy in,' but also be able to evaluate the tradeoffs associated with different system parameters. Prospective customers might need to evaluate disparate costs for each system attribute by comparing multiple bids. The difficulty of making such an evaluation with limited information can create a cognitive barrier to proceeding with the investment. This analysis leverages recently available data from EnergySage, an online solar marketplace, to offer the first data-driven characterization of quote variation faced by prospective PV customers, lending early insight into the decisions customers face once they have initial buy-in.

  4. Extrinsic passivation of silicon surfaces for solar cells

    OpenAIRE

    Bonilla, R.S.; Reichel, C.; Hermle, M.; Martins, G.; Wilshaw, P.R.

    2015-01-01

    In the present work we study the extent to which extrinsic chemical and field effect passivation can improve the overall electrical passivation quality of silicon dioxide on silicon. Here we demonstrate that, when optimally applied, extrinsic passivation can produce surface recombination velocities below 1.2 cm/s in planar 1 Omega cm n-type Si. This is largely due to the additional field effect passivation component which reduces the recombination velocity below 2.13 cm/s. On textured surface...

  5. High performance passive solar heating system with heat pipe energy transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de M.H.; Hensen, J.L.M.; Dijk, van H.A.L.; Brink, van den G.J.; Galen, van E; Ouden, den C.

    1984-01-01

    The aim of the project is to develop a passive solar heating system with a higher efficiency (regarding accumulation and transfer of solar heat into dwellings) than convential concrete thermal storage walls and with restricted extra costs for manufacturing the system. This is to be achieved by the

  6. High performance passive solar heating system with heat pipe energy transfer and latent heat storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van H.A.L.; Galen, van E; Hensen, J.L.M.; Wit, de M.H.

    1983-01-01

    Preliminar results are reported from a current project on the development of a high performance passive solar heating system. Two special components are introduced: a. A heat pipe as a thermal diode tube for the efficient transfer of collected solar heat from the absorber plate to behind an

  7. Silicon heterojunction solar cell passivation in combination with nanocrystalline silicon oxide emitters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gatz, H.A.; Rath, J.K.; Verheijen, M.A.; Kessels, W.M.M.; Schropp, R.E.I.

    2016-01-01

    Silicon heterojunction solar cells (SHJ) are well known for their high efficiencies, enabled by their remarkably high open-circuit voltages (VOC). A key factor in achieving these values is a good passivation of the crystalline wafer interface. One of the restrictions during SHJ solar cell production

  8. Field Surveys of Non-Residential Solar Water Heating Systems in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kung-Ming Chung

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available To develop indigenous alternative and renewable energy resources, long-term subsidy programs (1986–1991 and 2000–present for solar water heaters have been enforced in Taiwan. By the end of 2010, the total installed area of solar collectors had exceeded 2 million square meters. However, over 98% of solar water heaters were used in residential systems for hot water production, with the areas of installed solar collector being less than 10 square meters. There were only 98 systems with area of solar collectors installed exceeding 100 square meters put into operation from 2001 to 2010. These systems were mainly installed for water heating in dormitories, swimming pools, restaurants, and manufacturing plants. In the present study, a comprehensive survey of these large-scale solar water heaters was conducted. The objectives of the survey were to assess the system performance and to collect feedback from individual users. It is found that lack of experience in system design and maintenance are the key factors affecting reliable operation of a system. Hourly, daily and long-term field measurements of a dormitory system were also examined to evaluate its thermal efficiencies. Results indicated that thermal efficiency of the system is associated with the daily solar radiation. Hot water use pattern and operation of auxiliary heater should be taken into account in system design.

  9. Residential Solar-Based Seasonal Thermal Storage Systems in Cold Climates: Building Envelope and Thermal Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Hugo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of electricity use for heating and domestic hot water in cold climates can be achieved by: (1 reducing the heating loads through the improvement of the thermal performance of house envelopes, and (2 using solar energy through a residential solar-based thermal storage system. First, this paper presents the life cycle energy and cost analysis of a typical one-storey detached house, located in Montreal, Canada. Simulation of annual energy use is performed using the TRNSYS software. Second, several design alternatives with improved thermal resistance for walls, ceiling and windows, increased overall air tightness, and increased window-to-wall ratio of South facing windows are evaluated with respect to the life cycle energy use, life cycle emissions and life cycle cost. The solution that minimizes the energy demand is chosen as a reference house for the study of long-term thermal storage. Third, the computer simulation of a solar heating system with solar thermal collectors and long-term thermal storage capacity is presented. Finally, the life cycle cost and life cycle energy use of the solar combisystem are estimated for flat-plate solar collectors and evacuated tube solar collectors, respectively, for the economic and climatic conditions of this study.

  10. Control of Solar Power Plants Connected Grid with Simple Calculation Method on Residential Homes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kananda, Kiki; Nazir, Refdinal

    2017-12-01

    One of the most compatible renewable energy in all regions to apply is solar energy. Solar power plants can be built connected to existing or stand-alone power grids. In assisting the residential electricity in which there is a power grid, then a small scale solar energy power plants is very appropriate. However, the general constraint of solar energy power plants is still low in terms of efficiency. Therefore, this study will explain how to control the power of solar power plants more optimally, which is expected to reactive power to zero to raise efficiency. This is a continuation of previous research using Newton Rapshon control method. In this study we introduce a simple method by using ordinary mathematical calculations of solar-related equations. In this model, 10 PV modules type of ND T060M1 with a 60 Wp capacity are used. The calculations performed using MATLAB Simulink provide excellent value. For PCC voltage values obtained a stable quantity of approximately 220 V. At a maximum irradiation condition of 1000 W / m2, the reactive power value of Q solar generating system maximum 20.48 Var and maximum active power of 417.5 W. In the condition of lower irradiation, value of reactive power Q almost close to zero 0.77Var. This simple mathematical method can provide excellent quality control power values.

  11. Energy-Independent Architectural Models for Residential Complex Plans through Solar Energy in Daegu Metropolitan City, South Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Yul Kim

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available This study suggests energy-independent architectural models for residential complexes through the production of solar-energy-based renewable energy. Daegu Metropolitan City, South Korea, was selected as the target area for the residential complex. An optimal location in the area was selected to maximize the production of solar-energy-based renewable energy. Then, several architectural design models were developed. Next, after analyzing the energy-use patterns of each design model, economic analyses were conducted considering the profits generated from renewable-energy use. In this way, the optimum residential building model was identified. For this site, optimal solar power generation efficiency was obtained when solar panels were installed at 25° angles. Thus, the sloped roof angles were set to 25°, and the average height of the internal space of the highest floor was set to 1.8 m. Based on this model, analyses were performed regarding energy self-sufficiency improvement and economics. It was verified that connecting solar power generation capacity from a zero-energy perspective considering the consumer’s amount of power consumption was more effective than connecting maximum solar power generation capacity according to building structure. Moreover, it was verified that selecting a subsidizable solar power generation capacity according to the residential solar power facility connection can maximize operational benefits.

  12. Using Residential Solar PV Quote Data to Analyze the Relationship Between Installer Pricing and Firm Size

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Shaughnessy, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Margolis, Robert [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-04-01

    The vast majority of U.S. residential solar PV installers are small local-scale companies, however the industry is relatively concentrated in a few large national-scale installers. We develop a novel approach using solar PV quote data to study the price behavior of large solar PV installers in the United States. Through a paired differences approach, we find that large installer quotes are about higher, on average, than non-large installer quotes made to the same customer. The difference is statistically significant and robust after controlling for factors such as system size, equipment quality, and time effects. The results suggest that low prices are not the primary value proposition of large installer systems. We explore several hypotheses for this finding, including that large installers are able to exercise some market power and/or earn returns from reputations.

  13. Module Embedded Micro-inverter Smart Grid Ready Residential Solar Electric System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agamy, Mohammed [GE Global Research Center, Niskayuna, NY (United States)

    2015-10-27

    The “Module Embedded Micro-inverter Smart Grid Ready Residential Solar Electric System” program is focused on developing innovative concepts for residential photovoltaic (PV) systems with the following objectives: to create an Innovative micro-inverter topology that reduces the cost from the best in class micro-inverter and provides high efficiency (>96% CEC - California Energy Commission), and 25+ year warranty, as well as reactive power support; integrate micro-inverter and PV module to reduce system price by at least $0.25/W through a) accentuating dual use of the module metal frame as a large area heat spreader reducing operating temperature, and b) eliminating redundant wiring and connectors; and create micro-inverter controller handles smart grid and safety functions to simplify implementation and reduce cost.

  14. Residential solar photovoltaic market stimulation: Japanese and Australian lessons for Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Canada is a leading electricity consumer, yet lags behind other industrial countries (14th out of 20 reporting IEA countries) in the installation of solar photovoltaic systems. The factors (environmental benefits, health benefits, network benefits, need for new production capacity, etc.) promoting solar or other renewable sources of electricity in other countries are also present in Canada, but effective policy mechanisms to stimulate Canada's photovoltaic industry are only starting to appear. Discussions of policy options focused initially on renewable portfolio standards and then on feed-in tariffs. This paper reviews the Japanese and Australian experience with capital incentives to stimulate the residential market for photovoltaics. It demonstrates the ability of a market-sensitive program to stimulate industrial growth, achieve unit cost reductions and shift the market to include a large grid-tied share. Residential respondents to surveys report high costs as their primary barrier to installing photovoltaic systems and state a strong preference for capital incentives to reduce their investment costs. The Canadian government needs a market stimulation policy if it is to join those countries where a decentralized photovoltaic generation system strengthens the electricity supply system. A balanced solar energy market stimulation program is proposed that combines a feed-in tariff with a declining capital incentive. (author)

  15. The Price-Concentration Relationship in Early Residential Solar Third-Party Markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pless, Jacquelyn [Univ. of Oxford (United Kingdom); Langheim, Ria [Center for Sustainable Energy, San Francisco, CA (United States); Machak, Christina [Center for Sustainable Energy, San Francisco, CA (United States); Hellow, Henar [Center for Sustainable Energy, San Francisco, CA (United States); Sigrin, Ben [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The market for residential solar photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States has experienced tremendous growth over the past decade, with installed capacity more than doubling between 2014 and 2016 alone (SEIA, 2016). As the residential market continues to grow, it prompts new questions about the nature of competition between solar installers and how this competition, or lack thereof, affects the prices consumers are paying. It is often assumed that more competition leads to lower prices, but this is not universally true. For example, some studies have shown that factors such as brand loyalty could lead to a negative relationship between concentration and price in imperfectly competitive markets (Borenstein, 1985; Holmes, 1989). As such, the relationship between prices and market concentration is an open empirical question since theory could predict either a positive or negative relationship. Determining a relationship between prices and market concentration is challenging for several reasons. Most significantly, prices and market structure are simultaneously determined by each other -- the amount of competition a seller faces influences the price they can command, and prices determine a seller's market share. Previous studies have examined recent PV pricing trends over time and between markets (Davidson et al., 2015a; Davidson and Margolis 2015b; Nemet et al., 2016; Gillingham et al., 2014; Barbose and Darghouth 2015). While these studies of solar PV pricing are able to determine correlations between prices and market factors, they have not satisfactorily proven causation. Thus, to the best of our knowledge, there is little work to date that focuses on identifying the causal relationship between market structure and the prices paid by consumers. We use a unique dataset on third-party owned contract terms for the residential solar PV market in the San Diego Gas and Electricity service territory to better understand this relationship. Surprisingly, we find

  16. Trends in observable passive solar design strategies for existing homes in the U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruzner, Kelly; Cox, Kristin; Machmer, Brian; Klotz, Leidy

    2013-01-01

    Passive design strategies are among the most cost-effective methods to reduce energy consumption in buildings. However, the prevalence of these strategies in existing U.S. homes is not well understood. To help address this issue, this research evaluated a nationally-representative sample of 1000 existing homes distributed geographically across the U.S. Using satellite images, each building was evaluated for three passive design strategies: orientation, roof color, and level of shading. Several statistically significant regional trends were identified. For example, existing homes in the High Plains, Ohio Valley, Northwest, and Southern regions show a statistically significant trend towards orientation in the East–West direction, an effective passive design strategy. Less intuitively, in terms of what would seem to be optimal passive design, buildings in the High Plains and Ohio Valley generally have lighter roof colors than buildings in the warmer Southwest region. At the national level, no statistically significant trends were found towards the passive design strategies evaluated. These trends give us no reason to believe they were a major consideration in the design of existing homes. Policy measures and education may be required to take advantage of the opportunity for cost-effective energy savings through more widespread passive solar design. - Highlights: ► GoogleMaps to examine implementation of cost-effective, observable passive solar strategies in U.S. houses. ► No national trends toward passive solar design in U.S.—a missed opportunity. ► Some regional passive solar trends in U.S. for house orientation, roof color

  17. Solar Community Organizations and active peer effects in the adoption of residential PV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noll, Daniel; Dawes, Colleen; Rai, Varun

    2014-01-01

    Solar Community Organizations (SCOs) are formal or informal organizations and citizen groups that help to reduce the barriers to the adoption of residential solar photovoltaic (PV) by (1) providing access to credible and transparent information about the localized benefits of residential PV and (2) actively campaigning to encourage adoption within their operational boundaries. We study the peer effect, or social interaction, process catalyzed by SCOs to understand the impact of these organizations on the residential PV market. Using a standardized search methodology across spatial scales (state; city; neighborhoods), we identify and characterize the operations of 228 SCOs formed in the U.S. between 1970 and 2012. We also present case studies of four successful SCOs and find that a common thread of why these SCOs are successful involves effectively leveraging trusted community networks combined with putting together a complete information and financial-tools package for use by interested communities. Finally, our findings suggest that empirical studies that attempt statistical identification and estimation of peer effects should pay close attention to the role of SCOs, as the social interactions engendered by SCOs may be correlated both with the level of social learning and the socio-demographic characteristics of the communities of interest. - Highlights: • New dataset on Solar Community Organizations (SCOs) in the U.S. during 1970–2012. • Shock events catalyze formation of SCOs. • SCOs-driven peer effects found to positively impact PV adoption. • Leveraging trust networks is crucial for the success of SCOs. • In addition to information provision, financing options also key for SCOs' success

  18. The Evolving Market Structure of the U.S. Residential Solar PV Installation Industry, 2000-2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OShaughnessy, Eric J [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-02-22

    Market structure refers to the number of firms and the distribution of market shares among firms within an industry. In The Evolving Market Structure of the U.S. Residential Solar PV Installation Industry, 2000-2016, we examine market structure in the context of residential solar PV. We find that over 8,000 companies have installed at least one residential PV system, with about 2,900 companies active in 2016. The majority of residential PV installers are relatively small companies, with about half of installers installing fewer than five systems. At the same time, a subset of high-volume installers accumulated market share, especially beginning around 2010 with the emergence of alternative customer financing options.

  19. Calculating solar photovoltaic potential on residential rooftops in Kailua Kona, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carl, Caroline

    As carbon based fossil fuels become increasingly scarce, renewable energy sources are coming to the forefront of policy discussions around the globe. As a result, the State of Hawaii has implemented aggressive goals to achieve energy independence by 2030. Renewable electricity generation using solar photovoltaic technologies plays an important role in these efforts. This study utilizes geographic information systems (GIS) and Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data with statistical analysis to identify how much solar photovoltaic potential exists for residential rooftops in the town of Kailua Kona on Hawaii Island. This study helps to quantify the magnitude of possible solar photovoltaic (PV) potential for Solar World SW260 monocrystalline panels on residential rooftops within the study area. Three main areas were addressed in the execution of this research: (1) modeling solar radiation, (2) estimating available rooftop area, and (3) calculating PV potential from incoming solar radiation. High resolution LiDAR data and Esri's solar modeling tools and were utilized to calculate incoming solar radiation on a sample set of digitized rooftops. Photovoltaic potential for the sample set was then calculated with the equations developed by Suri et al. (2005). Sample set rooftops were analyzed using a statistical model to identify the correlation between rooftop area and lot size. Least squares multiple linear regression analysis was performed to identify the influence of slope, elevation, rooftop area, and lot size on the modeled PV potential values. The equations built from these statistical analyses of the sample set were applied to the entire study region to calculate total rooftop area and PV potential. The total study area statistical analysis findings estimate photovoltaic electric energy generation potential for rooftops is approximately 190,000,000 kWh annually. This is approximately 17 percent of the total electricity the utility provided to the entire island in

  20. Residential Solar PV Planning in Santiago, Chile: Incorporating the PM10 Parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Cáceres

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses an economic study of the installation of photovoltaic (PV solar panels for residential power generation in Santiago, Chile, based on the different parameters of a PV system, such as efficiency. As a performance indicator, the Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE was used, which indicates the benefit of the facility vs. the current cost of electrical energy. In addition, due to a high level of airborne dusts typically associated with PM10, the effect of the dust deposition on PV panels’ surfaces and the effect on panel performance are examined. Two different scenarios are analyzed: on-grid PV plants and off-grid PV plants.

  1. Device physics underlying silicon heterojunction and passivating-contact solar cells: A topical review

    KAUST Repository

    Chavali, Raghu V. K.

    2018-01-15

    The device physics of commercially dominant diffused-junction silicon solar cells is well understood, allowing sophisticated optimization of this class of devices. Recently, so-called passivating-contact solar cell technologies have become prominent, with Kaneka setting the world\\'s silicon solar cell efficiency record of 26.63% using silicon heterojunction contacts in an interdigitated configuration. Although passivating-contact solar cells are remarkably efficient, their underlying device physics is not yet completely understood, not in the least because they are constructed from diverse materials that may introduce electronic barriers in the current flow. To bridge this gap in understanding, we explore the device physics of passivating contact silicon heterojunction (SHJ) solar cells. Here, we identify the key properties of heterojunctions that affect cell efficiency, analyze the dependence of key heterojunction properties on carrier transport under light and dark conditions, provide a self-consistent multiprobe approach to extract heterojunction parameters using several characterization techniques (including dark J-V, light J-V, C-V, admittance spectroscopy, and Suns-Voc), propose design guidelines to address bottlenecks in energy production in SHJ cells, and develop a process-to-module modeling framework to establish the module\\'s performance limits. We expect that our proposed guidelines resulting from this multiscale and self-consistent framework will improve the performance of future SHJ cells as well as other passivating contact-based solar cells.

  2. Analysis of the photovoltaic solar energy capacity of residential rooftops in Andalusia (Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ordonez, J.; Jadraque, E.; Alegre, J.; Martinez, G. [Department of Civil Engineering, University of Granada (Spain)

    2010-09-15

    Fossil fuel energy resources are becoming increasingly scarce. Given the negative environmental impacts (e.g. greenhouse gas emissions) that accompany their use, it is hardly surprising that the development of renewable energies has become a major priority in the world today. Andalusia, with a mean solar radiation of 4.75 kWh/m{sup 2} per day and a surface area of 87,597 km{sup 2}, is the region in Europe with the highest solar energy potential. This research study determined the solar energy potential in Andalusia for grid-connected photovoltaic systems installed on residential rooftops. A methodology was developed for this purpose, which first involved a description of building characteristics, followed by the calculation of the useful roof surface area where photovoltaic arrays could be installed. In the next phase of the study, the mean solar irradiation characteristics were defined as well as the technical parameters of the photovoltaic systems. All of these factors allowed us to estimate the amount of electricity that could be potentially generated per year by solar panels. (author)

  3. Solar Process Heat Basics | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Process Heat Basics Solar Process Heat Basics Commercial and industrial buildings may use the same solar technologies-photovoltaics, passive heating, daylighting, and water heating-that are used for residential buildings. These nonresidential buildings can also use solar energy technologies that would be

  4. Climate classification and passive solar design implications in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lau, Chris C.S.; Lam, Joseph C. [Building Energy Research Group, Department of Building and Construction, City University of Hong Kong, Kowloon, Hong Kong (China); Yang, Liu [School of Architecture, Xi' an University of Architecture and Technology, Shaanxi 710055 (China)

    2007-07-15

    China's climate differs greatly in various regions, ranging from severe cold to hot and arid to humid. This has significant influences on energy efficient building design strategies and energy use. Solar radiation data from 123 measuring stations were used to propose a map indicating the solar radiation climates in China. A cluster analysis was adopted to identify the prevailing solar climates using the monthly average daily clearness index, K{sub t}, as climatic variable. Five major solar climates were identified with annual average K{sub t} ranging from 0.3 in the Sichuan Basin to 0.65 in the north and northwest regions. The solar climates were compared with the more widely used general (thermal) climates (severe cold, cold, hot summer and cold winter, mild and hot summer and warm winter) and the major topography (basin, plain and plateau), and implications for building designs were briefly discussed. (author)

  5. Climate classification and passive solar design implications in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lau, Chris C.S.; Lam, Joseph C.; Yang, Liu

    2007-01-01

    China's climate differs greatly in various regions, ranging from severe cold to hot and arid to humid. This has significant influences on energy efficient building design strategies and energy use. Solar radiation data from 123 measuring stations were used to propose a map indicating the solar radiation climates in China. A cluster analysis was adopted to identify the prevailing solar climates using the monthly average daily clearness index, K t , as climatic variable. Five major solar climates were identified with annual average K t ranging from 0.3 in the Sichuan Basin to 0.65 in the north and northwest regions. The solar climates were compared with the more widely used general (thermal) climates (severe cold, cold, hot summer and cold winter, mild and hot summer and warm winter) and the major topography (basin, plain and plateau), and implications for building designs were briefly discussed

  6. Passive annual heat storage principles in earth sheltered housing, a supplementary energy saving system in residential housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anselm, Akubue Jideofor [Green Architecture Department, School of Architecture and Urban Planning, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2008-07-01

    This paper looks through the many benefits of earth not only as a building element in its natural form but as a building mass, energy pack and spatial enclosure which characterized by location, unique physical terrain and climatic factors can be utilized in developing housing units that will provide the needed benefits of comfort alongside the seasons. Firstly the study identifies existing sunken earth houses in the North-west of China together with identifying the characters that formed the ideas behind the choice of going below the ground. Secondly, the study examines the pattern of heat exchange, heat gains and losses as to identify the principles that makes building in earth significant as an energy conservation system. The objective of this, is to relate the ideas of sunken earth home design with such principles as the passive annual heat storage systems (PAHS) in producing houses that will serve as units used to collect free solar heat all summer and cools passively while heating the earth around it and also keeping warm in winter by retrieving heat from the soil while utilizing the free solar heat stored throughout the summer as a year-round natural thermal resource. (author)

  7. The Evolving Market Structure of the U.S. Residential Solar PV Installation Industry, 2000-2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    OShaughnessy, Eric J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-16

    This study uses data on over 900,000 solar PV installations to summarize the evolving market structure of the U.S. residential solar PV installation industry. Over 8,000 companies have installed residential PV systems in the United States. The vast majority of these installers are small local companies. At the same time, a subset of national-scale high-volume PV installation companies hold high market shares. This study examines the factors behind these trends in market concentration, including the role of customer financing options.

  8. External perforated Solar Screens for daylighting in residential desert buildings: Identification of minimum perforation percentages

    KAUST Repository

    Sherif, Ahmed

    2012-06-01

    The desert climate is endowed by clear sky conditions, providing an excellent opportunity for optimum utilization of natural light in daylighting building indoor spaces. However, the sunny conditions of the desert skies, in countries like Egypt and Saudi Arabia, result in the admittance of direct solar radiation, which leads to thermal discomfort and the incidence of undesired glare. One type of shading systems that is used to permit daylight while controlling solar penetration is " Solar Screens" Very little research work addressed different design aspects of external Solar Screens and their influence on daylighting performance, especially in desert conditions, although these screens proved their effectiveness in controlling solar radiation in traditional buildings throughout history.This paper reports on the outcomes of an investigation that studied the influence of perforation percentage of Solar Screens on daylighting performance in a typical residential living room of a building in a desert location. The objective was to identify minimum perforation percentage of screen openings that provides adequate illuminance levels in design-specific cases and all-year-round.Research work was divided into three stages. Stage one focused on the analysis of daylighting illuminance levels in specific dates and times, while the second stage was built on the results of the first stage, and addressed year round performance using Dynamic Daylight Performance Metrics (DDPMs). The third stage addressed the possibility of incidence of glare in specific cases where illuminance levels where found very high in some specific points during the analysis of first stage. The research examined the daylighting performance in an indoor space with a number of assumed fixed experimentation parameters that were chosen to represent the principal features of a typical residential living room located in a desert environment setting.Stage one experiments demonstrated that the screens fulfilled the

  9. Tunnel oxide passivated contacts formed by ion implantation for applications in silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reichel, Christian; Feldmann, Frank; Müller, Ralph; Hermle, Martin; Glunz, Stefan W.; Reedy, Robert C.; Lee, Benjamin G.; Young, David L.; Stradins, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Passivated contacts (poly-Si/SiO x /c-Si) doped by shallow ion implantation are an appealing technology for high efficiency silicon solar cells, especially for interdigitated back contact (IBC) solar cells where a masked ion implantation facilitates their fabrication. This paper presents a study on tunnel oxide passivated contacts formed by low-energy ion implantation into amorphous silicon (a-Si) layers and examines the influence of the ion species (P, B, or BF 2 ), the ion implantation dose (5 × 10 14  cm −2 to 1 × 10 16  cm −2 ), and the subsequent high-temperature anneal (800 °C or 900 °C) on the passivation quality and junction characteristics using double-sided contacted silicon solar cells. Excellent passivation quality is achieved for n-type passivated contacts by P implantations into either intrinsic (undoped) or in-situ B-doped a-Si layers with implied open-circuit voltages (iV oc ) of 725 and 720 mV, respectively. For p-type passivated contacts, BF 2 implantations into intrinsic a-Si yield well passivated contacts and allow for iV oc of 690 mV, whereas implanted B gives poor passivation with iV oc of only 640 mV. While solar cells featuring in-situ B-doped selective hole contacts and selective electron contacts with P implanted into intrinsic a-Si layers achieved V oc of 690 mV and fill factor (FF) of 79.1%, selective hole contacts realized by BF 2 implantation into intrinsic a-Si suffer from drastically reduced FF which is caused by a non-Ohmic Schottky contact. Finally, implanting P into in-situ B-doped a-Si layers for the purpose of overcompensation (counterdoping) allowed for solar cells with V oc of 680 mV and FF of 80.4%, providing a simplified and promising fabrication process for IBC solar cells featuring passivated contacts

  10. Carrier population control and surface passivation in solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Cuevas, Andres; Wan, Yimao; Yan, Di; Samundsett, Christian; Allen, Thomas; Zhang, Xinyu; Cui, Jie; Bullock, James

    2018-01-01

    Controlling the concentration of charge carriers near the surface is essential for solar cells. It permits to form regions with selective conductivity for either electrons or holes and it also helps to reduce the rate at which they recombine

  11. Positioning Your Library for Solar (and Financial) Gain. Improving Energy Efficiency, Lighting, and Ventilation with Primarily Passive Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shane, Jackie

    2012-01-01

    This article stresses the importance of building design above technology as a relatively inexpensive way to reduce energy costs for a library. Emphasis is placed on passive solar design for heat and daylighting, but also examines passive ventilation and cooling, green roofs, and building materials. Passive design is weighed against technologies…

  12. Performance of a desiccant assisted packed bed passive solar dryer for copra processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Padmanaban Govindarajulu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, the performance of a novel desiccant assisted packed bed passive solar dryer was evaluated for copra processing and compared with conventional passive solar dryer. This novel solar dryer consists of a desiccant assisted packed bed solar air heater attached with a dryer cabin. The desiccant and phase change materials packed in the solar air heater has control the humidity and retains the heat for longer duration, respectively. The performance of the dryer was evaluated (in terms of drying time to attain the final equilibrium moisture content, drying rate, specific moisture extraction rate, pick-up efficiency, and dryer efficiency under the meteorological conditions of Coimbatore city in India during March and April 2016. The copra was dried from initial moisture content (wet basis of about 52% to the final moisture content (wet basis of about 8% in 62 hours with specific moisture extraction rate of 0.82 kg/kWh. The drying time was reduced by about 44 hours when compared to the conventional passive solar dryer. The dryer pick-up efficiency was varied between about 10% and 65%. The average dryer thermal efficiency was calculated to be about 32%. The quality of final dried product was found to be good.

  13. Impact of Rate Design Alternatives on Residential Solar Customer Bills. Increased Fixed Charges, Minimum Bills and Demand-based Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bird, Lori [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Davidson, Carolyn [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); McLaren, Joyce [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Miller, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-09-01

    With rapid growth in energy efficiency and distributed generation, electric utilities are anticipating stagnant or decreasing electricity sales, particularly in the residential sector. Utilities are increasingly considering alternative rates structures that are designed to recover fixed costs from residential solar photovoltaic (PV) customers with low net electricity consumption. Proposed structures have included fixed charge increases, minimum bills, and increasingly, demand rates - for net metered customers and all customers. This study examines the electricity bill implications of various residential rate alternatives for multiple locations within the United States. For the locations analyzed, the results suggest that residential PV customers offset, on average, between 60% and 99% of their annual load. However, roughly 65% of a typical customer's electricity demand is non-coincidental with PV generation, so the typical PV customer is generally highly reliant on the grid for pooling services.

  14. Solar Energy: Energy Conservation and Passive Design Concepts: Student Material. First Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younger, Charles; Orsak, Charles G., Jr.

    Designed for student use in "Energy Conservation and Passive Design Concepts," one of 11 courses in a 2-year associate degree program in solar technology, this manual provides readings, bibliographies, and illustrations for seven course modules. The manual, which corresponds to an instructor guide for the same course, covers the…

  15. CVD-Based Valence-Mending Passivation for Crystalline-Si Solar Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tao, Meng [Arizona State Univ., Mesa, AZ (United States)

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this project is to investigate a new surface passivation technique, valence-mending passivation, for its applications in crystalline-Si solar cells to achieve significant efficiency improvement and cost reduction. As the enabling technique, the project includes the development of chemical vapor deposition recipes to passivate textured Si(100) and multicrystalline-Si surfaces by sulfur and the characterization of the passivated Si surfaces, including thermal stability, Schottky barrier height, contact resistance and surface recombination. One important application is to replace the Ag finger electrode in Si cells with Al to reduce cost, by ~$0.1/Wp, and allow terawatt-scale deployment of crystalline-Si solar cells. These all-Al Si cells require a low-temperature metallization process for the Al electrode, to be compatible with valence-mending passivation and to prevent Al diffusion into n-type Si. Another application is to explore valence-mending passivation of grain boundaries in multicrystalline Si by diffusing sulfur into grain boundaries, to reduce the efficiency gas between monocrystalline-Si solar cells and multicrystalline-Si cells. The major accomplishments of this project include: 1) Demonstration of chemical vapor deposition processes for valence-mending passivation of both monocrystalline Si(100) and multicrystalline Si surfaces. Record Schottky barriers have been demonstrated, with the new record-low barrier of less than 0.08 eV between Al and sulfur-passivated n-type Si(100) and the new record-high barrier of 1.14 eV between Al and sulfur-passivated p-type Si(100). On the textured p-type monocrystalline Si(100) surface, the highest barrier with Al is 0.85 eV by valence-mending passivation. 2) Demonstration of a low-temperature metallization process for Al in crystalline-Si solar cells. The new metallization process is based on electroplating of Al in a room-temperature ionic liquid. The resistivity of the electroplated Al is ~7×10–6

  16. 10.6% Certified Colloidal Quantum Dot Solar Cells via Solvent-Polarity-Engineered Halide Passivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Xinzheng; Voznyy, Oleksandr; García de Arquer, F Pelayo; Liu, Mengxia; Xu, Jixian; Proppe, Andrew H; Walters, Grant; Fan, Fengjia; Tan, Hairen; Liu, Min; Yang, Zhenyu; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Sargent, Edward H

    2016-07-13

    Colloidal quantum dot (CQD) solar cells are solution-processed photovoltaics with broad spectral absorption tunability. Major advances in their efficiency have been made via improved CQD surface passivation and device architectures with enhanced charge carrier collection. Herein, we demonstrate a new strategy to improve further the passivation of CQDs starting from the solution phase. A cosolvent system is employed to tune the solvent polarity in order to achieve the solvation of methylammonium iodide (MAI) and the dispersion of hydrophobic PbS CQDs simultaneously in a homogeneous phase, otherwise not achieved in a single solvent. This process enables MAI to access the CQDs to confer improved passivation. This, in turn, allows for efficient charge extraction from a thicker photoactive layer device, leading to a certified solar cell power conversion efficiency of 10.6%, a new certified record in CQD photovoltaics.

  17. Simulation on the Performance of Dye Solar Cell Incorporated with TiO2 Passivation Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unan Yusmaniar Oktiawati

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dye Solar Cell (DSC has started to gain interest in the recent years for practical application because of its ecofriendly, low cost, and easy fabrication. However, its efficiency is still not as competitive as the conventional silicon based solar cell. One of the research efforts to improve the efficiency of DSC is to use the passivation layer in between the photoelectrode material and the conductive oxide substrate. Thus, the objective of this simulation study is to investigate the effect of passivation layer on the performance of DSC. Properties from literatures which are based on physical work were captured as the input for the simulation using process, ATHENA, and device, ATLAS, simulator. Results have shown that the addition of two-20 nm TiO2 passivation layers on DSC can enhance the efficiency by 11% as the result of less recombination, higher electron mobility, and longer electron lifetime.

  18. Passive Method to Reduce Solar Energy Effect on the Cooling Load in Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orfi J.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Energy needed for cooling residential and industrial buildings in hot weather countries is the major issue. The period needed for cooling or comfort conditions in those countries exceeds five months and outdoor temperature reaches more than 40 °C. Also, the solar intensity usually high and can reach about one kW per m2. Hence, any attempt to reduce the effect of solar energy on the cooling load is worthy to investigate. The present work analyzes using artificial, naturally ventilated, shading covers to reduce the effect of solar energy. Analytical and numerical analyzes were performed on the effect of adding a ventilated cover to walls and roof exposed to the solar energy.

  19. Analysis of potential energy, economic and environmental savings in residential buildings: Solar collectors combined with microturbines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suárez, I.; Prieto, M.M.; Fernández, F.J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Centralization of energy systems for a group of buildings improves profitability. ► Thermal solar systems are economically interesting even in low radiation locations. ► Regulations currently in force determine the feasibility of high efficiency energy systems. - Abstract: This paper presents an analysis of a combined solar-cogeneration installation for providing energy services in a set of four residential buildings. Different configurations as regards the number of collectors and their orientation, the number of buildings grouped together, the type of microturbines used in the cogeneration system and their daily and annual operating period are studied from the legal, economic and environmental perspectives. The installation that fulfils the minimum requirements of the solar system coverage and the cogeneration system efficiency currently in force, and simultaneously leads to the highest energy, economic and environmental savings is the one that integrates both technologies and centralises the installation for the four buildings together. A payback period lower than 8 years is obtained that makes this investment recommendable, but it is also concluded that maintaining the existing subsidies for these technologies and lowering the costs of the equipment, are essential factors to ensure the feasibility of this type of installations

  20. A Non-Modeling Exploration of Residential Solar Photovoltaic (PV) Adoption and Non-Adoption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moezzi, Mithra [Portland State Univ., Portland, OR (United States); Ingle, Aaron [Portland State Univ., Portland, OR (United States); Lutzenhiser, Loren [Portland State Univ., Portland, OR (United States); Sigrin, Benjamin O. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Although U.S. deployment of residential rooftop solar photovoltaic (PV) systems has accelerated in recent years, PV is still installed on less than 1 percent of single-family homes. Most research on household PV adoption focuses on scaling initial markets and modeling predicted growth rather than considering more broadly why adoption occurs. Among the studies that have investigated the characteristics of PV adoption, most collected data from adopters, sometimes with additional non-adopter data, and rarely from people who considered but did not adopt PV. Yet the vast majority of Americans are non-adopters, and they are a diverse group - understanding their ways of evaluating PV adoption is important. Similarly, PV is a unique consumer product, which makes it difficult to apply findings from studies of other technologies to PV. In addition, little research addresses the experience of households after they install PV. This report helps fill some of these gaps in the existing literature. The results inform a more detailed understanding of residential PV adoption, while helping ensure that adoption is sufficiently beneficial to adopters and even non-adopters.

  1. Passive solar design studies for non-domestic buildings. Case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    Of the passive solar designs reported, those for a light industrial building, a nurses hostel and a low rise office block were considered to be clearly cost effective. A retrofit study of a secondary school showed that incorporating passive solar measures into refurbishment could be cost effective. Designs for a sports hall and medium rise office block were considered to be only marginally cost effective and those for a hotel bedroom block and DIY superstore were judged not to be cost effective. The maximization of daylight penetration coupled with controls on the lighting systems produced the main energy saving. This orientation, built form, fenestration, window shape, perimeter (and overhead) daylight and atria were primary solar features. Direct gain considered in conjunction with building weight/response factor could contribute to a lesser degree. Trombe walls were shown to be generally uneconomic for this type of building and conservatories contributed to amenity value more than to savings.

  2. Feasibility Study of Residential Grid-Connected Solar Photovoltaic Systems in the State of Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Odeh, Mahmoud

    This study aims to measure the financial viability of installing and using a residential grid-connected PV system in the State of Indiana while predicting its performance in eighteen geographical locations within the state over the system's expected lifetime. The null hypothesis of the study is that installing a PV system for a single family residence in the State of Indiana will not pay for itself within 25 years. Using a systematic approach consisting of six steps, data regarding the use of renewable energy in the State of Indiana was collected from the website of the US Department of Energy to perform feasibility analysis of the installation and use of a standard-sized residential PV system. The researcher was not able to reject the null hypothesis that installing a PV system for a single family residence in the State of Indiana will not pay for itself within 25 years. This study found that the standard PV system does not produce a positive project balance and does not pay for itself within 25 years (the life time of the system) assuming the average cost of a system. The government incentive programs are not enough to offset the cost of installing the system against the cost of the electricity that would not be purchased from the utility company. It can be concluded that the cost of solar PV is higher than the market valuation of the power it produces; thus, solar PV did not compete on the cost basis with the traditional competitive energy sources. Reducing the capital cost will make the standard PV system economically viable in Indiana. The study found that the capital cost for the system should be reduced by 15% - 56%.

  3. A New Remote Communications Link to Reduce Residential PV Solar Costs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, Randy [Operant Solar Corporation,CA (United States); Sugiyama, Rod [Operant Solar Corporation,CA (United States)

    2017-12-11

    Monitoring of PV/DER site production is expensive to install and unreliable. Among third party systems providers, lost communications links are a growing concern. Nearly 20% of links are failing, provisioning is complex, recovery is expensive, production data is lost, and access is fragmented. FleetLink is a new concept in DER system communications, purpose built for lowering the cost of maintaining active contact with residential end user sites and ensuring that production data is reliably available to third party systems providers. Systems providers require accurate, secure system monitoring and reporting of production data and system faults while driving down overall costs to compete effectively. This plug and play, independently operating communications solution lowers the cost of fleet contact from typically .08 dollars-$.12/W down to .02 dollars -.03/W including installation and maintenance expenses. FleetLink establishes a breakthrough in simplicity that facilitates rapid expansion of residential solar by reducing initial capital outlay and lowering installation labor time and skill levels. The solution also facilitates higher DER installation growth rates by driving down maintenance costs and eliminating communications trouble calls. This is accomplished by the FleetLink’s unique network technology that enables dynamic network configuration for fast changes, and active, self-healing DER site contact for uptime assurance. Using an open source network framework with proprietary, application specific enhancements, FleetLink independently manages connectivity, security, recovery, grid control communications, and fleet expansion while presenting a compliant SunSpec interface to the third party operations centers. The net system cost savings of at least .05 dollars/W supports the SunShot cost goals and the flexibility and scalability of the solution accelerates the velocity and ubiquitous adoption of solar.

  4. SOLCOST. Solar Hot Water Handbook. A Simplified Design Method for Sizing and Costing Residential and Commercial Solar Service Hot Water Systems. Second Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    This pamphlet offers a preview of information services available from Solcost, a research and development project. The first section explains that Solcost calculates system and costs performance for solar heated and cooled new and retrofit constructions, such as residential buildings and single zone commercial buildings. For a typical analysis,…

  5. ZnSe passivation layer for the efficiency enhancement of CuInS2 quantum dots sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng, Zhuoyin; Liu, Yueli; Zhao, Yinghan; Chen, Keqiang; Cheng, Yuqing; Kovalev, Valery; Chen, Wen

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • ZnSe is employed as passivation layer in CuInS 2 quantum dots sensitized solar cells. • Slight red-shift has been occurred in UV–vis absorption spectra with ZnSe coating. • CuInS 2 based solar cells coated by ZnSe have better efficiency than that of ZnS. • Higher rate of charge transport can be produced after coating with ZnSe. -- Abstract: The effect of ZnSe passivation layer is investigated in the CuInS 2 quantum dot sensitized solar cells, which is used to improve the photovoltaic performance. The CuInS 2 quantum dot sensitized TiO 2 photo-anodes are prepared by assembly linking technique, and then deposited by the ZnSe passivation layer using the successive ionic layer absorption and reaction technique. The optical absorption edge and photoluminescence peak have slightly red-shifted after the passivation layer coating. Under solar light illumination, the ZnSe passivation layer based CuInS 2 quantum dot sensitized solar cells have the higher photovoltaic efficiency of 0.95% and incident photon conversion efficiency response than that of pure CuInS 2 based solar cells and ZnS passivation layer based solar cells, as the electron injection rate becomes faster after coating with ZnSe passivation layer

  6. 2D layered insulator hexagonal boron nitride enabled surface passivation in dye sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmugam, Mariyappan; Jacobs-Gedrim, Robin; Durcan, Chris; Yu, Bin

    2013-11-21

    A two-dimensional layered insulator, hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), is demonstrated as a new class of surface passivation materials in dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) to reduce interfacial carrier recombination. We observe ~57% enhancement in the photo-conversion efficiency of the DSSC utilizing h-BN coated semiconductor TiO2 as compared with the device without surface passivation. The h-BN coated TiO2 is characterized by Raman spectroscopy to confirm the presence of highly crystalline, mixed monolayer/few-layer h-BN nanoflakes on the surface of TiO2. The passivation helps to minimize electron-hole recombination at the TiO2/dye/electrolyte interfaces. The DSSC with h-BN passivation exhibits significantly lower dark saturation current in the low forward bias region and higher saturation in the high forward bias region, respectively, suggesting that the interface quality is largely improved without impeding carrier transport at the material interface. The experimental results reveal that the emerging 2D layered insulator could be used for effective surface passivation in solar cell applications attributed to desirable material features such as high crystallinity and self-terminated/dangling-bond-free atomic planes as compared with high-k thin-film dielectrics.

  7. A new structure for comparing surface passivation materials of GaAs solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desalvo, Gregory C.; Barnett, Allen M.

    1989-01-01

    The surface recombination velocity (S sub rec) for bare GaAs is typically as high as 10 to the 6th power to 10 to the 7th power cm/sec, which dramatically lowers the efficiency of GaAs solar cells. Early attempts to circumvent this problem by making an ultra thin junction (xj less than .1 micron) proved unsuccessful when compared to lowering S sub rec by surface passivation. Present day GaAs solar cells use an GaAlAs window layer to passivate the top surface. The advantages of GaAlAs in surface passivation are its high bandgap energy and lattice matching to GaAs. Although GaAlAs is successful in reducing the surface recombination velocity, it has other inherent problems of chemical instability (Al readily oxidizes) and ohmic contact formation. The search for new, more stable window layer materials requires a means to compare their surface passivation ability. Therefore, a device structure is needed to easily test the performance of different passivating candidates. Such a test device is described.

  8. Advanced Passivation Technology and Loss Factor Minimization for High Efficiency Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Cheolmin; Balaji, Nagarajan; Jung, Sungwook; Choi, Jaewoo; Ju, Minkyu; Lee, Seunghwan; Kim, Jungmo; Bong, Sungjae; Chung, Sungyoun; Lee, Youn-Jung; Yi, Junsin

    2015-10-01

    High-efficiency Si solar cells have attracted great attention from researchers, scientists, photovoltaic (PV) industry engineers for the past few decades. With thin wafers, surface passivation becomes necessary to increase the solar cells efficiency by overcoming several induced effects due to associated crystal defects and impurities of c-Si. This paper discusses suitable passivation schemes and optimization techniques to achieve high efficiency at low cost. SiNx film was optimized with higher transmittance and reduced recombination for using as an effective antireflection and passivation layer to attain higher solar cell efficiencies. The higher band gap increased the transmittance with reduced defect states that persisted at 1.68 and 1.80 eV in SiNx films. The thermal stability of SiN (Si-rich)/SiN (N-rich) stacks was also studied. Si-rich SiN with a refractive index of 2.7 was used as a passivation layer and N-rich SiN with a refractive index of 2.1 was used for thermal stability. An implied Voc of 720 mV with a stable lifetime of 1.5 ms was obtained for the stack layer after firing. Si-N and Si-H bonding concentration was analyzed by FTIR for the correlation of thermally stable passivation mechanism. The passivation property of spin coated Al2O3 films was also investigated. An effective surface recombination velocity of 55 cm/s with a high density of negative fixed charges (Qf) on the order of 9 x 10(11) cm(-2) was detected in Al2O3 films.

  9. Silicon diffusion in aluminum for rear passivated solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urrejola, Elias; Peter, Kristian; Plagwitz, Heiko; Schubert, Gunnar

    2011-01-01

    We show that the lateral spread of silicon in a screen-printed aluminum layer increases by (1.50±0.06) μm/ deg. C, when increasing the peak firing temperature within an industrially applicable range. In this way, the maximum spread limit of diffused silicon in aluminum is predictable and does not depend on the contact area size but on the firing temperature. Therefore, the geometry of the rear side pattern can influence not only series resistance losses within the solar cell but the process of contact formation itself. In addition, too fast cooling lead to Kirkendall void formations instead of an eutectic layer.

  10. Optimized concentrating/passive tracking solar collector. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sterne, K E; Johnson, A L; Grotheer, R H

    1979-01-01

    A concentrating solar collector having about half the material cost of other collectors with similar performance is described. The selected design is a Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC) which concentrates solar energy throughout the year without requiring realignment. Output is a fluid heated to 100/sup 0/C with good efficiency. The optical design of the reflector surface was optimized, yielding a 2.0:1 concentration ratio with a 60/sup 0/C acceptance angle and a low profile. Double glazing was chosen consisting of a polyester film outer glazing and an inner glazing of glass tubes around the absorbers. The selectively coated steel absorber tubes are connected in series with flexible plastic tubing. Much development effort went into the materials for the reflector subassembly. A laminate of metalized plastic film over plaster was chosen for the reflective surface. The reflector is rigidized by attaching filled epoxy header plates at each end. Aluminum side rails and an insulating back complete the structure. The finished design resulted in a material cost of $21.40 per square meter in production quantities. Performance testing of a prototype produced a 50% initial efficiency rating. This is somewhat lower than expected, and is due to materials and processes used in the prototype for the outer glazing, reflective surface and absorber coating. However, the efficiency curve drops only slightly with increasing temperature differential, showing the inherent advantage of the concentrator over flat plate collectors.

  11. Development of a solar-powered residential air conditioner: Screening analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    Screening analysis aimed at the definition of an optimum configuration of a Rankine cycle solar-powered air conditioner designed for residential application were conducted. Initial studies revealed that system performance and cost were extremely sensitive to condensing temperature and to the type of condenser used in the system. Consequently, the screening analyses were concerned with the generation of parametric design data for different condenser approaches; i. e., (1) an ambient air condenser, (2) a humidified ambient air condenser (3) an evaporative condenser, and (4) a water condenser (with a cooling tower). All systems feature a high performance turbocompressor and a single refrigerant (R-11) for the power and refrigeration loops. Data were obtained by computerized methods developed to permit system characterization over a broad range of operating and design conditions. The criteria used for comparison of the candidate system approaches were (1) overall system COP (refrigeration effect/solar heat input), (2) auxiliary electric power for fans and pumps, and (3) system installed cost or cost to the user.

  12. Heating Performance Study on a Passive Solar Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naz Muhammad Y.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A passive thermosyphon heating system was designed, fabricated and tested for its thermal performance in semi-arid and four-season climate of Pakistan. The heating system design was based on a two-stage storage and natural thermosyphon circulation of the water. The objective of the study was to enhance the heating performance of the thermosyphon systems by using a semicircular steel pot collector, water carrying copper coil cover, two step water storage, and side mirror reflectors. The experiments were conducted during April to July 2014 when ambient temperature was reported to vary between 32°C and 44°C. In continuous flow mode operation, the hot water temperature remained between 46°C and 78°C. Since water temperature in the range of 45°C to 50°C is considered suitable for the domestic use, the presented design can easily reach the temperatures even higher than those acceptable for the domestic use.

  13. Passive flow heat exchanger simulation for power generation from solar pond using thermoelectric generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharin, Nuraida'Aadilia; Arzami, Amir Afiq; Singh, Baljit; Remeli, Muhammad Fairuz; Tan, Lippong; Oberoi, Amandeep

    2017-04-01

    In this study, a thermoelectric generator heat exchanger system was designed and simulated for electricity generation from solar pond. A thermoelectric generator heat exchanger was studied by using Computational Fluid Dynamics to simulate flow and heat transfer. A thermoelectric generator heat exchanger designed for passive in-pond flow used in solar pond for electrical power generation. A simple analysis simulation was developed to obtain the amount of electricity generated at different conditions for hot temperatures of a solar pond at different flow rates. Results indicated that the system is capable of producing electricity. This study and design provides an alternative way to generate electricity from solar pond in tropical countries like Malaysia for possible renewable energy applications.

  14. Design of an atrium for a passive-solar retrofit of an office buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, J.L.; Hunn, B.D.

    1980-01-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) has proposed to retrofit one of its administrative office buildings with a solar atrium. A 334 m/sup 2/ courtyard will be enclosed with a roof-mounted system of clerestory windows to maximize winter solar gain. This sunspace will thermally buffer the adjoining offices and also will preheat air supplied to the building's conventional heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system. The use of the DOE-2 building energy analysis computer program in the design of the solar atrium is described. The results of a series of simulations are reported detailing the tradeoffs inherent in the selection of an optimal glazing area, the maintenance of acceptable comfort levels within the sunspace, and intergration of passive-solar devices with the conventional HVAC system. Potential energy savings are also discussed.

  15. In-depth investigation of spin-on doped solar cells with thermally grown oxide passivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samir Mahmmod Ahmad

    Full Text Available Solar cell industrial manufacturing, based largely on proven semiconductor processing technologies supported by significant advancements in automation, has reached a plateau in terms of cost and efficiency. However, solar cell manufacturing cost (dollar/watt is still substantially higher than fossil fuels. The route to lowering cost may not lie with continuing automation and economies of scale. Alternate fabrication processes with lower cost and environmental-sustainability coupled with self-reliance, simplicity, and affordability may lead to price compatibility with carbon-based fuels. In this paper, a custom-designed formulation of phosphoric acid has been investigated, for n-type doping in p-type substrates, as a function of concentration and drive-in temperature. For post-diffusion surface passivation and anti-reflection, thermally-grown oxide films in 50–150-nm thickness were grown. These fabrication methods facilitate process simplicity, reduced costs, and environmental sustainability by elimination of poisonous chemicals and toxic gases (POCl3, SiH4, NH3. Simultaneous fire-through contact formation process based on screen-printed front surface Ag and back surface through thermally grown oxide films was optimized as a function of the peak temperature in conveyor belt furnace. Highest efficiency solar cells fabricated exhibited efficiency of ∼13%. Analysis of results based on internal quantum efficiency and minority carried measurements reveals three contributing factors: high front surface recombination, low minority carrier lifetime, and higher reflection. Solar cell simulations based on PC1D showed that, with improved passivation, lower reflection, and high lifetimes, efficiency can be enhanced to match with commercially-produced PECVD SiN-coated solar cells. Keywords: Crystalline Si solar cells, Phosphoric acid spin-on doping, Screen printing, Thermal oxide passivation

  16. Residential on site solar heating systems: a project evaluation using the capital asset pricing model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schutz, S.R.

    1978-12-01

    An energy source ready for immediate use on a commercial scale is solar energy in the form of On Site Solar Heating (OSSH) systems. These systems collect solar energy with rooftop panels, store excess energy in water storage tanks and can, in certain circumstances, provide 100% of the space heating and hot water required by the occupants of the residential or commercial structure on which the system is located. Such systems would take advantage of a free and inexhaustible energy source--sunlight. The principal drawback of such systems is the high initial capital cost. The solution would normally be a carefully worked out corporate financing plan. However, at the moment it is individual homeowners and not corporations who are attempting to finance these systems. As a result, the terms of finance are excessively stringent and constitute the main obstacle to the large scale market penetration of OSSH. This study analyzes the feasibility of OSSH as a private utility investment. Such systems would be installed and owned by private utilities and would displace other investment projects, principally electric generating plants. The return on OSSH is calculated on the basis of the cost to the consumer of the equivalent amount of electrical energy that is displaced by the OSSH system. The hurdle rate for investment in OSSH is calculated using the Sharpe--Lintner Capital Asset Pricing Model. The results of this study indicate that OSSH is a low risk investment having an appropriate hurdle rate of 7.9%. At this rate, OSSH investment appears marginally acceptable in northern California and unambiguously acceptable in southern California. The results also suggest that utility investment in OSSH should lead to a higher degree of financial leverage for utility companies without a concurrent deterioration in the risk class of utility equity.

  17. Research on passive solar energy application in Cyprus. Part 1. Meteorological characteristics of Cyprus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishihara, O; Savva, M [Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Saito, I [Yatsushiro Institute of Technology, Kumamoto (Japan)

    1996-10-27

    For application of passive solar systems to houses in Cyprus, meteorological and geographical characteristics were studied. Solar energy is not yet in wide use in Cyprus. Meteorological subjects are also not yet clarified for application of passive solar systems to houses. Annual temperature difference is estimated to be nearly 10{degree}C between the lowland and highland, and a drop in temperature with altitude is 0.33-0.76{degree}C/100m. Sunshine duration is longer in summer in everywhere showing 10-13.2 hours in August, while it is shorter in winter showing 3.5-6 hours in January. It is shorter in highland than lowland all the year through. Solar radiation intensity is obviously lower in winter than summer. Relative humidity is considerably low in highland, and it is low during the daytime in summer in lowland. In general, the relative humidity remarkably increases in the night all the year through and the daytime in winter. As the survey result, meteorological conditions are more suitable in Cyprus than Tokyo and Kumamoto for application of solar systems to houses. 4 refs., 10 figs., 1 tab.

  18. Solar cells based upon multicrystalline Si with DLC antireflection and passivating coatings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klyui, N.; Litovchenko, V.; Neselevska, L.; Kostylyov, V.; Sarikov, A.; Taraschenko, N.; Kittler, M.; Seifert, W.

    2006-01-01

    The characteristics of multicrystalline Si solar cells covered by diamond-like carbon (DLC) antireflection coatings been experimentally studied. It has been shown that this kind of coating provides a significant increase of the efficiency of solar cells mainly due to the increase of the short-circuit current density. The effects of antireflection and of the surface and bulk passivation on the SC current-voltage characteristics due to the DLC deposition have been investigated theoretically. Physical mechanisms underlying the observed effects have been proposed

  19. Passive Collecting of Solar Radiation Energy using Transparent Thermal Insulators, Energetic Efficiency of Transparent Thermal Insulators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smajo Sulejmanovic

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper explains passive collection of solar radiation energy using transparent thermal insulators. Transparent thermal insulators are transparent for sunlight, at the same time those are very good thermal insulators. Transparent thermal insulators can be placed instead of standard conventional thermal insulators and additionally transparent insulators can capture solar radiation, transform it into heat and save heat just as standard insulators. Using transparent insulators would lead to reduce in usage of fossil fuels and would help protection of an environment and reduce effects of global warming, etc.

  20. Builder experience with low-cost high-value passive solar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aitken, D.W.; Neuffer, P.

    1993-01-01

    This article reports on passive solar tract home construction in the Reno, Nevada, area, that has enhanced the builder's market, made buying a home more affordable for the entry-level customer and made living in that home more attractive, displaced energy at $1.50/MMBtu, and attracted the local utility into seriously considering offering cash incentives for the construction and sale of those homes as a very cost-effective gas demand side management program. The builder's solar models, costs and marketing experience are described, and the utility's economic analysis is presented

  1. Residential photovoltaic module and array requirement study. Low-Cost Solar Array Project engineering area. Final report appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    This volume contains the appendices to a study to identify design requirements for photovoltaic modules and arrays used in residential applications. Appendices include: (1) codes, standards, and manuals of accepted practice-definition and importance; (2) regional code variations-impact; (3) model and city codes-review; (4) National Electric Code (NEC)-review; (5) types of standards-definition and importance; (6) federal standards-review; (7) standards review method; (8) manuals of accepted practice; (9) codes and referenced standards-summary; (10) public safety testing laboratories; (11) insurance review; (12) studies approach; (13) mounting configurations; (14) module/panel size and shape cost analysis; (15) grounding, wiring, terminal and voltage studies; (16) array installation cost summary; (17) photovoltaic shingle/module comparison; (18) retrofit application; (19) residential photovoltaic module performance criteria; (20) critique of JPL's solar cell module design and test specifications for residential applications; and (21) CSI format specification. (WHK)

  2. Sulfur passivation and contact methods for GaAs nanowire solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tajik, N; Peng, Z; Kuyanov, P; LaPierre, R R

    2011-01-01

    The effect of sulfur passivation on core-shell p-n junction GaAs nanowire (NW) solar cells has been investigated. Devices of two types were investigated, consisting of indium tin oxide contact dots or opaque Au finger electrodes. Lateral carrier transport from the NWs to the contact fingers was achieved via a p-doped GaAs surface conduction layer. NWs between the opaque contact fingers had sidewall surfaces exposed for passivation by sulfur. The relative cell efficiency increased by 19% upon passivation. The contribution of the thin film grown between the NWs to the total cell efficiency was estimated by removing the NWs using a sonication procedure. Mechanisms of carrier transport and photovoltaic effects are discussed on the basis of spatially resolved laser scanning measurements.

  3. Installed Cost Benchmarks and Deployment Barriers for Residential Solar Photovoltaics with Energy Storage: Q1 2016

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardani, Kristen; O' Shaughnessy, Eric; Fu, Ran; McClurg, Chris; Huneycutt, Joshua; Margolis, Robert

    2016-12-01

    In this report, we fill a gap in the existing knowledge about PV-plus-storage system costs and value by providing detailed component- and system-level installed cost benchmarks for residential systems. We also examine other barriers to increased deployment of PV-plus-storage systems in the residential sector. The results are meant to help technology manufacturers, installers, and other stakeholders identify cost-reduction opportunities and inform decision makers about regulatory, policy, and market characteristics that impede solar plus storage deployment. In addition, our periodic cost benchmarks will document progress in cost reductions over time. To analyze costs for PV-plus-storage systems deployed in the first quarter of 2016, we adapt the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's component- and system-level cost-modeling methods for standalone PV. In general, we attempt to model best-in-class installation techniques and business operations from an installed-cost perspective. In addition to our original analysis, model development, and review of published literature, we derive inputs for our model and validate our draft results via interviews with industry and subject-matter experts. One challenge to analyzing the costs of PV-plus-storage systems is choosing an appropriate cost metric. Unlike standalone PV, energy storage lacks universally accepted cost metrics, such as dollars per watt of installed capacity and lifetime levelized cost of energy. We explain the difficulty of arriving at a standard approach for reporting storage costs and then provide the rationale for using the total installed costs of a standard PV-plus-storage system as our primary metric, rather than using a system-size-normalized metric.

  4. Ultrathin Oxide Passivation Layer by Rapid Thermal Oxidation for the Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cell Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Youngseok; Oh, Woongkyo; Dao, Vinh Ai; Hussain, Shahzada Qamar; Yi, Junsin

    2012-01-01

    It is difficult to deposit extremely thin a-Si:H layer in heterojunction with intrinsic thin layer (HIT) solar cell due to thermal damage and tough process control. This study aims to understand oxide passivation mechanism of silicon surface using rapid thermal oxidation (RTO) process by examining surface effective lifetime and surface recombination velocity. The presence of thin insulating a-Si:H layer is the key to get high Voc by lowering the leakage current (I0) which improves the efficie...

  5. Passive Solar Landscape Design: Its Impact on Fossil Fuel Consumption Through Landscape Design

    OpenAIRE

    Boelt, Robin Wiatt

    2006-01-01

    Gas, electricity, heating and cooling buildings - comfort â our lives revolve around fossil fuels. Technology and the demands of living in todayâ s society add to our gigantic fossil fuel appetite. With gas prices topping three dollars per gallon, changes must be made. This thesis project presents an analysis of passive solar landscape design (PSLD) principles used to create microclimates within the landscape, and thereby increasing human comfort both indoors and outdoors. The ...

  6. From design through to occupancy: the impact of conflicts in passive solar design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudek, S.; Ignatowicz, J.; Shove, E.; Warren, B.

    1996-03-01

    This report considers two areas of concern between the architects and occupants of buildings which encompass passive solar designs, specifically the identification and categorisation of conflicts between the two parties, and the establishment of a routine to highlight, where, in the design process, conflicts are likely to arise and how best they may be avoided. Heating levels, natural lighting and natural ventilation are identified as key areas although problems differ between domestic and non-domestic building users. (UK)

  7. Passive and hybrid solar manufactured housing and buildings. [Includes architectural drawings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scholz, D; Bowling, C; Winter, S; Levy, E; Marks, R; Zgolinski, A

    1980-01-01

    The final design work on a passive solar two story modular home to be built by Unibilt Industries is summarized. After reviewing alternative insulation, glazing, and water wall schemes, five options were identified for detailed energy use and life cycle cost analysis. Using the PASCALC/SLR analysis procedure, the performance of the base case home and each of the energy conservation options was calculated. (MHR)

  8. Energy balance in a passive solar building. An attempt at economic assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sobczyk Wiktoria

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper emphasizes possibilities for substantially reducing energy consumption with modern ecofriendly buildings. Passive building construction is a sector of the construction industry that has extremely low demand for the energy for heating house interiors. A passive house requires a small amount of energy to provide thermal comfort, but it requires proper systems (HRU, heat pumps, solar collectors to accomplish that effect. The modification proposal presented in the paper has dramatically reduced the demand for heat capacity of the building. Unfortunately the passive standard has not been reached, but thermomodernisation would allow for a significant reduction of heating costs. The demand per 1 m2 of heated surface area in a traditional building was 41.9 W/m2, while after the modification – only 15.01 W/m2. The tested building, if located in a warmer climate, with an average outside temperature of ≥ -10ºC would certainly perform its function. The use of modern technology ensures high energy savings. Such solutions, however, are not the cheapest on the market, and therefore are less available. The construction of a passive solar buildings is a “green” investment with tangible environmental results. By ensuring the thermomodernisation of a traditional building we can enjoy real environmental and economic benefits.

  9. Advanced passivation techniques for Si solar cells with high-κ dielectric materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geng, Huijuan; Lin, Tingjui; Letha, Ayra Jagadhamma; Hwang, Huey-Liang; Kyznetsov, Fedor A.; Smirnova, Tamara P.; Saraev, Andrey A.; Kaichev, Vasily V.

    2014-01-01

    Electronic recombination losses at the wafer surface significantly reduce the efficiency of Si solar cells. Surface passivation using a suitable thin dielectric layer can minimize the recombination losses. Herein, advanced passivation using simple materials (Al 2 O 3 , HfO 2 ) and their compounds H (Hf) A (Al) O deposited by atomic layer deposition (ALD) was investigated. The chemical composition of Hf and Al oxide films were determined by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The XPS depth profiles exhibit continuous uniform dense layers. The ALD-Al 2 O 3 film has been found to provide negative fixed charge (−6.4 × 10 11  cm −2 ), whereas HfO 2 film provides positive fixed charge (3.2 × 10 12  cm −2 ). The effective lifetimes can be improved after oxygen gas annealing for 1 min. I-V characteristics of Si solar cells with high-κ dielectric materials as passivation layers indicate that the performance is significantly improved, and ALD-HfO 2 film would provide better passivation properties than that of the ALD-Al 2 O 3 film in this research work.

  10. Hole-Collection Mechanism in Passivating Metal-Oxide Contacts on Si Solar Cells: Insights From Numerical Simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Vijayan, Ramachandran Ammapet; Essig, Stephanie; De Wolf, Stefaan; Ramanathan, Bairava Ganesh; Loper, Philipp; Ballif, Christophe; Varadharajaperumal, Muthubalan

    2018-01-01

    Silicon heterojunction solar cells enable high conversion efficiencies, thanks to their passivating contacts which consist of layered stacks of intrinsic and doped amorphous silicon. However, such contacts may reduce the photo current, when present

  11. Ultrathin Oxide Passivation Layer by Rapid Thermal Oxidation for the Silicon Heterojunction Solar Cell Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youngseok Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult to deposit extremely thin a-Si:H layer in heterojunction with intrinsic thin layer (HIT solar cell due to thermal damage and tough process control. This study aims to understand oxide passivation mechanism of silicon surface using rapid thermal oxidation (RTO process by examining surface effective lifetime and surface recombination velocity. The presence of thin insulating a-Si:H layer is the key to get high Voc by lowering the leakage current (I0 which improves the efficiency of HIT solar cell. The ultrathin thermal passivation silicon oxide (SiO2 layer was deposited by RTO system in the temperature range 500–950°C for 2 to 6 minutes. The thickness of the silicon oxide layer was affected by RTO annealing temperature and treatment time. The best value of surface recombination velocity was recorded for the sample treated at a temperature of 850°C for 6 minutes at O2 flow rate of 3 Lpm. A surface recombination velocity below 25 cm/s was obtained for the silicon oxide layer of 4 nm thickness. This ultrathin SiO2 layer was employed for the fabrication of HIT solar cell structure instead of a-Si:H, (i layer and the passivation and tunneling effects of the silicon oxide layer were exploited. The photocurrent was decreased with the increase of illumination intensity and SiO2 thickness.

  12. A Low Resistance Calcium/Reduced Titania Passivated Contact for High Efficiency Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Allen, Thomas G.

    2017-02-04

    Recent advances in the efficiency of crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells have come through the implementation of passivated contacts that simultaneously reduce recombination and resistive losses within the contact structure. In this contribution, low resistivity passivated contacts are demonstrated based on reduced titania (TiOx) contacted with the low work function metal, calcium (Ca). By using Ca as the overlying metal in the contact structure we are able to achieve a reduction in the contact resistivity of TiOx passivated contacts of up to two orders of magnitude compared to previously reported data on Al/TiOx contacts, allowing for the application of the Ca/TiOx contact to n-type c-Si solar cells with partial rear contacts. Implementing this contact structure on the cell level results in a power conversion efficiency of 21.8% where the Ca/TiOx contact comprises only ≈6% of the rear surface of the solar cell, an increase of 1.5% absolute compared to a similar device fabricated without the TiOx interlayer.

  13. Analytical optimization of interior PCM for energy storage in a lightweight passive solar room

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Wei; Wang Xin; Zhang Yinping

    2009-01-01

    Lightweight envelopes are widely used in modern buildings but they lack sufficient thermal capacity for passive solar utilization. An attractive solution to increase the building thermal capacity is to incorporate phase change material (PCM) into the building envelope. In this paper, a simplified theoretical model is established to optimize an interior PCM for energy storage in a lightweight passive solar room. Analytical equations are presented to calculate the optimal phase change temperature and the total amount of latent heat capacity and to estimate the benefit of the interior PCM for energy storage. Further, as an example, the analytical optimization is applied to the interior PCM panels in a direct-gain room with realistic outdoor climatic conditions of Beijing. The analytical results agree well with the numerical results. The analytical results show that: (1) the optimal phase change temperature depends on the average indoor air temperature and the radiation absorbed by the PCM panels; (2) the interior PCM has little effect on average indoor air temperature; and (3) the amplitude of the indoor air temperature fluctuation depends on the product of surface heat transfer coefficient h in and area A of the PCM panels in a lightweight passive solar room.

  14. Passive Q switching of a solar-pumped Nd:YAG laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lando, M; Shimony, Y; Noter, Y; Benmair, R M; Yogev, A

    2000-04-20

    Passive Q switching is a preferable choice for switching the Q factor of a solar-pumped laser because it requires neither a driver nor an electrical power supply. The superior thermal characteristics and durability of Cr(4+):YAG single crystals as passive Q switches for lamp and diode-pumped high-power lasers has been demonstrated. Here we report on an average power of 37 W and a switching efficiency of 80% obtained by use of a solar-pumped Nd:YAG laser Q switched by a Cr(4+):YAG saturable absorber. Concentration of the pumping solar energy on the laser crystal was obtained with a three-stage concentrator, composed of 12 heliostats, a three-dimensional compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) and a two-dimensional CPC. The water-cooled passive Q switch also served as the laser rear mirror. Repetition rates of as much as 50 kHz, at pulse durations between 190 and 310 ns (FWHM) were achieved. From the experimental results, the saturated single-pass power absorption of the Cr(4+):YAG device was estimated as 3 ? 1%.

  15. A Low Resistance Calcium/Reduced Titania Passivated Contact for High Efficiency Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Allen, Thomas G.; Bullock, James; Jeangros, Quentin; Samundsett, Christian; Wan, Yimao; Cui, Jie; Hessler-Wyser, Aï cha; De Wolf, Stefaan; Javey, Ali; Cuevas, Andres

    2017-01-01

    Recent advances in the efficiency of crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells have come through the implementation of passivated contacts that simultaneously reduce recombination and resistive losses within the contact structure. In this contribution, low resistivity passivated contacts are demonstrated based on reduced titania (TiOx) contacted with the low work function metal, calcium (Ca). By using Ca as the overlying metal in the contact structure we are able to achieve a reduction in the contact resistivity of TiOx passivated contacts of up to two orders of magnitude compared to previously reported data on Al/TiOx contacts, allowing for the application of the Ca/TiOx contact to n-type c-Si solar cells with partial rear contacts. Implementing this contact structure on the cell level results in a power conversion efficiency of 21.8% where the Ca/TiOx contact comprises only ≈6% of the rear surface of the solar cell, an increase of 1.5% absolute compared to a similar device fabricated without the TiOx interlayer.

  16. Enhancing Efficiency of Perovskite Solar Cells via Surface Passivation with Graphene Oxide Interlayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Tao, Leiming; Huang, Feihong; Sun, Qiang; Zhao, Xiaojuan; Han, Junbo; Shen, Yan; Wang, Mingkui

    2017-11-08

    Perovskite solar cells have been demonstrated as promising low-cost and highly efficient next-generation solar cells. Enhancing V OC by minimization the interfacial recombination kinetics can further improve device performance. In this work, we for the first time reported on surface passivation of perovskite layers with chemical modified graphene oxides, which act as efficient interlayer to reduce interfacial recombination and enhance hole extraction as well. Our modeling points out that the passivation effect mainly comes from the interaction between functional group (4-fluorophenyl) and under-coordinated Pb ions. The resulting perovskite solar cells achieved high efficient power conversion efficiency of 18.75% with enhanced high open circuit V OC of 1.11 V. Ultrafast spectroscopy, photovoltage/photocurrent transient decay, and electronic impedance spectroscopy characterizations reveal the effective passivation effect and the energy loss mechanism. This work sheds light on the importance of interfacial engineering on the surface of perovskite layers and provides possible ways to improve device efficiency.

  17. Simulation of an active solar energy system integrated in a passive building in order to obtain system efficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceacaru, Mihai C.

    2012-11-01

    In this work we present a simulation of an active solar energy system. This system belongs to the first passive office building (2086 square meters) in Romania and it is used for water heating consumption. This office building was opened in February 2009 and was built based on passive house design solutions. For this simulation, we use Solar Water Heating module, which belongs to the software RETSCREEN and this simulation is done for several cities in Romania. Results obtained will be compared graphically.

  18. Atomic-layer deposited Nb2O5 as transparent passivating electron contact for c-Si solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Macco, Bart; Black, Lachlan E.; Melskens, Jimmy; van de Loo, Bas W.H.; Berghuis, Willem Jan H.; Verheijen, Marcel A.; Kessels, Wilhelmus M.M.

    2018-01-01

    Passivating contacts based on metal oxides have proven to enable high energy conversion efficiencies for crystalline silicon (c-Si) solar cells at low processing complexity. In this work, the potential of atomic-layer deposited (ALD) Nb2O5 as novel electron-selective passivating contact is explored

  19. Reduction of carbon dioxide emissions by solar water heating systems and passive technologies in social housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bessa, Vanessa M.T.; Prado, Racine T.A.

    2015-01-01

    Growing global concern regarding climate change motivates technological studies to minimize environmental impacts. In this context, solar water heating (SWH) systems are notably prominent in Brazil, primarily because of the abundance of solar energy in the country. However, SWH designs have not always been perfectly developed. In most projects, the installation option of the solar system only considers the electric power economy aspects and not the particular characteristics of each climatic zone. Thus, the primary objective of this paper is to assess the potential of carbon dioxide reduction with the use of SWH in comparison with electric showers in social housing in several Brazilian climatic zones. The Brazilian government authorities have created public policies to encourage the use of these technologies primarily among the low-income population. The results of this paper indicate that hot climactic regions demonstrate a low reduction of CO 2 emissions with SWH installations. Thus, solar radiation is not useful for water heating in those regions, but it does lead to a large fraction of household cooling loads, implying a demand for electrical energy for air conditioning or requiring the adoption of passive techniques to maintain indoor temperatures below threshold values. -- Graphical abstract: Display Omitted -- Highlights: •Brazil has created public policies to increase the use of solar water heating in social housing. •We have evaluated the potential for reduction of CO 2 emissions installing solar water heating. •We have found that the coldest regions have the greatest potential for reducing emissions. •Passive technologies for thermal comfort in hot climate households are more useful than solar water heating systems

  20. Stable High-Performance Perovskite Solar Cells via Grain Boundary Passivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Tianqi; Lu, Jing; Munir, Rahim; Li, Jianbo; Barrit, Dounya; Zhang, Xu; Hu, Hanlin; Yang, Zhou; Amassian, Aram; Zhao, Kui; Liu, Shengzhong Frank

    2018-04-01

    The trap states at grain boundaries (GBs) within polycrystalline perovskite films deteriorate their optoelectronic properties, making GB engineering particularly important for stable high-performance optoelectronic devices. It is demonstrated that trap states within bulk films can be effectively passivated by semiconducting molecules with Lewis acid or base functional groups. The perovskite crystallization kinetics are studied using in situ synchrotron-based grazing-incidence X-ray scattering to explore the film formation mechanism. A model of the passivation mechanism is proposed to understand how the molecules simultaneously passivate the Pb-I antisite defects and vacancies created by under-coordinated Pb atoms. In addition, it also explains how the energy offset between the semiconducting molecules and the perovskite influences trap states and intergrain carrier transport. The superior optoelectronic properties are attained by optimizing the molecular passivation treatments. These benefits are translated into significant enhancements of the power conversion efficiencies to 19.3%, as well as improved environmental and thermal stability of solar cells. The passivated devices without encapsulation degrade only by ≈13% after 40 d of exposure in 50% relative humidity at room temperature, and only ≈10% after 24 h at 80 °C in controlled environment. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Stable High-Performance Perovskite Solar Cells via Grain Boundary Passivation

    KAUST Repository

    Niu, Tianqi

    2018-03-12

    The trap states at grain boundaries (GBs) within polycrystalline perovskite films deteriorate their optoelectronic properties, making GB engineering particularly important for stable high-performance optoelectronic devices. It is demonstrated that trap states within bulk films can be effectively passivated by semiconducting molecules with Lewis acid or base functional groups. The perovskite crystallization kinetics are studied using in situ synchrotron-based grazing-incidence X-ray scattering to explore the film formation mechanism. A model of the passivation mechanism is proposed to understand how the molecules simultaneously passivate the Pb-I antisite defects and vacancies created by under-coordinated Pb atoms. In addition, it also explains how the energy offset between the semiconducting molecules and the perovskite influences trap states and intergrain carrier transport. The superior optoelectronic properties are attained by optimizing the molecular passivation treatments. These benefits are translated into significant enhancements of the power conversion efficiencies to 19.3%, as well as improved environmental and thermal stability of solar cells. The passivated devices without encapsulation degrade only by ≈13% after 40 d of exposure in 50% relative humidity at room temperature, and only ≈10% after 24 h at 80 °C in controlled environment.

  2. Breaking the cycle: Producer and consumer perspectives on the non-adoption of passive solar housing in the US

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garrett, Vicki; Koontz, Tomas M.

    2008-01-01

    Creating the technologies to solve our energy and pollution problems is only one part of the solution. Getting the technologies adopted may be a larger hurdle. This study examines the adoption of a low- or no-cost technology, passive solar housing design, in the United States. Interviews with professionals involved in passive solar supply identified lack of demand as the most important factor, followed by availability, awareness, and economic incentives. Corresponding survey results from homebuyers in one region suggest that lack of demand represents not disinterest, but rather lack of availability when purchasing a home. Conventional homeowners are not familiar with passive solar design, but are predisposed to favor it, especially if it can be incorporated into traditional housing styles. In addition, to the extent that they can learn information to counter the perceptions that passive solar homes are too complicated or there is too little sun in their region, homebuyers would be more willing to purchase a passive solar home. Policy interventions to promote passive solar homes should focus on supply-side incentives as well as information for homebuyers

  3. Breaking the cycle: Producer and consumer perspectives on the non-adoption of passive solar housing in the US

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, Vicki; Koontz, Tomas M. [School of Environment and Natural Resources, The Ohio State University, 210 Kottman Hall, 2021 Coffey Road, Columbus, OH 43210 (United States)

    2008-04-15

    Creating the technologies to solve our energy and pollution problems is only one part of the solution. Getting the technologies adopted may be a larger hurdle. This study examines the adoption of a low- or no-cost technology, passive solar housing design, in the United States. Interviews with professionals involved in passive solar supply identified lack of demand as the most important factor, followed by availability, awareness, and economic incentives. Corresponding survey results from homebuyers in one region suggest that lack of demand represents not disinterest, but rather lack of availability when purchasing a home. Conventional homeowners are not familiar with passive solar design, but are predisposed to favor it, especially if it can be incorporated into traditional housing styles. In addition, to the extent that they can learn information to counter the perceptions that passive solar homes are too complicated or there is too little sun in their region, homebuyers would be more willing to purchase a passive solar home. Policy interventions to promote passive solar homes should focus on supply-side incentives as well as information for homebuyers. (author)

  4. Review of the Department of Trade and Industry passive solar programme. Pt. 2: non-domestic buildings. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-06-01

    The aim of the Passive Solar Programme (PSP) was to quantify the nature, size and timing of passive solar contribution to the UK building stock and the energy savings; to determine the best and most cost effective methods of achieving savings; to explore and develop better techniques; and to transfer the information to the appropriate people. There are over 1.25 million non-domestic buildings in the UK. It has been calculated that it is technically and economically possible to use passive solar design along with improved efficiency measures to reduce energy consumption in the UK by 25% in most existing non-domestic buildings and over 50% in new buildings. From the UK Government's point of view the savings are potentially very significant, and initiatives are aimed at bringing passive solar design into wide use at the earliest possible date. The PSP was intended to encourage the use of passive solar design and displace other forms of energy consumption. The earlier passive solar programme was focused on the domestic sector, where the primary concern was to reduce energy consumed in space heating. Its extension to non-domestic buildings demanded a broader definition of the potential benefits. (author)

  5. Improved performance in GaInNAs solar cells by hydrogen passivation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuda, M.; Whiteside, V. R.; Keay, J. C.; Meleco, A.; Sellers, I. R.; Hossain, K.; Golding, T. D.; Leroux, M.; Al Khalfioui, M.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of UV-activated hydrogenation on the performance of GaInNAs solar cells is presented. A proof-of-principle investigation was performed on non-optimum GaInNAs cells, which allowed a clearer investigation of the role of passivation on the intrinsic nitrogen-related defects in these materials. Upon optimized hydrogenation of GaInNAs, a significant reduction in the presence of defect and impurity based luminescence is observed as compared to that of unpassivated reference material. This improvement in the optical properties is directly transferred to an improved performance in solar cell operation, with a more than two-fold improvement in the external quantum efficiency and short circuit current density upon hydrogenation. Temperature dependent photovoltaic measurements indicate a strong contribution of carrier localization and detrapping processes, with non-radiative processes dominating in the reference materials, and evidence for additional strong radiative losses in the hydrogenated solar cells

  6. Surface Passivation and Antireflection Behavior of ALD on n-Type Silicon for Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ing-Song Yu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Atomic layer deposition, a method of excellent step coverage and conformal deposition, was used to deposit TiO2 thin films for the surface passivation and antireflection coating of silicon solar cells. TiO2 thin films deposited at different temperatures (200°C, 300°C, 400°C, and 500°C on FZ n-type silicon wafers are in the thickness of 66.4 nm ± 1.1 nm and in the form of self-limiting growth. For the properties of surface passivation, Si surface is effectively passivated by the 200°C deposition TiO2 thin film. Its effective minority carrier lifetime, measured by the photoconductance decay method, is improved 133% at the injection level of  cm−3. Depending on different deposition parameters and annealing processes, we can control the crystallinity of TiO2 and find low-temperature TiO2 phase (anatase better passivation performance than the high-temperature one (rutile, which is consistent with the results of work function measured by Kelvin probe. In addition, TiO2 thin films on polished Si wafer serve as good ARC layers with refractive index between 2.13 and 2.44 at 632.8 nm. Weighted average reflectance at AM1.5G reduces more than half after the deposition of TiO2. Finally, surface passivation and antireflection properties of TiO2 are stable after the cofire process of conventional crystalline Si solar cells.

  7. Passive solar energy recovery in non-transparent facades; Passive solare Energiegewinnung im nicht-transparenten Fassadenbereich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liersch, K.W. [Brandenburgische Technische Univ. Cottbus (Germany). Lehrstuhl fuer Baukonstruktion und Bauphysik

    1999-10-01

    Evaluation of theoretical and practical studies has shown that non-bearing glass facades of reduced transparency hold a considerable potential for energy recovery. The most important factors governing this process are solar irradiation and inhibition of reflection in the long-wave range. Net energy recovery can be expressed in terms of the decrease of the mean effective heat transmission coefficient. The achievable gains are the smaller the more effective the heat insulating properties of the wall are, i.e. the lower the U-value of the non-transparent wall is. In the case of outer walls with additional heat insulation and a heat transmission coefficient of less than k{sub w} = approx. 0.25 W/ (m-2K) energy recovery is practically negligible, with little scope for improvement through facade orientation. [Deutsch] Die Auswertung der theoretischen und messtechnischen Untersuchungen zeigt, dass mittels einer vorgehaengten, reduziert transparenten Glasfassade betraechtliche Waermegewinne zu erzielen sind. Diese ergeben sich aus der Sonnenzustrahlung sowie der Behinderung langwelliger Waermeabstrahlung. Die Gewinne lassen sich durch eine Abminderung des mittleren effektiven Waermedurchgangskoeffizienten darstellen. Die zu erzielenden Gewinne sind allerdings um so geringer, je besser die sonstige waermeschutztechnische Ausruestung der betreffenden Wand, d.h. je niedriger der k-Wert der nicht-transparenten Wandflaeche ist. Das bedeutet, dass bei Aussenwaenden mit Zusatzdaemmung und einem Waermedurchgangskoeffizienten unterhalb k{sub W}{approx}0,25 W/(m{sup 2}K) der Gewinn nicht mehr nennenswert ist, wobei dann auch die Ausrichtung der Fassade zur Himmelsrichtung das Ergebnis nur noch in geringem Umfang beeinflusst. (orig.)

  8. Compact, semi-passive beam steering prism array for solar concentrators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Cheng; Li, Qiyuan; Rosengarten, Gary; Hawkes, Evatt; Taylor, Robert A

    2017-05-10

    In order to maximize solar energy utilization in a limited space (e.g., rooftops), solar collectors should track the sun. As an alternative to rotational tracking systems, this paper presents a compact, semi-passive beam steering prism array which has been designed, analyzed, and tested for solar applications. The proposed prism array enables a linear concentrator system to remain stationary so that it can integrate with a variety of different solar concentrators, and which should be particularly useful for systems which require a low profile (namely rooftop-mounted systems). A case study of this prism array working within a specific rooftop solar collector demonstrates that it can boost the average daily optical efficiency of the collector by 32.7% and expand its effective working time from 6 h to 7.33 h. Overall, the proposed design provides an alternative way to "follow" the sun for a wide range of solar thermal and photovoltaic concentrator systems.

  9. Efficiency improvement of multicrystalline silicon solar cells after surface and grain boundaries passivation using vanadium oxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derbali, L., E-mail: rayan.slat@yahoo.fr [Photovoltaiec Laboratory, Research and Technology Center of Energy, Technopole de Borj-Cedria, BP 95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia); Ezzaouia, H. [Photovoltaiec Laboratory, Research and Technology Center of Energy, Technopole de Borj-Cedria, BP 95, Hammam-Lif 2050 (Tunisia)

    2012-08-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Evaporation of vanadium pentoxide onto the front surface leads to reduce the surface reflectivity considerably. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An efficient surface passivation can be obtained after thermal treatment of obtained films. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Efficiency of the obtained solar cells has been improved noticeably after thermal treatment of deposited thin films. - Abstract: The aim of this work is to investigate the effect of vanadium oxide deposition onto the front surface of multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) substrat, without any additional cost in the fabrication process and leading to an efficient surface and grain boundaries (GBs) passivation that have not been reported before. The lowest reflectance of mc-Si coated with vanadium oxide film of 9% was achieved by annealing the deposited film at 600 Degree-Sign C. Vanadium pentoxide (V{sub 2}O{sub 5}) were thermally evaporated onto the surface of mc-Si substrates, followed by a short annealing duration at a temperature ranging between 600 Degree-Sign C and 800 Degree-Sign C, under O{sub 2} atmosphere. The chemical composition of the films was analyzed by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Surface and cross-section morphology were determined by atomic force microscope (AFM) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. The deposited vanadium oxide thin films make the possibility of combining in one processing step an antireflection coating deposition along with efficient surface state passivation, as compared to a reference wafer. Silicon solar cells based on untreated and treated mc-Si wafers were achieved. We showed that mc-silicon solar cells, subjected to the above treatment, have better short circuit currents and open-circuit voltages than those made from untreated wafers. Thus, the efficiency of obtained solar cells has been improved.

  10. Efficiency improvement of multicrystalline silicon solar cells after surface and grain boundaries passivation using vanadium oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derbali, L.; Ezzaouia, H.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Evaporation of vanadium pentoxide onto the front surface leads to reduce the surface reflectivity considerably. ► An efficient surface passivation can be obtained after thermal treatment of obtained films. ► Efficiency of the obtained solar cells has been improved noticeably after thermal treatment of deposited thin films. - Abstract: The aim of this work is to investigate the effect of vanadium oxide deposition onto the front surface of multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si) substrat, without any additional cost in the fabrication process and leading to an efficient surface and grain boundaries (GBs) passivation that have not been reported before. The lowest reflectance of mc-Si coated with vanadium oxide film of 9% was achieved by annealing the deposited film at 600 °C. Vanadium pentoxide (V 2 O 5 ) were thermally evaporated onto the surface of mc-Si substrates, followed by a short annealing duration at a temperature ranging between 600 °C and 800 °C, under O 2 atmosphere. The chemical composition of the films was analyzed by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Surface and cross-section morphology were determined by atomic force microscope (AFM) and a scanning electron microscope (SEM), respectively. The deposited vanadium oxide thin films make the possibility of combining in one processing step an antireflection coating deposition along with efficient surface state passivation, as compared to a reference wafer. Silicon solar cells based on untreated and treated mc-Si wafers were achieved. We showed that mc-silicon solar cells, subjected to the above treatment, have better short circuit currents and open-circuit voltages than those made from untreated wafers. Thus, the efficiency of obtained solar cells has been improved.

  11. Potential Effect and Analysis of High Residential Solar Photovoltaic (PV Systems Penetration to an Electric Distribution Utility (DU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey Tamba Dellosa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The Renewable Energy Act of 2008 in the Philippines provided an impetus for residential owners to explore solar PV installations at their own rooftops through the Net-Metering policy. The Net-Metering implementation through the law however presented some concerns with inexperienced electric DU on the potential effect of high residential solar PV system installations. It was not known how a high degree of solar integration to the grid can possibly affect the operations of the electric DU in terms of energy load management. The primary objective of this study was to help the local electric DU in the analysis of the potential effect of high residential solar PV system penetration to the supply and demand load profile in an electric distribution utility (DU grid in the province of Agusan del Norte, Philippines. The energy consumption profiles in the year 2015 were obtained from the electric DU operating in the area. An average daily energy demand load profile was obtained from 0-hr to the 24th hour of the day based from the figures provided by the electric DU. The assessment part of the potential effect of high solar PV system integration assumed four potential total capacities from 10 Mega Watts (MW to 40 MW generated by all subscribers in the area under study at a 10 MW interval. The effect of these capacities were measured and analyzed with respect to the average daily load profile of the DU. Results of this study showed that a combined installations beyond 20 MWp coming from all subscribers is not viable for the local electric DU based on their current energy demand or load profile. Based from the results obtained, the electric DU can make better decisions in the management of high capacity penetration of solar PV systems in the future, including investment in storage systems when extra capacities are generated. Article History: Received July 15th 2016; Received in revised form Sept 23rd 2016; Accepted Oct 1st 2016; Available online How to Cite

  12. Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells with Thin Silicon Passivation Film Deposited prior to Phosphorous Diffusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ching-Tao Li

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate the performance improvement of p-type single-crystalline silicon (sc-Si solar cells resulting from front surface passivation by a thin amorphous silicon (a-Si film deposited prior to phosphorus diffusion. The conversion efficiency was improved for the sample with an a-Si film of ~5 nm thickness deposited on the front surface prior to high-temperature phosphorus diffusion, with respect to the samples with an a-Si film deposited on the front surface after phosphorus diffusion. The improvement in conversion efficiency is 0.4% absolute with respect to a-Si film passivated cells, that is, the cells with an a-Si film deposited on the front surface after phosphorus diffusion. The new technique provided a 0.5% improvement in conversion efficiency compared to the cells without a-Si passivation. Such performance improvements result from reduced surface recombination as well as lowered contact resistance, the latter of which induces a high fill factor of the solar cell.

  13. Amorphous silicon passivation for 23.3% laser processed back contact solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstens, Kai; Dahlinger, Morris; Hoffmann, Erik; Zapf-Gottwick, Renate; Werner, Jürgen H.

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents amorphous silicon deposited at temperatures below 200 °C, leading to an excellent passivation layer for boron doped emitter and phosphorus doped back surface field areas in interdigitated back contact solar cells. A higher deposition temperature degrades the passivation of the boron emitter by an increased hydrogen effusion due to lower silicon hydrogen bond energy, proved by hydrogen effusion measurements. The high boron surface doping in crystalline silicon causes a band bending in the amorphous silicon. Under these conditions, at the interface, the intentionally undoped amorphous silicon becomes p-type conducting, with the consequence of an increased dangling bond defect density. For bulk amorphous silicon this effect is described by the defect pool model. We demonstrate, that the defect pool model is also applicable to the interface between amorphous and crystalline silicon. Our simulation shows the shift of the Fermi energy towards the valence band edge to be more pronounced for high temperature deposited amorphous silicon having a small bandgap. Application of optimized amorphous silicon as passivation layer for the boron doped emitter and phosphorus doped back surface field on the rear side of laser processed back contact solar cells, fabricated using four laser processing steps, yields an efficiency of 23.3%.

  14. A new insight into opaque envelopes in a passive solar house: Properties and roles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, Linshuang; Ye, Hong; Liu, Minghou

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new insight into the opaque envelopes of a passive solar house was gained. • Five parts of envelopes, i.e., roof, south/east/west/north walls, were discussed. • Each part of envelopes were analyzed separately rather than treated as a whole. • Ideal properties of materials for each envelope are diverse from one another. • Differences are related to the envelopes’ leading roles as a heater or a cooler. - Abstract: Passive solar houses are effective solutions for minimizing the operating energy of buildings. The building envelopes of passive solar houses exert a significant influence on the degree of indoor thermal comfort. The focus of this study was the construction of high-performance opaque envelopes, i.e., the roof and walls, for a passive solar house, and a new conception of the envelopes from the perspective of the relation between the properties and roles was provided. The discussion was conducted based on a comprehensive range of envelope materials that were distinguished by the thermal conductivity and volumetric heat capacity. For the first time, each part of the envelopes was analyzed separately rather than considered as an entire envelope. By analyzing each envelope individually, the optimum properties of each envelope were found to be distinct from each other. The distinctions are determined by the dominant role of each envelope, which is associated with the location and absorbed solar irradiation. For summer or hot climate applications, when the dominant role is a cooler, the envelope, e.g., the south wall, should consist of materials with high thermal conductivity and large heat capacity; if a heater is the dominant role, the envelope, e.g., the roof, should consist of materials with low thermal conductivity. For winter or cold climate applications, the envelopes with a leading role of a heater or a cooler require materials with high or low thermal conductivity, respectively. Under the guidance of the results, a discussion

  15. Improved performance of colloidal CdSe quantum dot-sensitized solar cells by hybrid passivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jing; Xu, Bo; Yuan, Chunze; Chen, Hong; Sun, Junliang; Sun, Licheng; Agren, Hans

    2014-11-12

    A hybrid passivation strategy is employed to modify the surface of colloidal CdSe quantum dots (QDs) for quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSCs), by using mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) and iodide anions through a ligand exchange reaction in solution. This is found to be an effective way to improve the performance of QDSCs based on colloidal QDs. The results show that MPA can increase the coverage of the QDs on TiO2 electrodes and facilitate the hole extraction from the photoxidized QDs, and simultaneously, that the iodide anions can remedy the surface defects of the CdSe QDs and thus reduce the recombination loss in the device. This hybrid passivation treatment leads to a significant enhancement of the power conversion efficiency of the QDSCs by 41%. Furthermore, an optimal ratio of iodide ions to MPA was determined for favorable hybrid passivation; results show that excessive iodine anions are detrimental to the loading of the QDs. This study demonstrates that the improvement in QDSC performance can be realized by using a combination of different functional ligands to passivate the QDs, and that ligand exchange in solution can be an effective approach to introduce different ligands.

  16. Layered insulator hexagonal boron nitride for surface passivation in quantum dot solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanmugam, Mariyappan; Jain, Nikhil; Jacobs-Gedrim, Robin; Yu, Bin; Xu, Yang

    2013-01-01

    Single crystalline, two dimensional (2D) layered insulator hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), is demonstrated as an emerging material candidate for surface passivation on mesoporous TiO 2 . Cadmium selenide (CdSe) quantum dot based bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cell employed h-BN passivated TiO 2 as an electron acceptor exhibits photoconversion efficiency ∼46% more than BHJ employed unpassivated TiO 2 . Dominant interfacial recombination pathways such as electron capture by TiO 2 surface states and recombination with hole at valence band of CdSe are efficiently controlled by h-BN enabled surface passivation, leading to improved photovoltaic performance. Highly crystalline, confirmed by transmission electron microscopy, dangling bond-free 2D layered h-BN with self-terminated atomic planes, achieved by chemical exfoliation, enables efficient passivation on TiO 2 , allowing electronic transport at TiO 2 /h-BN/CdSe interface with much lower recombination rate compared to an unpassivated TiO 2 /CdSe interface

  17. In-depth investigation of spin-on doped solar cells with thermally grown oxide passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Samir Mahmmod; Cheow, Siu Leong; Ludin, Norasikin A.; Sopian, K.; Zaidi, Saleem H.

    Solar cell industrial manufacturing, based largely on proven semiconductor processing technologies supported by significant advancements in automation, has reached a plateau in terms of cost and efficiency. However, solar cell manufacturing cost (dollar/watt) is still substantially higher than fossil fuels. The route to lowering cost may not lie with continuing automation and economies of scale. Alternate fabrication processes with lower cost and environmental-sustainability coupled with self-reliance, simplicity, and affordability may lead to price compatibility with carbon-based fuels. In this paper, a custom-designed formulation of phosphoric acid has been investigated, for n-type doping in p-type substrates, as a function of concentration and drive-in temperature. For post-diffusion surface passivation and anti-reflection, thermally-grown oxide films in 50-150-nm thickness were grown. These fabrication methods facilitate process simplicity, reduced costs, and environmental sustainability by elimination of poisonous chemicals and toxic gases (POCl3, SiH4, NH3). Simultaneous fire-through contact formation process based on screen-printed front surface Ag and back surface through thermally grown oxide films was optimized as a function of the peak temperature in conveyor belt furnace. Highest efficiency solar cells fabricated exhibited efficiency of ∼13%. Analysis of results based on internal quantum efficiency and minority carried measurements reveals three contributing factors: high front surface recombination, low minority carrier lifetime, and higher reflection. Solar cell simulations based on PC1D showed that, with improved passivation, lower reflection, and high lifetimes, efficiency can be enhanced to match with commercially-produced PECVD SiN-coated solar cells.

  18. Solar chimney integrated with passive evaporative cooler applied on glazing surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al Touma, Albert; Ghali, Kamel; Ghaddar, Nesreen; Ismail, Nagham

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the performance of a hybrid system applied on glazing surfaces for reducing the space cooling load and radiation asymmetry. The proposed system combines the principles of passive evaporative cooling with the natural buoyant flow in solar chimneys to entrain outdoor air and attenuate the window surface temperature. A predictive heat and mass transport model combining the evaporative cooler, glazing section, solar chimney and an office space is developed to study the system performance in harshly hot climates. The developed model was validated through experiments conducted in a twin climatic chamber for given ambient temperature, humidity, and solar radiation conditions. Good agreement was found between the measured and the predicted window temperatures and space loads at maximum discrepancy lower than 4.3%. The proposed system is applied to a typical office space to analyze its effectiveness in reducing the window temperature, the space load and radiation asymmetry, while maintaining the indoor comfort conditions. Results have shown that the system is reduced the space load by −19.8% and attenuated the radiation asymmetry significantly for office spaces having window-to-wall ratio of 40% in climate of Riyadh, KSA. The system performance diminished when applied in locations suffering from humid weather climates. - Highlights: • A passive evaporative-cooled solar chimney system is introduced to decrease window temperature. • A mathematical model is developed of the system to predict induce air flow and window surface temperature. • The model is validated with experiments in twin room climatic chamber and using artificial solar lamps. • The system reduces window maximum temperature by 5 °C in the hot dry climate of Riyadh, KSA. • It reduced the space load by 19.4% for office spaces at window-to-wall ratio of 40% in Riyadh, KSA.

  19. Proposal of leak path passivation for InGaN solar cells to reduce the leakage current

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Ke, E-mail: ke.wang@chiba-u.jp; Imai, Daichi; Kusakabe, Kazuhide [Center for SMART Green Innovation Research, Chiba University, 1-33, Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Yoshikawa, Akihiko, E-mail: yoshi@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Center for SMART Green Innovation Research, Chiba University, 1-33, Yayoi-cho, Inage-ku, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Department of Information and Communication Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Kogakuin University, Nakano-cho, Hachioji, Tokyo 2665-1 (Japan)

    2016-01-25

    We propose some general ways to passivate the leak paths in InGaN solar cells and report some experimental evidences of its effectiveness. By adopting an AlOx passivation process, the photovoltaic performances of GaN pn-junctions and InGaN solar cells, grown by molecular beam epitaxy, have been significantly improved. The open circuit voltage under 1 sun illumination increases from 1.46 to 2.26 V for a GaN pn junction, and from 0.95 to 1.27 V for an InGaN solar cell, demonstrating evidence of leak path passivation (LPP) by AlOx. The proposed LPP is expected to be a realistic way to exploit the potential of thick and relaxed but defective InGaN for solar cell applications.

  20. Hydrophobic Polystyrene Passivation Layer for Simultaneously Improved Efficiency and Stability in Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Minghua; Yan, Xiaoqin; Kang, Zhuo; Huan, Yahuan; Li, Yong; Zhang, Ruxiao; Zhang, Yue

    2018-06-06

    The major restraint for the commercialization of the high-performance hybrid metal halide perovskite solar cells is the long-term stability, especially at the infirm interface between the perovskite film and organic charge-transfer layer. Recently, engineering the interface between the perovskite and spiro-OMeTAD becomes an effective strategy to simultaneously improve the efficiency and stability in the perovskite solar cells. In this work, we demonstrated that introducing an interfacial polystyrene layer between the perovskite film and spiro-OMeTAD layer can effectively improve the perovskite solar cells photovoltaic performance. The inserted polystyrene layer can passivate the interface traps and defects effectively and decrease the nonradiative recombination, leading to enhanced photoluminescence intensity and carrier lifetime, without compromising the carrier extraction and transfer. Under the optimized condition, the perovskite solar cells with the polystyrene layer achieve an enhanced average power efficiency of about 19.61% (20.46% of the best efficiency) from about 17.63% with negligible current density-voltage hysteresis. Moreover, the optimized perovskite solar cells with the hydrophobic polystyrene layer can maintain about 85% initial efficiency after 2 months storage in open air conditions without encapsulation.

  1. Passivation effect of water vapour on thin film polycrystalline Si solar cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pikna, Peter; Müller, Martin; Becker, C.; Fejfar, Antonín

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 213, č. 7 (2016), s. 1969-1975 ISSN 1862-6300 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015087; GA ČR GA13-12386S Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) DAAD-16-27 Program:Bilaterální spolupráce Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : passivation, * plasma hydrogenation * silicon * solar cells * thin films * water vapour Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 1.775, year: 2016

  2. Energy Analysis of a Complementary Heating System Combining Solar Energy and Coal for a Rural Residential Building in Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Xiaofei; Li, Jinping; Abdalla Osman, Yassir Idris; Feng, Rong; Zhang, Xuemin; Kang, Jian

    2018-01-01

    In order to utilize solar energy to meet the heating demands of a rural residential building during the winter in the northwestern region of China, a hybrid heating system combining solar energy and coal was built. Multiple experiments to monitor its performance were conducted during the winter in 2014 and 2015. In this paper, we analyze the efficiency of the energy utilization of the system and describe a prototype model to determine the thermal efficiency of the coal stove in use. Multiple linear regression was adopted to present the dual function of multiple factors on the daily heat-collecting capacity of the solar water heater; the heat-loss coefficient of the storage tank was detected as well. The prototype model shows that the average thermal efficiency of the stove is 38%, which means that the energy input for the building is divided between the coal and solar energy, 39.5% and 60.5% energy, respectively. Additionally, the allocation of the radiation of solar energy projecting into the collecting area of the solar water heater was obtained which showed 49% loss with optics and 23% with the dissipation of heat, with only 28% being utilized effectively.

  3. Energy Analysis of a Complementary Heating System Combining Solar Energy and Coal for a Rural Residential Building in Northwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofei Zhen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to utilize solar energy to meet the heating demands of a rural residential building during the winter in the northwestern region of China, a hybrid heating system combining solar energy and coal was built. Multiple experiments to monitor its performance were conducted during the winter in 2014 and 2015. In this paper, we analyze the efficiency of the energy utilization of the system and describe a prototype model to determine the thermal efficiency of the coal stove in use. Multiple linear regression was adopted to present the dual function of multiple factors on the daily heat-collecting capacity of the solar water heater; the heat-loss coefficient of the storage tank was detected as well. The prototype model shows that the average thermal efficiency of the stove is 38%, which means that the energy input for the building is divided between the coal and solar energy, 39.5% and 60.5% energy, respectively. Additionally, the allocation of the radiation of solar energy projecting into the collecting area of the solar water heater was obtained which showed 49% loss with optics and 23% with the dissipation of heat, with only 28% being utilized effectively.

  4. Energy Analysis of a Complementary Heating System Combining Solar Energy and Coal for a Rural Residential Building in Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Xiaofei; Abdalla Osman, Yassir Idris; Feng, Rong; Zhang, Xuemin

    2018-01-01

    In order to utilize solar energy to meet the heating demands of a rural residential building during the winter in the northwestern region of China, a hybrid heating system combining solar energy and coal was built. Multiple experiments to monitor its performance were conducted during the winter in 2014 and 2015. In this paper, we analyze the efficiency of the energy utilization of the system and describe a prototype model to determine the thermal efficiency of the coal stove in use. Multiple linear regression was adopted to present the dual function of multiple factors on the daily heat-collecting capacity of the solar water heater; the heat-loss coefficient of the storage tank was detected as well. The prototype model shows that the average thermal efficiency of the stove is 38%, which means that the energy input for the building is divided between the coal and solar energy, 39.5% and 60.5% energy, respectively. Additionally, the allocation of the radiation of solar energy projecting into the collecting area of the solar water heater was obtained which showed 49% loss with optics and 23% with the dissipation of heat, with only 28% being utilized effectively. PMID:29651424

  5. Break-Even Cost for Residential Solar Water Heating in the United States: Key Drivers and Sensitivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassard, H.; Denholm, P.; Ong, S.

    2011-02-01

    This paper examines the break-even cost for residential rooftop solar water heating (SWH) technology, defined as the point where the cost of the energy saved with a SWH system equals the cost of a conventional heating fuel purchased from the grid (either electricity or natural gas). We examine the break-even cost for the largest 1,000 electric and natural gas utilities serving residential customers in the United States as of 2008. Currently, the break-even cost of SWH in the United States varies by more than a factor of five for both electricity and natural gas, despite a much smaller variation in the amount of energy saved by the systems (a factor of approximately one and a half). The break-even price for natural gas is lower than that for electricity due to a lower fuel cost. We also consider the relationship between SWH price and solar fraction and examine the key drivers behind break-even costs. Overall, the key drivers of the break-even cost of SWH are a combination of fuel price, local incentives, and technical factors including the solar resource location, system size, and hot water draw.

  6. Efficient and stable solution-processed planar perovskite solar cells via contact passivation

    KAUST Repository

    Tan, Hairen; Jain, Ankit; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Lan, Xinzheng; Garcí a de Arquer, F. Pelayo; Fan, James Z.; Quintero-Bermudez, Rafael; Yuan, Mingjian; Zhang, Bo; Zhao, Yicheng; Fan, Fengjia; Li, Peicheng; Quan, Li Na; Zhao, Yongbiao; Lu, Zheng-Hong; Yang, Zhenyu; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Sargent, Edward H.

    2017-01-01

    Planar perovskite solar cells (PSCs) made entirely via solution processing at low temperatures (<150°C) offer promise for simple manufacturing, compatibility with flexible substrates, and perovskite-based tandem devices. However, these PSCs require an electron-selective layer that performs well with similar processing. We report a contact-passivation strategy using chlorine-capped TiO2 colloidal nanocrystal film that mitigates interfacial recombination and improves interface binding in low-temperature planar solar cells. We fabricated solar cells with certified efficiencies of 20.1 and 19.5% for active areas of 0.049 and 1.1 square centimeters, respectively, achieved via low-temperature solution processing. Solar cells with efficiency greater than 20% retained 90% (97% after dark recovery) of their initial performance after 500 hours of continuous room-temperature operation at their maximum power point under 1-sun illumination (where 1 sun is defined as the standard illumination at AM1.5, or 1 kilowatt/square meter).

  7. Efficient and stable solution-processed planar perovskite solar cells via contact passivation

    KAUST Repository

    Tan, Hairen

    2017-02-03

    Planar perovskite solar cells (PSCs) made entirely via solution processing at low temperatures (<150°C) offer promise for simple manufacturing, compatibility with flexible substrates, and perovskite-based tandem devices. However, these PSCs require an electron-selective layer that performs well with similar processing. We report a contact-passivation strategy using chlorine-capped TiO2 colloidal nanocrystal film that mitigates interfacial recombination and improves interface binding in low-temperature planar solar cells. We fabricated solar cells with certified efficiencies of 20.1 and 19.5% for active areas of 0.049 and 1.1 square centimeters, respectively, achieved via low-temperature solution processing. Solar cells with efficiency greater than 20% retained 90% (97% after dark recovery) of their initial performance after 500 hours of continuous room-temperature operation at their maximum power point under 1-sun illumination (where 1 sun is defined as the standard illumination at AM1.5, or 1 kilowatt/square meter).

  8. Thermal Stability-Enhanced and High-Efficiency Planar Perovskite Solar Cells with Interface Passivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Weihai; Xiong, Juan; Jiang, Li; Wang, Jianying; Mei, Tao; Wang, Xianbao; Gu, Haoshuang; Daoud, Walid A; Li, Jinhua

    2017-11-08

    As the electron transport layer (ETL) of perovskite solar cells, oxide semiconductor zinc oxide (ZnO) has been attracting great attention due to its relatively high mobility, optical transparency, low-temperature fabrication, and good environment stability. However, the nature of ZnO will react with the patron on methylamine, which would deteriorate the performance of cells. Although many methods, including high-temperature annealing, doping, and surface modification, have been studied to improve the efficiency and stability of perovskite solar cells with ZnO ETL, devices remain relatively low in efficiency and stability. Herein, we adopted a novel multistep annealing method to deposit a porous PbI 2 film and improved the quality and uniformity of perovskite films. The cells with ZnO ETL were fabricated at the temperature of perovskite film. Interestingly, the PCE of PCBM-passivated cells could reach nearly 19.1%. To our best knowledge, this is the highest PCE value of ZnO-based perovskite solar cells until now. More importantly, PCBM modification could effectively suppress the decomposition of MAPbI 3 and improve the thermal stability of cells. Therefore, the ZnO is a promising candidate of electron transport material for perovskite solar cells in future applications.

  9. High reduction of interfacial charge recombination in colloidal quantum dot solar cells by metal oxide surface passivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jin; Kuga, Yuki; Mora-Seró, Iván; Toyoda, Taro; Ogomi, Yuhei; Hayase, Shuzi; Bisquert, Juan; Shen, Qing

    2015-03-12

    Bulk heterojunction (BHJ) solar cells based on colloidal QDs and metal oxide nanowires (NWs) possess unique and outstanding advantages in enhancing light harvesting and charge collection in comparison to planar architectures. However, the high surface area of the NW structure often brings about a large amount of recombination (especially interfacial recombination) and limits the open-circuit voltage in BHJ solar cells. This problem is solved here by passivating the surface of the metal oxide component in PbS colloidal quantum dot solar cells (CQDSCs). By coating thin TiO2 layers onto ZnO-NW surfaces, the open-circuit voltage and power conversion efficiency have been improved by over 40% in PbS CQDSCs. Characterization by transient photovoltage decay and impedance spectroscopy indicated that the interfacial recombination was significantly reduced by the surface passivation strategy. An efficiency as high as 6.13% was achieved through the passivation approach and optimization for the length of the ZnO-NW arrays (device active area: 16 mm2). All solar cells were tested in air, and exhibited excellent air storage stability (without any performance decline over more than 130 days). This work highlights the significance of metal oxide passivation in achieving high performance BHJ solar cells. The charge recombination mechanism uncovered in this work could shed light on the further improvement of PbS CQDSCs and/or other types of solar cells.

  10. Relation of lifetime to surface passivation for atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3 on crystalline silicon solar cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Young Joon; Song, Hee Eun; Chang, Hyo Sik

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We investigated the relation of potassium contamination on Si solar wafer to lifetime. • We deposited Al 2 O 3 layer by atomic layer deposition (ALD) on Si solar wafer after several cleaning process. • Potassium can be left on Si surface by incomplete cleaning process and degrade the Al 2 O 3 passivation quality. - Abstract: We investigated the relation of potassium contamination on a crystalline silicon (c-Si) surface after potassium hydroxide (KOH) etching to the lifetime of the c-Si solar cell. Alkaline solution was employed for saw damage removal (SDR), texturing, and planarization of a textured c-Si solar wafer prior to atomic layer deposition (ALD) Al 2 O 3 growth. In the solar-cell manufacturing process, ALD Al 2 O 3 passivation is utilized to obtain higher conversion efficiency. ALD Al 2 O 3 shows excellent surface passivation, though minority carrier lifetime varies with cleaning conditions. In the present study, we investigated the relation of potassium contamination to lifetime in solar-cell processing. The results showed that the potassium-contaminated samples, due to incomplete cleaning of KOH, had a short lifetime, thus establishing that residual potassium can degrade Al 2 O 3 surface passivation

  11. External perforated Solar Screens for daylighting in residential desert buildings: Identification of minimum perforation percentages

    KAUST Repository

    Sherif, Ahmed; Sabry, Hanan; Rakha, Tarek

    2012-01-01

    and Saudi Arabia, result in the admittance of direct solar radiation, which leads to thermal discomfort and the incidence of undesired glare. One type of shading systems that is used to permit daylight while controlling solar penetration is " Solar Screens

  12. Solar 92: The 1992 American Solar Energy Society annual conference

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burley, S.; Arden, M.E.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this symposium is to document the lessons learned from federal and state policies and programs in the late 1970's and 1980's aimed at promoting consumer use of solar energy. During this period the primary emphasis was on solar thermal technologies and passive solar design that could be used at the residential level, though there was also some information on stand-alone photovoltaic systems as well

  13. Controllable self-induced passivation of hybrid lead iodide perovskites toward high performance solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Zhou, Huanping; Song, Tze-Bin; Luo, Song; Hong, Ziruo; Duan, Hsin-Sheng; Dou, Letian; Liu, Yongsheng; Yang, Yang

    2014-07-09

    To improve the performance of the polycrystalline thin film devices, it requires a delicate control of its grain structures. As one of the most promising candidates among current thin film photovoltaic techniques, the organic/inorganic hybrid perovskites generally inherit polycrystalline nature and exhibit compositional/structural dependence in regard to their optoelectronic properties. Here, we demonstrate a controllable passivation technique for perovskite films, which enables their compositional change, and allows substantial enhancement in corresponding device performance. By releasing the organic species during annealing, PbI2 phase is presented in perovskite grain boundaries and at the relevant interfaces. The consequent passivation effects and underlying mechanisms are investigated with complementary characterizations, including scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), time-resolved photoluminescence decay (TRPL), scanning Kelvin probe microscopy (SKPM), and ultraviolet photoemission spectroscopy (UPS). This controllable self-induced passivation technique represents an important step to understand the polycrystalline nature of hybrid perovskite thin films and contributes to the development of perovskite solar cells judiciously.

  14. Hollow ceramic block: containment of water for thermal storage in passive solar design. Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winship, C.T.

    1983-12-27

    The project activity has been the development of designs, material compositions and production procedures to manufacture hollow ceramic blocks which contain water (or other heat absorptive liquids). The blocks are designed to serve, in plurality, a dual purpose: as an unobtrusive and efficient thermal storage element, and as a durable and aesthetically appealing surface for floors and walls of passive solar building interiors. Throughout the grant period, numerous ceramic formulas have been tested for their workabilty, thermal properties, maturing temperatures and color. Blocks have been designed to have structural integrity, and textured surfaces. Methods of slip-casting and extrusion have been developed for manufacturing of the blocks. The thermal storage capacity of the water-loaded block has been demonstrated to be 2.25 times greater than that of brick and 2.03 times greater than that of concrete (taking an average of commonly used materials). Although this represents a technical advance in thermal storage, the decorative effects provided by application of the blocks lend them a more significant advantage by reducing constraints on interior design in passive solar architecture.

  15. High-Efficiency Silicon/Organic Heterojunction Solar Cells with Improved Junction Quality and Interface Passivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jian; Gao, Pingqi; Ling, Zhaoheng; Ding, Li; Yang, Zhenhai; Ye, Jichun; Cui, Yi

    2016-12-27

    Silicon/organic heterojunction solar cells (HSCs) based on conjugated polymers, poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS), and n-type silicon (n-Si) have attracted wide attention due to their potential advantages of high efficiency and low cost. However, the state-of-the-art efficiencies are still far from satisfactory due to the inferior junction quality. Here, facile treatments were applied by pretreating the n-Si wafer in tetramethylammonium hydroxide (TMAH) solution and using a capping copper iodide (CuI) layer on the PEDOT:PSS layer to achieve a high-quality Schottky junction. Detailed photoelectric characteristics indicated that the surface recombination was greatly suppressed after TMAH pretreatment, which increased the thickness of the interfacial oxide layer. Furthermore, the CuI capping layer induced a strong inversion layer near the n-Si surface, resulting in an excellent field effect passivation. With the collaborative improvements in the interface chemical and electrical passivation, a competitive open-circuit voltage of 0.656 V and a high fill factor of 78.1% were achieved, leading to a stable efficiency of over 14.3% for the planar n-Si/PEDOT:PSS HSCs. Our findings suggest promising strategies to further exploit the full voltage as well as efficiency potentials for Si/organic solar cells.

  16. 4. meeting on passive solar energy houses. Proceedings; 4. Passivhaus Tagung. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feist, W [ed.; Sariri, V; Nagel, M [comps.; Passivhaus Institut, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2000-03-01

    This is the report on the 4th Passive Building Conference, which took place at Kassel on March 10/11, 2000. There were eight sections: (a) Planners' workshop; (b) Architecture; (c) Ventilation; (d) Construction practice; (e) Subjective users' comfort and measured results; (f) Practical implementation; (g) economic and ecological assessment; (h) Solar architecture; (i) Heat supply. It was considered particularly favourable that passive solar buildings do not only offer a solution to ecological problems but also a growing market. [German] Der Tagungsband der '4. Passivhaus Tagung', die von 10. bis 11. Maerz 2000 in Kassel stattgefunden hat, beinhalten Beitraege, die in acht Arbeitsgruppen vorgetragen worden: (a) Planer-Werkstatt; (b) Architektur; (c) Lueftungsplanung; (d) Baupraxis; (e) Wohnerfahrung, Messergebnisse; (f) Umsetzung; (g) oekonomische und oekologische Bewertung; (h) Solararchitektur; (i) Waermeversorgung. Es wird vom Herausgeber als besonders erfreulich herausgestellt, dass durch eine erfolgreiche Passivhaus-Entwicklung neben der Loesung der Klimaprobleme zugleich ein neuer Wachstumsmarkt geschaffen werde, der mit einer Mehrung von Wertschoepfung und Wohlstand verbunden ist. (AKF)

  17. 4. meeting on passive solar energy houses. Proceedings; 4. Passivhaus Tagung. Tagungsband

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feist, W. [ed.; Sariri, V.; Nagel, M. [comps.] [Passivhaus Institut, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2000-03-01

    This is the report on the 4th Passive Building Conference, which took place at Kassel on March 10/11, 2000. There were eight sections: (a) Planners' workshop; (b) Architecture; (c) Ventilation; (d) Construction practice; (e) Subjective users' comfort and measured results; (f) Practical implementation; (g) economic and ecological assessment; (h) Solar architecture; (i) Heat supply. It was considered particularly favourable that passive solar buildings do not only offer a solution to ecological problems but also a growing market. [German] Der Tagungsband der '4. Passivhaus Tagung', die von 10. bis 11. Maerz 2000 in Kassel stattgefunden hat, beinhalten Beitraege, die in acht Arbeitsgruppen vorgetragen worden: (a) Planer-Werkstatt; (b) Architektur; (c) Lueftungsplanung; (d) Baupraxis; (e) Wohnerfahrung, Messergebnisse; (f) Umsetzung; (g) oekonomische und oekologische Bewertung; (h) Solararchitektur; (i) Waermeversorgung. Es wird vom Herausgeber als besonders erfreulich herausgestellt, dass durch eine erfolgreiche Passivhaus-Entwicklung neben der Loesung der Klimaprobleme zugleich ein neuer Wachstumsmarkt geschaffen werde, der mit einer Mehrung von Wertschoepfung und Wohlstand verbunden ist. (AKF)

  18. Tunnel Oxides Formed by Field-Induced Anodisation for Passivated Contacts of Silicon Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingnan Tong

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Tunnel silicon oxides form a critical component for passivated contacts for silicon solar cells. They need to be sufficiently thin to allow carriers to tunnel through and to be uniform both in thickness and stoichiometry across the silicon wafer surface, to ensure uniform and low recombination velocities if high conversion efficiencies are to be achieved. This paper reports on the formation of ultra-thin silicon oxide layers by field-induced anodisation (FIA, a process that ensures uniform oxide thickness by passing the anodisation current perpendicularly through the wafer to the silicon surface that is anodised. Spectroscopical analyses show that the FIA oxides contain a lower fraction of Si-rich sub-oxides compared to wet-chemical oxides, resulting in lower recombination velocities at the silicon and oxide interface. This property along with its low temperature formation highlights the potential for FIA to be used to form low-cost tunnel oxide layers for passivated contacts of silicon solar cells.

  19. Al-Si alloy point contact formation and rear surface passivation for silicon solar cells using double layer porous silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moumni, Besma; Ben Jaballah, Abdelkader; Bessais, Brahim

    2012-01-01

    Lowering the rear surface recombination velocities by a dielectric layer has fascinating advantages compared with the standard fully covered Al back-contact silicon solar cells. In this work the passivation effect by double layer porous silicon (PS) (wide band gap) and the formation of Al-Si alloy in narrow p-type Si point contact areas for rear passivated solar cells are analysed. As revealed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, we found that a thin passivating aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ) layer is formed. Scanning electron microscopy analysis performed in cross sections shows that with bilayer PS, liquid Al penetrates into the openings, alloying with the Si substrate at depth and decreasing the contact resistivity. At the solar cell level, the reduction in the contact area and resistivity leads to a minimization of the fill factor losses.

  20. Si surface passivation by SiOx:H films deposited by a low-frequency ICP for solar cell applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou, H P; Wei, D Y; Xu, S; Xiao, S Q; Xu, L X; Huang, S Y; Guo, Y N; Khan, S; Xu, M

    2012-01-01

    Hydrogenated silicon suboxide (SiO x :H) thin films are fabricated by a low-frequency inductively coupled plasma of hydrogen-diluted SiH 4 + CO 2 at a low temperature (100 °C). Introduction of a small amount of oxygen into the film results in a predominantly amorphous structure, wider optical bandgap, increased H content, lower conductivity and higher activation energy. The minority carrier lifetime in the SiO x :H-passivated p-type Si substrate is up to 428 µs with a reduced incubation layer at the interface. The associated surface recombination velocity is as low as 70 cm s -1 . The passivation behaviour dominantly originates from the H-related chemical passivation. The passivation effect is also demonstrated by the excellent photovoltaic performance of the heterojunction solar cell with the SiO x :H-based passivation and emitter layers.

  1. Feasibility study of a hybrid renewable energy system with geothermal and solar heat sources for residential buildings in South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Ju; Woo, Nam Sub; Jang, Sung Cheol; Choi, Jeong Ju

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the economic feasibility of a hybrid renewable energy system (HRES) that uses geothermal and solar heat sources for water heating, space heating, and space cooling in a residential building in Korea. A small-scale HRES consists of a geothermal heat pump for heating and cooling, solar collectors for hot water, a gas-fired backup boiler, and incidental facilities. To determine whether the Hares will produce any economic benefits for homeowners, an economic analysis is conducted to compare the Hares with conventional methods of space heating and cooling in Korea. The payback period of a small-scale Hares is predicted as a maximum of 9 yrs by life cycle costing based on a performance index compared with conventional systems. However, the payback period of large-scale HRES above 400 RT is 6 yrs to 7 yrs.

  2. Feasibility study of a hybrid renewable energy system with geothermal and solar heat sources for residential buildings in South Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Young Ju; Woo, Nam Sub [Korea Institute of Geoscience and Mineral Resources, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Sung Cheol [Mechatronics Department of the Korea Aviation Polytechnic College, Sacheon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jeong Ju [Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-08-15

    This study investigates the economic feasibility of a hybrid renewable energy system (HRES) that uses geothermal and solar heat sources for water heating, space heating, and space cooling in a residential building in Korea. A small-scale HRES consists of a geothermal heat pump for heating and cooling, solar collectors for hot water, a gas-fired backup boiler, and incidental facilities. To determine whether the Hares will produce any economic benefits for homeowners, an economic analysis is conducted to compare the Hares with conventional methods of space heating and cooling in Korea. The payback period of a small-scale Hares is predicted as a maximum of 9 yrs by life cycle costing based on a performance index compared with conventional systems. However, the payback period of large-scale HRES above 400 RT is 6 yrs to 7 yrs.

  3. Adolescents in secure residential care: the role of active and passive coping on general well-being and self-esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barendregt, Charlotte S; Van der Laan, André M; Bongers, Ilja L; Van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs

    2015-07-01

    Coping, general well-being and self-esteem play an important role during the process of adaptation to turning points in life-course. This study aimed to investigate the effect of coping on both the development of general well-being and self-esteem of adolescents with severe psychiatric problems in secure residential care. In addition, risk and protective factors were taken into account. Adolescents between the age of 16 and 18 (N = 172) were followed for 1.5 years. General well-being and self-esteem were assessed with the Lancashire Quality of Life Profile and the Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents, respectively. In addition, the Utrecht Coping List for Adolescents and the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth were administered. Results showed that the longitudinal relation between general well-being and self-esteem is no longer significant after adding active and passive coping to the model. The use of active coping strategies was associated with a higher self-esteem. The use of passive coping strategies was associated with a lower self-esteem and also a lower perceived general well-being. Having multiple risks in the individual and/or social/contextual domain affected the developmental pattern of general well-being. During treatment of adolescents with severe psychiatric problems in secure residential care, attention should be paid for enhancing those capabilities and skills, like coping, which help adolescents to fulfill their needs and consequently enhance their well-being. Enhancing the well-being of adolescents might in the long run decrease the chance of reoffending and/or psychiatric relapse.

  4. Study on the use of TiO2 passivation layer to reduce recombination losses in dye sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eskander bin Samsudin, Adel; Mohamed, Norani Muti; Nayan, Nafarizal; Ali, Riyaz Ahmad Mohamed; Shariffuddin, Sharifah Amira Amir; Omar, Salwa

    2012-01-01

    A lot of research on various aspects of dye solar cells (DSC) has been carried out in order to improve efficiency. This paper analyzes the utilization of TiO 2 passivation layers of different thicknesses by improving the electron transport properties. Four different thicknesses of passivation layers namely 10, 20, 50 and 100 nm were deposited onto the working electrode using r.f sputtering. The electrodes were assembled into TiO 2 based DSC with active area of 1 cm 2 . The solar performance was investigated using 100 mW/cm 2 of AM 1.5 simulated sunlight from solar simulator. The kinetics of the solar cells was investigated using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) measurement and the spectral response was measured using Incident Photon to Electron Conversion (IPCE) measurement system. The highest efficiency was found for DSC with 20 nm passivation layer. DSCs with the passivation layer have open circuit voltage, V OC increased by 57 mV, their current density, J SC increased by 0.774 mA cm −2 compared to the one without the passivation layer. The quantum efficiency of the 20 nm passivation layer is the highest, peaking at the wavelength of 534 nm, resulting in the highest performance. All DSCs with the passivation layer recorded higher ratio of R BR /R T where R T is the diffusion resistance of the TiO 2 particles in the mesoscopic layer and R BR is the recombination resistance of the electron to the electrolyte. This implies that the recombination of the electrolyte I − 3 /3I − couple at the substrate/electrolyte interface has been effectively reduced resulting in an enhanced efficiency.

  5. The impact of changing solar screen rotation angle and its opening aspect ratios on Daylight Availability in residential desert buildings

    KAUST Repository

    Sherif, Ahmed H.

    2012-11-01

    In desert sunny clear-sky regions solar penetration can become excessive. This can cause non-uniform daylight distribution, glare and high solar heat gain, affecting both visual and thermal comfort. Shading devices, such as solar screens, were usually used to diffuse and prevent direct solar penetration into spaces. This paper investigates the impact of changing solar screen axial rotation angle and screen opening aspect ratio on daylighting performance in a typical residential living room space under the desert sunny clear-sky. The larger aim is to arrive at efficient solar screen designs that suit the different orientations.The study was divided into three consecutive phases. In phase one, the effect of the two parameters on Daylight Availability was tested. The solar screen was axially rotated by three different angles at 10° increments. Also, the aspect ratio of the screen opening in both horizontal and vertical directions was changed systematically. Simulation was conducted using the annual Daylight Dynamic Performance Metrics (DDPMs). In phase two, the Annual Daylight Glare Probability (DGP) metric was evaluated for the cases that were found adequate in phase one. In the third phase, the annual solar energy transmittance through the screen was calculated for the cases that achieved acceptable performance in the two previous phases in order to identify the more energy efficient screens.Solar screens with openings having horizontal aspect ratios were found to be the most effective, while those with vertical aspect ratios were achieved the lowest performance. In the North orientation, since almost all the cases that were tested in this research provided acceptable daylighting performance, the designer now have a variety of options to choose from. Preference should be given to screen openings of horizontal aspect ratios, especially the 12:1 and 18:1 (H:V) screens that achieved the best performance where 92% of the space was " daylit" in comparison with only 53

  6. An Isotope Study of Hydrogenation of poly-Si/SiOx Passivated Contacts for Si Solar Cells: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schnabel, Manuel; Nemeth, William; van de Loo, Bas, W.H.; Macco, Bart; Kessels, Wilhelmus, M.M.; Stradins, Paul; Young, David, L.

    2017-06-26

    For many years, the record Si solar cell efficiency stood at 25.0%. Only recently have several companies and institutes managed to produce more efficient cells, using passivated contacts of made doped poly-Si or a-Si:H and a passivating intrinsic interlayer in all cases. Common to these designs is the need to passivate the layer stack with hydrogen. In this contribution, we perform a systematic study of passivated contact passivation by hydrogen, using poly-Si/SiOx passivated contacts on n-Cz-Si, and ALD Al2O3 followed by a forming gas anneal (FGA) as the hydrogen source. We study p-type and n-type passivated contacts with implied Voc exceeding 690 and 720 mV, respectively, and perform either the ALD step or the FGA with deuterium instead of hydrogen in order to separate the two processes via SIMS. By examining the deuterium concentration at the SiOx in both types of samples, we demonstrate that the FGA supplies negligible hydrogen species to the SiOx, regardless of whether the FGA is hydrogenated or deuterated. Instead, it supplies the thermal energy needed for hydrogen species in the Al2O3 to diffuse there. Furthermore, the concentration of hydrogen species at the SiOx can saturate while implied Voc continues to increase, showing that the energy from the FGA is also required for hydrogen species already at the SiOx to find recombination-active defects to passivate.

  7. The challenge of screen printed Ag metallization on nano-scale poly-silicon passivated contacts for silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lin; Song, Lixin; Yan, Li; Becht, Gregory; Zhang, Yi; Hoerteis, Matthias

    2017-08-01

    Passivated contacts can be used to reduce metal-induced recombination for higher energy conversion efficiency for silicon solar cells, and are obtained increasing attentions by PV industries in recent years. The reported thicknesses of passivated contact layers are mostly within tens of nanometer range, and the corresponding metallization methods are realized mainly by plating/evaporation technology. This high cost metallization cannot compete with the screen printing technology, and may affect its market potential comparing with the presently dominant solar cell technology. Very few works have been reported on screen printing metallization on passivated contact solar cells. Hence, there is a rising demand to realize screen printing metallization technology on this topic. In this work, we investigate applying screen printing metallization pastes on poly-silicon passivated contacts. The critical challenge for us is to build low contact resistance that can be competitive to standard technology while restricting the paste penetrations within the thin nano-scale passivated contact layers. The contact resistivity of 1.1mohm-cm2 and the open circuit voltages > 660mV are achieved, and the most appropriate thickness range is estimated to be around 80 150nm.

  8. Solar Ray Tracing Analysis to Determine Energy Availability in a CPC Designed for Use as a Residential Water Heater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Terrón-Hernández

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Compound parabolic concentrators are relevant systems used in solar thermal technology. With adequate tailoring, they can be used as an efficient and low-cost alternative in residential water heating applications. This work presents a simulation study using a ray tracing analysis. With this technique, we simulate the interaction between solar rays and solar concentrator to quantify the amount of energy that impinges on the receiver at a particular time. Energy availability is evaluated in a comparison of two configurations throughout the year: static setup at 21° and multi-position setup; tilted with respect to the horizontal, depending on three seasonal positions: 0° for summer, 16° for spring/autumn, and 32° for winter, with the aim to evaluate the amount of available energy in each season. The fact that a tracking system can be dispensed with also represents an economical option for the proposed application. The results showed that at 21°, the proposed solar Compound Parabolic Concentrator (CPC works satisfactorily; however, by carrying out the selected angular adjustments, the overall energy availability increased by 22%, resulting in a more efficient option. The most effective design was also built and analyzed outdoors. The obtained thermal efficiency was of ~43%. The optical design and its evaluation developed herein proved to be a valuable tool for prototype design and performance evaluation.

  9. Solid state phase change materials for thermal energy storage in passive solar heated buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, D. K.; Christensen, C.

    1983-11-01

    A set of solid state phase change materials was evaluated for possible use in passive solar thermal energy storage systems. The most promising materials are organic solid solutions of pentaerythritol, pentaglycerine and neopentyl glycol. Solid solution mixtures of these compounds can be tailored so that they exhibit solid-to-solid phase transformations at any desired temperature within the range from less than 25 deg to 188 deg. Thermophysical properties such as thermal conductivity, density and volumetric expansion were measured. Computer simulations were used to predict the performance of various Trombe wall designs incorporating solid state phase change materials. Optimum performance was found to be sensitive to the choice of phase change temperatures and to the thermal conductivity of the phase change material. A molecular mechanism of the solid state phase transition is proposed and supported by infrared spectroscopic evidence.

  10. Blistering in ALD Al2O3 passivation layers as rear contacting for local Al BSF Si solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermang, B.; Goverde, J.C.; Uruena, A.; Lorenz, A.; Cornagliotti, E.; Rothschild, A.; John, J.; Poortmans, J.; Mertens, R.

    2012-01-01

    Random Al back surface field (BSF) p-type Si solar cells are presented, where a stack of Al2O3 and SiNx is used as rear surface passivation layer containing blisters. It is shown that no additional contact opening step is needed, since during co-firing local Al BSFs are induced at the location of

  11. Field experiments on the use of phase changing materials, insulation materials and passive solar radiation in the built environment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Entrop, Alexis Gerardus; Brouwers, Jos; Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.; McCarthy, J.; Foliente, G.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes the development of an experimental research facility to assess the effectiveness of Phase Change Materials (PCM), that can be used for passive solar heating. Four test boxes are constructed representing the conventional and future Dutch building practices regarding insulation

  12. Highly reflective rear surface passivation design for ultra-thin Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vermang, Bart, E-mail: Bart.Vermang@angstrom.uu.se [Ångström Solar Center, University of Uppsala, Uppsala 75121 (Sweden); ESAT-KU Leuven, University of Leuven, Leuven 3001 (Belgium); Wätjen, Jörn Timo; Fjällström, Viktor; Rostvall, Fredrik; Edoff, Marika [Ångström Solar Center, University of Uppsala, Uppsala 75121 (Sweden); Gunnarsson, Rickard; Pilch, Iris; Helmersson, Ulf [Plasma & Coatings Physics, University of Linköping, Linköping 58183 (Sweden); Kotipalli, Ratan; Henry, Frederic; Flandre, Denis [ICTEAM/IMNC, Université Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-la-Neuve 1348 (Belgium)

    2015-05-01

    Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} rear surface passivated ultra-thin Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2} (CIGS) solar cells with Mo nano-particles (NPs) as local rear contacts are developed to demonstrate their potential to improve optical confinement in ultra-thin CIGS solar cells. The CIGS absorber layer is 380 nm thick and the Mo NPs are deposited uniformly by an up-scalable technique and have typical diameters of 150 to 200 nm. The Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer passivates the CIGS rear surface between the Mo NPs, while the rear CIGS interface in contact with the Mo NP is passivated by [Ga]/([Ga] + [In]) (GGI) grading. It is shown that photon scattering due to the Mo NP contributes to an absolute increase in short circuit current density of 3.4 mA/cm{sup 2}; as compared to equivalent CIGS solar cells with a standard back contact. - Highlights: • Proof-of-principle ultra-thin CIGS solar cells have been fabricated. • The cells have Mo nano-particles (NPs) as local rear contacts. • An Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} film passivates the CIGS rear surface between these nano-particles. • [Ga]/([Ga] + [In]) grading is used to reduce Mo-NP/CIGS interface recombination.

  13. Amine treatment induced perovskite nanowire network in perovskite solar cells: efficient surface passivation and carrier transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ke; Cui, Can; Wang, Peng; Lin, Ping; Qiang, Yaping; Xu, Lingbo; Xie, Jiangsheng; Yang, Zhengrui; Zhu, Xiaodong; Yu, Xuegong; Yang, Deren

    2018-02-01

    In the fabrication of high efficiency organic-inorganic metal halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs), an additional interface modifier is usually applied for enhancing the interface passivation and carrier transport. In this paper, we develop an innovative method with in-situ growth of one-dimensional perovskite nanowire (1D PNW) network triggered by Lewis amine over the perovskite films. To our knowledge, this is the first time to fabricate PSCs with shape-controlled perovskite surface morphology, which improved power conversion efficiency (PCE) from 14.32% to 16.66% with negligible hysteresis. The amine molecule can passivate the trap states on the polycrystalline perovskite surface to reduce trap-state density. Meanwhile, as a fast channel, the 1D PNWs would promote carrier transport from the bulk perovskite film to the electron transport layer. The PSCs with 1D PNW modification not only exhibit excellent photovoltaic performances, but also show good stability with only 4% PCE loss within 30 days in the ambient air without encapsulation. Our results strongly suggest that in-situ grown 1D PNW network provides a feasible and effective strategy for nanostructured optoelectronic devices such as PSCs to achieve superior performances.

  14. Willow Park II Community Center. Design report for the passive solar commercial buildings design assistance and demonstration program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-15

    The design process for a passive solar community center in Texas is documented. Weather data are given. Energy analysis for early drawings is performed using the ENERGYLOOK program and the results shown graphically. Energy consumption and cost data are given. The design evolution is then traced and the performance of alternative designs compared. Design indicators for best strategies and concepts are discussed and the final design is presented. Energy consumption and cost are given, along with incremental passive solar design costs. A schematic review meeting report and life cycle value tables are included. Overviews, unavailable information, incremental passive design costs, performance comparison of alternatives, and architectural compatibility are discussed for each step in the design process. (LEW)

  15. 77 FR 72439 - Residential, Business, and Wind and Solar Resource Leases on Indian Land

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-05

    ... to streamline and expedite the leasing process, advance economic development, and spur renewable... entities; however, many tribes requested clarification regarding other taxation arising in the context of... residential, business, and WSR leasing subparts to subpart A. This section now addresses not only taxation of...

  16. In Situ Passivation for Efficient PbS Quantum Dot Solar Cells by Precursor Engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongjie; Lu, Kunyuan; Han, Lu; Liu, Zeke; Shi, Guozheng; Fang, Honghua; Chen, Si; Wu, Tian; Yang, Fan; Gu, Mengfan; Zhou, Sijie; Ling, Xufeng; Tang, Xun; Zheng, Jiawei; Loi, Maria Antonietta; Ma, Wanli

    2018-04-01

    Current efforts on lead sulfide quantum dot (PbS QD) solar cells are mostly paid to the device architecture engineering and postsynthetic surface modification, while very rare work regarding the optimization of PbS synthesis is reported. Here, PbS QDs are successfully synthesized using PbO and PbAc 2  · 3H 2 O as the lead sources. QD solar cells based on PbAc-PbS have demonstrated a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 10.82% (and independently certificated values of 10.62%), which is significantly higher than the PCE of 9.39% for PbO-PbS QD based ones. For the first time, systematic investigations are carried out on the effect of lead precursor engineering on the device performance. It is revealed that acetate can act as an efficient capping ligands together with oleic acid, providing better surface coverage and replace some of the harmful hydroxyl (OH) ligands during the synthesis. Then the acetate on the surface can be exchanged by iodide and lead to desired passivation. This work demonstrates that the precursor engineering has great potential in performance improvement. It is also pointed out that the initial synthesis is an often neglected but critical stage and has abundant room for optimization to further improve the quality of the resultant QDs, leading to breakthrough efficiency. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Revising the limits of net gain glazing: a tool for passive solar design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, T. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia)

    1996-12-31

    The prevailing advice five years ago on shading of northerly fenestration had been motivated traditionally by a desire to shade the windows to sill level for as long as possible each day in summer and for as much of the summer as possible. Fixed shading, however, reduces the window area admitting direct sunlight, the top shaded section usually loses more heat to the outside than it admits. Over the whole heating season, the cumulative effect can be net loss of heat for the window as a whole, irrespective of its orientation. The concern of this study is to employ the improved thermal simulation computer program CHEETAH, and the Australian Solar Radiation Data Handbook, to revisit the original question, at what point does the combination of fixed shading of a window (due to eaves generally) and off-north orientation actually result in the window having a net heat loss (to the outside) over the whole heating season. The combined effect of eaves overhang and off-north orientation has been quantified and set out in graphical form for the use of architects seeking to apply the potential of passive solar heating to their designs. (author). 3 figs., 12 refs.

  18. Design, construction, and testing of a residential solar heating and cooling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ward, D.S.; Loef, G.O.G.

    1976-06-01

    The NSF/CSU Solar House I solar heating and cooling system became operational on 1 July 1974. During the first months of operation the emphasis was placed on adjustment, ''tuning,'' and fault correction in the solar collection and the solar/fuel/cooling subsystems. Following this initial check out period, analysis and testing of the system utilizing a full year of data were accomplished. This report discusses the results of this analysis of the full year of operation. (WDM)

  19. Adoption of residential solar power under uncertainty: Implications for renewable energy incentives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauner, Christoph; Crago, Christine L.

    2015-01-01

    Many incentives at the state and federal level exist for household adoption of renewable energy like solar photovoltaic (PV) panels. Despite generous financial incentives the adoption rate is low. We use the option value framework, which takes into account the benefit of delaying investment in response to uncertainty, to examine the decision by households to invest in solar PV. Using a simulation model, we determine optimal adoption times, critical values of discounted benefits, and adoption rates over time for solar PV investments using data from Massachusetts. We find that the option value multiplier is 1.6, which implies that the discounted value of benefits from solar PV needs to exceed installation cost by 60% for investment to occur. Without any policies, median adoption time is eight years longer under the option value decision rule compared to the net present value decision rule where households equate discounted benefits to installation cost. Rebates and other financial incentives decrease adoption time, but their effect is attenuated if households apply the option value decision rule to solar PV investments. Results suggest that policies that reduce the uncertainty in returns from solar PV investments would be most effective at incentivizing adoption. - Highlights: • We examine household adoption of solar PV using the option value framework. • Uncertainty in benefits and costs leads to delay in investment timing. • Discounted benefits from solar PV have to exceed investment cost by 60% to trigger investment. • Policy incentives that reduce uncertainty in returns from solar PV are most effective.

  20. Photoluminescence, structural and electrical properties of passivated a-Si:H based thin films and corresponding solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pincik, E.; Kobayashi, H.; Takahashi, M.; Fujiwara, N.; Brunner, R.; Gleskova, H.; Jergel, M.; Muellerova, J.; Kucera, M.; Falcony, C.; Ortega, L.; Rusnak, J.; Mikula, M.; Zahoran, M.; Jurani, R.; Kral, M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with the photoluminescence, structural and electrical properties of chemically passivated a-Si:H based thin films and corresponding thin film solar cells. The structures were chemically passivated in three types of KCN and HCN solutions containing MeOH and/or with water. The photoluminescence measurements were performed at 6 K using Ar laser and lock-in signal recording device containing Ge and Si photodetectors. Optically determined band gap related photoluminescence signals were observed between 1.1 and 1.7 eV. The electrical properties were measured by a high-sensitive charge version of deep level transient spectroscopy (Q-DLTS). The evolution of three basic groups of defects was observed. The structural studies were realized by the standard X-ray diffraction analysis. The cyanide treatment improved significantly the electrical characteristics of both corresponding MOS structures and solar cells due to the passivation of some parts of the dangling bonds by CN group. Particularly, the passivation of the defects at interfaces in MOS or solar cell multilayer structures was achieved which is of primary practical importance

  1. Silver nanoparticles-incorporated Nb2O5 surface passivation layer for efficiency enhancement in dye-sensitized solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, S; Unni, Gautam E; Satyanarayana, M; Sreekumaran Nair, A; Mahadevan Pillai, V P

    2018-08-15

    Guiding and capturing photons at the nanoscale by means of metal nanoparticles and interfacial engineering for preventing back-electron transfer are well documented techniques for performance enhancement in excitonic solar cells. Drifting from the conventional route, we propose a simple one-step process to integrate both metal nanoparticles and surface passivation layer in the porous photoanode matrix of a dye-sensitized solar cell. Silver nanoparticles and Nb 2 O 5 surface passivation layer are simultaneously deposited on the surface of a highly porous nanocrystalline TiO 2 photoanode, facilitating an absorption enhancement in the 465 nm and 570 nm wavelength region and a reduction in back-electron transfer in the fabricated dye-sensitized solar cells together. The TiO 2 photoanodes were prepared by spray pyrolysis deposition method from a colloidal solution of TiO 2 nanoparticles. An impressive 43% enhancement in device performance was accomplished in photoanodes having an Ag-incorporated Nb 2 O 5 passivation layer as against a cell without Ag nanoparticles. By introducing this idea, we were able to record two benefits - the metal nanoparticles function as the absorption enhancement agent, and the Nb 2 O 5 layer as surface passivation for TiO 2 nanoparticles and as an energy barrier layer for preventing back-electron transfer - in a single step. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. ZnSe passivation layer for the efficiency enhancement of CuInS{sub 2} quantum dots sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Zhuoyin; Liu, Yueli; Zhao, Yinghan; Chen, Keqiang; Cheng, Yuqing [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China); Kovalev, Valery [Department of Mechanics and Mathematics, Moscow State University named after M.V. Lomonosov, Leninskie Gory 1, 119992 Moscow (Russian Federation); Chen, Wen, E-mail: chenw@whut.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Wuhan University of Technology, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2014-02-25

    Highlights: • ZnSe is employed as passivation layer in CuInS{sub 2} quantum dots sensitized solar cells. • Slight red-shift has been occurred in UV–vis absorption spectra with ZnSe coating. • CuInS{sub 2} based solar cells coated by ZnSe have better efficiency than that of ZnS. • Higher rate of charge transport can be produced after coating with ZnSe. -- Abstract: The effect of ZnSe passivation layer is investigated in the CuInS{sub 2} quantum dot sensitized solar cells, which is used to improve the photovoltaic performance. The CuInS{sub 2} quantum dot sensitized TiO{sub 2} photo-anodes are prepared by assembly linking technique, and then deposited by the ZnSe passivation layer using the successive ionic layer absorption and reaction technique. The optical absorption edge and photoluminescence peak have slightly red-shifted after the passivation layer coating. Under solar light illumination, the ZnSe passivation layer based CuInS{sub 2} quantum dot sensitized solar cells have the higher photovoltaic efficiency of 0.95% and incident photon conversion efficiency response than that of pure CuInS{sub 2} based solar cells and ZnS passivation layer based solar cells, as the electron injection rate becomes faster after coating with ZnSe passivation layer.

  3. Performance Assessment of a Hybrid Solar-Geothermal Air Conditioning System for Residential Application: Energy, Exergy, and Sustainability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Abbasi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper investigates the performance of a ground source heat pump that is coupled with a photovoltaic system to provide cooling and heating demands of a zero-energy residential building. Exergy and sustainability analyses have been conducted to evaluate the exergy destruction rate and SI of different compartments of the hybrid system. The effects of monthly thermal load variations on the performance of the hybrid system are investigated. The hybrid system consists of a vertical ground source heat exchanger, rooftop photovoltaic panels, and a heat pump cycle. Exergetic efficiency of the solar-geothermal heat pump system does not exceed 10 percent, and most exergy destruction takes place in photovoltaic panel, condenser, and evaporator. Although SI of PV system remains constant during a year, SI of GSHP varies depending on cooling and heating mode. The results also show that utilization of this hybrid system can reduce CO2 emissions by almost 70 tons per year.

  4. A First Approach to Natural Thermoventilation of Residential Buildings through Ventilation Chimneys Supplied by Solar Ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinando Salata

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The exploitation of natural ventilation is a good solution to improve buildings from an energetic point of view and to fulfill the requirements demanded by the thermohygrometric comfort and the air quality in enclosed spaces. Some past researches demonstrated how some devices, useful to this purpose, follow the principles of solar chimneys and are able to move air masses while exploiting the Archimedes thrust. The natural ventilation must be supplied by a flow moving upward, generated by a heat source performing at temperatures slightly higher than the one present in the environment. To have a minimum energetic effect, the heat can be extracted from solar ponds; solar ponds are able to collect and store solar energy in the geographical regions characterized by sufficient values of solar radiation. Thus it is possible, in summer, to provoke a nocturnal natural ventilation useful for the air change in indoor spaces (in those climatic areas where, during the night, there is a temperature gradient.

  5. Analysis of the effect of passive strategies on a nearly zero Danish residential building by means of dynamic simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avantaggiato, Marta; Simone, Angela; de Carli, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Increase of outdoors temperature, due to climate changes, results in warmer summers even in cold climate regions. Moreover the use of wider glazing surfaces leads to high amount of incoming solar radiation. As a consequence, the moving toward low energy buildings with the improved air tightness i......’t that one required by the users (22-24°C by previous studies). This desired thermal indoor environment can be however obtained by exploiting windows opening during nigh....

  6. PECVD-ONO: A New Deposited Firing Stable Rear Surface Passivation Layer System for Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hofmann

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposited (PECVD stack layer system consisting of a-SiOx:H, a-SiNx:H, and a-SiOx:H is presented for silicon solar cell rear side passivation. Surface recombination velocities below 60 cm/s (after firing and below 30 cm/s (after forming gas anneal were achieved. Solar cell precursors without front and rear metallisation showed implied open-circuit voltages Voc values extracted from quasi-steady-state photoconductance (QSSPC measurements above 680 mV. Fully finished solar cells with up to 20.0% energy conversion efficiency are presented. A fit of the cell's internal quantum efficiency using software tool PC1D and a comparison to a full-area aluminium-back surface field (Al-BSF and thermal SiO2 is shown. PECVD-ONO was found to be clearly superior to Al-BSF. A separation of recombination at the metallised and the passivated area at the solar cell's rear is presented using the equations of Fischer and Kray. Nuclear reaction analysis (NRA has been used to evaluate the hydrogen depth profile of the passivation layer system at different stages.

  7. Application of Breathing Architectural Members to the Natural Ventilation of a Passive Solar House

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung-Soon Park

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The efficient operation of a passive solar house requires an efficient ventilation system to prevent the loss of energy and provide the required ventilation rates. This paper proposes the use of “breathing architectural members” (BAMs as passive natural ventilation devices to achieve much improved ventilation and insulation performance compared to mechanical ventilation. Considering the importance of evaluating the ventilation and insulation performances of the members, we also propose numerical models for predicting the heat and air movements afforded by the members. The numerical model was validated by comparison with experimental results. The effectiveness of the BAMs was also verified by installation in houses located in an area with warm climate. For this purpose, chamber experiments were performed using samples of the BAMs, as well as numerical simulations to assess natural ventilation and heat load. The main findings of the study are as follows: (1 the one-dimensional chamber experiments confirmed the validity of the numerical models for predicting the heat and air movements afforded by the BAMs. Comparison of the experimental and calculated values for the temperature of air that flowed into the room from outside revealed a difference of less than 5%; (2 observations of the case studies in which BAMs were installed in the ceilings and exterior walls of Tokyo model houses revealed good annual ventilation and energy-saving effects. When BAMs with an opening area per unit area of A = 0.002 m2/m2 were applied to three surfaces, the required ventilation rate was 0.5 ACH (air changes per hour, and this was achieved consistently. Compared to a house with general insulation and conventional mechanical ventilation, heating load was reduced by 15.3%–40.2% depending on the BAM installation points and the differing areas of the house models.

  8. The use of solar energy for residential buildings in the capital city

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velkin, V.; Shcheklein, S.; Danilov, V.

    2017-06-01

    Taking into account the conditions of sharply continental climate of Russia the implementation of the project of heating for an apartment house can be structured on the basis of solar vacuum collectors. A diagram of the operation of the vacuum solar collectors can be considered for heating and hot water. The calculations of effective angle of solar collectors also vary for stationary use in winter and summer. Consumption of centralized heat in the spring and autumn is reduced by 30 % due to the use of solar collectors. In summer the main problem of application of solar collectors is to protect the tubes from overheating. In winter, the use of solar heating is able to provide not more than 25 % of the needs regarding the utility and the results of experimental exploitation. It is shown that the main problem of using solar energy in Russia relies not in technology, but in the legislative field. The use of a vacuum manifold in Russia will be widely implemented in areas with a cold climate and in the modern houses after solving the issues of legislative support from the state and municipal authorities.

  9. An evaluation of the installation of solar photovoltaic in residential houses in Malaysia: Past, present, and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad-Sukki, Firdaus; Ramirez-Iniguez, Roberto; Abu-Bakar, Siti Hawa; McMeekin, Scott G.; Stewart, Brian G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines solar energy development in Malaysia, particularly in relation to the installation of solar Photovoltaic (PV) in residential houses. It analyzes the past activities related to solar energy in Malaysia, in terms of research and developments (R and Ds), the implementations used as well as the national policies for the past 20 years which have pushed the installation of PV in the country. The Feed-In Tariff (FiT) scheme is discussed, showing comparative cost-benefit analysis between the PV installation in houses in the United Kingdom (UK) and Malaysia, and with other investment schemes available in Malaysia. To investigate the awareness of renewable energy policies and incentives, a preliminary survey of the public opinion in Malaysia has been carried out, and an evaluation of public willingness to invest in the FiT scheme by installing the PV on their houses is presented. The cost-benefit analysis shows that the proposed FiT programme is capable of generating good return on investment as compared to the one in the UK, but the return is lower than other investment tools. The survey suggests that most Malaysians are unaware of the government’s incentives and policies towards renewable energies, and are not willing to invest in the FiT scheme. - Highlights: ► Past activities related to solar energy is evaluated and FIT scheme is discussed. ► Financial analysis is presented; public perspective is evaluated. ► The FIT scheme generates higher return for PV installation in Malaysia than in the UK. ► The scheme, however, produces lower return than most investment schemes. ► Malaysians’ awareness levels are low and are not willing to invest in the FIT scheme.

  10. A comparison of fuel savings in the residential and commercial sectors generated by the installation of solar heating and cooling systems under three tax credit scenarios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moden, R.

    An analysis of expected energy savings between 1977 and 1980 under three different solar tax credit scenarios is presented. The results were obtained through the solar heating and cooling of buildings (SHACOB) commercialization model. This simulation provides projected savings of conventional fuels through the installation of solar heating and cooling systems on buildings in the residential and commercial sectors. The three scenarios analyzed considered the tax credits contained in the Windfall Profits Tax of April 1980, the National Tax Act of November 1978, and a case where no tax credit is in effect.

  11. Renewable energy production support schemes for residential-scale solar photovoltaic systems in Nordic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirvonen, Janne; Kayo, Genku; Cao, Sunliang; Hasan, Ala; Sirén, Kai

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of production-based support schemes on the economic feasibility of residential-scale PV systems (1–10 kW) in Finland. This was done by calculating the payback time for various sizes of newly installed PV systems for a Finnish detached house with district heating. Three types of economic support schemes (guaranteed selling price, fixed premiums and self-consumption incentives) were tested in an hourly simulation. The load of the building was based on real-life measurements, while PV output was simulated with TRNSYS software. The energy results were post-processed with economic data in MATLAB to find the payback time. Hourly electricity prices from the Nordic energy market were used with PV system prices from Finnish companies. Unsubsidised residential PV systems in Finland had payback times of more than 40 years. The production-based support for PV generation needs to be two to three times the buying price of electricity, to make it possible to pay back the initial investment in 20 years. Low capacity systems with more than 50% self-consumption (under 3 kW) were favoured by self-consumption incentives, while high capacity systems with less than 40% self-consumption (over 5 kW) were favoured by the FIT-type support schemes. - Highlights: • Unsubsidised residential PV is uneconomical in Finland. • Support rate must be 2 times the electricity price for reasonable payback time. • Even using all electricity on-site is not profitable enough without support. • Assumed real interest rate had great influence on payback time. • Hourly electricity prices are much lower than average values from Finnish statistics

  12. Design package for a complete residential solar space heating and hot water system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Information necessary to evaluate the design of a solar space heating and hot water system is reported. System performance specifications, the design data brochure, the system description, and other information pertaining to the design are included.

  13. The solarisation of welfare housing: Is passive solar design a boon to those who don`t choose it?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, T. [Australian National Univ., Canberra, ACT (Australia)

    1994-12-31

    The solarized housing built for what is now the ACT Housing Trust in Canberra in the early 1980`s is revisited to see what lessons can be learned. Several hundred solarized (solar efficient) houses were built by the Federal Government and were the first `passive solar` public housing in Australia. Some houses, due to a combination of slope and expansive soil foundations, were constructed with foil-insulated suspended timber floors instead of concrete slabs and thus had negligible effective thermal mass irrespective of the floor finish chosen by the tenant. It is apparent that many occupants of the early solarized dwellings revisited are not getting the full measure of energy savings and enhanced comfort that the designs allow. In several cases, occupant action in building out their own solar access indicates a low or possible even negative value is placed on their solar heating capabilities. Alternatively, it may indicate that the conceptual extension of living spaces onto a northerly patio, an integral part of many of the original designs, is so attractive as to tempt the owners into extending the roof in translucent material to protect the pleasurable times they have there. This post-occupancy evaluation suggests that acceptance of solar housing should be more closely examined to ensure that future low energy designs fully accommodate the preferred living patterns and needs of their target audience and that further attempts at occupant education are effective in reducing actual home energy consumption. (author). photos. 2 refs.

  14. The influence of passivation and photovoltaic properties of α-Si:H coverage on silicon nanowire array solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Silicon nanowire (SiNW) arrays for radial p-n junction solar cells offer potential advantages of light trapping effects and quick charge collection. Nevertheless, lower open circuit voltages (Voc) lead to lower energy conversion efficiencies. In such cases, the performance of the solar cells depends critically on the quality of the SiNW interfaces. In this study, SiNW core-shell solar cells have been fabricated by growing crystalline silicon (c-Si) nanowires via the metal-assisted chemical etching method and by depositing hydrogenated amorphous silicon (α-Si:H) via the plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) method. The influence of deposition parameters on the coverage and, consequently, the passivation and photovoltaic properties of α-Si:H layers on SiNW solar cells have been analyzed. PMID:24059343

  15. Application of solar energy in heating and cooling of residential buildings under Central Asian conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usmonov Shukhrat Zaurovich

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Solar radiation is the main source of thermal energy for almost all the processes developing in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere. The total duration of sunshine in Tajikistan ranges from 2100 to 3170 hours per year. Solar collectors can be mounted on the roof of a house after its renovation and modernization. One square meter of surface area in Central Asia accounts for up to 1600 kW/h of solar energy gain, whilst the average gain is 1200 kW/h. Active solar thermal systems are able to collect both low- and high-temperature heat. Active systems require the use of special engineering equipment for the collection, storage, conversion and distribution of heat, while a low-grade system is based on the principle of using a flat solar collector. The collector is connected to the storage tank for storing the heated water, gas, etc. The water temperature is in the range 50-60 °C. For summer air conditioning in hot climates, absorption-based solar installations with open evaporating solution are recommended. The UltraSolar PRO system offers an opportunity to make a home independent of traditional electricity. Combining Schneider Electric power generation and innovative energy storage technology results in an independent power supply. Traditional power supply systems can be short-lived since they store energy in lead-acid batteries which have a negligible lifetime. Lead-acid batteries operate in a constant charge-discharge mode, require specific conditions for best performance and can fail suddenly. Sudden failure of lead acid batteries, especially in winter in the northern part of Tajikistan, completely disables the heating system of a building. Instead, it is recommended to use industrial lithium-ion batteries, which have a significantly longer life and reliability compared to lead-acid type. UltraSolar PRO are ideal and provide a complete package, low noise and compact lithium-ion power supply.

  16. Residential consumers’ experiences in the adoption and use of solar PV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sommerfeld, Jeff; Buys, Laurie; Vine, Desley

    2017-01-01

    Public policy in many nations is seeking to transition energy generation towards renewable sources such as solar photovoltaic (PV). Reviews of past policy aimed at increasing consumer acceptance of renewable energy sources have identified that policy implementation may not align with policy objectives of energy professionals. The research and analysis of consumers and their interaction with solar PV policy is important in assessing policy outcomes and how these can be better delivered or adapted. This paper reports on an in depth qualitative analysis of 22 persons under different feed-in tariff (FiT) policy settings to explore consumer experiences in acquiring solar PV and their energy use behaviour. The responses of participants indicate there were different motivations and energy use behaviour that were based on the policy in which solar PV was acquired and these may provide insight into policy development or follow up studies. - Highlights: • Consumer acceptance of renewable energy sources (RES) are vital to GHG mitigation. • Different policy settings have encouraged consumer uptake of solar PV. • Qualitative study examines two cohorts of consumers under different solar feed-in tariff (FiT) settings. • Level of FiT identified as linked to behaviours that can alter policy outcomes.

  17. Wet-Chemical Preparation of Silicon Tunnel Oxides for Transparent Passivated Contacts in Crystalline Silicon Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köhler, Malte; Pomaska, Manuel; Lentz, Florian; Finger, Friedhelm; Rau, Uwe; Ding, Kaining

    2018-05-02

    Transparent passivated contacts (TPCs) using a wide band gap microcrystalline silicon carbide (μc-SiC:H(n)), silicon tunnel oxide (SiO 2 ) stack are an alternative to amorphous silicon-based contacts for the front side of silicon heterojunction solar cells. In a systematic study of the μc-SiC:H(n)/SiO 2 /c-Si contact, we investigated selected wet-chemical oxidation methods for the formation of ultrathin SiO 2 , in order to passivate the silicon surface while ensuring a low contact resistivity. By tuning the SiO 2 properties, implied open-circuit voltages of 714 mV and contact resistivities of 32 mΩ cm 2 were achieved using μc-SiC:H(n)/SiO 2 /c-Si as transparent passivated contacts.

  18. Laser-beam-induced current mapping evaluation of porous silicon-based passivation in polycrystalline silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabha, M. Ben; Bessais, B. [Laboratoire de Nanomateriaux et des Systemes pour l' Energie, Centre de Recherches et des Technologies de l' Energie - Technopole de Borj-Cedria BP 95, 2050 Hammam-Lif (Tunisia); Dimassi, W.; Bouaicha, M.; Ezzaouia, H. [Laboratoire de photovoltaique, des semiconducteurs et des nanostructures, Centre de Recherches et des Technologies de l' Energie - Technopole de Borj-Cedria BP 95, 2050 Hammam-Lif (Tunisia)

    2009-05-15

    In the present work, we report on the effect of introducing a superficial porous silicon (PS) layer on the performance of polycrystalline silicon (pc-Si) solar cells. Laser-beam-induced current (LBIC) mapping shows that the PS treatment on the emitter of pc-Si solar cells improves their quantum response and reduce the grain boundaries (GBs) activity. After the porous silicon treatment, mapping investigation shows an enhancement of the LBIC and the internal quantum efficiency (IQE), due to an improvement of the minority carrier diffusion length and the passivation of recombination centers at the GBs as compared to the reference substrate. It was quantitatively shown that porous silicon treatment can passivate both the grains and GBs. (author)

  19. Materials research for passive solar systems: Solid-state phase-change materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benson, D. K.; Webb, J. D.; Burrows, R. W.; McFadden, J. D. O.; Christensen, C.

    1985-03-01

    A set of solid-state phase-change materials is being evaluated for possible use in passive solar thermal energy storage systems. The most promising materials are organic solid solutions of pentaerythritol (C5H12O4), pentaglycerinve (C5H12O3), and neopentyl glycol (C5H12O2). Solid solution mixtures of these compounds can be tailored so that they exhibit solid-to-solid phase transformations at any desired temperature between 25 C and 188 C, and have latent heats of transformation etween 20 and 70 cal/g. Transformation temperatures, specific heats, and latent heats of transformation have been measured for a number of these materials. Limited cyclic experiments suggest that the solid solutions are stable. These phase-change materials exhibit large amounts of undercooling; however, the addition of certain nucleating agents as particulate dispersions in the solid phase-change material greatly reduces this effect. Computer simulations suggest that the use of an optimized solid-state phase-change material in a Trombe wall could provide better performance than a concrete Trombe wall four times thicker and nine times heavier.

  20. A Pedestrian Approach to Indoor Temperature Distribution Prediction of a Passive Solar Energy Efficient House

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Golden Makaka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available With the increase in energy consumption by buildings in keeping the indoor environment within the comfort levels and the ever increase of energy price there is need to design buildings that require minimal energy to keep the indoor environment within the comfort levels. There is need to predict the indoor temperature during the design stage. In this paper a statistical indoor temperature prediction model was developed. A passive solar house was constructed; thermal behaviour was simulated using ECOTECT and DOE computer software. The thermal behaviour of the house was monitored for a year. The indoor temperature was observed to be in the comfort level for 85% of the total time monitored. The simulation results were compared with the measured results and those from the prediction model. The statistical prediction model was found to agree (95% with the measured results. Simulation results were observed to agree (96% with the statistical prediction model. Modeled indoor temperature was most sensitive to the outdoor temperatures variations. The daily mean peak ones were found to be more pronounced in summer (5% than in winter (4%. The developed model can be used to predict the instantaneous indoor temperature for a specific house design.

  1. Starting a local conservation and passive solar retrofit program: an energy planning sourcebook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, V; Mathews, R

    1982-02-01

    A city planner or a neighborhood activist may wish to initiate a local conservation and passive solar retrofit program but may not have previous experience in doing so. This sourcebook is designed to assist interested individuals with their energy planning efforts, from determining retrofit potential, to financing and implementing the program. An approach or methodology is provided which can be applied to determine retrofit potential in single-family residences, mobile homes, multifamily residences, and nonresidential buildings. Case studies in Albuquerque, New Mexico, are given as examples. Guidelines are provided for evaluating the economic benefits of a retrofit program through benefit-cost analysis and economic base studies at the city and neighborhood levels. Also included are approaches to community outreach, detailing how to get started, how to gain local support, and examples of successful programs throughout the US. The need for financing, the development of a local strategy, public and private financing techniques, and community energy service organizations are examined. In addition to the Albuquerque case studies, a brief technology characterization, heat-loss calculations, economic tools, and a list of resources are appended.

  2. Porous silicon-based passivation and gettering in polycrystalline silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimassi, W.; Bouaiecha, M.; Saadoun, M.; Bessaies, B.; Ezzaouia, H.; Bennaceur, R.

    2002-01-01

    In this work, we report on the effect of introducing a superficial porous silicon (PS) layer on the electrical characteristics of polycrystalline silicon solar cells. The PS layer was formed using a vapour etching (VE)-based method. In addition to its known anti-reflecting action, the forming hydrogen-rich PS layer acts as a passivating agent for the surface of the cell. As a result we found an improvement of the I-V characteristics in dark conditions and AM1 illumination. We show that when the formation of a superficial PS layer is followed by a heat treatment, gettering of impurities from the polycrystalline silicon material is possible. After the removal of the PS layer and the formation of the photovoltaic (PV) structure, we observed an increase of the light-beam-induced-current (LBIC) for treatment temperatures not exceeding 900 deg. C. An improvement of the bulk minority carrier diffusion length and the grain boundary (GB) recombination velocity were observed as the temperature rises, although a global decrease of the LBIC current was observed for temperatures greater than 900 deg. C

  3. Preliminary investigation into the use of solar PV systems for residential application in Bandar Sri Iskandar, Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimas, F.A.; Gillani, S.I.; Ans, M.S. [Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Tronoh, Perak (Malaysia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2011-07-01

    In the near future, Malaysia is expected to be a net importer of oil, and the nation will have to face issues related to the security of supply and economic consequences. It is also anticipated that the energy demand for the country will increase with the increase in population and GDP. Realizing the situation, it is important that further emphasis is given into the diversification of energy resources. One method is the exploitation of renewable energy to minimize the effects of global warming. Photovoltaic technology is widely used around the world in locations with scarce power generation options. It is used for various applications and Building Integrated Photovoltaic (BIPV) system is one of them. However, photovoltaic is still expensive compared to conventional methods of generating electricity. So a careful design of the system is required to ensure economic viability. This study describes a preliminary investigation of a solar PV system for residential applications in Bandar Sri Iskandar. Sizing procedures based on the peak sun hour concept is described for a Malaysian typical terraced house. Current and voltage measurements of the solar panel were carried out to predict the output under actual conditions at the site.

  4. Expanding photovoltaic penetration with residential distributed generation from hybrid solar photovoltaic and combined heat and power systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    The recent development of small scale combined heat and power (CHP) systems has provided the opportunity for in-house power backup of residential-scale photovoltaic (PV) arrays. This paper investigates the potential of deploying a distributed network of PV + CHP hybrid systems in order to increase the PV penetration level in the U.S. The temporal distribution of solar flux, electrical and heating requirements for representative U.S. single family residences were analyzed and the results clearly show that hybridizing CHP with PV can enable additional PV deployment above what is possible with a conventional centralized electric generation system. The technical evolution of such PV + CHP hybrid systems was developed from the present (near market) technology through four generations, which enable high utilization rates of both PV-generated electricity and CHP-generated heat. A method to determine the maximum percent of PV-generated electricity on the grid without energy storage was derived and applied to an example area. The results show that a PV + CHP hybrid system not only has the potential to radically reduce energy waste in the status quo electrical and heating systems, but it also enables the share of solar PV to be expanded by about a factor of five. (author)

  5. Hood River Passive House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hales, David [BA-PIRC, Spokane, WA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to "reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  6. Effects of passivation treatment on performance of CdS/CdSe quantum-dot co-sensitized solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tubtimtae, Auttasit; Lee, Ming-Way

    2012-01-01

    Carrier recombination can greatly reduce the efficiencies of quantum-dot sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). This work aims to find a general preparation route to reduce carrier recombination in QDSSCs. The effects of a series of passivation treatments on CdS/CdSe quantum-dot (QD) co-sensitized solar cells are investigated. The QDs were synthesized on a nanoporous TiO 2 electrode by the successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction processes. The different types of treatment included a blocking layer, a fluoride-ion coating, a ZnS coating, annealing, a TiO 2 scattering layer and an Au counterelectrode. The power conversion efficiency was observed to become three times larger after treatment. The effectiveness of each treatment method is as follows in descending order: blocking layer ≅ TiO 2 scattering layer > Au counterelectrode > F − ions and ZnS coatings > annealing. The best cell yields a current density of 14.6 mA/cm 2 and a respectable power conversion efficiency of η = 3.11% under AM 1.5 sun. The passivation procedure makes a useful general guide for researchers for the preparation of QDSSCs. - Highlights: ► Used a series of treatments to passivate quantum-dot sensitized solar cells ► Efficiency increased by a factor of three after going through all the treatments ► Contribution to efficiency due to each treatment determined quantitatively ► Obtained a best efficiency of 3.11%

  7. Development of a solar-powered residential air conditioner: System optimization preliminary specification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseau, J.; Hwang, K. C.

    1975-01-01

    Investigations aimed at the optimization of a baseline Rankine cycle solar powered air conditioner and the development of a preliminary system specification were conducted. Efforts encompassed the following: (1) investigations of the use of recuperators/regenerators to enhance the performance of the baseline system, (2) development of an off-design computer program for system performance prediction, (3) optimization of the turbocompressor design to cover a broad range of conditions and permit operation at low heat source water temperatures, (4) generation of parametric data describing system performance (COP and capacity), (5) development and evaluation of candidate system augmentation concepts and selection of the optimum approach, (6) generation of auxiliary power requirement data, (7) development of a complete solar collector-thermal storage-air conditioner computer program, (8) evaluation of the baseline Rankine air conditioner over a five day period simulating the NASA solar house operation, and (9) evaluation of the air conditioner as a heat pump.

  8. Development of a solar-powered residential air conditioner: Economic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    The results of investigations aimed at the development of cost models to be used in the economic assessment of Rankine-powered air conditioning systems for residential application are summarized. The rationale used in the development of the cost model was to: (1) collect cost data on complete systems and on the major equipment used in these systems; (2) reduce these data and establish relationships between cost and other engineering parameters such as weight, size, power level, etc; and (3) derive simple correlations from which cost-to-the-user can be calculated from performance requirements. The equipment considered in the survey included heat exchangers, fans, motors, and turbocompressors. This kind of hardware represents more than 2/3 of the total cost of conventional air conditioners.

  9. Exergy and economic analysis of a pyramid-shaped solar water purification system: Active and passive cases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kianifar, Ali; Zeinali Heris, Saeed; Mahian, Omid

    2012-01-01

    An exergy analysis has been conducted to show the effect of a small fan on the exergy efficiency in a pyramid-shaped solar still. The tests were carried out in Mashhad (36° 36′ N), for two solar still systems. One of them was equipped with a small fan (active system), to enhance the evaporation rate while the other one was tested in passive condition (no fan). To examine the effects of radiation and water depth on exergy efficiency, experiments in two seasons and two different depths of water in the solar still basin were performed. The results show that during summer, active unit has higher exergy efficiency than passive one while in winter there is no considerable difference between the exergy efficiency of the units. Results also reveal that the exergy efficiency is higher when the water depth in the basin is lower. Finally, the economic analysis shows a considerable reduction in production cost of the water (8–9%) when the active system is used. -- Highlights: ► Using a small fan in the solar still; reduces the productive cost of fresh water up to 9%. ► Effects of the fan and basin depth on the exergy efficiency during summer and winter were examined. ► Utilizing an active system will increase the daily productivity of fresh water by 20%.

  10. Data acquisition and analysis of passive solar cooling effects by storage of out door air in the middle of the night; Shin'ya gaiki chikurei ni yoru shizen reibo koka no jissoku to kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inagaki, H.; Kasutani, A. [Komazawa Womens Junior College, Tokyo (Japan); Koizumi, H.

    1998-12-05

    Passive cooling by storing coolness of out door air in the middle of the night in rock bed is realized by air type solar system without any additional equipment. The advantage of the passive cooling is confirmed with measuring performance of the passive cooling effect of air type solar system equipped in our Komazawa Womens Junior College last year. (author)

  11. Wet-chemical passivation of atomically flat and structured silicon substrates for solar cell application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angermann, H.; Rappich, J.; Korte, L.; Sieber, I.; Conrad, E.; Schmidt, M.; Hübener, K.; Polte, J.; Hauschild, J.

    2008-04-01

    Special sequences of wet-chemical oxidation and etching steps were optimised with respect to the etching behaviour of differently oriented silicon to prepare very smooth silicon interfaces with excellent electronic properties on mono- and poly-crystalline substrates. Surface photovoltage (SPV) and photoluminescence (PL) measurements, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) investigations were utilised to develop wet-chemical smoothing procedures for atomically flat and structured surfaces, respectively. Hydrogen-termination as well as passivation by wet-chemical oxides were used to inhibit surface contamination and native oxidation during the technological processing. Compared to conventional pre-treatments, significantly lower micro-roughness and densities of surface states were achieved on mono-crystalline Si(100), on evenly distributed atomic steps, such as on vicinal Si(111), on silicon wafers with randomly distributed upside pyramids, and on poly-crystalline EFG ( Edge-defined Film-fed- Growth) silicon substrates. The recombination loss at a-Si:H/c-Si interfaces prepared on c-Si substrates with randomly distributed upside pyramids was markedly reduced by an optimised wet-chemical smoothing procedure, as determined by PL measurements. For amorphous-crystalline hetero-junction solar cells (ZnO/a-Si:H(n)/c-Si(p)/Al) with textured c-Si substrates the smoothening procedure results in a significant increase of short circuit current Isc, fill factor and efficiency η. The scatter in the cell parameters for measurements on different cells is much narrower, as compared to conventional pre-treatments, indicating more well-defined and reproducible surface conditions prior to a-Si:H emitter deposition and/or a higher stability of the c-Si surface against variations in the a-Si:H deposition conditions.

  12. Life cycle cost analysis of solar heating and DHW systems in residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colombo, R.; Gilliaert, D.

    1992-01-01

    Economic Life Cycle Cost Analysis (ELCCA) is an easy and friendly computer program, IBM compatible for economic evaluation of solar energy system which involves comparison of the capital and operating costs of a conventional system. In this section we would like to suggest the ELCCA-PC program as a new tools using life cycle cost analysis for annual and cumulative cash flow methodology that take into account all future expenses. ELCCA-PC program considers fixed and changeable items that are involved in installing the equipment such as interest of money borrowed, property and income taxes, current energy cost for electricity operating system, maintenance, insurance and fuel costs and other economic operating expenses. Moreover fraction of annual heating load supplied from solar system is considered in this analysis. ECC-PC program determines the yearly outflow of money over the period of an economic analysis that can be converted to a series of equal payments in today's money

  13. Research and development of photovoltaic power system. Research on surface passivation for high-efficiency silicon solar cells; Taiyoko hatsuden system no kenkyu kaihatsu. Hyomen passivation no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saito, T [Tokyo Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Technology

    1994-12-01

    This paper reports the result obtained during fiscal 1994 on research on surface passivation of high-efficiency silicon solar cells. In research on carrier recombination on SiO2/doped silicon interface, measurements were carried out on minority carrier life with respect to p-type silicon substrates with which phosphorus with high and low concentrations are diffused uniformly on the surface and non-uniformly on the back and then oxidized. The measurements were performed for the purpose of evaluating the carrier recombination at p-n junctions. Effective life time of oxidized test samples increased longer than that of prior to the oxidization as a result of effect of surface passivation contributing remarkably. In research on reduction in carrier recombination on SiO2/Si interface by using H radical annealing, experiments were conducted by using a method that uses more active H-atoms. As a result, it was revealed that the reduction effect is recognized at as low temperature as 200{degree}C, and photo-bias effect is also noticeable. Other research activities included analytic research on minority carrier recombination on micro crystalline silicon/crystalline silicon interface, and experimental research on evaluation of minority carrier life of poly-crystalline silicon wafers. 6 figs.

  14. Efficiency Enhancement of Nanotextured Black Silicon Solar Cells Using Al2O3/TiO2 Dual-Layer Passivation Stack Prepared by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Cheng; Tsai, Meng-Chen; Yang, Jason; Hsu, Chuck; Chen, Miin-Jang

    2015-05-20

    In this study, efficient nanotextured black silicon (NBSi) solar cells composed of silicon nanowire arrays and an Al2O3/TiO2 dual-layer passivation stack on the n(+) emitter were fabricated. The highly conformal Al2O3 and TiO2 surface passivation layers were deposited on the high-aspect-ratio surface of the NBSi wafers using atomic layer deposition. Instead of the single Al2O3 passivation layer with a negative oxide charge density, the Al2O3/TiO2 dual-layer passivation stack treated with forming gas annealing provides a high positive oxide charge density and a low interfacial state density, which are essential for the effective field-effect and chemical passivation of the n(+) emitter. In addition, the Al2O3/TiO2 dual-layer passivation stack suppresses the total reflectance over a broad range of wavelengths (400-1000 nm). Therefore, with the Al2O3/TiO2 dual-layer passivation stack, the short-circuit current density and efficiency of the NBSi solar cell were increased by 11% and 20%, respectively. In conclusion, a high efficiency of 18.5% was achieved with the NBSi solar cells by using the n(+)-emitter/p-base structure passivated with the Al2O3/TiO2 stack.

  15. Dielectric passivation schemes for high efficiency n-type c-si solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saynova, D.S.; Romijn, I.G.; Cesar, I.; Lamers, M.W.P.E.; Gutjahr, A. [ECN Solar Energy, P.O. Box 1, NL-1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); Dingemans, G. [ASM, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Knoops, H.C.M.; Van de Loo, B.W.H.; Kessels, W.M.M. [Eindhoven University of Technology, Department of Appl. Physics, P.O. Box 513, 5600 MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Siarheyeva, O.; Granneman, E. [Levitech BV, Versterkerstraat 10, 1322AP Almere (Netherlands); Venema, P.R.; Vlooswijk, A.H.G. [Tempress Systems BV, Radeweg 31, 8171 Vaassen (Netherlands); Gautero, L.; Borsa, D.M.

    2013-10-15

    We investigate the impact of different dielectric layers and stacks on the passivation properties of boron doped p{sup ++}-emitters and phosphorous doped n{sup +}-BSFs which are relevant for competitive n-type cell conversion efficiencies. The applied passivation schemes are associated with specific properties at c-Si/dielectric interface and functional mechanisms. In this way we aim to gain a deeper understanding of the passivation mechanism of the differently doped fields within the n-type cells and identify options to further improve the efficiency. The deposition technologies in our study comprise industrial PECVD systems and/or ALD both in industrial and lab scale configurations. In case of p{sup ++}-emitters the best results were achieved by combining field effect and chemical passivation using stacks of low temperature wet chemical oxide and thin ALD-AlOx capped with PECVD-SiNx. The corresponding Implied Voc values were of about (673{+-}2) mV and J{sub 0} of (68{+-}2) fA/cm{sup 2}. For the n{sup +}-BSF passivation the passivation scheme based on SiOx with or without additional AlOx film deposited by a lab scale temporal ALD processes and capped with PECVD-SiNx layer yielded a comparable Implied Voc of (673{+-}2) mV, but then corresponding to J{sub 0} value of (80{+-}15) fA/cm{sup 2}. This passivation scheme is mainly based on the chemical passivation and was also suitable for p{sup ++} surface. This means that we have demonstrated that for n-Pasha cells both the emitter and BSF can be passivated with the same type of passivation that should lead to > 20% cell efficiency. This offers the possibility for transfer this passivation scheme to advanced cell architectures, such as IBC.

  16. Multi input-output fuzzy logic smart controller for a residential hybrid solar-wind-storage energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrouazin, A.; Aillerie, M.; Mekkakia-Maaza, N.; Charles, J.-P.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • We present a fuzzy smart controller for hybrid renewable and conventional energy system. • The rules are based on human intelligence and implemented in the smart controller. • Efficient tracking capability of the proposed controller is proofed in this paper by an example. • Excess produced renewable energy is converted to hydrogen for household use . • Considerable electric grid energy saving is highlighted in the proposed controller system. - Abstract: This study concerns the conception and development of an efficient multi input-output fuzzy logic smart controller, to manage the energy flux of a sustainable hybrid power system, based on renewable power sources, integrating solar panels and a wind turbine associated with storage, applied to a typical residential habitat. In the suggested topology, the energy surplus is redirected to an electrolysis system to produce hydrogen suitable for household utilities. To assume a constant access to electricity in case of consumption peak, connection to the grid is also considered as an exceptional rescue resource. The objective of the presented controller is to exploit instantaneously the produced renewable electric energy and insure savings of electric grid energy. The proposed multi input-output fuzzy logic smart controller has been achieved and verified, outcome switches command signals are discussed and the renewable energy system integration ratio is highlighted.

  17. Investigation of positive roles of hydrogen plasma treatment for interface passivation based on silicon heterojunction solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Liping; Liu, Wenzhu; Liu, Jinning; Shi, Jianhua; Meng, Fanying; Liu, Zhengxin; Guo, Wanwu; Bao, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The positive roles of H 2 -plasma treatment (HPT) have been investigated by using different treatment procedures in view of the distinctly improved passivation performance of amorphous-crystalline silicon heterojunctions (SHJs). It has been found that a hydrogenated amorphous silicon thin film and crystalline silicon (a-Si:H/c-Si) interface with a high stretching mode (HSM) is detrimental to passivation. A moderate pre-HPT introduces atomic H, which plays an effective tuning role in decreasing the interfacial HSM; unfortunately, an epitaxial layer is formed. Further improvement in passivation can be achieved in terms of increasing the HSM of a-Si:H film treated by appropriate post-HPT based on the a-Si:H thickness. The minority carrier lifetime of crystalline wafers can be improved by treated films containing a certain quantity of crystallites. The microstructure factor R and the maximum intensity of the dielectric function ε 2max have been found to be critical microstructure parameters that describe high-quality a-Si:H passivation layers, which are associated with the amorphous-to-microcrystalline transition phase induced by multi-step HPT. Finally, the open circuit voltage and conversion efficiency of the SHJ solar cell can be improved by implementing an effective HPT process. (paper)

  18. Passivating electron contact based on highly crystalline nanostructured silicon oxide layers for silicon solar cells

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stuckelberger, J.; Nogay, G.; Wyss, P.; Jeangros, Q.; Allebe, Ch.; Debrot, F.; Niquille, X.; Ledinský, Martin; Fejfar, Antonín; Despeisse, M.; Haug, F.J.; Löper, P.; Ballif, C.

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 158, Dec (2016), s. 2-10 ISSN 0927-0248 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LM2015087 Institutional support: RVO:68378271 Keywords : surface passivation * passivating contact * nanostructure * silicon oxide * nanocrystalline * microcrystalline * poly-silicon * crystallization * Raman * transmission line measurement Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 4.784, year: 2016

  19. Atomic-layer deposited passivation schemes for c-Si solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van de Loo, B.W.H.; Macco, B.; Melskens, J.; Verheijen, M.A.; Kessels, W.M.M.E.

    2016-01-01

    A review of recent developments in the field of passivation of c-Si surfaces is presented, with a particular focus on materials that can be prepared by atomic layer deposition (ALD). Besides Al2O3, various other novel passivation schemes have recently been developed, such as Ga2O3, Ta2O5,

  20. Supercritical synthesis and in situ deposition of PbS nanocrystals with oleic acid passivation for quantum dot solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tavakoli, M.M. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, 14588 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Simchi, A., E-mail: simchi@sharif.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, 14588 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Institute for Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Sharif University of Technology, 14588 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Aashuri, H. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, 14588 Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-04-15

    Colloidal quantum dot solar cells have recently attracted significant attention due to their low-processing cost and surging photovoltaic performance. In this paper, a novel, reproducible, and simple solution-based process based on supercritical fluid toluene is presented for in situ growth and deposition PbS nanocrystals with oleic-acid passivation. A lead precursor containing sulfur was mixed with oleic acid in toluene and processed in a supercritical fluid condition at different temperatures of 140, 270 and 330 °C for 20 min. The quantum dots were deposited on a fluorine-doped tin oxide glass substrate inside the supercritical reactor. Transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, absorption and dynamic light scattering showed that the nanocrystals processed at the supercritical condition (330 °C) are fully crystalline with a narrow size distribution of ∼3 nm with an absorption wavelength of 915 nm (bandgap of 1.3 eV). Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy indicated that the PbS quantum dots are passivated by oleic acid molecules during the growth. Photovoltaic characteristics of Schottky junction solar cells showed an improvement over devices prepared by spin-coating. - Highlights: • Supercritical fluid processing and in situ deposition of PbS QDs are presented. • The prepared nanocrystals are mono-dispersed with an optical bandgap of 1.3 eV. • Photovoltaic performance of the in situ deposited nanocrystals is reported. • An improved PV performance compared to spin coated Schottky solar cells is shown.

  1. SiC formation for a solar cell passivation layer using an RF magnetron co-sputtering system

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a method of amorphous silicon carbide film formation for a solar cell passivation layer. The film was deposited on p-type silicon (100) and glass substrates by an RF magnetron co-sputtering system using a Si target and a C target at a room-temperature condition. Several different SiC [Si1-xCx] film compositions were achieved by controlling the Si target power with a fixed C target power at 150 W. Then, structural, optical, and electrical properties of the Si1-xCx films were studied. The structural properties were investigated by transmission electron microscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry. The optical properties were achieved by UV-visible spectroscopy and ellipsometry. The performance of Si1-xCx passivation was explored by carrier lifetime measurement. PMID:22221730

  2. Simulation study on reduction of peak power demand and energy consumption in residential houses with solar thermal and PV systems; Taiyo energy riyo jutaku no fuka heijunka oyobi energy sakugen koka no simulation ni yoru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, T. [Yokohama City Office, Yokohama (Japan); Udagawa, M. [Kogakuin Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-11-20

    In this study, taking the all factors involved in the energy consumption in residential houses as subjects, the effectiveness of the solar PV system and solar thermal utilizing system in residential houses has been studied by simulating a model residential house considering the improvement of the residual environment in the future. Therefore, a model residual house is assumed, 18 kinds of combinations of construction style, cooling and heating type and solar energy utilizing form are assumed and year round simulation is carried out. The conclusions obtained by the simulation are as follows. The energy consumption in residential houses may decrease greatly by using a solar hot water supplying system. If combined with a solar PV system, the energy consumption in one year is about 8.7 to 9.7 MWh. The combined use of a solar thermal utilizing system and a PV system is more effective to reduce the second-time energy in comparison with the PV system only. 36% of the space heating energy consumption may be decreased by using the solar space heating system, but the decrease effect of the energy consumption of the solar space heating system is smaller than the solar hot water supplying system. 12 refs., 26 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. The impact of city-level permitting processes on residential photovoltaic installation prices and development times: An empirical analysis of solar systems in California cities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Changgui; Wiser, Ryan

    2013-01-01

    With “soft” costs accounting for well over 50% of the installed price of residential photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States, this study evaluates the effect of city-level permitting processes on the installed price of residential PV systems and on the time required to develop those systems. The study uses a unique dataset from the U.S. Department of Energy's Rooftop Solar Challenge Program, which includes city-level permitting process “scores,” plus data from the California Solar Initiative and the U.S. Census. Econometric methods are used to quantify the price and development-time effects of city-level permitting processes on more than 3000 PV installations across 44 California cities in 2011. Results suggest that cities with the most favorable permitting practices can reduce average residential PV prices by $0.27–$0.77/W (4–12% of median PV prices in California) compared with cities with the most onerous permitting practices, depending on the regression model used. Though the empirical models for development times are less robust, results suggest that the most streamlined permitting practices may shorten development times by around 24 days on average (25% of the median development time). These findings illustrate the potential price and development-time benefits of streamlining local permitting procedures for PV systems. - Highlights: • The study uses a unique dataset from the U.S. DOE's Rooftop Solar Challenge Program. • We quantify the price and development-time effects of city-level permitting processes. • Most favorable permitting practices can reduce average residential PV prices by $0.27–$0.77/W

  4. Fuzzy logic controller versus classical logic controller for residential hybrid solar-wind-storage energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Derrouazin, A., E-mail: derrsid@gmail.com [University Hassiba BenBouali of Chlef, LGEER,Chlef (Algeria); Université de Lorraine, LMOPS, EA 4423, 57070 Metz (France); CentraleSupélec, LMOPS, 57070 Metz (France); Aillerie, M., E-mail: aillerie@metz.supelec.fr; Charles, J. P. [Université de Lorraine, LMOPS, EA 4423, 57070 Metz (France); CentraleSupélec, LMOPS, 57070 Metz (France); Mekkakia-Maaza, N. [Université des sciences et de la Technologie d’Oran, Mohamed Boudiaf-USTO MB,LMSE, Oran Algérie (Algeria)

    2016-07-25

    Several researches for management of diverse hybrid energy systems and many techniques have been proposed for robustness, savings and environmental purpose. In this work we aim to make a comparative study between two supervision and control techniques: fuzzy and classic logics to manage the hybrid energy system applied for typical housing fed by solar and wind power, with rack of batteries for storage. The system is assisted by the electric grid during energy drop moments. A hydrogen production device is integrated into the system to retrieve surplus energy production from renewable sources for the household purposes, intending the maximum exploitation of these sources over years. The models have been achieved and generated signals for electronic switches command of proposed both techniques are presented and discussed in this paper.

  5. Fuzzy logic controller versus classical logic controller for residential hybrid solar-wind-storage energy system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derrouazin, A.; Aillerie, M.; Charles, J. P.; Mekkakia-Maaza, N.

    2016-01-01

    Several researches for management of diverse hybrid energy systems and many techniques have been proposed for robustness, savings and environmental purpose. In this work we aim to make a comparative study between two supervision and control techniques: fuzzy and classic logics to manage the hybrid energy system applied for typical housing fed by solar and wind power, with rack of batteries for storage. The system is assisted by the electric grid during energy drop moments. A hydrogen production device is integrated into the system to retrieve surplus energy production from renewable sources for the household purposes, intending the maximum exploitation of these sources over years. The models have been achieved and generated signals for electronic switches command of proposed both techniques are presented and discussed in this paper.

  6. Experimental research on the use of phase change materials to come to passive solar energy concepts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Entrop, A.G.; Brouwers, H.J.H.; Reinders, A.H.M.E.; Muthing, F.; Dobbelsteen, van den A.; Timmeren, van A.; Dorst, van M.; Durmisevic, E.

    2009-01-01

    An efficient and effective use of solar radiation is one way to come to sustainable development in the built environment. Because of an average temperature of 9.5 °C and an annual incoming solar radiation of 1,313 to 2,881 MJ/m2, The Netherlands seem on first sight not to be suitable for solar

  7. Passivation of ZnO Nanowire Guests and 3D Inverse Opal Host Photoanodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Labouchere, Philippe

    2014-04-23

    A hierarchical host-guest nanostructured photoanode is reported for dye-sensitized solar cells. It is composed of ZnO nanowires grown in situ into the macropores of a 3D ZnO inverse opal structure, which acts both as a seed layer and as a conductive backbone host. Using a combination of self-assembly, hydrothermal or electrodeposition of single crystalline ZnO nanowires and TiO2 passivation, a novel photoanode with scattering capability for optimal light harvesting is fabricated. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Defect generation/passivation by low energy hydrogen implant for silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sopori, B.L.; Zhou, T.Q.; Rozgonyi, G.A.

    1990-01-01

    Low energy ion implant is shown to produce defects in silicon. These defects include surface damage, hydrogen agglomeration, formation of platelets with (111) habit plane and decoration of dislocations. Hydrogen also produces an inversion type of surface on boron doped silicon. These effects indicate that a preferred approach for passivation is to incorporate hydrogen from the back side of the cell. A backside H + implant technique is described. The results show that degree of passivation differs for various devices. A comparison of the defect structures of hydrogenated devices indicates that the structure and the distribution of defects in the bulk of the material plays a significant role in determining the degree of passivation

  9. Here comes the sun. Solar energy technology in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Wees, G.

    1998-01-01

    An overview is given of the energy policy in the USA with respect to solar energy technology and the marketing of solar energy applications. In particular, attention is paid to the Million Solar Roofs programme, small-scale and medium-scale photovoltaic (PV) systems (Residential PV and Utility Scale PV), solar thermal systems (Parabolic Trough, Power tower, and Solar Dish/Engine). Also examples of passive solar systems are given. Finally, a number of aspects with regard to market implementation, e.g. net-metering. 9 refs

  10. Modeling of hydrogen passivation process of silicon for solar cells applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuznicki, Z.T.; Ciach, R.; Gorley, P.M.; Voznyy, M.V.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, results of investigation of evolution equations' system describing hydrogen passivation of silicon are presented. Using Lie group theory the classification of invariant solutions and initial system reduction to systems of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) is carried out for admissible infinitesimal operators under constant hydrogen atoms diffusivity in the sample. Possibility of analytical solution of passivation problem is shown. Analysis of system behavior taking into account diffusion and dissociation mechanisms is performed. It is ascertained that free hydrogen atoms diffusion in the sample and 'defect-hydrogen' dissociation spoil passivation. Analytical dependences obtained make it possible to predict spatial and time defect distribution under hydrogen passivation of silicon depending on experimental conditions

  11. Stable High-Performance Perovskite Solar Cells via Grain Boundary Passivation

    KAUST Repository

    Niu, Tianqi; Lu, Jing; Munir, Rahim; Li, Jianbo; Barrit, Dounya; Zhang, Xu; Hu, Hanlin; Yang, Zhou; Amassian, Aram; Zhao, Kui; Liu, Shengzhong Frank

    2018-01-01

    the energy offset between the semiconducting molecules and the perovskite influences trap states and intergrain carrier transport. The superior optoelectronic properties are attained by optimizing the molecular passivation treatments. These benefits

  12. Building with passive solar: an application guide for the southern homeowner and builder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-03-01

    This instructional material was prepared for training workshops for builders and home designers. It includes: fundamental definitions and equations, climate and site studies, building components, passive systems and techniques, and design tools. (MHR)

  13. Augmenting natural ventilation using solar heat and free cool energy for residential buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. B. Geetha

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In many urban buildings ventilation is not sufficient that will increase the temperature and also create unhealthy atmosphere inside the room. In such buildings artificially induced ventilation through freely available energy promote comfort conditions by reducing the temperature by 2 to 3°C and also creating good circulation of fresh air inside the room. In the present work the concept of improving the ventilation by excess hot energy available during summer days from the solar flat plate collector and by storing cool energy available during the early morning hour in the Phase Change Material (PCM based storage system is attempted. An experimental setup is made to study the effect of improvement in natural ventilation and the results are reported. A visible reduction in temperature is observed through circulation of air from the bottom side of the room to the roof of the house using the stored hot and cool energy. A CFD analysis is also carried out using ANSYS-CFX software to simulate and evaluate the mass flow of air at the inlet and at the selected RTD location by matching the transient temperature profile of the simulated result with the experimental results at the selected RTD location.

  14. Final Report: Towards an Emergent Model of Technology Adoption for Accelerating the Diffusion of Residential Solar PV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rai, Varun [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2016-08-15

    This project sought to enable electric utilities in Texas to accelerate diffusion of residential solar photovoltaic (PV) by systematically identifying and targeting existing barriers to PV adoption. A core goal of the project was to develop an integrated research framework that combines survey research, econometric modeling, financial modeling, and implementation and evaluation of pilot projects to study the PV diffusion system. This project considered PV diffusion as an emergent system, with attention to the interactions between the constituent parts of the PV socio-technical system including: economics of individual decision-making; peer and social influences; behavioral responses; and information and transaction costs. We also conducted two pilot projects, which have yielded new insights into behavioral and informational aspects of PV adoption. Finally, this project has produced robust and generalizable results that will provide deeper insights into the technology-diffusion process that will be applicable for the design of utility programs for other technologies such as home-energy management systems and plug-in electric vehicles. When we started this project in 2013 there was little systematic research on characterizing the decision-making process of households interested in adopting PV. This project was designed to fill that research gap by analyzing the PV adoption process from the consumers' decision-making perspective and with the objective to systematically identifying and addressing the barriers that consumers face in the adoption of PV. The two key components of that decision-making process are consumers' evaluation of: (i) uncertainties and non-monetary costs associated with the technology and (ii) the direct monetary cost-benefit. This project used an integrated approach to study both the non-monetary and the monetary components of the consumer decision-making process.

  15. Photoinduced Field-Effect Passivation from Negative Carrier Accumulation for High-Efficiency Silicon/Organic Heterojunction Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhaolang; Yang, Zhenhai; Wu, Sudong; Zhu, Juye; Guo, Wei; Sheng, Jiang; Ye, Jichun; Cui, Yi

    2017-12-26

    Carrier recombination and light management of the dopant-free silicon/organic heterojunction solar cells (HSCs) based on poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) (PEDOT:PSS) are the critical factors in developing high-efficiency photovoltaic devices. However, the traditional passivation technologies can hardly provide efficient surface passivation on the front surface of Si. In this study, a photoinduced electric field was induced in a bilayer antireflective coating (ARC) of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and titanium oxide (TiO 2 ) films, due to formation of an accumulation layer of negative carriers (O 2 - species) under UV (sunlight) illumination. This photoinduced field not only suppressed the silicon surface recombination but also enhanced the built-in potential of HSCs with 84 mV increment. In addition, this photoactive ARC also displayed the outstanding light-trapping capability. The front PEDOT:PSS/Si HSC with the saturated O 2 - received a champion PCE of 15.51% under AM 1.5 simulated sunlight illumination. It was clearly demonstrated that the photoinduced electric field was a simple, efficient, and low-cost method for the surface passivation and contributed to achieve a high efficiency when applied in the Si/PEDOT:PSS HSCs.

  16. Physical and electrical characteristics of Si/SiC quantum dot superlattice solar cells with passivation layer of aluminum oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yi-Chia; Li, Yiming; Samukawa, Seiji

    2017-12-01

    In this work, we numerically simulate the silicon (Si)/silicon carbide (SiC) quantum dot superlattice solar cell (SiC-QDSL) with aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 -QDSL) passivation. By exploiting the passivation layer of Al 2 O 3 , the high photocurrent and the conversion efficiency can be achieved without losing the effective bandgap. Based on the two-photon transition mechanism in an AM1.5 and a one sun illumination, the simulated short-circuit current (J sc ) of 4.77 mA cm -2 is very close to the experimentally measured 4.75 mA cm -2 , which is higher than those of conventional SiC-QDSLs. Moreover, the efficiency fluctuation caused by the structural variation is less sensitive by using the passivation layer. A high conversion efficiency of 17.4% is thus estimated by adopting the QD's geometry used in the experiment; and, it can be further boosted by applying a hexagonal QD formation with an inter-dot spacing of 0.3 nm.

  17. Physical and electrical characteristics of Si/SiC quantum dot superlattice solar cells with passivation layer of aluminum oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Yi-Chia; Li, Yiming; Samukawa, Seiji

    2017-12-01

    In this work, we numerically simulate the silicon (Si)/silicon carbide (SiC) quantum dot superlattice solar cell (SiC-QDSL) with aluminum oxide (Al2O3-QDSL) passivation. By exploiting the passivation layer of Al2O3, the high photocurrent and the conversion efficiency can be achieved without losing the effective bandgap. Based on the two-photon transition mechanism in an AM1.5 and a one sun illumination, the simulated short-circuit current (J sc) of 4.77 mA cm-2 is very close to the experimentally measured 4.75 mA cm-2, which is higher than those of conventional SiC-QDSLs. Moreover, the efficiency fluctuation caused by the structural variation is less sensitive by using the passivation layer. A high conversion efficiency of 17.4% is thus estimated by adopting the QD’s geometry used in the experiment; and, it can be further boosted by applying a hexagonal QD formation with an inter-dot spacing of 0.3 nm.

  18. Tunnel oxide passivated rear contact for large area n-type front junction silicon solar cells providing excellent carrier selectivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuguo Tao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Carrier-selective contact with low minority carrier recombination and efficient majority carrier transport is mandatory to eliminate metal-induced recombination for higher energy conversion efficiency for silicon (Si solar cells. In the present study, the carrier-selective contact consists of an ultra-thin tunnel oxide and a phosphorus-doped polycrystalline Si (poly-Si thin film formed by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD and subsequent thermal crystallization. It is shown that the poly-Si film properties (doping level, crystallization and dopant activation anneal temperature are crucial for achieving excellent contact passivation quality. It is also demonstrated quantitatively that the tunnel oxide plays a critical role in this tunnel oxide passivated contact (TOPCON scheme to realize desired carrier selectivity. Presence of tunnel oxide increases the implied Voc (iVoc by ~ 125 mV. The iVoc value as high as 728 mV is achieved on symmetric structure with TOPCON on both sides. Large area (239 cm2 n-type Czochralski (Cz Si solar cells are fabricated with homogeneous implanted boron emitter and screen-printed contact on the front and TOPCON on the back, achieving 21.2% cell efficiency. Detailed analysis shows that the performance of these cells is mainly limited by boron emitter recombination on the front side.

  19. Planning of solar heated plant for low-energy houses and passive houses. An introduction; Planlegging av solvarmeanlegg for lavenergiboliger og passivhus. En introduksjon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andresen, Inger

    2008-07-01

    This guide gives an introduction to the most important principles in planning and projecting of solar heated plant in low-energy houses and passive houses. It is written mainly for architects and consultants involved in housing projects with ambitions to achieve low-energy or passive house standard, but will also be of value for builders and others interested in the topic. (AG). 35 refs., 27 figs

  20. Interface Passivation Effects on the Photovoltaic Performance of Quantum Dot Sensitized Inverse Opal TiO₂ Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hori, Kanae; Zhang, Yaohong; Tusamalee, Pimsiri; Nakazawa, Naoki; Yoshihara, Yasuha; Wang, Ruixiang; Toyoda, Taro; Hayase, Shuzi; Shen, Qing

    2018-06-25

    Quantum dot (QD)-sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs) are expected to achieve higher energy conversion efficiency than traditional single-junction silicon solar cells due to the unique properties of QDs. An inverse opal (IO)-TiO₂ (IO-TiO₂) electrode is useful for QDSSCs because of its three-dimensional (3D) periodic nanostructures and better electrolyte penetration compared to the normal nanoparticles (NPs)-TiO₂ (NPs-TiO₂) electrode. We find that the open-circuit voltages V oc of the QDSSCs with IO-TiO₂ electrodes are higher than those of QDSSCs with NPs-TiO₂ electrodes. One important strategy for enhancing photovoltaic conversion efficiency of QDSSCs with IO-TiO₂ electrodes is surface passivation of photoanodes using wide-bandgap semiconducting materials. In this study, we have proposed surface passivation on IO-TiO₂ with ZnS coating before QD deposition. The efficiency of QDSSCs with IO-TiO₂ electrodes is largely improved (from 0.74% to 1.33%) because of the enhancements of V oc (from 0.65 V to 0.74 V) and fill factor ( FF ) (from 0.37 to 0.63). This result indicates that ZnS passivation can reduce the interfacial recombination at the IO-TiO₂/QDs and IO-TiO₂/electrolyte interfaces, for which two possible explanations can be considered. One is the decrease of recombination at IO-TiO₂/electrolyte interfaces, and the other one is the reduction of the back-electron injection from the TiO₂ electrode to QDs. All of the above results are effective for improving the photovoltaic properties of QDSSCs.

  1. Passivation mechanism in silicon heterojunction solar cells with intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon oxide layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deligiannis, Dimitrios; van Vliet, Jeroen; Vasudevan, Ravi; van Swaaij, René A. C. M. M.; Zeman, Miro

    2017-02-01

    In this work, we use intrinsic hydrogenated amorphous silicon oxide layers (a-SiOx:H) with varying oxygen content (cO) but similar hydrogen content to passivate the crystalline silicon wafers. Using our deposition conditions, we obtain an effective lifetime (τeff) above 5 ms for cO ≤ 6 at. % for passivation layers with a thickness of 36 ± 2 nm. We subsequently reduce the thickness of the layers using an accurate wet etching method to ˜7 nm and deposit p- and n-type doped layers fabricating a device structure. After the deposition of the doped layers, τeff appears to be predominantly determined by the doped layers themselves and is less dependent on the cO of the a-SiOx:H layers. The results suggest that τeff is determined by the field-effect rather than by chemical passivation.

  2. Sizing a solar dish Stirling micro-CHP system for residential application in diverse climatic conditions based on 3E analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moghadam, Ramin Shabanpour; Sayyaadi, Hoseyn; Hosseinzade, Hadi

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • 3E analysis was performed on solar CHP systems. • Significant primary energy saving and greenhouse gas reduction were obtained. • The engine was sized so that it had the best economic sound. • Various criteria at different weathers were used for sizing the engine. - Abstract: A solar dish Stirling cogeneration system is considered to provide energy demands of a residential building. As energy demands of the building and output power of the engine are functions of weather condition and solar irradiation flux, the benchmark building was considered to be located in five different cities in Iran with diverse climatic and solar irradiation conditions. The proposed solar dish Stirling micro-CHP system was analyzed based on 3E analysis. The 3E analysis evaluated primary energy saving analysis (energy analysis), carbon dioxide emission reduction (environmental analysis) and payback period for return of investment (economic analysis) and was compared to a reference building that utilized primary energy carriers for its demands. Three scenarios were considered for assessment and sizing the solar dish Stirling engine. In the first scenario, size of the solar dish Stirling engine was selected based on the lowest annual electric power demand while, in second, the highest annual electric power consumption was considered to specify size of the engine. In the third scenario, a solar dish Stirling engine with constant output capacity was considered for the five locations. It was shown that implementing the solar dish Stirling micro-CHP system had good potential in primary energy saving and carbon dioxide emission reduction in all scenarios and acceptable payback period for return of the investment in some scenarios. Finally, the best scenario for selecting size of the engine in each city was introduced using the TOPSIS decision making method. It was demonstrated that, for dry weather, the first scenario was the best while, for hot and humid cities and

  3. Characterization of Al2O3 surface passivation of silicon solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albadri, Abdulrahman M.

    2014-01-01

    A study of the passivation of silicon surface by aluminum oxide (Al 2 O 3 ) is reported. A correlation of fixed oxide charge density (Q f ) and interface trap density (D it ) on passivation efficiency is presented. Low surface recombination velocity (SRV) was obtained even by as-deposited Al 2 O 3 films and this was found to be associated to the passivation of interface states. Fourier transfer infrared spectroscopy spectra show the existence of an interfacial silicon oxide thin layer in both as-deposited and annealed Al 2 O 3 films. Q f is found positive in as-deposited films and changing to negative upon subsequent annealing, providing thus an enhancement of the passivation in p-type silicon wafers, associated to field effects. Secondary ion mass spectrometry analysis confirms the correlation between D it and hydrogen concentration at the Al 2 O 3 /Si interface. A lowest SRV of 15 cm/s was obtained after an anneal at 400 °C in nitrogen atmosphere. - Highlights: • Al 2 O 3 provides superior passivation for silicon surfaces. • Atomic layer deposition-Al 2 O 3 was deposited at a low temperature of 200 °C. • A lowest surface passivation velocity of 15 cm/s was obtained after an anneal at 400 °C in nitrogen. • As-deposited Al 2 O 3 films form very thin SiO 2 layer responsible of low interface trap densities. • High negative fixed charge density of (− 2 × 10 12 cm −2 ) was achieved upon annealing at 400 °C

  4. Experimental Study of the Effect for Water Depth on the Mass Transfer of Passive Solar Still Chemical Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fayadh M. Abed

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study on a passive solar distiller in the Tikrit city on (latitude line"34 36o north, longitude line "45 43o east, and purpose of that study to raise the efficiency and productivity of the solar distiller. And then design the monoclinic solar distiller and add reflector plate and a solar concentrate. The Practical tests were conducted at a rate of every half-hour from the beginning of February to the beginning of the month of June. The study began by comparing the solar distiller that contain the concentrates and without contain it. Then study the influence of adding coal and chemical solutions, like blue Thymol solution and blue bromophenol solution to see the additions effect on the productivity and efficiency of distiller, and also The study was conducted to see the effect of the water depth on the productivity of distiller with take four water depths within the basin are (2,1.5,1,0.5 cm of water. The tests were conducted in weather conditions close. and the results of the study, That distilled added his concentrates improved its productivity by 46% and efficiency increases 43% with non-use of concentrates, and coal increased efficiency by 36% and productivity improved up to 38%, the addition of  blue Thymol solution increases the efficiency by 19% and productivity by 16%, as well as bromophenol solution  increase productivity by 23% and improve efficiency by 25%, when comparing the additions found that the best one is coal. Through the study of the depth of the water show that increases productivity and efficiency by reducing the depth of the water in the basin distiller. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.25130/tjes.24.2017.13

  5. Enhanced photovoltaic performance of inverted pyramid-based nanostructured black-silicon solar cells passivated by an atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3 layer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong-Yan; Lu, Hong-Liang; Ren, Qing-Hua; Zhang, Yuan; Yang, Xiao-Feng; Ding, Shi-Jin; Zhang, David Wei

    2015-10-07

    Inverted pyramid-based nanostructured black-silicon (BS) solar cells with an Al2O3 passivation layer grown by atomic layer deposition (ALD) have been demonstrated. A multi-scale textured BS surface combining silicon nanowires (SiNWs) and inverted pyramids was obtained for the first time by lithography and metal catalyzed wet etching. The reflectance of the as-prepared BS surface was about 2% lower than that of the more commonly reported upright pyramid-based SiNW BS surface over the whole of the visible light spectrum, which led to a 1.7 mA cm(-2) increase in short circuit current density. Moreover, the as-prepared solar cells were further passivated by an ALD-Al2O3 layer. The effect of annealing temperature on the photovoltaic performance of the solar cells was investigated. It was found that the values of all solar cell parameters including short circuit current, open circuit voltage, and fill factor exhibit a further increase under an optimized annealing temperature. Minority carrier lifetime measurements indicate that the enhanced cell performance is due to the improved passivation quality of the Al2O3 layer after thermal annealing treatments. By combining these two refinements, the optimized SiNW BS solar cells achieved a maximum conversion efficiency enhancement of 7.6% compared to the cells with an upright pyramid-based SiNWs surface and conventional SiNx passivation.

  6. Industrially relevant Al2O3 deposition techniques for the surface passivation of Si solar cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, J.; Werner, F.; Veith, B.; Zielke, D.; Bock, R.; Tiba, M.V.; Poodt, P.; Roozeboom, F.; Li, A.; Cuevas, A.; Brendel, R.

    2010-01-01

    We present independently confirmed efficiencies of 21.4% for PERC cells with plasma-assisted atom-ic-layer-deposited (plasma ALD) Al2O3 rear passivation and 20.7% for cells with thermal ALD-Al2O3. Additionally, we evaluate three different industrially relevant techniques for the deposition of

  7. High speed atmospheric pressure ALD for industrial scale solar cell passivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermang, B.; Rothschild, A.; Racz, A.; John, J.; Poortmans, J.; Mertens, R.; Poodt, P.; Tiba, M.V.; Roozeboom, F.

    2010-01-01

    A next generation material for surface passivation is atomic layer deposition (ALD) Al2O3. However, conventional time-resolved ALD is limited by its low deposition rate. Therefore, an experimental high-deposition-rate prototype ALD reactor based on the spatially-separated ALD principle has been

  8. Method for manufacturing a solar cell with a surface-passivating dielectric double layer, and corresponding solar cell

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2014-01-01

    We will describe a solar cell with a Dielektrikumdoppelschicht and a method for their preparation. It comprises a first dielectric layer (3) containing aluminum oxide or consisting of alumina, and a second, hydrogen-containing dielectric layer (5) is produced by sequential vapor deposition, whereby

  9. Study on the use of TiO{sub 2} passivation layer to reduce recombination losses in dye sensitized solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eskander bin Samsudin, Adel; Mohamed, Norani Muti; Nayan, Nafarizal; Ali, Riyaz Ahmad Mohamed; Shariffuddin, Sharifah Amira Amir; Omar, Salwa [Electrical and Electronics Department, 31750, Tronoh, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (Malaysia); Fundamental and Applied Sciences Department, 31750, Tronoh, Universiti Teknologi PETRONAS (Malaysia); Electronic Engineering Department, Electrical and Electronic Engineering Faculty, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) (Malaysia)

    2012-09-26

    A lot of research on various aspects of dye solar cells (DSC) has been carried out in order to improve efficiency. This paper analyzes the utilization of TiO{sub 2} passivation layers of different thicknesses by improving the electron transport properties. Four different thicknesses of passivation layers namely 10, 20, 50 and 100 nm were deposited onto the working electrode using r.f sputtering. The electrodes were assembled into TiO{sub 2} based DSC with active area of 1 cm{sup 2}. The solar performance was investigated using 100 mW/cm{sup 2} of AM 1.5 simulated sunlight from solar simulator. The kinetics of the solar cells was investigated using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) measurement and the spectral response was measured using Incident Photon to Electron Conversion (IPCE) measurement system. The highest efficiency was found for DSC with 20 nm passivation layer. DSCs with the passivation layer have open circuit voltage, V{sub OC} increased by 57 mV, their current density, J{sub SC} increased by 0.774 mA cm{sup -2} compared to the one without the passivation layer. The quantum efficiency of the 20 nm passivation layer is the highest, peaking at the wavelength of 534 nm, resulting in the highest performance. All DSCs with the passivation layer recorded higher ratio of R{sub BR}/R{sub T} where R{sub T} is the diffusion resistance of the TiO{sub 2} particles in the mesoscopic layer and R{sub BR} is the recombination resistance of the electron to the electrolyte. This implies that the recombination of the electrolyte I{sup -}{sub 3}/3I{sup -} couple at the substrate/electrolyte interface has been effectively reduced resulting in an enhanced efficiency.

  10. Metal insulator semiconductor solar cell devices based on a Cu2O substrate utilizing h-BN as an insulating and passivating layer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ergen, Onur; Gibb, Ashley; Vazquez-Mena, Oscar; Zettl, Alex; Regan, William Raymond

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate cuprous oxide (Cu 2 O) based metal insulator semiconductor Schottky (MIS-Schottky) solar cells with efficiency exceeding 3%. A unique direct growth technique is employed in the fabrication, and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) serves simultaneously as a passivation and insulation layer on the active Cu 2 O layer. The devices are the most efficient of any Cu 2 O based MIS-Schottky solar cells reported to date

  11. Metal insulator semiconductor solar cell devices based on a Cu{sub 2}O substrate utilizing h-BN as an insulating and passivating layer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ergen, Onur; Gibb, Ashley; Vazquez-Mena, Oscar; Zettl, Alex, E-mail: azettl@berkeley.edu [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Kavli Energy Nanosciences Institute at the University of California, Berkeley, and the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Regan, William Raymond [Department of Physics, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Materials Sciences Division, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2015-03-09

    We demonstrate cuprous oxide (Cu{sub 2}O) based metal insulator semiconductor Schottky (MIS-Schottky) solar cells with efficiency exceeding 3%. A unique direct growth technique is employed in the fabrication, and hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN) serves simultaneously as a passivation and insulation layer on the active Cu{sub 2}O layer. The devices are the most efficient of any Cu{sub 2}O based MIS-Schottky solar cells reported to date.

  12. Thermal performance of lived-in passive solar buildings: Pt. 2; School retrofit at Yeruham, Israel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faiman, D. (Ben-Gurion Univ. of the Negev, Sede Boqer (Israel). J. Blaustein Inst. for Desert Research)

    1992-07-01

    This paper describes various, partially improvised, experiments that were devised in order to assess the thermal performance of a solar retrofit that was added to a school building. Typical measurements results are shown and analyzed. Two definitions are given for the system efficiency of solar retrofits to large-mass structures: one for the case when there is no backup system to complicate the analysis, and one for suggested use when auxiliary heating is present. (author).

  13. Passivation of Si solar cells by hetero-epitaxial compound semiconductor coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, S. M.; Spitzer, M. B.; Keavney, C. J.; Haven, V. E.; Sekula, P. A.

    1986-01-01

    A development status evaluation is made for high efficiency Si solar cells, with emphasis on the suppression of the deleterious effects of surface recombination. ZnS(0.9)Se(0.1) and GaP are identified as candidates for the reduction of surface recombination. Attention is given to methods developed for the deposition of heteroepitaxial compounds designed to block minority carrier transport to the Si solar cell surface without interfering with the majority carrier flow.

  14. Anti-reflecting and passivating coatings for silicon solar cells on a basis of SO2 and TiO2 layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taurbaev, T.I.; Nikulin, V.Eh.; Shorin, V.F.; Topanov, B.G.; Dikhanbaev, K.K.

    2002-01-01

    An analysis of influence of passivating layer on performance of anti-reflection coating of solar cells is carried out. The introduction of passivating SiO 2 layer between a frontal surface of the solar cell and TiO 2 +SiO 2 anti-reflection coating increase total reflection. If a thickness of a passivating layer no more than 20 Angstrom an increase of reflection does not exceed 0.5 %. However, for effective passivation the thickness of the passivating layer has to be within 100-1000 Angstrom region, thus the interference contribution of the passivating layer becomes essential and the AC is necessary to calculate as triple system SiO 2 -TiO 2 -SiO 2 . Such the three layers system ensuring average coefficient of reflection less of 3.5 % in a range 0.4-1.1 μm if the thickness of passivating SiO 2 layer no more 200 Angstrom. For solar cells with passivating SiO 2 layer thickness of 100 Angstrom and protective glass of non-interference thickness the single layer AC from TiO 2 allows to receive average value of reflection coefficient for a spectral range 0.4-1.1 μm no more than 9.5 %. The introduction of two additional layers SiO 2 and TiO 2 allows to reduce this value on 2.0-3.0 %. The comparison of calculation and experimental results is given. (author)

  15. Residential greenhouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-02-01

    The following report examines the technical and economic viability of residential greenhouse additions in Whitehorse, Yukon. The greenhouse was constructed using the south facing wall of an existing residence as a common wall. Total construction costs were $18,000, including labour. Annual fuel demand for the residence has been reduced by about 10 per cent for an annual saving of $425. In addition, produce to the value of $1,000 is grown annually in the greenhouse for domestic consumption and commercial resale. Typically the greenhouse operates for nine months each year. There is a net thermal loss during the months of November, December and January as a result of the large area of glazing. As well as supplementing the heating supply solar greenhouses can provide additional cash crops which can be used to offset the cost of construction. Humidity problems are minimal and can be dealt with by exhausting high humidity air. One system which has been considered for the greenhouse is to use a standard residential heat pump to remove excess moisture and to pump heat into the house. This would have a secondary benefit of excluding the need to circulate greenhouse air through the house. Thus any allergenic reactions to the greenhouse air would be prevented. 8 refs., 3 figs, 2 tabs.

  16. Hydrogen passivation of n+p and p+n heteroepitaxial InP solar cell structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, B.; Ringel, S. A.; Hoffman, R., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    High-efficiency, heteroepitaxial (HE) InP solar cells, grown on GaAs, Si or Ge substrates, are desirable for their mechanically strong, light-weight and radiation-hard properties. However, dislocations, caused by lattice mismatch, currently limit the performance of the HE cells. This occurs through shunting paths across the active photovoltaic junction and by the formation of deep levels. In previous work we have demonstrated that plasma hydrogenation is an effective and stable means to passivate the electrical activity of dislocations in specially designed HE InP test structures. In this work, we present the first report of successful hydrogen passivation in actual InP cell structures grown on GaAs substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). We have found that a 2 hour exposure to a 13.56 MHz hydrogen plasma at 275 C reduces the deep level concentration in HE n+n InP cell structures from as-grown values of approximately 10(exp 15)/cm(exp -3), down to 1-2 x 10(exp 13)/cm(exp -3). The deep levels in the p-type base region of the cell structure match those of our earlier p-type test structures, which were attributed to dislocations or related point defect complexes. All dopants were successfully reactivated by a 400 C, 5 minute anneal with no detectable activation of deep levels. I-V analysis indicated a subsequent approximately 10 fold decrease in reverse leakage current at -1 volt reverse bias, and no change in the forward biased series resistance of the cell structure which indicates complete reactivation of the n+ emitter. Furthermore, electrochemical C-V profiling indicates greatly enhanced passivation depth, and hence hydrogen diffusion, for heteroepitaxial structures when compared with identically processed homoepitaxial n+p InP structures. An analysis of hydrogen diffusion in dislocated InP will be discussed, along with comparisons of passivation effectiveness for n+p versus p+n heteroepitaxial cell configurations. Preliminary hydrogen-passivated

  17. Design, evaluation and recommedation effort relating to the modification of a residential 3-ton absorption cycle cooling unit for operation with solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, R. H.; Anderson, P. P.

    1973-01-01

    The possible use of solar energy powered absorption units to provide cooling and heating of residential buildings is studied. Both, the ammonia-water and the water-lithium bromide cycles, are considered. It is shown that the air cooled ammonia water unit does not meet the criteria for COP and pump power on the cooling cycle and the heat obtained from it acting as a heat pump is at too low a temperature. If the ammonia machine is water cooled it will meet the design criteria for cooling but can not supply the heating needs. The water cooled lithium bromide unit meets the specified performance for cooling with appreciably lower generator temperatures and without a mechanical solution pump. It is recommeded that in the demonstration project a direct expansion lithium bromide unit be used for cooling and an auxiliary duct coil using the solar heated water be employed for heating.

  18. Design and application of ion-implanted polySi passivating contacts for interdigitated back contact c-Si solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Guangtao; Ingenito, Andrea; Hameren, Nienke van; Isabella, Olindo; Zeman, Miro

    2016-01-01

    Ion-implanted passivating contacts based on poly-crystalline silicon (polySi) are enabled by tunneling oxide, optimized, and used to fabricate interdigitated back contact (IBC) solar cells. Both n-type (phosphorous doped) and p-type (boron doped) passivating contacts are fabricated by ion-implantation of intrinsic polySi layers deposited via low-pressure chemical vapor deposition and subsequently annealed. The impact of doping profile on the passivation quality of the polySi doped contacts is studied for both polarities. It was found that an excellent surface passivation could be obtained by confining as much as possible the implanted-and-activated dopants within the polySi layers. The doping profile in the polySi was controlled by modifying the polySi thickness, the energy and dose of ion-implantation, and the temperature and time of annealing. An implied open-circuit voltage of 721 mV for n-type and 692 mV for p-type passivating contacts was achieved. Besides the high passivating quality, the developed passivating contacts exhibit reasonable high conductivity (R sh n-type  = 95 Ω/□ and R sh p-type  = 120 Ω/□). An efficiency of 19.2% (V oc  = 673 mV, J sc  = 38.0 mA/cm 2 , FF = 75.2%, and pseudo-FF = 83.2%) was achieved on a front-textured IBC solar cell with polySi passivating contacts as both back surface field and emitter. By improving the front-side passivation, a V OC of 696 mV was also measured

  19. Effect of electroless nickel on the series resistance of high-efficiency inkjet printed passivated emitter rear contacted solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lenio, Martha A.T. [REC Technology US, Inc., 1159 Triton Dr., Foster City, CA 94301 (United States); Lennon, A.J.; Ho-Baillie, A.; Wenham, S.R. [ARC Photovoltaics Centre of Excellence, University of NSW, Sydney, NSW 2052 (Australia)

    2010-12-15

    Many existing and emerging solar cell technologies rely on plated metal to form the front surface contacts, and aluminium to form the rear contact. Interactions between the metal plating solutions and the aluminium rear can have a significant impact on cell performance. This paper describes non-uniform nickel deposition on the sintered aluminium rear surface of passivated emitter and rear contacted (PERC) cells patterned using an inkjet printing technique. Rather than being plated homogeneously over the entire rear surface as is observed on an alloyed aluminium rear, the nickel is plated only in the vicinity of the point openings in the rear surface silicon dioxide dielectric layer. Furthermore, this non-uniform nickel deposition was shown to increase the contact resistance of the rear point contacts by an order of magnitude, resulting in higher series resistance values for these fabricated PERC cells. (author)

  20. Analysis Thermal Comfort Condition in Complex Residential Building, Case Study: Chiangmai, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juangjandee, Warangkana

    2017-10-01

    Due to the increasing need for complex residential buildings, it appears that people migrate into the high-density urban areas because the infrastructural facilities can be easily found in the modern metropolitan areas. Such rapid growth of urbanization creates congested residential buildings obstructing solar radiation and wind flow, whereas most urban residents spend 80-90% of their time indoor. Furthermore, the buildings were mostly built with average materials and construction detail. This causes high humidity condition for tenants that could promote mould growth. This study aims to analyse thermal comfort condition in complex residential building, Thailand for finding the passive solution to improve indoor air quality and respond to local conditions. The research methodology will be in two folds: 1) surveying on case study 2) analysis for finding the passive solution of reducing humidity indoor air The result of the survey indicated that the building need to find passive solution for solving humidity problem, that can be divided into two ways which raising ventilation and indoor temperature including increasing wind-flow ventilation and adjusting thermal temperature, for example; improving building design and stack driven ventilation. For raising indoor temperature or increasing mean radiant temperature, daylight can be passive solution for complex residential design for reducing humidity and enhance illumination indoor space simultaneous.

  1. Cost effective multi-storey passive residential houses. Costs, technology, solutions, experiences of users; Kostenguenstige mehrgeschossige Passivwohnhaeuser. Kosten, Technik, Loesungen, Nutzererfahrungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeberl, Helmut

    2013-08-01

    Energy-efficient buildings in the range of single-family houses are no longer a rarity. The passive house technology and the costs are the significant barriers in the field of multi-storey housings. For the first time, the author of the book under consideration summarizes the planning tools, building envelope, building services, construction costs and the introduction of users by means of several passive house projects. The demands, components and challenges of the passive house are presented. Even experienced planners and decision-makers with get many detailed solutions and an accurate arrangement of additional costs.

  2. n-MoS2/p-Si Solar Cells with Al2O3 Passivation for Enhanced Photogeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Atteq Ur; Khan, Muhammad Farooq; Shehzad, Muhammad Arslan; Hussain, Sajjad; Bhopal, Muhammad Fahad; Lee, Sang Hee; Eom, Jonghwa; Seo, Yongho; Jung, Jongwan; Lee, Soo Hong

    2016-11-02

    Molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) has recently emerged as a promising candidate for fabricating ultrathin-film photovoltaic devices. These devices exhibit excellent photovoltaic performance, superior flexibility, and low production cost. Layered MoS 2 deposited on p-Si establishes a built-in electric field at MoS 2 /Si interface that helps in photogenerated carrier separation for photovoltaic operation. We propose an Al 2 O 3 -based passivation at the MoS 2 surface to improve the photovoltaic performance of bulklike MoS 2 /Si solar cells. Interestingly, it was observed that Al 2 O 3 passivation enhances the built-in field by reduction of interface trap density at surface. Our device exhibits an improved power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 5.6%, which to our knowledge is the highest efficiency among all bulklike MoS 2 -based photovoltaic cells. The demonstrated results hold the promise for integration of bulklike MoS 2 films with Si-based electronics to develop highly efficient photovoltaic cells.

  3. Energy Performance of Three Residential College Buildings in University of Malaya Campus, Kuala Lumpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Ainurzaman Jamaludin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Three residential colleges located in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, were selected for energy performance analysis in regards to its implementation of bioclimatic design strategies. Specifically, passive design strategies on daylighting and natural ventilation were examined. In Malaysia, the residential college or hostel is a multi-residential building providing accommodation to university students. The three residential colleges in this study, namely C1, C2 and C3, were built in different years with different designs and forms, particularly with regards to enclosure and facade design, solar control devices, passive daylight concepts, and natural ventilation strategies. The building designs were carefully studied and an electric consumption analysis was carried out in each residential college. This study revealed that the wide-scale implementation of bioclimatic design strategies in college C2 help reduced the annual energy consumption. The building bioclimatic design features that are accountable to reduce energy consumption are the internal courtyard and balconies on each unit of floor area, as shown in C3.Results from this study highly recommend internal courtyard and balcony building combination for multi residential building design, especially in tropical urban regions.

  4. Carrier collection losses in interface passivated amorphous silicon thin-film solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumüller, A.; Sergeev, O.; Vehse, M.; Agert, C.; Bereznev, S.; Volobujeva, O.; Ewert, M.; Falta, J.

    2016-01-01

    In silicon thin-film solar cells the interface between the i- and p-layer is the most critical. In the case of back diffusion of photogenerated minority carriers to the i/p-interface, recombination occurs mainly on the defect states at the interface. To suppress this effect and to reduce recombination losses, hydrogen plasma treatment (HPT) is usually applied. As an alternative to using state of the art HPT we apply an argon plasma treatment (APT) before the p-layer deposition in n-i-p solar cells. To study the effect of APT, several investigations were applied to compare the results with HPT and no plasma treatment at the interface. Carrier collection losses in resulting solar cells were examined with spectral response measurements with and without bias voltage. To investigate single layers, surface photovoltage and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements were conducted. The results with APT at the i/p-interface show a beneficial contribution to the carrier collection compared with HPT and no plasma treatment. Therefore, it can be concluded that APT reduces the recombination centers at the interface. Further, we demonstrate that carrier collection losses of thin-film solar cells are significantly lower with APT.

  5. Carrier collection losses in interface passivated amorphous silicon thin-film solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neumüller, A., E-mail: alex.neumueller@next-energy.de; Sergeev, O.; Vehse, M.; Agert, C. [NEXT ENERGY EWE Research Centre for Energy Technology at the University of Oldenburg, Carl-von-Ossietzky-Straße 15, 26129 Oldenburg (Germany); Bereznev, S.; Volobujeva, O. [Department of Materials Science, Tallinn University of Technology, Ehitajate Tee 5, Tallinn 19086 (Estonia); Ewert, M.; Falta, J. [Institute of Solid State Physics, University of Bremen, Otto-Hahn-Allee 1, 28359 Bremen (Germany); MAPEX Center for Materials and Processes, University of Bremen, 28359 Bremen (Germany)

    2016-07-25

    In silicon thin-film solar cells the interface between the i- and p-layer is the most critical. In the case of back diffusion of photogenerated minority carriers to the i/p-interface, recombination occurs mainly on the defect states at the interface. To suppress this effect and to reduce recombination losses, hydrogen plasma treatment (HPT) is usually applied. As an alternative to using state of the art HPT we apply an argon plasma treatment (APT) before the p-layer deposition in n-i-p solar cells. To study the effect of APT, several investigations were applied to compare the results with HPT and no plasma treatment at the interface. Carrier collection losses in resulting solar cells were examined with spectral response measurements with and without bias voltage. To investigate single layers, surface photovoltage and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) measurements were conducted. The results with APT at the i/p-interface show a beneficial contribution to the carrier collection compared with HPT and no plasma treatment. Therefore, it can be concluded that APT reduces the recombination centers at the interface. Further, we demonstrate that carrier collection losses of thin-film solar cells are significantly lower with APT.

  6. Passive solar commercial buildings: design assistance and demonstration program. Phase 1. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-26

    The final design of the Mount Airy Public Library is given. Incremental passive design costs are discussed. Performance and economic analyses are made and the results reported. The design process is thoroughly documented. Considerations discussed are: (1) building energy needs; (2) site energy potentials, (3) matching energy needs with site energy potentials, (4) design indicators for best strategies and concepts, (5) schematic design alternatives, (6) performance testing of the alternatives, (7) design selection, and (8) design development. Weather data and Duke Power electric rates are included. (LEW)

  7. Smart Control System to Optimize Time of Use in a Solar-Assisted Air-Conditioning by Ejector for Residential Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanna Avedian-González

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The present work provides a series of theoretical improvements of a control strategy in order to optimize the time of use of solar air-conditioning by an ejector distributed in multiple solar collectors of vacuum tubes for the residential sector, which will allow us to reduce carbon-dioxide emissions, costs and electrical energy consumption. In a solar ejector cooling system, the instability of the solar source of energy causes an operational conflict between the solar thermal system and ejector cooling cycle. A fuzzy control structure for the supervisory ejector cycle and multi-collector control system is developed: the first control is applied to control the mass flow of the generator and the evaporator for different cooling capacities (3, 3.5, 4, 4.5 and 5 kW and set a temperature reference according to the operating conditions; the second is applied to keep a constant temperature power source that feeds the low-grade ejector cooling cycle using R134aas refrigerant. For the present work, the temperature of the generator oscillates between 65 °C and 90 °C, a condenser temperature of 30 °C and an evaporator temperature of 10 °C. For the purpose of optimization, there are different levels of performance for time of use: the Mode 0 (economic gives a performance of 17.55 h, Mode 5 (maximum cooling power 14.86 h and variable mode (variable mode of capacities 16.25 h, on average. Simulations are done in MATLAB-Simulink applying fuzzy logic for a mathematical model of the thermal balance. They are compared with two different types of solar radiation: real radiation and disturbed radiation.

  8. Surface passivation of InP solar cells with InAlAs layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Raj K.; Flood, Dennis J.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1993-01-01

    The efficiency of indium phosphide solar cells is limited by high values of surface recombination. The effect of a lattice-matched In(0.52)Al(0.48)As window layer material for InP solar cells, using the numerical code PC-1D is investigated. It was found that the use of InAlAs layer significantly enhances the p(+)n cell efficiency, while no appreciable improvement is seen for n(+)p cells. The conduction band energy discontinuity at the heterojunction helps in improving the surface recombination. An optimally designed InP cell efficiency improves from 15.4 percent to 23 percent AMO for a 10 nm thick InAlAs layer. The efficiency improvement reduces with increase in InAlAs layer thickness, due to light absorption in the window layer.

  9. Silicon heterojunction solar cell with passivated hole selective MoOx contact

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, Corsin; de Nicolás, Silvia Martín; De Wolf, Stefaan; Yin, Xingtian; Zheng, Maxwell; Ballif, Christophe; Javey, Ali

    2014-03-01

    We explore substoichiometric molybdenum trioxide (MoOx, x MoOx, we observe a substantial gain in photocurrent of 1.9 mA/cm2 in the ultraviolet and visible part of the solar spectrum, when compared to a p-type amorphous silicon emitter of a traditional silicon heterojunction cell. Our results emphasize the strong potential for oxides as carrier selective heterojunction partners to inorganic semiconductors.

  10. Program to monitor and evaluate a passive solar greenhouse/aquaculture system. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1982-01-01

    A temperature monitoring program of Amity's solar greenhouse demonstrated that air, soil, and water temperatures can be maintained at optimal levels without supplemental heat. A foil reflector placed in front of the greenhouse glazing at an angle of between 0 and 5/sup 0/ above horizontal enhanced direct light entering the greenhouse by as much as 22%. Aquaculture in the water heat storage of a solar greenhouse has been a success. Fish reached harvest size in about seven months. The two species that were received the best by the public were African perch (Tilapia mossambica) and channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Although carp (Cyprinus carpio) were the fastest growers they were not well received by the public. Linking hydroponics to greenhouse aquaculture shows a lot of promise. Different support medias were examined and tomatoes and European cucumbers were raised successfully. A savonius windmill was successfully linked to an aquaculture aeration system but because of the wind pattern in the Willamette valley the windmill system did not provide air in the evening when it was needed most. Alternate designs are discussed. Locally grown fish diets were evaluated for their ability to promote fish growth. Diets such as water hyacinth, duckweed, earthworms, beans, and comfrey were raised on the Amity site, pelleted with a hand grinder and solar dried. Duckweed and earthworms appear to hold promise for a nutritous, easy to grow and pelletize, food source. Amity's solar greenhouse, three coldframe designs and a PVC tunnel cloche were compared in a vegetable growing trial. Most impressive was the cloche design because it provided adequate protection, was inexpensive and very easy to build.

  11. Exploring the impact of permitting and local regulatory processes on residential solar prices in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhardt, Jesse; Wiser, Ryan; Darghouth, Naïm; Dong, C.G.; Huneycutt, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    This article statistically isolates the impacts of city-level permitting and other local regulatory processes on residential PV prices in the United States. We combine data from two “scoring” mechanisms that independently capture local regulatory process efficiency with the largest dataset of installed PV prices in the United States. We find that variations in local permitting procedures can lead to differences in average residential PV prices of approximately $0.18/W between the jurisdictions with the least-favorable and most-favorable permitting procedures. Between jurisdictions with scores across the middle 90% of the range (i.e., 5th percentile to 95th percentile), the difference is $0.14/W, equivalent to a $700 (2.2%) difference in system costs for a typical 5-kW residential PV installation. When considering variations not only in permitting practices, but also in other local regulatory procedures, price differences grow to $0.64–$0.93/W between the least-favorable and most-favorable jurisdictions. Between jurisdictions with scores across the middle 90% of the range, the difference is equivalent to a price impact of at least $2500 (8%) for a typical 5-kW residential PV installation. These results highlight the magnitude of cost reduction that might be expected from streamlining local regulatory regimes. - Highlights: • We show local regulatory processes meaningfully affect U.S. residential PV prices. • We use regression analysis and two mechanisms for “scoring” regulatory efficiency. • Local permitting procedure variations can produce PV price differences of $0.18/W. • Broader regulatory variations can produce PV price differences of $0.64–$0.93/W. • The results suggest the cost-reduction potential of streamlining local regulations

  12. Balancing the daylighting and energy performance of solar screens in residential desert buildings: Examination of screen axial rotation and opening aspect ratio

    KAUST Repository

    Sabry, Hanan

    2014-05-01

    Solar screens are typically used to control solar access into building spaces. They proved their usefulness in improving the daylighting and energy performance of buildings in the hot arid desert environments which are endowed with abundance of clear skies.The daylighting and energy performance of solar screens is affected by many parameters. These include screen perforation, depth, reflectivity and color, aspect ratio of openings, shape, tilt angle and rotation. Changing some of these parameters can improve the daylighting performance drastically. However, this can result in increased energy consumption. A balanced solution must be sought, where acceptable daylighting performance would be achieved at minimum energy consumption.This paper aims at defining solar screen designs that achieve visual comfort and at the same time minimum energy consumption in residential desert settings. The study focused on the effect of changing the solar screen axial rotation and the aspect ratio of its openings under the desert clear-sky. The individual and combined effects of changing these parameters were studied.Results of this study demonstrated that a non-rotated solar screen that has wide horizontal openings (aspect ratio of 18:1) proved to be successful in the north and south orientations. Its performance in the east/west orientations was also superior. In contrast, the screen that was rotated along its vertical axis while having small size openings (aspect ratio of 1:1) proved to be more successful in the east/west orientations. Its performance in the north orientation was also good. These solutions enhanced daylighting performance, while maintaining the energy consumption at a minimum.Moreover, it was observed that combining two screen parameters which proved useful in previous studies on daylighting or thermal performance does not add up to better solutions. The combined solutions that were tested in this study did not prove successful in satisfying daylighting and thermal

  13. Interfacial Passivation of the p-Doped Hole-Transporting Layer Using General Insulating Polymers for High-Performance Inverted Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fan; Song, Jun; Hu, Rui; Xiang, Yuren; He, Junjie; Hao, Yuying; Lian, Jiarong; Zhang, Bin; Zeng, Pengju; Qu, Junle

    2018-05-01

    Organic-inorganic lead halide perovskite solar cells (PVSCs), as a competing technology with traditional inorganic solar cells, have now realized a high power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 22.1%. In PVSCs, interfacial carrier recombination is one of the dominant energy-loss mechanisms, which also results in the simultaneous loss of potential efficiency. In this work, for planar inverted PVSCs, the carrier recombination is dominated by the dopant concentration in the p-doped hole transport layers (HTLs), since the F4-TCNQ dopant induces more charge traps and electronic transmission channels, thus leading to a decrease in open-circuit voltages (V OC ). This issue is efficiently overcome by inserting a thin insulating polymer layer (poly(methyl methacrylate) or polystyrene) as a passivation layer with an appropriate thickness, which allows for increases in the V OC without significantly sacrificing the fill factor. It is believed that the passivation layer attributes to the passivation of interfacial recombination and the suppression of current leakage at the perovskite/HTL interface. By manipulating this interfacial passivation technique, a high PCE of 20.3% is achieved without hysteresis. Consequently, this versatile interfacial passivation methodology is highly useful for further improving the performance of planar inverted PVSCs. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Low temperature surface passivation of crystalline silicon and its application to interdigitated back contact silicon heterojunction (ibc-shj) solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shu, Zhan

    With the absence of shading loss together with improved quality of surface passivation introduced by low temperature processed amorphous silicon crystalline silicon (a-Si:H/c-Si) heterojunction, the interdigitated back contact silicon heterojunction (IBC-SHJ) solar cell exhibits a potential for higher conversion efficiency and lower cost than a traditional front contact diffused junction solar cell. In such solar cells, the front surface passivation is of great importance to achieve both high open-circuit voltage (Voc) and short-circuit current (Jsc). Therefore, the motivation of this work is to develop a low temperature processed structure for the front surface passivation of IBC-SHJ solar cells, which must have an excellent and stable passivation quality as well as a good anti-reflection property. Four different thin film materials/structures were studied and evaluated for this purpose, namely: amorphous silicon nitride (a-SiNx:H), thick amorphous silicon film (a-Si:H), amorphous silicon/silicon nitride/silicon carbide (a-Si:H/a-SiN x:H/a-SiC:H) stack structure with an ultra-thin a-Si:H layer, and zinc sulfide (ZnS). It was demonstrated that the a-Si:H/a-SiNx:H/a-SiC:H stack surpasses other candidates due to both of its excellent surface passivation quality (SRVSi surface is found to be resulted from (i) field effect passivation due to the positive fixed charge (Q fix~1x1011 cm-2 with 5 nm a-Si:H layer) in a-SiNx:H as measured from capacitance-voltage technique, and (ii) reduced defect state density (mid-gap Dit~4x1010 cm-2eV-1) at a-Si:H/c-Si interface provided by a 5 nm thick a-Si:H layer, as characterized by conductance-frequency measurements. Paralleled with the experimental studies, a computer program was developed in this work based on the extended Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) model of surface recombination. With the help of this program, the experimental injection level dependent SRV curves of the stack passivated c-Si samples were successfully reproduced and

  15. Proof-of-Concept Testing of the Passive Cooling System (T-CLIP™) for Solar Thermal Applications at an Elevated Temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Seung Jun [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Applied Engineering and Technology; Quintana, Donald L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Applied Engineering and Technology; Vigil, Gabrielle M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Applied Engineering and Technology; Perraglio, Martin Juan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Applied Engineering and Technology; Farley, Cory Wayne [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Applied Engineering and Technology; Tafoya, Jose I. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Applied Engineering and Technology; Martinez, Adam L. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States). Applied Engineering and Technology

    2015-11-30

    The Applied Engineering and Technology-1 group (AET-1) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) conducted the proof-of-concept tests of SolarSPOT LLC’s solar thermal Temperature- Clipper, or T-CLIP™ under controlled thermal conditions using a thermal conditioning unit (TCU) and a custom made environmental chamber. The passive T-CLIP™ is a plumbing apparatus that attaches to a solar thermal collector to limit working fluid temperature and to prevent overheating, since overheating may lead to various accident scenarios. The goal of the current research was to evaluate the ability of the T-CLIP™ to control the working fluid temperature by using its passive cooling mechanism (i.e. thermosiphon, or natural circulation) in a small-scale solar thermal system. The assembled environmental chamber that is thermally controlled with the TCU allows one to simulate the various possible weather conditions, which the solar system will encounter. The performance of the T-CLIP™ was tested at two different target temperatures: 1) room temperature (70 °F) and 2) an elevated temperature (130 °F). The current test campaign demonstrated that the T-CLIP™ was able to prevent overheating by thermosiphon induced cooling in a small-scale solar thermal system. This is an important safety feature in situations where the pump is turned off due to malfunction or power outages.

  16. Solar homebuilders program: getting builders to build solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parkin, B.; Allen, D.

    1981-01-01

    The homebuilding industry can open the way to wide-scale residential use of solar energy. Under the Northwest Power Act, the Department of Energy's Bonneville Power Administration, Western Solar Utilization Network and the Solar Energy Research Institute are working together with the Home Builders Association of Metropolitan Portland and the Portland chapter of the American Institute of Architects on a program that will affect 7 cities in the Pacific Northwest. Modeled after the successful Denver Metro Homebuilders Program, the project is being implemented in 3 cities in 1981 and three additional cities in 1982. In each of the 7 cities builders and developers will be provided with design, performance monitoring and marketing assistance for constructing passive solar prototypes. The result is ten passive solar homes of superior design and of an affordable price in each city. The secondary result of this program is expected to be a total of 2700 solar homes produced outside the program by builders from 1981-1985. Builders influenced to build passive solar homes outside the program could result in as many as 500,000 homes produced by the year 2000.

  17. Investigation of exergy and yield of a passive solar water desalination system with a parabolic concentrator incorporated with latent heat storage medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kabeel, A.E.; Elkelawy, Medhat; Alm El Din, Hagar; Alghrubah, Adel

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The impact of PCM and solar concentrator on the production of solar still studied experimentally under Egyptian conditions. • Exergetic analysis studied for passive solar still in winter and summer at different water depth. • Experimental study of water depth effect on solar still with PCM and solar concentrator. • A comparison between improved still with and usual still is carried out for winter and summer. - Abstract: In the present study, two solar stills were assembled and experienced to evaluate the yield and energy performance of an improved passive solar desalination system compared to a conventional one. The improved still is incorporated with a latent heat thermal energy storage medium and a parabolic solar concentrator. A parabolic solar concentrator was added to concentrate and increase the amount of solar irradiance absorbed by the still basin. Paraffin wax was applied as phase change material (PCM) in the solar still bottom plate. In the current study also, the effect of impure water profundity inside the still on still’s accumulated yield have been assessed. The following study involved a mathematical analysis for calculation of the exergetic proficiency as an efficient tool for the optimization, and yield evaluation of any energy systems and solar stills as well. Experimental research conducted in steady days of summer and winter at six different values of impure water profundity inside the solar still basin. The salinity of the impure water tested was about 3000–5000 ppm, while the salinity for the resulted drinkable water was about 550–500 ppm. The performed outcomes revealed that during summer, exergetic efficiency is higher than its qualified value in winter with approximately (10–15%) for the same water profundity. Results also disclosed that, the exergetic efficiency is higher when the water profundity in the basin is lower with approximately (6–9%). The experimental findings reveals that, the solar still with

  18. Potential application of a centralized solar water-heating system for a high-rise residential building in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, T.T.; Fong, K.F.; Chan, A.L.S.; Lin, Z.

    2006-01-01

    There is a growing, government-led trend of applying renewable energy in Hong Kong. One area of interest lies in the wider use of solar-energy systems. The worldwide fast development of building-integrated solar technology has prompted the design alternative of fixing the solar panels on the external facades of buildings. In Hong Kong, high-rise buildings are found everywhere in the urban districts. How to make full use of the vertical facades of these buildings to capture the most solar radiation can be an important area in the technology promotion. In this numerical study, the potential application of a centralized solar water-heating system in high-rise residence was evaluated. Arrays of solar thermal collectors, that occupied the top two-third of the south and west facades of a hypothetical high-rise residence, were proposed for supporting the domestic hot-water system. Based on typical meteorological data, it was found that the annual efficiency of the vertical solar collectors could reach 38.4% on average, giving a solar fraction of 53.4% and a payback period of 9.2 years. Since the solar collectors were able to reduce the heat transmission through the building envelope, the payback was in fact even shorter if the energy saving in air-conditioner operation was considered

  19. Simulation and optimization study on a solar space heating system combined with a low temperature ASHP for single family rural residential houses in Beijing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Jie; Tian, Zhiyong; Fan, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    A pilot project of the solar water heating system combined with a low temperature air source heat pump (ASHP) unit was established in 2014 in a detached residential house in the rural region of Beijing, in order to investigate the system application prospect for single family houses via system...... optimization design and economic analysis. The established system was comprised of the glass heat-pipe based evacuated tube solar collectors with a gross area of 18.8 m2 and an ASHP with a stated heating power of 8 kW for the space heating of a single family rural house of 81.4 m2. The dynamic thermal...... with good building insulation were undertaken to figure out the system economical efficiency in the rural regions of Beijing. The results show that the payback periods of the solar space heating system combined with the ASHP with the collector areas 15.04-22.56 m2 are 17.3-22.4 years for the established...

  20. Financial analysis on the proposed renewable heat incentive for residential houses in the United Kingdom: A case study on the solar thermal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Bakar, Siti Hawa; Muhammad-Sukki, Firdaus; Ramirez-Iniguez, Roberto; Munir, Abu Bakar; Mohd Yasin, Siti Hajar; Mallick, Tapas Kumar; McLennan, Campbell; Abdul Rahim, Ruzairi

    2014-01-01

    This short communication paper focuses on the renewable heat incentive (RHI) scheme in the United Kingdom (UK); and in particular, on its implication on domestic installations of solar thermal systems (STSs). First, a short review on the STS in the UK is provided. Then, a detailed description of the RHI is discussed. A financial analysis is presented afterwards, analysing the impact of the RHI scheme on the applicants, in terms of the net present value and the internal rate of return. From the financial analysis it has been found that the RHI scheme for domestic installations is only attractive if a longer period of RHI payment, i.e. 17 years, or a higher RHI rate i.e. £0.32 per kW h is implemented. The current proposal from the UK government is not financially viable, and as a result, it may hinder the penetration of domestic solar thermal systems in the residential sector in the UK. - Highlights: • A short review on solar thermal system (STS) is presented. • The renewable heat incentive (RHI) scheme is discussed. • A financial analysis is evaluated under the RHI scheme in the UK. • The analysis indicates the current proposal is not desirable to consumers

  1. From passive to active about solar electricity: innovation decision process and photovoltaic interest generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplan, A.W.

    1999-01-01

    Electric utility managers are accustomed to technology choices, both in day-to-day load dispatching decisions and in the selection of new innovation to support utility operations. Conventional innovation management decision models may no longer apply in a confusing world of resource scarcity and industry deregulation. This research addresses the implications of a likely scenario: utilities will inevitably shift to a renewable base for electricity generation. How will managers become interested in solar energy? Does the conventional adoption decision model provide a solid foundation for understanding the factors that influence their interest? This study suggests not. Building on a national survey of utility managers in the US, a path analysis demonstrates the inadequacy of technical knowledge as a sufficient precursor to adoption interest. Three additional variables - motivation, experience, and familiarity - are offered as critical influences of interest in photovoltaics, the most ready innovation in the spectrum of renewable technologies. These findings have significant implications for commercialization efforts, as well as for management of utility operations. Through small wins, experimentation, and groping along, solar power can be diffused far more effectively and with far greater ultimate success than is expected through the conventional wisdom of large-scale research and development. (author)

  2. Energy efficiency and comfort conditions in passive solar buildings: Effect of thermal mass at equatorial high altitudes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogoli, David Mwale

    This dissertation is based on the philosophy that architectural design should not just be a function of aesthetics, but also of energy-efficiency, advanced technologies and passive solar strategies. A lot of published literature is silent regarding buildings in equatorial highland regions. This dissertation is part of the body of knowledge that attempts to provide a study of energy in buildings using thermal mass. The objectives were to establish (1) effect of equatorial high-altitude climate on thermal mass, (2) effect of thermal mass on moderating indoor temperatures, (3) effect of thermal mass in reducing heating and cooling energy, and (4) the amount of time lag and decrement factor of thermal mass. Evidence to analyze the effect of thermal mass issues came from three sources. First, experimental physical models involving four houses were parametrically conducted in Nairobi, Kenya. Second, energy computations were made using variations in thermal mass for determining annual energy usage and costs. Third, the data gathered were observed, evaluated, and compared with currently published research. The findings showed that: (1) Equatorial high-altitude climates that have diurnal temperature ranging about 10--15°C allow thermal mass to moderate indoor temperatures; (2) Several equations were established that indicate that indoor mean radiant temperatures can be predicted from outdoor temperatures; (3) Thermal mass can reduce annual energy for heating and cooling by about 71%; (4) Time lag and decrement of 200mm thick stone and concrete thermal mass can be predicted by a new formula; (5) All windows on a building should be shaded. East and west windows when shaded save 51% of the cooling energy. North and south windows when fully shaded account for a further 26% of the cooling energy; (6) Insulation on the outside of a wall reduces energy use by about 19.6% below the levels with insulation on the inside. The basic premise of this dissertation is that decisions that

  3. Performance Assessment of a Hybrid Solar-Geothermal Air Conditioning System for Residential Application: Energy, Exergy, and Sustainability Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Abbasi, Yasser; Baniasadi, Ehsan; Ahmadikia, Hossein

    2016-01-01

    This paper investigates the performance of a ground source heat pump that is coupled with a photovoltaic system to provide cooling and heating demands of a zero-energy residential building. Exergy and sustainability analyses have been conducted to evaluate the exergy destruction rate and SI of different compartments of the hybrid system. The effects of monthly thermal load variations on the performance of the hybrid system are investigated. The hybrid system consists of a vertical ground sour...

  4. GaAs nanopillar-array solar cells employing in situ surface passivation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mariani, Giacomo; Scofield, Adam C.; Hung, Chung-Hong; Huffaker, Diana L.

    2013-01-01

    Arrays of III–V direct-bandgap semiconductor nanopillars represent promising photovoltaic candidates due to their inherent high optical absorption coefficients and minimized reflection arising from light trapping, efficient charge collection in the radial direction and the ability to synthesize them on low-cost platforms. However, the increased surface area results in surface states that hamper the power conversion efficiency. Here, we report the first demonstration of GaAs nanopillar-array photovoltaics employing epitaxial passivation with air mass 1.5 global power conversion efficiencies of 6.63%. High-bandgap epitaxial InGaP shells are grown in situ and cap the radial p–n junctions to alleviate surface-state effects. Under light, the photovoltaic devices exhibit open-circuit voltages of 0.44 V, short-circuit current densities of 24.3 mA cm−2 and fill factors of 62% with high external quantum efficiencies >70% across the spectral regime of interest. A novel titanium/indium tin oxide annealed alloy is exploited as transparent ohmic anode. PMID:23422665

  5. Passive energy standard in building as a perspective of sustainable development - first passive houses in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miscevic, Lj.

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents the projects and implementation of the first passive family houses in Croatia. The Croatian Solar House (CSH) is a national technological-development project by a group of authors, which is based on passive house standard as an energy-terms point of departure. The House EV1 is a wood-made passive house under construction, while the House M4 is the first passive house in Croatia made in poro-concrete and reinforced concrete made ceiling slabs. Both houses comply with the heating energy consumption requirements under the passive house definition, i.e., the annual consumption does not exceed 15 kWh/m2. These houses are also referred to as 'houses without heating', 'houses with thermal comfort without heating' or 'one-liter houses' because their consumption is equivalent to one liter of fuel oil by one square meter a year. Assuming the high-value thermal protection, passive house is equipped with an installation system which houses a heat pump and ventilation system for continuous introduction of fresh air indoors. The use of renewable energy sources enabled the accomplishment by far the biggest energy savings in the construction industry, ensuring optimal conditions for healthy living without harmful gas emissions. Since 1990 there is an exponential growth of constructed passive houses in Europe. Germany is leading this trend with total of 150,000 free-standing houses, house raw units or residential units in small multi-apartment buildings. The research project-program of the European Union: Cost Efficiency Passive Houses as European Union Standard (CEPHEUS) has confirmed, by scientific monitoring during several years, the energy- and cost-efficiency of such architecture and construction model in more than 250 units in Germany, France, Austria and Switzerland. Therefore the passive house is proposed as a standard for residential architecture and construction, but also for general construction of all functional types of non-residential architecture

  6. Hole-Collection Mechanism in Passivating Metal-Oxide Contacts on Si Solar Cells: Insights From Numerical Simulations

    KAUST Repository

    Vijayan, Ramachandran Ammapet

    2018-02-14

    Silicon heterojunction solar cells enable high conversion efficiencies, thanks to their passivating contacts which consist of layered stacks of intrinsic and doped amorphous silicon. However, such contacts may reduce the photo current, when present on the illuminated side of the cell. This motivates the search for wider bandgap contacting materials, such as metal oxides. In this paper, we elucidate the precise impact of the material parameters of MoO$_{x}$ on device characteristics, based on numerical simulations. The simulation results allow us to propose design principles for hole-collecting induced junctions. We find that if MoO$_{x}$ has a sufficiently high electron affinity ($\\\\ge\\\\! \\\\text{{5.7 eV}}$), direct band-to-band tunneling is the dominant transport mechanism; whereas if it has a lower electron affinity ($ <\\\\! \\\\text{{5.7 eV}}$), trap-assisted tunneling dominates, which might introduce additional series resistance. At even lower electron affinity, S-shaped J–V curves may appear for these solar cells, which are found to be due to an insufficient trap state density in the MoO$_{x}$ film in contrast to the expectation of better performance at low trap density. These traps may assist carrier transport when present near the conduction band edge of the MoO$_{x}$ film. Our simulations predict that performance optimization for the MoO$_{x}$ film has to target either 1) a high electron affinity and a moderate doping density film or, 2) if the electron affinity is lower than the optimum value, a high defect density not exceeding the doping density inside the film.

  7. The impact of the year-on-year variation in the intensity of solar radiation on the energy intensity of low-energy and passive houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šubrt Roman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar radiation is a significant segment of heat gains in the operation of buildings. The importance of this segment is highlighted by lowering the energy performance of buildings. The current condition of assessment considers the standard values of solar radiation but these are often very different from the fair values. In the contribution it draws attention to not only to on-year variation in solar fluctuations in the intensity of solar radiation and its significant long-term deviation from the standard values but also to the impact to energy building in reliance to its energy intensity. The attention will be focused also to different values in standards valid in the Czech Republic. This specification of energy assessment of buildings is not only necessary to approximate calculations of real state, but mainly because we can expect more disputes about if a building has declared calculating the parameters of a building with nearly zero-energy or passive house.

  8. 关于住宅建筑太阳能热水系统设计的探讨%Design of Solar Water Heating System in Residential Buildings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彬

    2015-01-01

    太阳能系统建筑一体化设计,在住宅建筑实践中已被广泛应用,且收效良好。结合本刊刊发的某篇关于太阳能热水系统设计的论述,对其重点提出的“集中集热-分户使用的热水系统”加以再分析。本着严谨的技术适用性分析态度,现提出住宅建筑太阳能热水系统在一般条件下的首选方案,即采取独立分户系统;以及在不同建筑高度、建筑朝向、日照条件等情况下,综合利用建筑平、立面进行立体布局;特殊情况下,甚至可利用太阳能光伏系统进行补充,从而促进和鼓励系统使用效率,实现系统最大化节能减排作用。%Building integrated solar system has been widely used in residential construction with good effect. A paper was issued in this Journal about solar hot water system, and the related analysis on centralized heat water systems for household use is reviewed. In a rigorous analysis of the technical suitability, the preferred solution is proposed for the residential building’s solar hot water systems in general terms, which is the independent household system; three-dimensional layout of the facade shall be utilized in the case of different building heights, building orientation and sunshine conditions; the solar photovoltaic system even shall be supplemented in special circumstances, to promote system using efficiency and achieve the maximized energy efficiency and emission reduction effect.

  9. Rapid Thermal Annealing and Hydrogen Passivation of Polycrystalline Silicon Thin-Film Solar Cells on Low-Temperature Glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mason L. Terry

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The changes in open-circuit voltage (Voc, short-circuit current density (Jsc, and internal quantum efficiency (IQE of aLuminum induced crystallization, ion-assisted deposition (ALICIA polycrystalline silicon thin-film solar cells on low-temperature glass substrates due to rapid thermal anneal (RTA treatment and subsequent remote microwave hydrogen plasma passivation (hydrogenation are examined. Voc improvements from 130 mV to 430 mV, Jsc improvements from 1.2 mA/cm2 to 11.3 mA/cm2, and peak IQE improvements from 16% to > 70% are achieved. A 1-second RTA plateau at 1000°C followed by hydrogenation increases the Jsc by a factor of 5.5. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy measurements are used to determine the concentration profiles of dopants, impurities, and hydrogen. Computer modeling based on simulations of the measured IQE data reveals that the minority carrier lifetime in the absorber region increases by 3 orders of magnitude to about 1 nanosecond (corresponding to a diffusion length of at least 1 μm due to RTA and subsequent hydrogenation. The evaluation of the changes in the quantum efficiency and Voc due to RTA and hydrogenation with computer modeling significantly improves the understanding of the limiting factors to cell performance.

  10. Experimental studies and economic considerations on a living space heated through passive solar gain and through electric power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luminosu Iona

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The Trombe wall, of an area AT = 8.8 m, built on the southern facade of a room, heats the accommodation during the transition months, complementary to electric power. The statistical processing of the experimental data led to a global quantitative image of the wall’s behavior during the average day of the months March, April, September, and October 1999. The inner climate parameters are: tint = = 21 °C, trad = 17.9 °C, troom= 19.5 °C, j= 35-70%, E Î80 + 120 lx. The thermal comfort factor is B = -0.325. These values insure a room’s comfort close to the optimal one prescribed by the hygienists. The heliothermal conversion’s efficiency is hT = 10.4%. The proportion of heat supplied by the wall in the entire energy required by the room is hheat = 45.8%. The wall’s specific cost is Pu = 24.9 € /m. The write-off period of the initial investment is n = 53 years. The development of passive solar architecture in the Euro-region Danube-Cris-Mures-Tisa which includes the town of Timisoara (45° north, 22° east, was proven feasible by the experiments from both the energy and the economical point of view.

  11. Passivation of interstitial and vacancy mediated trap-states for efficient and stable triple-cation perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmud, Md Arafat; Elumalai, Naveen Kumar; Upama, Mushfika Baishakhi; Wang, Dian; Gonçales, Vinicius R.; Wright, Matthew; Xu, Cheng; Haque, Faiazul; Uddin, Ashraf

    2018-04-01

    The current work reports the concurrent passivation of interstitial and oxygen vacancy mediated defect states in low temperature processed ZnO electron transport layer (ETL) via Ultraviolet-Ozone (UVO) treatment for fabricating highly efficient (maximum efficiency: 16.70%), triple cation based MA0.57FA0.38Rb0.05PbI3 (MA: methyl ammonium, FA: formamidinium, Rb: rubidium) perovskite solar cell (PSC). Under UV exposure, ozone decomposes to free atomic oxygen and intercalates into the interstitial and oxygen vacancy induced defect sites in the ZnO lattice matrix, which contributes to suppressed trap-assisted recombination phenomena in perovskite device. UVO treatment also reduces the content of functional hydroxyl group on ZnO surface, that increases the inter-particle connectivity and grain size of perovskite film on UVO treated ZnO ETL. Owing to this, the perovskite film atop UVO treated ZnO film exhibits reduced micro-strain and dislocation density values, which contribute to the enhanced photovoltaic performance of PSC with modified ZnO ETL. The modified PSCs exhibit higher recombination resistance (RRec) ∼40% compared to pristine ZnO ETL based control devices. Adding to the merit, the UVO treated ZnO PSC also demonstrates superior device stability, retaining about 88% of its initial PCE in the course of a month-long, systematic degradation study.

  12. Solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1992-01-01

    This chapter discusses the role solar energy may have in the energy future of the US. The topics discussed in the chapter include the solar resource, solar architecture including passive solar design and solar collectors, solar-thermal concentrating systems including parabolic troughs and dishes and central receivers, photovoltaic cells including photovoltaic systems for home use, and environmental, health and safety issues

  13. Use of radiometer to reform and repair an old living house to passive solar one

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Yoshizo; Inagaki, Terumi; Suzuki, Takakazu; Kurokawa, Takashi

    1994-03-01

    Japanese living houses mainly consist of wooden elements in high-temperature and moist conditions. To modify the hot and humid environment, a conventional old house was partially rebuilt and repaired. Especially in the winter season, a diagnostic thermographic test was used to find deteriorated and leaking parts of interior and exterior walls. Macroscopic deteriorated parts were checked again in detail. The deteriorated element was then removed. During the reconstruction process, a new solar heat and air conditioning system using a silica-gel adsorber and underground water was installed to cool and warm up the living room. Thermography tests of this remodeled house show that room temperature is always constant and mild to human beings, especially in the winter. Temperature and heat flow distribution of flowing air in the living room was measured using thermal net and wire methods. Leaking thermal streak flow of the gap was locally visualized by the IR radiometer and a highly sensitive video camera. It was verified that IR thermography is a useful measuring instrument to check thermal defects of a house.

  14. Non-Hardware ("Soft") Cost-Reduction Roadmap for Residential and Small Commercial Solar Photovoltaics, 2013-2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ardani, K.; Seif, D.; Margolis, R.; Morris, J.; Davidson, C.; Truitt, S.; Torbert, R.

    2013-08-01

    The objective of this analysis is to roadmap the cost reductions and innovations necessary to achieve the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) SunShot Initiative's total soft-cost targets by 2020. The roadmap focuses on advances in four soft-cost areas: (1) customer acquisition; (2) permitting, inspection, and interconnection (PII); (3) installation labor; and (4) financing. Financing cost reductions are in terms of the weighted average cost of capital (WACC) for financing PV system installations, with real-percent targets of 3.0% (residential) and 3.4% (commercial).

  15. Impact of the homogeneous junction breakdown in IBC solar cells on the passivation quality of Al 2 O 3 and SiO 2 : degradation and regeneration behavior

    KAUST Repository

    Müller, Ralph

    2017-09-22

    Within the last years, many different approaches for the simplified fabrication of interdigitated back-contact (IBC) solar cells have been developed. Most of those concepts result in emitter and back-surface field (BSF) regions that are in direct contact to each other which leads to a controlled breakdown under reverse bias at the pn junction. In this work, the influence of the reverse breakdown on the passivation quality of AlO and SiO at the pn junction is investigated, not only shedding light on the degradation but also on the regeneration behavior of the cells. It was found that cells with AlO passivation on the back side degrade during reverse breakdown whereas sister cells with SiO passivation were rather unaffected. Consequently, the degradation seems to be related to the passivation layer. However, it is shown that the passivation can be regenerated even under normal operation condition. A possible explanation is the discharging of interface traps, which are getting recharged already at room temperature.

  16. Tribal Renewable Energy Report - Final Report: Bishop Paiute Tribe Residential Solar Program. Phase 1 (DOE Award # DE-EE0006949)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adkins, Brian [Bishop Paiute Tribe; Castilone, Lisa

    2018-03-30

    The objective of the project was to provide affordable renewable energy to 22 low income reservation homeowners; provide job training to tribal members and reduce air pollution by equivalent carbon offsets. The project exceeded grant objectives installing 66kW of rooftop solar on 22 low income single family homes and providing hands-on PV rooftop solar installation training to 24 tribal individuals (four more than planned). The project was a phased installment of an on-going partnership between the Tribe and GRID that was initiated in 2013 whereby 62 rooftop solar units were installed prior to this funded effort. The reported work in this report describes the funded effort where US Department of Energy provided partial funding through grant award IE0006949 and marks the first phase of an effort matching California Solar SASH Initiative funding with DOE Office of Indian Energy Funding and brings the total for the program to 84 installed systems (running total of 271 Kw installed) and the end of the project. Tribal workforce development was a key aspect of the project and trained 24tribal members for a total 1168 cumulative on-job training hours. The solar installations and training efforts were fully completed by September of 2016 with 66.6 kW installed - 8 kW more than the original estimate stated in the grant application.

  17. Passivating ZnO Surface States by C60 Pyrrolidine Tris-Acid for Hybrid Solar Cells Based on Poly(3-hexylthiophene/ZnO Nanorod Arrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peng Zhong

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Construction of ordered electron acceptors is a feasible way to solve the issue of phase separation in polymer solar cells by using vertically-aligned ZnO nanorod arrays (NRAs. However, the inert charge transfer between conducting polymer and ZnO limits the performance enhancement of this type of hybrid solar cells. In this work, a fullerene derivative named C60 pyrrolidine tris-acid is used to modify the interface of ZnO/poly(3-hexylthiophene (P3HT. Results indicate that the C60 modification passivates the surface defects of ZnO and improves its intrinsic fluorescence. The quenching efficiency of P3HT photoluminescence is enhanced upon C60 functionalization, suggesting a more efficient charge transfer occurs across the modified P3HT/ZnO interface. Furthermore, the fullerene modified hybrid solar cell based on P3HT/ZnO NRAs displays substantially-enhanced performance as compared to the unmodified one and the devices with other modifiers, which is contributed to retarded recombination and enhanced exciton separation as evidenced by electrochemical impedance spectra. Therefore, fullerene passivation is a promising method to ameliorate the connection between conjugated polymers and metal oxides, and is applicable in diverse areas, such as solar cells, transistors, and light-emitting dioxides.

  18. Optimization of Controllable Factors in the Aluminum Silicon Eutectic Paste and Rear Silicon Nitride Mono-Passivation Layer of PERC Solar Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sungeun; Park, Hyomin; Kim, Dongseop; Yang, JungYup; Lee, Dongho; Kim, Young-Su; Kim, Hyun-Jong; Suh, Dongchul; Min, Byoung Koun; Kim, Kyung Nam; Park, Se Jin; Kim, Donghwan; Lee, Hae-Seok; Nam, Junggyu; Kang, Yoonmook

    2018-05-01

    Passivated emitter and rear contact (PERC) is a promising technology owing to high efficiency can be achieved with p-type wafer and their easily applicable to existing lines. In case of using p-type mono wafer, 0.5-1% efficiency increase is expected with PERC technologies compared to existing Al BSF solar cells, while for multi-wafer solar cells it is 0.5-0.8%. We addressed the optimization of PERC solar cells using the Al paste. The paste was prepared from the aluminum-silicon alloy with eutectic composition to avoid the formation of voids that degrade the open-circuit voltage. The glass frit of the paste was changed to improve adhesion. Scanning electron microscopy revealed voids and local back surface field between the aluminum electrode and silicon base. We confirmed the conditions on the SiNx passivation layer for achieving higher efficiency and better adhesion for long-term stability. The cell characteristics were compared across cells containing different pastes. PERC solar cells with the Al/Si eutectic paste exhibited the efficiency of 19.6%.

  19. Energy saving innovations in residential buildings. Energiesparende Innovationen im Eigenheim

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, E; Meyer, T

    1983-01-01

    Socio-economic studies have been carried out in the course of the ''Landstuhl demonstration project'' with the aim of evaluating supporting and hampering factors for the realization of energy saving measures, especially for the use of innovation techniques and the use of passive solar energy in residential buildings. The results of two opinion polls have been presented by means of standardized personal interviews with building-owners (in the whole Federal Republic and in the demonstration area) and with building experts (264 persons questioned). The evaluations of the results of the opinion poll show that energy conservation plays an important but not a dominant part in the planning of residential buildings. In the ''Landstuhl area'' energy saving investments took an above-average high position (large impact of the demonstration project). The building-owners and experts most frequently wanted and recommended increased conventional measures. It could be shown that the imagination of the building-owners was asked too much when taking measures for the use of passive solar energy.

  20. Poly(4-Vinylpyridine)-Based Interfacial Passivation to Enhance Voltage and Moisture Stability of Lead Halide Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Bhumika; Kulkarni, Ashish; Jena, Ajay Kumar; Ikegami, Masashi; Udagawa, Yosuke; Kunugita, Hideyuki; Ema, Kazuhiro; Miyasaka, Tsutomu

    2017-06-09

    It is well known that the surface trap states and electronic disorders in the solution-processed CH 3 NH 3 PbI 3 perovskite film affect the solar cell performance significantly and moisture sensitivity of photoactive perovskite material limits its practical applications. Herein, we show the surface modification of a perovskite film with a solution-processable hydrophobic polymer (poly(4-vinylpyridine), PVP), which passivates the undercoordinated lead (Pb) atoms (on the surface of perovskite) by its pyridine Lewis base side chains and thereby eliminates surface-trap states and non-radiative recombination. Moreover, it acts as an electron barrier between the perovskite and hole-transport layer (HTL) to reduce interfacial charge recombination, which led to improvement in open-circuit voltage (V oc ) by 120 to 160 mV whereas the standard cell fabricated in same conditions showed V oc as low as 0.9 V owing to dominating interfacial recombination processes. Consequently, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) increased by 3 to 5 % in the polymer-modified devices (PCE=15 %) with V oc more than 1.05 V and hysteresis-less J-V curves. Advantageously, hydrophobicity of the polymer chain was found to protect the perovskite surface from moisture and improved stability of the non-encapsulated cells, which retained their device performance up to 30 days of exposure to open atmosphere (50 % humidity). © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Influence of the transition region between p- and n-type polycrystalline silicon passivating contacts on the performance of interdigitated back contact silicon solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichel, Christian; Müller, Ralph; Feldmann, Frank; Richter, Armin; Hermle, Martin; Glunz, Stefan W.

    2017-11-01

    Passivating contacts based on thin tunneling oxides (SiOx) and n- and p-type semi-crystalline or polycrystalline silicon (poly-Si) enable high passivation quality and low contact resistivity, but the integration of these p+/n emitter and n+/n back surface field junctions into interdigitated back contact silicon solar cells poses a challenge due to high recombination at the transition region from p-type to n-type poly-Si. Here, the transition region was created in different configurations—(a) p+ and n+ poly-Si regions are in direct contact with each other ("pn-junction"), using a local overcompensation (counterdoping) as a self-aligning process, (b) undoped (intrinsic) poly-Si remains between the p+ and n+ poly-Si regions ("pin-junction"), and (c) etched trenches separate the p+ and n+ poly-Si regions ("trench")—in order to investigate the recombination characteristics and the reverse breakdown behavior of these solar cells. Illumination- and injection-dependent quasi-steady state photoluminescence (suns-PL) and open-circuit voltage (suns-Voc) measurements revealed that non-ideal recombination in the space charge regions with high local ideality factors as well as recombination in shunted regions strongly limited the performance of solar cells without a trench. In contrast, solar cells with a trench allowed for open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 720 mV, fill factor of 79.6%, short-circuit current (Jsc) of 41.3 mA/cm2, and a conversion efficiencies (η) of 23.7%, showing that a lowly conducting and highly passivating intermediate layer between the p+ and n+ poly-Si regions is mandatory. Independent of the configuration, no hysteresis was observed upon multiple stresses in reverse direction, indicating a controlled and homogeneously distributed breakdown, but with different breakdown characteristics.

  2. A Biopolymer Heparin Sodium Interlayer Anchoring TiO2 and MAPbI3 Enhances Trap Passivation and Device Stability in Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    You, Shuai; Wang, Hui; Bi, Shiqing; Zhou, Jiyu; Qin, Liang; Qiu, Xiaohui; Zhao, Zhiqiang; Xu, Yun; Zhang, Yuan; Shi, Xinghua; Zhou, Huiqiong; Tang, Zhiyong

    2018-04-18

    Traps in the photoactive layer or interface can critically influence photovoltaic device characteristics and stabilities. Here, traps passivation and retardation on device degradation for methylammonium lead trihalide (MAPbI 3 ) perovskite solar cells enabled by a biopolymer heparin sodium (HS) interfacial layer is investigated. The incorporated HS boosts the power conversion efficiency from 17.2 to 20.1% with suppressed hysteresis and Shockley-Read-Hall recombination, which originates primarily from the passivation of traps near the interface between the perovskites and the TiO 2 cathode. The incorporation of an HS interfacial layer also leads to a considerable retardation of device degradation, by which 85% of the initial performance is maintained after 70 d storage in ambient environment. Aided by density functional theory calculations, it is found that the passivation of MAPbI 3 and TiO 2 surfaces by HS occurs through the interactions of the functional groups (COO - , SO 3 - , or Na + ) in HS with undersaturated Pb and I ions in MAPbI 3 and Ti 4+ in TiO 2 . This work demonstrates a highly viable and facile interface strategy using biomaterials to afford high-performance and stable perovskite solar cells. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Rear-Sided Passivation by SiNx:H Dielectric Layer for Improved Si/PEDOT:PSS Hybrid Heterojunction Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yiling; Gao, Pingqi; He, Jian; Zhou, Suqiong; Ying, Zhiqin; Yang, Xi; Xiang, Yong; Ye, Jichun

    2016-12-01

    Silicon/organic hybrid solar cells have recently attracted great attention because they combine the advantages of silicon (Si) and the organic cells. In this study, we added a patterned passivation layer of silicon nitride (SiNx:H) onto the rear surface of the Si substrate in a Si/poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(styrenesulfonate) ( PSS) hybrid solar cell, enabling an improvement of 0.6 % in the power conversion efficiency (PCE). The addition of the SiNx:H layer boosted the open circuit voltage (V oc) from 0.523 to 0.557 V, suggesting the well-passivation property of the patterned SiNx:H thin layer that was created by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition and lithography processes. The passivation properties that stemmed from front PSS, rear-SiNx:H, front PSS/rear-SiNx:H, etc. are thoroughly investigated, in consideration of the process-related variations.

  4. Searching for public benefits in solar subsidies: A case study on the Australian government's residential photovoltaic rebate program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macintosh, Andrew; Wilkinson, Deb

    2011-01-01

    The Australian Government ran a renewable energy program in the 2000s that provided rebates to householders who acquired solar Photovoltaic (PV) energy systems. Originally called the Photovoltaic Rebate Program (PVRP), it was rebranded the Solar Homes and Communities Plan (SHCP) in November 2007. This paper evaluates both the PVRP and SHCP using measures of cost-effectiveness and fairness. It finds that the program was a major driver of a more than six-fold increase in PV generation capacity in the 2000s, albeit off a low base. In 2010, solar PV's share of the Australian electricity market was still only 0.1%. The program was also environmentally ineffective and costly, reducing emissions by 0.09 MtCO 2 -e/yr over the life of the rebated PV systems at an average cost of between AU$238 and AU$282/tCO 2 -e. In addition, the data suggest there were equity issues associated with the program, with 66% of all successful applicants residing in postal areas that were rated as medium-high or high on a Socio-economic Status (SES) scale. - Research highlights: → We evaluated a solar photovoltaic (PV) rebate program. → The program was ineffective, reducing emissions by 0.09 MtCO 2 -e/yr. → The average abatement cost was ∼AU$250/tCO 2 -e. → The program had a relatively minor impact as an industry assistance measure. → The distribution of rebates was skewed toward higher SES areas.

  5. Crystalline silicon solar cell with front and rear polysilicon passivated contacts as bottom cell for hybrid tandems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luxembourg, S.L.; Zhang, D.; Wu, Y.; Najafi, M.; Zardetto, V.; Verhees, W.; Burgers, A.R.; Veenstra, S.; Geerligs, L.J.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we analyze and model perovskite/c-Si tandem cells with front and rear polySi passivated contacts on the bottom cell. A high-efficiency tandem approach will benefit from the high Voc potential of a c-Si bottom cell with front and rear polySi passivated contacts while the combination

  6. Determining of the optimal design of a closed loop solar dual source heat pump system coupled with a residential building application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chargui, Ridha; Awani, Sami

    2017-01-01

    Graphical abstract: Operation of the system in heating mode. - Highlights: • We examine the control function in the level of heat pump and collector. • We examine the temporal evolution of the temperature and energy in the all components of the system. • A better system with a significant energy saving was achieved. • The system gives good results in all operating states. - Abstract: This work highlights the results on the coupling of a flat plate collector coupled with a dual source heat pump system and a heat exchanger for building application. The novelty point of this work is to integrate a heat exchanger in the floor and in the interstitial space of the residential house roof in order to minimize the consumed electric power. This technology defining the operational state of the system has been developed and adapted in the present investigation by adopting the Tunisian climate. The dimensioning of this installation for different component makes it possible to operate the hot water heating systems ecologically. Hence, our objective is to ameliorate the performance of the system using the solar radiation converted to the thermal energy in the level of the flat plate collector and the heat pump. A several experimental data have been added for realizing a numerical model based on TRNSYS software. From this point of view, a numerical model was improved in building application using a 150 m 2 as surface area of the building which consists of two floor zones. The dual source heat pump was coupled with a ground heat exchanger (GHE) with 0.2 m of depth. The distance between two consecutive tubes is 0.3 m and the surface area of the solar collector is 8 m 2 . The simulation results have been obtained for 48 h operation in January and all inputs data of the system have been predicted during 48 h and 6 months of heating in Tunisia. It was demonstrated that the COP of the dual source heat pump was enhanced with the increase of the solar radiation during the typical

  7. Efficiency enhancement in dye-sensitized solar cells by in situ passivation of the sensitized nanoporous electrode with Li2CO3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Jingbo; Zaban, Arie

    2008-01-01

    This work entails a method to improve the performance of dye-sensitized nanocrystalline TiO 2 solar cells by adding surface passivating elements to the electrolyte. The presence of either CO 2 , Li 2 CO 3 or K 2 CO 3 in electrolyte increases both the photocurrent and the photovoltage, resulting in higher overall conversion efficiency of these solar cells. The additives are used to form a passivation layer of lithium carbonate on the dye free surface of the TiO 2 nanoparticles and the conductive substrate. This layer suppresses the rate of the main recombination reaction between the photoinjected electrons and the oxidized ions in the electrolyte solution. While blocking part of the recombination, the lithium carbonate layer allows motion of the Li + ions towards the TiO 2 surface for charge screening. Consequently using this simple treatment, the conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized solar cell most improved by 17.2% (from 6.4% to 7.5%)

  8. Design and Analysis of an Optical Coupler for Concentrated Solar Light Using Optical Fibers in Residential Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Aslian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentrated sunlight that is transmitted by fiber optics has been used for generating electricity, heat, and daylight. On the other hand, multijunction photovoltaic cells provide high efficiency for generating electricity from highly concentrated sunlight. This study deals with designing and simulating a high-efficiency coupler, employing a mathematical model to connect sunlight with fiber optics for multiple applications. The coupler concentrates and distributes irradiated light from a primary concentrator. In this study, a parabolic dish was used as the primary concentrator, a coupler that contains nine components called a compound truncated pyramid and a cone (CTPC, all of which were mounted on a plate. The material of both the CTPC and the plate was BK7 optical glass. Fiber optics cables and multijunction photovoltaic cells were connected to the cylindrical part of the CTPC. The fibers would transmit the light to the building to provide heat and daylight, whereas multijunction photovoltaic cells generate electricity. Theoretical and simulation results showed high performance of the designed coupler. The efficiency of the coupler was as high as 92%, whereas the rim angle of the dish increased to an optimum angle. Distributed sunlight in the coupler increased the flexibility and simplicity of the design, resulting in a system that provided concentrated electricity, heat, and lighting for residential buildings.

  9. Passive Solar Heating Residences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-07-01

    sunshine is the percentage of time during the average year that the sun is bright enough to cast a shadow Pcross a surface, divided by the number of hours...The Markle House in Vermont has 1,100 square feet of living area with a heat loss cf 17,500 BTU/hr. Particular attention was paid to reducing the...Determ.ine enierg;y savings of fossil fuel and electrical poweCr. 2. Determi.:ne the ftriction of the building’s hot)’ waiter , heting and/ur cooling load

  10. Residential Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids For Teens For Parents & Teachers Resolving Family Conflicts The Holidays and Alzheimer's Glossary Virtual Library Online ... longer an option Costs Choosing a care setting Types of residential care A good long-term care ...

  11. Application of solar roof shallow pool at individual residental buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Gavrilović Dragan J.

    2011-01-01

    The paper discusses the possibility of applying shallow roof pools of water on the basis of passive solar water capture functioning as thermal batteries and thermal "regulators" in a "hot - cold" mode with individual residential buildings. With this application, the utilization of the existing functionality of the building roof area would improve and open up the possibility of achieving better overall bio-climate individual object. By using this system, a flat roof impassable "terrace" ...

  12. Community Design Parameters and the Performance of Residential Cogeneration Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazem Rashed-Ali

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The integration of cogeneration systems in residential and mixed-use communities has the potential of reducing their energy demand and harmful emissions and can thus play asignificant role in increasing their environmental sustainability. This study investigated the impact of selected planning and architectural design parameters on the environmental and economic performances of centralized cogeneration systems integrated into residential communities in U.S.cold climates. Parameters investigated include: 1 density, 2 use mix, 3 street configuration, 4 housing typology, 5 envelope and building systems’ efficiencies, and 6 passive solar energyutilization. The study integrated several simulation tools into a procedure to assess the impact of each design parameter on the cogeneration system performance. This assessment procedure included: developing a base-line model representing typical design characteristics of U.S. residential communities; assessing the cogeneration system’s performance within this model using three performance indicators: percentage of reduction in primary energy use, percentage of reduction in CO2 emissions; and internal rate of return; assessing the impact of each parameter on the system performance through developing 46 design variations of the base-line model representing potential changes in each parameter and calculating the three indicators for each variation; and finally, using a multi-attribute decision analysis methodology to evaluate the relative impact of each parameter on the cogeneration system performance. The study results show that planning parameters had a higher impact on the cogeneration system performance than architectural ones. Also, a significant correlation was found between design characteristics identified as favorable for the cogeneration system performance and those of sustainable residential communities. These include high densities, high use mix, interconnected street networks, and mixing of

  13. Improved amorphous/crystalline silicon interface passivation for heterojunction solar cells by low-temperature chemical vapor deposition and post-annealing treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengyou; Zhang, Xiaodan; Wang, Liguo; Jiang, Yuanjian; Wei, Changchun; Xu, Shengzhi; Zhao, Ying

    2014-10-07

    In this study, hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin films are deposited using a radio-frequency plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (RF-PECVD) system. The Si-H configuration of the a-Si:H/c-Si interface is regulated by optimizing the deposition temperature and post-annealing duration to improve the minority carrier lifetime (τeff) of a commercial Czochralski (Cz) silicon wafer. The mechanism of this improvement involves saturation of the microstructural defects with hydrogen evolved within the a-Si:H films due to the transformation from SiH2 into SiH during the annealing process. The post-annealing temperature is controlled to ∼180 °C so that silicon heterojunction solar cells (SHJ) could be prepared without an additional annealing step. To achieve better performance of the SHJ solar cells, we also optimize the thickness of the a-Si:H passivation layer. Finally, complete SHJ solar cells are fabricated using different temperatures for the a-Si:H film deposition to study the influence of the deposition temperature on the solar cell parameters. For the optimized a-Si:H deposition conditions, an efficiency of 18.41% is achieved on a textured Cz silicon wafer.

  14. Assessing the effects of customer innovativeness, environmental value and ecological lifestyles on residential solar power systems install intention

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Kee Kuo

    2014-01-01

    To understand the impact of environmental value, ecological lifestyle, customer innovativeness on customer intention to install solar power system (SPS) in their private houses, an empirical model was proposed. Customer innovativeness was treated as a second-order construct with two first-order dimensions, with each of the latter being measured by means of reflective indicators. Using structural equation modeling, data collected from 203 college students and faculties at a University of Taiwan were tested against the model. We found that environmental value has a positive impact on ecological lifestyle and SPS install intention. Although ecological lifestyle associates positively with SPS install intention, the effect disappears when environmental value is included in the model. The effect of customer innovativeness on SPS install intention results from the tendency of customer novelty seeking, while the impact of customer independent judgment-making on SPS install intention is insignificant. The model explained 76% of the total variations within SPS install intention. Managerial implications for promoting of SPS are considered, and suggestions for further research provided. - Highlights: • We integrate customer innovativeness into an environmental behavior model. • The impact of customer innovativeness on SPS install intention was confirmed. • The impact of novelty seeking on SPS install intention has been found. • Environmental value is the most important factor for SPS install intention. • The model explained 76% of the total variations within SPS install intention

  15. Self-passivation Rule and the Effect of Post-treatment in GBs of Solar Cell Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengyan; Chen, Shiyou; Xiang, Hongjun; Gong, Xingao

    Grain boundaries (GBs) existing in polycrystalline semiconductors alloys inducing a great deal of deep defect levels are usually harmful to cells' photovoltaic performance. Experimental and theoretical investigations verified that these defect levels come from the GBs' dangling bonds. We find that, the defect levels in anion core of GB can be passivated by its cations, called by self-passivation. For instance, the post-treated by CdCl2, Cd can eliminate the defect levels by saturating Te dangling bonds in the grain boundary of CdTe. We verify that the idea of self-passivation rule can perfectly explain the benign GBs of CISe and CZTS by sodium treatment. The present work reveals a general mechanism about how dopants in GBs eliminate the defect states through passivating the dangling bonds in covalent polycrystalline semiconductors, and sheds light on how to passivate dangling bonds in GBs with alterative processes. National Science Foundation of China, international collaboration project of MOST, Pujiang plan, Program for Professor of Special Appointment (Eastern Scholar), and Shanghai Rising-star program.

  16. Effect of openings collectors and solar irradiance on the thermal efficiency of flat plate-finned collector for indirect-type passive solar dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batubara, Fatimah; Dina, Sari Farah; Klaudia Kathryn Y., M.; Turmuzi, M.; Siregar, Fitri; Panjaitan, Nora

    2017-06-01

    Research on the effect of openings solar collector and solar irradiance to thermal efficiency has been done. Solar collector by flat plate-finned type consists of 3 ply insulator namely wood, Styrofoam and Rockwool with thickness respectively are 10 mm, 25 mm and 50 mm. Absorber plate made of aluminum sheet with thickness of 0.30 mm, painted by black-doff. Installation of 19 units fins (length x height x thickness: 1000x20x10 mm) on the collector will increase surface area of absorber so it can receive much more solar energy. The solar collector cover is made of glass (thickness of 5 mm). During the research, the solar irradiance and temperature of collector are measured and recorded every five minutes. Temperature measurement performed on the surface of the absorber plate, inside of collector, surface cover and the outer side insulator (plywood). This data is used to calculate the heat loss due to conduction, convection and radiation on the collector. Openings of collectors vary as follows: 100%, 75%, 15% and 0% (total enclosed). The data collecting was conducted from 09.00 am to 17.00 pm and triplicates. The collector thermal efficiency calculated based on the ratio of the amount of heat received to the solar irradiance absorbed. The results show that each of openings solar collector has different solar irradiance (because it was done on a different day) which is in units of W/m2: 390 (100% open), 376 (75% open), 429 (15% open), and 359 (totally enclosed). The highest thermal efficiency is in openings variation of 15% opened. These results indicate that the efficiency of the collector is influenced by the solar irradiance received by the collector and the temperature on the collector plate. The highest thermal efficiency is in variation of openings 15%. These indicate that the efficiency of the collector was influenced by solar irradiance received by the collector and openings of the collector plate.

  17. Residential Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde; Matsufuji, Y.

    2011-01-01

    are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing residential waste is faced with the problem that many residences already divert some waste away from the official collection systems, for example performing home composting of vegetable waste and garden waste, having their bundled newspaper picked up by the scouts...... twice a year or bringing their used furniture to the flea markets organized by charity clubs. Thus, much of the data available on residential waste represents collected waste and not necessarily all generated waste. The latter can only be characterized by careful studies directly at the source......, but such studies are very expensive if fair representation of both spatial and temporal variations should be obtained. In addition, onsite studies may affect the waste generation in the residence because of the increased focus on the issue. Residential waste is defined in different ways in different countries...

  18. Effect of Fullerene Passivation on the Charging and Discharging Behavior of Perovskite Solar Cells: Reduction of Bound Charges and Ion Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shih, Yen-Chen; Wang, Leeyih; Hsieh, Hsiao-Chi; Lin, King-Fu

    2018-04-11

    Ion accumulation of organometal halide perovskites (OHPs) induced by electrode polarization of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) under illumination has been intensely studied and associated with a widely observed current-voltage hysteresis behavior. This work is dedicated to the investigation of the behavior of charged species at the compact TiO 2 /OHP interface with respect to electrode polarization in PSC devices. By providing a comprehensive discussion of open-circuit voltage ( V OC ) buildup and V OC decay under illumination and in the dark for the PSCs modified with [6,6]-phenyl-C 61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) at the TiO 2 /OHP interface and their corresponding electrochemical impedance spectroscopies (EISs), a justified mechanism is proposed attempting to elucidate the dynamics of interfacial species with respect to the time and frequency domains. Our results demonstrate that the retarded V OC buildup and decay observed in PSC devices are related to the formation of bound charges in TiO 2 , which is essential to neutralize the oppositely charged ions accumulating at the OHP side. Besides, inserting a thicker PCBM at the TiO 2 /OHP interface as a passivation layer can alleviate the electrode polarization more efficiently as verified by the low dielectric constant measured from EIS. Moreover, photoluminescence measurements indicate that PCBM at the TiO 2 /OHP interface is capable of passivating a trap state and improving charge transfer. However, with respect to the time scale investigated in this work, the reduction of the hysteresis behavior on a millisecond scale is more likely due to less bound charge formation at the interface rather than shallow trap-state passivation by PCBM. After all, this work comprehensively demonstrates the interfacial properties of PSCs associated with PCBM passivation and helps to further understand its impact on charging/discharging as well as device performance.

  19. Integration of photovoltaic solar panels in residential buildings and its contribution in a power feeder of a mixed urban region; Integracao de paineis solares fotovoltaicos em edificacoes residenciais e sua contribuicao em um alimentador de energia de zona urbana mista

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Isis Portolan dos

    2009-02-15

    Energy generation is one of the main pollution sources in the world. Photovoltaic solar energy is a way to guarantee the electric energy generation using a clean and renewable source, the sun. With the photovoltaic modules integration in buildings, it is possible to generate energy in urban areas, using areas already constructed and also minimizing the energy loss with transmission and distribution. Direct connection of a photovoltaic system to the electric grid avoids the necessity of a storage system, and allows the generated energy to be used by any consumer connected to the grid. This thesis proposes the creation and propagation of predefined kits including photovoltaic modules and other equipment, in order to complete installation and connection of photovoltaic generator, resulting in solar roofs in urban houses. The kits could be installed on roofs of existent residences or in new ones, making the installation easier and minimizing the necessity and the costs of a specific project for each case. With the definition of standard components, like the modules, inverters, and others equipment, there would be an industrial production scale, minimizing costs. In addition, the kits also make the training of the installers easier. The simulation of this concept in a residential area in Florianopolis, demonstrates that there is enough area in the roofs to locate one kit in all residences, and that this generation is able to contribute to the energy demand of the area. So all energy generated by the kits will be immediately consumed inside the area, relieving the concessionaire load. His argue that kits can be an interesting way of bringing this energy generation technology to mainstream. (author)

  20. The ALU+ concept: n-type silicon solar cells with surface passivated screen-printed aluminum-alloyed rear emitter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bock, R.; Schmidt, J.; Mau, S.; Hoex, B.; Kessels, W.M.M.; Brendel, R.

    2009-01-01

    Aluminum-doped p-type (Al-p+) silicon emitters fabricated by means of screen-printing and firing are effectively passivated by plasma-enhanced chemicalvapor deposited (PECVD) amorphous silicon (a-Si) and atomic-layer-deposited (ALD) aluminum oxide (Al2O3) as well as Al2O3/SiNx stacks, where the

  1. Analysis of passive systems as a tool for energy saving in buildings: solar control; Analisis de sistemas pasivos como herramienta para el ahorro de energia en edificaciones: Control solar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saravia, Maricela; Morillon Galvez, David [Instituto de Ingenieria, UNAM, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1999-07-01

    A bioclimatic study of El Salvador is presented, with the purpose of using window eaves as elements of passive solar control and to determine the optimal angles of orientation, in order to diminish the thermal gains by direct solar radiation and to manage to get close to the comfort conditions. The former with the intention of integrating measures that help to obtain energy efficiency and comfortable buildings, for the conditions of warm humid climate, characteristic of a Central American country like El Salvador. Besides offering a document of consultation among the professionals dedicated to the design and as base of bioclimatic considerations that must have the construction regulations. As a conclusion the optimal angles of eaves for each orientation are presented and a quantitative estimation of the savings that would imply not to consume electrical energy in cooling systems using these elements as a protection to the direct solar radiation. [Spanish] Se presenta un estudio del bioclima de El Salvador, con el fin de utilizar aleros de ventana como elementos de control solar pasivo y determinar los angulos optimos por orientacion, para disminuir las ganancias termicas por radiacion solar directa y lograr acercar a las condiciones de confort. Lo anterior con el objeto de integrar medidas que coadyuven a lograr edificios energeticamente eficientes y confortables, para las condiciones de clima calido humedo, caracteristico de un pais centroamericano como El Salvador. Ademas de brindar un documento de consulta entre los profesionales dedicados al dise y como base de consideraciones bioclimaticas que debe tener el reglamento de construcciones. Como conclusion se presentan los angulos optimos de alero por cada orientacion y una estimacion cuantitativa del ahorro que implicaria el no consumir energia electrica en sistemas de enfriamiento utilizando estos elementos como una proteccion a la radiacion solar directa.

  2. Land use and environmental impacts of decentralized solar energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Twiss, R.H.; Smith, P.L.; Gatzke, A.E.; McCreary, S.T.

    1980-01-01

    The physical, spatial and land-use impacts of decentralized solar technologies applied at the community level by the year 2000 are examined. The results of the study are intended to provide a basis for evaluating the way in which a shift toward reliance on decentralized energy technologies may eventually alter community form. Six land-use types representative of those found in most US cities are analyzed according to solar penetration levels identified in the maximum solar scenario for the year 2000. The scenario is translated into shares of end use demand in the residential, commercial and industrial sectors. These proportions become the scenario goals to be met by the use of decentralized solar energy systems. The percentage of total energy demand is assumed to be 36.5 percent, 18.8 percent and 22.6 percent in the residential, commercial and industrial sectors respectively. The community level scenario stipulated that a certain percentage of the total demand be met by on-site solar collection, i.e. photovoltaic and thermal collectors, and by passive design. This on-site solar goal is 31.9 percent (residential), 16.8 percent (commercial) and 13.1 percent (industrial).

  3. Hydrogen Passivation of N(+)P and P(+)N Heteroepitaxial InP Solar Cell Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, B.; Davis, W. C.; Ringel, S. A.; Hoffman, R., Jr.

    1995-01-01

    Dislocations and related point defect complexes caused by lattice mismatch currently limit the performance of heteroepitaxial InP cells by introducing shunting paths across the active junction and by the formation of deep traps within the base region. We have previously demonstrated that plasma hydrogenation is an effective and stable means to passivate the electrical activity of such defects in specially designed heteroepitaxial InP test structures to probe hydrogen passivation at typical base depths within a cell structure. In this work, we present our results on the hydrogen passivation of actual heteroepitaxial n(+)p and p(+)n InP cell structures grown on GaAs substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). We have found that a 2 hour exposure to a 13.56 MHz hydrogen plasma at 275 C reduces the deep level concentration in the base regions of both n(+)p and p(+)n heteroepitaxial InP cell structures from as-grown values of 5 - 7 x 10(exp 14)/cc, down to 3 - 5 x 10(exp 12)/cc. All dopants were successfully reactivated by a 400 C, 5 minute anneal With no detectable activation of deep levels. I-V analysis indicated a subsequent approx. 100 fold decrease In reverse leakage current at -1 volt reverse bias, and an improved built in voltage for the p(+)n structures. ln addition to being passivated,dislocations are also shown to participate in secondary interactions during hydrogenation. We find that the presence of dislocations enhances hydrogen diffusion into the cell structure, and lowers the apparent dissociation energy of Zn-H complexes from 1.19 eV for homoepitaxial Zn-doped InP to 1.12 eV for heteroepitaxial Zn-doped InP. This is explained by additional hydrogen trapping at dislocations subsequent to the reactivation of Zn dopants after hydrogenation.

  4. Hydrogen passivation of N(+)-P and P(+)-N heteroepitaxial InP solar cell structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatterjee, Basab; Davis, William C.; Ringel, Steve A.; Hoffman, Richard, Jr.

    1996-01-01

    Dislocations and related point defect complexes caused by lattice mismatch currently limit the performance of heteroepitaxial InP cells by introducing shunting paths across the active junction and by the formation of deep traps within the base region. We have previously demonstrated that plasma hydrogenation is an effective and stable means to passivate the electrical activity of such defects in specially designed heteroepitaxial InP test structures to probe hydrogen passivation at typical base depths within a cell structure. In this work, we present our results on the hydrogen passivation of actual heteroepitaxial n-p and p-n InP cell structures grown on GaAs substrates by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). We have found that a 2 hour exposure to a 13.56 MHz hydrogen plasma at 275 C reduces the deep level concentration in the base regions of both n(+)-p and p(+)-n heteroepitaxial InP cell structures from as-grown values of 5-7 x 10(exp 14) cm(exp -3), down to 3-5 x 10(exp 12) cm(exp -3). All dopants were successfully reactivated by a 400 C, 5 minute anneal with no detectable activation of deep levels. One to five analysis indicated a subsequent approximately 100 fold decrease in reverse leakage current at -1 volt reverse bias, and an improved built in voltage for the p(+)-n structures. In addition to being passivated, dislocations are also shown to participate in secondary interactions during hydrogenation. We find that the presence of dislocations enhances hydrogen diffusion into the cell structure, and lowers the apparent dissociation energy of Zn-H complexes from 1.19 eV for homoepitaxial Zn-doped InP to 1.12 eV for heteroepitaxial Zn-doped InP. This is explained by additional hydrogen trapping at dislocations subsequent to the reactivation of Zn dopants after hydrogenation.

  5. Passivation of nanocrystalline TiO2 junctions by surface adsorbed phosphinate amphiphiles enhances the photovoltaic performance of dye sensitized solar cells

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Mingkui

    2009-01-01

    We report a new class of molecular insulators that electronically passivate the surface of nanocrystalline titania films for high performance dye sensitized solar cells (DSC). Using electrical impedance measurements we demonstrate that co-adsorption of dineohexyl bis-(3,3-dimethyl-butyl)-phosphinic acid (DINHOP), along with the amphiphilic ruthenium sensitizer Z907Na increased substantially the power output of the cells mainly due to a retardation of interfacial recombination of photo-generated charge carriers. The use of phosphinates as anchoring groups opens up new avenues for modification of the surface by molecular insulators, sensitizers and other electro-active molecules to realize the desired optoelectronic performance of devices based on oxide junctions. © 2009 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  6. Credible evidence for the passivation effect of remnant PbI₂ in CH₃NHCH₃PbICH₃ films in improving the performance of perovskite solar cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shimao; Dong, Weiwei; Fang, Xiaodong; Zhang, Qingli; Zhou, Shu; Deng, Zanhong; Tao, Ruhua; Shao, Jingzhen; Xia, Rui; Song, Chao; Hu, Linhua; Zhu, Jun

    2016-03-28

    The role of remnant PbI2 in CH3NH3PbI3 films is still controversial, some investigations have revealed that the remnant PbI2 plays a passivation role, reduces the charge recombination in perovskite solar cells (PSCs), and improves the performance of PSCs, but the opposing views state that remnant PbI2 has no passivation effect and it would deteriorate the stability of the devices. In our investigation, the CH3NH3PbI3 films have been prepared by a two-step spin-coating method and the content of the remnant PbI2 in CH3NH3PbI3 films has been tuned by varying the preparation temperature. It has been found that increasing the heating temperature could increase the coverage of spin-coated PbI2 films, which has led to high coverage CH3NH3PbI3 films and more remnant PbI2 in CH3NH3PbI3 films, and as a result, the performance of PSCs was enhanced obviously and the maximum power conversion efficiency of 14.32 ± 0.28% was achieved by the PSCs prepared at 130/120 °C (PbI2 films were heated at 130 °C and CH3NH3PbI3 films were heated at 120 °C). Furthermore, the dark current, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and time-resolved fluorescence emission decay measurements revealed that the charge recombination in PSCs has been gradually suppressed and the fluorescence emission lifetime has gradually increased with the content of remnant PbI2 increasing. Thus, the passivation effects of the unreacted and decomposed PbI2 in improving the performance of PSCs have been confirmed unquestionably.

  7. Enhanced solar cell efficiency and stability using ZnS passivation layer for CdS quantum-dot sensitized actinomorphic hexagonal columnar ZnO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Yanli; Tao, Qiang; Fu, Wuyou; Yang, Haibin; Zhou, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yanyan; Su, Shi; Wang, Peng; Li, Minghui

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The synthetic of ZnS/CdS QDs/AHC-ZnO photoanode with a simple method. • The power conversion efficiency of the ZnS/CdS QDs/AHC-ZnO is 1.81%. • The effects of photovoltaic performances caused by CdS and ZnS amounts were studied. • ZnS passivation layer enhanced electron lifetime significantly. - Abstract: We report the photoanodes consisting of CdS quantum-dots (QDs) sensitized actinomorphic hexagonal columnar ZnO (CdS QDs/AHC-ZnO) with ZnS passivation layer are applied for solar cells. Simple chemical solution synthesized AHC-ZnO films on transparent conducting glass substrates, and then, AHC-ZnO is functionalized with uniform CdS and ZnS QDs via successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) method. The as-prepared materials were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, UV–vis diffused reflectance absorption spectra and photovoltaic performances analysis. Photovoltaic performances results indicate the quantity of CdS QDs as well as the visible light absorption threshold can be effectively controlled by varying the coating cycles during the SILAR process, and the photocurrent density (Jsc) is greatly improved by increasing the amount of ZnS. By optimizing the AHC-ZnO with the amount of CdS and ZnS, the best efficiency of 1.81% was achieved for solar cell under AM 1.5 G illumination with Jsc = 7.44 mA/cm 2 , Voc = 0.57 V and FF = 43%

  8. Effects on annual cost of solar/air-heat utilization system of carbon tax and interest rate for a residential house; Jutakuyo taiyo/taikinetsu riyo system no nenkan keihi ni oyobosu tansozei kinri no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Q; Kenmoku, Y; Sakakibara, T [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Nakagawa, S [Maizuru National College of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Kawamoto, T [Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-27

    In recent years, a system has been proposed that utilizes river heat, air-heat, exhaust heat from a cooler, etc., in addition to natural energy for the heat pump. With the introduction of such system, the amount of energy used and that of CO2 exhaust will be greatly reduced, but annual expenses will be increased as it stands. In order to improve the cost efficiency of the system, a proposal has been made for the introduction of an economic policy such as the carbon tax and a low interest financing system. With these matters in the background, the subject study predicts the production of solar cells in the future and, on the basis of this production, determines the price, conversion efficiency and equipment energy of solar cells in the future. Using these values and taking into consideration the introduction of the carbon tax and the low interest financing system, the optimum area was determined for solar cells and heat concentrators in a future residential solar/air-heat energy system. The carbon tax, being imposed on all CO2 discharges, had a large effect. Moreover, as the tax increased, annual expenses decreased for the solar/air-heat system. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  9. Passivation of ZnO Nanowire Guests and 3D Inverse Opal Host Photoanodes for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells

    KAUST Repository

    Labouchere, Philippe; Chandiran, Aravind Kumar; Moehl, Thomas; Harms, Hauke; Chavhan, Sudam; Tena-Zaera, Ramon; Nazeeruddin, Mohammad Khaja; Graetzel, Michael; Tetreault, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    A hierarchical host-guest nanostructured photoanode is reported for dye-sensitized solar cells. It is composed of ZnO nanowires grown in situ into the macropores of a 3D ZnO inverse opal structure, which acts both as a seed layer and as a conductive

  10. Module greenhouse with high efficiency of transformation of solar energy, utilizing active and passive glass optical rasters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Korečko, J.; Jirka, V.; Sourek, B.; Červený, Jan

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 84, č. 10 (2010), s. 1794-1808 ISSN 0038-092X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : rasters made of glass * greenhouse * solar architecture * fresnel lens * mathematical simulation Subject RIV: BH - Optics, Masers, Lasers Impact factor: 2.135, year: 2010

  11. Energetic performances of an optimized passive Solar Heating Prototype used for Tunisian buildings air-heating application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mehdaoui, Farah; Hazami, Majdi; Naili, Nabiha; Farhat, Abdelhamid

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The study of a Solar Heating Prototype to prevail the buildings air-heating needs. • A parametric study of the system was achieved by means of the TRNSYS program. • The monthly internal temperature during cold months ranges between 22 and 25 °C. • The results shows that the relative humidity inside the monozone room of about 40%. - Abstract: This paper deals with the energetic performances of a Solar Heating Prototype (SHP) conceived in our laboratory to prevail the Tunisian households’ air-heating needs. The conceived SHP mainly consists of a flat-plate solar collector, solar hot water tank and an active layer integrated inside a single room. Firstly, a complete model is formulated taking into account various modes of heat transfer in the SHP by means of the TRNSYS simulation program. To validate the TRNSYS model, experimental tests under local weather conditions were performed for 2 days spread over 2 months (March and April 2013). Predicted results were compared to the measurements in order to determine the accuracy of the simulation program. A parametric study was then achieved by means of the TRNSYS program in order to optimize SHP design parameters (Collector area, collector mass flow rate, floor mass flow rate, storage tank volume and thickness of the active layer). The optimization of all design parameters shows that to achieve a maximum performances from the SHP it is essential to use a solar collector with an area equal to 6 m 2 area, a collector mass flow rate equal to 100 kg h −1 and a hot water storage tank with a capacity equal to 450 l. Concerning the floor heating, the optimal values of mass flow rate and the active layer thickness are 200 kg h −1 and 0.06 m, respectively. The long-term SHP performances were afterward evaluated by means of the Typical Meteorological Year (TMY) data relative to Tunis, Tunisia. Results showed that for an annual total solar insolation of about 6493.37 MJ m −2 the average solar fraction

  12. Passive safety; Passive Sicherheit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rueckert, J. [Skoda Auto a.s., Mlada Boleslav (Czech Republic). Interieurentwicklung und Versuche; Hau, M. [Skoda Auto a.s., Mlada Boleslav (Czech Republic). Koordination der Fahrzeugsicherung

    2004-05-01

    The specifications for passive safety are partly based on the legal requirements for all export markets combined with the strict internal standards of Volkswagen Group. The Euro NCAP tests and their precisely defined testing methods using the new point assessment are very important. (orig.)

  13. Good planning for maximum efficiency. Part 1. Housing development of passive buildings with solar district heat supply; Sauber geplant is halb gewonnen. Teil 1. Passivhaussiedlung mit solarer Nahwaermeversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meissner, R. [Ritter Energie- und Umwelttechnik, Karlsbad (Germany)

    2003-06-01

    A new development of 12 single-family dwellings was constructed with complex technical facilities and many innovative elements by Gewerbepark Ritter and Messrs. Paradigma, a provider of thermal solar systems. [German] Der Gewerbepark Ritter und die auf thermische Solarindustrie spezialisierte Firma Paradigma haben bei der Errichtung einer Siedlung mit 12 Einfamilienhaeusern mit einem komplexen Haustechnikkonzept ein wegweisendes Projekt mit vielen innovativen Neuerungen erfolgreich in die Tat umgesetzt. (orig.)

  14. Balancing the daylighting and energy performance of solar screens in residential desert buildings: Examination of screen axial rotation and opening aspect ratio

    KAUST Repository

    Sabry, Hanan; Sherif, Ahmed; Gadelhak, Mahmoud; Aly, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    Solar screens are typically used to control solar access into building spaces. They proved their usefulness in improving the daylighting and energy performance of buildings in the hot arid desert environments which are endowed with abundance

  15. Solar Energy and You.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conservation and Renewable Energy Inquiry and Referral Service (DOE), Silver Spring, MD.

    This booklet provides an introduction to solar energy by discussing: (1) how a home is heated; (2) how solar energy can help in the heating process; (3) the characteristics of passive solar houses; (4) the characteristics of active solar houses; (5) how solar heat is stored; and (6) other uses of solar energy. Also provided are 10 questions to…

  16. Recommendations and tools to design houses with passive solar cooling and mating in Mediterranean Sea; Recomendaciones y herramientas para el diseno de viviendas con calefaccion solar y climatizacion pasiva en una zona de clima mediterraneo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muller, E.

    2004-07-01

    Recommendations for passive design and design tools based on European building codes were developed with extensive thermal simulations and a reference year especially prepared with hourly climate data from the central region of Chile. The results of the research were presented as a manual in Spanish enclosing simple design tools in an electronic spreadsheet. The design analysis is presented with a novel approach, that permits a better understanding and optimisation of the complex design balance between the demands for summer and winter in a mediterranean climate. The methodologies and approach that were developed are extended to other climatic regions. This way the investigation supports the improvement of thermal comfort conditions and the application of solar energy in dwellings as essential elements of a process of sustainable development. (Author)

  17. In Middle Europe, heating of an industrial building only with solar energy. First solar house industrial building with passive house standard in this size; In Mitteleuropa ein Industriegebaeude nur mit der Sonne heizen. Erstes Sonnenhaus Industriegebaeude mit Passivhaus-Standard in dieser Groesse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huemer, Herbert [Xolar Renewable Energy Group HQ, Eberstalzell (Austria)

    2010-07-01

    Since 2008, Xolar Renewable Energy Group (Eberstalzell, Austria) combines the companies Sunmaster and Xolar in the most modern solar house in Europe with passive house standard. The contribution under consideration reports on the development of an industrial building which is heated entirely by solar energy and meets the standards of passive houses. All working places in the building should be sunny and free of draught. It does not use electrically powered heat pumps or refrigerators. All energy values calculated by simulation were achieved or partly exceeded. The savings in annual operating costs compared to conventional construction in factory buildings is approximately 192,000 Euro per year.

  18. ZnS-Passivated CdSe/CdS Co-sensitized Mesoporous Zn2SnO4 Based Solar Cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kyungho; Park, Ji Eun; Park, Eun Su; Park, Yun Chang; Kim, Joosun; Im, Chan; Lee, Man-Jong

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Mesoporous Zn 2 SnO 4 sensitized by CdSe/CdS QDs were synthesized via a two-step sequential process. • Assembled QDs were characterized by HRTEM and STEM mapping. • Efficiency increase in CdSe/CdS co-sensitized Zn 2 SnO 4 DSSCs is discussed. • The role of ZnS passivation layer is discussed by impedance spectroscopy. - Abstract: CdS and CdSe/CdS quantum dot (QD) sensitizers were assembled onto mesoporous ternary Zn 2 SnO 4 photoanodes using a two-step sequential process of successive ionic layer absorption and reaction (SILAR) and chemical bath deposition (CBD) for QD-cosensitized solar cell applications. The assembled CdS and CdSe QDs were observed using high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM), high-resolution TEM (HRTEM), and STEM/energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) elemental mapping. CdSe/CdS cosensitized Zn 2 SnO 4 -based cells showed a higher absorption onset position, a stepwise band-edge level alignment, and, thereby, an improved power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 1.628% under one-sun conditions, which is the best result obtained using mesoporous Zn 2 SnO 4 reported to date. In addition, the effect of a ZnS passivation layer on the photovoltaic performance and aging behavior has been investigated. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) showed that the main role of the ZnS layer is to enhance the aging behavior of the CdSe/CdS/Zn 2 SnO 4 cells by improving the electron lifetime and charge recombination

  19. Improvement of solar cells performances by surface passivation using porous silicon chemically treated with LiBr solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haddadi, Ikbel; Dimassi, Wissem; Bousbih, Rabaa; Hajji, Massoud; Kanzari, M. Ali; Ezzaouia, Hatem [Laboratoire de Photovoltaique, Centre de Recherche et des Technologies de l' Energie, Hammam Lif (Tunisia)

    2011-03-15

    Solar cells need efficient light absorption to achieve high efficiencies. In this paper, we present a study on the immersion effect of porous silicon (PS) in a Lithium Bromide (LiBr) aqueous solution, followed by thermal annealing at 100 C for 30 min under nitrogen atmosphere on solar cells performances. The surface morphology was studied by Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). All samples were analyzed by Fourier transmission infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) before and after LiBr immersion. Good electrical properties were observed after thermal annealing at 100 C for 30 min under nitrogen atmosphere. The reflection spectra of PS, before and after LiBr treatment, performed in the 300-1200 nm wavelength range, showed an important decrease of the reflectivity by this new treatment. A significant increase of the photoluminescence (PL) intensity was obtained after LiBr treatment. An enhancement of the light beam induced current (LBIC) as well as the internal quantum efficiency (IQE) were shown after LiBr treatment. I-V characteristics, under AM1.5 illumination, were improved owing to the increase of the minority carrier diffusion length (L) and an excellent enhancement of the surface recombination velocity (V{sub s}) (copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  20. Residential Energy Performance Metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Wright

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Techniques for residential energy monitoring are an emerging field that is currently drawing significant attention. This paper is a description of the current efforts to monitor and compare the performance of three solar powered homes built at Missouri University of Science and Technology. The homes are outfitted with an array of sensors and a data logger system to measure and record electricity production, system energy use, internal home temperature and humidity, hot water production, and exterior ambient conditions the houses are experiencing. Data is being collected to measure the performance of the houses, compare to energy modeling programs, design and develop cost effective sensor systems for energy monitoring, and produce a cost effective home control system.

  1. Modeling illumination performance of plastic optical fiber passive daylighting system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sulaiman, F; Ahmad, A [Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam (Malaysia). Faculty of Electrical Engineering; Ahmed, A Z [Universiti Teknologi MARA, Shah Alam (Malaysia). Bureau of Reseaarch and Consultancy

    2006-12-15

    of the most direct methods of utilizing solar energy for energy conservation is to bring natural light indoors to light up an area. This paper reports on the investigation of the feasibility to utilize large core optical fibers to convey and distribute solar light passively throughout residential or commercial structures. The focus of this study is on the mathematical modeling of the illumination performance and the light transmission efficiency of solid core end light fiber for optical day lighting systems. The Meatball simulations features the optical fiber transmittance for glass and plastic fibers, illumination performance over lengths of plastic end-lit fiber, spectral transmission, light intensity loss through the large diameter solid core optical fibers as well as the transmission efficiency of the optical fiber itself. It was found that plastic optical fiber has less transmission loss over the distance of the fiber run which clearly shows that the Plastic Optical Fiber should be optimized for emitting visible light. The findings from the analysis on the performance of large diameter optical fibers for day lighting systems seems feasible for energy efficient lighting system in commercial or residential buildings.

  2. Modeling illumination performance of plastic optical fiber passive daylighting system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sulaiman, F.; Ahmad, A.; Ahmed, A.Z.

    2006-01-01

    One of the most direct methods of utilizing solar energy for energy conservation is to bring natural light indoors to light up an area. This paper reports on the investigation of the feasibility to utilize large core optical fibers to convey and distribute solar light passively throughout residential or commercial structures. The focus of this study is on the mathematical modeling of the illumination performance and the light transmission efficiency of solid core end light fiber for optical day lighting systems. The Meatball simulations features the optical fiber transmittance for glass and plastic fibers, illumination performance over lengths of plastic end-lit fiber, spectral transmission, light intensity loss through the large diameter solid core optical fibers as well as the transmission efficiency of the optical fiber itself. It was found that plastic optical fiber has less transmission loss over the distance of the fiber run which clearly shows that the Plastic Optical Fiber should be optimized for emitting visible light. The findings from the analysis on the performance of large diameter optical fibers for day lighting systems seems feasible for energy efficient lighting system in commercial or residential buildings

  3. Sodium induced grain growth, defect passivation and enhancement in the photovoltaic properties of Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} thin film solar cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Om Pal; Gour, Kuldeep Singh [Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Parmar, Rahul [Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Singh, Vidya Nand, E-mail: singhvn@nplindia.org [Physics of Energy Harvesting Division, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India); Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research, CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Marg, New Delhi 110012 (India)

    2016-07-01

    Sodium diffusion from soda lime glass (SLG) during high temperature annealing is known to play a crucial role in affecting the grain growth and defect passivation in chalocogenide/kesterite solar cells. Additional sodium is required when low temperature or short term annealing is used. Although this fact is known, a systematic comparative study for kesterite films is seldom reported. In the present study, Cu{sub 2}ZnSnS{sub 4} thin films were deposited on SLG and Mo coated SLG using stacked layer reactive sputtering. Na was deposited over the CZTS thin film and the film was annealed in N{sub 2} atmosphere in order to enhance the grain growth. This resulted in the shift in the XRD peak towards lower diffraction angle. The optical bandgap shifted from 1.45 eV to 1.38 eV with Na addition. Significant grain growth from hundreds of nanometer to micrometer was observed in samples with Na. Device fabricated in SLG/Mo/CZTS/CdS/ZnO/ITO configuration with Al front contact shows increase in efficiencies values from 1.50% to 2.84%. - Highlights: • Reactive sputtering with reduced annealing time have been used for the growth of CZTS thin film. • NaF has been deposited over precursor film before annealing. • Na addition resulted in grain growth, improved compactness and reduction in band gap. • An enhancement in the photovoltaic characteristics have been observed with addition of Na.

  4. Enhanced Carrier Collection from CdS Passivated Grains in Solution-Processed Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, Melanie; Keller, Debora; Haass, Stefan G; Gretener, Christina; Bissig, Benjamin; Fuchs, Peter; La Mattina, Fabio; Erni, Rolf; Romanyuk, Yaroslav E; Tiwari, Ayodhya N

    2015-06-10

    Solution processing of Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 (CZTSSe)-kesterite solar cells is attractive because of easy manufacturing using readily available metal salts. The solution-processed CZTSSe absorbers, however, often suffer from poor morphology with a bilayer structure, exhibiting a dense top crust and a porous bottom layer, albeit yielding efficiencies of over 10%. To understand whether the cell performance is limited by this porous layer, a systematic compositional study using (scanning) transmission electron microscopy ((S)TEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy of the dimethyl sulfoxide processed CZTSSe absorbers is presented. TEM investigation revealed a thin layer of CdS that is formed around the small CZTSSe grains in the porous bottom layer during the chemical bath deposition step. This CdS passivation is found to be beneficial for the cell performance as it increases the carrier collection and facilitates the electron transport. Electron-beam-induced current measurements reveal an enhanced carrier collection for this buried region as compared to reference cells with evaporated CdS.

  5. Hexamethylenetetramine-mediated growth of grain-boundary-passivation CH3NH3PbI3 for highly reproducible and stable perovskite solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yan-Zhen; Li, Xi-Tao; Zhao, Er-Fei; Lv, Xin-Ding; Meng, Fan-Li; Peng, Chao; Lai, Xue-Sen; Huang, Meilan; Cao, Guozhong; Tao, Xia; Chen, Jian-Feng

    2018-02-01

    Simultaneously achieving the long-term device stability and reproducibility has proven challenging in perovskite solar cells because solution-processing produced perovskite film with grain boundary is sensitive to moisture. Herein, we develop a hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA)-mediated one-step solution-processing deposition strategy that leads to the formation of high-purity and grain-boundary-passivation CH3NH3PbI3 film and thereby advances cell optoelectronic performance. Through morphological and structural characterizations and theoretical calculations, we demonstrate that HMTA fully occupies the moisture-exposed surface to build a bridge across grain boundary and coordinates with Pb ions to inhibit the formation of detrimental PbI2. Such HMTA-mediated grown CH3NH3PbI3 films achieves a decent augmentation of power conversion efficiency (PCE) from 12.70% to 17.87%. A full coverage of PbI2-free CH3NH3PbI3 surface on ZnO also boosts the device's stability and reproducibility.

  6. Stable and Efficient Organo-Metal Halide Hybrid Perovskite Solar Cells via π-Conjugated Lewis Base Polymer Induced Trap Passivation and Charge Extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Ping-Li; Yang, Guang; Ren, Zhi-Wei; Cheung, Sin Hang; So, Shu Kong; Chen, Li; Hao, Jianhua; Hou, Jianhui; Li, Gang

    2018-03-01

    High-quality pinhole-free perovskite film with optimal crystalline morphology is critical for achieving high-efficiency and high-stability perovskite solar cells (PSCs). In this study, a p-type π-conjugated polymer poly[(2,6-(4,8-bis(5-(2-ethylhexyl) thiophen-2-yl)-benzo[1,2-b:4,5-b'] dithiophene))-alt-(5,5-(1',3'-di-2-thienyl-5',7'-bis(2-ethylhexyl) benzo[1',2'-c:4',5'-c'] dithiophene-4,8-dione))] (PBDB-T) is introduced into chlorobenzene to form a facile and effective template-agent during the anti-solvent process of perovskite film formation. The π-conjugated polymer PBDB-T is found to trigger a heterogeneous nucleation over the perovskite precursor film and passivate the trap states of the mixed perovskite film through the formation of Lewis adducts between lead and oxygen atom in PBDB-T. The p-type semiconducting and hydrophobic PBDB-T polymer fills in the perovskite grain boundaries to improve charge transfer for better conductivity and prevent moisture invasion into the perovskite active layers. Consequently, the PSCs with PBDB-T modified anti-solvent processing leads to a high-efficiency close to 20%, and the devices show excellent stability, retaining about 90% of the initial power conversion efficiency after 150 d storage in dry air. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Optical and passivating properties of hydrogenated amorphous silicon nitride deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition for application on silicon solar cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wight, Daniel Nilsen

    2008-07-01

    Within this thesis, several important subjects related to the use of amorphous silicon nitride made by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition as an anti-reflective coating on silicon solar cells are presented. The first part of the thesis covers optical simulations to optimise single and double layer anti-reflective coatings with respect to optical performance when situated on a silicon solar cell. The second part investigates the relationship between important physical properties of silicon nitride films when deposited under different conditions. The optical simulations were either based on minimising the reflectance off a silicon nitride/silicon wafer stack or maximising the transmittance through the silicon nitride into the silicon wafer. The former method allowed consideration of the reflectance off the back surface of the wafer, which occurs typically at wavelengths above 1000 nm due to the transparency of silicon at these wavelengths. However, this method does not take into consideration the absorption occurring in the silicon nitride, which is negligible at low refractive indexes but quite significant when the refractive index increases above 2.1. For high-index silicon nitride films, the latter method is more accurate as it considers both reflectance and absorbance in the film to calculate the transmittance into the Si wafer. Both methods reach similar values for film thickness and refractive index for optimised single layer anti-reflective coatings, due to the negligible absorption occurring in these films. For double layer coatings, though, the reflectance based simulations overestimated the optimum refractive index for the bottom layer, which would have lead to excessive absorption if applied to real anti-reflective coatings. The experimental study on physical properties for silicon nitride films deposited under varying conditions concentrated on the estimation of properties important for its applications, such as optical properties, passivation

  8. Two or three decades of passive directions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cook, J.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the direction of passive solar architecture. The topics of the paper include design temperatures for buildings, active vs passive, fuel vs philosophy, engineering vs architecture, the thermal scale: heating vs cooling, fuel subsidies, divergent practices, sustainability, lighting, health, the place of passive technology

  9. Active house concept versus passive House

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeiler, W.; Boxem, G.; Vehler, R.; Verhoeven, M.; Fremouw, M.

    2009-01-01

    The passive house concept is the present trend in energy efficient sustainable dwellings. Within the passive house concept every effort is made to minimize the energy use. Substantial savings can be achieved by passive energy systems, especially natural ventilation, summer shading and winter solar

  10. Quaternary Cu2ZnSnS4 quantum dot-sensitized solar cells: Synthesis, passivation and ligand exchange

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Bing; Kou, Dongxing; Zhou, Wenhui; Zhou, Zhengji; Tian, Qingwen; Meng, Yuena; Wu, Sixin

    2016-06-01

    The quaternary Cu2ZnSnS4 (CZTS) QDs had been successfully introduced into quantum dot-sensitized solar cells (QDSC) via hydrolysis approach in our previous work [Green Chem. 2015, vol. 17, p. 4377], but the obtained cell efficiency was still limited by low open-circuit voltage and fill factor. Herein, we use 1-dodecanethiol (DDT) as capping ligand for fairly small-sized CZTS QDs synthesis to improve their intrinsic properties. Since this strong bonded capping ligand can not be replaced by 3-mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) directly, the nature cation (Cu, Zn or Sn)-DDT units of QDs are first exchanged by the preconjugated Cd-oleate via successive ionic layer adsorption and reaction (SILAR) procedure accompanied with the formation of a core/shell structure. The weak bonded oleic acid (OA) can be finally replaced by MPA and the constructed water soluble CZTS/CdSe QDSC achieves an impressive conversion efficiency of 4.70%. The electron transport and recombination dynamic processes are confirmed by intensity-modulated photocurrent spectroscopy (IMPS)/intensity-modulated photovoltage spectroscopy (IMVS) measurements. It is found that the removal of long alkyl chain is conducive to improve the electron transport process and the type-II core/shell structure is beneficial to accelerate electron transport and retard charge recombination. This effective ligand removal strategy is proved to be more convenient for the applying of quaternary QDs in QDSC and would boost a more powerful efficiency in the future work.

  11. Enhancing Performance of SnO2-Based Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using ZnO Passivation Layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. M. N. M. B. Wanninayake

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although liquid electrolyte based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSCs have shown higher photovoltaic performance in their class, they still suffer from some practical limitations such as solvent evaporation, leakage, and sealing imperfections. These problems can be circumvented to a certain extent by replacing the liquid electrolytes with quasi-solid-state electrolytes. Even though SnO2 shows high election mobility when compared to the semiconductor material commonly used in DSCs, the cell performance of SnO2-based DSCs is considerably low due to high electron recombination. This recombination effect can be reduced through the use of ultrathin coating layer of ZnO on SnO2 nanoparticles surface. ZnO-based DSCs also showed lower performance due to its amphoteric nature which help dissolve in slightly acidic dye solution. In this study, the effect of the composite SnO2/ZnO system was investigated. SnO2/ZnO composite DSCs showed 100% and 38% increase of efficiency compared to the pure SnO2-based and ZnO-based devices, respectively, with the gel electrolyte consisting of LiI salt.

  12. Passive houses in Sweden. Experiences from design and construction phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Ulla

    2008-07-01

    The sector of residential buildings and service organizations uses 36% of the total energy in Sweden. In June 2006, it was decided by the Swedish parliament that the energy use in residential buildings and premises should decrease by 20% per heated unit area before 2020. To reach this goal, more energy efficient buildings must be produced as well as energy efficient improvements must be performed on the existing building stock. One way to reduce the energy use in buildings is to build passive houses. A passive house is a mechanically ventilated building that with a highly insulated and air tight building envelope uses a minimum of energy for heating. The method used in this research is to practically participate in four passive house demonstration projects. The results expected are to find guiding principles and tools needed for passive house planning and make the system solutions usable for planning in more general terms. Joining as a part of the planning group; advice and help is given to architects, consultants and to the client. The demonstration projects studied are located in the south-west of Sweden. Three of the projects are new constructions and one is a renovation project. In the centre of Vanirom 40 rental apartments were built in 2005/2006 according to the passive house standard. Solar collectors on the roof contribute to the domestic hot water production. Every apartment has its own mechanical ventilation system with efficient heat recovery. Auxiliary heating is supplied by electricity. The load bearing structure were made of concrete and cast at site. The exterior walls and roof were made of wooden frame construction and mounted at site. The tenants moved in during summer 2006. The passive house project in Failure's consists of three houses with 12 rental apartments. The air is supplied by mechanical ventilation with an air to air heat exchanger, one in each apartment. The domestic hot water is prepared by solar collectors and auxiliary heating

  13. Performance of fuel cell for energy supply of passive house

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Badea, G.; Felseghi, R. A., E-mail: Raluca.FELSEGHI@insta.utcluj.ro; Mureşan, D.; Naghiu, G. [Technical University of Cluj-Napoca, Building Services Engineering Department, Bd. December 21, no. 128-130, 400600, Cluj-Napoca (Romania); Răboacă, S. M. [National R& D Institute for Cryogenic and Isotopic Technologies, str. Uzinei, no. 4, Rm. Vălcea, 240050 (Romania); Aşchilean, I. [SC ACI Cluj SA, Avenue Dorobanţilor, no. 70, 400609, Cluj-Napoca (Romania)

    2015-12-23

    Hydrogen technology and passive house represent two concepts with a remarkable role for the efficiency and decarbonisation of energy systems in the residential buildings area. Through design and functionality, the passive house can make maximum use of all available energy resources. One of the solutions to supply energy of these types of buildings is the fuel cell, using this technology integrated into a system for generating electricity from renewable primary sources, which take the function of backup power (energy reserve) to cover peak load and meteorological intermittents. In this paper is presented the results of the case study that provide an analysis of the energy, environmental and financial performances regarding energy supply of passive house by power generation systems with fuel cell fed with electrolytic hydrogen produced by harnessing renewable energy sources available. Hybrid systems have been configured and operate in various conditions of use for five differentiated locations according to the main areas of solar irradiation from the Romanian map. Global performance of hybrid systems is directly influenced by the availability of renewable primary energy sources - particular geo-climatic characteristics of the building emplacement.

  14. Installation guidelines for Solar Heating System, single-family residence at New Castle, Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    The Solar Heating System installer guidelines are provided for each subsystem and includes testing and filling the system. This single-family residential heating system is a solar-assisted, hydronic-to-warm-air system with solar-assisted domestic water heating. It is composed of the following major components: liquid cooled flat plate collectors; water storage tank; passive solar-fired domestic water preheater; electric hot water heater; heat pump with electric backup; solar hot water coil unit; tube-and-shell heat exchanger, three pumps, and associated pipes and valving in an energy transport module; control system; and air-cooled heat purge unit. Information is also provided on the operating procedures, controls, caution requirements, and routine and schedule maintenance. Information consists of written procedures, schematics, detail drawings, pictures and manufacturer's component data.

  15. Active and passive cooling methods for dwellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oropeza-Perez, Ivan; Østergaard, Poul Alberg

    2018-01-01

    In this document a review of three active as well as ten passive cooling methods suitable for residential buildings is carried out. The review firstly addresses how the various technologies cool the space according to the terms of the building heat balance, under what technical conditions...... ventilation, controlled ventilation, roof coating and eco-evaporative cooling are the most suitable passive methods for an extensive use in this country....

  16. DESIGN EXPERIMENT WITH SOLAR ENERGY IN THE ELABORATION OF 25-STOREY RESIDENTIAL COMPLEX FOR THE CRIMEA DISTRICT OF THE SEVASTOPOL CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kovaleva Alesya Sergeevna

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The scientific project examines the issues of energy efficiency, renewable energy sources, as well as ecology. In today's world the ecological issues are more current than ever. Some of them are ozone holes, disappearance of many species of animals and plants, exhaustible fuel reserves. Ecology is a huge problem of our civilization, which may be solved by paying more attention to energy efficiency in the process of urban development. In the implementation of energy efficiency experiments it is necessary to involve the efforts of scientists, politicians, non-governmental organizations, but first and foremost — of inventors, architects and designers. Energy efficiency in civil construction is presented in the article as an area allowing us to find design solutions basing on renewable energy sources, in particular photocell energy. Project experiment data on a residential high-rise complex in the city of Sevastopol is considered. The author presents design calculations and the comparison of the variants of design decisions on the use of photovoltaic cells producing energy to illuminate the underground car park of a residential high-rise complex. In the future, the use of photovoltaic cells as cladding structures may change the energy characteristics of buildings in case of transition to production scale implementation of the technology. This makes it possible to consider the prospects of urban development growth and improvement of the economy of the construction of expensive facilities. However, subsequent design experiments should be based mostly on other types of facilities and should take into account the impact of wind and aerodynamic performance of buildings in case of application of photovoltaic cells on roofs and facades. The results of the design experiment allow initially investigating the regularities of urban conditions and the amount of energy produced by building surfaces. Thus, the provided concept and the design experiment can be

  17. Amorphous silicon oxide layers for surface passivation and contacting of heterostructure solar cells of amorphous and crystalline silicon; Amorphe Siliziumoxidschichten zur Oberflaechenpassivierung und Kontaktierung von Heterostruktur-Solarzellen aus amorphen und kristallinem Silizium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Einsele, Florian

    2010-02-05

    films is dominated by the diffusion of atomic hydrogen being suitable for the saturation of interface defects. This shows in a distinct increase of the passivation quality of annealed films. The heterostructure back contact for solar cells on p-type c-Si consists of an undoped, full area passivation film, followed by a boron doped p-type contact layer. If highly doped, this layer generates a back surface field effect which decreases the recombination by reflecting minority charge carriers from the defect rich interface. An undoped passivation layer of a-Si:H improves the passivation by saturating interface defects. Effusion measurements on stacks of undoped and doped layers show an increase of the hydrogen diffusion in the undoped layer due to the presence of the doped layer. The doped layer shifts the Fermi level of the undoped layer towards the valence band edge. This shift increases the diffusion coefficient of hydrogen due to an effective reduction of the Si-H bond energy. As a consequence, the presence of the doped contact layer increases the mobility of atomic hydrogen in the passivation layer, with atomic hydrogen being necessary for the passivation of interface defects. The thickness of the passivation layer critically affects both the passivation and the electrical conductance of the back contact. Whereas the passivation quality steadily improves with increasing thickness, the conductance drops when exceeding a critical thickness in a range of 4 nm to 8 nm. Temperature dependent measurements yield a thermal activation of the conductance with an activation energy of E{sub A} {approx_equal} 0.5 eV, which is attributed to the valence band offset {Delta}E{sub V} between a-Si:H and c-Si. This high barrier requires a tunneling process for majority charge carriers and explains the abrupt decrease of conductance with increasing passivation layer thickness. Passivation layers of a-SiO{sub x}:H form a blocking junction on p-type c-Si, which is explained by an oxygen

  18. Impact of the homogeneous junction breakdown in IBC solar cells on the passivation quality of Al 2 O 3 and SiO 2 : degradation and regeneration behavior

    KAUST Repository

    Mü ller, Ralph; Reichel, Christian; Yang, Xinbo; Richter, Armin; Benick, Jan; Hermle, Martin

    2017-01-01

    on the degradation but also on the regeneration behavior of the cells. It was found that cells with AlO passivation on the back side degrade during reverse breakdown whereas sister cells with SiO passivation were rather unaffected. Consequently, the degradation seems

  19. Passive Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bojesen, Emile

    2018-01-01

    This paper does not present an advocacy of a passive education as opposed to an active education nor does it propose that passive education is in any way 'better' or more important than active education. Through readings of Maurice Blanchot, Jacques Derrida and B.S. Johnson, and gentle critiques of Jacques Rancière and John Dewey, passive…

  20. 'Solurban' project - Solar utilisation potential of urban sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, D.; Scartezzini, J.-L.; Montavon, M. [Swiss Federal Institute of Technology (EPFL), Laboratoire d' Energie Solaire et de Physique du Batiment (LESO-PB), Lausanne (Switzerland); Compagnon, R. [Ecole d' ingenieurs et d' architectes de Fribourg (EIAF), University of Applied Sciences of Western Switzerland (HES-SO), Fribourg (Switzerland)

    2005-07-01

    This report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a project that examined three urban locations in Switzerland with respect to their potentials for using solar energy and daylight to reduce energy demands in the lighting, heating and hot-water generation areas. The three urban areas examined included the Matthaeus district in Basle with its older residential apartment buildings, the Bellevaux residential district of Lausanne and the Meyrin district in Geneva - a nineteen-sixties satellite town. The calculation methodology and the three-dimensional digital models used are discussed. The results, including radiation availability and sky-access are discussed. Appropriate active and passive solar technologies are reviewed.

  1. Passive House Solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strom, I.; Joosten, L.; Boonstra, C. [DHV Sustainability Consultants, Eindhoiven (Netherlands)

    2006-05-15

    PEP stands for 'Promotion of European Passive Houses' and is a consortium of European partners, supported by the European Commission, Directorate General for Energy and Transport. In this working paper an overview is given of Passive House solutions. An inventory has been made of Passive House solutions for new build residences applied in each country. Based on this, the most common basic solutions have been identified and described in further detail, including the extent to which solutions are applied in common and best practice and expected barriers for the implementation in each country. An inventory per country is included in the appendix. The analysis of Passive House solutions in partner countries shows high priority with regard to the performance of the thermal envelope, such as high insulation of walls, roofs, floors and windows/ doors, thermal bridge-free construction and air tightness. Due to the required air tightness, special attention must be paid to indoor air quality through proper ventilation. Finally, efficient ((semi-)solar) heating systems for combined space and DHW heating still require a significant amount of attention in most partner countries. Other basic Passive House solutions show a smaller discrepancy with common practice and fewer barriers have been encountered in partner countries. In the next section, the general barriers in partner countries have been inventoried. For each type of barrier a suggested approach has been given. Most frequently encountered barriers in partner countries are: limited know-how; limited contractor skills; and acceptation of Passive Houses in the market. Based on the suggested approaches to overcoming barriers, this means that a great deal of attention must be paid to providing practical information and solutions to building professionals, providing practical training to installers and contractors and communication about the Passive House concept to the market.

  2. Chances and barriers for passive house renovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mlecnik, E.; Opstelten, I.; Rovers, R.; Verdeyen, N.; Wagenaar, A.

    2016-01-01

    There is significant potential for carbon reduction and energy saving in residential buildings. Various market actors are looking for ways to increase the uptake of passive house renovation and its certification.
    This study aimed specifically to draw lessons from research projects towards the

  3. Solar energy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruisheer, N.

    1992-01-01

    In five brief articles product information is given on solar energy applications with special attention to the Netherlands. After an introduction on solar energy availability in the Netherlands the developments in solar boiler techniques are dealt with. Solar water heaters have advantages for the environment, and government subsidies stimulate different uses of such water heaters. Also the developments of solar cells show good prospects, not only for developing countries, but also for the industrialized countries. In brief the developments in solar energy storage and the connection of solar equipment to the grid are discussed. Finally attention is paid to the applications of passive solar energy in the housing construction, the use of transparent thermal insulation and the developments of translucent materials. 18 figs., 18 ills

  4. Potential use of solar water heating systems in residential areas of the city of Piracicaba; Potencial da utilizacao de coletores solares no aquecimento de agua residencial na cidade de Piracicaba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Rafel Deleo e; Vieira Junior, Jose Carlos de Melo [Universidade de Sao Paulo (EESC/USP), Sao Carlos, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia], Emails: rafael.deleo.oliveira@usp.br, jcarlos@sc.usp.br

    2010-10-15

    Solar collector is a device that uses solar energy for heating fluid (both liquid and gaseous) which can then be used to generate energy. This study is based on the method of calculating the global solar radiation incident on the inclined plane using data from the city of Piracicaba, state of Sao Paulo. As a result of the study it can be seen that for the city of Piracicaba the collecting area of 4.62 M{sup 2} presents solar fraction varying between 87.27% and 97.79% for heating 300 liters of water and 200 liters of water daily, respectively. Based on the results one can conclude that the savings would be about 47.74 GWh, if a collection area of 360 thousand m{sup 2} (0.36 km{sup 2}) were fully exploited, which represents savings of approximately R$ 15.86 million per year for the municipality. (author)

  5. Assessment of Emerging Renewable Energy-based Cogeneration Systemsfor nZEB Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carmo, Carolina; Dumont, Olivier; Nielsen, Mads P.

    2016-01-01

    Net Zero Energy Buildings (nZEB) imply reduced consumption by means of good insulation, passive strategies and highly efficient energy supply systems. Among others, micro cogeneration systems are considered as one of the system solutions with the highest potential to enable nZEB.These systems...... entail production of electricity and usable thermal energy (heat and/or cooling) to cover the energy demands of residential buildings, high energy efficiency levels and proximity of the energy source to the building. The concept of cogeneration is not new but the interest in smallscale cogeneration...... technologies based on renewable energy sources has increased tremendously in the last decade. A significant amount of experimental and modelling research has recently been presented on emerging technologies. In this paper, four main technologies are assessed: Fuel Cells (FC), Photovoltaic thermal (PV/T), solar...

  6. Apartment building built to passive-house standard with solar balanced ventilation system; Mehrfamilien-Passivhaus mit solarem Luftsystem. Lueftung/Luftheizung/WRG/Solarfassade an der Rychenbergstrasse, Winterthur - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guetermann, A.

    2002-04-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) deals with an apartment building in Winterthur, Switzerland, built to passive-house standards and equipped with a solar balanced ventilation system. The building and its convective solar facade are described, as are the fan-assisted, balanced ventilation systems used. The operation of the systems in winter, during transitional periods and in summer is discussed. Domestic hot water preparation is looked at. The energy balance of the building is examined, as is the economic viability of the energy systems. The building, its energy installations and the measurement concept used are considered in detail. Finally, the findings of the study are summarised and commented on.

  7. Integrated Management of Residential Energy Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antunes C. H.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The increasing deployment of distributed generation systems based on renewables in the residential sector, the development of information and communication technologies and the expected evolution of traditional power systems towards smart grids are inducing changes in the passive role of end-users, namely with stimuli to change residential demand patterns. The residential user should be able to make decisions and efficiently manage his energy resources by taking advantages from his flexibility in load usage with the aim to minimize the electricity bill without depreciating the quality of energy services provided. The aim of this paper is characterizing electricity consumption in the residential sector and categorizing the different loads according to their typical usage, working cycles, technical constraints and possible degree of control. This categorization of end-use loads contributes to ascertain the availability of controllable loads to be managed as well as the different direct management actions that can be implemented. The ability to implement different management actions over diverse end-use load will increase the responsiveness of demand and potentially raises the willingness of end-users to accept such activities. The impacts on the aggregated national demand of large-scale dissemination of management systems that would help the end-user to make decisions regarding electricity consumption are predicted using a simulator that generates the aggregated residential sector electricity consumption under variable prices.

  8. Research and development of utilization technology of solar thermal system for industrial and other use. Development of passive solar system (research and development of advanced glazing); Sangyoyo nado solar system jitsuyoka gijutsu kaihatsu. Passive solar system no kaihatsu (chokozai nado no kenkyu kaihatsu (advanced grazing no kenkyu kaihatsu))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takita, M [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-01

    Described herein are the results of the FY1994 research program for advanced glazing in which solar energy is efficiently utilized. The peripheral techniques are surveyed for evaluation of characteristics of large-size dimming glass, optimization of film compositions and scaling up. The dimming device, made on a trial basis, attains a target controllable rage of at least 50% for visible light transmittance. The suitable components include WO3 as the electrochromic material producing color under a reducing atmosphere, NiO as the counter electrode producing color under an oxidative atmosphere, and hydrated SbOx as the proton-conducting electrolyte. The test results indicate possibility of the dimming glass stably operable while being irradiated with a quantity of sun ray of around 10 years. The study on scaling up the dimmer glass develops, on a trial basis, a process for producing large-size glass and evaluates its characteristics, where the film parameters are investigated. It also investigates the peripheral techniques for assembling the devices for the large-size glass, and develops useful techniques, such as those for sealants and improved sealing methods. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  9. Realizing a facile and environmental-friendly fabrication of high-performance multi-crystalline silicon solar cells by employing ZnO nanostructures and an Al2O3 passivation layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hong-Yan; Lu, Hong-Liang; Sun, Long; Ren, Qing-Hua; Zhang, Hao; Ji, Xin-Ming; Liu, Wen-Jun; Ding, Shi-Jin; Yang, Xiao-Feng; Zhang, David Wei

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, the multi-crystalline silicon (mc-Si) solar cells dominate the photovoltaic industry. However, the current acid etching method on mc-Si surface used by firms can hardly suppress the average reflectance value below 25% in the visible light spectrum. Meanwhile, the nitric acid and the hydrofluoric contained in the etching solution is both environmental unfriendly and highly toxic to human. Here, a mc-Si solar cell based on ZnO nanostructures and an Al2O3 spacer layer is demonstrated. The eco-friendly fabrication is realized by low temperature atomic layer deposition of Al2O3 layer as well as ZnO seed layer. Moreover, the ZnO nanostructures are prepared by nontoxic and low cost hydro-thermal growth process. Results show that the best passivation quality of the n+ -type mc-Si surface can be achieved by balancing the Si dangling bond saturation level and the negative charge concentration in the Al2O3 film. Moreover, the average reflectance on cell surface can be suppressed to 8.2% in 400–900 nm range by controlling the thickness of ZnO seed layer. With these two combined refinements, a maximum solar cell efficiency of 15.8% is obtained eventually. This work offer a facile way to realize the environmental friendly fabrication of high performance mc-Si solar cells. PMID:27924911

  10. Passivation of defect states in Si and Si/SiO2 interface states by cyanide treatment: improvement of characteristics of pin-junction amorphous Si and crystalline Si-based metal-oxide-semiconductor junction solar cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, N.; Fujinaga, T.; Niinobe, D.; Maida, O.; Takahashi, M.; Kobayashi, H.

    2003-01-01

    Defect states in Si can be passivated by cyanide treatment which simply involves immersion of Si materials in KCN solutions, followed by rinse. When the cyanide treatment is applied to pin-junction amorphous Si [a-Si] solar cells, the initial conversion efficiency increases. When the crown-ether cyanide treatment using a KCN solution of xylene containing 18-crown-6 is performed on i-a-Si films, decreases in the photo- and dark current densities with the irradiation time are prevented. The cyanide treatment can also passivate interface states present at Si/SiO 2 interfaces, leading to an increase in the conversion efficiency of 2 / Si (100)> solar cells.. Si-CN bonds formed by the reaction of defect states with cyanide ions have a high bond energy of about 4.5 eV and hence heat treatment at 800 0 C does not rupture the bonds, making thermal stability of the cyanide treatment.. When the cyanide treatment is applied to ultrathin SiO 2 /Si structure, the leakage current density is markedly decreased (Authors)

  11. Energetic, exergetic and economic analysis of an innovative Solar CombiSystem (SCS) producing thermal and electric energies: Application in residential and tertiary households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazami, Majdi; Mehdaoui, Farah; Naili, Nabiha; Noro, Marco; Lazzarin, Renato; Guizani, AmenAllah

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • The present work studies the potential of using innovative SCS in Tunisia. • In cold months the SCS provide about 50–75% of the total exergy provides. • The SCS produces between 70–150% of electric energy needs. • The SCS payback period (Pb) based on electric water heater was 10.2 years. • The SCS payback period (Pb) based on gas/gas town was about and 8.7 years. - Abstract: The endeavor of this paper is to study of the potential offered by the expenditure of an innovative Solar CombiSystem, SCS, used for the space heating load, the domestic hot water supply and the electric energy production. The investigation achieved in this work was based on an experimental and a simulation studies. A TRNSYS simulation program was achieved in order to evaluate the SCS monthly/annual thermal and electric performances. It was found that the proposed SCS covered between 20 and 45% of the SH energy needs by considering only solar energy. The result shows also that the SCS provided from 40 to 70% of the total DHW needs. It was also found that the SCS electric production ranged between 32 and 225 MJ/m 2 with a gain factor varying between 49 and 125%. An economic appraisal was also achieved to appraise the SCS feasibility. The results of the economic analysis show that the annual energy saved (ARE) and the payback period (Pb) based on electric water heater were respectively equal to 7618.3 kW h/year and 10.2 years. It was found that ARE and Pb based on gas/gas town were about 5825 m 3 and 8.7 years, respectively. The results of the economic analysis shows that the adoption of the SCS saves about 48% of electric energy and about 46% of gas/gas town kept back by the conventional system.

  12. Long-term energy storage tanks for dwellings and solar house architecture. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    The design and installation of hot water storage tanks as accumulators of solar energy is presented. Solar house architecture which maximizes roof, solar collector energy absorption potential is then considered. Proposals for residential areas which include solar houses are made.

  13. Thermal study of a residential water solar heating system with two different absorbing surface configurations; Estudo termico de um sistema solar de aquecimento de agua residencial para duas configuracoes de superficie absorvedora

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abreu, Rivaldo Ferreira

    2009-10-15

    A solar collector to be used in a system for heating water for bathing, whose main characteristics are its low cost and easy manufacturing and assembly is presented. The absorbing surface of the collector is formed by an aluminum plate with eight flaps where they lodge PVC pipes. The catchment area of solar radiation corresponds to 1.3 meters. The collector box was made of wood, it is covered by transparent glass and thermal insulation of tire chips and expanded polystyrene (EPS). Absorber tubes were connected in parallel through the use of PVC fittings and fixed to the plate by the use of metal poles and rivets. The entire absorber received paint fiat black for better absorption of sunlight. The system worked on a thermosyphon assembly and absorber of the collector has been tested in two configurations: with the tubes facing up, directly exposed to the impact of sunlight and facing down, exchanging heat with the plate by conduction. The most efficient configuration for the connect purpose was determined. The solar collector was connected to a thermal reservoir, also alternative, low-cost forming the system of solar water heating. We evaluated thermal parameters that proved the viability of the heating system studied. (author)

  14. Conservation and solar energy program: congressional budget request, FY 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1981-01-01

    Funding summaries are presented for the Conservation and Solar Energy Program funding information and program overview on energy conservation (Volume 7 of 7, DOE/CR-0011/2) are included for the Buildings and Community Systems, Industrial, Transportation; State and Local, Multi-Sector, Energy Impact Assistance, and Residential/Commercial retrofit programs. Funding information and program overviews on solar technology (Volume 2 of 7, DOE/CR-011/2) are included for Active and Passive Solar Heating and Cooling, Photovoltaics Energy Systems, Solar Thermal Power Systems, Biomass Energy Systems, Wind Energy Conversion Systems, Ocean Systems, Solar International Activities, Solar Information Systems, SERI Facility, MX-RES, Program Direction, and Alcohol Fuels programs. Information and overviews on energy production, demonstration, and distribution (Volume 6 of 7, DOE/CR-0011/2) are given for the solar program. A funding summary and a program overview are included for electrochemical and physical and chemical storage systems as appearing in DOE/CR-0011/2, Volume 3 of 7. Relevant tabulated data from the FY 1981. Request to the Congress are presented for Supplementals, Rescissions, and Deferrals. (MCW)

  15. Study on reduction of consumption and peak demand of electric power used in residential houses with solar heating and PV systems; Solar house no fuka heijunka to energy sakugen koka ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udagawa, M.; Endo, T. [Kogakuin University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-08

    A model house was simulated to reduce the consumption and peak demand for the photovoltaic power generation system, and solar heat air heating and hot water supply system in the solar house. As a type of construction, both wooden construction and reinforced concrete (RC) construction were selected with a total floor area of 125m{sup 2}. All the rooms were equipped with an air conditioner by heat pump from the air thermal source. A solar heat floor heater was simultaneously installed on the first floor. The hot water supply load was 4.8MWh per year. A commercial grid-connected on-site system was applied to the photovoltaic power generation with a 20m{sup 2} wide monocrystalline Si solar cell panel. As for the fluctuation in power load, the peak at the time of rising is more reduced in the RC house than in the wooden house, because the former is smaller in temperature fluctuation than the latter during the intermittence of air conditioning (as per the specified operational schedule). Therefore, the power is more leveled off in the former than in the latter. Between both, difference was hardly made in energy consumption per year. The ratio of dependency was 47% upon the photovoltaic power generation system, while it was 50% and 77%, under the air heating power load and hot water supply power load, respectively, upon the solar heat air heating and hot water supply system, so that both systems were considerably effective in saving the energy. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Using pre-distorted PAM-4 signal and parallel resistance circuit to enhance the passive solar cell based visible light communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hao-Yu; Wu, Jhao-Ting; Chow, Chi-Wai; Liu, Yang; Yeh, Chien-Hung; Liao, Xin-Lan; Lin, Kun-Hsien; Wu, Wei-Liang; Chen, Yi-Yuan

    2018-01-01

    Using solar cell (or photovoltaic cell) for visible light communication (VLC) is attractive. Apart from acting as a VLC receiver (Rx), the solar cell can provide energy harvesting. This can be used in self-powered smart devices, particularly in the emerging ;Internet of Things (IoT); networks. Here, we propose and demonstrate for the first time using pre-distortion pulse-amplitude-modulation (PAM)-4 signal and parallel resistance circuit to enhance the transmission performance of solar cell Rx based VLC. Pre-distortion is a simple non-adaptive equalization technique that can significantly mitigate the slow charging and discharging of the solar cell. The equivalent circuit model of the solar cell and the operation of using parallel resistance to increase the bandwidth of the solar cell are discussed. By using the proposed schemes, the experimental results show that the data rate of the solar cell Rx based VLC can increase from 20 kbit/s to 1.25 Mbit/s (about 60 times) with the bit error-rate (BER) satisfying the 7% forward error correction (FEC) limit.

  17. 77 FR 28519 - Test Procedure Guidance for Room Air Conditioners, Residential Dishwashers, and Residential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... Guidance for Room Air Conditioners, Residential Dishwashers, and Residential Clothes Washers: Public... procedures for room air conditioners, residential dishwashers, and residential clothes washers. DATES: DOE...'s existing test procedures for residential room air conditioners, residential dishwashers, and...

  18. Solar Energy Evolution and Diffusion Studies Webinars | Solar Research |

    Science.gov (United States)

    NREL Studies Webinars Solar Energy Evolution and Diffusion Studies Webinars These webinars . Department of Energy's Solar Energy Evolution and Diffusion Studies (SEEDS) program. SEEDS 2017-2019 Study Residential Solar July 20, 2017 Presenters: Kiran Lakkaraju, Sandia National Laboratories Yevgeniy Vorobeychik

  19. Energy flexibility of residential buildings using short term heat storage in the thermal mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreau, Jerome Le; Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    2016-01-01

    Highlights •Two residential buildings (80's and passive house) with two emitters (radiator, UH). •Different modulations of the set-point (upward/downward, duration, starting time). •Large differences between the 80s and the passive house, influence of the emitter. •Evaluation of the flexibility...

  20. Solar Assisted Ground Source Heat Pump Performance in Nearly Zero Energy Building in Baltic Countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januševičius, Karolis; Streckienė, Giedrė

    2013-12-01

    In near zero energy buildings (NZEB) built in Baltic countries, heat production systems meet the challenge of large share domestic hot water demand and high required heating capacity. Due to passive solar design, cooling demand in residential buildings also needs an assessment and solution. Heat pump systems are a widespread solution to reduce energy use. A combination of heat pump and solar thermal collectors helps to meet standard requirements and increases the share of renewable energy use in total energy balance of country. The presented paper describes a simulation study of solar assisted heat pump systems carried out in TRNSYS. The purpose of this simulation was to investigate how the performance of a solar assisted heat pump combination varies in near zero energy building. Results of three systems were compared to autonomous (independent) systems simulated performance. Different solar assisted heat pump design solutions with serial and parallel solar thermal collector connections to the heat pump loop were modelled and a passive cooling possibility was assessed. Simulations were performed for three Baltic countries: Lithuania, Latvia and Estonia.

  1. The solar energy in Israel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bocquet, L.

    2004-05-01

    The solar energy is an important characteristic of Israel, listed in its history and its development. This document presents the solar energy applications in the country in many domains: the solar energy for residential houses, the applications in the agricultural and industrial sectors and the research and development programs. (A.L.B.)

  2. Impact of Federal tax policy and electric utility rate schedules upon the solar building/electric utility interface. Executive summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldman, S.L.; Wirtshafter, R.M.; Abrash, M.; Anderson, B.; Sullivan, P.; Kohler, J.

    1978-10-01

    An analysis is performed to show that a utility solar-passive strategy can be used rather effectively in aiding the utility to obtain more efficient load factors and lower costs. The objectives are to determine the impact of active and passive solar energy designs for space conditioning and hot water heating for the residential sector upon the diurnal and annual load curves for several utilities, to assess the effect of present utility pricing policies, and to examine alternative pricing schemes, as well as Federal and state tax credits, as they may affect the optimal sizing and configuration of active solar and passive solar building components. The methodology, the systems model, an overall building design, building cost determination, and a description of TRNSYS are presented. The major parameters discussed that distinguish variation in the cost-effectiveness of particular building design fall into 5 categories: the weather, building configurations, building costs, utility costs and rates, and financial parameters (inclusive of tax credits for solar and energy conservation investment). Five utilities are studied: Colorado Springs Department of Public Utilities; Public Service Co. of New Mexico; New England Electric System; Pacific Gas and Electric; and Georgia Power Co.

  3. Solar Design Workbook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Franta, G.; Baylin, F.; Crowther, R.; Dubin, F.; Grace, A., Griffith, J.W.; Holtz, M.; Kutscher, C.; Nordham, D.; Selkowitz, S.; Villecco, M.

    1981-06-01

    This Solar Design Workbook presents solar building design applications for commercial buildir^s. The book is divided into four sections. The first section describes the variety of solar applications in buildings including conservation aspects, solar fundamentals, passive systems, active systems, daylighting, and other solar options. Solar system design evaluation techniques including considerations for building energy requirements, passive systems, active systems, and economics are presented in Section II. The third section attempts to assist the designer in the building design process for energy conservation and solar applications including options and considerations for pre-design, design, and post-design phases. The information required for the solar design proee^ has not been fully developed at this time. Therefore, Section III is incomplete, but an overview of the considerations with some of the design proces elements is presented. Section IV illustrates ease studies that utilize solar applications in the building design.

  4. Trade-off between Zr Passivation and Sn Doping on Hematite Nanorod Photoanodes for Efficient Solar Water Oxidation: Effects of a ZrO2 Underlayer and FTO Deformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, Arunprabaharan; Annamalai, Alagappan; Lee, Hyun Hwi; Choi, Sun Hee; Ryu, Jungho; Park, Jung Hee; Jang, Jum Suk

    2016-08-03

    Herein we report the influence of a ZrO2 underlayer on the PEC (photoelectrochemical) behavior of hematite nanorod photoanodes for efficient solar water splitting. Particular attention was given to the cathodic shift in onset potential and photocurrent enhancement. Akaganite (β-FeOOH) nanorods were grown on ZrO2-coated FTO (fluorine-doped tin oxide) substrates. Sintering at 800 °C transformed akaganite to the hematite (α-Fe2O3) phase and induced Sn diffusion into the crystal structure of hematite nanorods from the FTO substrates and surface migration, shallow doping of Zr atoms from the ZrO2 underlayer. The ZrO2 underlayer-treated photoanode showed better water oxidation performance compared to the pristine (α-Fe2O3) photoanode. A cathodic shift in the onset potential and photocurrent enhancement was achieved by surface passivation and shallow doping of Zr from the ZrO2 underlayer, along with Sn doping from the FTO substrate to the crystal lattice of hematite nanorods. The Zr based hematite nanorod photoanode achieved 1 mA/cm(2) at 1.23 VRHE with a low turn-on voltage of 0.80 VRHE. Sn doping and Zr passivation, as well as shallow doping, were confirmed by XPS, Iph, and M-S plot analyses. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy revealed that the presence of a ZrO2 underlayer decreased the deformation of FTO substrate, improved electron transfer at the hematite/FTO interface and increased charge-transfer resistance at the electrolyte/hematite interface. This is the first systematic investigation of the effects of Zr passivation, shallow doping, and Sn doping on hematite nanorod photoanodes through application of a ZrO2 underlayer on the FTO substrate.

  5. Numerical simulations: Toward the design of 27.6% efficient four-terminal semi-transparent perovskite/SiC passivated rear contact silicon tandem solar cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Rahul; Chaujar, Rishu

    2016-12-01

    In this work, a novel four-terminal perovskite/SiC-based rear contact silicon tandem solar cell device has been proposed and simulated to achieve 27.6% power conversion efficiency (PCE) under single AM1.5 illumination. 20.9% efficient semitransparent perovskite top subcell has been used for perovskite/silicon tandem architecture. The tandem structure of perovskite-silicon solar cells is a promising method to achieve efficient solar energy conversion at low cost. In the four-terminal tandem configuration, the cells are connected independently and hence avoids the need for current matching between top and bottom subcell, thus giving greater design flexibility. The simulation analysis shows, PCE of 27.6% and 22.4% with 300 μm and 10 μm thick rear contact Si bottom subcell, respectively. This is a substantial improvement comparing to transparent perovskite solar cell and c-Si solar cell operated individually. The impact of perovskite layer thickness, monomolecular, bimolecular, and trimolecular recombination have also been obtained on the performance of perovskite top subcell. Reported PCEs of 27.6% and 22.4% are 1.25 times and 1.42 times higher as compared to experimentally available efficiencies of 22.1% and 15.7% in 300 μm and 10 μm thick stand-alone silicon solar cell devices, respectively. The presence of SiC significantly suppressed the interface recombination in bottom silicon subcell. Detailed realistic technology computer aided design (TCAD) analysis has been performed to predict the behaviour of the device.

  6. Solar Spots - Activities to Introduce Solar Energy into the K-8 Curricula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longe, Karen M.; McClelland, Michael J.

    Following an introduction to solar technology which reviews solar heating and cooling, passive solar systems (direct gain systems, thermal storage walls, sun spaces, roof ponds, and convection loops), active solar systems, solar electricity (photovoltaic and solar thermal conversion systems), wind energy, and biomass, activities to introduce solar…

  7. FY 1977 Annual report on Sunshine Project results. Research and development of solar energy systems for air conditioning and hot water supply (Research and development of solar systems for existing residential buildings); 1977 nendo taiyo reidanbo oyobi kyuto system no kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. Kison kojin jutakuyo system no kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1978-05-31

    As part of the research and development of the solar energy systems for air conditioning and hot water supply for existing residential buildings, the following efforts are made: (1) system analysis, (2) studies on devices and materials, and (3) installation and operation of the facilities in test buildings, and collection of the data. For the item (1), the sensible heat type heat-accumulating tank is replaced by the latent heat type to reduce heat losses and auxiliary power requirements by improving heat-accumulating tank efficiency and revising the control procedure. For the item (2), the devices installed in the test buildings are tested to improve their performance and reliability, in which, e.g., results of operation, under commercial conditions, of the Rankine cycle refrigerator installed in the test building are taken into consideration. The empirical correlation {eta} 0.66 - 1.7{delta}T/I is obtained for instantaneous heat-collecting efficiency of a vacuum collector, made on a trial basis. Its heat loss is sufficiently small, which is in agreement with the results of the nighttime heat release tests. For the latent heat type heat-accumulating tank, stability of the materials therefor are investigated. For the Rankine cycle refrigerator, development of its parts is continued. For the item (3), the facilities are tested for around 7 months, and problems involved in each device are clarified. (NEDO)

  8. Solar energy an introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Mackay, Michael E

    2015-01-01

    Solar Energy presents an introduction to all aspects of solar energy, from photovoltaic devices to active and passive solar thermal energy conversion, giving both a detailed and broad perspective of the field. It is aimed at the beginner involved in solar energy or a related field, or for someone wanting to gain a broader perspective of solar energy technologies. A chapter considering solar radiation, basic principles applied to solar energy, semiconductor physics, and light absorption brings the reader on equal footing with the technology of either solar generated electrical current or useful heat. Details of how a solar cell works and then production of current from a photovoltaic device is discussed. Characterization of a solar cell is examined, allowing one the ability to interpret the current-voltage relation, followed by discussion of parameter extraction from this relation. This information can be used to understand what limits the performance of a given solar cell with the potential to optimize its pe...

  9. Plants for passive cooling. A preliminary investigation of the use of plants for passive cooling in temperate humid climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spirn, A W; Santos, A N; Johnson, D A; Harder, L B; Rios, M W

    1981-04-01

    The potential of vegetation for cooling small, detached residential and commercial structures in temperate, humid climates is discussed. The results of the research are documented, a critical review of the literature is given, and a brief review of energy transfer processes is presented. A checklist of design objectives for passive cooling, a demonstration of design applications, and a palette of selected plant species suitable for passive cooling are included.

  10. Compositional properties of passivity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerber, Florian; van der Schaft, Arjan

    2011-01-01

    The classical passivity theorem states that the negative feedback interconnection of passive systems is again passive. The converse statement, - passivity of the interconnected system implies passivity of the subsystems -, turns out to be equally valid. This result implies that among all feasible

  11. Developer's guide to multi-family passive housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rouse, R.E.

    1983-10-01

    The role that passive solar design plays in good multi-family housing design is discussed. Knowing the special priorities of passive multi-family projects can improve designs and give developers and architects an advantage on the competition.

  12. The influence of thermal comfort and user control on the design of a passive solar school building-Locksheath Primary School

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, N

    1982-12-01

    This article describes the design of a Primary School at Locksheath, Hampshire, England. The design is the result of collaboration between the Hampshire County Council's Architect's Department and the Martin Centre for Architectural and Urban Studies, University of Cambridge. The design has been strongly influenced by considerations of energy conservation, maximum use of solar energy, and thermal comfort. Stress is placed on the role of the occupant in the control of the building. Predictive analysis indicates that the large conservatory incorporated makes a considerable reduction in heating energy demand.

  13. Solar thermal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, J.

    2006-01-01

    While wind power is widely acknowledged as the most developed of the 'new' renewables, the number two technology, in terms of installed capacity functioning worldwide, is solar heating, or solar thermal. The author has investigated recent industry reports on how these markets are developing. The authors of an International Energy Agency (IEA) survey studied 41 countries in depth at the end of 2004, revealing that 141 million m 3 - corresponding to an installed capacity of 98.4 GWth - were installed in the sample countries (these nations represent 3.74 billion people, about 57% of the world's population). The installed capacity within the areas studied represents approximately 85%-90% of the solar thermal market worldwide. The use of solar heating varies greatly between countries - even close neighbours - and between economic regions. Its uptake often has more to do with policy than solar resource. There is also different uptake of technology. In China, Europe and Japan, plants with flat-plate and evacuated tube collectors are used, mainly to heat water and for space heating. Unglazed plastic collectors, used mainly for swimming pool heating, meanwhile, dominate the North American markets. Though the majority of solar heating installations today are installed on domestic rooftops, the larger-scale installations should not be overlooked. One important part of the market is the hotel sector - in particular hotels in locations that serve the seasonal summer holiday market, where solar is extremely effective. Likewise hospitals and residential homes, multi-family apartment blocks and sports centres are all good examples of places where solar thermal can deliver results. There are also a growing number of industrial applications, where solar thermal can meet the hot water needs (and possibly more) of a range of industries, such as food processing and agriculture. The ability of solar to provide a heat source for cooling is expected to become increasingly important as

  14. Solar thermal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, J.

    2006-07-15

    While wind power is widely acknowledged as the most developed of the 'new' renewables, the number two technology, in terms of installed capacity functioning worldwide, is solar heating, or solar thermal. The author has investigated recent industry reports on how these markets are developing. The authors of an International Energy Agency (IEA) survey studied 41 countries in depth at the end of 2004, revealing that 141 million m{sup 3} - corresponding to an installed capacity of 98.4 GWth - were installed in the sample countries (these nations represent 3.74 billion people, about 57% of the world's population). The installed capacity within the areas studied represents approximately 85%-90% of the solar thermal market worldwide. The use of solar heating varies greatly between countries - even close neighbours - and between economic regions. Its uptake often has more to do with policy than solar resource. There is also different uptake of technology. In China, Europe and Japan, plants with flat-plate and evacuated tube collectors are used, mainly to heat water and for space heating. Unglazed plastic collectors, used mainly for swimming pool heating, meanwhile, dominate the North American markets. Though the majority of solar heating installations today are installed on domestic rooftops, the larger-scale installations should not be overlooked. One important part of the market is the hotel sector - in particular hotels in locations that serve the seasonal summer holiday market, where solar is extremely effective. Likewise hospitals and residential homes, multi-family apartment blocks and sports centres are all good examples of places where solar thermal can deliver results. There are also a growing number of industrial applications, where solar thermal can meet the hot water needs (and possibly more) of a range of industries, such as food processing and agriculture. The ability of solar to provide a heat source for cooling is expected to become

  15. Family ties and residential locations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, C.H.; Cooke, T.J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, and in the Special Issue it introduces, the focus is on the role of family ties in residential location choice and, conversely, the role of residential locations in maintaining family ties. Not only do events in the nuclear family trigger residential relocations, but nearby family

  16. Technology Solutions Case Study: Evaluation of Passive Vents in New-Construction Multifamily Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S. Puttagunta, S. Maxwell, D. Berger, and M. Zuluaga

    2015-10-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) conducted research to gain more insight into passive vents. Because passive vents are meant to operate in a general environment of negative apartment pressure, the research assessed whether these negative pressures prevail through a variety of environmental conditions.

  17. GREEN RETROFITTING RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    When compared with the rest of the world, the United States consumes a disproportionately large amount of energy and is a major source of greenhouse gases from fossil fuel combustion. As much as two thirds of U.S. electricity production is consumed by residential and commerci...

  18. Residential Mechanical Precooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, a. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This research conducted by the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team evaluated mechanical air conditioner pre-cooling strategies in homes throughout the United States. EnergyPlus modeling evaluated two homes with different performance characteristics in seven climates. Results are applicable to new construction homes and most existing homes built in the last 10 years, as well as fairly efficient retrofitted homes.

  19. Solar Market Research and Analysis Publications | Solar Research | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Market Research and Analysis Publications Solar Market Research and Analysis Publications NREL researchers and analysts publish a variety of documents related to solar market research and analysis achieving the SETO 2030 residential PV cost target of $0.05 /kWh by identifying and quantifying cost

  20. CURRENT TRENDS IN THE USE OF SOLAR ENERGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanya Zhivkova

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy represents the amount of solar radiation per unit time on unit area. Solar energy is used to obtain thermal energy through solar, and electrical energy through exist for solar energy: passive and active. The utilization of solar energy is essential for the development of human civilization.