WorldWideScience

Sample records for residential oil furnaces

  1. Measurement of airflow in residential furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biermayer, Peter J.; Lutz, James; Lekov, Alex

    2004-01-24

    In order to have a standard for furnaces that includes electricity consumption or for the efficiency of furnace blowers to be determined, it is necessary to determine the airflow of a furnace or furnace blower. This study focused on airflow testing, in order to determine if an existing test method for measuring blower airflow could be used to measure the airflow of a furnace, under conditions seen in actual installations and to collect data and insights into the operating characteristics of various types of furnace blowers, to use in the analysis of the electricity consumption of furnaces. Results of the measured airflow on furnaces with three types of blower and motor combinations are presented in the report. These included: (1) a forward-curved blower wheel with a typical permanent split capacitor (PSC) motor, (2) a forward-curved blower wheel with an electronically-commutated motor (ECM), and (3) a prototype blower, consisting of a backward-inclined blower wheel matched to an ECM motor prototype, which is being developed as an energy-saving alternative to conventional furnace blowers. The testing provided data on power consumption, static and total pressure, and blower speed.

  2. 77 FR 28673 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnace Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... multipliers based on climate, consumer behavior assumptions, and product characteristics (e.g., multi-stage or... Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnace Fans; Proposed Rule #0;#0... Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnace Fans AGENCY: Office of...

  3. 78 FR 19606 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnace Fans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-02

    ... Procedures for Residential Furnace Fans AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department... referred to as ``furnace fans.'' DOE proposes a test procedure that would be applicable to furnace fans..., even though DOE interprets its authority as encompassing more than just circulation fans used in...

  4. Design and Construction of Oil Fired Compact Crucible Furnace ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    As a prelude to necessary industrialization, foundries are springing up in various parts of Nigeria and most of these foundries rely on oil fired furnaces in their operation. This study is aimed at developing an oil fired crucible furnace from locally sourced materials for foundries in Nigeria. In our design, a new system of fuel ...

  5. 76 FR 56339 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-13

    ...-Conditioning and Warm Air Heating Equipment and Commercial and Industrial Refrigeration Equipment Manufacturing... Refrigeration Institute (AHRI) recommended that to avoid unnecessary burden, the existing test procedure..., and Refrigeration Institute's Directory of Certified Product Performance for Residential Furnaces and...

  6. Expert Meeting Report: Achieving the Best Installed Performance from High-Efficiency Residential Gas Furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, Larry [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2012-03-01

    This report describes a Building America expert meeting hosted on July 28, 2011, by the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) team. The purpose of this meeting was to identify installation practices that provide the best installed efficiency for residential gas furnaces, explain how AFUE and field efficiency can differ, and investigate the impact of installation practices on the efficiency and long-term durability of the furnace.

  7. Expert Meeting Report: Achieving the Best Installed Performance from High-Efficiency Residential Gas Furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, L.

    2012-03-01

    This report describes a Building America expert meeting hosted on July 28, 2011, by the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit team. The purpose of this meeting was to identify installation practices that provide the best installed efficiency for residential gas furnaces, explain how AFUE and field efficiency can differ, and investigate the impact of installation practices on the efficiency and long-term durability of the furnace.

  8. Economics of Condensing Gas Furnaces and Water Heaters Potential in Residential Single Family Homes

    OpenAIRE

    Lekov, Alex

    2010-01-01

    Residential space and water heating accounts for over 90percent of total residential primary gas consumption in the United States. Condensing space and water heating equipment are 10-30percent more energy-efficient than conventional space and water heating. Currently, condensing gas furnaces represent 40 percent of shipments and are common in the Northern U.S. market. Meanwhile, manufacturers are planning to develop condensing gas storage water heaters to qualify for Energy Star? certificati...

  9. Conversion of Furnace oil fired boiler to biomass(Gliricidia) fired (External/Internal) furnace boiler : NA

    OpenAIRE

    Channa Gaya Siriwardhana, Kahandawa Arachchilage

    2010-01-01

    In the present era, with the prevailing competition, the cost of production plays a vital role. As the price of petroleum oils, especially diesel and furnace oil are growing at a steeper rate than solid fuel price, finding a substitute for furnace oil is one of the alternative available. Furnace oil used in boilers can be totally substitute by biomass with an equivalent ratio of 3.5:1 kg/liter on the basis of calorific value. This may results in saving of more than 60% of operating cost and w...

  10. Development of a test set for adjustment of residential furnaces and boilers. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-01-01

    A program was undertaken to design and develop a portable test set for simplified field adjustment of residential furnaces and boilers to achieve peak operating efficiency. Advanced technology was applied to provide continuous analysis of flue gases and the display of temperature, oxygen concentrations, smoke value and furnace efficiency. Prototype models were constructed and delivered to Brookhaven National Laboratory for further testing. A survey of furnace dealers was conducted, and a commercialization plan was developed based on survey responses and the status of the equipment developed under the program. Goals for a marketable test set and development steps to achieve a projected energy savings were determined and recommended. Recommendations for specific areas of further development are included.

  11. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

    2009-05-06

    New single-family home construction represents a significant and important market for the introduction of energy-efficient gas-fired space heating and water-heating equipment. In the new construction market, the choice of furnace and water-heater type is primarily driven by first cost considerations and the availability of power vent and condensing water heaters. Few analysis have been performed to assess the economic impacts of the different combinations of space and water-heating equipment. Thus, equipment is often installed without taking into consideration the potential economic and energy savings of installing space and water-heating equipment combinations. In this study, we use a life-cycle cost analysis that accounts for uncertainty and variability of the analysis inputs to assess the economic benefits of gas furnace and water-heater design combinations. This study accounts not only for the equipment cost but also for the cost of installing, maintaining, repairing, and operating the equipment over its lifetime. Overall, this study, which is focused on US single-family new construction households that install gas furnaces and storage water heaters, finds that installing a condensing or power-vent water heater together with condensing furnace is the most cost-effective option for the majority of these houses. Furthermore, the findings suggest that the new construction residential market could be a target market for the large-scale introduction of a combination of condensing or power-vent water heaters with condensing furnaces.

  12. Injection of heavy fuel oil into the blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paloposki, T. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland); Hakala, J.; Mannila, P.; Laukkanen, J. [Oulu Univ. (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    This study deals with the injection and combustion of heavy fuel oil in blast furnaces. The injection of the oil was studied experimentally in a small-scale test rig. The combustion of the oil was analysed with a commercial computer program for flow and combustion simulations. Results from computer simulations show that the combustion of the oil can be improved by decreasing the size of the oil drops and by enhancing the mixing between the oil drops and the hot blast. The devolatilization rate of the oil mainly depends on the size of the oil drops. The combustion rate of the volatiles mainly depends on the effectiveness of turbulent mixing with combustion air. Methods to decrease the size of the oil drops were sought in the experimental part of the study. Experimental results show that the size of the oil drops increases with increasing mass flow rate of the oil and decreases with increasing velocity of the hot blast. Methods to improve the mixing between the oil drops and the hot blast are suggested but have not yet been experimentally tested. (author) (4 refs.)

  13. 76 FR 37549 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Furnaces and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    ... region, and a cost of $106 in the hot-dry region. At TSL 7, the median payback period for non-weatherized... years for oil-fired furnaces. For split-system air conditioners (coil-only), the median payback period... region. For split-system air conditioners (blower-coil), the median payback period is 100 years in the...

  14. Impact of accidental leakage of furnace oil on Mahul creek mangrove vegetation

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ram, A.; Rao, M.N.; Shailesh, S.; Joshilkar, V.; Rakesh, P.S.; Gajbhiye, S.N.

    Indian Journal of Geo-Marine Sciences Vol. 45(4), April 2016 pp. 477-481 Impact of accidental leakage of furnace oil on Mahul creek mangrove vegetation Anirudh Ram*, M. Nageswar Rao, Salvi Shailesh, JoshilkarVaibhav, Rakesh P S., S...) Furnace oil pipelines from the sea to the refinery area, (b) Affected mangroves in Mahul Creek region. RAM et al.: IMPACT OF ACCIDENTAL LEAKAGE OF FURNACE OIL ON MAHUL CREEK 479 The current study showed the impact of petroleum hydrocarbons...

  15. Integrated emissions control system for residential CWS furnace. Final report, September 20, 1989--March 20, 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breault, R.W.; McLarnon, C.

    1993-03-01

    One of the major obstacles to the successful development and commercialization of a coal-fired residential furnace is the need for a reliable, cost-effective emission control system. Tecogen is developing a novel, integrated control system to control NO{sub x}SO{sub 2}, and particulate emissions. At the heart of this system is a unique emissions control reactor for the control of SO{sub 2}. This reactor provides high sorbent particle residence time within the reactor while doing so in a very compact geometry. Final cleanup of any fine particulates exiting the reactor including respirable-sized particulates, is completed with the use of high efficiency bag filters. Under a previous contract with PETC (Contract No. DE-AC22-87PC79650), Tecogen developed a residential-scale Coal Water Slurry (CWS) combustor to control NO{sub x}emission. This combustor makes use of centrifugal forces, set up by a predominantly tangential flow field, to separate and confine larger unburned coal particles in the furnace upper chamber. Various partitions are used to retard the axial, downward flow of these particles, and thus maximize their residence time in the hottest section of the combustor. By operating this combustor under staged conditions, the local stoichiometry in the primary zone can be controlled in such a manner as to minimize NO{sub x} emission.

  16. Impact of burning oil as auxiliary fuel in kraft recovery furnaces upon SO2 emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Someshwar, A.V.; Caron, A.L.; Pinkerton, J.E.

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between burning medium sulfur oil as auxiliary fuel in kraft recovery furnaces and SO 2 emissions was examined. Analysis of long-term CEMS SO 2 data from four furnaces shows no increase in SO 2 emissions as a result of oil burning. The results of field tests conducted at four furnaces while co-firing oil with liquor (up to 34% of total heat input) show that (1) average SO 2 emissions during the oil firing period either decreased or remained unchanged; (2) the overall sulfur retention within the furnace remained consistently high (more than 90%) with increasing levels of oil burning; (3) apportioning stack SO 2 emissions between those derived from oil and black liquor was infeasible. The results indicate that the same alkali fume generation processes that lead to the efficient capture of SO 2 resulting from black liquor combustion may be responsible for the capture of SO 2 resulting from sulfur-containing oil combustion

  17. Study of PAH emission from the solid fuels combustion in residential furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakareka, Sergey V.; Kukharchyk, Tamara I.; Khomich, Valery S.

    2005-01-01

    The procedure for and results of a test study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission from a few types of solid fuels combustion in residential furnaces of various designs typical for Belarus are discussed. Greatest levels of PAH emission were detected from domestic wastes and wood waste combustion. Lowest levels of PAH emission are from peat briquette combustion. It was found that PAH concentration in off-gases from firewood combustion also varies significantly depending on the type of wood: the highest values of PAH are typical for waste gases from birch firewood combustion in comparison with pine firewood combustion. Draft PAH emission factors are proposed with intended application for emission inventory of such installations

  18. Coal-oil mixture combustion program: injection into a blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansto, S.G.; Mertdogan, A.; Marlin, L.A.; Beaucaire, V.D.

    1982-04-30

    A chemically stabilized coal-oil mixture (COM) was made and used as an auxiliary fuel in a blast furnace for 44 days. Approximately 485,000 gallons of COM were produced at an on-site COM plant. Composition was 47.9% coal, 47.6% No. 6 oil, 4.0% water, and 0.5% emulsifier. Average injection rates were 3.8 to 13.0 gpm during different periods of the trial. Coal handling equipment, mixing and processing equipment, pumps, piping, fuel lances, and instrumentation are discussed. The blast furnace performance during the trial is compared to a Base Period of injecting No. 6 oil. Blast furnace performance was satisfactory, with one pound of COM replacing one pound of coke or 0.8 pound of No. 6 oil. The production of COM and its usage in a blast furnace is economical and feasible.

  19. Improvement of the Rotary Dryers of Wet Pelletized Oil-Furnace Carbon Blacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zečević, M

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to the demand for higher production capacity and natural-gas energy savings, improvements were made to the rotary dryers in the drying process of wet pelletized oil-furnace carbon blacks. Since the rotary dryers were originally designed for drying semi-wet pelletized oil-furnace carbon blacks, they did not entirely satisfy optimal conditions for drying wet pelletized oil-furnace carbon blacks. Figure 1 shows the drying principle with key dimensions. The energy for drying the wet pelletized oil-furnace carbon blacks was provided by natural gas combustion in an open-furnace system with an uncontrolled feed of combustion air. Improvements on the rotary dryers were carried out by adjusting the excess oxygen in the gases passing through the butterfly valve on the dryer exhaust stack. By regulating the butterfly valve on the dryer exhaust stack, and applying the prescribed operations for drying wet pelletized oil furnace carbon blacks, the excess oxygen in the tail gases was adjusted in the range of φ = 3.0 % and 5.0 %, depending on the type of oil-furnace carbon blacks. Suggested also is installation of a direct-reverse automatic butterfly valve on the dryer exhaust stack to automatically determine the volume fraction of oxygen in the tail gas, and the volume flow rate of natural gas for combustion. The results the improvements carried out are shown in Tables 3 to 5. Table 2 shows the thermal calculations for the hood of the rotary dryer. Preheating of the process water in the temperature range of 70 °C and 80 °C is also recommended using the net heat from the oil-furnace process for wet pelletization. The results of preheating the process water are shown in Table 1. Depending on the type of oil-furnace carbon black, the aforementioned improvements resulted in natural gas energy savings ranging from 25 % to 35 % in relation to the average natural gas requirement in the drying process, and thus a reduction in carbon emissions of up to 40

  20. Automatic Method for Controlling the Iodine Adsorption Number in Carbon Black Oil Furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zečević, N.

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous of different inlet process factors in carbon black oil furnaces which must be continuously and automatically adjusted, due to stable quality of final product. The most important six inlet process factors in carbon black oil-furnaces are:1. volume flow of process air for combustion2. temperature of process air for combustion3. volume flow of natural gas for insurance the necessary heat for thermal reaction of conversionthe hydrocarbon oil feedstock in oil-furnace carbon black4. mass flow rate of hydrocarbon oil feedstock5. type and quantity of additive for adjustment the structure of oil-furnace carbon black6. quantity and position of the quench water for cooling the reaction of oil-furnace carbon black.The control of oil-furnace carbon black adsorption capacity is made with mass flow rate of hydrocarbon feedstock, which is the most important inlet process factor. Oil-furnace carbon black adsorption capacity in industrial process is determined with laboratory analyze of iodine adsorption number. It is shown continuously and automatically method for controlling iodine adsorption number in carbon black oil-furnaces to get as much as possible efficient control of adsorption capacity. In the proposed method it can be seen the correlation between qualitatively-quantitatively composition of the process tail gasses in the production of oil-furnace carbon black and relationship between air for combustion and hydrocarbon feedstock. It is shown that the ratio between air for combustion and hydrocarbon oil feedstock is depended of adsorption capacity summarized by iodine adsorption number, regarding to BMCI index of hydrocarbon oil feedstock.The mentioned correlation can be seen through the figures from 1. to 4. From the whole composition of the process tail gasses the best correlation for continuously and automatically control of iodine adsorption number is show the volume fraction of methane. The volume fraction of methane in the

  1. 75 FR 64621 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-20

    ... Public Gas Association (APGA) were supportive of the integrating concept. However, while these entities... furnace fans for the purposes of tax credits. Adding standby mode and off mode energy consumption to the E...

  2. A Feasibility Study for Recycling Used Automotive Oil Filters In A Blast Furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ralph M. Smailer; Gregory L. Dressel; Jennifer Hsu Hill

    2002-01-21

    This feasibility study has indicated that of the approximately 120,000 tons of steel available to be recycled from used oil filters (UOF's), a maximum blast furnace charge of 2% of the burden may be anticipated for short term use of a few months. The oil contained in the most readily processed UOF's being properly hot drained and crushed is approximately 12% to 14% by weight. This oil will be pyrolized at a rate of 98% resulting in additional fuel gas of 68% and a condensable hydrocarbon fraction of 30%, with the remaining 2% resulting as carbon being added into the burden. Based upon the writer's collected information and assessment, there appears to be no operational problems relating to the recycling of UOF's to the blast furnace. One steel plant in the US has been routinely charging UOF's at about 100 tons to 200 tons per month for many years. Extensive analysis and calculations appear to indicate no toxic consideration as a result of the pyrolysis of the small contained oil ( in the 'prepared' UOFs) within the blast furnace. However, a hydrocarbon condensate in the ''gasoline'' fraction will condense in the blast furnace scrubber water and may require additional processing the water treatment system to remove benzene and toluene from the condensate. Used oil filters represent an additional source of high quality iron units that may be effectively added to the charge of a blast furnace for beneficial value to the operator and to the removal of this resource from landfills.

  3. 78 FR 53625 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-30

    ....9.1 For mobile home furnaces, the sales weighted average annual fossil fuel energy consumption is... burner operating hours, average annual fuel energy consumption, and average annual auxiliary electrical... controls, the average annual fuel energy consumption (E F ) is expressed in Btu per year and defined as: E...

  4. 78 FR 7681 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ...-up tests specified in 9.5 and 9.6 may be omitted on such units. In lieu of conducting the cool-down... the tester to skip the heat-up and cool-down tests. This error carries through to the software... units have no measurable off-cycle airflow in a separate, ongoing test procedure rulemaking for furnaces...

  5. 77 FR 76831 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-31

    ... air furnaces, it nevertheless represents a significant level of energy consumption when viewed in the... considers the annualized accounting of total electrical energy consumption as represented in the term E SO... reports). In sum, carrying the IEC level of precision (three significant figures) through the annualized...

  6. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market

    OpenAIRE

    Lekov, Alex B.

    2009-01-01

    New single-family home construction represents a significant and important market for the introduction of energy-efficient gas-fired space heating and water-heating equipment. In the new construction market, the choice of furnace and water-heater type is primarily driven by first cost considerations and the availability of power vent and condensing water heaters. Few analysis have been performed to assess the economic impacts of the different combinations of space and water-heating equipment....

  7. Characteristics and propierties of oil-well cements additioned with blast furnace slag

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez, R.; Palacios, M.; Puertas, F.

    2011-01-01

    The present paper addresses the alkali activation of Portland cements containing blast furnace slag (20 and 30% of the cement by weight) with a view to the possible use of these materials in oil well construction. The hydration studies conducted showed that in cement/slag blends, the sodium silicate activating solution partially inhibited the dissolution of the silicate phases in the Portland cement, retarding cement hydration and reducing the precipitation of reaction products. D...

  8. 76 FR 67037 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Furnaces and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-31

    ... systems are relatively high due to the price of electricity, so using an electric system in a cold climate... marginal residential and commercial electricity prices in its life-cycle-cost analysis; (4) technical...;Prices of new books are listed in the first FEDERAL REGISTER issue of each #0;week. #0; #0; #0; #0;#0...

  9. Life-cycle cost analysis of energy efficiency design options for residential furnaces and boilers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lutz, James; Lekov, Alex; Chan, Peter; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Meyers, Steve; McMahon, James

    2006-01-01

    In 2001, the US Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a rulemaking process to consider whether to amend the existing energy efficiency standards for furnaces and boilers. A key factor in DOE's consideration of new standards is the economic impacts on consumers of possible revisions to energy-efficiency standards. Determining cost-effectiveness requires an appropriate comparison of the additional first cost of energy efficiency design options with the savings in operating costs. DOE's preferred approach involves comparing the total life-cycle cost (LCC) of owning and operating a more efficient appliance with the LCC for a baseline design. This study describes the method used to conduct the LCC analysis and presents the estimated change in LCC associated with more energy-efficient equipment. The results indicate that efficiency improvement relative to the baseline design can reduce the LCC in each of the product classes considered

  10. Co-Combustion of Fast Pyrolysis Bio-Oil Derived from Coffee Bean Residue and Diesel in an Oil-Fired Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhn-Shyurng Hou

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The combustion characteristics of co-firing bio-oil produced from the fast pyrolysis process of coffee bean residue and diesel in a 300-kWth oil-fired furnace are investigated. Using bio-oil to completely replace fossil fuels has limitations since bio-oil has undesirable properties, such as high water and oxygen contents, high viscosity, and low heating value. However, a low blend ratio of bio-oil used as a substitute for petroleum-derived oil has advantages; i.e., it can be easily combusted in existing furnaces without modifications. Thus, a promising solution is the partial substitution of diesel with bio-oil, rather than completely replacing it. A furnace test is performed for diesel alone and bio-oil/diesel blends with 5 vol % bio-oil. The results show that excellent stable combustion is observed during the co-firing test. Compared with diesel, with 5 vol % bio-oil content in the blends, both the wall temperature and gas temperature drop only slightly and exhibit similar furnace temperature distribution; meanwhile, comparable NO emissions (smaller than 57 ppm are obtained, and lower CO2 emissions are achieved because biomass is both carbon neutral and renewable. Moreover, SO2 and CO emissions under these two burning conditions are very low; SO2 and CO emissions are smaller than 6 and 35 ppm, respectively.

  11. Filtration of Oil-furnace Carbon Black Dust Particles from the Tail Gases by Filter Bags With PTFE Membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Čuzela, D.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available During the industrial production of oil furnace carbon black, tail gases containing oil-furnace carbon black dust particles are emitted to the atmosphere. In the carbon black plant, Petrokemija d. d., there are six exhaust stacks for tail gases. Each of them has installed process equipment for cleaning tail gases. Efficiency of cleaning mainly depends on equipment construction and cleaning technology. The vicinity of the town, quality of the air in the region of Kutina, regarding floating particles PM10, and corporate responsibility for further enviromental improvement, imposes development of new methods that will decrease the emmision of oil-furnace carbon black dust particles in the air. Combining centrifugal percipitator and filter, special construction of cyclofilter for filtration of oil-furnace carbon black dust particles from tail gases by using PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene membrane filter bags, was designed. Developed filtration technique provides η = 99.9 % efficiency of filtration. Construction part of the filter contains the newest generation of PTFE membrane filter bags with the ability of jet pulse cleaning. Using the PTFE membrane filter bags technology, filtration efficiency for oil-furnace carbon black dust particles in tail gases of maximum γ=5mgm-3can be achieved. The filtration efficiency was monitored continuously measuring the concentration of the oil-furnace carbon black dust particles in the tail gases with the help of in situ electronic probe. The accomplished filtration technology is the base for the installation of the PTFE membrane filter bags in the main operation filters which will provide better protection of the air in the town of Kutina against floating particles PM10.

  12. Who will be using oil-fired furnaces in ten years time?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    Danish total oil consumption amounted to 355 PJ per year during 1990. Compared with 1976, this indicates a reduction of ca. 50%. At the same time domestic resources, from the North Sea, are supplanting import. Danish energy policy aims at a further reduction of oil consumption, aimed at the goal of 285 PJ annually by the year 2005. Of this amount, only 40% should be used for heating used in the public sectors, electricity production and industrial processes. Of residential buildings constructed in 1991, merely 5% were installed with oil-burning heaters. The aim was to analyze the current Danish oil market and to determine who uses oil for individual space heating, and how the market will develop in the future. To this purpose the types of buildings in Denmark which are now heated with the help of individual oil-burning boilers (580,000 units, covering 2 mio. m 3 ) are examined with regard to customer-type, size and age of buildings and conditions of ownership. The section of the market for each customer type is designated. The customers' geographical location with regard to competitive supply possibilities (i.e. district heating and natural gas) is dealt with in addition to the division of the market into rural, urban and municipal areas. A number of scenarios which illustrate possible developments for the individual oil market during the next ten years are presented. (AB)

  13. Physical and chemical characterization of residential oil boiler emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Michael D; Beck, Lee; Barfield, Pamela; Lavrich, Richard J; Dong, Yuanji; Vander Wal, Randy L

    2008-04-01

    The toxicity of emissions from the combustion of home heating oil coupled with the regional proximity and seasonal use of residential oil boilers (ROB) is an important public health concern. Yet scant physical and chemical information about the emissions from this source is available for climate and air quality modeling and for improving our understanding of aerosol-related human health effects. The gas- and particle-phase emissions from an active ROB firing distillate fuel oil (commonly known as diesel fuel) were evaluated to address this deficiency. Ion chromatography of impactor samples showed that the ultrafine ROB aerosol emissions were approximately 45% (w/w) sulfate. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry detected various n-alkanes at trace levels, sometimes in accumulation mode particles, and out of phase with the size distributions of aerosol mass and sulfate. The carbonaceous matter in the ROB aerosol was primarily light-adsorbing elemental carbon. Gas chromatography-atomic emission spectroscopy measured a previously unrecognized organosulfur compound group in the ROB aerosol emissions. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy of ROB soot indicated the presence of a highly ordered primary particle nanostructure embedded in larger aggregates. Organic gas emissions were measured using EPA Methods TO-15 and TO-11A. The ROB emitted volatile oxygenates (8 mg/(kg of oil burned)) and olefins (5 mg/(kg of oil burned)) mostly unrelated to the base fuel composition. In the final analysis, the ROB tested was a source of numerous hazardous air pollutants as defined in the Clean Air Act Amendments. Approximations conducted using emissions data from the ROB tests show relatively low contributions to a regional-level anthropogenic emissions inventory for volitile organic compounds, PM2.5, and SO2 mass.

  14. Characteristics and properties of oil-well cements auditioned with blast furnace slag

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanchez, R.; Palacios, M.; Puertas, F.

    2011-01-01

    The present paper addresses the alkali activation of Portland cements containing blast furnace slag (20 and 30% by cement weight) with a view to the possible use of these materials in oil well construction. The hydration studies conducted showed that in cement/slag blends, the sodium silicate activator partially inhibited the dissolution of the silicate phases in the Portland cement, retarding cement hydration and reducing the precipitation of reaction products. Due to such partial inhibition, the cement/slag blends had significantly lower mechanical strength than Portland cements hydrated with water. 2 9Si and 2 7Al MAS NMR and BSE/EDX studies, in turn, showed that the CSH gel forming in the alkali-activated cement/slag pastes contained Al in tetrahedral positions and low Ca/Si ratios. (Author) 29 refs.

  15. Demonstration and testing of coal/oil mixture as a fuel for a slot furnace. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjerklie, J.W.; Penty, R.A.

    1979-07-01

    An evaluation was made of the effects of heating with a coal/oil mixture (COM) on forgings and furnace construction materials. The forgings produced with COM in a slot forge furnace were subjected to an extensive series of metallurgical tests to determine what effect, if any, use of COM as a fuel had upon the parts forged. Fifty wt % bituminous coal crushed to 80% minus 325 mesh was mixed with 50 wt % number 6 fuel oil. Emulsifiers were added to keep the coal in suspension. It was demonstrated that the 50 wt % coal/oil mixture can be successfully used to produce steel forgings. Burning COM presented no problems in respect to the ease of heating the steel or in respect to the metallurgy of the forgings. The main findings of the investigation were that: COM can be used to forge steel successfully; use of COM requires that ceramic materials of furnace construction be selected with care; and the modifications required to burn COM are minor. There were no significant differences between steel forgings produced with number 2 fuel oil and steel forgings produced with COM.

  16. Evaluation of Gas, Oil and Wood Pellet Fueled Residential Heating System Emissions Characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, R.

    2009-12-01

    fine particulate per unit of energy, expressed as milligrams per Mega-Joule (mg/MJ) versus the different sulfur contents of four different heating fuels. These were tested in a conventional cast iron boiler equipped with a flame retention head burner. The fuels included a typical ASTM No. 2 fuel oil with sulfur below 0.5 percent (1520 average ppm S), an ASTM No. 2 fuel oil with very high sulfur content (5780 ppm S), low sulfur heating oil (322 ppm S) and an ultra low sulfur diesel fuel (11 ppm S). Three additional oil-fired heating system types were also tested with normal heating fuel, low sulfur and ultralow sulfur fuel. They included an oil-fired warm air furnace of conventional design, a high efficiency condensing warm air furnace, a condensing hydronic boiler and the conventional hydronic boiler as discussed above. The linearity in the results was observed with all of the different oil-fired equipment types (as shown in the second figure on the next page). A linear regression of the data resulted in an Rsquared value of 0.99 indicating that a very good linear relationship exits. This means that as sulfur decreases the PM 2.5 emissions are reduced in a linear manner within the sulfur content range tested. At the ultra low sulfur level (15 ppm S) the amount of PM 2.5 had been reduced dramatically to an average of 0.043 mg/MJ. Three different gas-fired heating systems were tested. These included a conventional in-shot induced draft warm air furnace, an atmospheric fired hydronic boiler and a high efficiency hydronic boiler. The particulate (PM 2.5) measured ranged from 0.011 to 0.036 mg/MJ. depending on the raw material source used in their manufacture. All three stoves tested were fueled with premium (low ash) wood pellets obtained in a single batch to provide for uniformity in the test fuel. Unlike the oil and gas fired systems, the wood pellet stoves had measurable amounts of particulates sized above the 2.5-micron size that defines fine particulates (less than 2

  17. Flame and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry for trace element determination in vegetable oils, margarine and butter after sample emulsification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ieggli, C V S; Bohrer, D; Do Nascimento, P C; De Carvalho, L M

    2011-05-01

    Trace element analysis plays an important role in oil characterisation and in the detection of oil adulteration because the quality of edible oils and fats is affected by their trace metal content. In this study, the quantification of selected metals in various oils and fats (rice oil, canola oil, sunflower oil, corn oil, soy oil, olive oil, light margarine, regular margarine and butter) was carried out using flame atomic absorption spectrometry (FAAS) and graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) after sample emulsification. FAAS was used to determine the Na, K, Ca, Mg, Zn and Fe levels in the samples, while GFAAS was used for quantifying Cr, Ni, As, Pb, Cd, Cu and Mn, as these elements appeared in the samples at much lower concentrations. Tween-80 and Triton X-100 were employed as surfactants, and emulsions were prepared by a conventional method that involved heating and mixing of the constituents. Complete stabilisation was achieved through magnetic stirring for 15 min at room temperature. The evaluated figures of merit were linearity, accuracy and sensitivity, which were determined by the characteristic concentration and mass. Analysis of spiked samples demonstrated accuracy, which ranged from 90% (Na) to 112% (Fe) for FAAS and from 83% (Cd) to 121% (Pb) for GFAAS measurements. Atomic absorption spectrometry proved to be a promising approach for the analysis of metals in emulsified edible oils and fats. Additionally, under appropriate emulsification conditions (formulation, stirring time and temperature), the emulsions were homogeneous, had excellent stability, and had appropriate viscosity. The proposed method has proved to be simple, sensitive, reproducible, and economical.

  18. Characteristics and propierties of oil-well cements additioned with blast furnace slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez, R.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The present paper addresses the alkali activation of Portland cements containing blast furnace slag (20 and 30% of the cement by weight with a view to the possible use of these materials in oil well construction. The hydration studies conducted showed that in cement/slag blends, the sodium silicate activating solution partially inhibited the dissolution of the silicate phases in the Portland cement, retarding cement hydration and reducing the precipitation of reaction products. Due to such partial inhibition, the cement/slag blends had significantly lower mechanical strength than Portland cements hydrated with water. 29Si and 27Al MAS NMR and BSE/EDX studies, in turn, showed that the C-S-H gel forming in the alkali-activated cement/slag pastes contained Al in tetrahedral positions and low Ca/Si ratios.

    En el presente trabajo se ha estudiado la activación alcalina de cementos Pórtland con incorporación de escoria de horno alto (20% y 30% con respecto al peso de cemento para su posible aplicación en la construcción de pozos petrolíferos. Los estudios de hidratación realizados indican que en mezclas cemento/escoria, la disolución activadora de silicato sódico inhibe parcialmente la disolución de las fases silicato del cemento Pórtland originando un retraso de su hidratación así como la menor precipitación de productos de reacción. Dicha parcial inhibición de los procesos reactivos en las mezclas cemento/escoria originan resistencias mecánicas significativamente inferiores a las pastas de cemento Portland hidratadas con agua. Finalmente, los estudios de 29Si y 27Al RMN MAS y BSE/EDX indican que el gel C-S-H formado en pastas de mezcla cemento/escoria activadas alcalinamente presenta Al en posiciones tetraédricas y bajas relaciones Ca/Si.

  19. Surfactant/oil/water system for the determination of selenium in eggs by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ieggli, C. V. S.; Bohrer, D.; Noremberg, S.; do Nascimento, P. C.; de Carvalho, L. M.; Vieira, S. L.; Reis, R. N.

    2009-06-01

    An oil-in-water formulation has been optimized to determine trace levels of selenium in whole hen eggs by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. This method is simpler and requires fewer reagents when compared with other sample pre-treatment procedures. Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric (GF AAS) measurement was carried out using standard addition calibration and Pd as a modifier. The precision, expressed as relative standard deviation, was better than 5% and the limit of detection was 1 µg L - 1 . The validation of the method was performed against a standard reference material Whole Egg Powder (RM 8415), and the measured Se corresponded to 95.2% of the certified value. The method was used for the determination of the Se level in eggs from hens treated with Se dietary supplements. Inorganic and organic Se sources were added to hen feed. The Se content of eggs was higher when hens were fed with organic Se compared to the other treatments. The proposed method, including sample emulsification for subsequent Se determination by GF AAS has proved to be sensitive, reproducible, simple and economical.

  20. Surfactant/oil/water system for the determination of selenium in eggs by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ieggli, C.V.S. [Departamento de Quimica, Avenida Roraima, 1000, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, CEP 97110-970, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Bohrer, D. [Departamento de Quimica, Avenida Roraima, 1000, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, CEP 97110-970, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil)], E-mail: ndenise@quimica.ufsm.br; Noremberg, S.; Nascimento, P.C. do; Carvalho, L.M. de [Departamento de Quimica, Avenida Roraima, 1000, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, CEP 97110-970, Santa Maria, RS (Brazil); Vieira, S.L.; Reis, R.N. [Faculdade de Agronomia, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Av. Bento Goncalves, 7712, CEP 90540-000, Porto Alegre (Brazil)

    2009-06-15

    An oil-in-water formulation has been optimized to determine trace levels of selenium in whole hen eggs by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. This method is simpler and requires fewer reagents when compared with other sample pre-treatment procedures. Graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric (GF AAS) measurement was carried out using standard addition calibration and Pd as a modifier. The precision, expressed as relative standard deviation, was better than 5% and the limit of detection was 1 {mu}g L{sup - 1}. The validation of the method was performed against a standard reference material Whole Egg Powder (RM 8415), and the measured Se corresponded to 95.2% of the certified value. The method was used for the determination of the Se level in eggs from hens treated with Se dietary supplements. Inorganic and organic Se sources were added to hen feed. The Se content of eggs was higher when hens were fed with organic Se compared to the other treatments. The proposed method, including sample emulsification for subsequent Se determination by GF AAS has proved to be sensitive, reproducible, simple and economical.

  1. Betrayal of the consumer. [Heating oils for residential use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlatterer, R. (Tankanlagenbau KG., Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany, F.R.))

    1980-05-01

    The government supports energy conservation measures in order to attain the economic policy goal of 'getting away from oil'. However, this slogan used by many politicians and authorities does not serve to save energy and energy costs, but rather constitutes a way of exerting psychological influence on consumers within the framework of energy policy. Especially for space heating purposes oil, compared with other sources of energy, is a non-polluting, safe and low-cost alternative. In addition to the advantage of the consumer being able to keep his own reserves and in this way ensure the continuity of his supply, tank facilities held by the consumers also offer economic advantages resulting from decentralized stockkeeping. Consumers of fuel oil can save energy costs also by increasing their stockpiles up to one year's consumption.

  2. Michigan residential heating oil and propane price survey: 1995-1996 heating season. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriarty, C.

    1996-05-01

    This report summarizes the results of a survey of residential No. 2 distillate fuel (home heating oil) and liquefied petroleum gas (propane) prices over the 1995--1996 heating season in Michigan. The Michigan's Public Service Commission (MPSC) conducted the survey under a cooperative agreement with the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA). This survey was funded in part by a grant from the DOE. From October 1995 through March 1996, the MPSC surveyed participating distributors by telephone for current residential retail home heating oil and propane prices. The MPSC transmitted the data via a computer modem to the EIA using the Petroleum Electronic Data Reporting Option (PEDRO). Survey results were published in aggregate on the MPSC World Wide Web site at http://ermisweb.state.mi.us/shopp. The page was updated with both residential and wholesale prices immediately following the transmission of the data to the EIA. The EIA constructed the survey using a sample of Michigan home heating oil and propane retailers. The sample accounts for different sales volumes, geographic location, and sources of primary supply

  3. Pyrolysis oil combustion in a horizontal box furnace with an externally mixed nozzle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combustion characteristics of neat biomass fast-pyrolysis oil were studied in a horizontal combustion chamber with a rectangular cross-section. An air-assisted externally mixed nozzle known to successfully atomize heavy fuel oils was installed in a modified nominal 100 kW (350,000 BTU/h nominal cap...

  4. The Precise Definition of the Payload Tube Furnaces for Units of Primary Oil Refining

    OpenAIRE

    Ulyev, Leonid M.; Kapustenko, Petro O.; Melnykovskaya, Liana A.; Nechyporenko, Darina D.

    2013-01-01

    The article considers the primary oil refining unit AVDU A12/2 in the mode without vacuum unit. In this paper carried out extraction of data on process flows and equipment, tabulated streaming data. It is performed modelling of primary oil refining unit in the software package Unisim Design to refine the data. It was determined the potential energy savings through the using methods of the pinch analysis, done the project of reconstruction of AVDU A12/2 with the modelling in program Unisim Des...

  5. Direct sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry - feasibility of Na and K determination in desalted crude oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeger, Tassia S.; Machado, Eduarda Q.; Flores, Erico M. M.; Mello, Paola A.; Duarte, Fabio A.

    2018-03-01

    In this study, Na and K were determined in desalted crude oil by direct sampling graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (DS-GF AAS), with the use of a Zeeman-effect background correction system with variable magnetic field. The analysis was performed in low and high sensitivity conditions. Sodium determination was performed in two low-sensitivity conditions: 1) main absorption line (589.0 nm), gas stop flow during the atomization step and 3-field dynamic mode (0.6-0.8 T); and 2) secondary absorption line (330.3 nm), gas stop flow during the atomization and 2-field mode (0.8 T). In K determination, some parameters, such as high-sensitivity mode, main absorption line (766.5 nm), gas stop flow during the atomization and 2-field mode (0.8 T), were used. Suitability of chemical modifiers, such as Pd and W-Ir was also evaluated. The heating program for Na and K was based on the pyrolysis and atomization curves. Calibration was performed by aqueous standards. Accuracy was evaluated by the analysis of Green Petroleum Coke (SRM NIST 2718) and Trace Elements in Fuel Oil (SRM NIST 1634c). Recovery tests were also performed and results were compared with those obtained by GF AAS after crude oil digestion by microwave-assisted digestion. The characteristic mass of Na was 17.1 pg and 0.46 ng in conditions 1 and 2, respectively, while the one of K was 1.4 pg. Limits of detection and quantification by DS-GF AAS were 30 and 40 ng g-1 for Na and 3.2 and 4.2 ng g-1 for K, respectively. Sodium and K were determined in three crude oil samples with API density ranging from 20.9 to 28.0. Sodium and K concentration ranged from 1.5 to 73 μg g-1 and from 23 to 522 ng g-1, respectively.

  6. Chemical and biological characterization of residential oil burner emission. A literature survey

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Westerholm, R.; Peterson, A.

    1994-02-01

    This literature study covers the time period 1980 to 1993 and is concerned with oil burners used for residential heating with a nominal heating power of less than 20 kW, which are normally used in one-family houses. Emission samples from domestic heaters using organic fuels consists of a very complex matrix of pollutants ranging from aggregate states solid to gaseous. Biological effects elicited by exhaust emissions have been detected and determined. It has been shown for diesel vehicles that selection of fuel properties has an impact on combustion reaction paths which results in different exhaust chemical compositions. It was also determined that diesel fuel properties have an impact on the biological activity of diesel exhaust emissions, which is to be expected from their chemical characterization. As a result of this, Sweden has an environmental classification of diesel fuels which has been in force since 1991. Analogously, the Swedish Environmental Protection Agency has asked whether detrimental environmental and health effects from residential heating can be reduced by selection of fuel properties, and if so by how much? In addition, which properties are most important to control in a future environmental classification of heating oils? As a first step in this process, a literature survey was performed. Major topics were: Sampling technology, chemical composition, biological activity, and risk assessment of emissions. 33 refs, 11 tabs

  7. Chapter 5: Residential Furnaces and Boilers Evaluation Protocol. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jacobson, David [Jacobson Energy Research, Providence, RI (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The high-efficiency boiler and furnace measure produces gas heating savings resulting from installation of more energy-efficient heating equipment in a residence. Such equipment, which ranges in size from 60 kBtu/hr to 300 kBtu/hr, is installed primarily in single-family homes and multifamily buildings with individual heating systems for each dwelling unit. This protocol does not cover integrated heating and water heating units which can be used in lieu of space heating only equipment.

  8. The impact of oil and natural gas facilities on rural residential property values

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boxall, P.C.

    2005-01-01

    This PowerPoint presentation examined challenges in the economic valuation of environmental changes within the context of formal real estate markets. It was proposed that some values that are expressed in markets can be affected by environmental changes and should be used in resource development land assessments. Details of indirect market valuation and revealed preference methods were reviewed. An outline of hedonic pricing was presented. It was noted that hedonic pricing can be used with other market values and prices such as tourism, art prices and hotel prices, where multivariate regression techniques are used and regression coefficients reveal information on the implicit prices of certain characteristics. Property value examples in the environmental economics literature were reviewed. A case study using data from eco-terrorism costs was presented. Issues concerning sour gas facilities were discussed with reference to public anxiety over hydrogen sulfide (H 2 S) toxicity and flares. Concerns over health risks and negative amenity impacts were discussed. The impacts of sour gas facilities on property values of residential acreages in and around Calgary were considered, and a map of the study area was presented. An outline of emergency plan response zones was provided. Price effects of industry facilities were presented, including marginal and cumulative impacts on price. It was concluded that oil and gas activities have significant impacts on rural residential property prices, but that industry members currently report that there is little to no effect. It was suggested that the research presented in this paper could be used to assess levels of compensation. tabs., figs

  9. The impact of oil and natural gas facilities on rural residential property values

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boxall, P.C. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Rural Economy

    2005-07-01

    This PowerPoint presentation examined challenges in the economic valuation of environmental changes within the context of formal real estate markets. It was proposed that some values that are expressed in markets can be affected by environmental changes and should be used in resource development land assessments. Details of indirect market valuation and revealed preference methods were reviewed. An outline of hedonic pricing was presented. It was noted that hedonic pricing can be used with other market values and prices such as tourism, art prices and hotel prices, where multivariate regression techniques are used and regression coefficients reveal information on the implicit prices of certain characteristics. Property value examples in the environmental economics literature were reviewed. A case study using data from eco-terrorism costs was presented. Issues concerning sour gas facilities were discussed with reference to public anxiety over hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S) toxicity and flares. Concerns over health risks and negative amenity impacts were discussed. The impacts of sour gas facilities on property values of residential acreages in and around Calgary were considered, and a map of the study area was presented. An outline of emergency plan response zones was provided. Price effects of industry facilities were presented, including marginal and cumulative impacts on price. It was concluded that oil and gas activities have significant impacts on rural residential property prices, but that industry members currently report that there is little to no effect. It was suggested that the research presented in this paper could be used to assess levels of compensation. tabs., figs.

  10. Improving the properties of geopolymer containing oil-contaminated clay, metakaolin, and blast furnace slag by applying nano-SiO2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Huan-Lin; Lin, Deng-Fong; Chen, Shih-Chieh

    2017-07-01

    In this study, geopolymer specimens based on calcined oil-contaminated clays (OCCs), metakaolin replacements of OCCs, and blast furnace slag were manufactured by the addition of nano-SiO 2 to improve their properties. The effects of adding 0, 1, 2, or 3% nano-SiO 2 on the properties and microstructures of the geopolymer specimens were determined using compressive strength tests, flow tests, setting time tests, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and silicon nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (Si-NMR). The results showed that the setting time and flowability of the geopolymer specimens decreased and the compressive strength increased as the amount of nano-SiO 2 increased. These results were supported by the SEM and Si-NMR assays. This study suggests that the addition of nano-SiO 2 was beneficial and improved the properties of the geopolymer specimens containing calcined OCC.

  11. Characteristics and properties of oil-well cements auditioned with blast furnace slag; Cementos petroleros con adicion de escoria de horno alto. Caracteristicas y propiedades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez, R.; Palacios, M.; Puertas, F.

    2011-07-01

    The present paper addresses the alkali activation of Portland cements containing blast furnace slag (20 and 30% by cement weight) with a view to the possible use of these materials in oil well construction. The hydration studies conducted showed that in cement/slag blends, the sodium silicate activator partially inhibited the dissolution of the silicate phases in the Portland cement, retarding cement hydration and reducing the precipitation of reaction products. Due to such partial inhibition, the cement/slag blends had significantly lower mechanical strength than Portland cements hydrated with water. {sup 2}9Si and {sup 2}7Al MAS NMR and BSE/EDX studies, in turn, showed that the CSH gel forming in the alkali-activated cement/slag pastes contained Al in tetrahedral positions and low Ca/Si ratios. (Author) 29 refs.

  12. Investigation of chemical modifiers for the direct determination of arsenic in fish oil using high-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Éderson R; de Almeida, Tarcísio S; Borges, Daniel L G; Carasek, Eduardo; Welz, Bernhard; Feldmann, Jörg; Campo Menoyo, Javier Del

    2016-04-01

    High-resolution continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS GF AAS) has been applied for the development of a method for the determination of total As in fish oil samples using direct analysis. The method does not use any sample pretreatment, besides dilution with 1-propanole, in order to decrease the oil viscosity. The stability and sensitivity of As were evaluated using ruthenium and iridium as permanent chemical modifiers and palladium added in solution over the sample. The best results were obtained with ruthenium as the permanent modifier and palladium in solution added to samples and standard solutions. Under these conditions, aqueous standard solutions could be used for calibration for the fish oil samples diluted with 1-propanole. The pyrolysis and atomization temperatures were 1400 °C and 2300 °C, respectively, and the limit of detection and characteristic mass were 30 pg and 43 pg, respectively. Accuracy and precision of the method have been evaluated using microwave-assisted acid digestion of the samples with subsequent determination by HR-CS GF AAS and ICP-MS; the results were in agreement (95% confidence level) with those of the proposed method. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Combustion performance of pyrolysis oil/ethanol blends in a residential-scale oil-fired boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 40 kWth oil-fired commercial boiler was fueled with blends of biomass pyrolysis oil (py-oil) and ethanol to determine the feasibility of using these blends as a replacement for fuel oil in home heating applications. An optimal set of test parameters was determined for the combustion of these blend...

  14. 75 FR 41102 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Furnace Fans: Reopening of Public...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    ... Furnace Fans: Reopening of Public Comment Period AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy... work of residential heating and cooling systems (``furnace fans''). The comment period closed on July 6... information relevant to the furnace fan rulemaking will be accepted until July 27, 2010. ADDRESSES: Interested...

  15. EVALUATION OF CEMENT THIXOTROPY FOR THE CEMENT OF OIL WELLS IN AREAS WITH LOSSES: EFFECT OF PLASTER AND DAIRY OF HIGH FURNACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bouziani

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Cementing of oil and gas wells can be a very delicate operation. Among the concerns of service companies, during this operation are the nature and conditions of the formations in well. This is the case of cementing operations in southern Algeria, specifically on the fields of In-Amen, where the formations in lost zones are naturally weak and highly permeable. In these areas, drilling fluids (muds and cements pumped will be, completely or partially lost, what we call "lost circulation". Thixotropic cements are useful to overcome lost circulation problems. They are characterized by a special rheological behavior, allowing it to plug lost zones when they are pumped. Our work aims to assess the thixotropy of cements perapred with two types of cement (class G Asland cement and CEM I 42.5 portland cement with the plaster, using a viscometer with coaxial cylinder (couette type. Moreover, the effect of blast furnace slag (LHF on the properties and thixotropic mixtures prepared was also studied. The results show that portland cement (available locally can produce mixes with higher and more stable thixotropy than the class G cement (from importation, which is a practical and economical for cementing job operations in wells with loss zones. The results also show that the effect of LHF is positive, since in addition to his contribution to long term performances, especially the durability of hardened concrete, it improves the thixotropy of cement made of plaster.

  16. EVALUATION OF THE THIXOTROPY OF OIL-WELL CEMENTS USED FOR CEMENTING LOST CIRCULATION ZONES: EFFECT OF PLASTER AND BLAST FURNACE SLAG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Bouziani

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Cementing of oil and gas wells can be a very delicate operation. Among the concerns of service companies, during this operation are the nature and conditions of the formations in well. This is the case of cementing operations in southern Algeria, specifically on the fields of In-Amen, where the formations in lost zones are naturally weak and highly permeable. In these areas, drilling fluids (muds and cements pumped will be, completely or partially lost, what we call "lost circulation". Thixotropic cements are useful to overcome lost circulation problems. They are characterized by a special rheological behavior, allowing it to plug lost zones when they are pumped.Our work aims to assess the thixotropy of cements perapred with two types of cement (class G Asland cement and CEM I 42.5 portland cement with the plaster, using a viscometer with coaxial cylinder (couette type. Moreover, the effect of blast furnace slag (LHF on the properties and thixotropic mixtures prepared was also studied. The results show that portland cement (available locally can produce mixes with higher and more stable thixotropy than the class G cement (from importation, which is a practical and economical for cementing job operations in wells with loss zones. The results also show that the effect of LHF is positive, since in addition to his contribution to long term performances, especially the durability of hardened concrete, it improves the thixotropy of cement made of plaster.

  17. Open fireplace furnace as an adequate heating system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terbrack, E.

    The fireplace furnace is a furnace for the open fireplace. It is connected to the existing fuel-oil or gas central heating and is used for house heating and warm water preparation when the fire in the fireplace is on. It combines the romanticism of the open fireplace with the necessity of saving fuel oil and gas, ensuring heat supply.

  18. Michigan residential No. 2 fuel oil and propane price survey for the 1990/91 heating season

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    This report summarizes the results of a survey of home heating oil and propane prices over the 1990/1991 heating season in Michigan. The survey was conducted under a cooperative agreement between the State of Michigan, Michigan Public Service Commission and the US Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Information Administration (EIA), and was funded by a grant from EIA. From October 1990 through May 1991, participating dealers/distributions were called and asked for their current residential retail prices of No. 2 home heating oil and propane. This information was then transmitted to the EIA, bi-monthly using an electronic reporting system called Petroleum Data Reporting Option (PEDRO). The survey was conducted using a sample provided by EIA of home heating oil and propane retailers which supply Michigan households. These retailers were contacted the first and third Mondays of each month. The sample was designed to account for distributors with different sales volumes, geographic distributions and sources of primary supply. It should be noted that this simple is different from the sample used in prior year surveys

  19. Measure Guideline: High Efficiency Natural Gas Furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, L.; Rose, W.

    2012-10-01

    This Measure Guideline covers installation of high-efficiency gas furnaces. Topics covered include when to install a high-efficiency gas furnace as a retrofit measure, how to identify and address risks, and the steps to be used in the selection and installation process. The guideline is written for Building America practitioners and HVAC contractors and installers. It includes a compilation of information provided by manufacturers, researchers, and the Department of Energy as well as recent research results from the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) Building America team.

  20. Measure Guideline. High Efficiency Natural Gas Furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, L. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Des Plaines, IL (United States); Rose, W. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2012-10-01

    This measure guideline covers installation of high-efficiency gas furnaces, including: when to install a high-efficiency gas furnace as a retrofit measure; how to identify and address risks; and the steps to be used in the selection and installation process. The guideline is written for Building America practitioners and HVAC contractors and installers. It includes a compilation of information provided by manufacturers, researchers, and the Department of Energy as well as recent research results from the Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR) Building America team.

  1. Influence of oil and gas emissions on ambient atmospheric non-methane hydrocarbons in residential areas of Northeastern Colorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea R. Thompson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Northern Front Range (NFR region of Colorado has experienced rapid expansion of oil and gas extraction from shale and tight sands reservoirs in recent years due to advances in hydraulic fracturing technology, with over 25,000 wells currently in operation. This region has also been designated as a federal ozone non-attainment area by the U.S. EPA. High ozone levels are a significant health concern, as are potential health impacts from chronic exposure to primary emissions of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC for residents living near wells. From measurements of ambient atmospheric NMHC present in residential areas located in close proximity to wells in Erie, Colorado, we find that mean mole fractions of the C2–C5 alkanes are enhanced by a factor of 18–77 relative to the regional background, and present at higher levels than typically found in large urban centers. When combined with NMHC observations from downtown Denver and Platteville, it is apparent that these compounds are elevated across the NFR, with highest levels within the Greater Wattenberg Gas Field. This represents a large area source for ozone precursors in the NFR. The BTEX aromatic compounds in Erie were comparable to (e.g., benzene or lower than (e.g., toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene in large urban centers, however, benzene was significantly higher in Platteville, and within the range of chronic health-based exposure levels. An initial look at comparisons with data sets from previous years reveal that ambient levels for oil and gas-related NMHC in Erie, as well as further downwind in Boulder, have not decreased, but appear to have been increasing, despite tightening of emissions standards for the oil and gas industries in 2008.

  2. Fossil fuel furnace reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, William J.

    1987-01-01

    A fossil fuel furnace reactor is provided for simulating a continuous processing plant with a batch reactor. An internal reaction vessel contains a batch of shale oil, with the vessel having a relatively thin wall thickness for a heat transfer rate effective to simulate a process temperature history in the selected continuous processing plant. A heater jacket is disposed about the reactor vessel and defines a number of independent controllable temperature zones axially spaced along the reaction vessel. Each temperature zone can be energized to simulate a time-temperature history of process material through the continuous plant. A pressure vessel contains both the heater jacket and the reaction vessel at an operating pressure functionally selected to simulate the continuous processing plant. The process yield from the oil shale may be used as feedback information to software simulating operation of the continuous plant to provide operating parameters, i.e., temperature profiles, ambient atmosphere, operating pressure, material feed rates, etc., for simulation in the batch reactor.

  3. Residential space heating systems: energy conservation and economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neal, D.L.

    1979-01-01

    Annual energy use for residential space heating was 8.6 Quads in 1975. This accounted for over 50% of the energy used in the residential sector and 12% of energy used in the U.S. that year. Because residential space heating accounts for such a large share of energy use, improvements in new space heating systems could have significant long-term conservation effects. Several energy-saving design changes in residential space heating systems are examined to determine their energy conservation potential and cost effectiveness. Both changes in conventional and advanced systems are considered. Conventional design changes include options such as the flue damper, sealed combustion, electric ignition and improved heat exchangers. Some of the advanced designs include the gas heat pump, pulse combustion furnace, and dual speed compressor heat pump. The energy use and cost estimates are developed from current literature, heating and equipment manufacturers and dealers, and discussions with individuals doing research and testing on residential space heating equipment. Results indicate that implementation of conventional design changes can reduce energy use of representative gas, oil, and electric space heating systems by 26, 20, and 57%, respectively. These changes increase the capital cost of the systems by 27, 16, and 26%. Advanced gas and electric space heating systems can reduce energy use 45 and 67%, respectively. However, the advanced systems cost 80 and 35% more than representative gas and electric systems.

  4. Interim Guidance for Oil Heating Equipment Selection for Naval Residential Housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-01-01

    Minneapolis, Minnesota -16 Des Moines, Iowa -10 Washington, D.C. 14 Raleigh, North Carolina 16 Spokane, Washington -6 Portland, Oregon 17 P.. STEP 3...BURNER C-56 ’a.- MANUAL NO. 17,000/500019-82 INSTALLATION SERVICE AND OPERATING MANUAL ,-RTLI AMERICAN OIL BURNER MODELOE -2 12 6 ,-p. -~ OE-22 I . 6 _ _ OE

  5. CHARCOAL PACKED FURNACE FOR LOW-TECH CHARRING OF BONE

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, P.; Dahi, Elian

    1997-01-01

    A low-tech furnace for charring of raw bone using char coal is developed and tested. The furnace consists of a standard oil drum, fitted with simple materials as available in every market in small towns in developing counties. 80 kg of raw bone and 6 kg of charcoal are used for production of 50 kg...

  6. Discover the benefits of residential wood heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This publication described how residential wood-heating systems are being used to reduce energy costs and increase home comfort. Biomass energy refers to all forms are renewable energy that is derived from plant materials. The source of fuel may include sawmills, woodworking shops, forest operations and farms. The combustion of biomass is also considered to be carbon dioxide neutral, and is not considered to be a major producer of greenhouse gases (GHG) linked to global climate change. Wood burning does, however, release air pollutants, particularly if they are incompletely burned. Incomplete combustion of wood results in dense smoke consisting of toxic gases. Natural Resources Canada helped create new safety standards and the development of the Wood Energy Technical Training Program to ensure that all types of wood-burning appliances are installed correctly and safely to reduce the risk of fire and for effective wood heating. In Canada, more than 3 million families heat with wood as a primary or secondary heating source in homes and cottages. Wood heating offers security from energy price fluctuations and electrical power failures. This paper described the benefits of fireplace inserts that can transform old fireplaces into modern heating systems. It also demonstrated how an add-on wood furnace can be installed next to oil furnaces to convert an oil-only heating system to a wood-oil combination system, thereby saving thousands of dollars in heating costs. Wood pellet stoves are another wood burning option. The fuel for the stoves is produced from dried, finely ground wood waste that is compressed into hard pellets that are loaded into a hopper. The stove can run automatically for up to 24 hours. New high-efficiency advanced fireplaces also offer an alternative heating system that can reduce heating costs while preserving Canada's limited supply of fossil fuels such as oil and gas. 13 figs

  7. State of Maine residential heating oil survey: 1995--1996 season summary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elder, B.

    1996-05-01

    In Maine the cash price is surveyed, as opposed to lthe retail or charge price, as it has been identified as the price most often paid by Maine consumers. As one can see from the chart in this report, the 1995-1996 cash prices for No. 2 heating oil can be characterized as having an upward trend and much more fluctuation than last years' relatively flat line. The 1995-96 heating season started at the closing price of the previous season and for the first few weeks prices were lower than most of the 1994-95 trendline. When the weather became cooler, however, prices were on a steady incline until well into the winter. Prices leveled off for most of the rest of the season with a dramatic surge on the last week of the survey. The average statewide cash price for No. 2 heating oil this year was .861 1 cents, approximately ten cents higher than the average for 1994-1995 which was .7661 cents per gallon. It has been the observation of the SPO that during most of the 1995-1996 season, Maine's prices showed a direct correspondence with New England rack or wholesale prices. It appeared that they never fluctuated more than 3-4 cents from each other

  8. Electromelt furnace evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reimann, G.A.; Welch, J.M.

    1981-09-01

    An electromelt furnace was designed, built, and operated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory to demonstrate the suitability of this equipment for large-scale processing of radioactive wastes in iron-enriched basalt. Several typical waste compositions were melted and cast. The furnace was disassembled and the components evaluated. Calcines and fluorides attacked the furnace lining, unoxidized metals accumulated under the slag, and electrode attrition was high

  9. 75 FR 31323 - Energy Efficiency Program: Energy Conservation Standards Furnace Fans: Public Meeting and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-03

    ... Fans: Public Meeting and Availability of the Framework Document AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and... (hereinafter referred to as ``furnace fans''). To inform interested parties and to facilitate this process, DOE...: http://www.eere.energy.gov/buildings/appliance_standards/residential/furnace_fans.html . DATES: DOE...

  10. Advanced steel reheat furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moyeda, D.; Sheldon, M.; Koppang, R. [Energy and Environmental Research Corp., Irvine, CA (United States); Lanyi, M.; Li, X.; Eleazer, B. [Air Products and Chemicals, Inc., Allentown, PA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    Energy and Environmental Research Corp. (EER) under a contract from the Department of Energy is pursuing the development and demonstration of an Advanced Steel Reheating Furnace. This paper reports the results of Phase 1, Research, which has evaluated an advanced furnace concept incorporating two proven and commercialized technologies previously applied to other high temperature combustion applications: EER`s gas reburn technology (GR) for post combustion NOx control; and Air Product`s oxy-fuel enrichment air (OEA) for improved flame heat transfer in the heating zones of the furnace. The combined technologies feature greater production throughput with associated furnace efficiency improvements; lowered NOx emissions; and better control over the furnace atmosphere, whether oxidizing or reducing, leading to better control over surface finish.

  11. Calculations in furnace technology

    CERN Document Server

    Davies, Clive; Hopkins, DW; Owen, WS

    2013-01-01

    Calculations in Furnace Technology presents the theoretical and practical aspects of furnace technology. This book provides information pertinent to the development, application, and efficiency of furnace technology. Organized into eight chapters, this book begins with an overview of the exothermic reactions that occur when carbon, hydrogen, and sulfur are burned to release the energy available in the fuel. This text then evaluates the efficiencies to measure the quantity of fuel used, of flue gases leaving the plant, of air entering, and the heat lost to the surroundings. Other chapters consi

  12. ENERGY STAR Certified Furnaces

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 4.1 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Furnaces that are effective as of February 1,...

  13. Radioactive waste melting furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Junpei.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a radioactive waste melting furnace excellent in heat insulating property, capable of exchanging only refractory materials with lesser amount of contamination. Namely, an heat insulation layer is disposed on the outer wall of the melting furnace. A refractory layer is disposed on the inner wall being in contact with molten materials in the melting furnace. A metal vessel covering the refractory layer is interposed between the heat insulation layer and the refractory layer. In addition, a metal outer shell covering the heat insulation layer is disposed on the heat insulation layer on the outer wall of the melting furnace. Bricks comprising, for example, alumina, carbon, zircon, magnesia or chromia having a low heat conductivity are used for the outer wall heat insulation layer irrespective of the melting performance. The refractory layer on the inner wall is made of bricks comprising chromia, alumina and zircon as molten materials of low basicity and chromia and magnesia as molten materials of high basicity. The materials of the metal vessel may be ordinary carbon steels, cast irons, or stainless steels. The refractory layer is taken out from the melting furnace together with the metal vessel, and only the refractory layer can be removed. Radiation contamination is eliminated. The metal vessel can be used again. (I.S.)

  14. Improving Gas Furnace Performance: A Field and Laboratory Study at End of Life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, L. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Des Plaines, IL (United States); Yee, S. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Des Plaines, IL (United States); Baker, J. [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2015-02-01

    In 2010, natural gas provided 54% of total residential space heating energy the U.S. on a source basis, or 3.5 Quadrillion Btu. Natural gas burned in furnaces accounted for 92% of that total, and boilers and other equipment made up the remainder. A better understanding of installed furnace performance is a key to energy savings for this significant energy usage. In this project, the U.S. Department of Energy Building America team Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit examined the impact that common installation practices and age-induced equipment degradation may have on the installed performance of natural gas furnaces over the life of the product, as measured by steady-state efficiency and annual efficiency. The team identified 12 furnaces of various ages and efficiencies that were operating in residential homes in the Des Moines, Iowa, metropolitan area and worked with a local heating, ventilation, and air conditioning contractor to retrieve furnaces and test them at the Gas Technology Institute laboratory for steady-state efficiency and annual efficiency. Prior to removal, system airflow, static pressure, equipment temperature rise, and flue loss measurements were recorded for each furnace as installed in the house.

  15. 10 CFR 431.76 - Uniform test method for the measurement of energy efficiency of commercial warm air furnaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., Downflow or Horizontal Furnace Test), of the UL Standard 727-1994. You must conduct a fuel oil analysis for... EPCA, you are measuring the steady state thermal efficiency of a gas-fired or oil-fired commercial warm...) Test setup for gas-fired commercial warm air furnaces. The test setup, including flue requirement...

  16. Non-carbon induction furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holcombe, C.E.; Masters, D.R.; Pfeiler, W.A.

    1984-01-06

    The present invention is directed to an induction furnace for melting and casting highly pure metals and alloys such as uranium and uranium alloys in such a manner as to minimize contamination of the melt by carbon derived from the materials and the environment within the furnace. The subject furnace is constructed of non-carbon materials and is housed within a conventional vacuum chamber. The furnace comprises a ceramic oxide crucible for holding the charge of metal or alloys. The heating of the crucible is achieved by a plasma-sprayed tungsten susceptor surrounding the crucible which, in turn, is heated by an rf induction coil separated from the susceptor by a cylinder of inorganic insulation. The furnace of the present invention is capable of being rapidly cycled from ambient temperatures to about 1650/sup 0/C for effectively melting uranium and uranium alloys without the attendant carbon contamination problems previously encountered when using carbon-bearing furnace materials.

  17. Improved Casting Furnace Conceptual Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fielding, Randall Sidney [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Tolman, David Donald [Idaho National Lab. (INL), Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    2017-02-01

    In an attempt to ensure more consistent casting results and remove some schedule variance associated with casting, an improved casting furnace concept has been developed. The improved furnace uses the existing arc melter hardware and glovebox utilities. The furnace concept was designed around physical and operational requirements such as; a charge sized of less than 30 grams, high heating rates and minimal additional footprint. The conceptual model is shown in the report as well as a summary of how the requirements were met.

  18. Cupola Furnace Computer Process Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seymour Katz

    2004-12-31

    The cupola furnace generates more than 50% of the liquid iron used to produce the 9+ million tons of castings annually. The cupola converts iron and steel into cast iron. The main advantages of the cupola furnace are lower energy costs than those of competing furnaces (electric) and the ability to melt less expensive metallic scrap than the competing furnaces. However the chemical and physical processes that take place in the cupola furnace are highly complex making it difficult to operate the furnace in optimal fashion. The results are low energy efficiency and poor recovery of important and expensive alloy elements due to oxidation. Between 1990 and 2004 under the auspices of the Department of Energy, the American Foundry Society and General Motors Corp. a computer simulation of the cupola furnace was developed that accurately describes the complex behavior of the furnace. When provided with the furnace input conditions the model provides accurate values of the output conditions in a matter of seconds. It also provides key diagnostics. Using clues from the diagnostics a trained specialist can infer changes in the operation that will move the system toward higher efficiency. Repeating the process in an iterative fashion leads to near optimum operating conditions with just a few iterations. More advanced uses of the program have been examined. The program is currently being combined with an ''Expert System'' to permit optimization in real time. The program has been combined with ''neural network'' programs to affect very easy scanning of a wide range of furnace operation. Rudimentary efforts were successfully made to operate the furnace using a computer. References to these more advanced systems will be found in the ''Cupola Handbook''. Chapter 27, American Foundry Society, Des Plaines, IL (1999).

  19. CORELESS INDUCTION FURNACE. CONSTRUCTIVE DIFFERENCES, OPERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Saharevich

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main tendencies of development of induction crucible furnaces are considered. constructive differences of crucible furnaces in comparison with fuel furnaces are given. The area of their application is specified.

  20. Challenges in Melt Furnace Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belt, Cynthia

    2014-09-01

    Measurement is a critical part of running a cast house. Key performance indicators such as energy intensity, production (or melt rate), downtime (or OEE), and melt loss must all be understood and monitored on a weekly or monthly basis. Continuous process variables such as bath temperature, flue temperature, and furnace pressure should be used to control the furnace systems along with storing the values in databases for later analysis. While using measurement to track furnace performance over time is important, there is also a time and place for short-term tests.

  1. Thermal valorisation of automobile shredder residue: injection in blast furnace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirabile, Daphne; Pistelli, Maria Ilaria; Marchesini, Marina; Falciani, Roberta; Chiappelli, Lisa

    2002-01-01

    Wastes with residual heating value, according to the trend of the world legislation, could be thermally reused. The present study is conducted to verify the possibility of thermal valorisation of a waste, denominated fluff, by injection in blast furnace. The fluff, arising from the automobile shredder operations, is a waste characterised by a high organic matrix and is potentially dangerous due to the heavy metals, oils filter and halogenated plastics content. The first step of the work is the chemical, physical and toxicological characterisation of this material. Then the fluff injection in a blast furnace tuyere is theoretically analysed with a mathematical model. Finally, experimental trials are conducted in a pilot plant, simulating the most important part of the blast furnace: the raceway, in order to analyse process and industrial aspects. In view of an industrial application a first economical evaluation is carried out on the basis of model and experimental results.

  2. Arc -furnace Flicker Compensation in Ethiopia.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    series capacitors nor the translater scheme is appli- cable where more ... The arc furnace is of conventional design. The furnace ... power of the furnace. This reactor had three tappings and a short-circuiting switch. REQUIREMENTS OF THE COMPENSATOR. The fluctuations could be caused by the furnace on whichever ...

  3. Residential Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde; Matsufuji, Y.

    2011-01-01

    are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing residential waste is faced with the problem that many residences already divert some waste away from the official collection systems, for example performing home composting of vegetable waste and garden waste, having their bundled newspaper picked up by the scouts...... twice a year or bringing their used furniture to the flea markets organized by charity clubs. Thus, much of the data available on residential waste represents collected waste and not necessarily all generated waste. The latter can only be characterized by careful studies directly at the source...

  4. Waste and dust utilisation in shaft furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senk, D.; Babich, A.; Gudenau, H.W. [Rhein Westfal TH Aachen, Aachen (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Wastes and dusts from steel industry, non-ferrous metallurgy and other branches can be utilised e.g. in agglomeration processes (sintering, pelletising or briquetting) and by injection into shaft furnaces. This paper deals with the second way. Combustion and reduction behaviour of iron- and carbon-rich metallurgical dusts and sludges containing lead, zinc and alkali as well as other wastes with and without pulverised coal (PC) has been studied when injecting into shaft furnaces. Following shaft furnaces have been examined: blast furnace, cupola furnace, OxiCup furnace and imperial-smelting furnace. Investigations have been done at laboratory and industrial scale. Some dusts and wastes under certain conditions can be not only reused but can also improve combustion efficiency at the tuyeres as well as furnace performance and productivity.

  5. High Efficiency Solar Furnace Core, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — It is proposed to develop a high efficiency solar furnace core that greatly lessens the heat losses from the furnace core, either greatly reducing the amount of...

  6. Electrostatic Levitation Furnace for the ISS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Keiji; Koshikawa, Naokiyo; Shibasaki, Kohichi; Ishikawa, Takehiko; Okada, Junpei; Takada, Tetsuya; Arai, Tatsuya; Fujino, Naoki; Yamaura, Yukiko

    2012-01-01

    JAXA (Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency) has just started the development of Electrostatic Levitation Furnace to be launched in 2014 for the ISS. This furnace can control the sample position with electrostatic force and heat it above 2000 degree Celsius using semiconductor laser from four different directions. The announcement of Opportunity will be issued soon for this furnace. In this paper, we will show the specifications of this furnace and also the development schedule

  7. A cylindrical furnace for absorption spectral studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A cylindrical furnace with three heating zones, capable of providing a temperature of 1100°C, has been fabricated to enable recording of absorption spectra of high temperature species. The temperature of the furnace can be controlled to ± 1°C of the set temperature. The salient feature of this furnace is that the material ...

  8. Alkaline carbonates in blast furnace process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Besta

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The production of iron in blast furnaces is a complex of physical, chemical and mechanical processes. The input raw materials contain not only metallic components, but also a number of negative elements. The most important negative elements include alkaline carbonates. They can significantly affect the course of the blast furnace process and thus the overall performance of the furnace. As a result of that, it is essential to accurately monitor the alkali content in the blast furnace raw materials. The article analyzes the alkali content in input and output raw materials and their impact on the blast furnace process.

  9. ASHRAE and residential ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max H.

    2003-10-01

    In the last quarter of a century, the western world has become increasingly aware of environmental threats to health and safety. During this period, people psychologically retreated away from outdoors hazards such as pesticides, smog, lead, oil spills, and dioxin to the seeming security of their homes. However, the indoor environment may not be healthier than the outdoor environment, as has become more apparent over the past few years with issues such as mold, formaldehyde, and sick-building syndrome. While the built human environment has changed substantially over the past 10,000 years, human biology has not; poor indoor air quality creates health risks and can be uncomfortable. The human race has found, over time, that it is essential to manage the indoor environments of their homes. ASHRAE has long been in the business of ventilation, but most of the focus of that effort has been in the area of commercial and institutional buildings. Residential ventilation was traditionally not a major concern because it was felt that, between operable windows and envelope leakage, people were getting enough outside air in their homes. In the quarter of a century since the first oil shock, houses have gotten much more energy efficient. At the same time, the kinds of materials and functions in houses changed in character in response to people's needs. People became more environmentally conscious and aware not only about the resources they were consuming but about the environment in which they lived. All of these factors contributed to an increasing level of public concern about residential indoor air quality and ventilation. Where once there was an easy feeling about the residential indoor environment, there is now a desire to define levels of acceptability and performance. Many institutions--both public and private--have interests in Indoor Air Quality (IAQ), but ASHRAE, as the professional society that has had ventilation as part of its mission for over 100 years, is the

  10. FY 1999 report on the results of the R and D on high performance industrial furnace, etc.; 1999 nendo koseino kogyoro no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho. Koseino kogyoro nado ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-01

    In the development of high performance industrial furnace, initial targets were achieved such as energy saving of 30%, downsizing of 20%, and a remarkable NOx reduction. To verify the achievement, the test field project is being worked on by NEDO. In FY 1998, 23 heating furnaces, 29 heat treat furnaces and 6 melting furnaces were under the project at energy saving effect of 52,000 kl converted to crude oil. In FY 1999, 18 heating furnaces, 26 heat treat furnaces and 7 melting furnaces are now under the project at energy saving effect of 57,000 kl. The project was awarded 'The 9th Nikkei Global Environmental Technology Prize.' The themes for the R and D are as follows: high efficiency exhaust heat utilization system, self-completion type high temperature/high radiation heating technology, technology to make heat transfer in steel heating suitable under non-stationary state, high efficiency heat transfer technology, technology to optimize the shape of heating furnace, high performance atmosphere heat treat furnace, high efficiency heat transfer technology by high temperature jet flame heating, technology of high efficiency aluminum melting furnace, technology to improve soaking degree in steel heating, high performance tubular heating furnace in oil refining, optimum combustion control technology of regenerative burner furnace, and laser measuring method inside industrial furnace. (NEDO)

  11. Furnace profile effects on glass shell formation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Holleran, T.P.; Downs, R.L.; Homyk, B.D.

    1981-01-01

    In the course of blowing glass shells in a furnace drop tower it has been observed that furnace temperature profile affects shell aspect ratio. Wall uniformity appears less sensitive to temperature profile as long as some minimum-time/temperature history is achieved for a given glass composition. Quantitative results will be reported from experiments wherein the furnace temperature profile is systematically varied and the resultant shells are statistically analyzed for aspect ratio and wall uniformity

  12. Tracer tests on furnaces at Metalloys Limited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.J.; Wedepohl, A.

    1983-01-01

    During 1980, thirteen double tests were carried out with five radioactive isotopes on three furnaces at Metalloys Limited, near Meyerton. Each double test involved the introduction of a sample of coke impregnated with lanthanum and a sample of irradiated manganese ore ( 54 Mn or 59 Fe), irradiated quartzite ( 46 Sc), or irradiated coal ( 46 Sc, 59 Fe, and 60 Co). The tests were conducted on the three large furnaces for the production of high-carbon ferromanganese, viz M10, M11, and M12. The radioactivity of samples of the metal and the slag leaving the furnace was measured by the Isotopes and Activation Division of the Atomic Energy Board (AEB). Response curves and computer analyses are presented on the elution of the tracers from the furnaces. The response curves for the tracers, which were inserted close to the electrodes, are discussed so that the salient differences between their passage through the three furnaces can be established. The results obtained give support to the findings of a dig-out carried out on furnace M10 during 1977. The metal and slag products of furnace M12 were subjected to mineralogical investigation so that the major phases in the furnace products could be determined. Details of the calculation of the mean residence time for material in furnace M12 are given in an appendix

  13. Optimization of a Steel Plant with Multiple Blast Furnaces Under Biomass Injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiklund, Carl-Mikael; Pettersson, Frank; Saxén, Henrik

    2013-04-01

    The allocation of resources between several blast furnaces in an integrated steelmaking plant is studied with the aim of finding the lowest specific operation cost for steel production. In order to reduce the use of fossil fuels, biomass was considered as an auxiliary reductant in the furnace after partial pyrolysis in an external unit, as a complement to heavy fuel oil. The optimization considers raw material, energy, and emission costs and a possible credit for sold power and heat. To decrease computational requirements and to guarantee that the global optimum is found, a piecewise linearized model of the blast furnace was used in combination with linear models of the sinter-, coke-, and power plants, hot stoves, and basic oxygen furnace. The optimization was carried out under different constraints on the availability of some raw materials as well as for different efficiencies of the hot stoves of the blast furnaces. The results indicate that a non-uniform distribution of the production between the furnaces can be advantageous, and some surprising findings concerning the optimal resource allocation under constrained operation are reported.

  14. The use of blast furnace slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Václavík

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of experimental research that dealt with the substitution of finely ground blast furnace slag for Portland cement in the course of simple concrete manufacturing. Physical and mechanical properties of experimental concrete mixtures based on finely ground blast furnace slag were observed.

  15. A cylindrical furnace for absorption spectral studies

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    our laboratory. The components and accessories required for operating this furnace are described here. The salient feature of this furnace is that it contains three separate heating zones. The heating zone at .... spectrograph, the electronic absorption spectrum of C1Π ← X1Σ system of InBr at. ~ 2800 Å. The bands of C ← X ...

  16. Optical cavity furnace for semiconductor wafer processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    2014-08-05

    An optical cavity furnace 10 having multiple optical energy sources 12 associated with an optical cavity 18 of the furnace. The multiple optical energy sources 12 may be lamps or other devices suitable for producing an appropriate level of optical energy. The optical cavity furnace 10 may also include one or more reflectors 14 and one or more walls 16 associated with the optical energy sources 12 such that the reflectors 14 and walls 16 define the optical cavity 18. The walls 16 may have any desired configuration or shape to enhance operation of the furnace as an optical cavity 18. The optical energy sources 12 may be positioned at any location with respect to the reflectors 14 and walls defining the optical cavity. The optical cavity furnace 10 may further include a semiconductor wafer transport system 22 for transporting one or more semiconductor wafers 20 through the optical cavity.

  17. Biomass furnace: projection and construction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Fernanda Augusta de Oliveira; Silva, Juarez Sousa e; Silva, Denise de Freitas; Sampaio, Cristiane Pires; Nascimento Junior, Jose Henrique do [Universidade Federal de Vicosa (DEA/UFV), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Agricola

    2008-07-01

    Of all the ways to convert biomass into thermal energy, direct combustion is the oldest. The thermal-chemical technologies of biomass conversion such as pyrolysis and gasification, are currently not the most important alternatives; combustion is responsible for 97% of the bio-energy produced in the world (Demirbas, 2003). For this work, a small furnace was designed and constructed to use biomass as its main source of fuel, and the combustion chamber was coupled with a helical transporter which linked to the secondary fuel reservoir to continually feed the combustion chamber with fine particles of agro-industrial residues. The design of the stove proved to be technically viable beginning with the balance of mass and energy for the air heating system. The proposed heat generator was easily constructed as it made use of simple and easily acquired materials, demanding no specialized labor. (author)

  18. Evaluation of Retrofit Variable-Speed Furnace Fan Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, R. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Williamson, J. [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2014-01-01

    In conjunction with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) and Proctor Engineering Group, Ltd. (PEG), the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) has evaluated the Concept 3™ replacement motors for residential furnaces. These brushless, permanent magnet (BPM) motors can use much less electricity than their PSC (permanent split capacitor) predecessors. This evaluation focuses on existing homes in the heating-dominated climate of upstate New York with the goals of characterizing field performance and cost effectiveness. The project includes eight homes in and near Syracuse, NY. Tests and monitoring was performed both before and after fan motors were replaced. Results indicate that BPM replacement motors will be most cost effective in HVAC systems with longer run times and relatively low duct static pressures. More dramatic savings are possible if occupants use the fan-only setting when there is no thermal load. There are millions of cold-climate, U.S. homes that meet these criteria, but the savings in most homes tested in this study were modest.

  19. Design and Development of Tilting Rotary Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai Varun, V.; Tejesh, P.; Prashanth, B. N.

    2018-02-01

    Casting is the best and effective technique used for manufacturing products. The important accessory for casting is furnace. Furnace is used to melt the metal. A perfect furnace is one that reduces the wastage of material, reduces the cost of manufacturing and there by reduces the cost of production. Of all the present day furnaces there may be wastage of material, and the chances of increasing the time of manufacturing as the is continuous need of tilting of the furnace for every mould and then changing the moulds. Considering these aspects, a simple and least expensive tilting rotary furnace is designed and developed. The Tilting and Rotary Furnace consists of mainly melting chamber and the base. The metal enters the melting chamber through the input door that is provided on the top of the melting chamber. Inside the melting chamber there is a graphite furnace. The metal is melted in the graphite crucible. An insulation of ceramic fibre cloth is provided inside the furnace. The metal is melted using Propane gas. The propane gas is easily available and economic. The gas is burned using a pilot burner. The pilot burner is more efficient that other burners. The pilot burner is lit with a push button igniter. The pilot burner is located at the bottom of the combustion chamber. This enables the uniform heating of the metal inside the crucible. The temperature inside the melting chamber is noted using a temperature sensor. The gas input is cut-off if the temperature is exceeding a specific temperature. After the melting of the metal is done the furnace is tilted and after the mould is filled it is rotated. The external gears are used to controlling the tilting. The results of studies carried out for the design & development of low cost, simple furnace that can be mounted anywhere on the shop floor and this can be very much useful for the education purposes and small scale manufacturing. The furnace can be rotated in 360 degrees and can help in reducing the time taken

  20. Improving Gas Furnace Performance: A Field and Laboratory Study at End of Life

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brand, L. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Yee, S. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States); Baker, J. [Gas Technology Inst., Des Plaines, IL (United States)

    2015-02-01

    In 2010, natural gas provided 54% of total residential space heating energy the U.S. on a source basis, or 3.5 Quadrillion Btu. Natural gas burned in furnaces accounted for 92% of that total, and boilers and other equipment made up the remainder. A better understanding of installed furnace performance is a key to energy savings for this significant energy usage. Natural gas furnace performance can be measured in many ways. The annual fuel utilization efficiency (AFUE) rating provides a fixed value under specified conditions, akin to the EPA miles per gallon rating for new vehicles. The AFUE rating is provided by the manufacturer to the consumer and is a way to choose between models tested on the same basis. This value is commonly used in energy modeling calculations. ASHRAE 103 is a consensus furnace testing standard developed by the engineering community. The procedure provided in the standard covers heat-up, cool down, condensate heat loss, and steady-state conditions and an imposed oversize factor. The procedure can be used to evaluate furnace performance with specified conditions or with some variation chosen by the tester. In this report the ASHRAE 103 test result will be referred to as Annualized Efficiency (AE) to avoid confusion, and any non-standard test conditions will be noted. Aside from these two laboratory tests, steady state or flue loss efficiency can be measured in the field under many conditions; typically as found or tuned to the manufacturers recommended settings. In this report, AE and steady-state efficiency will be used as measures of furnace performance.

  1. Uranium casting furnace automatic temperature control development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lind, R.F.

    1992-01-01

    Development of an automatic molten uranium temperature control system for use on batch-type induction casting furnaces is described. Implementation of a two-color optical pyrometer, development of an optical scanner for the pyrometer, determination of furnace thermal dynamics, and design of control systems are addressed. The optical scanning system is shown to greatly improve pyrometer measurement repeatability, particularly where heavy floating slag accumulations cause surface temperature gradients. Thermal dynamics of the furnaces were determined by applying least-squares system identification techniques to actual production data. A unity feedback control system utilizing a proportional-integral-derivative compensator is designed by using frequency-domain techniques. 14 refs

  2. Programmable temperature regulator of VAO-1 furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zahalka, F.

    1979-01-01

    A programmable temperature controller is described for a furnace for high-level waste processing. Furnace temperature is controlled by a program compiled from a combination of 3 parts with different linear increments or decrements of time dependent temperature and 2 parts with isothermal control for over a preset period. The equipment consists essentially of a programming unit, a programmed digital-to-analog converter and a power unit. The design is described in detail and its specifications are given. The maximum operating temperature of 1500 degC may be reached in the furnace charge section. (B.S.)

  3. Multiple hearth furnace for reducing iron oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandon, Mark M [Charlotte, NC; True, Bradford G [Charlotte, NC

    2012-03-13

    A multiple moving hearth furnace (10) having a furnace housing (11) with at least two moving hearths (20) positioned laterally within the furnace housing, the hearths moving in opposite directions and each moving hearth (20) capable of being charged with at least one layer of iron oxide and carbon bearing material at one end, and being capable of discharging reduced material at the other end. A heat insulating partition (92) is positioned between adjacent moving hearths of at least portions of the conversion zones (13), and is capable of communicating gases between the atmospheres of the conversion zones of adjacent moving hearths. A drying/preheat zone (12), a conversion zone (13), and optionally a cooling zone (15) are sequentially positioned along each moving hearth (30) in the furnace housing (11).

  4. A consortium approach to glass furnace modeling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, S.-L.; Golchert, B.; Petrick, M.

    1999-04-20

    Using computational fluid dynamics to model a glass furnace is a difficult task for any one glass company, laboratory, or university to accomplish. The task of building a computational model of the furnace requires knowledge and experience in modeling two dissimilar regimes (the combustion space and the liquid glass bath), along with the skill necessary to couple these two regimes. Also, a detailed set of experimental data is needed in order to evaluate the output of the code to ensure that the code is providing proper results. Since all these diverse skills are not present in any one research institution, a consortium was formed between Argonne National Laboratory, Purdue University, Mississippi State University, and five glass companies in order to marshal these skills into one three-year program. The objective of this program is to develop a fully coupled, validated simulation of a glass melting furnace that may be used by industry to optimize the performance of existing furnaces.

  5. Cast construction elements for heat treatment furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Piekarski

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The study presents sketches and photos of the cast creep-resistant components used in various types of heat treatment furnaces. The shape of the elements results from the type of the operation carried out in the furnace, while dimensions are adjusted to the size of the furnace working chamber. The castings are mainly made from the high-alloyed, austenitic chromium-nickel or nickel-chromium steel, selecting the grade in accordance with the furnace operating conditions described by the rated temperature, the type and parameters of the applied operating atmosphere, and the charge weight. Typical examples in this family of construction elements are: crucibles, roller tracks, radiant tubes and guides. The majority of castings are produced in sand moulds.

  6. Metallurgy of mercury in Almaden: from aludel furnaces until Pacific furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tejero-Manzanares, J.; Garrido Saenz, I.; Mata Cabrera, F.; Rubio Mesas, M. L.

    2014-01-01

    This paper shows the different types of furnaces for roasting cinnabar, used in the metallurgy of quicksilver over the centuries of exploitation of the Almaden Mines (Spain). Some of these techniques are part of our industrial heritage. They have contributed to name UNESCO World Heritage Site the vast technological legacy of these mines recently. This research contributes to close the long way of metallurgical activity from aludel furnaces until Pacif furnaces, first and lasted technology to produce on an industrial scale. It is delved into the most relevant aspects having to do with the type, evolution and number of furnaces existing on each of the periods. (Author)

  7. Paired Straight Hearth Furnace - Transformational Ironmaking Process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lu, Wei-Kao [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON (Canada); Debski, Paul [Andritz Metals Inc.,Canonsburg, PA (United States)

    2014-11-19

    The U. S. steel industry has reduced its energy intensity per ton of steel shipped by 33% since 1990. However, further significant gains in energy efficiency will require the development of new, transformational iron and steelmaking processes. The Paired Straight Hearth Furnace (PSH) process is an emerging alternative high productivity, direct reduced iron (DRI) technology that may achieve very low fuel rates and has the potential to replace blast furnace ironmaking. The PSH furnace can operate independently or may be coupled with other melting technologies to produce liquid hot metal that is both similar to blast furnace iron and suitable as a feedstock for basic oxygen steelmaking furnaces. The PSH process uses non-metallurgical coal as a reductant to convert iron oxides such as iron ore and steelmaking by-product oxides to DRI pellets. In this process, a multi-layer, nominally 120mm tall bed of composite “green balls” made from oxide, coal and binder is built up and contained within a moving refractory hearth. The pellet bed absorbs radiant heat energy during exposure to the high temperature interior refractory surfaces of the PSH while generating a strongly reducing gas atmosphere in the bed that yields a highly metalized DRI product. The PSH concept has been well tested in static hearth experiments. A moving bed design is being developed. The process developers believe that if successful, the PSH process has the potential to replace blast furnaces and coke ovens at a fraction of the operating and capital cost while using about 30% less energy relative to current blast furnace technology. DRI output could also feed electric arc furnaces (EAFs) by displacing a portion of the scrap charge.

  8. Voltage stabilizers for high temperature furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huet, J.

    1966-10-01

    The stabilization of furnace temperatures in the range 1500-2500 C has been achieved by controlling the effective (rms) value of the supply voltage of the heating element. Temperature variations are less than, or equal to, one degree C in the whole working range of the furnace. Two types of set-ups have been developed: one is static, the other takes use of a servo-motor. (author) [fr

  9. A simple furnace for neutron diffraction studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailey, F.P.; Bennett, C.E.G.

    1979-01-01

    A simple yet effective high temperature furnace for heating crystals or powder specimens for neutron diffraction studies on a theta/2theta diffractometer is described. The furnace can maintain samples at temperatures up to 1573 K, in air, with a stability of +- 4 K for periods of many hours. Specimen temperature is uniform within 12 K, or much less with the use of a silica sleeve. (Auth.)

  10. Solar Convective Furnace for Metals Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patidar, Deepesh; Tiwari, Sheetanshu; Sharma, Piyush; Pardeshi, Ravindra; Chandra, Laltu; Shekhar, Rajiv

    2015-11-01

    Metals processing operations, primarily soaking, heat treatment, and melting of metals are energy-intensive processes using fossil fuels, either directly or indirectly as electricity, to operate furnaces at high temperatures. Use of concentrated solar energy as a source of heat could be a viable "green" option for industrial heat treatment furnaces. This paper introduces the concept of a solar convective furnace which utilizes hot air generated by an open volumetric air receiver (OVAR)-based solar tower technology. The potential for heating air above 1000°C exists. Air temperatures of 700°C have already been achieved in a 1.5-MWe volumetric air receiver demonstration plant. Efforts to retrofit an industrial aluminium soaking furnace for integration with a solar tower system are briefly described. The design and performance of an OVAR has been discussed. A strategy for designing a 1/15th-scale model of an industrial aluminium soaking furnace has been presented. Preliminary flow and thermal simulation results suggest the presence of recirculating flow in existing furnaces that could possibly result in non-uniform heating of the slabs. The multifarious uses of concentrated solar energy, for example in smelting, metals processing, and even fuel production, should enable it to overcome its cost disadvantage with respect to solar photovoltaics.

  11. Energy Saving in Industrial Annealing Furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma ÇANKA KILIÇ

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, an energy efficiency studies have been carried out in a natural gas-fired rolling mill annealing furnace of an industrial establishment. In this context, exhaust gas from the furnace has been examined in terms of waste heat potential. In the examinations that have been made in detail; waste heat potential was found as 3.630,31 kW. Technical and feasibility studies have been carried out to realize electricity production through an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC system for evaluating the waste heat potential of the annealing furnace. It has been calculated that 1.626.378,88 kWh/year of electricity can be generated by using the exhaust gas waste heat of the annealing furnace through an ORC system to produce electric energy with a net efficiency of 16%. The financial value of this energy was determined as 436.032,18 TL/year and the simple repayment period of the investment was 8,12 years. Since the annealing period of the annealing furnace is 2800 hours/year, the investment has not been found to be feasible in terms of the feasibility studies. However, the investment suitability can be assured when the annealing furnace is operating at full capacity for 8,000 hours or more annually.

  12. Model Predictive Control of the Exit Part Temperature for an Austenitization Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hari S. Ganesh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Quench hardening is the process of strengthening and hardening ferrous metals and alloys by heating the material to a specific temperature to form austenite (austenitization, followed by rapid cooling (quenching in water, brine or oil to introduce a hardened phase called martensite. The material is then often tempered to increase toughness, as it may decrease from the quench hardening process. The austenitization process is highly energy-intensive and many of the industrial austenitization furnaces were built and equipped prior to the advent of advanced control strategies and thus use large, sub-optimal amounts of energy. The model computes the energy usage of the furnace and the part temperature profile as a function of time and position within the furnace under temperature feedback control. In this paper, the aforementioned model is used to simulate the furnace for a batch of forty parts under heuristic temperature set points suggested by the operators of the plant. A model predictive control (MPC system is then developed and deployed to control the the part temperature at the furnace exit thereby preventing the parts from overheating. An energy efficiency gain of 5.3 % was obtained under model predictive control compared to operation under heuristic temperature set points tracked by a regulatory control layer.

  13. Distribution of trace metals at Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site, Berks and Chester Counties, Pennsylvania

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloto, Ronald A.; Reif, Andrew G.

    2011-01-01

    Hopewell Furnace, located approximately 50 miles northwest of Philadelphia, was a cold-blast, charcoal iron furnace that operated for 113 years (1771 to 1883). The purpose of this study by the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the National Park Service, was to determine the distribution of trace metals released to the environment from an historical iron smelter at Hopewell Furnace National Historic Site (NHS). Hopewell Furnace used iron ore from local mines that contained abundant magnetite and accessory sulfide minerals enriched in arsenic, cobalt, copper, and other metals. Ore, slag, cast iron furnace products, soil, groundwater, stream base flow, streambed sediment, and benthic macroinvertebrates were sampled for this study. Soil samples analyzed in the laboratory had concentrations of trace metals low enough to meet Pennsylvania Department of Environmental Protection standards for non-residential use. Groundwater samples from the supply well met U.S. Environmental Protection Agency drinking-water regulations. Concentrations of metals in surface-water base flow at the five stream sampling sites were below continuous concentration criteria for protection of aquatic organisms. Concentrations of metals in sediment at the five stream sites were below probable effects level guidelines for protection of aquatic organisms except for copper at site HF-3. Arsenic, copper, lead, zinc, and possibly cobalt were incorporated into the cast iron produced by Hopewell Furnace. Manganese was concentrated in slag along with iron, nickel, and zinc. The soil near the furnace has elevated concentrations of chromium, copper, iron, lead, and zinc compared to background soil concentrations. Concentrations of toxic elements were not present at concentrations of concern in water, soil, or stream sediments, despite being elevated in ore, slag, and cast iron furnace products. The base-flow surface-water samples indicated good overall quality. The five sampled sites generally had

  14. Comparison of a burning mass ceramics coating in laboratory furnace and instrustrial furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soares, R.A.L.; Castro, J.R. de S.

    2012-01-01

    This work intends to analyze the differences obtained in the technological properties of a ceramic coating after firing in two distinct environments, laboratory furnace and industrial furnace. For this, was characterized a ceramic mass used in the production of porous coating. The analyzes were performed chemical, mineralogical and thermal mass in that. The specimens were obtained by compacting and burned in the maximum temperature of 1140 deg C in two furnaces, laboratory and industrial. The technological tests were performed linear shrinkage, water absorption, bulk density and mechanical strength. The microstructure was evaluated by ray-X diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that both furnaces provided significant differences in analyzed specimens, such as increased strength and low water absorption in the fired samples in a laboratory furnace, for example. (author)

  15. Evaluation of Retrofit Variable-Speed Furnace Fan Motors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, R. [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States); Williamson, J. [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2014-01-01

    In conjunction with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA) and Proctor Engineering Group, Ltd. (PEG), the Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) has evaluated the Concept 3 (tm) replacement motors for residential furnaces. These brushless, permanent magnet (BPM) motors can use much less electricity than their PSC (permanent split capacitor) predecessors. This evaluation focuses on existing homes in the heating-dominated climate of upstate New York with the goals of characterizing field performance and cost-effectiveness. The results of this study are intended to be useful to home performance contractors, HVAC contractors, and home efficiency program stakeholders. The project includes eight homes in and near Syracuse, NY. Tests and monitoring was performed both before and after fan motors were replaced. Average fan power reductions were approximately 126 Watts during heating and 220 Watts during cooling operation. Over the course of entire heating and cooling seasons, these translated into average electric energy savings of 163 kWh. Average cost savings were $20 per year. Homes where the fan was used outside of heating and cooling mode saved an additional $42 per year on average. Results indicate that BPM replacement motors will be most cost-effective in HVAC systems with longer run times and relatively low duct static pressures. More dramatic savings are possible if occupants use the fan-only setting when there is no thermal load. There are millions of cold-climate, U.S. homes that meet these criteria, but the savings in most homes tested in this study were modest.

  16. Industrial and process furnaces principles, design and operation

    CERN Document Server

    Jenkins, Barrie

    2014-01-01

    Furnaces sit at the core of all branches of manufacture and industry, so it is vital that these are designed and operated safely and effi-ciently. This reference provides all of the furnace theory needed to ensure that this can be executed successfully on an industrial scale. Industrial and Process Furnaces: Principles, 2nd Edition provides comprehensive coverage of all aspects of furnace operation and design, including topics essential for process engineers and operators to better understand furnaces. This includes: the combustion process and its control, furnace fuels, efficiency,

  17. Continuous austempering fluidized bed furnace. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasan, M.N. [Lamar Univ., Beaumont, TX (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1997-09-23

    The intended objective of this project was to show the benefits of using a fluidized bed furnace for austenitizing and austempering of steel castings in a continuous manner. The division of responsibilities was as follows: (1) design of the fluidized bed furnace--Kemp Development Corporation; (2) fabrication of the fluidized bed furnace--Quality Electric Steel, Inc.; (3) procedure for austempering of steel castings, analysis of the results after austempering--Texas A and M University (Texas Engineering Experiment Station). The Department of Energy provided funding to Texas A and M University and Kemp Development Corporation. The responsibility of Quality Electric Steel was to fabricate the fluidized bed, make test castings and perform austempering of the steel castings in the fluidized bed, at their own expense. The project goals had to be reviewed several times due to financial constraints and technical difficulties encountered during the course of the project. The modifications made and the associated events are listed in chronological order.

  18. Modelling of turbulent combustion in the blast furnace raceway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karvinen, R.; Maekiranta, R. [Tampere Univ. (Finland). Energy and Process Engineering

    1996-12-31

    The phenomena concerning coke-gas -suspension and simultaneous combustion of solid coke particles and residual fuel oil in a blast furnace raceway are modelled. The flow field of suspension is predicted by using the two fluid model, which is based on the Eulerian method, in the Phoenics code. The standard k-e -model of turbulence is used. Pyrolysis of oil droplets is calculated with the own coded subroutine, which is based on the Lagrangian approach. Gas phase reaction rate is assumed to be controlled by chemical kinetics. Radiative heat transfer is calculated by using the six-flux method. Heterogenous surface reactions are used for the coke particles. Calculations without coke combustion show that due to a poor mixing in the hot blast, pyrolysis gases of residual fuel oil have not time enough to react with oxygen. It is obvious that if combustion of coke particles is taken into account, the oxygen content in the blast decreases to such a level, that unburnt pyrolysis gases can flow out of the raceway causing problems. The distribution of coke void fraction has been succeeded to predict in the raceway domain. Coke particles fall from the upper part of the raceway to the hot blast forming locally high concentrations, which affect very strongly the oxygen distribution of the hot blast. (orig.) SULA 2 Research Programme; 10 refs.

  19. Macromodel for assessing residential concentrations of combustion-generated pollutants: Model development and preliminary predictions for CO, NO/sub 2/, and respirable suspended particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traynor, G.W.; Aceti, J.C.; Apte, M.G.; Smith, B.V.; Green, L.L.; Smith-Reiser, A.; Novak, K.M.; Moses, D.O.

    1989-01-01

    A simulation model (also called a ''macromodel'') has been developed to predict residential air pollutant concentration distributions for specified populations. The model inputs include the market penetration of pollution sources, pollution source characteristics (e.g., emission rates, source usage rates), building characteristics (e.g., house volume, air exchange rates), and meteorological parameters (e.g., outside temperature). Four geographically distinct regions of the US have been modeled using Monte Carlo and deterministic simulation techniques. Single-source simulations were also conducted. The highest predicted CO and NO/sub 2/ residential concentrations were associated with the winter-time use of unvented gas and kerosene space heaters. The highest predicted respirable suspended particulate concentrations were associated with indoor cigarette smoking and the winter-time use of non-airtight wood stoves, radiant kerosene heaters, convective unvented gas space heaters, and oil forced-air furnaces. Future field studies in this area should (1) fill information gaps identified in this report, and (2) collect information on the macromodel input parameters to properly interpret the results. It is almost more important to measure the parameters that affect indoor concentration than it is to measure the concentrations themselves.

  20. Waste and dust utilisation in shaft furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senk, D.

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Wastes and dusts from steel industry, non-ferrous metallurgy and other branches can be utilized e.g. in agglomeration processes (sintering, pelletizing or briquetting and by injection into shaft furnaces. This paper deals with the second way. Combustion and reduction behaviour of iron- and carbon-rich metallurgical dusts and sludges containing lead, zinc and alkali as well as other wastes with and without pulverized coal (PC has been studied when injecting into shaft furnaces. Following shaft furnaces have been examined: blast furnace, cupola furnace, OxiCup furnace and imperial-smelting furnace. Investigations have been done at laboratory and industrial scale. Some dusts and wastes under certain conditions can be not only reused but can also improve combustion efficiency at the tuyeres as well as furnace performance and productivity.

    Los residuos y polvos de filtro provenientes de la industria siderúrgica, de la obtención de metales no ferrosos y de otras industrias, pueden ser utilizados, por ejemplo, en procesos de aglomeración como sintetizado, peletizado o briqueteado. En su caso, estos pueden ser inyectados en los hornos de cuba. Este artículo se enfoca a la inyección de estos materiales en los hornos de cuba. El comportamiento de la combustión y reducción de los polvos ricos en hierro y carbono y también lodos que contienen plomo, zinc y compuestos alcalinos y otros residuos con o sin carbón pulverizado (CP fue examinado, cuando se inyectaron en hornos de cuba. Los siguientes hornos de cuba fueron examinados: Horno alto, cubilote, OxiCup y horno de cuba Imperial Smelting. Las investigaciones se llevaron a cabo a escala de laboratorio e industrial. Algunos residuos y polvos bajo ciertas condiciones, no sólo pueden ser reciclados, sino también mejoran la eficiencia de combustión en las toberas, la operación y productividad del horno.

  1. Glass Furnace Project, October 1982-March 1983

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armstrong, K.M.; Klingler, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    In the Glass Furnace Project currently under way at Mound, a treatment technology for low-level radioactive waste is being evaluated that will combine volume reduction and immobilization in one step. Initial work focused on demonstrating the ability of the furnace to efficiently incinerate nonradioactive, simulated power-plant waste and on determining the adequacy of immobilization in a soda-lime silica matrix. Further evaluation of the system will involve a demonstration of the combustion and containment of radioactive waste. In preparation for this next phase of the program, preliminary investigation and design work were conducted during the past six months. 5 figures, 1 table

  2. Optimization of oil-mixture “hot” pumping in main oil pipelines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bekibayev, T. T.; Zhapbasbayev, U. K.; Ramazanova, G. I.

    2017-10-01

    The optimal conditions for high pour point and high-viscosity oil transportation through the main oil pipeline sections are determined. The optimization of “hot” pumping is investigated by determining the energy-saving operating conditions of pumps and heating furnaces. The objective function of optimality for the pipeline section with several stations is determined by a minimum costs of energy consumed by pumps and heating furnaces. The problem solving algorithm is constructed by new dynamic programming approach. The problem is divided into many overlapping subtasks with finding the optimal substructure. The object of each subtask is the cost function of pumps and heating furnaces at the stations.

  3. Sintering furnace for remote fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, W.W.

    1978-10-01

    Component testing and evaluation of a chemical vapor deposition Re/W muffle has been initiated. Hydrogen permeation testing and thermal cycling behavior will be evaluated. Fabrication of prototype 10-12 Kg furnace is scheduled for completion late in 1979, at which time testing of the system will be initiated

  4. Blast furnace hearth lining: post mortem analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almeida, Bruno Vidal de; Vernilli Junior, Fernando, E-mail: bva@usp.br [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Lorena, SP (Brazil). Escola de Engenharia; Neves; Elton Silva; Silva, Sidiney Nascimento [Companhia Siderugica Nacional (CSN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-05-15

    The main refractory lining of blast furnace hearth is composed by carbon blocks that operates in continuous contact with hot gases, liquid slag and hot metal, in temperatures above 1550 deg C for 24 hours a day. To fully understand the wear mechanism that acts in this refractory layer system it was performed a Post Mortem study during the last partial repair of this furnace. The samples were collected from different parts of the hearth lining and characterized using the following techniques: Bulk Density and Apparent Porosity, X-Ray Fluorescence, X-ray Diffraction, Scanning Electron Microscopy with Energy-dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy. The results showed that the carbon blocks located at the opposite side of the blast furnace tap hole kept its main physicochemical characteristics preserved even after the production of 20x10{sup 6} ton of hot metal. However, the carbon blocks around the Tap Hole showed infiltration by hot metal and slag and it presents a severe deposition of zinc and sulfur over its carbon flakes. The presence of these elements is undesired because it reduces the physic-chemical stability of this refractory system. This deposition found in the carbon refractory is associated with impurities present in the both coke and the sinter feed used in this blast furnace in the last few years. (author)

  5. Electric melting furnace for waste solidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masaki, Toshio.

    1990-01-01

    To avoid electric troubles or reduction of waste processing performance even when platinum group elements are contained in wastes to be applied with glass solidification. For this purpose, a side electrode is disposed to the side wall of a melting vessel and a central electrode serving as a counter electrode is disposed about at the center inside the melting vessel. With such a constitution, if conductive materials are deposited at the bottom of the furnace or the bottom of the melting vessel, heating currents flow selectively between the side electrode and the central electrode. Accordingly, no electric currents flow through the conductive deposits thereby enabling to prevent abnormal heating in the bottom of the furnace. Further, heat generated by electric supply between the side electrode and the central electrode is supplied efficiently to raw material on the surface of the molten glass liquid to improve the processing performance. Further, disposition of the bottom electrode at the bottom of the furnace enables current supply between the central electrode and the bottom electrode to facilitate the temperature control for the molten glass in the furnace than in the conventional structure. (I.S.)

  6. INVESTIGATIONS ON OPERATION OF ROTARY TILTING FURNACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Rovin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotary tilting furnace (RTF is a new type of fuel furnaces, that provide the most efficient heating and recycling of polydisperse materials. The paper describes results of the investigations on thermal processes in the RTF, movement of materials and non-isothermal gas flow during kiln rotary process. The investigations have been carried out while using physical and computer simulations and under actual operating conditions applying the pilot plant. Results of the research have served as a basis for development of recommendations on the RTF calculations and designing and they have been also used for constructional design of a rotary tilting furnace for heating and melting of cast iron chips, reduction smelting of steel mill scale, melting of aluminum scrap, melting of lead from battery scrap. These furnaces have a high thermal efficiency (~50 %, technological flexibility, high productivity and profitability. Proven technical solutions for recycling of ferrous and non-ferrous metals develop the use of RTF in the foundry and metallurgical industry as the main technological unit for creation of cost-effective small-tonnage recycling of metal waste generated at the plants. The research results open prospects for organization of its own production for high-quality charging material in Belarus in lieu of imported primary metal. The proposed technology makes it possible to solve environmental challenge pertaining to liquidation of multi-tonnage heaps of metal-containing wastes.

  7. Thermal Analysis of an Industrial Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirko Filipponi

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Industries, which are mainly responsible for high energy consumption, need to invest in research projects in order to develop new managing systems for rational energy use, and to tackle the devastating effects of climate change caused by human behavior. The study described in this paper concerns the forging industry, where the production processes generally start with the heating of steel in furnaces, and continue with other processes, such as heat treatments and different forms of machining. One of the most critical operations, in terms of energy loss, is the opening of the furnace doors for insertion and extraction operations. During this time, the temperature of the furnaces decreases by hundreds of degrees in a few minutes. Because the dispersed heat needs to be supplied again through the combustion of fuel, increasing the consumption of energy and the pollutant emissions, the evaluation of the amount of lost energy is crucial for the development of systems which can contain this loss. To perform this study, CFD simulation software was used. Results show that when the door opens, because of temperature and pressure differences between the furnace and the ambient air, turbulence is created. Results also show that the amount of energy lost for an opening of 10 min for radiation, convection and conduction is equal to 5606 MJ where convection is the main contributor, with 5020 MJ. The model created, after being validated, has been applied to perform other simulations, in order to improve the energy performance of the furnace. Results show that reducing the opening time of the door saves energy and limits pollutant emissions.

  8. Temperature profiles in high gradient furnaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fripp, A. L.; Debnam, W. J.; Woodell, G. A.; Berry, R.; Crouch, R. K.; Sorokach, S. K.

    1989-01-01

    Accurate temperature measurement of the furnace environment is very important in both the science and technology of crystal growth as well as many other materials processing operations. A high degree of both accuracy and precision is acutely needed in the directional solidification of compound semiconductors in which the temperature profiles control the freezing isotherm which, in turn, affects the composition of the growth with a concomitant feedback perturbation on the temperature profile. Directional solidification requires a furnace configuration that will transport heat through the sample being grown. A common growth procedure is the Bridgman Stockbarger technique which basically consists of a hot zone and a cold zone separated by an insulator. In a normal growth procedure the material, contained in an ampoule, is melted in the hot zone and is then moved relative to the furnace toward the cold zone and solidification occurs in the insulated region. Since the primary path of heat between the hot and cold zones is through the sample, both axial and radial temperature gradients exist in the region of the growth interface. There is a need to know the temperature profile of the growth furnace with the crystal that is to be grown as the thermal load. However it is usually not feasible to insert thermocouples inside an ampoule and thermocouples attached to the outside wall of the ampoule have both a thermal and a mechanical contact problem as well as a view angle problem. The objective is to present a technique of calibrating a furnace with a thermal load that closely matches the sample to be grown and to describe procedures that circumvent both the thermal and mechanical contact problems.

  9. Research achievement report for fiscal 1998 on the development of high-performance industrial furnaces. Research and development of high-performance industrial furnaces and the like (2); 1998 nendo koseino kogyoro no kaihatsu ni kansuru kenkyu seika hokokusho. Koseino kogyoro nado ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu (2)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    Volume 2 named above contains part of research achievement reports and individual research achievement reports. The aluminum melting furnace working group research achievement report covers aluminum melting furnace operating patterns, concentrated impinging flame mode and dispersed impinging flame mode, and honeycomb and ball structures in heat storing bodies. The tubular heater working group report mentions the application of this facility to oil heating furnaces, studies and investigations for the embodiment of real systems using the tubular heater, and tests conducted in a furnace with plural heating tube lines. The individual research achievement reports elaborate on the development of technologies of heat transfer optimization under unsteady conditions in the steel material heating process, research and development of high-efficiency heat transfer technologies, development of heating furnace geometry optimization technologies, research and development of a high-performance controlled atmosphere heat treatment furnace, development of high-efficiency heat transfer technologies in high-temperature jet flame heating, development of heat uniformity improvement technologies for example for the steel material heating process, construction of optimum combustion control technologies for the regenerative burner furnace, research concerning laser-aided measurement in industrial furnaces, etc. (NEDO)

  10. AUTOMATION OF GLASS TEMPERING FURNACE BY USING PLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah BÜYÜKYILDIZ

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a furnace which is used for observation of environments under high temperature, and also used for manufacturing of glasses which are resisted to high temperature has been designed and implemented. Automation of this system has been done by using PLC. Operating parameters of furnace such as materials entering, the furnace, the local temperature control of furnace, cooling control and materials outing have been sensed with Hall Effect Sensor. Furthermore, the observation of parameters of furnace on screen has been provided with SCADA software. Obtained products have been shown the system works successfully.

  11. Energy from wood - part 2: manual wood furnaces and pellet furnaces; Holzenergie, Teil 2: Handbeschickte Holzfeuerungen und Pelletheizungen - Energie du bois, Partie 2: installations de chauffage au bois a alimentation manuelle et installations de chauffage a granules de bois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nussbaumer, T. [Verenum, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2000-07-01

    The paper gives an overview on the technologies and applications of wood furnaces for residential heating and a methodology of the furnace types. With respect to the heat utilization, two systems are distinguished: Stoves for direct heat supply to the room, and boilers with heat transfer to water for central heating and domestic hot water. With respect to the combustion technology, furnaces with updraft and down-draft combustion are distinguished. The conventional updraft system with natural draft is most common for wood stoves and enables a simple operation. However, the combustion quality and efficiency can be increased with application of forced draft and down-draft combustion. This is most common in modern wood boilers and enables good mixing of combustible gases with air and allows an operation at low excess air. The principle of updraft and down-draft combustion are described and typical applications are discussed. Furthermore, modern control systems including lambda-control for the optimization of efficiency and emissions are described. As an alternative to log wood, wood pellets can be utilized for residential heating in either pellet stoves or pellet boilers. Thanks to the low water content and the well specified, standardized properties of wood pellets, pellet furnaces achieve high efficiencies and low emissions. Depending on the specific needs, different types of fuel storage and handling systems are available that allow a full automatic operation. In the case of pellet stoves, the fuel is usually stored in bags and the storage tank in the stove allows an independent operation for at least 24 hours. For pellet boilers, a fuel silo with a capacity of one season and with automatic feeding of the boiler is applied. (author)

  12. Power and efficiency of wood burning furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirsch, D.; Froment, G.; Kubala, J.F.; Chantret, A.; Renault, G.

    1982-06-01

    In 1981 an automated test rig for wood boilers was set up at the COSTIC. The special characteristics of wood combustion made it necessary to develop a computerized measuring method that enables the progress of this combustion to be followed step by step in the furnaces. After a number of preliminary adjustments, it is possible to move on to a series of tests during which the essential difficulty is to assess the wood consumption.

  13. GAS MOVEMENT IN ROTARY TILTING FURNACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Rovin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of studies of gas movement and heat and mass transfer processes in the rotary tilting furnace (RTF at the heat treatment of disperse materials. The study was performed through computer modeling using software packages ANSYS CFX and Solid Works Flow Simulation. The results were used to design RTF with different capacity and application and helped to improve their technical and economic characteristics.

  14. Improvements in or relating to furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spooner, J.A.

    1978-01-01

    A furnace is described having crucibles made of carbon and suitable for producing metal carbides, particularly single or mixed carbides of uranium and plutonium, from oxides. The internal surface of each crucible, which surface would otherwise in use contact the crucible contents, is covered by a layer of a refractory substance other than carbon, to which a carbide has a substantially lesser tendency to stick than to carbon. (U.K.)

  15. Effects of furnace atmosphere pressure on fabrication process of hollow glass microspheres in drop-tower furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Xiaobo; Li Bo; Chen Sufen; Zhang Zhanwen; Shi Tao

    2010-01-01

    To fabricate high quality hollow glass microspheres (HGMs)by sol-gel technology for inertial confinement fusion (ICF), the effects of furnace atmosphere pressure on the transformation process from gel particles to HGMs and the resulting quality of HGMs were investigated by numerical simulation and experiments. The results show that decreasing of furnace atmosphere pressure can increase diameter of HGMs and decrease wall thickness of HGMs. Decreasing furnace atmosphere pressure can extend the refining time of liquid HGMs, however, the heat transfer coefficient between liquid and furnace atmosphere pressure decreases significantly with the decreasing of furnace atmosphere pressure. As a result, the refining degree and the quality of HGMs descend quickly with furnace atmosphere pressure. When the furnace atmosphere pressure is lower than 0.5 x 10 5 Pa, the sphericity, concentricity and surface finish can not satisfy the restrict requirements of ICF targets. (authors)

  16. Ultra-high vacuum compatible image furnace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neubauer, A; Boeuf, J; Bauer, A; Russ, B; Löhneysen, H v; Pfleiderer, C

    2011-01-01

    We report the design of an optical floating-zone furnace for single-crystal growth under ultra-high vacuum (UHV) compatible conditions. The system is based on a commercial image furnace, which has been refurbished to be all-metal sealed. Major changes concern the use of UHV rotary feedthroughs and bespoke quartz-metal seals with metal-O-rings at the lamp stage. As a consequence, the procedure of assembling the furnace for crystal growth is changed completely. Bespoke heating jackets permit to bake the system. For compounds with elevated vapor pressures, the ultra-high vacuum serves as a precondition for the use of a high-purity argon atmosphere up to 10 bar. In the ferromagnetic Heusler compound Cu(2)MnAl, the improvements of purity result in an improved stability of the molten zone, grain selection, and, hence, single-crystal growth. Similar improvements are observed in traveling-solvent floating-zone growth of the antiferromagnetic Heusler compound Mn(3)Si. These improvements underscore the great potential of optical float-zoning for the growth of high-purity single crystals of intermetallic compounds.

  17. Fuel oil and kerosene sales 1997

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-08-01

    The Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales 1997 report provides information, illustrations and state-level statistical data on end-use sales of kerosene; No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4 distillate fuel oil; and residual fuel oil. State-level kerosene sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, farm, and all other uses. State-level distillate sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, oil company, railroad, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, farm, on-highway, off highway construction, and other uses. State-level residual fuel sales include volumes for commercial, industrial, oil company, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, and other uses. 24 tabs

  18. Fuel oil and kerosene sales 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-08-01

    The Fuel Oil and Kerosene Sales 1997 report provides information, illustrations and state-level statistical data on end-use sales of kerosene; No. 1, No. 2, and No. 4 distillate fuel oil; and residual fuel oil. State-level kerosene sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, farm, and all other uses. State-level distillate sales include volumes for residential, commercial, industrial, oil company, railroad, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, farm, on-highway, off highway construction, and other uses. State-level residual fuel sales include volumes for commercial, industrial, oil company, vessel bunkering, military, electric utility, and other uses. 24 tabs.

  19. Treating hydrocarbon oils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, R.; MacIvor, W.

    1869-09-01

    The treatment of hydrocarbon oils, such as coal or shale oils, paraffin oils, and petroleum, either in the crude or more or less refined state has the object of reducing the specific gravity and otherwise improving the qualities of such oils. The oil to be treated is put into any ordinary still and distilled. The vapor escaping during the distillation is passed through one or more heating vessels or chambers and exposed to the heat necessary to produce the change. The heating vessels or chambers may be made of metal, clay, or any other material adapted to endure heat, and they may be made of any desired form, or they may be constituted of a coil of metal pipes or a series of tubes such as are used for heating air for blast furnaces.

  20. Residential Mechanical Precooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, a. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This research conducted by the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team evaluated mechanical air conditioner pre-cooling strategies in homes throughout the United States. EnergyPlus modeling evaluated two homes with different performance characteristics in seven climates. Results are applicable to new construction homes and most existing homes built in the last 10 years, as well as fairly efficient retrofitted homes.

  1. Residential Solar Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulkerson, Dan

    This publication contains student and teacher instructional materials for a course in residential solar systems. The text is designed either as a basic solar course or as a supplement to extend student skills in areas such as architectural drafting, air conditioning and refrigeration, and plumbing. The materials are presented in four units…

  2. Pellet reduction properties under different blast furnace operating conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Leimalm, Ulrika

    2006-01-01

    One of the aims of modern blast furnace (BF) ironmaking is to reduce coke consumption. One way is to increase the injection of reduction agents, such as pulverized coal. An increase in pulverized coal injection rate (PCR) will affect the blast furnace process and the conditions for iron oxide reduction. Changes in PCR influence the composition of the ascending gases and the in-furnace temperature isotherms. The performed tests involve full-scale, pilot and laboratory investigations. Raw mater...

  3. Comparison of Predictive Control Methods for High Consumption Industrial Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goran Stojanovski

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe several predictive control approaches for high consumption industrial furnace control. These furnaces are major consumers in production industries, and reducing their fuel consumption and optimizing the quality of the products is one of the most important engineer tasks. In order to demonstrate the benefits from implementation of the advanced predictive control algorithms, we have compared several major criteria for furnace control. On the basis of the analysis, some important conclusions have been drawn.

  4. Slag wool manufacturing from blast furnace slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Володимир Петрович Руських

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Slag wool is the most expensive and valuable product of blast furnace slag processing. Slag wool is in great demand nowadays. The article highlights the factors influencing the mineral wool quality: chemical composition that determines the acidity of the module, the temperature of the molten slag and the required slag jet thickness consistency. Mineral wool is produced by blowing air or steam into a jet of molten slag. As a result of it the slag crushes into droplets stretching. The resulting wool contains 5% slag and 95% air. The quality of the obtained slag wool depends on the module acidity of the slag. The blast furnace slags of «Ilyich iron and steel works of Mariupol» and «Azovstal iron & steel works» are the main (short slags – they give short fibers. To obtain high-quality long fiber wool it is necessary to add admixtures into basic blast furnace slag to reduce its basicity. As a result of the fuel and energy rising prices and the necessity to reduce the slag wool cost it is necessary to develop a new technology with fiery-liquid slag, with the removal of iron compounds and sulphur from the melts and the introduction of corrective additives to improve the quality of slag wool. Good thermal conductivity (about 0,03 kcal/m∙h∙°C and other indicators (resistance, volume weight make it possible to use the materials from slag wool (pads, rigid and semi-rigid plates as heat and sound insulating materials

  5. Carbon Tubular Morphologies in Blast Furnace Coke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanislav S. Gornostayev

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports on the first occurrence of microscale carbon tubular morphologies (CMTs in a blast furnace (BF coke. The CMTs were probably formed as a result of the conversion of solid disordered carbon via liquid phase metal particles involving a gas phase containing a substantial amount of N2 and O2. The presence of CMTs may lie behind the generation of the smallest fraction of fines in BF exhaust dust. If the amount of CMTs present in the BF exhausts gases at any particular metallurgical site proves to be substantial, it could become a subject of environmental concern.

  6. 76 FR 76328 - Energy Conservation Program: Enforcement of Regional Standards for Residential Furnaces and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-07

    ... their statement in PDF (preferred), Microsoft Word or Excel, WordPerfect, or text (ASCII) file format... (preferred), Microsoft Word or Excel, WordPerfect, or text (ASCII) file format. Provide documents that are..., Confidential business information, Energy conservation, Household appliances, Imports. Issued in Washington, DC...

  7. 75 FR 17075 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-05

    ...-fuel energy consumption over a full-year cycle, thereby satisfying EISA 2007 requirements for fossil... that reflects standby mode and off mode energy consumption for both fossil fuel and electricity. This... recognizes that combining fossil fuel (natural gas) and electricity consumption based on their point-of-use...

  8. 76 FR 37407 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Furnaces and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    ... Presumption Payback Period G. National Impact Analysis-National Energy Savings and Net Present Value 1... Standards Cases 3. Installed Cost per Unit 4. National Energy Savings 5. Net Present Value of Consumer.... National Impact Analysis a. Significance of Energy Savings b. Net Present Value of Consumer Costs and...

  9. 78 FR 675 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedure for Residential Furnaces and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-04

    ... Standard for Gas-Fired Low Pressure Steam and Hot Water Boilers (2010) Report No. ANSI Z21.13-2010, CSA 4.9... heating and water heating from a single primary energy source.\\14\\ The two major types of combination... energy use. I. Other Issues DOE seeks comments on other relevant issues that would affect the test...

  10. 77 FR 40530 - Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Furnace Fans: Public Meeting and Availability of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-10

    ... impacts. The preliminary TSD that presents the methodology and results of each of these analyses is... in present-value terms. The PBP represents the number of years needed to recover the increase in.... E. National Impact Analysis The NIA estimates the national energy savings (NES) and the net present...

  11. 78 FR 41265 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Residential Furnaces and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-10

    ... requires agencies to examine the constitutional and statutory authority supporting any action that would..., section 3(a) of Executive Order 12988, ``Civil Justice Reform,'' 61 FR 4729 (Feb. 7, 1996), imposes on...

  12. Soot formation in a blast furnace - Prediction via a parametric study, using detailed kinetic modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordstroem, T.; Kilpinen, P.; Hupa, M. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland). Combustion Chemistry Group

    1996-12-31

    The objective of this work has been to investigate the soot formation in a blast furnace fired with heavy fuel oil, using detailed kinetic modelling. This work has been concentrated on parameter studies that could explain under which conditions soot is formed and how that formation could be avoided. The parameters investigated were temperature, pressure, stoichiometric ratio, pyrolysis gas composition and reactor model. The calculations were based on a reaction mechanism that consists of 100 species and 446 reactions including polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAM) up to 7 aromatic rings SULA 2 Research Programme; 4 refs.

  13. Energy Efficiency Model for Induction Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Asit Kr

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, a system of a solar induction furnace unit was design to find out a new solution for the existing AC power consuming heating process through Supervisory control and data acquisition system. This unit can be connected directly to the DC system without any internal conversion inside the device. The performance of the new system solution is compared with the existing one in terms of power consumption and losses. This work also investigated energy save, system improvement, process control model in a foundry induction furnace heating framework corresponding to PV solar power supply. The results are analysed for long run in terms of saving energy and integrated process system. The data acquisition system base solar foundry plant is an extremely multifaceted system that can be run over an almost innumerable range of operating conditions, each characterized by specific energy consumption. Determining ideal operating conditions is a key challenge that requires the involvement of the latest automation technologies, each one contributing to allow not only the acquisition, processing, storage, retrieval and visualization of data, but also the implementation of automatic control strategies that can expand the achievement envelope in terms of melting process, safety and energy efficiency.

  14. Guidelines for residential commissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wray, Craig P.; Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.

    2003-01-31

    Currently, houses do not perform optimally or even as many codes and forecasts predict, largely because they are field assembled and there is no consistent process to identify problems or to correct them. Residential commissioning is a solution to this problem. This guide is the culmination of a 30-month project that began in September 1999. The ultimate objective of the project is to increase the number of houses that undergo commissioning, which will improve the quality, comfort, and safety of homes for California citizens. The project goal is to lay the groundwork for a residential commissioning industry in California focused on end-use energy and non-energy issues. As such, we intend this guide to be a beginning and not an end. Our intent is that the guide will lead to the programmatic integration of commissioning with other building industry processes, which in turn will provide more value to a single site visit for people such as home energy auditors and raters, home inspectors, and building performance contractors. Project work to support the development of this guide includes: a literature review and annotated bibliography, which facilitates access to 469 documents related to residential commissioning published over the past 20 years (Wray et al. 2000), an analysis of the potential benefits one can realistically expect from commissioning new and existing California houses (Matson et al. 2002), and an assessment of 107 diagnostic tools for evaluating residential commissioning metrics (Wray et al. 2002). In this guide, we describe the issues that non-experts should consider in developing a commissioning program to achieve the benefits we have identified. We do this by providing specific recommendations about: how to structure the commissioning process, which diagnostics to use, and how to use them to commission new and existing houses. Using examples, we also demonstrate the potential benefits of applying the recommended whole-house commissioning approach to

  15. Detailed residential electric determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-06-01

    Data on residential loads has been collected from four residences in real time. The data, measured at 5-second intervals for 53 days of continuous operation, were statistically characterized. An algorithm was developed and incorporated into the modeling code SOLCEL. Performance simulations with SOLCEL using these data as well as previous data collected over longer time intervals indicate that no significant errors in system value are introduced through the use of long-term average data.

  16. Heat pipes and use of heat pipes in furnace exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polcyn, Adam D.

    2010-12-28

    An array of a plurality of heat pipe are mounted in spaced relationship to one another with the hot end of the heat pipes in a heated environment, e.g. the exhaust flue of a furnace, and the cold end outside the furnace. Heat conversion equipment is connected to the cold end of the heat pipes.

  17. Development of a cylindrical gas-fired furnace for reycling ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study presents the development of a cylindrical gas-fired furnace, which could be used for recycling aluminum in small-scale foundries in Nigeria. The crucible, combustion chamber, suspension shaft and bearings were appropriately sized. The furnace chamber was 410 mm high and 510 mm diameter and had a ...

  18. Estimation of slagging in furnaces; Kuonaavuuden ennustaminen kivihiilen poelypoltossa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobson, T.; Jaeaeskelaeinen, K.; Oeini, J.; Koskiahde, A.; Jokiniemi, J.; Pyykkoenen, J. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    Understanding and estimation of slagging in furnaces is essential in the design of new power plants with high steam values or in modifications like low-NO{sub x} retrofits in existing furnaces. Major slagging yields poor efficiency, difficult operation and high maintenance costs of the plant. The aim of the project is to develop a computational model for slagging in pulverized coal combustion. The model is based on Computer Controlled Scanning Electron Microscopy (CCSEM) analysis of mineral composition of the coal and physical models for behaviour of minerals inside a furnace. The analyzed mineral particles are classified to five composition classes and distributed to calculational coal particles if internal minerals of coal. The calculational coal particles and the external minerals are traced in the furnace to find out the behaviour of minerals inside the furnace. If the particle tracing indicates that the particle hits the heat transfer surface of the furnace the viscosity of the particle is determined to see if particle is sticky. The model will be implemented to 3D computational fluid dynamics based furnace simulation environment Ardemus which predicts the fluid dynamics, heat transfer and combustion in a furnace. (orig.)

  19. Method of operating a centrifugal plasma arc furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kujawa, S.T.; Battleson, D.M.; Rademacher, E.L. Jr.; Cashell, P.V.; Filius, K.D.; Flannery, P.A.; Whitworth, C.G.

    1998-01-01

    A centrifugal plasma arc furnace is used to vitrify contaminated soils and other waste materials. An assessment of the characteristics of the waste is performed prior to introducing the waste into the furnace. Based on the assessment, a predetermined amount of iron is added to each batch of waste. The waste is melted in an oxidizing atmosphere into a slag. The added iron is oxidized into Fe 3 O 4 . Time of exposure to oxygen is controlled so that the iron does not oxidize into Fe 2 O 3 . Slag in the furnace remains relatively non-viscous and consequently it pours out of the furnace readily. Cooled and solidified slag produced by the furnace is very resistant to groundwater leaching. The slag can be safely buried in the earth without fear of contaminating groundwater. 3 figs

  20. Development and Validation of a 3-Dimensional CFB Furnace Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vepsäläinen, Arl; Myöhänen, Karl; Hyppäneni, Timo; Leino, Timo; Tourunen, Antti

    At Foster Wheeler, a three-dimensional CFB furnace model is essential part of knowledge development of CFB furnace process regarding solid mixing, combustion, emission formation and heat transfer. Results of laboratory and pilot scale phenomenon research are utilized in development of sub-models. Analyses of field-test results in industrial-scale CFB boilers including furnace profile measurements are simultaneously carried out with development of 3-dimensional process modeling, which provides a chain of knowledge that is utilized as feedback for phenomenon research. Knowledge gathered by model validation studies and up-to-date parameter databases are utilized in performance prediction and design development of CFB boiler furnaces. This paper reports recent development steps related to modeling of combustion and formation of char and volatiles of various fuel types in CFB conditions. Also a new model for predicting the formation of nitrogen oxides is presented. Validation of mixing and combustion parameters for solids and gases are based on test balances at several large-scale CFB boilers combusting coal, peat and bio-fuels. Field-tests including lateral and vertical furnace profile measurements and characterization of solid materials provides a window for characterization of fuel specific mixing and combustion behavior in CFB furnace at different loads and operation conditions. Measured horizontal gas profiles are projection of balance between fuel mixing and reactions at lower part of furnace and are used together with both lateral temperature profiles at bed and upper parts of furnace for determination of solid mixing and combustion model parameters. Modeling of char and volatile based formation of NO profiles is followed by analysis of oxidizing and reducing regions formed due lower furnace design and mixing characteristics of fuel and combustion airs effecting to formation ofNO furnace profile by reduction and volatile-nitrogen reactions. This paper presents

  1. 'Nothing works' in secure residential youth care?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souverein, F.A.; van der Helm, G.H.P.; Stams, G.J.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    A debate about the effectiveness of secure residential youth care is currently going on. While some continue to support secure residential youth care, others conclude that ‘nothing works’ in secure residential youth care, and argue that non-residential treatment is superior to secure residential

  2. Re-thinking residential mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ham, Maarten; Findlay, Allan M.

    2015-01-01

    While researchers are increasingly re-conceptualizing international migration, far less attention has been devoted to re-thinking short-distance residential mobility and immobility. In this paper we harness the life course approach to propose a new conceptual framework for residential mobility research. We contend that residential mobility and immobility should be re-conceptualized as relational practices that link lives through time and space while connecting people to structural conditions. Re-thinking and re-assessing residential mobility by exploiting new developments in longitudinal analysis will allow geographers to understand, critique and address pressing societal challenges. PMID:27330243

  3. Large-Scale Residential Demolition

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA provides resources for handling residential demolitions or renovations. This includes planning, handling harmful materials, recycling, funding, compliance assistance, good practices and regulations.

  4. Holden gas-fired furnace baseline data. Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weatherspoon, K.A.

    1996-11-01

    The Holden gas-fired furnace is used in the enriched uranium recovery process to dry and combust small batches of combustibles. The ash is further processed. The furnace operates by allowing a short natural gas flame to burn over the face of a wall of porous fire brick on two sides of the furnace. Each firing wall uses two main burners and a pilot burner to heat the porous fire brick to a luminous glow. Regulators and orifice valves are used to provide a minimum gas pressure of 4 in. water column at a rate of approximately 1,450 scf/h to the burners. The gas flow rate was calculated by determining the gas flow appropriate for the instrumentation in the gas line. Observed flame length and vendor literature were used to calculate pilot burner gas consumption. Air for combustion, purging, and cooling is supplied by a single blower. Rough calculations of the air-flow distribution in piping entering the furnace show that air flow to the burners approximately agrees with the calculated natural gas flow. A simple on/off control loop is used to maintain a temperature of 1,000 F in the furnace chamber. Hoods and glove boxes provide contamination control during furnace loading and unloading and ash handling. Fan EF-120 exhausts the hoods, glove boxes, and furnace through filters to Stack 33. A review of the furnace safety shows that safety is ensured by design, interlocks, procedure, and a safety system. Recommendations for safety improvements include installation of both a timed ignition system and a combustible-gas monitor near the furnace. Contamination control in the area could be improved by redesigning the loading hood face and replacing worn gaskets throughout the system. 33 refs., 16 figs

  5. Residential Mechanical Precooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, Alea [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States). Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI); Hoeschele, Marc [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States). Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI)

    2014-12-01

    Residential air conditioning (AC) represents a challenging load for many electric utilities with poor load factors. Mechanical precooling improves the load factor by shifting cooling operation from on-peak to off-peak hours. This provides benefits to utilities and the electricity grid, as well as to occupants who can take advantage of time-of-use (TOU) electricity rates. Performance benefits stem from reduced compressor cycling, and shifting condensing unit operation to earlier periods of the day when outdoor temperatures are more favorable to operational efficiency. Finding solutions that save energy and reduce demand on the electricity grid is an important national objective and supports key Building America goals. The Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team evaluated mechanical AC precooling strategies in homes throughout the United States. EnergyPlus modeling was used to evaluate two homes with different performance characteristics in seven climates. Results are applicable to new construction homes and most existing homes built in the last 10 years, as well as fairly efficient retrofitted homes. A successful off-peak AC strategy offers the potential for increased efficiency and improved occupant comfort, and promotes a more reliable and robust electricity grid. Demand response capabilities and further integration with photovoltaic TOU generation patterns provide additional opportunities to flatten loads and optimize grid impacts.

  6. State energy price projections for the residential sector, 1992--1993

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this report, State Energy Price Projections for the Residential Sector, 1992--1993, is to provide projections of State-level residential prices for 1992 and 1993 for the following fuels: electricity, natural gas, heating oil, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), kerosene, and coal. Prices for 1991 are also included for comparison purposes. This report also explains the methodology used to produce these estimates and the limitations

  7. Innovation in electric arc furnaces scientific basis for selection

    CERN Document Server

    Toulouevski, Yuri N

    2013-01-01

    This book equips a reader with knowledge necessary for critical analysis of  innovations in electric arc furnaces and helps to select the most effective ones and for their successful implementation. The book also covers general issues related to history of development, current state and prospects of steelmaking in Electric Arc Furnaces. Therefore, it can be useful for everybody who studies metallurgy, including students of colleges and universities. The modern concepts of mechanisms of Arc Furnace processes are are discussed in the book at the level sufficient to solve practical problems: To help readers lacking knowledge required in the field of heat transfer as well as hydro-gas dynamics, it contains several chapters which provide the required minimum of information in these fields of science. In order to better assess different innovations, the book describes experience of the application of similar innovations in open-hearth furnaces and oxygen converters. Some promising ideas on key issues regarding int...

  8. Radial furnace shows promise for growing straight boron carbide whiskers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feingold, E.

    1967-01-01

    Radial furnace, with a long graphite vaporization tube, maintains a uniform thermal gradient, favoring the growth of straight boron carbide whiskers. This concept seems to offer potential for both the quality and yield of whiskers.

  9. Elements of the electric arc furnace's environmental management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioana, Adrian; Semenescu, Augustin; Costoiu, Mihnea; Marcu, Dragoş

    2017-12-01

    The paper presents a theoretical and experimental analysis of the polluting generating mechanisms for steel making in the Electric Arc Furnaces (EAF). The scheme for the environment's polluting system through the EAF is designed and presented in this paper. The ecological experimenting consisted of determining by specialized measures of the dust percentage in the evacuated gases from the EAF and of thereof gas pollutants. From the point of view of reducing the impact on the environment, the main problem of the electric arc furnace (EAF) is the optimization of the powder collecting from the process gases, both from the furnace and from the work-area. The paper deals with the best dependence between the aggregate's constructive, functional and technological factors, which are necessary for the furnace's ecologization and for its energetically-technologically performances increasing.

  10. CMOS Thermal Ox and Diffusion Furnace: Tystar Tytan 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:CORAL Names: CMOS Wet Ox, CMOS Dry Ox, Boron Doping (P-type), Phos. Doping (N-Type)This four-stack furnace bank is used for the thermal growth of silicon...

  11. High-temperature diffraction experiments with mirror furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boysen, H.; Frey, F.

    1999-01-01

    The design and performances of the mirror furnace of neutron scattering experiments at high temperatures are described and illustrated by examples. Neutron diffraction is an invaluable tool for investigating the structure of solids at high temperatures. In materials science there is an increasing interest in high temperature physical properties both from a technological and a scientific point of view, including e.g. ceramics, refractories, fuel cells. Most interesting high-temperature compounds are oxides, for which conventional resistance furnaces operating in vacuum cannot be used because of possible oxygen loss and/or decomposition processes. The mirror furnace is the ideal alternative as it is operated in air or any other desired atmosphere and experiments can be performed in situ, i.e. under real working conditions. For example, additional attachments like electrodes on the sample raise no problems. Here, we give a review of the recent investigations using the mirror furnace. (authors)

  12. Optimization of the melting process of electrical furnaces in drenas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Haxhiaj

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The weight, composition and loads are the main parameters of the melting process in electrical furnace. The charge is roasted in rotary furnace. Roasting of charge which consists of Drenas and Albanians ore is done at about 950°C. Also, article has the experimental analyses that modify some parameters of the production which are the reduction of quantity of limestone and the increase of quantity of quartz in the charge. The paper analysis the possibility of mixing the ore from Kosova with lateritic ore from Albania with the aim of reducing the acidity of weight which is loaded in the electrical furnace. The composition of the furnace must satisfy the ratio 1:10 of ore from Kosova and Albania.

  13. Alloying and Casting Furnace for Shape Memory Alloys, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The concept in the proposed project is to create a melting, alloying and casting furnace for the processing titanium based SMA using cold crucible techniques. The...

  14. Modular Distributed Concentrator for Solar Furnace, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This research proposes to develop a lightweight approach to achieving the high concentrations of solar energy needed for a solar furnace achieving temperatures of...

  15. Carburization of stainless steel furnace tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirabal, E.; Molina, C. [Refineria Isla, Curazao, S.A., P.O. Box 3843. Curacao, (Netherlands Antilles); Hau, J.L.; Mayorga, A.G. [PDVSA-Intevep. P.O. Box 76343. Caracas 1070A, Venezuela (Venezuela)

    1998-12-31

    Stainless steel containing molybdenum are usually recommended to resist naphtenic acid corrosion in vacuum heaters. In 1993 the original 5Cr-1/2Mo roof tubes of the furnace in a vacuum unit were replaced by stainless steel 316 Ti to minimize tube replacement and increase heater reliability. Unexpectedly, some of the new tubes failed after only three years of service and just one year after undergoing the last inspection. The damage occurred in the form of deep holes and perforations, starting from the outside tube surface on the fireside. Coke build-up occurred due to severe operating conditions, overheating the tubes on the fireside, above 675 Centigrade. Metallographic and Scanning Electron Microscopy (Sem) examination revealed internal and external carburization of the material due to the presence of coke and combustion ashes, respectively. The increase in the skin metal temperature facilitated the diffusion of carbon from these carbon-rich deposits into the low carbon content material (0.023%). Depletion of chromium at the grain boundaries due to the massive formation of chromium carbides, resulted in a severe intergranular corrosion attack by molten salts rich in vanadium and sulfur produced by asphalt burning. Normal operating practice demands the use of steam for the heater tubes to control coke build-up. This practice had been first reduced and then eliminated, during the past two years prior to the failure, because of economic incentives. This paper describes the root cause analysis conducted to account for these premature tube failures. (Author)

  16. Carburization of stainless steel furnace tubes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirabal, E.; Molina, C.; Hau, J.L.; Mayorga, A.G.

    1998-01-01

    Stainless steel containing molybdenum are usually recommended to resist naphtenic acid corrosion in vacuum heaters. In 1993 the original 5Cr-1/2Mo roof tubes of the furnace in a vacuum unit were replaced by stainless steel 316 Ti to minimize tube replacement and increase heater reliability. Unexpectedly, some of the new tubes failed after only three years of service and just one year after undergoing the last inspection. The damage occurred in the form of deep holes and perforations, starting from the outside tube surface on the fireside. Coke build-up occurred due to severe operating conditions, overheating the tubes on the fireside, above 675 Centigrade. Metallographic and Scanning Electron Microscopy (Sem) examination revealed internal and external carburization of the material due to the presence of coke and combustion ashes, respectively. The increase in the skin metal temperature facilitated the diffusion of carbon from these carbon-rich deposits into the low carbon content material (0.023%). Depletion of chromium at the grain boundaries due to the massive formation of chromium carbides, resulted in a severe intergranular corrosion attack by molten salts rich in vanadium and sulfur produced by asphalt burning. Normal operating practice demands the use of steam for the heater tubes to control coke build-up. This practice had been first reduced and then eliminated, during the past two years prior to the failure, because of economic incentives. This paper describes the root cause analysis conducted to account for these premature tube failures. (Author)

  17. The Flexibility of Pusher Furnace Grate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Słowik J.A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The lifetime of guide grates in pusher furnaces for heat treatment could be increased by raising the flexibility of their structure through, for example, the replacement of straight ribs, parallel to the direction of grate movement, with more flexible segments. The deformability of grates with flexible segments arranged in two orientations, i.e. crosswise (perpendicular to the direction of compression and lengthwise (parallel to the direction of compression, was examined. The compression process was simulated using SolidWorks Simulation program. Relevant regression equations were also derived describing the dependence of force inducing the grate deformation by 0.25 mm ‒ modulus of grate elasticity ‒ on the number of flexible segments in established orientations. These calculations were made in Statistica and Scilab programs. It has been demonstrated that, with the same number of segments, the crosswise orientation of flexible segments increases the grate structure flexibility in a more efficient way than the lengthwise orientation. It has also been proved that a crucial effect on the grate flexibility has only the quantity and orientation of segments (crosswise / lengthwise, while the exact position of segments changes the grate flexibility by less than 1%.

  18. Residential Energy Performance Metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Wright

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Techniques for residential energy monitoring are an emerging field that is currently drawing significant attention. This paper is a description of the current efforts to monitor and compare the performance of three solar powered homes built at Missouri University of Science and Technology. The homes are outfitted with an array of sensors and a data logger system to measure and record electricity production, system energy use, internal home temperature and humidity, hot water production, and exterior ambient conditions the houses are experiencing. Data is being collected to measure the performance of the houses, compare to energy modeling programs, design and develop cost effective sensor systems for energy monitoring, and produce a cost effective home control system.

  19. College residential sleep environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton-Radek, Kathy; Hartley, Andrew

    2013-12-01

    College students regularly report increased sleep disturbances as well as concomitant reductions in performance (e.g., academic grades) upon entering college. Sleep hygiene refers to healthy sleep practices that are commonly used as first interventions in sleep disturbances. One widely used practice of this sort involves arranging the sleep environment to minimize disturbances from excessive noise and light at bedtime. Communal sleep situations such as those in college residence halls do not easily support this intervention. Following several focus groups, a questionnaire was designed to gather self-reported information on sleep disturbances in a college population. The present study used The Young Adult Sleep Environment Inventory (YASEI) and sleep logs to investigate the sleep environment of college students living in residential halls. A summary of responses indicated that noise and light are significant sleep disturbances in these environments. Recommendations are presented related to these findings.

  20. Mathematical model and software for control of commissioning blast furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirin, N. A.; Onorin, O. P.; Shchipanov, K. A.; Lavrov, V. V.

    2016-09-01

    Blowing-in is a starting period of blast furnace operation after construction or major repair. The current approximation methods of blowing-in burden analysis are based on blowing-in practice of previously commissioned blast furnaces. This area is theoretically underexplored; there are no common scientifically based methods for selection of the burden composition and blast parameters. The purpose of this paper is development and scientific substantiation of the methods for selection of the burden composition and blast parameters in the blast furnace during the blowing-in period. Research methods are based on physical regularities of main processes running in the blast furnace, system analysis, and application of modern principles for development and construction of mathematical models, algorithms and software designed for automated control of complex production processes in metallurgy. As consequence of the research made by the authors the following results have been achieved: 1. A set of mathematical models for analysis of burden arrangement throughout the height of the blast furnace and for selection of optimal blast and gas dynamic parameters has been developed. 2. General principles for selection of the blowing-in burden composition and blast and gas dynamic parameters have been set up. 3. The software for the engineering and process staff of the blast furnace has been developed and introduced in the industry.

  1. Similarity of Ferrosilicon Submerged Arc Furnaces With Different Geometrical Parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Machulec B.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine reasons of unsatisfactory production output regarding one of the 12 MVA furnaces, a comparative analysis with a furnace of higher power that showed a markedly better production output was performed. For comparison of ferrosilicon furnaces with different geometrical parameters and transformer powers, the theory of physical similarity was applied. Geometrical, electrical and thermal parameters of the reaction zones are included in the comparative analysis. For furnaces with different geometrical parameters, it is important to ensure the same temperature conditions of the reaction zones. Due to diverse mechanisms of heat generation, different criteria for determination of thermal and electrical similarity for the upper and lower reaction zones were assumed contrary to other publications. The parameter c3 (Westly was assumed the similarity criterion for the upper furnace zones where heat is generated as a result of resistive heating while the parameter J1 (Jaccard was assumed the similarity criterion for the lower furnace zones where heat is generated due to arc radiation.

  2. Assessing energy efficiency of electric car bottom furnaces intended for thermal energization of minerals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizhegorodov, A. I.

    2017-01-01

    The paper deals with a new concept of electric furnaces for roasting and thermal energization of vermiculite and other minerals with vibrational transportation of a single-layer mass under constant thermal field. The paper presents performance calculation and comparative assessment of energy data for furnaces of different modifications: flame and electric furnaces with three units, furnaces with six units and ones with series-parallel connection of units, and furnaces of new concept.

  3. Quebec residential electricity demand: a microeconometric approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernard, J.T.; Bolduc, D.; Belanger, D.

    1996-01-01

    An economic analysis of Quebec residential electricity demand was studied by micro-simulation models. These structural models describe all components which lead to decisions upon durable holdings and electric appliance usage. The demand for space and water heating systems was evaluated. Recent price change in favour of energy sources other than electricity were taken into account. Price and income elasticity ratios were found to be low, as expected when estimating short term use. The role played by socio-economic variables on the choice of space-water heating systems and electricity use was also examined. Recent conversions have indicated a trend toward preference by households in favour of natural gas or oil over electricity. 18 refs., 5 tabs., 1 fig

  4. Fireside carburization of stainless steel furnace tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirabal, E.; Molina, C. [PDVSA-Refineria Isla, Curayao (Netherlands); Mayorga, A.; Hau, J.L. [PDVSA-Intevep, Caracas (Venezuela)

    1999-11-01

    Most heavy Venezuelan crudes are recognized for having a high total acid number (TAN) that is usually associated with a high tendency to produce naphthenic acid corrosion. To resist this type of corrosion in vacuum heaters, 9Cr-1Mo steel and stainless steels containing molybdenum are usually recommended. In 1993 the original 5Cr-1/2Mo roof tubes of the furnace in a vacuum unit were replaced by stainless steel 316Ti to minimize tube replacement and increase heater reliability. Unexpectedly, some of the new tubes failed after only three years of service, and just one year after undergoing the last turnaround inspection. The damage occurred in the form of deep holes and perforations, starting from the outside tube surface on the fireside. Coke build-up occurred due to severe operating conditions, overheating the tubes on the fireside, above 675 C (1250 F). Metallographic and Scanning Electron Microscopic (SEM) examination revealed internal and external carburization of the material due to the presence of coke and combustion ashes, respectively. The increase in the skin metal temperature facilitated the diffusion of carbon from these carbon-rich deposits into the low carbon content material (0.023 O/O).Depletion of chromium at the grain boundaries due to the massive formation of chromium carbides, resulted in a severe intergranular corrosion attack by molten salts rich in vanadium and sulfur due to asphalt burning. Normal operating practice demands the use of steam for the heater tubes to control coke build-up. This practice had been first reduced and then eliminated, during the past two years prior to the failure, because of economic incentives. This paper describes the root cause analysis conducted to account for these premature tube failures.

  5. Investigation of accretion formation in a blast furnace shaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klima, R.; Hoefer, O.; Chiarotti, U.; Fredman, T.; Hillmann, C.; Raipala, K.; Eriksson, J. (eds.) [BFI Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2005-07-01

    Accretions in the bosh, belly and shaft have a significant influence on blast furnace performance and on the service life of the refractory lining and the cooling system. To analyse the mechanisms of formation and dislodging of accretions, investigations were carried out at four different blast furnaces. Three blast furnaces were equipped with additional measurements to investigate the accretion formation process and to provide information for the development of accretion estimation models. Installation activities included thermocouples, heat-flux meters, staves with instrumentation for heat-flux measurement and a small horizontal lance. The distribution of accretions in the shaft was documented. Samples were taken out of accretions during blast furnace stoppages. Their acquisition was simplified with newly developed sampling devices. The samples were analysed to determine chemical and mineralogical properties and thermal conductivity. Samples were mainly made up of reduced iron or of coke and sinter structures glued together by zinc or alkali compounds. Together with a newly developed offline model for the simulation of accretion formation, different parameters influencing the formation process were identified. The main parameters are: burden material composition, blast furnace operating conditions; and the cooling system. Countermeasures to prevent excessive accretion growth were determined. They offer a better operational control of accretions. Different models to identify accretion formation were developed and an overview was presented. Different models were necessary to distinguish between the various measurement, cooling-system and blast-furnace setups. Most of the models are already implemented and in operational use. For some of them application at other blast furnaces was already realised or is possible. 9 refs., 18 figs., 20 tab.

  6. Residential energy usage comparison: Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, B.A.; Uhlaner, R.T.; Cason, T.N.; Courteau, S. (Quantum Consulting, Inc., Berkeley, CA (United States))

    1991-08-01

    This report presents the research methods and results from the Residential Energy Usage Comparison (REUC) project, a joint effort by Southern California Edison Company (SCE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The REUC project design activities began in early 1986. The REUC project is an innovative demand-site project designed to measure and compare typical energy consumption patterns of energy efficient residential electric and gas appliances. 95 figs., 33 tabs.

  7. A new compact fixed-point blackbody furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraka, K.; Oikawa, H.; Shimizu, T.; Kadoya, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Yamada, Y.; Ishii, J.

    2013-01-01

    More and more NMIs are realizing their primary scale themselves with fixed-point blackbodies as their reference standard. However, commercially available fixed-point blackbody furnaces of sufficient quality are not always easy to obtain. CHINO Corp. and NMIJ, AIST jointly developed a new compact fixed-point blackbody furnace. The new furnace has such features as 1) improved temperature uniformity when compared to previous products, enabling better plateau quality, 2) adoption of the hybrid fixed-point cell structure with internal insulation to improve robustness and thereby to extend lifetime, 3) easily ejectable and replaceable heater unit and fixed-point cell design, leading to reduced maintenance cost, 4) interchangeability among multiple fixed points from In to Cu points. The replaceable cell feature facilitates long term maintenance of the scale through management of a group of fixed-point cells of the same type. The compact furnace is easily transportable and therefore can also function as a traveling standard for disseminating the radiation temperature scale, and for maintaining the scale at the secondary level and industrial calibration laboratories. It is expected that the furnace will play a key role of the traveling standard in the anticipated APMP supplementary comparison of the radiation thermometry scale

  8. Compacting of fly dusts from cupola and electric arc furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Baricová

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Recycling and utilization of dust waste is important not only from the point of view of its usage as an alternative source of raw materials, but regarding the environmental problems also. Dust emissions arise from thermal and chemical or physical processes and mechanical actions. Two kinds of fl y dusts from cupola furnaces (hot and cold blast cupola furnace and fl y dust from electric arc furnace were used by experiments. They were pelletized only with addition of water and briquetted with diff erent addition of water glass, bentonite and cement. Quality of briquettes was tested by compression – strength test and by break down test in green state, after drying and afterstoring (1 month.

  9. Radiometric report for a blast furnace tracing with radioactive isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanase, G.; Tanase, M.

    1995-01-01

    One of the methods to monitor refractory wall of blast furnace is its tracing with radioactive isotopes. The tracer isotope can be detected by two ways: the external dosimetric measurement at the armour of the blast furnace and/or the radiometric measurement of the iron sample charge by charge. Any change in radiometric situation of tracer radioisotope is recorded in a radiometric report. This paper presents an original concept of radiometric report based upon PARADOX and CORELDRAW soft kits. Their advantage are: quick and easy changes, easy recording of current radioactivity of tracer isotope, short history of changes, visual mapping of the tracer isotope and others. In this way we monitored 6 blast furnaces and more than 180 radioactive sources

  10. Loss on Ignition Furnace Acceptance and Operability Test Procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JOHNSTON, D.C.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of this Acceptance Test Procedure and Operability Test Procedure (ATP/OTP)is to verify the operability of newly installed Loss on Ignition (LOI) equipment, including a model 1608FL CMTM Furnace, a dessicator, and balance. The operability of the furnace will be verified. The arrangement of the equipment placed in Glovebox 157-3/4 to perform LOI testing on samples supplied from the Thermal Stabilization line will be verified. In addition to verifying proper operation of the furnace, this ATP/OTP will also verify the air flow through the filters, verify a damper setting to establish and maintain the required differential pressure between the glovebox and the room pressure, and test the integrity of the newly installed HEPA filter. In order to provide objective evidence of proper performance of the furnace, the furnace must heat 15 crucibles, mounted on a crucible rack, to 1000 C, according to a program entered into the furnace controller located outside the glovebox. The glovebox differential pressure will be set to provide the 0.5 to 2.0 inches of water (gauge) negative pressure inside the glovebox with an expected airflow of 100 to 125 cubic feet per minute (cfm) through the inlet filter. The glovebox inlet G1 filter will be flow tested to ensure the integrity of the filter connections and the efficiency of the filter medium. The newly installed windows and glovebox extension, as well as all disturbed joints, will be sonically tested via ultra probe to verify no leaks are present. The procedure for DOS testing of the filter is found in Appendix A

  11. Loss on Ignition Furnace Acceptance and Operability Test Procedure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOHNSON, D.C.

    2000-06-01

    The purpose of this Acceptance Test Procedure and Operability Test Procedure (ATP/OTP)is to verify the operability of newly installed LOI equipment, including a model 1608FL CM{trademark} Furnace, a dessicator, and balance. The operability of the furnace will be verified. The arrangement of the equipment placed in Glovebox 157-3/4 to perform Loss on Ignition (LOI) testing on samples supplied from the Thermal Stabilization line will be verified. In addition to verifying proper operation of the furnace, this ATP/OTP will also verify the air flow through the filters, verify a damper setting to establish and maintain the required differential pressure between the glovebox and the room pressure, and test the integrity of the newly installed HEPA filter. In order to provide objective evidence of proper performance of the furnace, the furnace must heat 15 crucibles, mounted on a crucible rack, to 1000 C, according to a program entered into the furnace controller located outside the glovebox. The glovebox differential pressure will be set to provide the 0.5 to 2.0 inches of water (gauge) negative pressure inside the glovebox with an airflow of 100 to 125 cubic feet per minute (cfm) through the inlet filter. The glovebox inlet Glfilter will he flow tested to ensure the integrity of the filter connections and the efficiency of the filter medium. The newly installed windows and glovebox extension, as well as all disturbed joints, will be sonically tested via ultra probe to verify no leaks are present. The procedure for DOS testing of the filter is found in Appendix A.

  12. Modernization of two gas-fired shaft annealing furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barthof, G.; Porst, G.; Raczek, S.

    1986-04-01

    The objective was to modernize two existing shaft-type annealing furnaces used for the heat treatment of grey iron castings with the aim of reducing the consumption of gaseous fuel, minimize the formation of scale, decrease maintenance expense and apply more automatic control to the annealing process. This was to be achieved by an optimum combination of new types of construction materials and advanced firing and control equipment. The author describes the furnace in its condition prior to and after reconstruction. The operating results obtained after reconstruction were found to justify the costs incurred. The payback period is roughly one year.

  13. Optimizing of Work Arc Furnace to Decopperisation of Flash Slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bydałek A.W.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Discusses an attempt to optimize the operation of an electric furnace slag to be decopperisation suspension of the internal recycling process for the production of copper. The paper presents a new method to recover copper from metallurgical slags in arc-resistance electric furnace. It involves the use of alternating current for a first period reduction, constant or pulsed DC in the final stage of processing. Even distribution of the electric field density in the final phase of melting caused to achieve an extremely low content of metallic copper in the slag phase. They achieved by including the economic effects by reducing the time reduction.

  14. Modelling and control of a diffusion/LPCVD furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewaard, H.; Dekoning, W. L.

    1988-12-01

    Heat transfer inside a cylindrical resistance diffusion/Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition (LPCVD) furnace is studied with the aim of developing an improved temperature controller. A model of the thermal behavior is derived, which covers the important class of furnaces equipped with semitransparent quartz process tubes. The model takes into account the thermal behavior of the thermocouples. Currently used temperature controllers are shown to be highly inefficient for very large scale integration applications. Based on the model an alternative temperature controller of the LQG (linear quadratic Gaussian) type is proposed which features direct wafer temperature control. Some simulation results are given.

  15. Measurement and analysis methods for flicker at arc furnace installations

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.Ing. \\Vith electrical power networks expanding beyond their original design limits and the various non-linear loads on the network, power quality has become an important issue in electrical engineering. Some of the largest non-linear loads on the power network are arc furnaces used to melt various metal orrs and scrap metal. In this study the focus is on fliCker as a power quality issue and more specifically the measurement and analysis methods of flicker at arc furnace installations. By...

  16. Adaptive temperature profile control of a multizone crystal growth furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batur, C.; Sharpless, R. B.; Duval, W. M. B.; Rosenthal, B. N.

    1991-01-01

    An intelligent measurement system is described which is used to assess the shape of a crystal while it is growing inside a multizone transparent furnace. A color video imaging system observes the crystal in real time, and determines the position and the shape of the interface. This information is used to evaluate the crystal growth rate, and to analyze the effects of translational velocity and temperature profiles on the shape of the interface. Creation of this knowledge base is the first step to incorporate image processing into furnace control.

  17. Video monitoring system for enriched uranium casting furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, P.C.

    1978-03-01

    A closed-circuit television (CCTV) system was developed to upgrade the remote-viewing capability on two oralloy (highly enriched uranium) casting furnaces in the Y-12 Plant. A silicon vidicon CCTV camera with a remotely controlled lens and infrared filtering was provided to yield a good-quality video presentation of the furnace crucible as the oralloy material is heated from 25 to 1300/sup 0/C. Existing tube-type CCTV monochrome monitors were replaced with solid-state monitors to increase the system reliability.

  18. Detection of carbon monoxide (CO) as a furnace byproduct using a rotating mask spectrometer.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinclair, Michael B.; Flemming, Jeb Hunter; Blair, Raymond (Honeywell Federal Manufacturing & Technologies, Albuqueruque, NM); Pfeifer, Kent Bryant

    2006-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, in partnership with the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC), has developed an optical-based sensor for the detection of CO in appliances such as residential furnaces. The device is correlation radiometer based on detection of the difference signal between the transmission spectrum of the sample multiplied by two alternating synthetic spectra (called Eigen spectra). These Eigen spectra are derived from a priori knowledge of the interferents present in the exhaust stream. They may be determined empirically for simple spectra, or using a singular value decomposition algorithm for more complex spectra. Data is presented on the details of the design of the instrument and Eigen spectra along with results from detection of CO in background N{sub 2}, and CO in N{sub 2} with large quantities of interferent CO{sub 2}. Results indicate that using the Eigen spectra technique, CO can be measured at levels well below acceptable limits in the presence of strongly interfering species. In addition, a conceptual design is presented for reducing the complexity and cost of the instrument to a level compatible with consumer products.

  19. Wood energy for residential heating in Alaska: current conditions, attitudes, and expected use

    Science.gov (United States)

    David L. Nicholls; Allen M. Brackley; Valerie. Barber

    2010-01-01

    This study considered three aspects of residential wood energy use in Alaska: current conditions and fuel consumption, knowledge and attitudes, and future use and conditions. We found that heating oil was the primary fuel for home heating in southeast and interior Alaska, whereas natural gas was used most often in south-central Alaska (Anchorage). Firewood heating...

  20. Residential cogeneration systems: review of the current technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onovwiona, H.I.; Ugursal, V.I.

    2006-01-01

    There is a growing potential for the use of micro-cogeneration systems in the residential sector because they have the ability to produce both useful thermal energy and electricity from a single source of fuel such as oil or natural gas. In cogeneration systems, the efficiency of energy conversion increases to over 80% as compared to an average of 30-35% for conventional fossil fuel fired electricity generation systems. This increase in energy efficiency can result in lower costs and reduction in greenhouse gas emissions when compared to the conventional methods of generating heat and electricity separately. Cogeneration systems and equipment suitable for residential and small-scale commercial applications like hospitals, hotels or institutional buildings are available, and many new systems are under development. These products are used or aimed for meeting the electrical and thermal demands of a building for space and domestic hot water heating, and potentially, absorption cooling. The aim of this paper is to provide an up-to-date review of the various cogeneration technologies suitable for residential applications. The paper considers the various technologies available and under development for residential, i.e. single-family ( e ) and multi-family (10-30kW t ) applications, with focus on single-family applications. Technologies suitable for residential cogeneration systems include reciprocating internal combustion engine, micro-turbine, fuel cell, and reciprocating external combustion Stirling engine based cogeneration systems. The paper discusses the state of development and the performance, environmental benefits, and costs of these technologies. (author)

  1. Hypospadias and residential proximity to pesticide applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Suzan L; Yang, Wei; Roberts, Eric M; Kegley, Susan E; Wolff, Craig; Guo, Liang; Lammer, Edward J; English, Paul; Shaw, Gary M

    2013-11-01

    Experimental evidence suggests pesticides may be associated with hypospadias. Examine the association of hypospadias with residential proximity to commercial agricultural pesticide applications. The study population included male infants born from 1991 to 2004 to mothers residing in 8 California counties. Cases (n = 690) were ascertained by the California Birth Defects Monitoring Program; controls were selected randomly from the birth population (n = 2195). We determined early pregnancy exposure to pesticide applications within a 500-m radius of mother's residential address, using detailed data on applications and land use. Associations with exposures to physicochemical groups of pesticides and specific chemicals were assessed using logistic regression adjusted for maternal race or ethnicity and age and infant birth year. Forty-one percent of cases and controls were classified as exposed to 57 chemical groups and 292 chemicals. Despite >500 statistical comparisons, there were few elevated odds ratios with confidence intervals that excluded 1 for chemical groups or specific chemicals. Those that did were for monochlorophenoxy acid or ester herbicides; the insecticides aldicarb, dimethoate, phorate, and petroleum oils; and adjuvant polyoxyethylene sorbitol among all cases; 2,6-dinitroaniline herbicides, the herbicide oxyfluorfen, and the fungicide copper sulfate among mild cases; and chloroacetanilide herbicides, polyalkyloxy compounds used as adjuvants, the insecticides aldicarb and acephate, and the adjuvant nonyl-phenoxy-poly(ethylene oxy)ethanol among moderate and severe cases. Odds ratios ranged from 1.9 to 2.9. Most pesticides were not associated with elevated hypospadias risk. For the few that were associated, results should be interpreted with caution until replicated in other study populations.

  2. Metal diffusion from furnace tubes depends on location

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Albright, L.F.

    1988-01-01

    Studies of metal samples from an ethylene furnace on the Texas Gulf Coast, using a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an energy dispersive X-ray analyzer (EDAX), reveal preferential diffusion of chromium, titanium, and aluminum in the coil wall to the surfaces of the tube where they form metal oxides. These elements are gradually depleted from the tube wall. Complicated surface reactions that include the formation of several metal oxides, metal sulfides, and metal-catalyzed coke also occur. Several mechanisms can be postulated as to how metal fines or compounds are formed and transferred in the coil and transfer lines exchanger (TLX) of ethylene units. These surface reactions directly or indirectly affect coke formation in the tube. Finally, creep in the coils is likely a factor in promoting corrosion. Such creep is promoted by variable temperature-time patterns to which a coil is exposed during pyrolysis, and then decoking. Periods of stress and compression occur in the coil walls. Knowledge of the diffusion and reactions that take place can result in better furnace operations and decoking procedures to extend the life of the furnace tubes. In this second installment of a four-part series, photomicrographs of four pyrolysis tube samples from the ethylene furnace indicate that significant differences existed between the outer surfaces, inner surfaces, and cross-sectional areas of the samples. The first installment of the series dealt with coke

  3. Optimization of burners in oxygen-gas fired glass furnace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kersbergen, M.J. van; Beerkens, R.G.C.; Sarmiento-Darkin, W.; Kobayashi, H.

    2012-01-01

    The energy efficiency performance, production stability and emissions of oxygen-fired glass furnaces are influenced by the type of burner, burner nozzle sizes, burner positions, burner settings, oxygen-gas ratios and the fuel distribution among all the burners. These parameters have been optimized

  4. Analysis of combustion efficiency in a pelletizing furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Simões Vieira de Moura

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this research is to assess how much the improvement in the combustion reaction efficiency can reduce fuel consumption, maintaining the same thermal energy rate provided by the reaction in a pelletizing furnace. The furnace for pelletizing iron ore is a complex thermal machine, in terms of energy balance. It contains recirculation fan gases and constant variations in the process, and the variation of a single process variable can influence numerous changes in operating conditions. This study demonstrated how the main variables related to combustion in the burning zone influence fuel consumption (natural gas from the furnace of the Usina de Pelotização de Fábrica (owned by VALE S/A, without changing process conditions that affect production quality. Variables were analyzed regarding the velocity and pressure of the fuel in the burners, the temperature of the combustion air and reactant gases, the conversion rate and the stoichiometric air/fuel ratio of the reaction. For the analysis, actual data of the furnace in operation was used, and for the simulation of chemical reactions, the software Gaseq® was used. The study showed that the adjustment of combustion reaction stoichiometry provides a reduction of 9.25% in fuel consumption, representing a savings of US$ 2.6 million per year for the company.

  5. Studying and improving blast furnace cast iron quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Т. К. Balgabekov

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the article there are presented the results of studies to improve the quality of blast furnace cast iron. It was established that using fire clay suspension for increasing the mould covering heat conductivity improves significantly pig iron salable condition and filtration refining method decreases iron contamination by nonmetallic inclusions by 50 – 70 %.

  6. Utilization of steel melting electric arc furnace slag for development ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    road construction are the only utilization. This slag has been tried to be value added and utilized to ... aggregate in road constructions (Fallman and Kartlen. 1997; Lind et al 2000; Nagataki et al 2000). ..... furnace steel slag in road construction, in Characterization of residues release of contaminants from slag ash ashes (ed.).

  7. Chloride ingress of carbonated blast furnace slag cement mortars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Holthuizen, P.E.; Çopuroglu, O.; Polder, R.B.

    2017-01-01

    In the Netherlands civil engineering structures, such as overpasses, bridges and tunnels are generally built using blast furnace slag cement (BFSC, CEM III/B) concrete, because of its high resistance against chloride penetration. Although the Dutch experience regarding durability performance of BFSC

  8. The Iron Blast Furnace: A Study in Chemical Thermodynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treptow, Richard S.; Jean, Luckner

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the furnace from a chemical thermodynamics perspective. Examines the enthalpy, entropy, and free energy change for each reaction of importance. These properties are interpreted on the molecular level then used to deduce the conditions necessary for each reaction to occur in its intended direction. Chemical kinetics is also discussed.…

  9. Design and Testing of a Cupola Furnace for Micheal Okpara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need to recycle and productively reuse the abundant scrap metals in the country led to this paper. The task therein focused on a design aimed at the modi cation and re-fabrication of an existing cupola furnace in-situ at the Engineering Workshop of Michael Okpara University of Agriculture, Umudike (MOUAU) in Abia ...

  10. Heuristic algorithms for scheduling heat-treatment furnaces of steel ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    job-families and non-identical job sizes. We were led to this problem through a real- world application involving the scheduling of heat-treatment operations of steel casting. The scheduling of furnaces for heat-treatment of castings is of considerable interest as a large proportion of the total production time is the processing ...

  11. Arc - furnace flicker compensation in Ethiopia | Friedlander | Zede ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arc - furnace flicker compensation in Ethiopia. E Friedlander, A Telahun, DJ Young. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

  12. Melting and purification methods in electron beam furnaces. Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stephan, H.

    1975-01-01

    After a general review on the market of electron beam furnaces, the melting methods and their variations are discussed in detail. The purification effects shown in a table allow a view on the main application. The losses of volatile alloy elements and the chances of compensation are specially discussed. (orig.) [de

  13. A research on ceramsite obtained from blast furnace slag and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to solve disposal problem of solid waste, blast furnace slag (BFS) and sewage sludge (SS) were tested as components for producing ceramsite. This study investigated the feasibility of that at different preheating and sintering temperature and duration and different mass ratios (BFS: SS: clay). The results show that ...

  14. Suitability of Electric Arc Furnace (Eaf) Slag as Partial Replacement ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The use of Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) Slag which is a by-product solid waste in Steel Production was investigated for use as a partial replacement for cement in sandcrete blocks. The tests carried out on cement and finely ground slag to determine their compositions and physico-chemical properties as well as the evaluation ...

  15. Industrial Sintering of Uranium Oxide in a Continuous Furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauser, R.; Porneuf, A.

    1963-01-01

    Under a USAEC-EURATOM research contract, CICAF (Compagnie industrielle de combustibles atomiques frittes) was asked by the French Atomic Energy Commission to design and construct a continuous furnace sintering under a reducing atmosphere at high temperature. The characteristic features of the furnace are automatic operation, rigorous control of presintering and sintering atmospheres, flexibility of temperature regulation so that the thermal cycle can be adjusted to the product to be sintered and high output (5 t of uranium oxide per month). It can operate continuously up to 1700 deg. C, the presintering taking place at a lower temperature (800 deg. C) in a preliminary furnace which forms an integral part of the whole. The sintering atmosphere is cracked ammonia or pure hydrogen; the presintering atmosphere is a mixture o f about 10% hydrogen and 90% nitrogen. The sintered pellets densify to above 97% of theoretical density, with a total dispersion of less than 1%. Structurally, they are equi-axed grains of about 10μm. It was established that the stoichiometric variation of the uranium oxide sintered in a continuous furnace was less than 0.005. (author) [fr

  16. A REVIEW OF MILD COMBUSTION AND OPEN FURNACE DESIGN CONSIDERATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Noor

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Combustion is still very important to generate energy. Moderate or Intense Low-oxygen Dilution (MILD combustion is one of the best new technologies for clean and efficient combustion. MILD combustion has been proven to be a promising combustion technology in industrial applications with decreased energy consumption due to the uniformity of its temperature distribution. It is clean compared to traditional combustion due to producing low NOx and CO emissions. This article provides a review and discussion of recent research and developments in MILD. The issue and applications are summarized, with some suggestions presented on the upgrading and application of MILD in the future. Currently MILD combustion has been successfully applied in closed furnaces. The preheating of supply air is no longer required since the recirculation inside the enclosed furnace already self-preheats the supply air and self-dilutes the oxygen in the combustion chamber. The possibility of using open furnace MILD combustion will be reviewed. The design consideration for open furnace with exhaust gas re-circulation (EGR was discussed.

  17. Analyses of laser and furnace treated sol-gel coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Hosson, JT; De Haas, M; Sudarshan, TS; Jeandin, M; Khor, KA

    1998-01-01

    Here we explore a new method that allows thin films to be made with almost any composition and degree of porosity by means of a combination of sol-gel and laser technology. Results are presented for furnace and laser treated TEOTI-(tetraethylorthotitanate as sol precursor) coated silicon samples.

  18. 46 CFR 59.15-1 - Furnace repairs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING REPAIRS TO BOILERS, PRESSURE VESSELS AND APPURTENANCES Miscellaneous Boiler Repairs § 59.15-1 Furnace repairs. (a) Where corrugated or... true circle if the allowable pressure is reduced in the ratio of 11/2 percent for each one-tenth of an...

  19. Fugitive Emission Control for the APE 1236 Deactivation Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-03-01

    at Tooele Army Depot ( TEAD ) to contain fugitive emissions. A monitoring system was designed and installed to measure and record the effects of...door brought the average pressure to negative and the TEAD furnace into compliance with fugitive emissions requirements. DISCLAIMER: The contents...Pollutants NI National Instruments Corporation RCRA Resource Conservation and Recovery Act TEAD Tooele Army Depot UPS uninterrupted power supply

  20. Reliability of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To evaluate the comparative efficiency of graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS) and hydride generation atomic absorption spectrometry (HGAAS) for trace analysis of arsenic (As) in natural herbal products (NHPs). Method: Arsenic analysis in natural herbal products and standard reference ...

  1. Granulated blast furnace slag – A boon for foundry industry

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present investigation efforts have been put together to employ Granulated Blast furnace (GBF) slag as mould material for replacement of existing silica sand either full or partial in foundry industry. Nishiyama procedure was assumed for appraising the same. The process factors reflected on for this were the % of ...

  2. 46 CFR 59.15-5 - Stayed furnaces and combustion chambers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Stayed furnaces and combustion chambers. 59.15-5 Section... and combustion chambers. (a) Where the plate forming the walls of stayed furnaces or combustion... wall of a stayed furnace or combustion chamber, the defective portion of the plate shall be cut away...

  3. Finite element modelling of electric currents in AC submerged arc furnaces

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mc Dougall, I

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Finite element models were generated of two submerged arc furnaces of different geometries. A 48MW circular furnace and a 68MW 6-in-line rectangular furnace were studied. The electrodes, raw material, slag and molten metal were included in the model...

  4. Assessment of furnaces including fuel storage facilities according to the 12th Federal Emission Control Ordinance (BImSchV)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hensler, G.; Ott, H.; Wunderlich, O.; Mair, K.

    1990-01-01

    Existing quantities of substances pursuant to Annex II of the 12th Federal Emission Control Ordinance in furnaces or in fuel storage facilities do not present a general hazard for fireplaces fired with coal, wood, heavy and light fuel oil within the meaning of the Accident Ordinance. In case of a fire in a storage facility for black coal, brown coal, untreated wood, light and heavy fuel oil, a general hazard on account of the release of developed substances is obviously excluded. Dispersion calculations pursuant to VDI 3783 have shown that concentrations of beryllium, arsenic, nickel, cobalt and mercury compounds in the vicinity of the fire source are so small that a general hazard can be excluded. (orig./DG) [de

  5. Main challenges of residential areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Luca

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article is a position paper aiming to initiate a professional debate related to the aspects related to the urban dysfunctions leading to the wear of the residential areas. The paper proposes a definition of the wear process, identify the main causes leading to its occurrence and propose a number of solutions to neutralise the dysfunctions. The three wearing phases of residential areas components are emphasized, exploring their lifecycle. In order to perform the study of urban wear, the status of the residential areas components can be established and monitored, and also the variables of the function that can mathematically model the specific wear process may be considered. The paper is considered a first step for the model adjustment, to be tested and validated in the following steps. Based on the mathematical method and model, there can be created, in a potential future research, the possibility of determining the precarity degree for residential areas/neighbourhoods and cities, by minimising the subjective component of the analyses preceding the decision for renovation or regeneration.

  6. Trends of Sustainable Residential Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Narvydas, A

    2014-01-01

    The article is based on Master’s research conducted during Scottish Housing Expo 2010. The aim of the research was to determine the prevailing trends in sustainable residential architecture. Each trend can be described by features detected during visual and technical observation of project data. Based on that architects may predict possible problems related to a specific trend.

  7. Technical Problems of Residential Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowogońska, Beata; Cibis, Jerzy

    2017-10-01

    Beauty, utility, durability - these are the features of good architecture and should also be the distinguishing qualities of every residential building. But do beauty and utility remain along with the passing of time? Performance characteristics are an indicator of both, the technical as well as aesthetic state of buildings. Aesthetic needs are in disagreement with the merciless aging process. The beauty of a city is formed not only by the original forms of new residential buildings, but also by existing tenement housing; thus preserving their aesthetics becomes a necessity. Time is continuously passing and along with it, aging intensifies. The aging process is a natural phenomenon for every material. The life expectancy of building materials is also limited. Along with the passing of time, the technical state of residential buildings continuously deteriorates. With the passing of time, the aesthetic values and preferences of users of flats change and the usability of the building decreases. The permanence of buildings, including residential buildings, is shaped not only by the forces of nature but also by activities of humans. A long lifespan is ensured by carrying out ongoing, systematic renovation-repair works. It is thanks to them that buildings derived from past centuries are still being used, and their market attractiveness is not decreasing.

  8. Congestion and residential moving behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Marott; Pilegaard, Ninette; Van Ommeren, Jos

    2008-01-01

    we study how congestion and residential moving behaviour are interrelated, using a two-region job search model. Workers choose between interregional commuting and residential moving, in order to live closer to their place of work. This choice affects the external costs of commuting, due to conges......we study how congestion and residential moving behaviour are interrelated, using a two-region job search model. Workers choose between interregional commuting and residential moving, in order to live closer to their place of work. This choice affects the external costs of commuting, due...... to congestion. We focus on the equilibrium in which some workers currently living in one region accept jobs in the other, with a fraction of them choosing to commute from their current residence to the new job in the other region and the remainder choosing to move to the region in which the new job is located....... The welfare-maximising road tax is derived, which is essentially the Pigouvian tax, given the absence of a tax on moving. Given the presence of moving taxes, which are substantial in Europe, the optimal road tax for commuters is the Pigouvian tax plus the amortised value of the moving tax, evaluated...

  9. Convergence of Residential Gateway Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, F.T.H. den; Balm, M.; Jong, C.M. de; Kwaaitaal, J.J.B.

    2004-01-01

    A new OSI-based model is described that can be used for the classification of residential gateways. It is applied to analyze current gateway solutions and draw evolutionary paths for the medium to long term. From this it is concluded that particularly set-top boxes and broadband modems, as opposed

  10. Design, construction and characterization of a rural solar furnace; Diseno, construccion y caracterizacion de un horno solar rural

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez Luna, Gabriela

    2001-06-15

    This thesis presents the design, construction and characterization of a solar furnace, box type, for its use in rural communities in the inter-tropical zone. The work presented in this thesis departs from the opto-geometric design of a solar furnace, box type, proposed by an enthusiastic group of young students from the Centro de Investigacion de Energia (CIE) of the Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM). The contents of this thesis includes the systematization of the work previously made by these authors: the design and the optimization of geometry, the experimental evaluation of the same, as well as a theoretical model of the thermal behavior of the solar furnace based on a global balance of energy that assumes thermal states in cuasi-equilibrium of the internal components of the furnace. In this thesis a theoretical model of the solar concentration of energy by the reflectors of the furnace based on the model of Peres and Karsson (1993) is developed. The predictions of this model are satisfactorily compared with the experimental results of Jaramillo et al. (1999). Counting on the opto-geometric design of the furnace, the design is completed selecting the materials to be used in the different parts of the same, as well as defining constructive details. The material selected for the inner and outer boxes and the reflectors is stainless steel mirror finishing. Mineral wool is used As insulating mineral. The upper part of the furnace is protected by a glass that allows the entrance of the solar energy and diminishes the energy convective and radiation losses. For the thermal evaluation of the furnace an experimental methodology, based on the international procedures standardized for tests of furnaces and solar stoves is followed. Three tests for each one of the following operation conditions were performed: without load, with oil and with water. The maximum temperature registered in the inside air of the furnace, for the first condition was of 150

  11. Metallurgy of mercury in Almaden: from aludel furnaces until Pacific furnaces; La metalurgia del mercurio en Almaden: desde los hornos de aludeles a los hornos Pacific

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tejero-Manzanares, J.; Garrido Saenz, I.; Mata Cabrera, F.; Rubio Mesas, M. L.

    2014-07-01

    This paper shows the different types of furnaces for roasting cinnabar, used in the metallurgy of quicksilver over the centuries of exploitation of the Almaden Mines (Spain). Some of these techniques are part of our industrial heritage. They have contributed to name UNESCO World Heritage Site the vast technological legacy of these mines recently. This research contributes to close the long way of metallurgical activity from aludel furnaces until Pacif furnaces, first and lasted technology to produce on an industrial scale. It is delved into the most relevant aspects having to do with the type, evolution and number of furnaces existing on each of the periods. (Author)

  12. Historical changes and recent energy saving potential of residential heating in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yeo, M.-S.; Yang, I.-H.; Kim, K.-W.

    2003-01-01

    The residential heating method in Korea underwent various phases of development to reach the current system. The first phase was the traditional Ondol (the traditional under-floor heating system in Korea), where the floor was heated by the circulation of hot gas produced by a fire furnace (before the 1950s). The second phase involved the use of the modified anthracite coal Ondol, for which the fire furnace was modified for briquette use (from the early 1950s to the late 1970s). The third phase involved the use of hot water radiant floor heating with embedded tubes (from the late 1970s). This paper presents insights into the problem of current residential heating in Korea and the general aspects of heating energy savings by tracing the history of residential heating in Korea and analyzing related data. The results show that modern apartment buildings with hot water radiant floor heating (the third phase) yield less heat loss due to the tighter envelope, but also yield higher energy consumption than the traditional Ondol heating housing (the first phase). Because of an inefficient system and lack of thermal insulation of the traditional Ondol heating housing, Ondol heating was used to heat occupants sitting directly on the floor, keeping lower room temperature and higher floor surface temperature. So the range of comfortable floor temperature for Korean people is higher and this unique comfort sense is related to energy consumption in modern apartment housing. As a result, several energy saving methods were found such as reducing the total floor heating area or zoning the floor area, receiving continuous heat supply, and installing a delicate control system and metering devices. (author)

  13. The Availability of Residential Real Estate Increasing by Means of State Compensation of Prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Viktorovich Ivanitskiy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the influence of natural monopolies on the value of residential property, discusses the basic energy resources affecting it. Oil is defined as the main energy resource, its main brands, and their features are considered. The different authors’ perspectives of the impact of oil prices on the real estate prices are considered (“no effect”, “direct effect” and “indirect effect”. Schemes (models, clearly demonstrating the cause-and-effect relations of the impact of prices of the main energy resources on each other and on the value of residential property, are provided. The stability of relations between the prices of the major energy recourses (between each other as well as between each resource and real estate prices and residential property prices in the primary market are analyzed. The interval of “crisis” and “crisis-free” time is defined. The impact of the energy in “crisis” and “crisis-free” time is analyzed. The impact of oil prices on the residential property prices is proved through the cement as the main price-determining element in the construction. The introduction of the state target compensation allowing to increase the availability of residential property is proposed as one of the elements of a comprehensive solution of the “housing question”. The size of the state target compensation in absolute (in rubles and relative (% prices for residential real estate values is determined, taking into account the sufficient reproduction of the population, and restrictions on the right to use it are introduced. The total value of the state target compensation per total number of homebuyers is calculated, and its share in the expenditures of the consolidated budget and budgets of state extra-budgetary funds is determined. The realization of the state target compensation based on an average annual growth among the major countries of the world is grounded.

  14. System design description for the whole element furnace testing system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ritter, G.A.; Marschman, S.C.; MacFarlan, P.J.; King, D.A.

    1998-05-01

    This document provides a detailed description of the Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel (SNF) Whole Element Furnace Testing System located in the Postirradiation Testing Laboratory G-Cell (327 Building). Equipment specifications, system schematics, general operating modes, maintenance and calibration requirements, and other supporting information are provided in this document. This system was developed for performing cold vacuum drying and hot vacuum drying testing of whole N-Reactor fuel elements, which were sampled from the 105-K East and K West Basins. The proposed drying processes are intended to allow dry storage of the SNF for long periods of time. The furnace testing system is used to evaluate these processes by simulating drying sequences with a single fuel element and measuring key system parameters such as internal pressures, temperatures, moisture levels, and off-gas composition

  15. Experimental processing of salt slags from an aluminum dross furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magyar, M.J.; Kaplan, R.S.; Makar, H.V.

    1980-01-01

    The Federal Bureau of Mines has developed a hydrometallurgical method to recover aluminum, aluminum oxide, and fluxing salts from aluminum salt slags. The slag is leached with water at room temperature to produce a saturated brine slurry. Screening of the slurry yields an aluminum-rich fraction that can be returned to the dross furnace. The remaining slurry is vacuum filtered, yielding a clear brine solution and an aluminum oxide filter cake. Evaporation of the clear filtrate produces a high-purity fluxing salt for reuse in the dross furnace. Over 80 pct of the metallic aluminum is recovered in the aluminum-rich oversize fraction, while essentially all the fluxing salts are recovered by evaporation. This report contains the final results of an investigation on a process research unit scale, an economic evaluation of the method, and recommendations to further improve the process.

  16. Orgin of Slag from Early Medieval Age Furnaces in Nitra

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Dekan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Two types of archaeological artefacts from remains of Early Medieval Age furnaces excavated in Nitra are analysed. They are supposed to originate from slag of glass and iron production. Employing Mossbauer spectrometry, iron crystallographic sites are identified and compared. In all samples, Fe2+ and Fe3+ structural positions were revealed. Some of the archeological artefacts including those that were supposed to originate from glass production show a presence of metallic iron and/or magnetic oxides. Based on the results of Mossbauer effect measurements performed at room temperature as well as 77 K (liquid nitrogen temperature analytical evidence is provided that the iron sites identified are not as those usually encountered in glasses. Consequently, a conclusion is proposed that neither of the investigated furnaces was used for glass production.

  17. Glass-ceramic materials from electric arc furnace dust

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavouras, P.; Kehagias, T.; Tsilika, I.; Kaimakamis, G.; Chrissafis, K.; Kokkou, S.; Papadopoulos, D.; Karakostas, Th.

    2007-01-01

    Electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) was vitrified with SiO 2 , Na 2 CO 3 and CaCO 3 powders in an electric furnace at ambient atmosphere. Vitreous products were transformed into glass-ceramic materials by two-stage heat treatment, at temperatures determined by differential thermal analysis. Both vitreous and glass-ceramic materials were chemically stable. Wollastonite (CaSiO 3 ) was separated from the parent matrix as the dominant crystalline phase, verified by X-ray diffraction analysis and energy dispersive spectrometry. Transmission electron microscopy revealed that wollastonite crystallizes mainly in its monoclinic form. Knoop microhardness was measured with the static indentation test method in all initial vitreous products and the microhardness values were in the region of 5.0-5.5 GPa. Devitrification resulted in glass-ceramic materials with microhardness values strongly dependent on the morphology and orientation of the separated crystal phase

  18. Low NOx nozzle tip for a pulverized solid fuel furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donais, Richard E; Hellewell, Todd D; Lewis, Robert D; Richards, Galen H; Towle, David P

    2014-04-22

    A nozzle tip [100] for a pulverized solid fuel pipe nozzle [200] of a pulverized solid fuel-fired furnace includes: a primary air shroud [120] having an inlet [102] and an outlet [104], wherein the inlet [102] receives a fuel flow [230]; and a flow splitter [180] disposed within the primary air shroud [120], wherein the flow splitter disperses particles in the fuel flow [230] to the outlet [104] to provide a fuel flow jet which reduces NOx in the pulverized solid fuel-fired furnace. In alternative embodiments, the flow splitter [180] may be wedge shaped and extend partially or entirely across the outlet [104]. In another alternative embodiment, flow splitter [180] may be moved forward toward the inlet [102] to create a recessed design.

  19. Fuzzy Logic Temperature Control System For The Induction Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Lei Hnin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This research paper describes the fuzzy logic temperature control system of the induction furnace. Temperature requirement of the heating system varies during the heating process. In the conventional control schemes the switching losses increase with the change in the load. A closed loop control is required to have a smooth control on the system. In this system pulse width modulation based power control scheme for the induction heating system is developed using the fuzzy logic controller. The induction furnace requires a good voltage regulation to have efficient response. The controller controls the temperature depending upon weight of meat water and time. This control system is implemented in hardware system using microcontroller. Here the fuzzy logic controller is designed and simulated in MATLAB to get the desire condition.

  20. Advanced wood burning furnaces. 2. rev. ed.; Moderne Holzfeuerungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, W. (comp.)

    2001-07-01

    New and environment-friendly technologies meet high requirements in terms of emission reduction and comfort of operation. In the field of wood burning furnaces, there is still a lack of knowledge which results in excessive cost, environmental pollution and loss of image. This brochure shows how wood furnaces should be operated correctly and also reviews the state of the art. [German] Durch die technische Entwicklung neuer, wirkungsvoller und vor allem umweltfreundlicher Heiztechniken wird zudem den in den letzten Jahren gestiegenen Anforderungen an den Emissionsschutz und den Bedienungskomfort Rechnung getragen. Mit Holz wird jedoch z. T. nicht immer richtig geheizt. Das kostet Geld und fuehrt zu vermeidbaren Umweltbelastungen und Imageschaeden. Ziel dieser Broschuere ist es daher, mit den Techniken des Heizens mit Holz vertraut zu machen und einen Ueberblick ueber den heutigen Stand zu geben. (orig.)

  1. Pollutant emissions of commercial and industrial wood furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumbach, G.; Angerer, M.

    1993-03-01

    Based on literature surveys, personal contacts to designers, manufactures and users of woold furnaces, as well as informations of experts from Austria and Switzerland, the used wood fuels and combustion techniques and the potentially by commercial and industrial wood burning emitted air pollutants are described; including the mechanism of pollutant formation, concentrations, and their environmental relevance. The actual situation in Baden-Wuerttemberg concerning the used wood fuels, the state of installed and operated furnaces and the amount of emitted pollutants is presented basing on informations of the 'Statistical Country Bureau' and a country-wide inquiry round the chimney-sweepers. In order to realize the described existing possibilities to reduce pollutant emissions the introduction of a general brand test and certification mode is proposed. (orig.). 53 figs., 118 refs [de

  2. Water cooling system for sintering furnaces of nuclear fuel pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This work has as a main objective to develop a continuous cooling water system, which is necessary for the cooling of the sintering furnaces. This system is used to protect them as well as for reducing the water consumption, ejecting the heat generated into this furnaces and scattering it into the atmosphere in a fast and continuous way. The problem was defined and the reference parameters established, making the adequate research. The materials were selected as well as the length of the pipeline which will carry the secondary refrigerant fluid (water). Three possible solutions were tried,and evaluated, and from these, the thermal and economically most efficient option was selected. The layout of the solution was established and the theoretical construction of a cooling system for liquids using dichlorofluoromethane (R-22), as a refrigerant and a air cooled condenser, was accomplished. (Author)

  3. Soil Stabilisation Using Ground Granulated Blast Furnace Slag

    OpenAIRE

    Ashish Kumar Pathak; Dr. V. Pandey

    2014-01-01

    Stabilisation is a broad sense for the various methods employed and modifying the properties of a soil to improve its engineering performance and used for a variety of engineering works. In today‟s day soil stabilisation is the major problem for civil engineers, either for construction of road and also for increasing the strength or stability of soil and reduces the construction cost. In this thesis the soil are stabilised by ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) and this material is ob...

  4. Diagnostics for a waste processing plasma arc furnace (invited) (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woskov, P.P.

    1995-01-01

    Maintaining the quality of our environment has become an important goal of society. As part of this goal new technologies are being sought to clean up hazardous waste sites and to treat ongoing waste streams. A 1 MW pilot scale dc graphite electrode plasma arc furnace (Mark II) has been constructed at MIT under a joint program among Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL), MIT, and Electro-Pyrolysis, Inc. (EPI) c for the remediation of buried wastes in the DOE complex. A key part of this program is the development of new and improved diagnostics to study, monitor, and control the entire waste remediation process for the optimization of this technology and to safeguard the environment. Continuous, real time diagnostics are needed for a variety of the waste process parameters. These parameters include internal furnace temperatures, slag fill levels, trace metals content in the off-gas stream, off-gas molecular content, feed and slag characterization, and off-gas particulate size, density, and velocity distributions. Diagnostics are currently being tested at MIT for the first three parameters. An active millimeter-wave radiometer with a novel, rotatable graphite waveguide/mirror antenna system has been implemented on Mark II for the measurement of surface emission and emissivity which can be used to determine internal furnace temperatures and fill levels. A microwave torch plasma is being evaluated for use as a excitation source in the furnace off-gas stream for continuous atomic emission spectroscopy of trace metals. These diagnostics should find applicability not only to waste remediation, but also to other high temperature processes such as incinerators, power plants, and steel plants

  5. Characterization of calcium carbonate sorbent particle in furnace environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kang Soo [Aerosol and Particle Technology Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, KAIST 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Jung, Jae Hee [Environment Sensor System Research Center, KIST 39-1 Hawolgok-dong, Seongbuk-gu, Seoul, 136-791 (Korea, Republic of); Keel, Sang In; Yun, Jin Han; Min, Tai Jin [Environmental Systems Research Division, KIMM 104 Sinseongno, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Soo, E-mail: sskim@kaist.ac.kr [Aerosol and Particle Technology Laboratory, Department of Mechanical Engineering, KAIST 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon, 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-07-01

    The oxy-fuel combustion system is a promising technology to control CO{sub 2} and NO{sub X} emissions. Furthermore, sulfation reaction mechanism under CO{sub 2}-rich atmospheric condition in a furnace may lead to in-furnace desulfurization. In the present study, we evaluated characteristics of calcium carbonate (CaCO{sub 3}) sorbent particles under different atmospheric conditions. To examine the physical/chemical characteristics of CaCO{sub 3}, which is used as a sorbent particle for in-furnace desulfurization in the oxy-fuel combustion system, they were injected into high temperature drop tube furnace (DTF). Experiments were conducted at varying temperatures, residence times, and atmospheric conditions in a reactor. To evaluate the aerosolizing characteristics of the CaCO{sub 3} sorbent particle, changes in the size distribution and total particle concentration between the DTF inlet and outlet were measured. Structural changes (e.g., porosity, grain size, and morphology) of the calcined sorbent particles were estimated by BET/BJH, XRD, and SEM analyses. It was shown that sorbent particles rapidly calcined and sintered in the air atmosphere, whereas calcination was delayed in the CO{sub 2} atmosphere due to the higher CO{sub 2} partial pressure. Instead, the sintering effect was dominant in the CO{sub 2} atmosphere early in the reaction. Based on the SEM images, it was shown that the reactions of sorbent particles could be explained as a grain-subgrain structure model in both the air and CO{sub 2} atmospheres.

  6. Materials for Reformer Furnace Tubes. History of evolution

    OpenAIRE

    M. Garbiak; W. Jasiński; B. Piekarski

    2011-01-01

    The paper discusses progress that has been made over the past sixty years in increasing the service life of centrifugally cast, creepresistant tubes operating in reformer furnaces. Attention was mainly focused on the principles of selection of the chemical composition of castings to improve their creep behaviour. The reasons accounting for withdrawal of tubes from service were indicated. Examples of chemical composition and mechanical properties obtained in creep-resistant Ni-Cr cast steel us...

  7. Blast furnace coke substitutes from Victorian brown coal

    OpenAIRE

    Mollah, Mamun

    2017-01-01

    Iron is usually produced from its ores using coke in a blast furnace (BF). Coke, a hard and macroporous carbon material, is produced from special coals (coking coals) and acts as fuel, smelting agent, and the permeable support for the charge to the BF. No material can completely replace coke in a BF. Coking coals are becoming harder (and more expensive) to obtain. Victorian brown coal (VBC) is accessible, cheap, with low mineral concentrations, which is favourable for iron production in a BF....

  8. High temperature furnace for nuclear magnetic resonance experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaeger, C.; Scheler, G. (Friedrich-Schiller-Universitaet, Jena (German Democratic Republic). Sektion Physik)

    1984-01-01

    A furnace is described for NMR experiments in the temperature range 300 to 1,100 K. It can be used both in a superconducting solenoid (Oxford Instruments, B/sub 0/ = 6.4 T, bore 52 mm) and in iron magnets with a gap d >= 48 mm. All for NMR experiments important nuclei can be measured without /sup 29/Si. The NMR probe can be used both for instationary and stationary experiments.

  9. Recharging the Silicon Crucible in a Hot Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, R. L.

    1982-01-01

    "Melt recharger" adds raw silicon to crucible in crystal-growing furnace without disturbing inert-gas atmosphere or significantly lowering temperature of melt. Crucible-refill hopper is lowered into hot zone of crystal-pulling chamber through an isolation valve. Cable that supports hopper is fastened to cone-shaped stopper in bottom of hopper. Stopper moves out of opening in hopper, allowing part of polysilicon charge to drop into crucible.

  10. Automated handling for SAF batch furnace and chemistry analysis operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowen, W.W.; Sherrell, D.L.; Wiemers, M.J.

    1981-01-01

    The Secure Automated Fabrication Program is developing a remotely operated breeder reactor fuel pin fabrication line. The equipment will be installed in the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility being constructed at Hanford, Washington. Production is scheduled to start in mid-1986. The application of small pneumatically operated industrial robots for loading and unloading product into and out of batch furnaces and for distribution and handling of chemistry samples is described

  11. A study of burning processes of fossil fuels in straitened conditions of furnaces in low capacity boilers by an example of natural gas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslyakov, P. V.; Proskurin, Y. V.; Khokhlov, D. A.; Zaichenko, M. N.

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this work is to research operations of modern combined low-emission swirl burner with a capacity of 2.2 MW for fire-tube boiler type KV-GM-2.0, to ensure the effective burning of natural gas, crude oil and diesel fuel. For this purpose, a computer model of the burner and furnace chamber has been developed. The paper presents the results of numerical investigations of the burner operation, using the example of natural gas in a working load range from 40 to 100%. The basic features of processes of fuel burning in the cramped conditions of the flame tube have been identified to fundamentally differ from similar processes in the furnaces of steam boilers. The influence of the design of burners and their operating modes on incomplete combustion of fuel and the formation of nitrogen oxides has been determined.

  12. A rotary arc furnace for aluminum dross processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drouet, M.G.; Meunier, J.; Laflamme, C.B.; Handfield, M.D.; Biscaro, A.; Lemire, C. [Hydro-Quebec, Shawinigan, Quebec (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    Dross, a major by-product of all processes involving molten aluminum, forms at the surface of the molten metal as the latter reacts with the furnace atmosphere. It generally represents 1 to 5 wt% of the melt, depending on the process, and contains on average about 50% free aluminum dispersed in an oxide layer. Since aluminum production is highly energy-intensive, dross recycling is very attractive from both the energy and the economic standpoints. The conventional recycling process using salt rotary furnaces is thermally inefficient and environmentally non-acceptable because of the production of salt slags. Hydro-Quebec has developed and patented a new salt-free technology using a rotary furnace heated by an electric arc between two graphite electrodes, called DROSCAR{reg_sign}. A 600-kW pilot plant in operation at LTEE is in use to demonstrate the process. This process provides aluminum recovery rates over 90%, using a highly energy efficient, environmentally sound production method. In 1994, 400 tonnes of aluminum dross were treated in this facility and several tests on various types of dross have also been conducted in early 1995. A report on the results will be presented.

  13. A rotary arc furnace for aluminum dross processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drouet, M.G.; Meunier, J.; Laflamme, C.B.; Handfield, M.D.; Biscaro, A.; Lemire, C. [Hydro-Quebec, Shawinigan, Quebec (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    Dross, a major by-product of all processes involving molten aluminum, forms at the surface of the molten metal as the latter reacts with the furnace atmosphere. It generally represents 1 to 5 wt% of the melt, depending on the process, and contains on average about 50% free aluminum dispersed in an oxide layer. Since aluminum production is highly energy-intensive, dross recycling is very attractive from both the energy and the economic standpoints. The conventional recycling process using salt rotary furnaces is thermally inefficient and environmentally unacceptable because of the salt slags produced. Hydro-Quebec has developed and patented a new salt-free technology using a rotary furnace heated by an electric arc between two graphite electrodes, called DROSCAR{reg_sign}. A 600-kW pilot plant in operation at LTEE is in use to demonstrate the process. This process provides aluminum recovery rates for over 90%, using a highly energy efficient, environmentally sound production method. In 1994, 400 tons of aluminum dross were treated in this facility and several tests on various types of dross have also been conducted in early 1995. A report on the results will be presented.

  14. Methods of steel manufacturing - The electric arc furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragna, E. C.; Ioana, A.; Constantin, N.

    2018-01-01

    Initially, the carbon content was reduced by mixing “the iron” with metallic ingots in ceramic crucibles/melting pots, with external heat input. As time went by the puddling procedure was developed, a procedure which also assumes a mixture with oxidized iron ore. In 1856 Bessemer invented the convertor, thus demonstrating that steel can be obtained following the transition of an air stream through the liquid pig iron. The invention of Thomas, a slightly modified basic-lined converter, fostered the desulphurization of the steel and the removal of the phosphate from it. During the same period, in 1865, in Sireuil, the Frenchman Martin applies Siemens’ heat regeneration invention and brings into service the furnace with a charge composed of iron pig, scrap iron and iron ore, that produces a high quality steel [1]. An act worthy of being highlighted within the scope of steelmaking is the start-up of the converter with oxygen injection at the upper side, as there are converters that can produce 400 tons of steel in approximately 50 minutes. Currently, the share of the steel produced in electric arc furnaces with a charge composed of scrap iron has increased. Due to this aspect, the electric arc furnace was able to impose itself on the market.

  15. Analysis of thermal radiation in coal-fired furnaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Jonathan J.; Hammaker, Robert G.; Madding, Robert P.; Sunderland, J. E.

    1997-04-01

    Many utilities throughout the United States have added infrared scanning to their arsenal of techniques for inspection and predictive maintenance programs. Commercial infrared scanners are not designed, however, to withstand the searing interiors of boilers, which can exceed 2500 degrees Fahrenheit. Two high-temperature lenses designed to withstand the hostile environment inside a boiler for extended periods of time were developed by the EPRI M&D Center, thus permitting real-time measurement of steam tube temperatures and subsequent analysis of tube condition, inspection of burners, and identification of hot spots. A study was conducted by Sunderland Engineering, Inc. and EPRI M&D in order to characterize the radiative interactions that affect infrared measurements made inside a commercial, coal- fired, water-tube boiler. A comprehensive literature search exploring the existing record of results pertaining to analytical and experimental determination of radiative properties of coal-combustion byproducts was performed. An experimental component intended to provide data for characterization of the optical properties of hot combustion byproducts inside a coal-fired furnace was carried out. The results of the study indicate that hot gases, carbon particles, and fly ash, which together compose the medium inside a boiler, affect to varying degrees the transport of infrared radiation across a furnace. Techniques for improved infrared measurement across a coal-fired furnace are under development.

  16. Detailed model for practical pulverized coal furnaces and gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, P.J.; Smoot, L.D.

    1989-08-01

    This study has been supported by a consortium of nine industrial and governmental sponsors. Work was initiated on May 1, 1985 and completed August 31, 1989. The central objective of this work was to develop, evaluate and apply a practical combustion model for utility boilers, industrial furnaces and gasifiers. Key accomplishments have included: Development of an advanced first-generation, computer model for combustion in three dimensional furnaces; development of a new first generation fouling and slagging submodel; detailed evaluation of an existing NO{sub x} submodel; development and evaluation of an improved radiation submodel; preparation and distribution of a three-volume final report: (a) Volume 1: General Technical Report; (b) Volume 2: PCGC-3 User's Manual; (c) Volume 3: Data Book for Evaluation of Three-Dimensional Combustion Models; and organization of a user's workshop on the three-dimensional code. The furnace computer model developed under this study requires further development before it can be applied generally to all applications; however, it can be used now by specialists for many specific applications, including non-combusting systems and combusting geseous systems. A new combustion center was organized and work was initiated to continue the important research effort initiated by this study. 212 refs., 72 figs., 38 tabs.

  17. Residential mobility and childhood leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoon, A T; Oksuzyan, S; Crespi, C M; Arah, O A; Cockburn, M; Vergara, X; Kheifets, L

    2018-07-01

    Studies of environmental exposures and childhood leukemia studies do not usually account for residential mobility. Yet, in addition to being a potential risk factor, mobility can induce selection bias, confounding, or measurement error in such studies. Using data collected for California Powerline Study (CAPS), we attempt to disentangle the effect of mobility. We analyzed data from a population-based case-control study of childhood leukemia using cases who were born in California and diagnosed between 1988 and 2008 and birth certificate controls. We used stratified logistic regression, case-only analysis, and propensity-score adjustments to assess predictors of residential mobility between birth and diagnosis, and account for potential confounding due to residential mobility. Children who moved tended to be older, lived in housing other than single-family homes, had younger mothers and fewer siblings, and were of lower socioeconomic status. Odds ratios for leukemia among non-movers living mobility, including dwelling type, increased odds ratios for leukemia to 2.61 (95% CI: 1.76-3.86) for living mobility of childhood leukemia cases varied by several sociodemographic characteristics, but not by the distance to the nearest power line or calculated magnetic fields. Mobility appears to be an unlikely explanation for the associations observed between power lines exposure and childhood leukemia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. RESIDENTIAL MORTGAGE IN MODERN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dementiev N. P.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a comparative analysis of residential mortgages in Russia and the United States. The primary ways of mortgage refinancing are outlined. Predominance of the elements of two-level refinancing system of residential mortgage in Russia and the United States is shown. The activity of the Agency for Housing Mortgage Lending (AHML, the basic tool of the Russian government’s mortgage policy, is described in detail. In its objectives and functions the AHML is similar to the American mortgage agencies Ginnie Mae, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. Similarities were identified in the Russian and US residential mortgages in the pre-crisis period (high rates of mortgage growth, favourable economic conjuncture, low interest rates, large increase in house prices, speculative housing demand. During the mortgage crisis, the policies of the Russian and US governments and monetary authorities had also much in common (monetary policy easing, cheap central banks loans, extended facilities of mortgage refinancing on the part of state agencies, mortgage rescue scheme, social mortgage programs. But the scope of mortgage in Russia is enormously narrow as compared to the US mortgage. The most important reason for that - low incomes of the Russian population.

  19. Unique Construction and Social Experiences in Residential Remediation Sites - 13423

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Paul; Scarborough, Rebecca [Sevenson Environmental Services, Inc. 2749 Lockport Road, Niagara Falls, NY 14305 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Sevenson Environmental Services, Inc., (Sevenson) has performed several radiological remediation projects located in residential urban areas. Over the course of these projects, there has been a wide variety of experiences encountered from construction related issues to unique social situations. Some of the construction related issues included the remediation of interior basements where contaminated material was located under the footers of the structure or was used in the mortar between cinder block or field stone foundations. Other issues included site security, maintaining furnaces or other utilities, underpinning, backfilling and restoration. In addition to the radiological hazards associated with this work there were occupational safety and industrial hygiene issues that had to be addressed to ensure the safety and health of neighboring properties and residents. The unique social situations at these job sites have included arson, theft/stolen property, assault/battery, prostitution, execution of arrest warrants for residents, discovery of drugs and paraphernalia, blood borne pathogens, and unexploded ordnance. Some of these situations have become a sort of comical urban legend throughout the organization. One situation had historical significance, involving the demolition of a house to save a tree older than the Declaration of Independence. All of these projects typically involve the excavation of early 20. century items such as advertisement signs, various old bottles (milk, Listerine, perfume, whisky) and other miscellaneous common trash items. (authors)

  20. Unique Construction and Social Experiences in Residential Remediation Sites - 13423

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Paul; Scarborough, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Sevenson Environmental Services, Inc., (Sevenson) has performed several radiological remediation projects located in residential urban areas. Over the course of these projects, there has been a wide variety of experiences encountered from construction related issues to unique social situations. Some of the construction related issues included the remediation of interior basements where contaminated material was located under the footers of the structure or was used in the mortar between cinder block or field stone foundations. Other issues included site security, maintaining furnaces or other utilities, underpinning, backfilling and restoration. In addition to the radiological hazards associated with this work there were occupational safety and industrial hygiene issues that had to be addressed to ensure the safety and health of neighboring properties and residents. The unique social situations at these job sites have included arson, theft/stolen property, assault/battery, prostitution, execution of arrest warrants for residents, discovery of drugs and paraphernalia, blood borne pathogens, and unexploded ordnance. Some of these situations have become a sort of comical urban legend throughout the organization. One situation had historical significance, involving the demolition of a house to save a tree older than the Declaration of Independence. All of these projects typically involve the excavation of early 20. century items such as advertisement signs, various old bottles (milk, Listerine, perfume, whisky) and other miscellaneous common trash items. (authors)

  1. Modelling of carry-over in recovery furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fakhrai, Reza [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Metallurgy

    2000-04-01

    Development of mathematical modelling of the combustion process in the furnace of recovery boilers is the subject of this work. This work as a continuation of many years of modelling efforts carried out at KTH/Vaerme- och Ugnsteknik focussed particularly on: char bed modelling; droplets-wall interaction modelling; and carry-over modelling. The char bed model has been studied. Droplets/parcels were considered as a single reactor working independently of the other droplets. The mass of the droplets was not distributed uniformly but induced in the landing place. The droplets hitting the char bed will stick to it and they are alive and part of the calculation. In this way the distribution of the mass on the char bed is only dependent on the parameters which effect flight history such as droplet/parcel diameter, boilers flow field, etc. The droplet- wall interaction model has been studied and found to be very important for obtaining the correct temperature distribution in the recovery furnace. The new approach is based on removal of droplets which hits the wall in the upper part of the recovery boiler from carryover calculation. This model has been proposed and implemented into the GRFM (General Recovery Furnace Model). The carryover modelling effort was based on mass balance in which the number and physical statistics of the droplets/parcel were estimated and the amount of unburned mass was calculated. All of the above listed models were tested together with all other models of heat and mass transfer processes in recovery furnaces using a GRFM. Three-dimensional numerical simulations of the industrial recovery boiler (63 kg/s, 82 bar, 480 deg C) were performed. The number of grid was 232,000 and the number of air ports in this simulation was 178. The air entering the furnace by these ports has different flow rates. Flow and temperature fields as well as species distributions were calculated. The results show good agreement with previously published data and modelling

  2. Comparison of possibilities the blast furnace and cupola slag utilization by concrete production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Baricová

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In process of pig iron and cast iron production secondary raw materials and industrial wastes are formed The most abundant secondaryproduct originating in these processes are furnace slag. Blast furnace slag and cupola furnace slag originates from melting of gangue parts of metal bearing materials, slag forming additions and coke ash. In general, slag are compounds of oxides of metallic and non-metallic elements, which form chemical compounds and solutions with each other and also contain small volume of metals, sulfides of metals and gases. Chemical, mineralogical and physical properties of slag determinate their utilisation in different fields of industry.The paper presents results from the research of the blast furnace and cupola furnace slag utilization in the concrete production. Pilotexperiments of the concrete production were performed, by that the blast furnace and cupola furnace slag with a fractions of 0–4mm;4–8mm; 8–16mm were used as a natural substitute. A cupola furnace slag and combination of the blast furnace and cupola furnace slagwere used in the experiments. The analysis results show that such concretes are suitable for less demanding applications.

  3. LOW SULFUR HOME HEATING OIL DEMONSTRATION PROJECT SUMMARY REPORT.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BATEY, J.E.; MCDONALD, R.J.

    2005-06-01

    This project was funded by NYSERDA and has clearly demonstrated many advantages of using low sulfur content heating oil to provide thermal comfort in homes. Prior laboratory research in the United States and Canada had indicated a number of potential benefits of using lower sulfur (0.05%) heating oil. However, this prior research has not resulted in the widespread use of low sulfur fuel oil in the marketplace. The research project described in this report was conducted with the assistance of a well-established fuel oil marketer in New York State (NYS) and has provided clear proof of the many real-world advantages of marketing and using low sulfur content No. 2 fuel oil. The very positive experience of the participating marketer over the past three years has already helped to establish low sulfur heating oil as a viable option for many other fuel marketers. In large part, based on the initial findings of this project and the experience of the participating NYS oilheat marketer, the National Oilheat Research Alliance (NORA) has already fully supported a resolution calling for the voluntary use of low sulfur (0.05 percent) home heating oil nationwide. The NORA resolution has the goal of converting eighty percent of all oil-heated homes to the lower sulfur fuel (0.05 percent by weight) by the year 2007. The Oilheat Manufacturers Association (OMA) has also passed a resolution fully supporting the use of lower sulfur home heating oil in the equipment they manufacture. These are important endorsements by prominent national oil heat associations. Using lower sulfur heating oil substantially lowers boiler and furnace fouling rates. Laboratory studies had indicated an almost linear relationship between sulfur content in the oil and fouling rates. The completed NYSERDA project has verified past laboratory studies in over 1,000 occupied residential homes over the course of three heating seasons. In fact, the reduction in fouling rates so clearly demonstrated by this project is

  4. Residential care : Dutch and Italian residents of residential care facilities compared

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Heer-Wunderink, Charlotte; Caro-Nienhuis, Annemarie D.; Sytema, Sjoerd; Wiersma, Durk

    2008-01-01

    Aims - Characteristics of patients living in residential care facilities and the availability of mental hospital- and residential beds in Italy and The Netherlands were compared to assess whether differences in the process of deinstitutionalisation have influenced the composition of their

  5. Diesel oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil ... Diesel oil ... Diesel oil poisoning can cause symptoms in many parts of the body. EYES, EARS, NOSE, AND THROAT Loss of ... most dangerous effects of hydrocarbon (such as diesel oil) poisoning are due to inhaling the fumes. NERVOUS ...

  6. Palm Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palm oil is obtained from the fruit of the oil palm tree. Palm oil is used for preventing vitamin A deficiency, cancer, ... high blood pressure, high cholesterol, and cyanide poisoning. Palm oil is used for weight loss and increasing the ...

  7. Micro-CHP Systems for Residential Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy DeValve; Benoit Olsommer

    2007-09-30

    homeowner. In its proposed embodiment, the system has a 2kW prime mover integrated to a furnace platform. The second version is a Micro-Trigen system with heating, cooling and power. It has the same Micro-Cogen platform integrated with a 14kW thermally activated chiller. A Stirling engine is suggested as a promising path for the prime mover. A LiBr absorption chiller is today's best technology in term of readiness level. Paybacks are acceptable for the Micro-Cogen version. However, there is no clear economically viable path for a Micro-Trigen version with today's available technology. This illustrates the importance of financial incentives to home owners in the initial stage of micro-CHP commercialization. It will help create the necessary conditions of volume demand to start transitioning to mass-production and cost reduction. Incentives to the manufacturers will help improve efficiency, enhance reliability, and lower cost, making micro-CHP products more attractive. Successful development of a micro-CHP system for residential applications has the potential to provide significant benefits to users, customers, manufacturers, and suppliers of such systems and, in general, to the nation as a whole. The benefits to the ultimate user are a comfortable and healthy home environment at an affordable cost, potential utility savings, and a reliable supply of energy. Manufacturers, component suppliers, and system integrators will see growth of a new market segment for integrated energy products. The benefits to the nation include significantly increased energy efficiency, reduced consumption of fossil fuels, pollutant and CO{sub 2} emissions from power generation, enhanced security from power interruptions as well as enhanced economic activity and job creation. An integrated micro-CHP energy system provides advantages over conventional power generation, since the energy is used more efficiently by means of efficient heat recovery. Foreign companies are readily selling

  8. Heat treatment of nuclear reactor pump part in integrated furnace facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    A flexible heat treating system is meeting strict work specifications while accommodating the production flow pattern requirements and floor space needs of Advanced Metal Treating, Inc., Butler, Wis. Modular design and appropriate furnace configurations allow realization of the most efficient heat treat processing and energy use in a relatively small production area. The totally-integrated system (Pacemaker--manufactured by Lindberg, A Unit of General Signal, Chicago) consists of an electric integral-quench furnace with companion draw furnaces, washer unit and a material transfer car. With its one-side, inout configuration, the furnace operates with a minimum of drawing and washing equipment. The integral-quench furnace has a work chamber dimension of 30 by 48 by 30 inches (76.2 x 122 x 76.2 cm). The firm has two of these units, plus three in-out draw furnaces, one washer, one transfer car and two endothermic gas generators

  9. Investigate and Comparsion Self-Esteem and Happiness Among Residential and Non-Residential Old People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakieh Nasiri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The main aim of this study was to investigate and to compare elderly happiness and self-esteem among residential and non-residential. Methods & Materials: This research was designed as descriptive. Two groups were selected in convenience method. Member of residential elderly (416 elderly were chosen based on Morgan Table. Hundred-twenty elderly, 60 residential (30 men and 30 women and 60 non-residential (30 men and 30 women were chosen for study. Data used the three questionnaires, like Demographic questionnaires, Oxford Happiness Inventory and Self-esteem Scale’s Rozenberg. Data were gathered and analyzed with Pearson test, t-student test. Results: The results were indicated that a significant relationship between happiness and self-esteem, among residential and non- residential old people. The findings showed significant difference in happiness, self-esteem among residential and home participants in both groups (P<0.01. Conclusion: The results were showed that a significant relationship between social support and self-esteem, among residential and non-residential old people. Also, the results were indicated that significant difference between social support. In general, residential participants had lower social support and self-esteem than non-residential participants.

  10. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... up. How Oil Harms Animals and Plants in Marine Environments In general, oil spills can affect animals and plants in two ways: from the oil ... up. How Oil Harms Animals and Plants in Marine Environments In general, oil spills can affect animals and plants in two ways: from the oil ...

  11. Ecological improvements of the working and living environment in steel mill for thin, with replacement of the heavy oil as an energy fuel, with natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgievski, Nove; Ivanovska-Vidanova, Elena; Petrushevski, Dimche

    2004-01-01

    Heating of slabs for plastic treatment in the technological process of the heavy plate production is carried out in a pusher type furnace. The pusher type furnace was designed to be used with heavy fuel oil as an energetic fuel. Using the heavy fuel oil for heating the furnace has appeared fewer problems. Ecological - pollution of the environment with SO 2 (as a result of great presence of sulphur in the heavy fuel oil running from 1-3%) as well as nitrogen oxides (NO x ), carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) depending on the quality of heavy fuel oil combustion in the furnace: Technological - problems with keeping the temperature, problems with heating the heavy fuel oil and its transportation from storage tanks to the heating system (heat exchangers), bigger air consumption and creating increased quantity of harmful substances exhausted in the air and problems in view of maintaining the stop and regulating armature. Economical - increased transportation expenses and fuel oil warehousing, advance payment of supplied fuel oil quantities, permanent costs connected to supplying of technological steam, etc. The above indicated problems have been passed by implementing the natural gas as an energetic fuel for heating the pusher type furnace. (Author)

  12. Precision control of high temperature furnaces using an auxiliary power supply and charged particle current flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, G.G.

    1997-01-28

    Two power supplies are combined to control a furnace. A main power supply heats the furnace in the traditional manner, while the power from the auxiliary supply is introduced as a current flow through charged particles existing due to ionized gas or thermionic emission. The main power supply provides the bulk heating power and the auxiliary supply provides a precise and fast power source such that the precision of the total power delivered to the furnace is improved. 5 figs.

  13. Precision control of high temperature furnaces using an auxiliary power supply and charged practice current flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, George G.

    1997-01-01

    Two power supplies are combined to control a furnace. A main power supply heats the furnace in the traditional manner, while the power from the auxiliary supply is introduced as a current flow through charged particles existing due to ionized gas or thermionic emission. The main power supply provides the bulk heating power and the auxiliary supply provides a precise and fast power source such that the precision of the total power delivered to the furnace is improved.

  14. Thermal design and analysis of the HTGR fuel element vertical carbonizing and annealing furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Llewellyn, G.H.

    1977-06-01

    Computer analyses of the thermal design for the proposed HTGR fuel element vertical carbonizing and annealing furnace were performed to verify its capability and to determine the required power input and distribution. Although the furnace is designed for continuous operation, steady-state temperature distributions were obtained by assuming internal heat generation in the fuel elements to simulate their mass movement. The furnace thermal design, the analysis methods, and the results are discussed herein

  15. Calculation and research of electrical characteristics of induction crucible furnaces with unmagnetized conductive crucible

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedin, M. A.; Kuvaldin, A. B.; Kuleshov, A. O.; Zhmurko, I. Y.; Akhmetyanov, S. V.

    2018-01-01

    Calculation methods for induction crucible furnaces with a conductive crucible have been reviewed and compared. The calculation method of electrical and energy characteristics of furnaces with a conductive crucible has been developed and the example of the calculation is shown below. The calculation results are compared with experimental data. Dependences of electrical and power characteristics of the furnace on frequency, inductor current, geometric dimensions and temperature have been obtained.

  16. Chapter 17: Residential Behavior Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, James [Cadmus Group, Waltham, MA (United States); Todd, Annika [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Residential behavior-based (BB) programs use strategies grounded in the behavioral social sciences to influence household energy use. Strategies may include providing households with real-time or delayed feedback about their energy use; supplying energy-efficiency education and tips; rewarding households for reducing their energy use; comparing households to their peers; and establishing games, tournaments, and competitions. BB programs often target multiple energy end uses and encourage energy savings, demand savings, or both. Savings from BB programs are usually a small percentage of energy use, typically less than 5%.

  17. How low can the low heating load density district heating be? Environmental aspects on low heating load density district heating of the present generation compared to a domestic oil burner; Hur vaermegles kan den vaermeglesa fjaerrvaermen vara? Miljoeaspekter paa vaermegles fjaerrvaerme med dagens teknik jaemfoerd med villaoljepanna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froeling, Morgan [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Environmental Science

    2005-07-01

    In Sweden we can see an increase of district heating networks in residential areas with low heat density. For the customer the economy is normally the most important argument when deciding to choose district heating. For many customers, however, arguments regarding environmental friendliness are important complimentary arguments. When district heating systems are built with decreased heat density, the environmental impacts from use of district heating will increase, depending on such as increased need of pipes and increased heat losses from the distribution system. The purpose of this study is to investigate if there is a limit, a lowest heat density when it is not any longer beneficial to build district heating when district heating replaces local oil furnace heating. Life cycle inventory data for district heating distribution systems in areas with low heat density has been compared with the use of oil furnaces. The environmental impacts are categorized into Global Warming Potential, Acidification Potential, Eutrofication Potential and Use of Finite Resources. To enhance the assessment three single point indicators have also been used: EcoIndicator99, EPS and ExternE. The economics of using district heating in areas with low heat density has not been regarded in this study. A model comparing the space heating of a single family home with an oil furnace or with district heating has been created. The home has an annual heat need of 20 MWh. The district heating distribution network is characterized by its linear heat density. The linear heat density is a rough description of a district heating network, and thus also the results from the model will be general. Still it can give us a general idea of the environmental limit for district heating in areas with low heat density. An assessment of all results indicate that with the type of technology used at present it is not environmentally beneficial to use district heating with lower linear heat density than 0,2 MWh/m. At

  18. Acid slag injection into the blast furnace tuyere zone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haerkki, J.; Tervola, K. [Oulu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Process Engineering

    1996-12-31

    The possibility of acid slag injection and its effect on the slag formation and on the melting behaviour of the charge materials are studied in the present work. The work is partly based on the literature evaluating the slag formation, slag properties and the basic slag injection. The possibility of acid slag injection is first examined by studying changes in the composition of the primary slag if the share of the acid slag component (Kostamus pellet/RR) of the charge material is lowered. Phase diagrams and viscosity charts are used to evaluate the viscosity, and solidus/liquidus temperature in the slag phase. The share of the slag phase of the pellet is evaluated by calculating the amount of the acid slag injection. The injection rate of some injectants is also examined. The primary slag formed of the sinter and the coke ash is in liquid form and its viscosity is close to the viscosity of the blast furnace slag. It is possible that the liquid slag phase can be formed in the blast furnace without the presence of the acid pellet because the melting point and the viscosity of the slag is lowered by alkalies, sulfur and the dissolved ironoxide of the slag. If high SiO{sub 2} content materials alone are used for injection there is a risk that the slag phase of the tuyere zone becomes too viscous. Olivine and some iron containing components such as fayalite are possible injection material. More information is needed to evaluate the effect of acid slag injection on the operation of the blast furnace. (orig.) SULA 2 Research Programme; 2 refs.

  19. A Furnace for Diffraction Studies using Synchrotron X-Ray Radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Buras, B.; Lebech, Bente; Kofoed, W.

    1984-01-01

    A furnace for diffraction studies using synchrotron X-ray radiation is described. The furnace can be operated between ambient temperature and 1 800 °C with a temperature stability better than 5 °C for temperatures above 300 °C. Kapton windows allow almost 360° access for the X-ray beam in the hor...... in the horizontal scattering plane and the furnace may be used in both conventional monochromatic beam angle-dispersive and white-beam energy-dispersive diffraction experiments. Details of the furnace windows, heating element, thermometry and sample mount are given....

  20. The effect of blast furnace coke quality on the possibility of its use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Konstanciak

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In the paper behavior of the blast-furnace coke in the high temperature was presented. Comparative analysis of the chemical composition of the blast-furnace coke and the heat treatment of it were done. Coefficients M10 and M40 with the thermo-abrasiveness for chosen cokes were compared. The influence of ash content of the coke on the blast-furnace bed permeability was defined. Usefulness of the coke to blast-furnace process was also defined.

  1. Refractory Corrosion Mechanisms in a Novel High Carbon Ferromanganese Production Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gregurek, D.; Wenzl, C.; Kreuzer, D.; Spanring, A.; Kirschen, M.; Zeelie, D.; Groenewald, J.

    2016-12-01

    The present paper presents the refractory design for a novel HCFeMn smelting furnace that, other than standard submerged arc furnaces, allows the processing of fine ores. A combination of basic and non-basic materials, comprising bricks, castables and ramming was chosen, under consideration of the unique furnace design and process conditions. Post-mortem investigations on refractory samples from the different furnace zones were carried out and provided information about the main wear mechanism. Additionally, investigations of the process slag and metal were carried out both practically and theoretically using thermodynamic calculations, to better understand the corrosion phenomena observed in the post mortem samples.

  2. Material level checking apparatus for use in a rotary incinerating furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matteini, S.

    1980-12-02

    A freely oscillating moving element, according to a radial axis with respect to the furnace wall and having an inner appendix deviated from the axis and with an outer counter-weight, can oscillate between two angular positions defined by pawls, towards the first of such positions said moving element is cyclically moved during the moving element lowering trajectory with the rotation of the furnace while towards the second angular position said moving element is cyclically moved during the moving element raising trajectory with the furnace rotation; said moving element can reach said second position only when the inner appendix emerges from the material contained in the furnace.

  3. Investigation into gas flow in a lime-roasting shaft furnace using the 85Kr indicator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gulin, I.I.; Matveev, N.S.; Solodovnikov, A.O.; Nudel'man, B.I.; Kakharov, V.K.; Mamaraimov, D.

    1978-01-01

    Motion and distribution of a gas fuel through a layer of lump material in a lime-roasting shaft furnace have been investigated using 85 Kr indicator. Gas sucked through the tubes of a special steel probe, which was introduced into the furnace, passed through four radiometric chambers used for recording its activity. The measured data showed, that increasing the distance from a burner caused the improvement in uniformity of indicator distribution uniformity over the furnace radius. The experimental data permit to optimize the central burner performance as well as the location of peripheral burners in the furnace

  4. The electrical characteristics of copper slags in a 270 kVA DC arc furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Derin, Bora; Sahin, Filiz Cinar; Yucel, Onuralp

    2003-01-01

    The electrical resistance of slags is the main criteria to determine the design and the operation conditions of slag resistance furnace (SRF) depending on temperature and composition. In this study, a 270 kVA DC electric arc furnace were used to determine the electrical characteristic of molten ancient copper slags. The specific conductivity of the slag was estimated by using furnace geometric factor given in the literature as an empirical formula and by using furnace resistance measured during smelting of the copper slag with or without different additives such as coke, CaO and Al 2 O 3 . (Original)

  5. CFD‐DEM modelling of blast furnace tapping

    OpenAIRE

    Vango, Mathias; Pirker, Stefan; Lichtenegger, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    The campaign length of a blast furnace is limited by the hearth inner lining lifetime. In order to maximize the campaign length and ensure a good draining of hot metal and slag, a good understanding of the flow in the hearth is essential. Challenges in modelling the flow involve several continuous phases (hot metal, slag and hot blast) as well as the presence of the deadman, a dense bed of coke particles. The shape and position of the deadman depend on the weight of the burden column above an...

  6. New PSA high concentration solar furnace SF40

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Jose; Cañadas, Inmaculada; Zarza, Eduardo

    2016-05-01

    A new solar furnace has been designed and built at Plataforma Solar de Almería. In this work, its main components such as heliostat, concentrator, attenuator and test table, and the method used to align them are described. Other equipment like the auxiliary systems necessary for the solar operation, vacuum chamber and gas system are outlined too. Finally, the thermal characteristics of the focus were measured during a test campaign, where different planes along the optical axis were scanned with a radiometer, and the peak flux was obtained and is presented in the last section of this report.

  7. Magnetic orientation of paraffin in a magnetic levitation furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, K.; Umeki, C.; Mogi, I.; Koyama, K.; Awaji, S.; Motokawa, M.; Watanabe, K.

    2004-04-01

    Containerless melting of paraffin under a magnetic levitation condition has been performed by using a cryogen-free hybrid magnet and two kinds of laser furnaces. One is local irradiation of CO 2 laser light at the top of the sample. The other is homogeneous irradiation of YAG laser light with a concave ring mirror. In the latter case, reduction of the Marangoni convection on the surface of the sample and the magnetic orientation of paraffin molecules were observed. The magnetic anisotropy of the spherical sample was confirmed by the measurement of magnetization and X-ray diffraction.

  8. Magnetic orientation of paraffin in a magnetic levitation furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, K.; Umeki, C.; Mogi, I.; Koyama, K.; Awaji, S.; Motokawa, M.; Watanabe, K

    2004-04-30

    Containerless melting of paraffin under a magnetic levitation condition has been performed by using a cryogen-free hybrid magnet and two kinds of laser furnaces. One is local irradiation of CO{sub 2} laser light at the top of the sample. The other is homogeneous irradiation of YAG laser light with a concave ring mirror. In the latter case, reduction of the Marangoni convection on the surface of the sample and the magnetic orientation of paraffin molecules were observed. The magnetic anisotropy of the spherical sample was confirmed by the measurement of magnetization and X-ray diffraction.

  9. Magnetic orientation of paraffin in a magnetic levitation furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, K.; Umeki, C.; Mogi, I.; Koyama, K.; Awaji, S.; Motokawa, M.; Watanabe, K.

    2004-01-01

    Containerless melting of paraffin under a magnetic levitation condition has been performed by using a cryogen-free hybrid magnet and two kinds of laser furnaces. One is local irradiation of CO 2 laser light at the top of the sample. The other is homogeneous irradiation of YAG laser light with a concave ring mirror. In the latter case, reduction of the Marangoni convection on the surface of the sample and the magnetic orientation of paraffin molecules were observed. The magnetic anisotropy of the spherical sample was confirmed by the measurement of magnetization and X-ray diffraction

  10. Coke detection in furnaces tubes by radiographic examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, I.S. dos

    1987-01-01

    The coke detection technique by radiographic examinations allows to quantify the coke in furnace coils of Petroleum refineries and petrochemical industries. The paper describes how was determined the radiographic parameters, the wall apparent thickness calculation, the distance source-film, the position of the source and films, the chosen of films and the calculation of exposure time, aiming to obtain high producticity and good quality image. This technique is being used and improved for more than two years with good results. (E.G.) [pt

  11. Residential ventilation standards scoping study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, Thomas E.; Sherman, Max H.

    2003-10-01

    The goals of this scoping study are to identify research needed to develop improved ventilation standards for California's Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards. The 2008 Title 24 Standards are the primary target for the outcome of this research, but this scoping study is not limited to that timeframe. We prepared this scoping study to provide the California Energy Commission with broad and flexible options for developing a research plan to advance the standards. This document presents the findings of a scoping study commissioned by the Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) program of the California Energy Commission to determine what research is necessary to develop new residential ventilation requirements for California. This study is one of three companion efforts needed to complete the job of determining the ventilation needs of California residences, determining the bases for setting residential ventilation requirements, and determining appropriate ventilation technologies to meet these needs and requirements in an energy efficient manner. Rather than providing research results, this scoping study identifies important research questions along with the level of effort necessary to address these questions and the costs, risks, and benefits of pursuing alternative research questions. In approaching these questions and corresponding levels of effort, feasibility and timing were important considerations. The Commission has specified Summer 2005 as the latest date for completing this research in time to update the 2008 version of California's Energy Code (Title 24).

  12. Residential Electricity Consumption in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Ropuszyńska-Surma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Key factors influencing electricity consumption in the residential sector in Poland have been identified. A fixed-effects model was used, which includes time effects, and a set of covariates, based on the model developed by Houthakker et al. This model estimates electricity demand by using lagged values of the dependent variable along with current and lagged values of electricity prices, and other variables that affect electricity demand such as: population, economic growth, income per capita, price of related goods, etc. The model has been identified according to the research results of the authors and those obtained by Bentzen and Engsted. The set of covariates was extended to the lagged electricity price given by a tariff (taken from two years previous to the time of interest and heating degree days index, a very important factor in European Union countries, where the climate is temperate. The authors propose four models of residential electricity demand, for which a confidence interval of 95% has been assumed. Estimation was based on Polish quarterly data for the years 2003-2013. (original abstract

  13. Residential instability: a perspective on system imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, Lawrence; Desai, Prakash

    1987-10-01

    In an exploration of residential instability and recidivism in chronic mental patients, 215 psychiatric admissions were followed for a year after the initial episode. In addition to an unusually high incidence of residential mobility, a relationship between mobility and number of hospitalizations was evident, as were isolation, disruptive family situations, and homelessness. The needed response of the mental health system is discussed.

  14. Credit Scores, Race, and Residential Sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Ashlyn Aiko

    2010-01-01

    Credit scores have a profound impact on home purchasing power and mortgage pricing, yet little is known about how credit scores influence households' residential location decisions. This study estimates the effects of credit scores on residential sorting behavior using a novel mortgage industry data set combining household demographic, credit, and…

  15. Does immigrant residential crowding reflect hidden homelessness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Haan

    2011-12-01

    the extent to which heightened levels of residential crowding might reflect “hidden homelessness.” I find mixed evidence to support this link, and, if anything, find some evidence to suggest that the link between residential crowding and hidden homelessness, if one exists, is strongest for the Canadian-born.

  16. Modeling and analysis of long term energy demands in residential sector of pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, T.; Sahir, M.H.

    2015-01-01

    Residential sector is the core among the energy demand sectors in Pakistan. Currently, various techniques are being used worldwide to assess future energy demands including integrated system modeling (ISM). Therefore, the current study is focused on implementation of ISM approach for future energy demand analysis of Pakistan's residential sector in terms of increase in population, rapid urbanization, household size and type, and increase/decrease in GDP. A detailed business-as-usual (BAU) model is formulated in TIMES energy modeling framework using different factors like growth in future energy services, end-use technology characterization, and restricted fuel supplies. Additionally, the developed model is capable to compare the projected energy demand under different scenarios e.g. strong economy, weak economy and energy efficiency. The implementation of ISM proved a viable approach to predict the future energy demands of Pakistan's residential sector. Furthermore, the analysis shows that the energy consumption in the residential sector would be 46.5 Mtoe (Million Ton of Oil Equivalent) in 2040 compared to 23 Mtoe of the base year (2007) along with 600% increase in electricity demands. The study further maps the potential residential energy policies to congregate the future demands. (author)

  17. Molecular absorption spectrometry in flames and furnaces: A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Butcher, David J.

    2013-01-01

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Theory and analytical considerations for molecular absorption spectrometry (MAS). •Critical review of low resolution MAS. •Critical review of the analytical performance of high-resolution continuum source (HR-CS) flame MAS. •Critical review of the analytical performance of HR-CS graphite furnace MAS. •Current status of HR-CS MAS and its future prospects for elemental analysis. -- Abstract: Molecular absorption spectrometry (MAS), originally developed in the 1970s, is a technique to determine non-metals in flames and graphite furnaces by monitoring the absorbance of diatomic molecules. Early studies employed low resolution instruments designed for line source atomic absorption, which provided a limited choice of analytical wavelengths, insufficient spectral resolution, and spectral interferences. However, the development of high-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS AAS) instrumentation has allowed the analysis of challenging samples for non-metals as well as some difficult elements to determine by AAS, such as aluminum and phosphorus. In this review, theory and analytical considerations for MAS are discussed. The principles and limitations of low resolution MAS are described, along with its applications. HR-CS AAS instrumentation is reviewed, emphasizing performance characteristics most relevant for MAS. Applications of flame and HR-CS GFMAS are reviewed, highlighting the most significant work to date. The paper concludes with an evaluation of the enhanced analytical capabilities provided by HR-CS MAS

  18. Self-calibrated active pyrometer for furnace temperature measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woskov, Paul P.; Cohn, Daniel R.; Titus, Charles H.; Surma, Jeffrey E.

    1998-01-01

    Pyrometer with a probe beam superimposed on its field-of-view for furnace temperature measurements. The pyrometer includes a heterodyne millimeter/sub-millimeter-wave or microwave receiver including a millimeter/sub-millimeter-wave or microwave source for probing. The receiver is adapted to receive radiation from a surface whose temperature is to be measured. The radiation includes a surface emission portion and a surface reflection portion which includes the probe beam energy reflected from the surface. The surface emission portion is related to the surface temperature and the surface reflection portion is related to the emissivity of the surface. The simultaneous measurement of surface emissivity serves as a real time calibration of the temperature measurement. In an alternative embodiment, a translatable base plate and a visible laser beam allow slow mapping out of interference patterns and obtaining peak values therefor. The invention also includes a waveguide having a replaceable end portion, an insulating refractory sleeve and/or a source of inert gas flow. The pyrometer may be used in conjunction with a waveguide to form a system for temperature measurements in a furnace. The system may employ a chopper or alternatively, be constructed without a chopper. The system may also include an auxiliary reflector for surface emissivity measurements.

  19. Molecular absorption spectrometry in flames and furnaces: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butcher, David J., E-mail: butcher@email.wcu.edu

    2013-12-04

    Graphical abstract: -- Highlights: •Theory and analytical considerations for molecular absorption spectrometry (MAS). •Critical review of low resolution MAS. •Critical review of the analytical performance of high-resolution continuum source (HR-CS) flame MAS. •Critical review of the analytical performance of HR-CS graphite furnace MAS. •Current status of HR-CS MAS and its future prospects for elemental analysis. -- Abstract: Molecular absorption spectrometry (MAS), originally developed in the 1970s, is a technique to determine non-metals in flames and graphite furnaces by monitoring the absorbance of diatomic molecules. Early studies employed low resolution instruments designed for line source atomic absorption, which provided a limited choice of analytical wavelengths, insufficient spectral resolution, and spectral interferences. However, the development of high-resolution continuum source atomic absorption spectrometry (HR-CS AAS) instrumentation has allowed the analysis of challenging samples for non-metals as well as some difficult elements to determine by AAS, such as aluminum and phosphorus. In this review, theory and analytical considerations for MAS are discussed. The principles and limitations of low resolution MAS are described, along with its applications. HR-CS AAS instrumentation is reviewed, emphasizing performance characteristics most relevant for MAS. Applications of flame and HR-CS GFMAS are reviewed, highlighting the most significant work to date. The paper concludes with an evaluation of the enhanced analytical capabilities provided by HR-CS MAS.

  20. Ferromanganese Furnace Modelling Using Object-Oriented Principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasboe, S.O.

    1996-12-31

    This doctoral thesis defines an object-oriented framework for aiding unit process modelling and applies it to model high-carbon ferromanganese furnaces. A framework is proposed for aiding modelling of the internal topology and the phenomena taking place inside unit processes. Complex unit processes may consist of a number of zones where different phenomena take place. A topology is therefore defined for the unit process itself, which shows the relations between the zones. Inside each zone there is a set of chemical species and phenomena, such as reactions, phase transitions, heat transfer etc. A formalized graphical methodology is developed as a tool for modelling these zones and their interaction. The symbols defined in the graphical framework are associated with objects and classes. The rules for linking the objects are described using OMT (Object Modeling Technique) diagrams and formal language formulations. The basic classes that are defined are implemented using the C++ programming language. The ferromanganese process is a complex unit process. A general description of the process equipment is given, and a detailed discussion of the process itself and a system theoretical overview of it. The object-oriented framework is then used to develop a dynamic model based on mass and energy balances. The model is validated by measurements from an industrial furnace. 101 refs., 119 figs., 20 tabs.

  1. Zone modelling of the thermal performances of a large-scale bloom reheating furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, Chee-Keong; Jenkins, Joana; Ward, John; Broughton, Jonathan; Heeley, Andy

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the development and comparison of a two- (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) mathematical models, based on the zone method of radiation analysis, to simulate the thermal performances of a large bloom reheating furnace. The modelling approach adopted in the current paper differs from previous work since it takes into account the net radiation interchanges between the top and bottom firing sections of the furnace and also allows for enthalpy exchange due to the flows of combustion products between these sections. The models were initially validated at two different furnace throughput rates using experimental and plant's model data supplied by Tata Steel. The results to-date demonstrated that the model predictions are in good agreement with measured heating profiles of the blooms encountered in the actual furnace. It was also found no significant differences between the predictions from the 2D and 3D models. Following the validation, the 2D model was then used to assess the impact of the furnace responses to changing throughput rate. It was found that the potential furnace response to changing throughput rate influences the settling time of the furnace to the next steady state operation. Overall the current work demonstrates the feasibility and practicality of zone modelling and its potential for incorporation into a model based furnace control system. - Highlights: ► 2D and 3D zone models of large-scale bloom reheating furnace. ► The models were validated with experimental and plant model data. ► Examine the transient furnace response to changing the furnace throughput rates. ► No significant differences found between the predictions from the 2D and 3D models.

  2. APPRAISAL OF ECONOMICAL EFFICIENCY OF APPLICATION OF FIBROUS LINING IN THERMAL GASPLASMA FURNACES AND FURNACES OF RESISTANCE OF MACHINE-BUILDING PRODUCTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Timoshpolskij

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The carried out calculations showed that partial modernization of thermal furnaces of machine building production by means of replacement of chamotte by fibrous fettling is economically reasonable and has rather short period of payback.

  3. Residential radon survey in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvela, H.; Maekelaeinen, I.; Castren, O.

    1993-02-01

    The study measured the indoor radon concentration in the dwellings of 3074 persons, selected randomly from the central population register of Finland. Alpha track detectors and two consecutive half year measuring periods were used. The national mean of indoor radon concentration for persons living in low-rise residential buildings as well as blocks of flats was 145 and 82 Bq/m 3 , respectively. The mean for the total population was 123 Bq/m 3 . Based on the decision of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health in 1992, the indoor radon concentration should not exceed 400 Bq/m 3 in already existing houses, the target for new construction being less than 200 Bq/m 3 . According to the study, the percentage of the Finnish population living in houses with an indoor radon concentration exceeding 200, 400 and 800 Bq/m 3 was 12.3 %, 3.6 % and 1.0 %

  4. Handling of corn stover bales for combustion in small and large furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morissette, R.; Savoie, P.; Villeneuve, J. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, Quebec City, PQ (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study in which dry corn stover was baled and burned in 2 furnaces in the province of Quebec. Small and large rectangular bale formats were considered for direct combustion. The first combustion unit was a small 500,000 BTU/h dual chamber log wood furnace located at a hay growing farm in Neuville, Quebec. The heat was initially transferred to a hot water pipe system and then transferred to a hot air exchanger to dry hay bales. The small stover bales were placed directly into the combustion furnace. The low density of the bales compared to log wood, required filling up to 8 times more frequently. Stover bales produced an average of 6.4 per cent ash on a DM basis and required an automated system for ash removal. Combustion gas contained levels of particulate matter greater than 1417 mg/m{sup 3}, which is more than the local acceptable maximum of 600 mg/m{sup 3} for combustion furnaces. The second combustion unit was a high capacity 12.5 million BTU/h single chamber furnace located in Saint-Philippe-de-neri, Quebec. It was used to generate steam for a feed pellet mill. Large corn stover bales were broken up and fed on a conveyor and through a screw auger to the furnace. The stover was light compared to the wood chips used in this furnace. For mechanical reasons, the stover could not be fed continuously to the furnace.

  5. Experimental and numerical study of MILD combustion in a lab-scale furnace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, X.; Tummers, M.J.; Roekaerts, D.J.E.M.; Scherer, Viktor; Fricker, Neil; Reis, Albino

    2017-01-01

    Mild combustion in a lab-scale furnace has been experimentally and numerically studied. The furnace was operated with Dutch natural gas (DNG) at 10 kW and at an equivalence ratio of 0.8. OH∗chemiluminescence images were taken to characterize the reaction zone. The chemiluminescence intensity is

  6. 16 CFR 305.12 - Labeling for central air conditioners, heat pumps, and furnaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... pumps, and furnaces. 305.12 Section 305.12 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS... pumps, and furnaces. (a) Layout. All energy labels for central air conditioners, heat pumps, and... air conditioners and heat pumps. (1) Headlines and texts, as illustrated in the prototype and sample...

  7. Effects of atmosphere composition on fabrication process of hollow glass microspheres in drop-tower furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qi Xiaobo; Wei Sheng; Zhang Zhanwen; Li Bo; Chen Sufen; Shi Tao

    2010-01-01

    To fabricate high quality hollow glass microspheres (HGMs) for inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets by solgel technology, effects of furnace atmosphere composition on the transformation process from gel particles to HGMs and the resulting quality of HGMs were investigated by numerical simulation and experiments. The results show that the furnace atmosphere composition significantly affects the heat and mass transfer process between particles/microspheres and furnace atmosphere, but the falling velocity of the particles/microspheres in drop-tower furnace changes only slightly with the furnace atmosphere compositions. The heating-up rate of gel particles in heat-absorbing stage increases remarkably with the increase of the content of helium in the furnace atmosphere and increasing the helium content accelerates effectively the encapsulation of gel particles. Consequently, higher helium content in furnace atmosphere will result in higher HGM yield with high quality and larger HGM aspect ratio. However, maintaining a proper proportion of helium in the furnace atmosphere is necessary to improve HGM surface smoothness. With the volume percentage of helium ranging from 50% to 80%, HGMs with high sphericity, concentricity and surface smoothness can be fabricated with high yield. (authors)

  8. Residential energy consumption in urban China: A decomposition analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Xiaoli; Li Na; Ma, Chunbo

    2012-01-01

    Residential energy consumption (REC) is the second largest energy use category (10%) in China and urban residents account for 63% of the REC. Understanding the underlying drivers of variations of urban REC thus helps to identify challenges and opportunities and provide advices for future policy measures. This paper applies the LMDI method to a decomposition of China's urban REC during the period of 1998–2007 at disaggregated product/activity level using data collected from a wide range of sources. Our results have shown an extensive structure change towards a more energy-intensive household consumption structure as well as an intensive structure change towards high-quality and cleaner energy such as electricity, oil, and natural gas, which reflects a changing lifestyle and consumption mode in pursuit of a higher level of comfort, convenience and environmental protection. We have also found that China's price reforms in the energy sector have contributed to a reduction of REC while scale factors including increased urban population and income levels have played a key role in the rapid growth of REC. We suggest that further deregulation in energy prices and regulatory as well as voluntary energy efficiency and conservation policies in the residential sector should be promoted. - Highlights: ► We examine china's residential energy consumption (REC) at detailed product level. ► Results show significant extensive and intensive structure changed. ► Price deregulation in the energy sector has contributed a reduction of REC. ► Growth of population and income played a key role in REC rapid growth. ► We provide policy suggestions to promote REC saving.

  9. DEVELOPMENT AND TESTING OF COMPOUND FUEL CHAMBER WITHOUT A GRATE FOR HOUSEHOLD FURNACE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shevyakov Vladimir Viktorovich

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In hearth furnaces, the firewood is burned more cleanly with less carbon monoxide at the outlet. The disadvantage of such fireboxes is a longer process of coal burnout than in grate-fired furnaces. In furnaces with a grate, the burnout time of coals is less, which makes it possible to finish the combustion process more quickly and close the outlet latch. This increases the efficiency of the furnace but to further reduce the time of burning out the coals they have to be raked and burned on the grate. This complicates the process of operating the furnace itself. The proposed design of the compound firebox allows us to improve characteristics of both the firebox itself and the entire furnace. Research objectives: creation and study of a compound firebox that increases the efficiency of the furnace and simplifies the furnace maintenance process with the values of carbon monoxide at the outlet comparable to hearth furnaces. Materials and methods: a detailed analysis of hearth fuel chambers ECO+ was carried out according to the amount of carbon monoxide at the outlet. The results of the analysis are used for comparison with compound fuel chamber. The structure of the compound firebox was chosen based on the results of preliminary tests of several fuel chambers proposed and tested by the author in the furnace PDKSh-2.0. A peculiarity of the structure of the compound firebox is the absence of a grate and the presence of a narrow slit in the lower part of the firebox through which the incoming air enters the firewood. Between the walls of the firebox and firewood, skids are installed, forming an air gap, through which the inlet air is uniformly supplied to the entire firewood supply. With gradual combustion of firewood and formation of coal, the firewood descends to the bottom of the firebox, where they intensively burn out in the maximum air flow. Compound firebox consists of several parts, it is made of steel with a thickness of 4.0 mm and installed

  10. Low-NOx Burner Technologies for High-Temperature Processes With High Furnace Heating Density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boss, M.; Brune, M.; Flamme, M.

    1999-01-01

    The general objective of the presented work is process intensification by means of reduced furnace chamber volumes in combination with the use of low-NOx burner technologies. Fundamental experimental investigations of the reaction zone of different burner types were made. For the development of new burner designs the CFD code FLUENT was used. Throughout the investigations it was possible to increase the furnace heating density from 62 kW/m3 up to 1133 kW/m3. To demonstrate possible technical applications two simulated industrial furnaces designs have been investigated. One main conclusion the work gave is that process intensification without an increase of pollutant emissions is possible by optimizing furnace and burner design and also position and geometry of the furnace load in a combined strategy. (author)

  11. Modeling of glass fusion furnaces; Modelisation des fours de fusion de verre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mechitoua, N. [Electricite de France (EDF), 78 - Chatou (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches; Plard, C. [Electricite de France, 77 - Moret sur Loing (France). Direction des Etudes et Recherches

    1997-12-31

    The furnaces used for glass melting are industrial installations inside which complex and coupled physical and chemical phenomena occur. Thermal engineering plays a major role and numerical simulation is a precious tool for the analysis of the different coupling, of their interaction and of the influence of the different parameters. In order to optimize the functioning of glass furnaces and to improve the quality of the glass produced, Electricite de France (EdF) has developed a specialized version of the ESTET fluid mechanics code, called `Joule`. This paper describes the functioning principle of glass furnaces, the interactions between heat transfers and flows inside the melted glass, the interactions between heat transfers and the thermal regulation of the furnace, the interactions between heat transfers and glass quality and the heat transfer interactions between the melted glass, the furnace walls and the combustion area. (J.S.)

  12. Minimization of Blast furnace Fuel Rate by Optimizing Burden and Gas Distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Chenn Zhou

    2012-08-15

    The goal of the research is to improve the competitive edge of steel mills by using the advanced CFD technology to optimize the gas and burden distributions inside a blast furnace for achieving the best gas utilization. A state-of-the-art 3-D CFD model has been developed for simulating the gas distribution inside a blast furnace at given burden conditions, burden distribution and blast parameters. The comprehensive 3-D CFD model has been validated by plant measurement data from an actual blast furnace. Validation of the sub-models is also achieved. The user friendly software package named Blast Furnace Shaft Simulator (BFSS) has been developed to simulate the blast furnace shaft process. The research has significant benefits to the steel industry with high productivity, low energy consumption, and improved environment.

  13. High temperature furnaces for small and large angle neutron scattering of disordered materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bletry, J.; Taverniere, P.; Senillou, C.; Desre, P.; Maret, M.; Chieux, P.

    1984-01-01

    Two similar high temperature furnaces (up to 2000 0 C) have been developed for large angle and small angle neutron scattering (SANS) experiments respectively. They are vacuum furnaces with a thin tungsten foil heating element supplied by two tantalum leads, and shielded by thin tungsten foils maintained in a tantalum box. In a neutron beam, the furnaces produce a very low scattering level (without any Bragg peaks) due to the openings in the heating element, the shields and the tantalum box for the incident, unscattered beam and the scattered beam at low angles. Thus the furnace absorption correction is also much easier. A platinum thermocouple controls temperature, very high temperatures are measured optically. A vacuum chamber has been especially designed for SANS experiments with two windows in polished sapphire. The furnaces have been successfully used for the study of liquid alloys on the D4, D11 and D17 spectrometers at the ILL

  14. Investigation of Voltage Unbalance Problems In Electric Arc Furnace Operation Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yacine DJEGHADER

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In modern steel industry, Electric Arc Furnaces are widely used for iron and scarp melting. The operation of electric arc furnace causes many power quality problems such as harmonics, unbalanced voltage and flicker. The factors that affect Electric arc furnace operation are the melting or refining materials, melting stage, electrodes position (arc length, electrode arm control and short circuit power of the feeder, so, arc voltages, current and power are defined as a nonlinear function of arc length. This study focuses on investigation of unbalanced voltage due to Electrics Arc Furnace operation mode. The simulation results show the major problem of unbalanced voltage affecting secondary of furnace transformer is caused by the different continues movement of electrodes.

  15. X-ray diffractometry of steam cured ordinary Portland and blast-furnace-slag cements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Camarini, G.; Djanikian, J.G.

    1994-01-01

    This work studies some aspects of the phases produced by hydration of ordinary and blast-furnace-slag cements, at normal conditions and steam cured (60 and 95 0 C), using an X-ray diffraction technique. The blast-furnace-slag cement was a mixture of 50% of ordinary Portland cement and 50% of blast-furnace-slag (separately grinding). After curing the X-ray diffraction reveals that, in relation to ordinary Portland cement, the main phases in blast-furnace-slag cement are hydrated silicates and aluminates, hydro garnet, etringitte and mono sulphate. After steam curing the hydration of blast-furnace-slag cement proceeds. This is a result of the slag activation by the curing temperature. (author). 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  16. Oil Spills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil spills often happen because of accidents, when people make mistakes or equipment breaks down. Other causes include natural disasters or deliberate acts. Oil spills have major environmental and economic effects. Oil ...

  17. Impacts of Water Quality on Residential Water Heating Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widder, Sarah H.; Baechler, Michael C.

    2013-11-01

    Water heating is a ubiquitous energy use in all residential housing, accounting for 17.7% of residential energy use (EIA 2012). Today, there are many efficient water heating options available for every fuel type, from electric and gas to more unconventional fuel types like propane, solar, and fuel oil. Which water heating option is the best choice for a given household will depend on a number of factors, including average daily hot water use (total gallons per day), hot water draw patterns (close together or spread out), the hot water distribution system (compact or distributed), installation constraints (such as space, electrical service, or venting accommodations) and fuel-type availability and cost. While in general more efficient water heaters are more expensive than conventional water heating technologies, the savings in energy use and, thus, utility bills can recoup the additional upfront investment and make an efficient water heater a good investment over time in most situations, although the specific payback period for a given installation will vary widely. However, the expected lifetime of a water heater in a given installation can dramatically influence the cost effectiveness and savings potential of a water heater and should be considered, along with water use characteristics, fuel availability and cost, and specific home characteristics when selecting the optimum water heating equipment for a particular installation. This report provides recommendations for selecting and maintaining water heating equipment based on local water quality characteristics.

  18. Reports on research achievements in developing high-performance industrial furnaces in fiscal 1998 (Research and development of high-performance industrial furnaces). Volume 1; 1998 nendo koseino kogyoro nado ni kansuru kenkyu kaihatsu seika hokokusho. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-03-01

    From the reports on research achievements in developing high-performance industrial furnaces in fiscal 1998, the report volume 1 was prepared as a research achievement report of each working group, detailing fundamental researches, heating furnaces, and heat treatment furnaces. The fundamental researches have researched combustion evaluating technology, characteristics of the area in the vicinity of a combustor, characteristics of combustion of high-temperature air, heating characteristics of a furnace to investigate effect of local heat absorption, and combustion evaluation. For the heating furnaces, the following subjects were studied: development of an in-furnace combustion model, summary of an experiment for evaluating high-temperature air combustion, furnace height relative to combustion heat transfer characteristics, heat loss minimizing technology, combustion heat transfer characteristics of liquid fuels, optimal operation of the high-temperature air combustion, basic control in heating control, and steel piece heating control. Studies were performed for the heat treatment furnaces on the case of a direct firing furnace in evaluating the heat transfer characteristics, the case of a radiant tube furnace, application of thermal fluid simulation technology, furnace averaging technology, soot reducing technology, control technology, and trial design on a high-performance heat treatment furnace. (NEDO)

  19. Evaluation of Multi Residential House Renovation Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiva Rapcevičienė

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Analyzed multi residential house renovation investment projects efficiency evaluation methods: economic-social, and environmental, as well as key financial valuation methods: simple pay-back period, the energy cost savings, the net present value, internal rate of return. Building walls condition regenerative rate which is used to evaluate investments in energy-saving measures is also discussed. According to reconstruction investments of multi residential house, three government financing programs of multi residential house are evaluated and selected the most effective program by comparing financial valuation methods taking and without taking into account building walls condition regenerative rate. Article in Lithuanian

  20. Final report on the project entitled: Highly Preheated Combustion Air System with/without Oxygen Enrichment for Metal Processing Furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvind Atreya

    2007-02-16

    This work develops and demonstrates a laboratory-scale high temperature natural gas furnace that can operate with/without oxygen enrichment to significantly improve energy efficiency and reduce emissions. The laboratory-scale is 5ft in diameter & 8ft tall. This furnace was constructed and tested. This report demonstrates the efficiency and pollutant prevention capabilities of this test furnace. The project also developed optical detection technology to control the furnace output.

  1. 12 CFR 541.16 - Improved residential real estate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Improved residential real estate. 541.16... REGULATIONS AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 541.16 Improved residential real estate. The term improved residential real estate means residential real estate containing offsite or other improvements...

  2. 12 CFR 541.23 - Residential real estate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Residential real estate. 541.23 Section 541.23... AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 541.23 Residential real estate. The terms residential real estate... home used in part for business); (c) Other real estate used for primarily residential purposes other...

  3. Challenges in simulation of chemical processes in combustion furnaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupa, M.; Kilpinen, P. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The presentation gives an introduction to some of the present issues and problems in treating the complex chemical processes in combustion. The focus is in the coupling of the hydrocarbon combustion process with nitrogen oxide formation and destruction chemistry in practical furnaces or flames. Detailed kinetic modelling based on schemes of elementary reactions are shown to be a useful novel tool for identifying and studying the key reaction paths for nitrogen oxide formation and destruction in various systems. The great importance of the interaction between turbulent mixing and combustion chemistry is demonstrated by the sensitivity of both methane oxidation chemistry and fuel nitrogen conversion chemistry to the reactor and mixing pattern chosen for the kinetic calculations. The fluidized bed combustion (FBC) nitrogen chemistry involves several important heterogeneous reactions. Particularly the char in the bed plays an essential role. Recent research has advanced rapidly and the presentation proposes an overall picture of the fuel nitrogen reaction routes in circulating FBC conditions. (author)

  4. Greener durable concretes through geopolymerisation of blast furnace slag

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamane, N. P.; Nataraja, M. C.; Jeyalakshmi, R.; Nithiyanantham, S.

    2015-05-01

    The eco-friendliness of concrete is quantified by parameters such as ‘embodied energy’ (EE) and ‘embodied CO2 emission’ (ECO2e), besides duration of designed ‘service life’. It may be noted that ECO2e is also referred as carbon footprint (CF) in the literature. Geopolymer (GP) is an inorganic polymeric gel, a type of amorphous alumino-silicate product, which can be synthesised by polycondensation reactions. The concrete reported in this paper was prepared using industrial wastes in the form of blast furnace slag, fly ash as geopolymeric source materials and sodium silicate and sodium hydroxide as activators. Many mechanical properties such as compressive strength, chloride diffusion, steel corrosion, rapid chloride permeability test and rapid migration test are compared with Portland cement.

  5. Sliding Mode Thermal Control System for Space Station Furnace Facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson Mark E.; Shtessel, Yuri B.

    1998-01-01

    The decoupled control of the nonlinear, multiinput-multioutput, and highly coupled space station furnace facility (SSFF) thermal control system is addressed. Sliding mode control theory, a subset of variable-structure control theory, is employed to increase the performance, robustness, and reliability of the SSFF's currently designed control system. This paper presents the nonlinear thermal control system description and develops the sliding mode controllers that cause the interconnected subsystems to operate in their local sliding modes, resulting in control system invariance to plant uncertainties and external and interaction disturbances. The desired decoupled flow-rate tracking is achieved by optimization of the local linear sliding mode equations. The controllers are implemented digitally and extensive simulation results are presented to show the flow-rate tracking robustness and invariance to plant uncertainties, nonlinearities, external disturbances, and variations of the system pressure supplied to the controlled subsystems.

  6. Modeling of Radiative Heat Transfer in an Electric Arc Furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, Florian; Treffinger, Peter; Wöllenstein, Jürgen

    2017-12-01

    Radiation is an important means of heat transfer inside an electric arc furnace (EAF). To gain insight into the complex processes of heat transfer inside the EAF vessel, not only radiation from the surfaces but also emission and absorption of the gas phase and the dust cloud need to be considered. Furthermore, the radiative heat exchange depends on the geometrical configuration which is continuously changing throughout the process. The present paper introduces a system model of the EAF which takes into account the radiative heat transfer between the surfaces and the participating medium. This is attained by the development of a simplified geometrical model, the use of a weighted-sum-of-gray-gases model, and a simplified consideration of dust radiation. The simulation results were compared with the data of real EAF plants available in literature.

  7. Pragmatic analysis of the electric submerged arc furnace continuum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karalis, K.; Karkalos, N.; Antipas, G. S. E.; Xenidis, A.

    2017-09-01

    A transient mathematical model was developed for the description of fluid flow, heat transfer and electromagnetic phenomena involved in the production of ferronickel in electric arc furnaces. The key operating variables considered were the thermal and electrical conductivity of the slag and the shape, immersion depth and applied electric potential of the electrodes. It was established that the principal stimuli of the velocities in the slag bath were the electric potential and immersion depth of the electrodes and the thermal and electrical conductivities of the slag. Additionally, it was determined that, under the set of operating conditions examined, the maximum slag temperature ranged between 1756 and 1825 K, which is in accordance with industrial measurements. Moreover, it was affirmed that contributions to slag stirring due to Lorentz forces and momentum forces due to the release of carbon monoxide bubbles from the electrode surface were negligible.

  8. Recycling of metal bearing electronic scrap in a plasma furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarosz, Piotr; Małecki, Stanisław; Gargul, Krzysztof

    2011-12-01

    The recycling of electronic waste and the recovery of valuable components are large problems in the modern world economy. This paper presents the effects of melting sorted electronic scrap in a plasma furnace. Printed circuit boards, cables, and windings were processed separately. The characteristics of the obtained products (i.e., alloy metal, slag, dust, and gases) are presented. A method of their further processing in order to obtain commercial products is proposed. Because of the chemical composition and physical properties, the waste slag is environmentally inert and can be used for the production of abrasives. Process dusts containing large amounts of carbon and its compounds have a high calorific value. That makes it possible to use them for energy generation. The gas has a high calorific value, and its afterburning combined with energy recovery is necessary.

  9. Feasibility of using ceramic furnace wastes in cement composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazzan, J.V.; Sanches, A.O.; Akasaki, J.L.; Malmonge, J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the region of Epitacio-SP President is classified as Paulista West Center in the production of ceramic tiles and bricks. However, as these industries have also generated environmental impacts in the production process with the generation of waste, the construction industries presents as great potential to absorb a large portion of these materials, called Pozzolans. In this sense, the research aims to study the characterization of Ceramic Furnace Wastes (CFC) and the evaluation of their reactivity. Mortar specimens were molded with different waste percentages in partial replacement of Portland cement, for analysis of compressive strength and capillary water absorption test. The characterization results show that important properties can be obtained by the preparation conditions of ashes, besides obtaining resistant activity index higher than expected by technical standards when using the material in replacement of Portland cement. (author)

  10. A Field Study of Wall Furnace Venting and Coincident Exhaust Fan Usage in 16 Northern California Apartments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singer, Brett C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Less, Brennan D. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Delp, William W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Brooks, Andrew [Association for Energy Affordability, Emeryville, CA (United States); Cohn, Sebastian [Association for Energy Affordability, Emeryville, CA (United States); Finn, Brian [Association for Energy Affordability, Emeryville, CA (United States)

    2016-09-01

    To inform efforts to improve combustion appliance testing in residential energy efficiency programs, we studied the frequency of coincident fan use and depressurization-induced downdrafting and spillage from atmospherically vented (i.e., natural draft) wall furnaces in airtight apartments. Indoor environmental conditions, heating appliance operation, use of exhaust fans, and cooking with stovetop or oven were monitored for approximately three weeks each in 16 apartment units in two buildings in Northern California. Apartments also were assessed using standard combustion appliance safety test methods and enhanced protocols. Monitoring occurred in February and March of 2016, with heating demand corresponding to 7.3 ± 0.5 heating degree-days at a 65ºF reference temperature. Most of the furnaces spilled combustion products when the apartments were depressurized in the “worst-case” challenge condition of all exhaust fans operating at their highest settings and all windows closed. Many also spilled under less challenging conditions (e.g., with kitchen exhaust fan on low and bathroom fan operating). On average, bathroom exhaust fans were operated 3.9% of monitored minutes (13.5% max), and cooking (burner or kitchen fan operation) occurred 4.6% of minutes (max 13.3%). Event lengths averaged 17 minutes (max 540) and 34 minutes (max 324), respectively. Their coincident operation averaged 0.34% of minutes (max 2.0%), with average event length of 13 minutes (max 92 minutes). This suggests that the operation of apartment units at or near the currently used worst-case challenge condition is quite rare. Wall furnace burners operated an average of 2.8% of minutes (max of 8.9%), with average burner cycle length of 14 minutes (max 162). Coincident bath fan use, cooking and wall furnace operation was very rare, occurring only a handful of times across all apartments. The highest rate was 0.075% of monitored minutes in one apartment, and the longest event length was 12 minutes

  11. Nodal wear model: corrosion in carbon blast furnace hearths

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verdeja, L. F.

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Criterions developed for the Nodal Wear Model (NWM were applied to estimate the shape of the corrosion profiles that a blast furnace hearth may acquire during its campaign. Taking into account design of the hearth, the boundary conditions, the characteristics of the refractory materials used and the operation conditions of the blast furnace, simulation of wear profiles with central well, mushroom and elephant foot shape were accomplished. The foundations of the NWM are constructed considering that the corrosion of the refractory is a function of the temperature present at each point (node of the liquid metal-refractory interface and the corresponding physical and chemical characteristics of the corrosive fluid.

    Se aplican los criterios del Modelo de Desgaste Nodal (MDN para la estimación de los perfiles de corrosión que podría ir adquiriendo el crisol de un homo alto durante su campaña. Atendiendo al propio diseño del crisol, a las condiciones límites de contorno, a las características del material refractario utilizado y a las condiciones de operación del horno, se consiguen simular perfiles de desgaste con "pozo central", con "forma de seta" ó de "pie de elefante". Los fundamentos del MDN se apoyan en la idea de considerar que la corrosión del refractario es función de la temperatura que el sistema pueda presentar en cada punto (nodo de la intercara refractario-fundido y de las correspondientes características físico-químicas del fluido corrosivo.

  12. 5 CFR 1655.20 - Residential loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...'s primary residence is his or her principal residence. A primary residence may include a house, a... residence. A residential loan will not be made for a lease-to-buy option, unless the option to buy is being...

  13. RACIAL RESIDENTIAL SEGREGATION AND ADVERSE BIRTH OUTCOMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    INTRODUCTION. The disparity between black and white women's adverse birth outcomes has been subject to much investigation, yet the factors underlying its persistence remain elusive, which has encouraged research on neighborhood-level influences, including racial residential segr...

  14. Forecasting residential electricity demand in provincial China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hua; Liu, Yanan; Gao, Yixuan; Hao, Yu; Ma, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Kan

    2017-03-01

    In China, more than 80% electricity comes from coal which dominates the CO2 emissions. Residential electricity demand forecasting plays a significant role in electricity infrastructure planning and energy policy designing, but it is challenging to make an accurate forecast for developing countries. This paper forecasts the provincial residential electricity consumption of China in the 13th Five-Year-Plan (2016-2020) period using panel data. To overcome the limitations of widely used predication models with unreliably prior knowledge on function forms, a robust piecewise linear model in reduced form is utilized to capture the non-deterministic relationship between income and residential electricity consumption. The forecast results suggest that the growth rates of developed provinces will slow down, while the less developed will be still in fast growing. The national residential electricity demand will increase at 6.6% annually during 2016-2020, and populous provinces such as Guangdong will be the main contributors to the increments.

  15. Modeling radon transport in multistory residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persily, A.K.

    1993-01-01

    Radon concentrations have been studied extensively in single-family residential buildings, but relatively little work has been done in large buildings, including multistory residential buildings. The phenomena of radon transport in multistory residential buildings is made more complicated by the multizone nature of the airflow system and the numerous interzone airflow paths that must be characterized in such a system. This paper presents the results of a computer simulation of airflow and radon transport in a twelve-story residential building. Interzone airflow rates and radon concentrations were predicted using the multizone airflow and contaminant dispersal program (CON-TAM88). Limited simulations were conducted to study the influence of two different radon source terms, indoor-outdoor temperature difference and exterior wall leakage values on radon transport and radon concentration distributions

  16. Residential and Transport Energy Use in India: Past Trend and Future Outlook

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    de la Rue du Can, Stephane; Letschert, Virginie; McNeil, Michael; Zhou, Nan; Sathaye, Jayant

    2009-03-31

    The main contribution of this report is to characterize the underlying residential and transport sector end use energy consumption in India. Each sector was analyzed in detail. End-use sector-level information regarding adoption of particular technologies was used as a key input in a bottom-up modeling approach. The report looks at energy used over the period 1990 to 2005 and develops a baseline scenario to 2020. Moreover, the intent of this report is also to highlight available sources of data in India for the residential and transport sectors. The analysis as performed in this way reveals several interesting features of energy use in India. In the residential sector, an analysis of patterns of energy use and particular end uses shows that biomass (wood), which has traditionally been the main source of primary energy used in households, will stabilize in absolute terms. Meanwhile, due to the forces of urbanization and increased use of commercial fuels, the relative significance of biomass will be greatly diminished by 2020. At the same time, per household residential electricity consumption will likely quadruple in the 20 years between 2000 and 2020. In fact, primary electricity use will increase more rapidly than any other major fuel -- even more than oil, in spite of the fact that transport is the most rapidly growing sector. The growth in electricity demand implies that chronic outages are to be expected unless drastic improvements are made both to the efficiency of the power infrastructure and to electric end uses and industrial processes. In the transport sector, the rapid growth in personal vehicle sales indicates strong energy growth in that area. Energy use by cars is expected to grow at an annual growth rate of 11percent, increasing demand for oil considerably. In addition, oil consumption used for freight transport will also continue to increase .

  17. Gentrification and Residential Mobility in Philadelphia

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Lei; Hwang, Jackelyn; Divringi, Eileen

    2016-01-01

    Gentrification has provoked considerable controversy surrounding its effects on residential displacement. Using a unique individual-level, longitudinal data set, this study examines mobility rates and residential destinations of residents in gentrifying neighborhoods during the recent housing boom and bust in Philadelphia for various strata of residents and different types of gentrification. We find that vulnerable residents, those with low credit scores and without mortgages, are generally n...

  18. Architectural design of passive solar residential building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Jing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies thermal environment of closed balconies that commonly exist in residential buildings, and designs a passive solar residential building. The design optimizes the architectural details of the house and passive utilization of solar energy to provide auxiliary heating for house in winter and cooling in summer. This design might provide a more sufficient and reasonable modification for microclimate in the house.

  19. Multi-fuel furnace. Demonstration project. Final rapport; Multibraendselsovn - Demonstrationsprojekt. Slutrapport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall Bentzen, J.

    2012-06-15

    It has been verified that the Dall Energy Furnace have unique features: - The furnace will accept biomass fuel with moisture content in range 20% to 60% and still keep the flue gas temperature within +-10 deg. Celsius (for pre-set temperature 900 to 975 deg. Celsius); - The ash quality from the furnace is very good with no excessive sintering and without carbon in the ash; - Flue gas dust content at the furnace exit is below 50 mg/Nm3, while the content of NO{sub x} and CO is below 175 mg/Nm3 and 20 mg/Nm3, respectively. The Dall Energy biomass furnace consists of two separate stages which are combined in a single aggregate: an updraft gasification process and a gas combustion process. As the furnace is refractory lined and as the furnace can operate at low excess air it is possible to burn biomass with water content above 60%. No mechanical parts are used at temperatures above 200 deg. Celsius. This provides a very rugged system. In the gasifier section a combustible gas is produced with a low velocity at the top of the gasifier bed. This gas is combusted to a flue gas with extremely low dust content. Also, the NO{sub x} and CO content is very low. The temperature of the flue gas at the exit is kept low by injecting water spray together with the secondary air. (Author)

  20. The development of two new KC-135 furnaces for studies on microgravity materials processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiske, Michael; Cockburn, James; Poorman, Richard

    1988-01-01

    Wyle Laboratories is currently designing and fabricating two KC-135 materials processing furnaces for Marshall Space Flight Center. The first of these, called the Rapid Melt/Rapid Quench (RM/RQ) Furnace, will be used to melt and resolidify Cu-, Al-, and Ni-based alloys and composites, all during the 20 to 30 seconds of low gravity (0.1 to 0.001 g) available in a single parabola of the KC-135. In addition, it will be capable of directional solidification of these alloys. The furnace can be configured for either liquid or gas quenching of the samples. The second furnace, called the Polymer Solidification Transparent (PST) Furnace, will use a wide range of sample translation rates to directionally solidify polymers and low-melting-point metals as the KC-135 flies a series of parabolic maneuvers. The use of transparent crucibles and an optics system between the hot and cold zones of the furnace will allow for high-resolution video monitoring of the solid-liquid interface during processing. It is hoped that the development of these two furnaces will lead to significant increases in understanding of interface kinetics, fluid flow, and heat transfer in materials during solidification in a low-gravity environment.

  1. Simulation for the powder movement and accumulation in the lower part of blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiyama, Takashi [Mineral Resources Research Center, Nippon Steel Technoresearch, Futtsu-shi Chiba (Japan)

    1997-12-31

    The behavior of unburnt char and coke powder in the blast furnace becomes material for discussion with the increase in injection rate of pulverized coal into the blast furnace. An analysis was made as to the simulation of powder accumulation at the deadman and dripping zone of blast furnace by using a powder/gas two-phases flow experimental data. When an excessive powder has penetrated at a low gas velocity, it brings an increment in holdup and the controlling factors are powder/gas ratio and gas velocity. An empirical formula used for estimating the powder hold-up in the blast furnace internal conditions has proposed based on similarity. The controlling {pi} numbers are Floude number, powder/gas ratio and particle diameter ratio of powder/lump. This empirical formular was connected with Blast Furnace Total Model `BRIGHT` for the simulation of powder amount distribution in the lower part of blast furnace. When Powder diameter Dk exceeds 100 {mu} and gas velocity becomes lower than 0.7m/s at PC1OOkg/T, the powder tends to accumulate in the deadman. These results was available for the decision of optimum blast conditions and optimum powder diameter in the high amount of pulverized coal injection to the blast furnace. (author) 10 refs.

  2. Influence of furnace tube shapeon thermal strain of fire-tube boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gaćeša Branka

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to use numerical analysis and fine element method-FEM to investigate the influence of furnace tube shape on the thermal strain of fire-tube boilers. Thermal stresses in corrugated furnace tubes of different shape, i.e. with different corrugation pitch and depth, were analysed first. It was demonstrated that the thermal stresses in corrugated furnace tube are significantly reduced with the increase of corrugation depth. Than deformations and stresses in the structure of a fire-tube boiler were analysed in a real operating condition, for the cases of installed plain furnace tube and corrugated furnace tubes with different shapes. It was concluded that in this fire-tube boiler, which is of larger steam capacity, the corrugated furnace tube must be installed, as well as that the maximal stress in the construction is reduced by the installation of the furnace tube with greater corrugation depth. The analysis of stresses due to pressure and thermal loads pointed out that thermal stresses are not lower-order stresses in comparison to stresses due to pressure loads, so they must be taken into consideration for boiler strength analysis. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 35040 i br. TR 35011

  3. Heating rates in furnace atomic absorption using the L'vov platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koirtyohann, S.R.; Giddings, R.C.; Taylor, Howard E.

    1984-01-01

    Heating rate profiles for the furnace tube wall, the furnace atmosphere, and a L'vov platform were established for a range of conditions in a cyclically heated graphite atomizer. The tube wall profile was made by direct observation with a recording optical pyrometer. The sodium line reversal method was used to establish the heating rate of the furnace atmosphere, and appearance temperatures for a series metals of differing volatility was used to establish platform profiles. The tube wall heating rate was nearly linear at 2240??C s- until the desired temperature was reached after which the temperature remained constant. The furnace atmosphere reached a given temperature 0.2-0.4 s later than the tube wall through most of the atomize cycle. The platform lagged the tube wall 0.5-0.8 s. Under typical operating conditions the furnace atmosphere was 100-200??C cooler than the tube wall and at nearly constant temperature when the analyte vaporized from the platform. The L'vov platform causes the cyclically heated commercial furnace to approximate the behavior of a constant temperature furnace during atomization. ?? 1984.

  4. Integrated residential photovoltaic array development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal, G. C., III

    1981-04-01

    Sixteen conceptual designs of residential photovoltaic arrays are described. Each design concept was evaluated by an industry advisory panel using a comprehensive set of technical, economic and institutional criteria. Key electrical and mechanical concerns that effect further array subsystem development are also discussed. Three integrated array design concepts were selected by the advisory panel for further optimization and development. From these concepts a single one will be selected for detailed analysis and prototype fabrication. The three concepts selected are: (1) An array of frameless panels/modules sealed in a T shaped zipper locking neoprene gasket grid pressure fitted into an extruded aluminum channel grid fastened across the rafters. (2) An array of frameless modules pressure fitted in a series of zipper locking EPDM rubber extrusions adhesively bonded to the roof. Series string voltage is developed using a set of integral tongue connectors and positioning blocks. (3) An array of frameless modules sealed by a silicone adhesive in a prefabricated grid of rigid tape and sheet metal attached to the roof.

  5. Influence of blast furnace gas flow speed on dust deposition characteristics in butterfly valve region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixin WANG

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The blast furnace gas contains plenty of dust, which deposits easily on the bottom of seat sealing surface of the tri-eccentric butterfly valve in the pipeline, causing stuck and damage to the valve plate, thereby affects the production of the blast furnace and brings great economic loss. To derive the influence mechanism of effects of the blast furnace gas flow speed within the pipeline on the dust deposition laws in the butterfly valve region, a 3D model of the butterfly valve and its regional flow field is built with Pro/E software. Based on FLUENT module of ANSYS Workbench, along with standard k-ε turbulence model and DPM model, simulation analysis of moving trajectories of dust particles in butterfly valve region under 3 blast furnace gas flow speeds is conducted. Results show that the deposition mass of dust particles decreases firstly, then increases with the enlargement of valve plate opening angle under the blast furnace gas flow speed of 8 m/s, while decreases with the enlargement of valve plate opening under the blast furnace gas flow speeds of 12 m/s and 16 m/s. In the case of the valve plate opening angle of 15°, the deposition rate of dust particles increases with the growing of blast furnace gas flow speed, while decreases with the growing of blast furnace gas flow speed under the cases of valve plate opening angle of 45° and 75°. The research results provide a theoretical reference for the development of automatic dust removal system in the butterfly valve region of the blast furnace gas pipeline.

  6. Plasma arc and cold crucible furnace vitrification for medium level waste: a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poitou, S.; Fiquet, O.; Bourdeloie, C.; Gramondi, P.; Rebollo, F.; Girold, C.; Charvillat, J.P.; Boen, R.; Jouan, A.; Ladirat, C.; Nabot, J.P.; Ochem, D.; Baronnet, J.M.

    2001-01-01

    Initially developed for high-level waste reprocessing, several vitrification processes have been under study since the 80's at the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) for other waste categories. According to the French law concerning waste management research passed on December 30, 1991, vitrification may be applied to mixed medium-level waste. A review of processes developed at CEA is presented: cold crucible furnace heated by induced current, refractory furnace heated by nitrogen transferred arc plasma torch, and coupling of cold crucible furnace with oxygen transferred plasma arc twin torch. Furthermore, gas post-combustion has been studied with an oxygen non-transferred plasma torch. (authors)

  7. Fluorophotometric determination of uranium: an automated sintering furnace and factors affecting precision

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strain, J.E.

    1978-07-01

    The fusion furnace consists of four individually controlled, slotted-tube furnaces that automatically dry, sinter and anneal the fluoride or carbonate pellet used in the fluorometric determination of uranium. The furnace operates in air and prepares approximately 90 pellets per hour for fluorometric measurement. The factors that were thought to affect the precision of the method were investigated. The two factors that seem to be the most influential are (1) the manner in which the sample is loaded onto the pellet; and (2) the surface characteristics of the platinum dish in which the pellet is sintered and measured fluorometrically

  8. A New Induction Heating Floating-Zone Refining Furnace for Ultrapurification of Iron-Chromium Alloys

    OpenAIRE

    Takaki, S.; Ashino, Y.; Morimoto, Y.; Tanino, M.; Abiko, K.

    1995-01-01

    A new induction heating floating-zone refining (IHFZR) furnace was designed and constructed using ultrahigh vacuum technology for the ultrapurification of base metals. The ultrahigh vacuum attainable in this furnace is so good as 1x10-7} Pa that a base metal bar can be zone-melted in both ultrahigh vacuum and higher-purity gas atmosphere containing less residual gases. The outline of this IHFZR furnace and the results of its application to the purification of high-purity iron, Fe-18%Cr alloy ...

  9. Proceedings of the 1998 oil heat technology conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, R.J.

    1998-04-01

    The 1998 Oil Heat Technology Conference was held on April 7--8 at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) under sponsorship by the US Department of Energy, Office of Building Technologies, State and Community Programs (DOE/BTS). The meeting was held in cooperation with the Petroleum Marketers Association of America (PMAA). Fourteen technical presentations was made during the two-day program, all related to oil-heat technology and equipment, these will cover a range of research, developmental, and demonstration activities being conducted within the United States and Canada, including: integrated oil heat appliance system development in Canada; a miniature heat-actuated air conditioner for distributed space conditioning; high-flow fan atomized oil burner (HFAB) development; progress in the development of self tuning oil burners; application of HFAB technology to the development of a 500 watt; thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power system; field tests of the Heat Wise Pioneer oil burner and Insight Technologies AFQI; expanded use of residential oil burners to reduce ambient ozone and particulate levels by conversion of electric heated homes to oilheat; PMAA`s Oil Heat Technician`s Manual (third edition); direct venting concept development; evolution of the chimney; combating fuel related problems; the effects of red dye and metal contamination on fuel oil stability; new standard for above ground and basement residential fuel oil storage; plastic and steel composite secondary contained tanks; and money left on the table: an economic analysis of tank cleaning.

  10. seed oil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wara

    found to be 2.0 cm which is lower than that of Jatropha oil soap(5.4cm), Sesame oil soap(4.8cm), Cotton seed oil soap(4.5cm) and shea nut soap(4.2cm),t higher than that of Castor oil soap(1.6cm) and Castor glycerine soap(1.4cm). The soap was milk in colour and slightly soluble in distilled water. Keywords: Neem oil ...

  11. Residential care: Dutch and Italian residents of residential care facilities compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Heer-Wunderink, Charlotte; Caro-Nienhuis, Annemarie D; Sytema, Sjoerd; Wiersma, Durk

    2008-01-01

    Characteristics of patients living in residential care facilities and the availability of mental hospital- and residential beds in Italy and The Netherlands were compared to assess whether differences in the process of deinstitutionalisation have influenced the composition of their residential patient populations. Data from the Dutch UTOPIA-study (UTilization & Outcome of Patients In the Association of Dutch residential care providers) and the Italian PROGRES-study were used. Dutch residents were more likely to suffer from substance or alcohol abuse than Italian residents. The latter were more likely to suffer from schizophrenia or a related disorder, less likely to have experienced mental hospital admissions and showed an overall shorter duration of stay in residential care facilities. Contrary to our expectations Dutch residents, who still have good access to long stay beds in mental hospitals, are not less disabled than Italian residents. Finally, the number of beds in residential care facilities per 10,000 inhabitants in the Netherlands is twice (6) as high as in Italy (3). The Italian and Dutch deinstitutionalisation processes have resulted in a different availability in the number of residential beds. However, it did not influence the overall level of functioning of both residential populations.

  12. Differences between Residential and Non-Residential Fathers on Sexual Socialisation of African American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneed, Carl D.; Willis, Leigh A.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated differences between residential and non-residential fathers on topics discussed during father-child sex communication and factors associated with child sexual socialisation. Young people (N = 159, 53% female) provided self-reports using computer surveys on the role of their fathers on father-child sex communication, general…

  13. Oil risk in oil stocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholtens, Bert; Wang, L

    2008-01-01

    We assess the oil price sensitivities and oil risk premiums of NYSE listed oil & gas firms' returns by using a two-step regression analysis under two different arbitrage pricing models. Thus, we apply the Fama and French (1992) factor returns in a study of oil stocks. In all, we find that the return

  14. Post-Retrofit Residential Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lancaster, Ross; lutzenhiser, Loren; Moezzi, Mithra; Widder, Sarah H.; Chandra, Subrato; Baechler, Michael C.

    2012-04-30

    This study examined a range of factors influencing energy consumption in households that had participated in residential energy-efficiency upgrades. The study was funded by a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and was conducted by faculty and staff of Portland State University Center for Urban Studies and Department of Economics. This work was made possible through the assistance and support of the Energy Trust of Oregon (ETO), whose residential energy-efficiency programs provided the population from which the sample cases were drawn. All households in the study had participated in the ETO Home Performance with Energy Star (HPwES) program. A number of these had concurrently pursued measures through other ETO programs. Post-retrofit energy outcomes are rarely investigated on a house-by-house basis. Rather, aggregate changes are ordinarily the focus of program impact evaluations, with deviation from aggregate expectations chalked up to measurement error, the vagaries of weather and idiosyncrasies of occupants. However, understanding how homes perform post-retrofit on an individual basis can give important insights to increase energy savings at the participant and the programmatic level. Taking a more disaggregated approach, this study analyzed energy consumption data from before and after the retrofit activity and made comparisons with engineering estimates for the upgrades, to identify households that performed differently from what may have been expected based on the estimates. A statistical analysis using hierarchal linear models, which accounted for weather variations, was performed looking separately at gas and electrical use during the periods before and after upgrades took place. A more straightforward comparison of billing data for 12-month periods before and after the intervention was also performed, yielding the majority of the cases examined. The later approach allowed total energy use and costs to be

  15. On-line Zeeman atomic absorption spectroscopy for mercury analysis in oil shale gases. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girvin, D.C.; Fox, J.P.

    1979-08-01

    The technique utilizes ZAA for on-line measurement of mercury in the presence of smoke, organic vapors, and oil mist in offgases from oil shale processing plants. The spectrometer utilizes a new flow-through stainless steel (SS) furnace maintained at 900/sup 0/C by joule heating. Corrosion of the furnace by H/sub 2/S in the sample gas is minimized by diffusion of Al into the surface of the SS. Corrosion tests with 2% (v/v) H/sub 2/S at 1093/sup 0/C gave an estimated furnace lifetime of three days. The instrumental response with this furnace is characterized by a detection limit (DL) of 2 ppB, a linear response up to 100 ppB, and a precision of +- 7% or better. In the 50 ppB to 1.6 ppM range a furnace with a 5 cm optical absorption tube yields a DL of 10 ppB, a linear response up to 800 ppB, and a precision of +- 10% or better. Sample gas flow rates can be varied between 400 and 4000 scc/min for either furance.

  16. IRON ORE SINTER PRODUCTION USING ELECTRIC ARC FURNACE DUST AS RAW MATERIAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Bridi Telles

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The steel production through Electric Arc Furnaces (EAF generates approximately 15% to 20% of Electric Arc Furnace Dust (EAFD. This waste is considered dangerous due to the presence of metals as lead and cadmium that leach in contact with water. Because of this, the EAFD recycling becomes an alternative to diminish the costs with landfills and environmental harms caused by the waste. The iron ore sintering is a process that reuses most part of powders generated by the steelmaking. However the EAFD is not reused in this process because it contains zinc. The zinc is highly detrimental inside blast furnaces causing heavy crusts and affecting the thermodynamic equilibrium of the process. Therefore, this work studies the EAFD reuse in the iron ore sintering process to produce iron ore sinter with zinc contents between the limits established for blast furnaces.

  17. Treatment of simulated INEL buried wastes using a graphite electrode DC arc furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Surma, J.E.; Lawrence, W.E.; Titus, C.H.; Wittle, J.K.; Hamilton, R.A.; Cohn, D.R.; Rhea, D.; Thomas, P.; Woskov, P.P.

    1994-08-01

    A program has been established under the auspices of the Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Technology Development (OTD), to develop the graphite electrode DC arc technology for the application of treating buried heterogenous solid wastes. A three way open-quotes National Laboratory-University-Industryclose quotes partnership was formed to develop this technology in the most timely and cost effective manner. This program is presently testing a newly fabricated pilot-scale DC arc furnace with associated diagnostics at the Plasma Fusion Center at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Initial testing in a smaller engineering scale furnace has established the viability of this technology for the treatment of solid heterogeneous wastes. Two diagnostic tools were developed under this program which support the evaluation of the DC arc technology. The diagnostics provide for both spatially resolved temperature measurements within the furnace and real time monitoring of the furnace metal emissions

  18. STUDY OF OPERATION OF ARC STEEL FURNACE WITH CONOID BAY FLUSHING OF STEEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Murikov

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The construction of the arc steel-furnace bay, the application of which allows to increase the speed of flush outflow, to provide reduction of the slag carry-over with metal, is offered.

  19. Thermal design of a pressure electroslag remelting furnace applied for 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cruz M, J.P.

    1999-01-01

    Actual work defines the thermal design methodology for pressure electroslag remelting furnaces (P ESR) of variable capacity, applied for 5 Kg. It begins with classification and description of secondary refining furnaces, after PESR process and the concept of thermal design are described. Next, in base of the steel weight to remelt (5 Kg); ingot, crucible and electrode dimensions are obtained. These elements will be inside of pressure vessel whose thickness are determined according to ASME Code (Section 8, Division 1, U G-27). It was developed a computer program, where the furnace capacity can be modified, so like other conditions, and display principal dimensions of the furnace. Current and voltage are obtained from the heat necessary to remelt the ingot and the heat transfer in the crucible, is analysed because of it is the most critical element. It was selected too the equipment to registry temperatures and pressure in base of thermocouple characteristics. (Author)

  20. Effects of furnace temperature profile on the interface shape during Bridgman crystal growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghavi, K.; Duval, W. M. B.

    1988-01-01

    The effects of asymmetry in furnace temperature profile and pulling velocity on the crystal interface shape are demonstrated while neglecting the latent heat of solidification. It is concluded that the furnace temperature profile may be varied in order to influence the interface shape of the crystal. An exact thermal analysis is performed on the Bridgman technique by including the latent heat of solidification as a source term. The exact temperature field is obtained for the case of a flat melt-crystal interface. The earlier observation regarding the influence of furnace temperature profile on the crystal interface shape is confirmed and a criterion for a flat crystal interface is obtained. Various furnace temperature profiles are selected and their corresponding results are presented.

  1. Developing and testing a vertical sintering furnace for remote nuclear applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesbitt, J.F.; Ryer, C.M.

    1980-01-01

    Horizontal-type furnaces used to sinter fuel pellets on a production basis are large and thus impractical for remote applications. However, research has shown that vertical-type furnaces are adaptable for use and are cheaper to operate and maintain. In 1979, Pacific Northwest Laboratory, working under the auspices of the Department of Energy's Fuel Refabrication and Development (FRAD) Program, began developing an advanced concept for a remotely operated furnace designed specifically to sinter nuclear fuel pellets. The FRAD Program at PNL ended before the sintering of nuclear fuels could be completely verified. However during 1979, PNL performed a sufficient number and variety of tests to establish that nuclear fuel pellets can be sintered in a vertical furnace

  2. MODELLING OF BICOLOR PYROMETER WITH LIGHT-GUIDING TRACT FOR METALLURGICAL FURNACES

    OpenAIRE

    E. I. Marukovich; L. F. Zhukov; Ju. N. Kochkin; A. A. Romanenko; Ju. L. Stanulenis

    2010-01-01

    Theoretical explanation of creation of two-color pyrometer with light-guiding transmission is given. The example of practical application of such type of pyrometer for the molten metal temperature control in laboratory furnace is given.

  3. MODELLING OF BICOLOR PYROMETER WITH LIGHT-GUIDING TRACT FOR METALLURGICAL FURNACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. I. Marukovich

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical explanation of creation of two-color pyrometer with light-guiding transmission is given. The example of practical application of such type of pyrometer for the molten metal temperature control in laboratory furnace is given.

  4. BLAST FURNACE GRANULAR COAL INJECTION SYSTEM. Final Report Volume 2: Project Performance and Economics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unknown

    1999-10-01

    Bethlehem Steel Corporation (BSC) requested financial assistance from the Department of Energy (DOE), for the design, construction and operation of a 2,800-ton-per-day blast furnace granulated coal injection (BFGCI) system for two existing iron-making blast furnaces. The blast furnaces are located at BSC's facilities in Burns Harbor, Indiana. The demonstration project proposal was selected by the DOE and awarded to Bethlehem in November 1990. The design of the project was completed in December 1993 and construction was completed in January 1995. The equipment startup period continued to November 1995 at which time the operating and testing program began. The blast furnace test program with different injected coals was completed in December 1998.

  5. Hydrometallurgically recovering zinc from electric arc furnace dusts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antrekowitsch, J.; Antrekowitsch, H.

    2001-12-01

    The increasing use of zinc-containing scrap for steel production has lead to a high zinc content in the electric arc furnace and converter flue dusts. The cost of disposing of this residue is high due to environmental restrictions. Various recycling processes have been developed for these dusts, but most never reached the pilot plant stage and many investigations were stopped because of metallurgical and economical inefficiencies. While pyrometallurgical methods have to deal with high energy consumption, low zinc yield, and valueless residues, hydrometallurgical processes could offer an economical recycling alternative. This paper describes hydrometallurgical methods for recovering zinc from steel industry dust. These methods can be integrated in the primary zinc-winning process or in galvanization. Investigations of sulfuric-acid leaching show high zinc solubility but also a high iron content in the final liquor. As a result, steps for purification are required that cannot be conducted economically. Alternatively, a NaOH leaching gives a satisfying zinc yield and a very low solubility for the iron that remains in the residue.

  6. Numerical investigation of waste plastic: Injection in a blast furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goto, A.; Morozumi, Y.; Hagiya, H.; Aoki, H.; Miura, T. [Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    2008-03-15

    In the present study, waste plastic injection in blast furnace processes is investigated numerically. A mathematical model developed in this study describes turbulent flows, heat and mass transfer, chemical reactions in gas, particle and coke-bed phases, and particle trajectories. In the simulation, pulverized particles of coal or plastics are injected into a blowpipe with a nitrogen gas stream, and are then supplied to the raceway region in the coke particle bed. The difference in the gasification behaviors between coal and plastic particles are discussed. The effects of the diameter of plastic particles on the gasification behavior are also investigated. Coal particles are rapidly gasified in the blowpipe because of their small size. In contrast, the gasification of plastic particles rarely occurs in the blowpipe, even if small plastic particles are injected. In addition, the flows of plastic particles are biased in the blowpipe, and consequently the reaction zone of gasification is narrow. In the raceway of the coke bed, the pulverized coal particles exit the raceway due to their small diameter, and are then discharged from the coke bed without sufficient gasification. On the other hand, the plastic particles circulate in the raceway until the diameters thereof decrease below a critical diameter. As a result, since the gasification reaction progresses during the circulation, the combustion efficiency of plastic particles remains high even though the initial diameter of the plastic particles is large.

  7. Phosphorus removal by electric arc furnace steel slag adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, J. W.; Lee, K. F.; Chong, Thomas S. Y.; Abdullah, L. C.; Razak, M. A.; Tezara, C.

    2017-10-01

    As to overcome the eutrophication in lakes and reservoirs which is resulted from excessive input of phosphorus due to rapid urbanization or uncontrolled agricultural activities, Electric Arc Furnace steel slag (EAFS), a steelmaking by-product, in which the disposal of this industrial waste considered economically unfavourable yet it’s physical and chemical properties exhibits high potential to be great P adsorbent. The objective of this study was to identify most suitable mathematical model in description of adsorption by using traditional batch experiment and to investigate the effect on Phosphorus removal efficiency and Phosphorus removal capacity by EAFS adsorption through variation of parameters such as pH, size of slag and initial concentration of Phosphorus. Result demonstrated that, Langmuir is suitable in describing Phosphorus removal mechanisms with the Maximum Adsorption Capacity, Q m of 0.166 mg/g and Langmuir Constant, KL of 0.03519 L/mg. As for effect studies, smaller size of adsorbent shows higher percentage (up to 37.8%) of Phosphorus removal compared to the larger size. Besides that, the experiment indicated a more acidic environment is favourable for Phosphorus removal and the amount of Phosphorus adsorbed at pH 3.0 was the highest. In addition, the adsorption capacity increases steadily as the initial Phosphorus concentration increases but it remained steady at 100mg P/L. Eventually, this study serves as better understanding on preliminary studies of P removal mechanisms by EAFS.

  8. Experimental and numerical studies of rotating drum grate furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basista Grzegorz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Waste material from the meat industry can be taken into account as a biofuel. Studies confirm, that calorific value is higher and ash content is lower comparing to some conventional fuels. EU directives regulate details of thermal disposal of the waste material from the meat industry - especially in range of the process temperature and time of the particle presence in area of the combustion zone. The paper describes design of the rotating drum grate stove, dedicated to thermal disposal of the meat wastes as well as solid biomass (pellet, small bricket, wood chips combustion. Device has been developed in frames of cooperation between AGH University of Science and Technology (Krakow, Poland and producer focused on technologies of energy utilization of biomass in distributed generation. Results of measurements of selected operational parameters performed during startup of the furnace have been presented and discussed. Furthermore, numerical model of the combustion process has been developed to complement experimental results in range of the temperature and oxygen distribution in the area of the combustion chamber. ANSYS CFX solver has been applied to perform simulations including rotational domain related with specifics of operation of the device. Results of numerical modelling and experimental studies have been summarized and compared.

  9. Emissions of dioxin and dibenzofuran from electric arc furnaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Figueira, S. L.

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes work done in order to clarify the formation mechanism of highly toxic micropoUutants, such as dioxins and dibenzofurans, from electric arc furnaces used in the production of carbon steel from scrap. The study is allowing to derive relationships between the levels of airborne micropoUutants and the operational parameters of the production process so that an abatement of pollution could be achieved. By using the European standard method CEN 1948 for dioxin like compounds sampling and measurement, it was possible to determine the characteristic fingerprint of micropoUutants emitted by this particular stationary source.

    Este artículo contiene resultados del trabajo ejecutado para el esclarecimiento de los mecanismos de formación de los micropolutantes muy tóxicos, como dioxinas y dibenzofuranos, que son emitidos por los hornos de arco eléctrico utilizados en la producción de acero. Estos estudios han permitido relacionar las concentraciones de polutantes emitidos a la atmósfera con las condiciones operación del homo eléctrico. Utilizando el método normalizado CEN 1948 para captación y análisis de muestras de compuestos análogos a las dioxinas ha sido posible determinar el perfil característico de los micropolutantes emitidos por esta fuente

  10. Stabilization of electric-arc furnace dust in concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alberto Caldas de Souza

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Electric-arc furnace dust (EAFD is a by-product of steel production and recycling. This fine-grained material contains high amounts of zinc and iron as well as significant amounts of potentially toxic elements such as lead, cadmium and chromium. Therefore, the treatment and stabilization of this industrial residue is necessary. Concrete is a well-known suitable environment for stabilization/solidification of materials which have leachable elements in need of fixation. The effect of the EAFD content on the mechanical and chemical performance of Portland cement concrete is investigated in this paper. The effect of the EAFD content on the setting time of cement slurry was also analyzed. The axial compressive strength of the concrete samples increases with the EAFD addition in the range of 10 to 20 wt. (% EAFD; also the tensile strength increases with the EAFD addition. An increase in EAFD content significantly increases the setting time of the concrete. The acetic acid leaching and water solubilization tests indicate low mobility of the potentially toxic elements from the EAFD concrete composite. The results of the immersion tests show that the addition of EAFD to the concrete seems to reduce chloride penetration, which may help prevent pitting corrosion in reinforced concrete.

  11. Residentialization of Public Spaces: Bratislava Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacová, Andrea; Puškár, Branislav; Vráblová, Edita

    2017-10-01

    The housing estates in Bratislava saturated the housing needs of a large number of inhabitants who come after World War II to the city. Design of public spaces often did not have priority in the process of designing. The solutions for mentioned exterior spaces had been planned after blocks of flat realization, but many of them are not realized to this day. The article analyzes the example of the unrealized public spaces in existing housing estates Devinska Nova Ves and Petržalka (city districts of Bratislava) and offer practical solutions in relation to residencialization method. Residencialization of missing public places is an effective method of adding identities to settlements. It improves the quality of residential environment and public spaces. The main aim is to create better conditions for social activities in public areas, which are missing on the present. The research will be focused on the examination of the urban, cultural and construction potential of the existing residential enviroment in Bratislava. The main aim of residentialization is not only to enhance the quality of spatial and building structures in the selected residential area and maintain long-term sustainability in the pertinent programme area, but mainly to improve the quality of living for the residents. The outputs of the project are proposals and practical procedures developed with regard to planning documents for local municipal authorities and regional organizations. The solutions will have a positive impact on the enhancement of the quality of public spaces, attractive social activities and of a conceptual link - residentialization.

  12. Integrated Management of Residential Energy Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antunes C. H.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The increasing deployment of distributed generation systems based on renewables in the residential sector, the development of information and communication technologies and the expected evolution of traditional power systems towards smart grids are inducing changes in the passive role of end-users, namely with stimuli to change residential demand patterns. The residential user should be able to make decisions and efficiently manage his energy resources by taking advantages from his flexibility in load usage with the aim to minimize the electricity bill without depreciating the quality of energy services provided. The aim of this paper is characterizing electricity consumption in the residential sector and categorizing the different loads according to their typical usage, working cycles, technical constraints and possible degree of control. This categorization of end-use loads contributes to ascertain the availability of controllable loads to be managed as well as the different direct management actions that can be implemented. The ability to implement different management actions over diverse end-use load will increase the responsiveness of demand and potentially raises the willingness of end-users to accept such activities. The impacts on the aggregated national demand of large-scale dissemination of management systems that would help the end-user to make decisions regarding electricity consumption are predicted using a simulator that generates the aggregated residential sector electricity consumption under variable prices.

  13. Influence of thermal charge preparation on coke comminution under blast-furnace operating conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shkoller, M.B.; Dinel' t, V.M.; Korchuganova, G.S.; Petrov, V.B.

    1983-09-01

    Reactions of coke in the blast furnace are determined mainly by the nature of the coke itself which depends on the coal properties, its preparation and the coking conditions. In the blast furnace the coke reacts with alkali and alkaline earth metals in the burden. Preheated coal charges were found to absorb far less sodium and potassium carbonates than a conventional moist charge over an equivalent period, due to the smaller pore volume available.

  14. Furnaces. Manufacturers become engineering offices; Les fours, le constructeur devient bureau d`ingenierie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nivoche, C. [Salas SA (France)

    1997-12-31

    The example of Selas, a manufacturer of industrial furnaces for steel and glass industries, faced with the new european pollution regulations, is presented. It is shown how Selas has to develop optimal furnaces using low emission burners but also has to be involved in all the related aspects such as industrial implementation in the client`s plant, plant architecture, cooling systems, air conditioning, noise and vibration issues, operation procedures, safety, etc. Means for reducing NOx emissions are reviewed

  15. The design of system for operative planning of blast furnace production process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malindžák Dušan

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available A system for operative planning of blast furnace production process is described in the paper. The suggested system is based on the use of a new hierarchy of operative plans, consisting of one-month plan, (7+3 days plan, and 24-hour plan. The system allows smoothing of production process at the blast furnace plant, and at the same time satisfies all requirements of the steel plant regarding to the amount of pig iron.

  16. Titanium Powder Sintering in a Graphite Furnace and Mechanical Properties of Sintered Parts

    OpenAIRE

    Changzhou Yu; Peng Cao; Mark Ian Jones

    2017-01-01

    Recent accreditation of titanium powder products for commercial aircraft applications marks a milestone in titanium powder metallurgy. Currently, powder metallurgical titanium production primarily relies on vacuum sintering. This work reported on the feasibility of powder sintering in a non-vacuum furnace and the tensile properties of the as-sintered Ti. Specifically, we investigated atmospheric sintering of commercially pure (C.P.) titanium in a graphite furnace backfilled with argon and stu...

  17. NEDO project reports. High performance industrial furnace development project - High temperature air combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-03-21

    For the purpose of reducing energy consumption, a NEDO project 'Developmental research on high efficiency industrial furnaces' was carried out from FY 1993 to FY 1999 by The Japan Industrial Furnaces Manufacturers Association, and the paper outlined the details of the project. Industrial furnaces handled in this R and D can bring 30% reduction of the energy consumption and approximately 50% NOx reduction, and were given the 9th Nikkei global environmental technology prize. In the study of combustion phenomena of high temperature air combustion, the paper arranged characteristics of flame, the base of gaseous fuel flame, the base of liquid fuel flame, the base of solid fuel flame, etc. Concerning high temperature air combustion models for simulation, fluid dynamics and heat transfer models, and reaction and NOx models, etc. As to impacts of high temperature air combustion on performance of industrial furnaces, energy conservation, lowering of pollution, etc. In relation to a guide for the design of high efficiency industrial furnaces, flow charts, conceptual design, evaluation method for heat balance and efficiency using charts, combustion control system, applicability of high efficiency industrial furnaces, etc. (NEDO)

  18. Mathematical Determination of Thermal Load for Fluidised Bed Furnaces Using Sawdust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonescu Nicolae

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available For technical applications, a physical model capable of predicting the particle evolution in the burning process along its trajectory through the furnace is very useful. There are two major demands: all the thermo-dynamic processes that describe the particle burning process must be accounted and the model must be written in such equation terms to allow the intervention for parameter settings and particle definition. The computations were performed for the following parameters: furnace average temperature between 700 and 1200 °C, size of the sawdust particle from 4 to 6 mm and fix carbon ignition between 500 and 900 °C. The values obtained for the characteristic parameters of the burning process ranged from 30 to 60 [kg/(h·m3] for the gravimetrical burning speed WGh and from 150 to 280 [kW/m3] for the volumetric thermal load of the furnace QV. The main conclusion was that the calculus results are in good agreement with the experimental data from the pilot installations and the real-case measurements in the sawdust working boiler furnaces or pre-burning chambers. Another very important conclusion is that the process speed variation, when the furnace temperature changes, confirms the thermo-kinetic predictions, namely that the burning process speed decreases when the furnace temperature increases.

  19. Estimation of energy efficiency of residential buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glushkov Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing energy performance of the residential buildings by means of reducing heat consumption on the heating and ventilation is the last segment in the system of energy resources saving. The first segments in the energy saving process are heat producing and transportation over the main lines and outside distribution networks. In the period from 2006 to 2013. by means of the heat-supply schemes optimization and modernization of the heating systems. using expensive (200–300 $US per 1 m though hugely effective preliminary coated pipes. the economy reached 2.7 mln tons of fuel equivalent. Considering the multi-stage and multifactorial nature (electricity. heat and water supply of the residential sector energy saving. the reasonable estimate of the efficiency of the saving of residential buildings energy should be performed in tons of fuel equivalent per unit of time.

  20. Gentrification and Residential Mobility in Philadelphia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lei; Hwang, Jackelyn; Divringi, Eileen

    2016-11-01

    Gentrification has provoked considerable controversy surrounding its effects on residential displacement. Using a unique individual-level, longitudinal data set, this study examines mobility rates and residential destinations of residents in gentrifying neighborhoods during the recent housing boom and bust in Philadelphia for various strata of residents and different types of gentrification. We find that vulnerable residents, those with low credit scores and without mortgages, are generally no more likely to move from gentrifying neighborhoods compared with their counterparts in nongentrifying neighborhoods. When they do move, however, they are more likely to move to lower-income neighborhoods. Residents in gentrifying neighborhoods at the aggregate level have slightly higher mobility rates, but these rates are largely driven by more advantaged residents. These findings shed new light on the heterogeneity in mobility patterns across residents in gentrifying neighborhoods and suggest that researchers should focus more attention on the quality of residential moves and nonmoves for less advantaged residents, rather than mobility rates alone.

  1. Therapeutic Residential Care for Children and Youth:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whittaker, James K.; Holmes, Lisa; del Valle, Jorge F.

    2016-01-01

    for Child and Family Research, Loughborough University in the U.K. for a Summit meeting on therapeutic residential care for children and youth funded by the Sir Halley Stewart Trust (UK). The focus centered on what is known about therapeutic residential care and what key questions should inform a priority......In many developed countries around the world, ‘group care’ interventions for children and adolescents have come under increasing scrutiny from central government, private philanthropic and child advocacy agencies desirous of (1) achieving better outcomes for vulnerable children and youth; (2) doing...... alternatives to serve high-resource needing youth has had unintended and negative consequences. It is within this context that a working group international experts representing research, policy, service delivery and families (International Work Group for Therapeutic Residential Care) convened at the Centre...

  2. Solar Photovoltaic Financing: Residential Sector Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, J.; Cory, K.

    2009-03-01

    This report presents the information that homeowners and policy makers need to facilitate PV financing at the residential level. The full range of cash payments, bill savings, and tax incentives is covered, as well as potentially available solar attribute payments. Traditional financing is also compared to innovative solutions, many of which are borrowed from the commercial sector. Together, these mechanisms are critical for making the economic case for a residential PV installation, given its high upfront costs. Unfortunately, these programs are presently limited to select locations around the country. By calling attention to these innovative initiatives, this report aims to help policy makers consider greater adoption of these models to benefit homeowners interested installing a residential PV system.

  3. Energy savings in Danish residential building stock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    2006-01-01

    a short account of the technical energy-saving possibilities that are present in existing dwellings and presents a financial methodology used for assessing energy-saving measures. In order to estimate the total savings potential detailed calculations have been performed in a case with two typical...... buildings representing the residential building stock and based on these calculations an assessment of the energy-saving potential is performed. A profitable savings potential of energy used for space heating of about 80% is identified over 45 years (until 2050) within the residential building stock......A large potential for energy savings exists in the Danish residential building stock due to the fact that 75% of the buildings were constructed before 1979 when the first important demands for energy performance of building were introduced. It is also a fact that many buildings in Denmark face...

  4. Residential energy use and conservation in Venezuela: Results and implications of a household survey in Caracas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, M.J.; Ketoff, A.; Masera, O.

    1992-10-01

    This document presents the final report of a study of residential energy use in Caracas, the capital of Venezuela. It contains the findings of a household energy-use survey held in Caracas in 1988 and examines options for introducing energy conservation measures in the Venezuelan residential sector. Oil exports form the backbone of the Venezuelan economy. Improving energy efficiency in Venezuela will help free domestic oil resources that can be sold to the rest of the world. Energy conservation will also contribute to a faster recovery of the economy by reducing the need for major investments in new energy facilities, allowing the Venezuelan government to direct its financial investments towards other areas of development. Local environmental benefits will constitute an important additional by-product of implementing energy-efficiency policies in Venezuela. Caracas`s residential sector shows great potential for energy conservation. The sector is characterized by high saturation levels of major appliances, inefficiency of appliances available in the market, and by careless patterns of energy use. Household energy use per capita average 6.5 GJ/per year which is higher than most cities in developing countries; most of this energy is used for cooking. Electricity accounts for 41% of all energy use, while LPG and natural gas constitute the remainder. Specific options for inducing energy conservation and energy efficiency in Caracas`s residential sector include energy-pricing policies, fuel switching, particularly from electricity to gas, improving the energy performance of new appliances and customer information. To ensure the accomplishment of an energy-efficiency strategy, a concerted effort by energy users, manufacturers, utility companies, government agencies, and research institutions will be needed.

  5. Effects of an ozone-generating air purifier on indoor secondary particles in three residential dwellings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubbard, H F; Coleman, B K; Sarwar, G; Corsi, R L

    2005-12-01

    The use of indoor ozone generators as air purifiers has steadily increased over the past decade. Many ozone generators are marketed to consumers for their ability to eliminate odors and microbial agents and to improve health. In addition to the harmful effects of ozone, recent studies have shown that heterogeneous and homogeneous reactions between ozone and some unsaturated hydrocarbons can be an important source of indoor secondary pollutants, including free radicals, carbonyls, carboxylic acids, and fine particles. Experiments were conducted in one apartment and two detached single-family dwellings in Austin, TX, to assess the effects of an ozone generator on indoor secondary organic aerosol concentrations in actual residential settings. Ozone was generated using a commercial ozone generator marketed as an air purifier, and particle measurements were recorded before, during, and after the release of terpenes from a pine oil-based cleaning product. Particle number concentration, ozone concentration, and air exchange rate were measured during each experiment. Particle number and mass concentrations increased when both terpenes and ozone were present at elevated levels. Experimental results indicate that ozone generators in the presence of terpene sources facilitate the growth of indoor fine particles in residential indoor atmospheres. Human exposure to secondary organic particles can be reduced by minimizing the intentional release of ozone, particularly in the presence of terpene sources. Past studies have shown that ozone-initiated indoor chemistry can lead to elevated concentrations of fine particulate matter, but have generally been completed in controlled laboratory environments and office buildings. We explored the effects of an explicit ozone generator marketed as an air purifier on the formation of secondary organic aerosol mass in actual residential indoor settings. Results indicate significant increases in number and mass concentrations for particles

  6. Modelling and forecasting Turkish residential electricity demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilaver, Zafer; Hunt, Lester C

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates the relationship between Turkish residential electricity consumption, household total final consumption expenditure and residential electricity prices by applying the structural time series model to annual data over the period from 1960 to 2008. Household total final consumption expenditure, real energy prices and an underlying energy demand trend are found to be important drivers of Turkish residential electricity demand with the estimated short run and the long run total final consumption expenditure elasticities being 0.38 and 1.57, respectively, and the estimated short run and long run price elasticities being -0.09 and -0.38, respectively. Moreover, the estimated underlying energy demand trend, (which, as far as is known, has not been investigated before for the Turkish residential sector) should be of some benefit to Turkish decision makers in terms of energy planning. It provides information about the impact of past policies, the influence of technical progress, the impacts of changes in consumer behaviour and the effects of changes in economic structure. Furthermore, based on the estimated equation, and different forecast assumptions, it is predicted that Turkish residential electricity demand will be somewhere between 48 and 80 TWh by 2020 compared to 40 TWh in 2008. - Research highlights: → Estimated short run and long run expenditure elasticities of 0.38 and 1.57, respectively. → Estimated short run and long run price elasticities of -0.09 and -0.38, respectively. → Estimated UEDT has increasing (i.e. energy using) and decreasing (i.e. energy saving) periods. → Predicted Turkish residential electricity demand between 48 and 80 TWh in 2020.

  7. Furnace and Heat Recovery Area Design and Analysis for Conceptual Design of Oxygen-Based PC Boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew Seltzer

    2005-01-01

    The objective of the furnace and heat recovery area design and analysis task of the Conceptual Design of Oxygen-Based PC Boiler study is to optimize the location and design of the furnace, burners, over-fire gas ports, and internal radiant surfaces. The furnace and heat recovery area were designed and analyzed using the FW-FIRE and HEATEX computer programs. The furnace is designed with opposed wall-firing burners and over-fire air ports. Water is circulated in the furnace by natural circulation to the waterwalls and divisional wall panels. Compared to the air-fired furnace, the oxygen-fired furnace requires only 65% of the surface area and 45% of the volume. Two oxygen-fired designs were simulated: (1) without over-fire air and (2) with 20% over-fire air. The maximum wall heat flux in the oxygen-fired furnace is more than double that of the air-fired furnace due to the higher flame temperature and higher H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} concentrations. The coal burnout for the oxygen-fired case is 100% due to a 500 F higher furnace temperature and higher concentration of O{sub 2}. Because of the higher furnace wall temperature of the oxygen-fired case compared to the air-fired case, furnace water wall material was upgraded from carbon steel to T91. The total heat transfer surface required in the oxygen-fired heat recovery area (HRA) is 25% less than the air-fired HRA due to more heat being absorbed in the oxygen-fired furnace and the greater molecular weight of the oxygen-fired flue gas. The HRA tube materials and wall thickness are practically the same for the air-fired and oxygen-fired design since the flue gas and water/steam temperature profiles encountered by the heat transfer banks are very similar.

  8. Lavender oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavender oil is an oil made from the flowers of lavender plants. Lavender poisoning can occur when ... further instructions. This is a free and confidential service. All local poison control centers in the United ...

  9. Petroleum Oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Different types of crude oil and refined product, of all different chemical compositions, have distinct physical properties. These properties affect the way oil spreads and breaks down, its hazard to marine and human life, and the likelihood of threat.

  10. Strategy Guideline: High Performance Residential Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holton, J.

    2012-02-01

    The Strategy Guideline: High Performance Residential Lighting has been developed to provide a tool for the understanding and application of high performance lighting in the home. The high performance lighting strategies featured in this guide are drawn from recent advances in commercial lighting for application to typical spaces found in residential buildings. This guide offers strategies to greatly reduce lighting energy use through the application of high quality fluorescent and light emitting diode (LED) technologies. It is important to note that these strategies not only save energy in the home but also serve to satisfy the homeowner's expectations for high quality lighting.

  11. Steering Angle Function Algorithm of Morphing of Residential Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XIE Tian

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A residential area feature morphing method based on steering angle function is presented. To residential area with the same representation under two different scales,transforming the representation of the residential area polygon from vector coordinates to steering angle function,then using the steering angle function to match,and finding out the similarity and the differences between the residential areas under different scale to get the steering angle function of the the residential areas under any middle scale,the final,transforming the middle scale steering angle function to vector coordinates form,and get the middle shape interpolation of the the residential area polygon.Experimental results show:the residential area morphing method by using steering angle function presented can realize the continuous multi-scale representation under the premise of keeping in shape for the residential area with the rectangular boundary features.

  12. Use of Electronic Health Records in Residential Care Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the National Technical Information Service NCHS Use of Electronic Health Records in Residential Care Communities Recommend on ... Facilities Most residential care communities did not use electronic health records in 2010, and use varied by ...

  13. PRN 2011-1: Residential Exposure Joint Venture

    Science.gov (United States)

    This PR Notice is to advise registrants of an industry-wide joint venture, titled the Residential Exposure Joint Venture (REJV), which has developed a national survey regarding residential consumer use/usage data for pesticides.

  14. ALTERNATE REDUCTANT COLD CAP EVALUATION FURNACE PHASE I TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, F.; Miller, D.; Zamecnik, J.; Lambert, D.

    2014-04-22

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) conducted a Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) to determine the optimum alternate reductant flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Specifically, two proposed flowsheets (nitric–formic–glycolic and nitric–formic–sugar) were evaluated based upon results from preliminary testing. Comparison of the two flowsheets among evaluation criteria indicated a preference towards the nitric–formic–glycolic flowsheet. Further evaluation of this flowsheet eliminated the formic acid1, and as a result, the nitric–glycolic flowsheet was recommended for further testing. Based on the development of a roadmap for the nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet, Waste Solidification Engineering (WS-E) issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) to address flammability issues that may impact the implementation of this flowsheet. Melter testing was requested in order to define the DWPF flammability envelope for the nitric glycolic acid flowsheet. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF), a 1/12th scale DWPF melter, was selected by the SRR Alternate Reductant project team as the melter platform for this testing. The overall scope was divided into the following sub-tasks as discussed in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP): Phase I - A nitric–formic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled) to baseline the Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF) cold cap and vapor space data to the benchmark melter flammability models Phase II - A nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled and bubbled) to: o Define new cold cap reactions and global kinetic parameters for the melter flammability models o Quantify off-gas surging potential of the feed o Characterize off-gas condensate for complete organic and inorganic carbon species Prior to startup, a number of improvements and modifications were made to the CEF, including addition of cameras, vessel support temperature measurement, and a heating

  15. Oil quotations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-10-01

    Prices quoted during the last few weeks for fuel oil and gas oil - on the ARA market, on the New York future market, by the Berlin price supervision authority - fob TW from Germany storage or refinery, and - on the German commodity markets for fuel oil are listed.

  16. Oil biodegradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rahsepar, Shokouhalsadat; Langenhoff, Alette A.M.; Smit, Martijn P.J.; Eenennaam, van Justine S.; Murk, Tinka; Rijnaarts, Huub H.M.

    2017-01-01

    During the Deepwater Horizon (DwH) oil spill, interactions between oil, clay particles and marine snow lead to the formation of aggregates. Interactions between these components play an important, but yet not well understood, role in biodegradation of oil in the ocean water. The aim of this study

  17. Heat and mass transfer in a vertical flue ring furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jacobsen, Mona

    1997-12-31

    The main emphasis of this thesis was the design of a mathematical simulation model for studying details in the baking of anodes in the Hydro Aluminium anode baking furnace. The change of thermal conductivity, density, porosity and permeability during heat treatment was investigated. The Transient Plane Source technique for measuring thermal conductivity of solids was used on green carbon materials during the baking process in the temperature range 20-600 {sup o}C. Next, change of mass, density, porosity and permeability of anode samples were measured after being baked to temperatures between 300 and 1200 {sup o}C. The experimental data were used for parameter estimation and verification of property models for use in the anode baking models. Two distinct mathematical models have been modified to study the anode baking. A transient one-dimensional model for studying temperature, pressure and gas evolution in porous anodes during baking was developed. This was extended to a two-dimensional model incorporating the flue gas flow. The mathematical model which included porous heat and mass transfer, pitch pyrolysis, combustion of volatiles, radiation and turbulent channel flow, was developed by source code modification of the Computational Fluid Dynamics code FLUENT. The two-dimensional geometry of a flue gas channel adjacent to a porous flue gas wall, packing coke and anode was used for studying the effect of different firing strategies, raw materials properties and packing coke thickness. The model proved useful for studying the effects of heating rate, geometry and anode properties. 152 refs., 73 figs, 11 tabs.

  18. Modeling Residential Electricity Consumption Function in Malaysia: Time Series Approach

    OpenAIRE

    L. L. Ivy-Yap; H. A. Bekhet

    2014-01-01

    As the Malaysian residential electricity consumption continued to increase rapidly, effective energy policies, which address factors affecting residential electricity consumption, is urgently needed. This study attempts to investigate the relationship between residential electricity consumption (EC), real disposable income (Y), price of electricity (Pe) and population (Po) in Malaysia for 1978-2011 period. Unlike previous studies on Malaysia, the current study focuses on the residential secto...

  19. Development and evaluation of a new depressurization spillage test for residential gas-fired combustion appliances : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, P.

    2005-07-01

    This paper presented a newly developed combustion depressurization spillage test for residential combustion appliances. The test uses carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) that is produced in the fuel combustion process as a tracer gas. The test accurately measures the amount of combustion spillage from residential combustion appliances and their venting systems when they operate at certain levels of depressurization. Seven commonly used gas-fired appliances were used to evaluate the new test as well as the appliances. These included 2 power-vented storage-tank water heaters, 1 mid-efficiency furnace, 2 high-efficiency condensing furnaces, and 2 direct-vent gas fireplaces. Tests were performed for each unit with the test room initially depressurized by 50 Pa compared with the pressure outside the room. If the combustion spillage exceeded 2 per cent, the test was repeated with the room depressurized by 20 Pa, and then by 5 Pa. Each appliance was operated for 5 minutes of burner operation during which time the burner fuel consumption, the concentration of CO 2 and the exhaust fan flow rate were monitored. Measurements were taken for 2 minutes following burner shut off. The amount of CO 2 that was released into the test room from the appliance and its venting system was determined from the measurements and then compared with the amount of CO 2 that would be produced by combustion of the fuel that was consumed during the test. The ratio of the 2 provided a direct measure of the combustion spillage of the appliance and its venting system. The study revealed that 3 products had undetectable levels of combustion spillage, 3 products had low, but measurable combustion spillage, and 1 product had significant combustion spillage. refs., tabs., figs

  20. Residential Group Care Quarterly. Volume 5, Number 3, Winter 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Jennifer, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This issue of "Residential Group Care Quarterly" contains the following articles: (1) "Promising Practices for Adequately Funding and Reimbursing Residential Services" (Lloyd Bullard); (2) "Closing the Gender Gap" (Erin Andersen); (3) "Residential Child Care: Guidelines for Physical Techniques, Crisis Prevention, and Management" (Kurk Lalemand);…

  1. Family events and the residential mobility of couples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielin, F.; Mulder, C.H.

    2008-01-01

    Using data from retrospective surveys carried out in the Netherlands during the early 1990s, we describe how the residential mobility of couples—that is, short-distance moves—is affected by family events and how fertility is affected by residential mobility. The results show that residential moves

  2. Combustion of Solid Fuel in a Vortex Furnace with Counter-swirling Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redko A.A.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The results of computer simulation of the processes of incineration of low-grade solid fuel-pulverized peat with a moisture content of 40%, an ash content of 6% are given. It has been determined the fields of distribution of temperature, velocity of gases and particles in the volume and at the outlet from the furnace. The three-dimensional temperature distribution in the combustion chamber indicates high-temperature combustion of peat particles at temperatures above 1700°C with liquid ash removal in the lower part of the furnace. It has been determined that when the furnace is cooled, it is not ensured combustion of the fuel completely. The value of the swirling flow rate at the outlet from the furnace (up to 370 m/s ensures the efficiency of separation of fuel particles, reducing heat losses from mechanical underburning. It is determined that the concentration of oxygen is close to zero over the entire height of the furnace, at an outlet from the furnace the oxygen concentration is 5...6%, since oxygen is supplied with excess (αв=1,2. The results of a numerical study showed that the diameter of peat particles affects the process of their combustion: coke particles with an initial diameter of 25 mkm to 250 mkm burn out by 96%. With an increase in particle diameter up to 1000 mkm, the degree of burn-out of coke decreases, but at the same time their removal decreases. It is shown that the furnace ensures the completeness of combustion of peat particles of peat 99.8%, volatiles is 100%.

  3. Alkali-activated blast furnace slag-zeolite cements and concretes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakhimov, R.; Rakhimova, N.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work has been the study of alkali-activated slag-zeolite cements and concretes based on them. Various compositions have been tested and some characteristics such as the compressive strength have been measured versus zeolite additions. A table lists the specific surface area and particle size distributions of different cements. The conclusions of the study are the following. First, alkali-activated slag cements and concretes based on them are effective for immobilization of radioactive wastes and the production of building structures, designed for high radiation load. Secondly, zeolite-containing mineral additions are able to increase the immobilization capacity and radiation resistance of alkali-activated blast furnace slag cements and concretes. Thirdly, the efficiency of different zeolite-containing additions - 10% to increase alkali-activated blast furnace slag-zeolite cement strength was established. It is with alkaline components of water-glass, sodium carbonate, sodium sulphate. Fourth, the effective way of introducing zeolite additions in alkali-activated blast furnace slag-zeolite cement is inter-grinding of the slag and addition. Increase in strength of alkali-activated blast furnace slag-zeolite cement stone is 40% higher than that of the stone of a mixture of separately milled components. Fifth, Alkali-activated blast furnace slag-zeolite cements with zeolite-containing additions with a compressive strength of 10.1 to 140 MPa; alkali-activated blast furnace slag-zeolite cements mortars with compressive strength from 35.2 to 97.7 MPa; alkali-activated blast furnace slag-zeolite cements concretes with compressive strength up to 84.5 MPa and frost resistant up to 800 cycles were obtained

  4. Electricity: Residential Wiring. Secondary Schools. Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands Dept. of Education, Saipan.

    This curriculum guide on residential wiring for secondary students is one of six developed for inservice teachers at Marianas High School in Saipan. The guide provides the rationale, description, goals, and objectives of the program; the program of studies and performance objectives by levels; samples of lesson plans for effective delivery of…

  5. Guidelines for Transferring Residential Courses into Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tüzün, Hakan; Çinar, Murat

    2016-01-01

    This study shared unique design experiences by examining the process of transferring residential courses to the Web, and proposed a design model for individuals who want to transfer their courses into this environment. The formative research method was used in the study, and two project teams' processes of putting courses, which were being taught…

  6. DETERMINANTS OF RESIDENTIAL PER CAPITA WATER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This report presents the findings of the study on the determinants of residential per capita water demand of Makurdi metropolis in Benue State, Nigeria. Data for the study was obtained by the use of questionnaires, oral interviews and observations. The data was analyzed using SPSS. Twenty variables were considered in ...

  7. Development of a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staff Scientist; Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max; Dickerhoff, Darryl

    2011-12-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller (RIVEC) to reduce the energy impact of required mechanical ventilation by 20percent, maintain or improve indoor air quality and provide demand response benefits. This represents potential energy savings of about 140 GWh of electricity and 83 million therms of natural gas as well as proportional peak savings in California. The RIVEC controller is intended to meet the 2008 Title 24 requirements for residential ventilation as well as taking into account the issues of outdoor conditions, other ventilation devices (including economizers), peak demand concerns and occupant preferences. The controller is designed to manage all the residential ventilation systems that are currently available. A key innovation in this controller is the ability to implement the concept of efficacy and intermittent ventilation which allows time shifting of ventilation. Using this approach ventilation can be shifted away from times of high cost or high outdoor pollution towards times when it is cheaper and more effective. Simulations, based on the ones used to develop the new residential ventilation requirements for the California Buildings Energy code, were used to further define the specific criteria and strategies needed for the controller. These simulations provide estimates of the energy, peak power and contaminant improvement possible for different California climates for the various ventilation systems. Results from a field test of the prototype controller corroborate the predicted performance.

  8. Condition assessment and strengthening of residential units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatheer Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available About 40, ground plus one (G+1 residential units were designed using a hybrid structural framing system (RC frame and load bearing walls. A few months after the completion of the ground floor of the residential units, cracks appeared at several locations in the structure. Field and Laboratory testing was conducted to ascertain the in situ strength of concrete and steel reinforcement. The results of the experimental work were used in the analytical ETABS model for the structural stability calculations. The results indicated that residential units were marginally safe in the existing condition (completed ground floor, but the anticipated construction of the floor above the ground floor (G+1 could not be carried out as the strength of the structural system was inadequate. To increase the safety of existing ground floor and to provide the option of the construction of one floor above, rehabilitation and strengthening design was performed. The proposed strengthening design made use of welded wire fabric (WWF and carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP laminates/sheets for the strengthening of walls, columns and slabs. The residential units will be strengthened in the near future.

  9. Chapter 6: Residential Lighting Evaluation Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimetrosky, Scott [Apex Analytics LLC, Boulder, CO (United States); Parkinson, Katie [Apex Analytics LLC, Boulder, CO (United States); Lieb, Noah [Apex Analytics LLC, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, residential lighting has represented a significant share of ratepayer-funded energy-efficiency electricity savings. Utilities have achieved the majority of these savings by promoting the purchase and installation of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs), both standard 'twister' bulbs and specialty CFLs such as reflectors, A-Lamps, globes, and dimmable lights.

  10. housing tenure, residential moves and children's educational

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ABSTRACT. Research has shown that non-conventional factors like housing and residential experiences dur- ing childhood have impacts on children's success. Given the critical importance of human capi- tal accumulation in Ghana, it is significant from policy standpoint to recognise factors and mechanisms that are ...

  11. Housing tenure, residential moves and children's educational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research has shown that non-conventional factors like housing and residential experiences during childhood have impacts on children's success. Given the critical importance of human capital accumulation in Ghana, it is significant from policy standpoint to recognise factors and mechanisms that are relevant to the next ...

  12. Improving the engineering-and-economical performance of ore-thermal electric furnaces in the smelting of silicomanganese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondrashov, V. P.; Pogrebisskiy, M. Ya; Lykov, A. G.; Rabinovich, V. L.; Bulgakov, A. S.

    2018-02-01

    Ways of increase of ore-heating electric furnaces, used for production of silicomanganese, engineering-and-economical performance are analyzed. Questions of data of the electric, thermal and technological modes of the furnace functioning collecting and processing for use in operation of an advanced control system of the furnace providing increase in technical and economic efficiency of technological process and an adaptability to quality of burden stock are considered.

  13. Studies Regarding the Elaboration of the Manganese Austenitic Steel in the Induction Electric Furnace with Acid Coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Marta

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The paper forwards a method of elaborating the manganese austenitic steel in induction electric furnaces with a capacity of 250 Kg having an acid furnace coating. Considering the fact that when elaborating the manganese austenitic steel sulphur can be obtained under 0.02% constitutes an additional reason to attempt the elaboration of this steel in the electric furnaces through induction with acid coating, even if the load has over 0.02% S.

  14. Residential heating costs: a comparison of geothermal, solar and conventional resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bloomster, C.H.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, L.L.

    1980-08-01

    The costs of residential heating throughout the United States using conventional, solar, and geothermal energy were determined under current and projected conditions. These costs are very sensitive to location - being dependent on the local prices of conventional energy supplies, local solar insolation, cimate, and the proximity and temperature of potential geothermal resources. The sharp price increases in imported fuels during 1979 and the planned decontrol of domestic oil and natural gas prices have set the stage for geothermal and solar market penetration in the 1980's.

  15. Information Processing and Creative Thinking Abilities of Residential and Non-Residential School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atasi Mohanty

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to assess and compare the residential and non-residential schoolchildren in information-processing skills and creative thinking abilities. A sample of 80 children from Classes 5 and 7 were selected from two types of schools, residential/ashram (02 and non-residential/formal schools (02 in Bolpur subdivision of West Bengal in India where the medium of instruction is Bengali language/mother-tongue. All the children were individually administered the PASS (Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, Successive, Stroop, Matching Familiar Figure Test (MFFT-20, and creative thinking tasks. The residential school children were found to perform better both in information processing and creative thinking tasks. The developmental trend could not be clearly observed due to small sample size, but with increasing age, children were using better processing strategies. Due to ashram environment, creative pedagogy, and various co-curricular activities, the residential school children were found to be more creative than their formal school counterparts. Moreover, some significant positive correlations were found among information processing skills and creative thinking dimensions.

  16. Composite cements containing natural pozzolan and granulated blast furnace slag

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irassar, E. F.

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available For reasons of market demand and Portland cement production,the manufacture of cements with two or more separately ground additions to produce customized cements is becoming common practice.When pozzolan or slag content in this type of cements is high, however, the initial strength of the resulting product may be adversely impacted. This problem can be minimized by activating one or both of the replacement materials. The present study analyzes the effect of Portland cement additions such as physically activated natural pozzolan(up to 20% and/or granulated blast furnace slag (up to 35% on mortar flexural and compressive strength. The results show that higher strength is attained in ternary than binary cements. Initially (2 and 7 days, the highest compressive strengths are reached by mortars with up to 13% natural pozzolan and 5% slag, whereas at later ages mortars with larger proportions of additions are found to perform best.Debido a las exigencias del mercado y de la producción de cemento Portland, es cada vez más frecuente la elaboración de cementos con dos o más adiciones a partir de la molienda separada de sus constituyentes, dando origen a la formulación de los cementos a medida.Cuando el contenido de adiciones es alto, la utilización de puzolana y escoria en este tipo de cementos presenta la peculiaridad de disminuir la resistencia inicial del cemento resultante. Sin embargo, si algunas o ambas adiciones se activan, este problema puede minimizarse. En este trabajo se analiza la influencia de la incorporación al cemento Portland de puzolana natural (hasta 20% activada físicamente y/o escoria granulada de alto horno (hasta 35% sobre la resistencia a flexión y a compresión de morteros. Los resultados indican que los cementos ternarios presentan un mejor comportamiento resistente que los cementos binarios. Las máximas resistencias a compresión en las primeras edades (2 y 7 díasse alcanzan con hasta 13% de puzolana natural y 5% de

  17. Alternate Reductant Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace Phase II Testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, F. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Stone, M. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Miller, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2014-09-03

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) conducted a Systems Engineering Evaluation (SEE) to determine the optimum alternate reductant flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Specifically, two proposed flowsheets (nitric–formic–glycolic and nitric–formic–sugar) were evaluated based upon results from preliminary testing. Comparison of the two flowsheets among evaluation criteria indicated a preference towards the nitric–formic–glycolic flowsheet. Further research and development of this flowsheet eliminated the formic acid, and as a result, the nitric–glycolic flowsheet was recommended for further testing. Based on the development of a roadmap for the nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet, Waste Solidification Engineering (WS-E) issued a Technical Task Request (TTR) to address flammability issues that may impact the implementation of this flowsheet. Melter testing was requested in order to define the DWPF flammability envelope for the nitric-glycolic acid flowsheet. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF), a 1/12th scale DWPF melter, was selected by the SRR Alternate Reductant project team as the melter platform for this testing. The overall scope was divided into the following sub-tasks as discussed in the Task Technical and Quality Assurance Plan (TTQAP): Phase I - A nitric–formic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled) to baseline the CEF cold cap and vapor space data to the benchmark melter flammability models; Phase II - A nitric–glycolic acid flowsheet melter test (unbubbled and bubbled) to: Define new cold cap reactions and global kinetic parameters in support of the melter flammability model development; Quantify off-gas surging potential of the feed; Characterize off-gas condensate for complete organic and inorganic carbon species. After charging the CEF with cullet from Phase I CEF testing, the melter was slurry-fed with glycolic flowsheet based SB6-Frit 418 melter feed at 36% waste

  18. A numerical model including PID control of a multizone crystal growth furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzarella, Charles H.; Kassemi, Mohammad

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a 2D axisymmetric combined conduction and radiation model of a multizone crystal growth furnace. The model is based on a programmable multizone furnace (PMZF) designed and built at NASA Lewis Research Center for growing high quality semiconductor crystals. A novel feature of this model is a control algorithm which automatically adjusts the power in any number of independently controlled heaters to establish the desired crystal temperatures in the furnace model. The control algorithm eliminates the need for numerous trial and error runs previously required to obtain the same results. The finite element code, FIDAP, used to develop the furnace model, was modified to directly incorporate the control algorithm. This algorithm, which presently uses PID control, and the associated heat transfer model are briefly discussed. Together, they have been used to predict the heater power distributions for a variety of furnace configurations and desired temperature profiles. Examples are included to demonstrate the effectiveness of the PID controlled model in establishing isothermal, Bridgman, and other complicated temperature profies in the sample. Finally, an example is given to show how the algorithm can be used to change the desired profile with time according to a prescribed temperature-time evolution.

  19. Thermal Field Analysis and Simulation of an Infrared Belt Furnace Used for Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bai Lu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available During solar cell firing, volatile organic compounds (VOC and a small number of metal particles were removed using the gas flow. When the gas flow was disturbed by the thermal field of infrared belt furnace and structure, the metal particles in the discharging gas flow randomly adhered to the surface of solar cell, possibly causing contamination. Meanwhile, the gas flow also affected the thermal uniformity of the solar cell. In this paper, the heating mechanism of the solar cell caused by radiation, convection, and conduction during firing was analyzed. Afterward, four 2-dimensional (2D models of the furnace were proposed. The transient thermal fields with different gas inlets, outlets, and internal structures were simulated. The thermal fields and the temperature of the solar cell could remain stable and uniform when the gas outlets were installed at the ends and in the middle of the furnace, with the gas inlets being distributed evenly. To verify the results, we produced four types of furnaces according to the four simulated results. The experimental results indicated that the thermal distribution of the furnace and the characteristics of the solar cells were consistent with the simulation. These experiments improved the efficiency of the solar cells while optimizing the solar cell manufacturing equipment.

  20. CFD study of temperature distribution in full scale boiler adopting in-furnace coal blending

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fadhil, S S A; Hasini, H; Shuaib, N H

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the investigation of temperature characteristics of an in-furnace combustion using different coals in a 700 MW full scale boiler. Single mixture fraction approach is adopted for combustion model of both primary and secondary coals. The primary coal was based on the properties of Adaro which has been used as the design coal for the boiler under investigation. The secondary blend coal was selected based on sub-bituminous coal with higher calorific value. Both coals are simultaneously injected into the furnace at alternate coal burner elevations. The general prediction of the temperature contours at primary combustion zone shows identical pattern compared with conventional single coal combustion in similar furnace. Reasonable agreement was achieved by the prediction of the average temperature at furnace exit. The temperature distribution is at different furnace elevation is non-uniform with higher temperature predicted at circumferential 'ring-like' region at lower burner levels for both cases. The maximum flame temperature is higher at the elevation where coal of higher calorific value is injected. The temperature magnitude is within the accepTable limit and the variations does not differ much compared to the conventional single coal combustion.

  1. Recovery Act: ArcelorMittal USA Blast Furnace Gas Flare Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seaman, John

    2013-01-14

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) awarded a financial assistance grant under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009 (Recovery Act) to ArcelorMittal USA, Inc. (ArcelorMittal) for a project to construct and operate a blast furnace gas recovery boiler and supporting infrastructure at ArcelorMittal’s Indiana Harbor Steel Mill in East Chicago, Indiana. Blast furnace gas (BFG) is a by-product of blast furnaces that is generated when iron ore is reduced with coke to create metallic iron. BFG has a very low heating value, about 1/10th the heating value of natural gas. BFG is commonly used as a boiler fuel; however, before installation of the gas recovery boiler, ArcelorMittal flared 22 percent of the blast furnace gas produced at the No. 7 Blast Furnace at Indiana Harbor. The project uses the previously flared BFG to power a new high efficiency boiler which produces 350,000 pounds of steam per hour. The steam produced is used to drive existing turbines to generate electricity and for other requirements at the facility. The goals of the project included job creation and preservation, reduced energy consumption, reduced energy costs, environmental improvement, and sustainability.

  2. EFFECTS OF BLAST-FURNACE SLAG ON NATURAL POZZOLAN-BASED GEOPOLYMER CEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAHSHAD YAZDANIPOUR

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A number of geopolymer cement mixes were designed and produced by alkali-activation of a pumice-type natural pozzolan. Effects of blast-furnace slag on basic engineering properties of the mixes were studied. Different engineering properties of the mixes such as setting times and 28-day compressive strength were studied at different amounts of blast-furnace slag, sodium oxide content, and water-to-cement ratio. The mix comprising of 5 wt.% blast-furnace slag and 8 wt.% Na2O with a water-to-dry binder ratio of 0.30 exhibits the highest 28-day compressive strength, i.e. 36 MPa. Mixes containing 5 wt.% of ground granulated blast furnace slag showed the least efflorescence or best soundness. Laboratory techniques of X-ray diffractometry (XRD, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM were utilized for characterizing a number of mixes and studying their molecular and micro-structure. Investigations done by scanning electron microscopy confirm that smaller blast-furnace slag particles react totally while the larger ones react partially with alkaline activators and contribute to the formation of a composite microstructure.

  3. On-line Zeeman atomic-absorption spectroscopy for mercury analysis in oil-shale gases. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Girvin, D.C.; Fox, J.P.

    1981-03-01

    This report describes an instrumental technique to continuously measure total mercury in gas streams on a real-time basis. The technique utilizes Zeeman atomic absorption spectroscopy (ZAA) for on-line measurement of mercury in the presence of smoke, organic vapors, and oil mist which are typically present in offgases from oil shale processing plants. The accuracy of the ZAA background correction technique enables analytical measurement of mercury with up to 95% attenuation of the 2537A analytical line by broadband uv absorption. Furnaces with optical absorption tubes of different lengths are used depending upon the mercury concentration. Between 5 and 250 ppB (nanomoles Hg/mole of gas) of mercury in an 18-cm furnace is used. The instrumental response with this furnace is characterized by a detection limit (DL) of 2 ppB, a linear response up to 100 ppB, and a precision of +- 7% or better. In the 50 ppB to 1.6 ppM range, a furnace with a 5-cm optical absorption tube yields a DL of 10 ppB, a linear response up to 800 ppB, and a precision of +- 10% or better. Sample gas flow rates can be varied between 400 and 4000 scc/min for either furnace. 35 figures, 3 tables.

  4. Oil crises

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Linderoth, H.

    1992-01-01

    The author's aim was to give very precise information on the many causes and effects of the oil crises that have occurred since 1900, and at the same time offer the reader the possibility to build up a basic knowledge of the oil industry and market, as he feels that the public is often subjected to misleading information. Political and economical aspects are elaborated. First-hand sources such as statistics and investigations have been used as far as possible to give information on the oil market. An oil crisis is defined by the author as a significant change in the price of oil compared to prices of other goods. Changes can be in the form of either rising or falling prices. A special chapter concentrates on Denmark in relation to the oil crises. (AB) (165 refs.)

  5. Small-angle neutron scattering in a high-temperature furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Long, G.G.; Krueger, S.; Allen, A.J.; Burdette, H.; Kerch, H.M.

    1995-01-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) is increasingly used to obtain statistically-representative data on particle or pore sizes, number and volume fractions, morphology and total surface areas in technological materials. Until recently, however, it had not been possible to perform in-situ microstructural investigations during thermal treatment. This paper reports on a new high-temperature (up to 1,700 C) SANS furnace for materials research. Two interchangeable inner furnaces were built for a single outer atmosphere chamber so that either an oxidizing, a reducing, or a neutral environment can be used. Results derived during sintering of a controlled-porosity silica gel will be presented. The new furnace has made it possible for the first time to measure total porous surface areas and the evolution of pore sizes in situ during densification without interruption. Such measurements are expected to lead to improved process models offering quantitative predictability of product microstructures from the processing history of real materials

  6. Hot metal temperature prediction and simulation by fuzzy logic in a blast furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, M. A.; Jimenez, J.; Mochon, J.; Formoso, A.; Bueno, F.; Menendez, J. L.

    2000-01-01

    This work describes the development and further validation of a model devoted to blast furnace hot metal temperature forecast, based on Fuzzy logic principles. The model employs as input variables, the control variables of an actual blast furnace: Blast volume, moisture, coal injection, oxygen addition, etc. and it yields as a result the hot metal temperature with a forecast horizon of forty minutes. As far as the variables used to develop the model have been obtained from data supplied by an actual blast furnaces sensors, it is necessary to properly analyse and handle such data. Especial attention was paid to data temporal correlation, fitting by interpolation the different sampling rates. In the training stage of the model the ANFIS (Adaptive Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System) and the Subtractive Clustering algorithms have been used. (Author) 9 refs

  7. FURNACE 2. Toroidal geometry neutronic program system method. Description and users manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verschuur, K.A.

    1995-10-01

    FURNACE2 is a 3-dimensional neutron/photon-transport program system for toroidal geometries. It uses ray-tracing and double-differential reflection-and transmission-coefficients and flux-kernels to calculate the angular-flux spectra inside the torus of a fusion-reactor. FURNACE2 is an extended version of FURNACE, developed for application to the neutron-diagnostics at JET, which was supported financially by JET. It is used at JET to calculate the foil-activation for the KN2 diagnostics, the angular-fluxes on the lines of sight of the KN3 profile monitors, and general background fluxes and activation of the vessel. The program is used along with MCNP, combining the advantages of each of the programs and for mutual checks. (orig.)

  8. Sub-parts-per-quadrillion-level graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry based on laser wave mixing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickadeit, Fritz K; Berniolles, Sandrine; Kemp, Helen R; Tong, William G

    2004-03-15

    Nonlinear laser wave mixing in a common graphite furnace atomizer is presented as a zeptomole-level, sub-Doppler, high-resolution atomic absorption spectrophotometric method. A nonplanar three-dimensional wave-mixing optical setup is used to generate the signal beam in its own space. Signal collection is efficient and convenient using a template-based optical alignment. The graphite furnace atomizer offers advantages including fast and convenient introduction of solid, liquid, or gas analytes, clean atomization environment, and minimum background noise. Taking advantage of the unique features of the wave-mixing optical method and those of the graphite furnace atomizer, one can obtain both excellent spectral resolution and detection sensitivity. A preliminary concentration detection limit of 0.07 parts-per-quadrillion and a preliminary mass detection limit of 0.7 ag or 8 zmol are determined for rubidium using a compact laser diode as the excitation source.

  9. Study on the temperature field of large-sized sapphire single crystal furnace

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, J. P.; Jiang, J. W.; Liu, K. G.; Peng, X. B.; Jian, D. L.; Li, I. L.

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, the temperature field of large-sized (120kg, 200kg and 300kg grade) sapphire single crystal furnace was simulated. By keeping the crucible diameter ratio and the insulation system unchanged, the power consumption, axial and radial temperature gradient, solid-liquid surface shape, stress distribution and melt flow were studied. The simulation results showed that with the increase of the single crystal furnace size, the power consumption increased, the temperature field insulation effect became worse, the growth stress value increased and the stress concentration phenomenon occurred. To solve these problems, the middle and bottom insulation system should be enhanced during designing the large-sized sapphire single crystal furnace. The appropriate radial and axial temperature gradient was favorable to reduce the crystal stress and prevent the occurrence of cracking. Expanding the interface between the seed and crystal was propitious to avoid the stress accumulation phenomenon.

  10. Skid resistance performance of asphalt wearing courses with electric arc furnace slag aggregates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kehagia, Fotini

    2009-05-01

    Metallurgical slags are by-products of the iron and steel industry and are subdivided into blast furnace slag and steel slag according to the different steel-producing processes. In Greece, slags are mostly produced from steelmaking using the electric arc furnace process, and subsequently are either disposed in a random way or utilized by the cement industry. Steel slag has been recently used, worldwide, as hard aggregates in wearing courses in order to improve the skidding resistance of asphalt pavements. At the Highway Laboratory, Department of Civil Engineering of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki research has been carried out in the field of steel slags, and especially in electric arc furnace (EAF) slag, to evaluate their possible use in highway engineering. In this paper, the recent results of anti-skidding performance of steel slag aggregates in highway pavements are presented.

  11. Improving the quality of alumina-containing sinter using water-cooled furnace shell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandrov A.V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This article deals with the use of computer modeling to develop technical solutions to ensure better quality of alumina-containing sinter. The simulation accounted for the influence of the feed materials on the thermal processes in the furnace. The energy balance (including thermal conductivity, heat convection and radiant heat exchange was solved assuming steady state. A good correlation was observed for the actual and calculated temperatures of the solids and gases, with less than 15% discrepancy. Using the model of the furnace investigated the possibility of lowering the temperature of sintering by removing heat from the outside of the furnace shell. To reduce the sintering temperature to 1000 °C length of the refractory lined steel is 5 m, the height of the lining should not exceed - 0.06 m, the required rate of cold water - 54.7 m3/h

  12. Furnace veneering systems of special design help achieve energy reduction goals at Armco

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caspersen, L.J.

    1982-12-01

    A steel company conserves energy by veneering reheat furnaces with a ceramic fiber modular system. The furnace lining system incorporates several grades of veneering materials (modules, cements, coatings) whose application is matched to the exact conditions in the furnace. Zoned linings utilize a combination of grades of alumina-silica modules to achieve thermally efficient yet durable performance. High temperature cements exhibit good tackiness, easy module penetration and high strength retention after firing. A protective coating is sprayed in a thin layer over the modules and can be easily reapplied at a later date should it be necessary. Benefits include greater thermal control (temperature responsiveness and heating uniformity), less over-firing, less fuel use, and less heat loss. Fuel efficiency is increased by 20 to 50%.

  13. Optical performance evaluation of a solar furnace by measuring the highly concentrated solar flux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hyunjin; Chai, Kwankyo; Kim, Jongkyu; Lee, Sangnam; Yoon, Hwanki; Yu, Changkyun; Kang, Yongheack

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated optical performance of a solar furnace in the KIER (Korea Institute of Energy Research) by measuring the highly concentrated solar flux with the flux mapping method. We presented and analyzed optical performance in terms of concentrated solar flux distribution and power distribution. We investigated concentration ratio, stagnation temperature, total power, and concentration accuracy with help of a modeling code based on the ray tracing method and thereby compared with other solar furnaces. We also discussed flux changes by shutter opening angles and by position adjustment of reflector facets. In the course of flux analysis, we provided a better understanding of reference flux measurement for calibration, reflectivity measurement with a portable reflectometer, shadowing area consideration for effective irradiation, as well as accuracy and repeatability of flux measurements. The results in the present study will help proper utilization of a solar furnace by facilitating comparison between flux measurements at different conditions and flux estimation during operation

  14. Purification and growth of LiF by induction heating furnace with electronic temperature control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faria Junior, R.N. de

    1985-01-01

    An eletronic power control system for a radio frequency generator and a quartz vacuum furnace heated by induction were developed. This furnace was employed for the growth of single crystals and purification of starting materials. A lithium fluoride single crystal was grown by the Czochralski technique in order to test the temperature control and the quartz furnace. An X-ray diffraction analysis of the crystal revealed the monocrystallinity high optical quality of the crystal obtained. Lithium fluoride of 95% purity prepared by Nuclemon starting material was purified by a vertical Bridgmann method. The emission spectrographic analysis of the purified crystal demonstrated the segregation of impurities. This study showed that the purification by this method of starting materials produced by local industry resulted in a crystal 99.9% pure in the first crystallization. (Author) [pt

  15. Removal of sulfate interference in the determination of indium and gallium by graphite furnace AAS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsusaki, Koji; Sata, Toshikatsu

    1994-01-01

    A mixture of ammonium-EDTA, nickel and aluminium nitrates is suitable as a matrix modifier for the removal of sulfate interference in the determination of indium and gallium by graphite furnace AAS. Nickel and aluminium nitrates act as a thermal stabilizer for the analyte in the furnace before atomization. Since analyte and other cations are masked by EDTA, the coexisting sulfates are converted to ammonium salt, which is readily decomposed and eliminated from the furnace during the ashing step. In the presence of 0.1 M nickel nitrate, 0.001 M aluminium nitrate and 0.1 M ammonium-EDTA, when the concentration of sodium and potassium sulfates are below 0.02 M, the interferences of these sulfates are completely removed. (author)

  16. Easily controlled dye doped phosphorescent OLEDs with evaporation rate in single furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mahmoudi, Malek; Janghouri, Mohammad; Mohajerani, Ezeddin, E-mail: e-mohajerani@sbu.ac.ir

    2015-04-15

    Electrical and optical characteristic, surface morphology and energy transfer of Ir(ppy){sub 3}:PtTPP were studied as a function of thermal evaporation rate. We have investigated the effect of various evaporation rates for mixture of dyes using single furnace method. When the deposition rate increased from 0.5 to 5 Ǻ/s, the luminescence efficiency, current density and energy transfer of OLED increased. AFM measurements showed that the surface roughness of the Ir(ppy){sub 3}:PtTPP films decreased with increasing deposition rates. These blends show excellent red emitting guest–host system with easier deposition rate control. - Highlights: • Thermal evaporation rate is used to control the doping by using single furnace. • The advantages of using single furnace are discussed. • It is shown that the evaporation rate also affects the surface roughness.

  17. [Determination of trace cobalt in human urine by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometr].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, L X; Ding, B M; Jiang, D; Liu, D Y; Yu, B; Zhu, B L; Ding, L

    2016-05-20

    To establish a method to determine cobalt in human urine by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. Urine with 2% nitric acid diluted two-fold, to quantify the curve, graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometric detection. Co was linear within 2.5~40.0 ng/ml with r>0.999. Spike experiment showed that Co received good recovery rate, which was 90.8%~94.8%. Intra-assay precisions were 3.2%~5.1% for Co, inter-assay precisions were 4.4%~5.2% for Co. The method by using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometr to determine urine Co was fast, accurate and with low matrix effect. It could meet the requirement in GBZ/T 210.5-2008.

  18. The Influence A Crucible Arrangement On The Electrical Efficiency Of The Cold Crucible Induction Furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smalcerz A.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A big interest in application of cold crucible furnace (CCF for industrial, particularly metallurgical, processes has been observed in recent years. They are mainly utilised for melting of metal, glass and other materials. Analyses of processes that occur in such devices are performed; however, computer modelling is rarely applied. As a precise determination of the electromagnetic field distribution is essential for a proper analysis of processes in furnaces with cold crucibles, a complex 3D model development is necessary. In the paper, effects of a crucible design and current frequency on the efficiency of the induction furnace with cold crucible are presented. Numerical calculations were performed with the use of the Flux 3D professional software.

  19. Process evaluation of an environmental and educational nutrition intervention in residential drug-treatment facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowan, Jennifer A; Devine, Carol M

    2012-07-01

    To evaluate the implementation of a controlled, 6-week, environmental and educational intervention to improve dietary intake and body composition, and to study the association of implementation fidelity with diet and body composition outcomes. A process evaluation documented participation, dose of nutrition education delivered, participant satisfaction, fidelity and completeness of the food environment intervention implementation, and context through observations and interviews with staff and residents. Intervention sites were scored and categorized as high or low participation and implementation and compared on essential elements of the food environment and on diet and body composition outcomes. Six urban residential drug-treatment facilities in Upstate New York. Fifty-five primarily black and white men in residential drug-treatment programmes. Participants were exposed to 94 % and 69 % of the educational and environmental elements, respectively. High implementation sites were significantly more likely to provide water and 100 % juice, offer fruit or vegetable salad, offer choices of fruits and vegetables, and limit fried foods. Mixed-model analysis of covariance revealed that participants in the high participation and implementation sites reported greater reductions in total energy, percentage of energy from sweets, daily servings of fats, oils and sweets, and BMI over the intervention period. Participants in low participation and implementation sites reported greater reductions in percentage of energy from fat. Differential implementation of environmental elements limited the intervention impact. These findings document the contribution of changes in eating environments to facilitate dietary behaviour change in community residential substance-abuse settings.

  20. The effect of residential choice on the travel distance and the implications for sustainable development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eka Putra, Kaspan

    2018-03-01

    For Medan citizens, the choice of residence location depends on the ability to buy a house. House price is determined by the price of land where the housing is located. The more to the edge of the city the location of a house, then the price will be lower. So that the suburbs of Medan become the residential choice for the citizens of low-income. The residential choice will affect the distance of the journey to the workplace. This study analyzed the effect of residential choice on the travel distance and the implications for the implementation of sustainable development. The data used in this study is the primary data obtained through the survey held in Medan. The research approach is quantitative with the data analysis technique of Structural Equation Model (SEM). The results show that low-income citizens tend to choose the location of suburbs, while they work in the urban area. The location of the residence affects the daily travel distance is very high. The travel distance that is the very high effect the use of private vehicle mode. The use of private vehicles for long travel distance requires a huge energy. The use of very high fuel oils is a waste of energy and can increase air pollution. This is not in accordance with the concept of sustainable development.

  1. Oil pollution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankabady, Samir.

    1994-08-01

    Oil enters the marine environment when it is discharged, or has escaped, during transport, drilling, shipping, accidents, dumping and offshore operations. This book serves as a reference both on the various complex international operational and legal matters of oil pollution using examples such as the Exxon Valdez, the Braer and Lord Donaldson's report. The chapters include the development of international rules on the marine environment, the prevention of marine pollution from shipping activities, liability for oil pollution damage, the conflict of the 1990 Oil Pollution Act and the 1992 protocols and finally the cooperation and response to pollution incidents. (UK)

  2. Dynamic management of integrated residential energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Matteo

    This study combines principles of energy systems engineering and statistics to develop integrated models of residential energy use in the United States, to include residential recharging of electric vehicles. These models can be used by government, policymakers, and the utility industry to provide answers and guidance regarding the future of the U.S. energy system. Currently, electric power generation must match the total demand at each instant, following seasonal patterns and instantaneous fluctuations. Thus, one of the biggest drivers of costs and capacity requirement is the electricity demand that occurs during peak periods. These peak periods require utility companies to maintain operational capacity that often is underutilized, outdated, expensive, and inefficient. In light of this, flattening the demand curve has long been recognized as an effective way of cutting the cost of producing electricity and increasing overall efficiency. The problem is exacerbated by expected widespread adoption of non-dispatchable renewable power generation. The intermittent nature of renewable resources and their non-dispatchability substantially limit the ability of electric power generation of adapting to the fluctuating demand. Smart grid technologies and demand response programs are proposed as a technical solution to make the electric power demand more flexible and able to adapt to power generation. Residential demand response programs offer different incentives and benefits to consumers in response to their flexibility in the timing of their electricity consumption. Understanding interactions between new and existing energy technologies, and policy impacts therein, is key to driving sustainable energy use and economic growth. Comprehensive and accurate models of the next-generation power system allow for understanding the effects of new energy technologies on the power system infrastructure, and can be used to guide policy, technology, and economic decisions. This

  3. Automated information system for analysis and prediction of production situations in blast furnace plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavrov, V. V.; Spirin, N. A.

    2016-09-01

    Advances in modern science and technology are inherently connected with the development, implementation, and widespread use of computer systems based on mathematical modeling. Algorithms and computer systems are gaining practical significance solving a range of process tasks in metallurgy of MES-level (Manufacturing Execution Systems - systems controlling industrial process) of modern automated information systems at the largest iron and steel enterprises in Russia. This fact determines the necessity to develop information-modeling systems based on mathematical models that will take into account the physics of the process, the basics of heat and mass exchange, the laws of energy conservation, and also the peculiarities of the impact of technological and standard characteristics of raw materials on the manufacturing process data. Special attention in this set of operations for metallurgic production is devoted to blast-furnace production, as it consumes the greatest amount of energy, up to 50% of the fuel used in ferrous metallurgy. The paper deals with the requirements, structure and architecture of BF Process Engineer's Automated Workstation (AWS), a computer decision support system of MES Level implemented in the ICS of the Blast Furnace Plant at Magnitogorsk Iron and Steel Works. It presents a brief description of main model subsystems as well as assumptions made in the process of mathematical modelling. Application of the developed system allows the engineering and process staff to analyze online production situations in the blast furnace plant, to solve a number of process tasks related to control of heat, gas dynamics and slag conditions of blast-furnace smelting as well as to calculate the optimal composition of blast-furnace slag, which eventually results in increasing technical and economic performance of blast-furnace production.

  4. Furnace for the continuous sintering of pellets of ceramic nuclear fuel material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heyraud, J.

    1977-01-01

    The furnace comprises a hearth for the longitudinal displacement of pellet containers, means for injecting gas at both ends of the furnace, for sucking gas between preheating and sintering zones and for condensing the binder, means for displacing the containers from an introduction lock-chamber to an extraction lock-chamber, a conveyor belt which passes through a glove box and provides a leak-tight connection between the lock-chambers. A station for loading containers with pellet sub-containers prior to sintering and a station for unloading the pellet sub-containers after sintering are juxtaposed within the glove box. 3 claims, 1 drawing figure

  5. FURNACE; a toroidal geometry neutronic program system method description and users manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verschuur, K.A.

    1984-12-01

    The FURNACE program system performs neutronic and photonic calculations in 3D toroidal geometry for application to fusion reactors. The geometry description is quite general, allowing any torus cross section and any neutron source density distribution for the plasma, as well as simple parametric representations of circular, elliptic and D-shaped tori and plasmas. The numerical method is based on an approximate transport model that produces results with sufficient accuracy for reactor-design purposes, at acceptable calculational costs. A short description is given of the numerical method, and a user manual for the programs of the system: FURNACE, ANISN-PT, LIBRA, TAPEMA and DRAWER is presented

  6. Modeling and control of diffusion and low-pressure chemical vapor deposition furnaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Waard, H.; De Koning, W. L.

    1990-03-01

    In this paper a study is made of the heat transfer inside cylindrical resistance diffusion and low-pressure chemical vapor deposition furnaces, aimed at developing an improved temperature controller. A model of the thermal behavior is derived which also covers the important class of furnaces equipped with semitransparent quartz process tubes. The model takes into account the thermal behavior of the thermocouples. It is shown that currently used temperature controllers are highly inefficient for very large scale integration applications. Based on the model an alternative temperature controller of the linear-quadratic-Gaussian type is proposed which features direct wafer temperature control. Some simulation results are given.

  7. The determination of oxygen in metals using an impulse heating furnace with a simple transfer lock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dale, L.S.; de Jong, S.; Kelly, J.W.; Whittem, R.N.

    1975-05-01

    An impulse heating furnace has been constructed for the determination of low levels of oxygen down to 100 μg g -1 in metals. The furnace is equipped with a sample transfer lock which permits samples to be loaded into outgassed crucibles in a helium atmosphere. As a result, blank levels in the range 2 to 3 μg oxygen are obtained; the modification also results in shorter sample processing time. The apparatus is described, and its suitability for oxygen determinations at these levels has been verified by comparison of results obtained on reference and analysed materials. (author)

  8. Reduction disintegration mechanism of cold briquettes from blast furnace dust and sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Rocha Lemos

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available It is important to understand the reduction disintegration mechanism in ferriferous burden that is used in blast furnaces. The behavior of this burden in the granular zone of this metallurgical reactor is important for smooth operation. The objective of this work was to prepare cold self-reducing briquettes using blast furnace dust and sludge and binders and compare the reduction disintegration index (RDI of these agglomerates with conventional ferriferous burdens such as pellets, sinter and iron ore. In the present work, 25 different mixtures were prepared to produce briquettes in two geometries: pillow and cylindrical. The RDI value was determined for the briquettes that passed the tumbling test.

  9. Identification of possible non-stationary effects in a new type of vortex furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shadrin Evgeniy Yu.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of an experimental study of pressure and velocity pulsations in the model of improved vortex furnace with distributed air supply and vertically oriented nozzles of the secondary blast. Investigation of aerodynamic characteristics of a swirling flow with different regime parameters was conducted in an isothermal laboratory model (in 1:25 scale of vortex furnace using laser Doppler measuring system and pressure pulsations analyzer. The obtained results have revealed a number of features of the flow structure, and the spectral analysis of pressure and velocity pulsations allows to speak about the absence of large-scale unsteady vortical structures in the studied design.

  10. Comparison of CO2 emission between COREX and blast furnace iron-making system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Changqing; Han, Xiaowei; Li, Zhihong; Zhang, Chunxia

    2009-01-01

    Steel works faced increasing demand to minimize the emission of GHGs. The CO2 emissions of COREX and blast furnace iron-making system were compared. It is point out that COREX contribute little to CO2 emission reduction. Comparing to conventional blast furnace iron-making system, direct CO2 emissions of COREX is higher. Considering the credits of export gases for power generation, the total CO2 emission of COREX have advantages only when the COREX is joined with high-efficiency generating units which efficiency is greater than 45% and CO2 emission factor of the grid is higher than 0.9 kgCO2/kWh.

  11. The effect of soaking time on properties of blast furnace coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, R.; Dash, P.S.; Krishnan, S.H.; Kumar, D. [Tata Steel, Jamshedpur (India)

    2004-07-01

    Attempts were made to study the effect of soaking time on properties of blast furnace coke at Tata Steel. Plant trial indicated that when soaking time was increased the +50 mm size coke, mean size, and M{sub 40} indices improved. The CSR value exhibited no significant improvement after a certain limit. This may be due to stability of coke structure improvement in coke quality by increasing soaking time. To achieve the maximum improvement in coke cost, loss of output and heat consumption may be compensated by decreasing coke rate and improving productivity in the blast furnace. 6 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. Reduction of NOx emission in tangential fired - furnace by changing the, mode of operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chudnovsky, B.; Talanker, A.; Levin, L.; Kahana, S

    1998-01-01

    The present work analyses tile results of tests on 575 MW units with tangential firing furnace arrangement in sub-stoichiometric combustion. Tangential firing provides good conditions for implementing sub-stoichiometric combustion owing to the delivery scheme of pulverized coal and air. The furnace was tested in several different modes of operation (Over Fire Air, Bunkers Out Of Service, Excess air, Tilt etc.) to achieve low cost NOx reduction. Actual performance data are presented based on experiments made on lEC's boiler in M.D. 'B' power station

  13. Does Immigrant Residential Crowding Reflect Hidden Homelessness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Haan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared to the Canadian-born, immigrants are under-represented among Canada’s homeless population, when their decline in economic wellbeing is considered alongside their relative absence in homeless shelters. One way to explain this oddity, proposed in both academic and popular literature, is that immigrant communities employ unique avoidance strategies, such as within-group co-residence, to help keep co-ethnics off the streets and out of homeless shelters. In this paper I use the 2001 census of Canada to investigate the extent to which heightened levels of residential crowding might reflect “hidden homelessness”. I find mixed evidence to support this link, and, if anything, find some evidence to suggest that the link between residential crowding and hidden homelessness, if one exists, is strongest for the Canadian-born.

  14. FACTOR ANALYSIS OF MULTISTOREY RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Петр Матвеевич Мазуркин

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available According to the UN classification of 11 classes of soil cover, the first three are grass, trees and shrubs and forests. In the city they correspond to the three elements of vegetation: lawns, tree plantings (trees and shrubs. We have adopted zoning for city-building to identify statistical regularities. Map dimensions in GIS "Map 2011" Yoshkar-Ola was allocated to "residential zone" and "Area of construction of multi-storey residential buildings (cadastral 58 quart crystals". The parameters of the elements of the vegetation cover have been considered: the number of elements of different levels, area and perimeter, the absolute and relative form, and activity of vegetation. As the result, we have obtained equations of binomial rank distributions, conducted the ratings and selected the best of cadastral quarter on environmental conditions.

  15. Electricity demand for South Korean residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sa'ad, Suleiman

    2009-01-01

    This study estimates the electricity demand function for the residential sector of South Korea with the aim of examining the effects of improved energy efficiency, structural factors and household lifestyles on electricity consumption. In the study, time series data for the period from 1973 to 2007 is used in a structural time series model to estimate the long-term price and income elasticities and annual growth of underlying energy demand trend (UEDT) at the end of the estimation period. The result shows a long-term income elasticity of 1.33 and a long-term price elasticity of -0.27% with -0.93% as the percentage growth of UEDT at the end of the estimation period. This result suggests that, in order to encourage energy efficiency in the residential sector, the government should complement the market based pricing policies with non-market policies such as minimum energy efficiency standards and public enlightenment.

  16. Residential indoor air quality guideline : ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Ozone (O 3 ) is a colourless gas that reacts rapidly on surfaces and with other constituents in the air. Sources of indoor O 3 include devices sold as home air cleaners, and some types of office equipment. Outdoor O 3 is also an important contributor to indoor levels of O 3 , depending on the air exchange rate with indoor environments. This residential indoor air quality guideline examined factors that affect the introduction, dispersion and removal of O 3 indoors. The health effects of prolonged exposure to O 3 were discussed, and studies conducted to evaluate the population health impacts of O 3 were reviewed. The studies demonstrated that there is a significant association between ambient O 3 and adverse health impacts. Exposure guidelines for residential indoor air quality were discussed. 14 refs.

  17. MICRO-CHP System for Residential Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Gerstmann

    2009-01-31

    This is the final report of progress under Phase I of a project to develop and commercialize a micro-CHP system for residential applications that provides electrical power, heating, and cooling for the home. This is the first phase of a three-phase effort in which the residential micro-CHP system will be designed (Phase I), developed and tested in the laboratory (Phase II); and further developed and field tested (Phase III). The project team consists of Advanced Mechanical Technology, Inc. (AMTI), responsible for system design and integration; Marathon Engine Systems, Inc. (MES), responsible for design of the engine-generator subsystem; AO Smith, responsible for design of the thermal storage and water heating subsystems; Trane, a business of American Standard Companies, responsible for design of the HVAC subsystem; and AirXchange, Inc., responsible for design of the mechanical ventilation and dehumidification subsystem.

  18. Residential Group Composition Among the Alyawarra

    OpenAIRE

    Denham, woodrowW W

    2014-01-01

    This is the third of three papers I have written recently that challenge and seek to supplant the presumption of closure, rigidity and simplicity in anthropological analyses of Australian Aboriginal social organization. The first dealt with generational closure in canonical Kariera and Aranda kinship models; the second dealt with societal closure, endogamy and the small-world problem; this one examines closure, rigidity and simplicity in residential group compositions. I argue that these thre...

  19. INVESTIGATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS IN RESIDENTIAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan MEDVEĎ

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to investigation of impact of electromagnetic fields around the electrical equipment used in a residential area and their impact on the human body. This paper was based on sets of measurements of magnetic induction B with magnetometer and on computational simulations in ANSYS for particular appliances often used in household. The results from measurements and simulations led to setting out the recommendations for practical action in the form of elimination of harmful electromagnetic radiation.

  20. DESIGN ASPECTS OF A RESIDENTIAL WIND GENERATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. BRAD

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present some aspects about the design of a small permanent magnet wind generator with axial magnetic flux often used in residential wind turbine. There are summarised the main steps of the magnetic and electric calculations with applications to a particular case: 0.6 kVA wind generator. The axial flux wind generator design starts with the characteristics of the rare earths permanent magnet existing on the market.

  1. Transition issues in an unbundled residential market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brett, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    Aspects of an unbundled residential gas market were discussed, among them (1) the role of a local distribution company (LDC), (2) the context and the issues, (3) the customers'needs and desires, (4) long term planning responsibility, (5) consumer protection and dealing with abuses, (6) the obligation to serve, (7) the bad credit risk customer, (8) billing, credit and collection, and (9) metering and CIS

  2. Comprehensive areal model of residential heating demands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tessmer, R.G. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Data sources and methodology for modeling annual residential heating demands are described. A small areal basis is chosen, census tract or minor civil division, to permit estimation of demand densities and economic evaluation of community district heating systems. The demand model is specified for the entire nation in order to provide general applicability and to permit validation with other published fuel consumption estimates for 1970.

  3. Development Of Economic Techniques For Residential Thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Lee R.; Allen, Sharon

    1983-03-01

    Infrared thermography has proven to be a valuable tool in the detection of heat loss in both commercial and residential buildings. The field of residential thermography has needed a simple method with which to report the deficiencies found during an infrared scan. Two major obstacles hindering the cost effectiveness of residential thermography have been 1) the ability to quickly transport some high resolution imaging system equipment from job site to job site without having to totally dismount the instruments at each area, and 2) the lack of a standard form with which to report the findings of the survey to the customer. Since the industry has yet to provide us with either, we believed it necessary to develop our own. Through trial and error, we have come up with a system that makes interior residential thermography a profitable venture at a price the homeowner can afford. Insulation voids, or defects can be instantly spotted with the use of a thermal imaging system under the proper conditions. A special hand-held device was developed that enables the thermographer to carry the equipment from house to house without the need to dismantle and set up at each stop. All the necessary components are attached for a total weight of about 40 pounds. The findings are then conveyed to a form we have developed. The form is simple enough that the client without special training in thermography can understand. The client is then able to locate the problems and take corrective measures or give it to a con-tractor to do the work.

  4. Procedures for Calculating Residential Dehumidification Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, Jon [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Booten, Chuck [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Residential building codes and voluntary labeling programs are continually increasing the energy efficiency requirements of residential buildings. Improving a building's thermal enclosure and installing energy-efficient appliances and lighting can result in significant reductions in sensible cooling loads leading to smaller air conditioners and shorter cooling seasons. However due to fresh air ventilation requirements and internal gains, latent cooling loads are not reduced by the same proportion. Thus, it's becoming more challenging for conventional cooling equipment to control indoor humidity at part-load cooling conditions and using conventional cooling equipment in a non-conventional building poses the potential risk of high indoor humidity. The objective of this project was to investigate the impact the chosen design condition has on the calculated part-load cooling moisture load, and compare calculated moisture loads and the required dehumidification capacity to whole-building simulations. Procedures for sizing whole-house supplemental dehumidification equipment have yet to be formalized; however minor modifications to current Air-Conditioner Contractors of America (ACCA) Manual J load calculation procedures are appropriate for calculating residential part-load cooling moisture loads. Though ASHRAE 1% DP design conditions are commonly used to determine the dehumidification requirements for commercial buildings, an appropriate DP design condition for residential buildings has not been investigated. Two methods for sizing supplemental dehumidification equipment were developed and tested. The first method closely followed Manual J cooling load calculations; whereas the second method made more conservative assumptions impacting both sensible and latent loads.

  5. Comparison of a burning mass ceramics coating in laboratory furnace and instrustrial furnace; Comparacao de queimas de uma massa ceramica de revestimento em forno de laboratorio e forno industrial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soares, R.A.L., E-mail: robertoarruda@ifpi.edu.br [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia do Piaui (IFPI), Terersina, PI (Brazil); Castro, J.R. de S. [Universidade Federal do Piaui (UFPI), Teresina, PI (Brazil)

    2012-07-01

    This work intends to analyze the differences obtained in the technological properties of a ceramic coating after firing in two distinct environments, laboratory furnace and industrial furnace. For this, was characterized a ceramic mass used in the production of porous coating. The analyzes were performed chemical, mineralogical and thermal mass in that. The specimens were obtained by compacting and burned in the maximum temperature of 1140 deg C in two furnaces, laboratory and industrial. The technological tests were performed linear shrinkage, water absorption, bulk density and mechanical strength. The microstructure was evaluated by ray-X diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results showed that both furnaces provided significant differences in analyzed specimens, such as increased strength and low water absorption in the fired samples in a laboratory furnace, for example. (author)

  6. Metal contamination in environmental media in residential ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hard-rock mining for metals, such as gold, silver, copper, zinc, iron and others, is recognized to have a significant impact on the environmental media, soil and water, in particular. Toxic contaminants released from mine waste to surface water and groundwater is the primary concern, but human exposure to soil contaminants either directly, via inhalation of airborne dust particles, or indirectly, via food chain (ingestion of animal products and/or vegetables grown in contaminated areas), is also, significant. In this research, we analyzed data collected in 2007, as part of a larger environmental study performed in the Rosia Montana area in Transylvania, to provide the Romanian governmental authorities with data on the levels of metal contamination in environmental media from this historical mining area. The data were also considered in policy decision to address mining-related environmental concerns in the area. We examined soil and water data collected from residential areas near the mining sites to determine relationships among metals analyzed in these different environmental media, using the correlation procedure in SAS statistical software. Results for residential soil and water analysis indicate that the average values for arsenic (As) (85 mg/kg), cadmium (Cd) (3.2 mg/kg), mercury (Hg) (2.3 mg/kg) and lead (Pb) (92 mg/kg) exceeded the Romanian regulatory exposure levels [the intervention thresholds for residential soil in case of As (25 mg/kg) and Hg

  7. Residential outage cost estimation: Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, C.K.; Ho, T.; Shiu, A.; Cheng, Y.S.; Horowitz, I.; Wang, J.

    2014-01-01

    Hong Kong has almost perfect electricity reliability, the result of substantial investments ultimately financed by electricity consumers who may be willing to accept lower reliability in exchange for lower bills. But consumers with high outage costs are likely to reject the reliability reduction. Our ordered-logit regression analysis of the responses by 1876 households to a telephone survey conducted in June 2013 indicates that Hong Kong residents exhibit a statistically-significant preference for their existing service reliability and rate. Moreover, the average residential cost estimate for a 1-h outage is US$45 (HK$350), topping the estimates reported in 10 of the 11 studies published in the last 10 years. The policy implication is that absent additional compelling evidence, Hong Kong should not reduce its service reliability. - Highlights: • Use a contingent valuation survey to obtain residential preferences for reliability. • Use an ordered logit analysis to estimate Hong Kong's residential outage costs. • Find high outage cost estimates that imply high reliability requirements. • Conclude that sans new evidence, Hong Kong should not reduce its reliability

  8. Sorption of organic gases in residential rooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Brett C.; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Hotchi, Toshifumi; Ming, Katherine Y.; Sextro, Richard G.; Wood, Emily E.; Brown, Nancy J.

    Experiments were conducted to characterize organic gas sorption in residential rooms studied "as-is" with furnishings and material surfaces unaltered and in a furnished chamber designed to simulate a residential room. Results are presented for 10 rooms (five bedrooms, two bathrooms, a home office, and two multi-function spaces) and the chamber. Exposed materials were characterized and areas quantified. A mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was rapidly volatilized within each room as it was closed and sealed for a 5-h Adsorb phase; this was followed by 30-min Flush and 2-h closed-room Desorb phases. Included were alkane, aromatic, and oxygenated VOCs representing a range of ambient and indoor air pollutants. Three organophosphorus compounds served as surrogates for Sarin-like nerve agents. Measured gas-phase concentrations were fit to three variations of a mathematical model that considers sorption occurring at a surface sink and potentially a second, embedded sink. The 3-parameter sink-diffusion model provided acceptable fits for most compounds and the 4-parameter two-sink model provided acceptable fits for the others. Initial adsorption rates and sorptive partitioning increased with decreasing vapor pressure for the alkanes, aromatics and oxygenated VOCs. Best-fit sorption parameters obtained from experimental data from the chamber produced best-fit sorption parameters similar to those obtained from the residential rooms.

  9. Evaluation of effectiveness of raw materials and materials use in a blast furnace department of a steelworks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kardas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper analyses the quality of raw materials used in the production of blast furnace pig iron. The ferruginous sinter and pellets are the basic raw materials used in the process. The paper presents the impact of those raw materials quality on the effectiveness of the blast furnace process. The process effectiveness will be specified by means of selected process parameters.

  10. Experimental study of the effect of a radiant tube on the temperature distribution in a horizontal heating furnace

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, H.T.; Liao, X.W.; Qu, Z.G.; Li, Y.Z.; Chen, J.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • 1:1 scale experimental study of the temperature distribution by a radiant tube. • Two burners are investigated for the heat transfer comparisons. • The non-uniformity coefficient ε is adopted to quantify temperature deviation. - Abstract: This article reports the experimental study of the heat transfer characteristics in a horizontal heating furnace that is extensively used in the petroleum industry of China. To avoid furnace burnout caused by an uneven furnace wall temperature, a straight radiant tube is proposed to be installed in the furnace, which transfers heat to the furnace wall mainly via a radiation pattern. Seven groups of measure points were selected to record the temperature data; each group consisted of two testing points at the top wall and middle wall. Two burners were investigated to compare the temperature distribution along the horizontal furnace wall. A non-uniformity coefficient ε of the wall temperature was used to quantify the temperature deviation. The experimental results show that the radiant tube can significantly reduce the temperature deviation on the furnace wall. The furnace wall with the SR100 burner has a generally larger É› than that with the HQ05 burner without the radiant tube. The SR100 burner has a larger overall decrease in É› than the HQ05 burner after the radiant tube is installed.

  11. 40 CFR 270.22 - Specific part B information requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste. 270.22 Section 270.22 Protection of... requirements for boilers and industrial furnaces burning hazardous waste. When an owner or operator of a cement kiln, lightweight aggregate kiln, solid fuel boiler, liquid fuel boiler, or hydrochloric acid...

  12. Flow field and thermal characteristics in a model of a tangentially fired furnace under different conditions of burner tripping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habib, M. A.; Ben-Mansour, R.; Antar, M. A.

    2005-08-01

    Tangentially fired furnaces are vortex-combustion units and are widely used in steam generators of industrial plants. The present study provides a numerical investigation of the problem of turbulent reacting flows in a model furnace of a tangentially fired boiler. The importance of this problem is mainly due to its relation to large boiler furnaces used in thermal power plants. In the present work, calculation of the flow field, temperature and species concentration-contour maps in a tangentially-fired model furnace are provided. The safety of these furnaces requires that the burner be tripped (its fuel is cut off) if the flame is extinguished. Therefore, the present work provides an investigation of the influence of number of tripped burners on the characteristics of the flow and thermal fields. The details of the flow, thermal and combustion fields are obtained from the solution of the conservation equations of mass, momentum and energy and transport equations for scalar variables in addition to the equations of the turbulence model. Available experimental measurements were used for validating the calculation procedure. The results show that the vortex created due to pressure gradient at the furnace center only influenced by tripping at least two burners. However, the temperature distributions are significantly distorted by tripping any of the burners. Regions of very high temperature close to the furnace walls appear as a result of tripping the fuel in one or two of the burners. Calculated heat flux along the furnace walls are presented.

  13. Reduction of NOx emissions in regenerative fossil fuel fired glass furnaces: a review of literature and experimental studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerkens, R.G.C.; Limpt, J.A.C. van

    2008-01-01

    The mechanism of nitrogen oxide (NOx) formation in combustion chambers of glass furnaces is briefly described. The most important parameters governing the NOx emissions of glass furnaces are discussed. Elimination or minimisation of conditions that cause the formation of nitrogen oxides in

  14. 40 CFR 63.1218 - What are the standards for hydrochloric acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... acid production furnaces that burn hazardous waste? 63.1218 Section 63.1218 Protection of Environment... production furnaces that burn hazardous waste? (a) Emission limits for existing sources. You must not...% DRE. If you burn the dioxin-listed hazardous wastes F020, F021, F022, F023, F026, or F027 (see § 261...

  15. Fingerprint of a submerged-arc furnace : Optimising energy consumption through data mining, dynamic modelling and computational fluid dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheepers, E.

    2008-01-01

    This study imparts a scientific perception of a phosphorous-producing submerged arc furnace never seen before; a proverbial fingerprint that can improve problem identification, disturbance diagnostics, process prediction, dynamic modelling and model predictive control of this type of furnace. It

  16. 10 CFR Appendix N to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Furnaces and Boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of Furnaces and Boilers N Appendix N to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CONSERVATION PROGRAM FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS Test Procedures Pt. 430, Subpt. B, App. N Appendix N to Subpart B of Part 430—Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Furnaces...

  17. Computer simulation of waste combustion in a moving grate furnace as a tool for process optimization and operator trainings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brem, G.; Kessel, L.B.M. van

    1998-01-01

    A computer model has been developed to simulate the waste combustion process in a moving grate furnace. The computer model describes the main processes occurring both in the waste layer on the grate, and in the gas phase in the furnace. The boiler section and the flue gas cleaning equipment are also

  18. 40 CFR 424.40 - Applicability; description of the covered calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... covered calcium carbide furnaces with wet air pollution control devices subcategory. 424.40 Section 424.40... FERROALLOY MANUFACTURING POINT SOURCE CATEGORY Covered Calcium Carbide Furnaces With Wet Air Pollution... with wet air pollution control devices subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to...

  19. High temperature vacuum furnace for the preparation of graphite targets for 14C dating by tandem accelerator mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lowe, D.C.; Bristow, P.; Judd, W.J.

    1985-02-01

    A simple and reliable furnace design capable of producing temperatures of up to 2800 deg. C is presented. The furnace has been specifically designed for the rapid and reliable production of graphite targets for 14 C dating purposes but may be used in a variety of applications requiring high temperatures under vacuum conditions

  20. Productivity and performance of small scale blast furnaces; Produtividade e performance de altos fornos de pequeno porte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melo, Vamberto Ferreira de; Grandin, Friedrich Hans G.; Lanna, Pitagoras Gomes de; Castello Branco, Marco Antonio S.C. [Mannesmann SA, Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    1994-05-01

    This work presents some data concerning the re-start of the blast furnace number 2 of Mannesmann siderurgic company. The main characteristics concerning the operation with 100% coke fuel and the measurements adopted to increase the furnace productivity are described 2 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs

  1. Determination of total selenium in nutritional supplements and selenised yeast by Zeeman-effect graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Erik Huusfeldt; Ekelund, J.

    1989-01-01

    -effect background corrected graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry. A furnace ashing step at 1100 °C was necessary in order to obtain a total recovery of selenium when present in the organic form. Palladium nitrate-magnesium nitrate was used as a matrix modifier. Independent methods were used to determine...

  2. Residential wood combustion technology review: Volume 1. Final technical report, July 1997--July 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houck, J.E.; Tiegs, P.E.

    1998-12-01

    The report gives results of a review of the current state-of-the-art of residential wood combustion (RWC). The key environmental parameter of concern was the air emission of particles. The technological status of all major RWC categories--cordwood stoves, fireplaces, masonry heaters, pettel stoves, and wood-fired central heating furnaces--was reviewed. Advances in technology achieved since the mid-1980s were the primary focus. Key findings of the review included: (1) the new source performance standard (NSPS) certification procedure only qualitatively predicts the level of emissions from wood heaters under actual use in homes; (2) woodstove durability varies with model, and a method to assess the durability problem is controversial; (3) nationally, the overwhelming majority of RWC air emissions are from noncertified devices (primarily from older noncertified woodstoves); (4) new technology appliances and fuels can reduce emissions significantly; (5) the International Organization for Standardization and EPA NSPS test procedures are quite dissimilar, and data generated by the two procedures would not be comparable; and (6) the effect of wood moisture and wood type on particulate emission appears to be real but less than an order of magnitude

  3. Residential wood combustion technology review: Volume 2 -- Appendices. Final report, July 1997--July 1998

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houck, J.E.; Tiegs, P.E.

    1998-12-01

    The report gives results of a review of the current state-of-the-art of residential wood combustion (RWC). The key environmental parameter of concern was the air emission of particles. The technological status of all major RWC categories--cordwood stoves, fireplaces, masonry heaters, pettel stoves, and wood-fired central heating furnaces--was reviewed. Advances in technology achieved since the mid-1980s were the primary focus. Key findings of the review included: (1) the new source performance standard (NSPS) certification procedure only qualitatively predicts the level of emissions from wood heaters under actual use in homes; (2) woodstove durability varies with model, and a method to assess the durability problem is controversial; (3) nationally, the overwhelming majority of RWC air emissions are from noncertified devices (primarily from older noncertified woodstoves); (4) new technology appliances and fuels can reduce emissions significantly; (5) the International Organization for Standardization and EPA NSPS test procedures are quite dissimilar, and data generated by the two procedures would not be comparable; and (6) the effect of wood moisture and wood type on particulate emission appears to be real but less than an order of magnitude

  4. Furnace and Heat Recovery Area Design and Analysis for Conceptual Design of Supercritical O2-Based PC Boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrew Seltzer

    2006-05-01

    The objective of the furnace and heat recovery area design and analysis task of the Conceptual Design of Supercritical Oxygen-Based PC Boiler study is to optimize the location and design of the furnace, burners, over-fire gas ports, and internal radiant surfaces. The furnace and heat recovery area were designed and analyzed using the FW-FIRE, Siemens, and HEATEX computer programs. The furnace is designed with opposed wall-firing burners and over-fire air ports. Water is circulated in the furnace by forced circulation to the waterwalls at the periphery and divisional wall panels within the furnace. Compared to the air-fired furnace, the oxygen-fired furnace requires only 65% of the surface area and 45% of the volume. Two oxygen-fired designs were simulated: (1) with cryogenic air separation unit (ASU) and (2) with oxygen ion transport membrane (OITM). The maximum wall heat flux in the oxygen-fired furnace is more than double that of the air-fired furnace due to the higher flame temperature and higher H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} concentrations. The coal burnout for the oxygen-fired case is 100% due to a 500 F higher furnace temperature and higher concentration of O{sub 2}. Because of the higher furnace wall temperature of the oxygen-fired case compared to the air-fired case, furnace water wall material was upgraded from T2 to T92. Compared to the air-fired heat recovery area (HRA), the oxygen-fired HRA total heat transfer surface is 35% less for the cryogenic design and 13% less for the OITM design due to more heat being absorbed in the oxygen-fired furnace and the greater molecular weight of the oxygen-fired flue gas. The HRA tube materials and wall thickness are nearly the same for the air-fired and oxygen-fired design since the flue gas and water/steam temperature profiles encountered by the heat transfer banks are similar.

  5. Furnace and Heat Recovery Area Design and Analysis for Conceptual Design of Supercritical O2-Based PC Boiler

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andrew Seltzer

    2006-01-01

    The objective of the furnace and heat recovery area design and analysis task of the Conceptual Design of Supercritical Oxygen-Based PC Boiler study is to optimize the location and design of the furnace, burners, over-fire gas ports, and internal radiant surfaces. The furnace and heat recovery area were designed and analyzed using the FW-FIRE, Siemens, and HEATEX computer programs. The furnace is designed with opposed wall-firing burners and over-fire air ports. Water is circulated in the furnace by forced circulation to the waterwalls at the periphery and divisional wall panels within the furnace. Compared to the air-fired furnace, the oxygen-fired furnace requires only 65% of the surface area and 45% of the volume. Two oxygen-fired designs were simulated: (1) with cryogenic air separation unit (ASU) and (2) with oxygen ion transport membrane (OITM). The maximum wall heat flux in the oxygen-fired furnace is more than double that of the air-fired furnace due to the higher flame temperature and higher H 2 O and CO 2 concentrations. The coal burnout for the oxygen-fired case is 100% due to a 500 F higher furnace temperature and higher concentration of O 2 . Because of the higher furnace wall temperature of the oxygen-fired case compared to the air-fired case, furnace water wall material was upgraded from T2 to T92. Compared to the air-fired heat recovery area (HRA), the oxygen-fired HRA total heat transfer surface is 35% less for the cryogenic design and 13% less for the OITM design due to more heat being absorbed in the oxygen-fired furnace and the greater molecular weight of the oxygen-fired flue gas. The HRA tube materials and wall thickness are nearly the same for the air-fired and oxygen-fired design since the flue gas and water/steam temperature profiles encountered by the heat transfer banks are similar

  6. No. 2 heating oil/propane program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McBrien, J.

    1991-06-01

    During the 1990/91 heating season, the Massachusetts Division of Energy Resources (DOER) participated in a joint data collection program between several state energy offices and the federal Department of Energy's (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA). The purpose of the program was to collect and monitor retail and wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories from October 1990 through March 1991. This final report begins with an overview of the unique events which had an impact on the reporting period. Next, the report summarizes the results from the residential heating oil and propane price surveys conducted by DOER over the 1990/91 heating season. The report also incorporates the wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories collected by the EIA and distributed to the states

  7. No. 2 heating oil/propane program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McBrien, J.

    1991-06-01

    During the 1990/91 heating season, the Massachusetts Division of Energy Resources (DOER) participated in a joint data collection program between several state energy offices and the federal Department of Energy's (DOE) Energy Information Administration (EIA). The purpose of the program was to collect and monitor retail and wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories from October 1990 through March 1991. This final report begins with an overview of the unique events which had an impact on the reporting period. Next, the report summarizes the results from the residential heating oil and propane price surveys conducted by DOER over the 1990/91 heating season. The report also incorporates the wholesale heating oil and propane prices and inventories collected by the EIA and distributed to the states.

  8. Energy conservation in reheating furnaces by reducing scrap and scale formation; Kuumamuokkauksen energiasaeaestoet romun maeaeraeae ja hilseilyae vaehentaemaellae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kivivuori, S.; Savolainen, P.; Fredriksson, J.; Paavola, J. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Lab. of Materials Processing and Powder Metallurgy

    1996-12-31

    The main objective of the project `Energy Savings in Reheating Furnaces by Reducing Scrap and Scale Formation` is to reduce energy consumption and environmental harms in reheating and rolling of steel. This was done by analysing the different atmospheres in reheating furnaces of the steel companies participating in this project. These atmospheres were then simulated in a laboratory furnace. Scale formation tests with different steel grades were then carried out in these atmospheres. Scale removal tests were done to some steel grades too. The results showed that lower oxygen content - as expected - decreases oxidation despite the even higher carbondioxide content in the atmosphere. Lower oxygen content may cause difficulties in scale removal. This however is highly dependent on the steel grade. Heat treatment tests showed the effect of increased temperature and furnace time on decarburization. Some energy savings was obtained in fuel consumption by optimising the operation parameters and the atmosphere steadier in different reheating furnaces. (orig.)

  9. Production analysis of methanol and hydrogen of a modificated blast furnace gas using nuclear energy of the high temperature reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peschel, W.

    1985-12-01

    Modern blast furnaces are operated with a coke ration of 500 kg/t pig iron. The increase of the coke ratio to 1000 kg/t pig iron raises the content of carbon monoxide and hydrogen in the blast furnace gas. On the basis of a blast furnace gas modificated in such a way, the production of methanol and hydrogen is investigated under the coupling of current and process heat from the high temperature reactor. Moreover the different variants are discussed, for which respectively a material and energetic balance as well as an estimation of the production costs is performed. Regarding the subsequent treatment of the blast furnace gas it turns out favourably in principle to operate the blast furnace with a nitrogen-free wind consisting only of oxygen and steam. The production costs show a strong dependence on the raw material costs, whose influence is shown in a nomograph. (orig.) [de

  10. A hybrid society model for simulating residential electricity consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Minjie [School of Electrical Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing (China); State Power Economic Research Institute, Beijing (China); Hu, Zhaoguang [State Power Economic Research Institute, Beijing (China); Wu, Junyong; Zhou, Yuhui [School of Electrical Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing (China)

    2008-12-15

    In this paper, a hybrid social model of econometric model and social influence model is proposed for evaluating the influence of pricing policy and public education policy on residential habit of electricity using in power resources management. And, a hybrid society simulation platform based on the proposed model, called residential electricity consumption multi-agent systems (RECMAS), is designed for simulating residential electricity consumption by multi-agent system. RECMAS is composed of consumer agent, power supplier agent, and policy maker agent. It provides the policy makers with a useful tool to evaluate power price policies and public education campaigns in different scenarios. According to an influenced diffusion mechanism, RECMAS can simulate the residential electricity demand-supply chain and analyze impacts of the factors on residential electricity consumption. Finally, the proposed method is used to simulate urban residential electricity consumption in China. (author)

  11. A hybrid society model for simulating residential electricity consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Minjie; Hu, Zhaoguang; Wu, Junyong; Zhou, Yuhui

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a hybrid social model of econometric model and social influence model is proposed for evaluating the influence of pricing policy and public education policy on residential habit of electricity using in power resources management. And, a hybrid society simulation platform based on the proposed model, called residential electricity consumption multi-agent systems (RECMAS), is designed for simulating residential electricity consumption by multi-agent system. RECMAS is composed of consumer agent, power supplier agent, and policy maker agent. It provides the policy makers with a useful tool to evaluate power price policies and public education campaigns in different scenarios. According to an influenced diffusion mechanism, RECMAS can simulate the residential electricity demand-supply chain and analyze impacts of the factors on residential electricity consumption. Finally, the proposed method is used to simulate urban residential electricity consumption in China. (author)

  12. The degradation of lining of rotary furnaces in the production of zinc oxide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Luptáková, Natália; Pešlová, F.; Anisimov, E.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 21, č. 3 (2014), s. 116-121 ISSN 1335-0803 Institutional support: RVO:68081723 Keywords : zinc oxide * the production of zinc oxide * zinc slag * refractories * the degradation of rotary furnace linings Subject RIV: JG - Metallurgy http://ojs.mateng.sk/index.php/Mateng/article/view/133/194

  13. 16 CFR Appendix G2 to Part 305 - Furnaces-Electric

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Furnaces-Electric G2 Appendix G2 to Part 305 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS RULE CONCERNING... Part 305—Furnaces—Electric Manufacturer's rated heating capacities (Btu's/hr.) Range of annual fuel...

  14. Install Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces (English/Chinese) (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2011-10-01

    Chinese translation of ITP fact sheet about installing Waste Heat Recovery Systems for Fuel-Fired Furnaces. For most fuel-fired heating equipment, a large amount of the heat supplied is wasted as exhaust or flue gases. In furnaces, air and fuel are mixed and burned to generate heat, some of which is transferred to the heating device and its load. When the heat transfer reaches its practical limit, the spent combustion gases are removed from the furnace via a flue or stack. At this point, these gases still hold considerable thermal energy. In many systems, this is the greatest single heat loss. The energy efficiency can often be increased by using waste heat gas recovery systems to capture and use some of the energy in the flue gas. For natural gas-based systems, the amount of heat contained in the flue gases as a percentage of the heat input in a heating system can be estimated by using Figure 1. Exhaust gas loss or waste heat depends on flue gas temperature and its mass flow, or in practical terms, excess air resulting from combustion air supply and air leakage into the furnace. The excess air can be estimated by measuring oxygen percentage in the flue gases.

  15. Inverse boundary design of a radiative smelting furnace with ablative phase change phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farzan, H.; Hosseini Sarvari, S.M.; Mansouri, S.H.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • The ablation phenomenon in a reverberatory smelting furnace is simulated numerically. • The results are verified by comparing with exact analytic solution. • Inverse design problem is solved to construct the desired melting rate. • The conjugate gradient method is used to solve the inverse phase change problem. - Abstract: An inverse analysis is employed to control the time rate of heaters in a 2-D smelting furnace to provide the specified radiative heat flux across the design surface to establish a desired melting rate. The design surface in the smelting furnace is the melting surface of the metal concentrate bank, and the melting process is considered to occur as an ablation phenomenon. The net radiation method is used to determine the radiation exchange between the elements of the furnace surfaces and the melting surface. The conjugate gradient method is employed to minimize the objective function, which is the sum of square residuals between the estimated and the desired heat fluxes over the design surface. It is shown that the proposed inverse technique is reliable and accurate for predicting the heater power distribution.

  16. Nitric-glycolic flowsheet evaluation with the slurry-fed melt rate furnace

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, M. S. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Miller, D. H. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Fowley, M. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Zamecnik, J. R. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-03-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was tasked to support validation of the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter offgas flammability model for the nitric-glycolic (NG) flowsheet. The work supports Deliverable 4 of the DWPF & Saltstone Facility Engineering Technical Task Request (TTR)1 and is supplemental to the Cold Cap Evaluation Furnace (CEF) testing conducted in 2014.2 The Slurry-fed Melt Rate Furnace (SMRF) was selected for the supplemental testing as it requires significantly less resources than the CEF and could provide a tool for more rapid analysis of melter feeds in the future. The SMRF platform has been used previously to evaluate melt rate behavior of DWPF glasses, but was modified to accommodate analysis of the offgas stream. Additionally, the Melt Rate Furnace (MRF) and Quartz Melt Rate Furnace (QMRF) were utilized for evaluations. MRF data was used exclusively for melt behavior observations and REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) prediction comparisons and will be briefly discussed in conjunction with its support of the SMRF testing. The QMRF was operated similarly to the SMRF for the same TTR task, but will be discussed in a separate future report. The overall objectives of the SMRF testing were to; 1) Evaluate the efficacy of the SMRF as a platform for steady state melter testing with continuous feeding and offgas analysis; and 2) Generate supplemental melter offgas flammability data to support the melter offgas flammability modelling effort for DWPF implementation of the NG flowsheet.

  17. suitability of electric arc furnace (eaf) slag as partial replacement for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    The use of Electric Arc Furnace (EAF) Slag which is a by-product solid waste in Steel Production was investigated for use as a partial replacement for cement in sandcrete blocks. The tests carried out on cement and finely ground slag to determine their compositions and physico-chemical properties as well as the evaluation ...

  18. Effect of small glass composition changes on flue gas emissions of glass furnaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Limpt, J.A.C. van; Beerkens, R.G.C.; Kersbergen, M.J. van

    2008-01-01

    Relatively small changes in glass composition might have drastic consequences on the evaporation rates of volatile glass components in glass melting furnaces. Transpiration evaporation tests have been applied to measure the impact of minor glass composition changes on the evaporation rates of

  19. Innovation based on tradition : Blast furnace slag cement for durable concrete structures in Norway?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, R.B.; Nijland, T.; De Rooij, M.; Larsen, C.K.; Pedersen, B.

    2014-01-01

    Blast furnace slag cement (BFSC) has been used to build reinforced concrete structures in marine and road environment in The Netherlands for nearly a century. The experience is good and structures with long service lives can be obtained, as has been shown by several field studies. This is caused by

  20. Development of engineered cementitious composites with limestone powder and blast furnace slag

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhou, J.; Qian, S.; Sierra Beltran, M.G.; Ye, G.; Van Breugel, K.; Li, V.C.

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays limestone powder and blast furnace slag (BFS) are widely used in concrete as blended materials in cement. The replacement of Portland cement by limestone powder and BFS can lower the cost and enhance the greenness of concrete, since the production of these two materials needs less energy