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Sample records for residential monitoring studies

  1. Residential Indoor Temperature Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Booten, Chuck [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Robertson, Joseph [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, Dane [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Heaney, Mike [Arrow Electronics, Centennial, CO (United States); Brown, David [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Norton, Paul [Norton Energy Research and Development, Boulder, CO (United States); Smith, Chris [Ingersoll-Rand Corp., Dublin (Ireland)

    2017-04-07

    In this study, we are adding to the body of knowledge around answering the question: What are good assumptions for HVAC set points in U.S. homes? We collected and analyzed indoor temperature data from US homes using funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America (BA) program, due to the program's reliance on accurate energy simulation of homes. Simulations are used to set Building America goals, predict the impact of new building techniques and technologies, inform research objectives, evaluate home performance, optimize efficiency packages to meet savings goals, customize savings approaches to specific climate zones, and myriad other uses.

  2. Residential ventilation standards scoping study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, Thomas E.; Sherman, Max H.

    2003-10-01

    The goals of this scoping study are to identify research needed to develop improved ventilation standards for California's Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards. The 2008 Title 24 Standards are the primary target for the outcome of this research, but this scoping study is not limited to that timeframe. We prepared this scoping study to provide the California Energy Commission with broad and flexible options for developing a research plan to advance the standards. This document presents the findings of a scoping study commissioned by the Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) program of the California Energy Commission to determine what research is necessary to develop new residential ventilation requirements for California. This study is one of three companion efforts needed to complete the job of determining the ventilation needs of California residences, determining the bases for setting residential ventilation requirements, and determining appropriate ventilation technologies to meet these needs and requirements in an energy efficient manner. Rather than providing research results, this scoping study identifies important research questions along with the level of effort necessary to address these questions and the costs, risks, and benefits of pursuing alternative research questions. In approaching these questions and corresponding levels of effort, feasibility and timing were important considerations. The Commission has specified Summer 2005 as the latest date for completing this research in time to update the 2008 version of California's Energy Code (Title 24).

  3. Monitoring lead in hair of children and adolescents of Alcalá de Henares, Spain. A study by gender and residential areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peña-Fernández, A; Lobo-Bedmar, M C; González-Muñoz, M J

    2014-11-01

    In recent years there has been an increased interest from the European Union (EU) in the development of large Human Bio-monitoring (HBM) studies across Europe, especially biomonitoring toxic metals. In Spain, most studies using hair as a biomarker have been conducted to determine occupational or industrial exposures, and have involved adult populations. Few studies have involved adolescents and children, despite these groups being sensitive to environmental contamination and pollutants. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to determine the degree of lead exposure in children and adolescents residing in Alcalá de Henares, Spain. Lead poisoning is the number one toxicological threat in the environment. So, lead (Pb) was selected as it is a persistent environmental contaminant, is measureable and is also a neurotoxin that can affect brain development. The city of Alcalá de Henares was divided into four zones to determine the influence of residence area on Pb levels. A range of other variables including age and gender were also considered within the study. The study comprised 115 children (6-9 years old) and 96 adolescents (13-16 years old). There was a significant difference between the levels of Pb in the hair of adolescents, for different gender and area of residence (p<0.001 and p<0.01 respectively). There was no significant difference in the Pb levels in hair of children, for different gender or area of the city. The levels of Pb were significantly (p<0.001) elevated in children compared to adolescents (1.48 vs. 0.70 μg/g), and there was a significant difference in Pb levels in male and female adolescent hair (0.53 vs. 0.77 μg/g) (p<0.001). The association observed between areas of residence and the Pb level in hair of the adolescent group could be mainly attributed to dietary habits and/or socioeconomic status. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Demand of elderly people for residential care: an exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bilsen, P.; Hamers, J.; Groot, W.; Spreeuwenberg, C.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Because of the rapid aging population, the demand for residential care exceeds availability. This paper presents the results of a study that focuses on the demand of elderly people for residential care and determinants (elderly people's personal characteristics, needs and resources) that

  5. Residential radon daughter monitor based on alpha spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nazaroff, W.W.

    1980-05-01

    The radioactive daughters of radon-222 pose a serious indoor air quality problem in some circumstances. A technique for measuring the concentrations of these radioisotopes in air is presented. The method involves drawing air through a filter; then, for two time intervals after sampling, counting the alpha decays from polonium-218 and polonium-214 on the filter. The time intervals are optimized to yield the maximum resolution between the individual daughter concentrations. For a total measurement time of 50 minutes, individual daughter concentrations of 1.0 nanocuries per cubic meter are measured with an uncertainty of 20%. A prototype of a field monitor based on this technique is described, as is a field test in which the prototype was used to measure radon daughter concentrations as a function of ventilation conditions in an energy-efficient house.

  6. Comparisons of traffic-related ultrafine particle number concentrations measured in two urban areas by central, residential, and mobile monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Matthew C.; Hudda, Neelakshi; Naumova, Elena N.; Levy, Jonathan I.; Brugge, Doug; Durant, John L.

    2017-11-01

    Traffic-related ultrafine particles (UFP; urban air. While studies have shown that UFP are toxic, epidemiological evidence of health effects, which is needed to inform risk assessment at the population scale, is limited due to challenges of accurately estimating UFP exposures. Epidemiologic studies often use empirical models to estimate UFP exposures; however, the monitoring strategies upon which the models are based have varied between studies. Our study compares particle number concentrations (PNC; a proxy for UFP) measured by three different monitoring approaches (central-site, short-term residential-site, and mobile on-road monitoring) in two study areas in metropolitan Boston (MA, USA). Our objectives were to quantify ambient PNC differences between the three monitoring platforms, compare the temporal patterns and the spatial heterogeneity of PNC between the monitoring platforms, and identify factors that affect correlations across the platforms. We collected >12,000 h of measurements at the central sites, 1000 h of measurements at each of 20 residential sites in the two study areas, and >120 h of mobile measurements over the course of ∼1 year in each study area. Our results show differences between the monitoring strategies: mean 1 min PNC on-roads were higher (64,000 and 32,000 particles/cm3 in Boston and Chelsea, respectively) compared to central-site measurements (23,000 and 19,000 particles/cm3) and both were higher than at residences (14,000 and 15,000 particles/cm3). Temporal correlations and spatial heterogeneity also differed between the platforms. Temporal correlations were generally highest between central and residential sites, and lowest between central-site and on-road measurements. We observed the greatest spatial heterogeneity across monitoring platforms during the morning rush hours (06:00-09:00) and the lowest during the overnight hours (18:00-06:00). Longer averaging times (days and hours vs. minutes) increased temporal correlations

  7. Residential area streetlight intelligent monitoring management system based on ZigBee and GPRS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Guozhuang; Xu, Xiaoyu

    2017-05-01

    According to current situation of green environmental protection lighting policy and traditional residential lighting system automation degree, low energy efficiency, difficult to management and other problems, the residential area streetlight monitoring management system based on ZigBee and GPRS is proposed. This design is put forward by using sensor technology, ZigBee and GPRS wireless communication technology network. To realize intelligent lighting parameters adjustment, coordination control method of various kinds of sensors is used. The system through multiple ZigBee nodes topology network to collect street light's information, each subnet through the ZigBee coordinator and GPRS network to transmit data. The street lamps can be put on or off, or be adjusted the brightness automatic ally according to the surrounding environmental illumination.

  8. Human and organisational aspects of remote patient monitoring in residential care homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratan, Tanja; Choudrie, Jyoti; Clarke, Malcolm; Jones, Russell

    2007-01-01

    Demographic changes in the population, with a growing proportion of elderly people, make the efficient and effective provision of healthcare for this age group an increasingly important issue. We examine the organisational and human aspects of introducing a Remote Patient Monitoring (RPM) system that uses wireless and broadband networks into three residential care homes in the UK. Stakeholders were identified, and semi-structured one-to-one interviews were carried out in order to identify issues deemed most important to each group. The work is novel, as it requires examination of the issues of communication between healthcare workers in several primary and secondary care organisations. The key finding was the need to identify the changes in working practice and interpersonal communication. A key factor in particular was the change in relationships: staff in the remote centre needing to learn to seek support when reporting and requesting assistance for a problem; and for the staff at the health centres to respond appropriately.

  9. Planning meeting combined analysis, North America residential radon studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    This report describes the Third International Department of Energy/ Commission of European Communities Workshop on Residential Radon Epidemiology held in February 1995 in Baltimore, MD. This culminates a major effort begun 1988, co-sponsored by the DOE and the CEC Radiation Protection Programme to identify and bring together all those scientists worldwide performing epidemiological case control studies of residential radon and lung cancer. Two prior meetings were held in 1989 and 1991. The goal of this effort is to work with the investigators and to pool these studies to increase their limited statistical power and to maximize any information that could be gained from them. That goal has now been met. At this Workshop the task moved from planning and agreement to implementation, as many of the studies were finally being completed and published. This report provides a summary of the Workshop as well as that of the first implementation workgroup meeting hosted by Health Canada. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  10. Residential traffic noise exposure and vestibular schwannoma - a Danish case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roswall, Nina; Stangerup, Sven-Eric; Cayé-Thomasen, Per

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few risk factors for sporadic vestibular schwannoma (VS) are known. Several studies have proposed an increased risk with occupational noise exposure, whereas no studies have investigated residential traffic noise exposure as a risk factor. The present study investigated if residential...

  11. A One Year Study of Mode Deactivation Therapy: Adolescent Residential Patients with Conduct and Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Christopher J.; Siv, Alexander M.

    2011-01-01

    This case study is to evaluate the effectiveness of Mode Deactivation Therapy (MDT) implementation in a child and adolescent residential treatment unit and provide preliminary effectiveness data on MDT versus treatment as usual (TAU). This case study compared the efficacy of two treatment methodologies for adolescent males in residential treatment…

  12. Residential radon and COPD. An ecological study in Galicia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa-Lorenzo, Raquel; Ruano-Ravina, Alberto; Ramis, Rebeca; Aragonés, Nuria; Kelsey, Karl T; Carballeira-Roca, Consuelo; Fernández-Villar, Alberto; López-Abente, Gonzalo; Barros-Dios, Juan M

    2017-02-01

    Radon is a human lung carcinogen but it might be linked with other respiratory diseases. We aimed to assess the relationship between residential radon exposure and COPD (chronic obstructive pulmonary disease) prevalence and hospital admissions at a municipal level. We designed an ecological study where we included those municipalities with at least three radon measurements. Using mixed Poisson regression models, we calculated the relative risk (RR) for COPD for each 100 Bq/m 3 of increase in radon concentration and also the relative risk for COPD using a cut-off point of 50 Bq/m 3 . We did not have individual data on cigarette smoking and therefore we used a proxy (bladder cancer standardized mortality rate) that has proved to account for tobacco consumption. We performed separate analyses for sex and also sensitivity analysis considering age and rurality. A total of 3040 radon measurements and 49,393 COPD cases were included. The relative risk for COPD prevalence was 0.95 (95% CI: 0.92-0.97) while for hospital admissions the RR was 1.04 (95% CI: 1.00-1.10) for each 100 Bq/m 3 . Relative risks were higher for women compared to men. Using a categorical analysis with a cut-off point of 50 Bq/m 3 , the RR for COPD prevalence was 1.06 (95% CI: 1.02-1.10) and for hospital admissions it was 1.08 (95% CI: 1.00-1.17) for women living in municipalities with more than 50 Bq/m 3 . All risks were also higher for women. No relevant differences were observed for age, rurality or other categories for radon exposure. While the influence of radon on COPD prevalence is unclear depending on the approach used, it seems that residential radon might increase the risk of hospital admissions in COPD patients. Women have a higher risk than men in all situations. Since this is an ecological study, results should be interpreted cautiously.

  13. Forecasting energy consumption of multi-family residential buildings using support vector regression: Investigating the impact of temporal and spatial monitoring granularity on performance accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Rishee K.; Smith, Kevin M.; Culligan, Patricia J.; Taylor, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We develop a building energy forecasting model using support vector regression. • Model is applied to data from a multi-family residential building in New York City. • We extend sensor based energy forecasting to multi-family residential buildings. • We examine the impact temporal and spatial granularity has on model accuracy. • Optimal granularity occurs at the by floor in hourly temporal intervals. - Abstract: Buildings are the dominant source of energy consumption and environmental emissions in urban areas. Therefore, the ability to forecast and characterize building energy consumption is vital to implementing urban energy management and efficiency initiatives required to curb emissions. Advances in smart metering technology have enabled researchers to develop “sensor based” approaches to forecast building energy consumption that necessitate less input data than traditional methods. Sensor-based forecasting utilizes machine learning techniques to infer the complex relationships between consumption and influencing variables (e.g., weather, time of day, previous consumption). While sensor-based forecasting has been studied extensively for commercial buildings, there is a paucity of research applying this data-driven approach to the multi-family residential sector. In this paper, we build a sensor-based forecasting model using Support Vector Regression (SVR), a commonly used machine learning technique, and apply it to an empirical data-set from a multi-family residential building in New York City. We expand our study to examine the impact of temporal (i.e., daily, hourly, 10 min intervals) and spatial (i.e., whole building, by floor, by unit) granularity have on the predictive power of our single-step model. Results indicate that sensor based forecasting models can be extended to multi-family residential buildings and that the optimal monitoring granularity occurs at the by floor level in hourly intervals. In addition to implications for

  14. [Residential radon and lung cancer. An ecologic study in Galicia, Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa-Lorenzo, Raquel; Ruano-Ravina, Alberto; Cerdeira Caramés, Sara; Barros-Dios, Juan Miguel

    2015-04-08

    Residential radon is the second cause of lung cancer and the first in never smokers. Galicia is a high radon emission area. The objective of this study is to analyze the relationship between municipal lung cancer mortality and residential radon in Galician municipalities. We performed an ecologic study including 192 municipalities with at least 3 residential radon measurements. The observed number of lung cancer deaths was obtained from the Galician Mortality Registry. Afterwards, we calculated the standardized mortality ratios (SMRs) of lung cancer for males and females for the period comprising 1980-2009. Median municipal residential radon concentrations were correlated with lung cancer SMRs. Median residential radon concentration for the included municipalities was 75 Bq/m(3), with an interquartile range of 40.7 to 154 Bq/m(3). The correlation between lung cancer SMRs and municipal radon concentration was statistically significant for males (P=.023) whereas it did not reach statistical significance for females (P=.087). There exists an association between municipal residential radon and lung cancer mortality in Galicia for males, though for women the association is not statistically significant. These results suggest that residential radon could raise the risk of lung cancer in males, though for females no association is evident. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  15. Overcrowding of Residential Houses in Ethiopia: A Study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Existing housing related evidences attest to the fact that many Ethiopians live in houses that are not conducive for healthy life. This article examines the nature of overcrowding of residential units in Ethiopia using the 2007 Population and Housing Census data supported by literature. Descriptive and multivariate statistical ...

  16. [Methodical problems of monitoring of fine particulate matters in atmospheric air of residential areas].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karelin, A O; Lomtev, A Yu; Mozzhukhina, N A; Yeremin, G B; Nikonov, V A

    Inhalation of fine particulate matters (PM and PM ) poses a threat for the health of population. Purpose of the study the analysis of the monitoring of fine particulate matters in the atmospheric air of Saint-Petersburg and identification of the main problems of the monitoring. Research methods methods of scientific hypothetical deductive cognition, sanitary-statistical methods, general logical methods and approaches of researches: analysis, synthesis, abstracting, generalization, induction. Results. The article represents the analysis of the monitoring of fine particulate matters in the atmospheric air of Saint- Petersburg. Only 11 in automatic monitoring stations out of 22 there is carried out the control of fine particulate matters: in 7 - PM and PM, and in 4 - PM The average year concentrations were below MAC in all the stations. The maximum concentrations achieved 3 MAC, but the repeatance of cases of exceedence of concentrations more than MAC was very rare. On the average of the city concentrations of PM were decreased from 0,8 MAC in 2006 and 1,1 MAC in 2007 to 0,5 MAC in 2013-14. The executed analysis revealed main problems of the monitoring of fine particulate matters in the Russian Federation. They include the absence of the usage 1of the officially approved methods of controlling of PM and PM in the atmospheric air until March 1, 2016, lack of the modern equipment for measurement of fine particulate matters. Conclusions. Therefore, the state of the monitoring of fine particulate matters in the atmospheric air in the Russian Federation fails to be satisfactory. It is necessary to improve system of the monitoring, create modern Russian appliances, methods and means for measurement of fine particulate matters concentrations in the atmospheric air.

  17. Status and challenges of residential and industrial non-intrusive load monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adabi, Ali; Mantey, Patrick; Holmegaard, Emil

    2015-01-01

    in recent years due to improvement in algorithms and methodologies. Currently, the important challenges facing residential NILM are inaccessibility of electricity meter high sampling data, and lack of reliable high resolution datasets. For industrial NILM the identification is more challenging due...

  18. Occupant behaviour related to energy use in the residential sector : results from the Ecommon monitoring campaign

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ioannou, A.; Itard, L.C.M.; Kornaat, Wim; Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    2016-01-01

    Buildings in Europe are the largest end use sector and especially residential buildings account for two thirds of this energy use. Despite the fact that building characteristics play a major role in a dwelling’s energy consumption, occupant characteristics and behaviour significantly affect this

  19. Residential traffic exposure and children's emergency department presentation for asthma: a spatial study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pereira Gavin

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There is increasing evidence that residential proximity to roadways is associated with an elevated risk of asthma exacerbation. However, there is no consensus on the distance at which these health effects diminishes to background levels. Therefore the optimal, clinically relevant measure of exposure remains uncertain. Using four spatially defined exposure metrics, we evaluated the association between residential proximity to roadways and emergency department (ED presentation for asthma in Perth, Western Australia. Method The study population consisted of 1809 children aged between 0 and 19 years who had presented at an ED between 2002 and 2006 and were resident in a south-west metropolitan area of Perth traversed by major motorways. We used a 1:2 matched case-control study with gastroenteritis and upper limb injury as the control conditions. To estimate exposure to traffic emissions, we used 4 contrasting methods and 2 independently derived sources of traffic data (video-monitored traffic counts and those obtained from the state government road authority. The following estimates of traffic exposure were compared: (1 a point pattern method, (2 a distance-weighted traffic exposure method, (3 a simple distance method and (4 a road length method. Results Risk estimates were sensitive to socio-economic gradients and the type of exposure method that was applied. Unexpectedly, a range of apparent protective effects were observed for some exposure metrics. The kernel density measure demonstrated more than a 2-fold (OR 2.51, 95% CI 2.00 - 3.15 increased risk of asthma ED presentation for the high exposure group compared to the low exposure group. Conclusion We assessed exposure using traffic data from 2 independent sources and compared the results of 4 different exposure metric types. The results indicate that traffic congestion may be one of the most important aspects of traffic-related exposures, despite being overlooked in many

  20. Residential radon in Galicia: a cross-sectional study in a radon-prone area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzo-González, María; Ruano-Ravina, Alberto; Peón, Joaquín; Piñeiro, María; Barros-Dios, Juan Miguel

    2017-09-01

    Residential radon exposure is a major public health problem. It is the second greatest cause of lung cancer, after smoking, and the greatest in never-smokers. This study shows the indoor radon exposure distribution in Galicia and estimates the percentage of dwellings exceeding reference levels. It is based on 3245 residential radon measurements obtained from the Galician Radon Map project and from controls of two previous case-control studies on residential radon and lung cancer. Results show a high median residential radon concentration in Galicia (99 Bq m -3 ), with 49.3% of dwellings having a radon concentration above 100 Bq m -3 and 11.1% having a concentration above 300 Bq m -3 . Ourense and Pontevedra, located in South Galicia, are the provinces with the highest median indoor radon concentrations (137 Bq m -3 and 123.5 Bq m -3 , respectively). Results also show lower radon levels in progressively higher building storeys. These high residential radon concentrations confirm Galicia as a radon-prone area. A policy on radon should be developed and implemented in Galicia to minimize the residential radon exposure of the population.

  1. Residential traffic exposure and pregnancy-related outcomes: a prospective birth cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hofman Albert

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The effects of ambient air pollution on pregnancy outcomes are under debate. Previous studies have used different air pollution exposure assessment methods. The considerable traffic-related intra-urban spatial variation needs to be considered in exposure assessment. Residential proximity to traffic is a proxy for traffic-related exposures that takes into account within-city contrasts. Methods We investigated the association between residential proximity to traffic and various birth and pregnancy outcomes in 7,339 pregnant women and their children participating in a population-based cohort study. Residential proximity to traffic was defined as 1 distance-weighted traffic density in a 150 meter radius, and 2 proximity to a major road. We estimated associations of these exposures with birth weight, and with the risks of preterm birth and small size for gestational age at birth. Additionally, we examined associations with pregnancy-induced hypertension, (preeclampsia, and gestational diabetes. Results There was considerable variation in distance-weighted traffic density. Almost fifteen percent of the participants lived within 50 m of a major road. Residential proximity to traffic was not associated with birth and pregnancy outcomes in the main analysis and in various sensitivity analyses. Conclusions Mothers exposed to residential traffic had no higher risk of adverse birth outcomes or pregnancy complications in this study. Future studies may be refined by taking both temporal and spatial variation in air pollution exposure into account.

  2. The contribution of residential coal combustion to the air quality in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH), China: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Li, G.; Junji, C.

    2017-12-01

    In the present study, a persistent heavy haze episode from 13 to 20 January 2014 in Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei (BTH) is simulated using the WRF-CHEM model to evaluate the contribution of residential coal combustion to the air quality. The residential coal used in BTH is replaced by the water-quenched semi-coke with much lower emission factors (EFs) in simulations. The EFs of OC for water-quenched semi-coke (0.12 g kg-1) is 2.42 times lower than that for residential coal used in Beijing-Tianjin (0.29 g kg-1) and 9.17 times in Hebei (1.1 g kg-1). The WRF-CHEM model reasonably well reproduces the spatial distributions and temporal variations of PM2.5 mass concentrations in BTH against the observations over monitoring sites and the temporal variations of aerosol species compared to the AMS measurements in Beijing. On average, the PM2.5 concentration is reduced by around 20 µg m-3 due to the residential coal replacement. Organic aerosols constitute about 62.3% of the PM2.5 reduction in BTH, much higher than the contribution from sulfate (7.0%), nitrate (3.1%), and ammonium (3.1%). In addition, the usage of water-quenched semi-coke in BTH also significantly reduces polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAHs) concentrations by 50-450 ng m-3 on average. Therefore, the usage of water-quenched semi-coke in BTH could considerably reduce the emissions of air pollutants and decrease the PM2.5 level, beneficial to improvement of the air quality in BTH.

  3. Residential Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde; Matsufuji, Y.

    2011-01-01

    are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing residential waste is faced with the problem that many residences already divert some waste away from the official collection systems, for example performing home composting of vegetable waste and garden waste, having their bundled newspaper picked up by the scouts...... twice a year or bringing their used furniture to the flea markets organized by charity clubs. Thus, much of the data available on residential waste represents collected waste and not necessarily all generated waste. The latter can only be characterized by careful studies directly at the source...

  4. Residential heating contribution to level of air pollutants (PAHs, major, trace, and rare earth elements): a moss bag case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuković, Gordana; Aničić Urošević, Mira; Pergal, Miodrag; Janković, Milan; Goryainova, Zoya; Tomašević, Milica; Popović, Aleksandar

    2015-12-01

    In areas with moderate to continental climates, emissions from residential heating system lead to the winter air pollution peaks. The EU legislation requires only the monitoring of airborne concentrations of particulate matter, As, Cd, Hg, Ni, and B[a]P. Transition metals and rare earth elements (REEs) have also arisen questions about their detrimental health effects. In that sense, this study examined the level of extensive set of air pollutants: 16 polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), and 41 major elements, trace elements, and REEs using Sphagnum girgensohnii moss bag technique. During the winter of 2013/2014, the moss bags were exposed across Belgrade (Serbia) to study the influence of residential heating system to the overall air quality. The study was set as an extension to our previous survey during the summer, i.e., non-heating season. Markedly higher concentrations of all PAHs, Sb, Cu, V, Ni, and Zn were observed in the exposed moss in comparison to the initial values. The patterns of the moss REE concentrations normalized to North American Shale Composite and Post-Archean Australian Shales were identical across the study area but enhanced by anthropogenic activities. The results clearly demonstrate the seasonal variations in the moss enrichment of the air pollutants. Moreover, the results point out a need for monitoring of air quality during the whole year, and also of various pollutants, not only those regulated by the EU Directive.

  5. Residential road traffic noise exposure and survival after breast cancer - A cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roswall, Nina; Bidstrup, Pernille Envold; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Jensen, Steen Solvang; Olsen, Anja; Sørensen, Mette

    2016-11-01

    It is generally acknowledged that patients with already existing clinical conditions are especially vulnerable to the effects of traffic noise exposure. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between residential road traffic noise and breast cancer survival. Road traffic noise was calculated for all residential addresses from 1987 to February 2012 for incident breast cancer cases (n=1,759) in a cohort of 57,053 Danes. We used Cox Proportional Hazard Models to investigate the association between residential road traffic noise at different time-windows, and overall and breast cancer-specific mortality. Furthermore, we investigated interaction with prognostic and socioeconomic factors. Mortality Rate Ratios (MRR) were calculated in both unadjusted models, and adjusted for residential railway noise, lifestyle factors and socioeconomic variables. During a median of 7.3 years of follow-up, 402 patients died; 274 from breast cancer. We found no association between time-weighted averages of residential road traffic noise 1-, 3- or 5-years before death, or over the entire follow-up period, and overall or breast cancer-specific mortality. A 10dB higher road traffic noise from diagnosis until censoring was associated with an adjusted MRR of 0.94 (0.81-1.08) for all-cause mortality. The association was modified by lymph node involvement, with a MRR of 1.20 (0.97-1.48) for those with tumor-positive lymph nodes and 0.76 (0.59-0.98) for those without. The present study suggests no association between residential road traffic noise and concurrent mortality. As it is the first study of its kind, with relatively limited power, further studies are warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Residential traffic noise exposure and vestibular schwannoma - a Danish case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roswall, Nina; Stangerup, Sven-Eric; Cayé-Thomasen, Per; Schüz, Joachim; Johansen, Christoffer; Jensen, Steen Solvang; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Sørensen, Mette

    2017-10-01

    Few risk factors for sporadic vestibular schwannoma (VS) are known. Several studies have proposed an increased risk with occupational noise exposure, whereas no studies have investigated residential traffic noise exposure as a risk factor. The present study investigated if residential traffic noise was associated with vestibular schwannoma in a large, population-based Danish case-control study. We identified 1454 VS cases, age above 30 years at diagnosis, between 1990 and 2007. For each case, we selected two random population controls, matched on sex and year of birth. Road and railway traffic noise at the residence was calculated for all present and historical addresses between 1987 and index date. Associations between traffic noise and risk for VS were estimated using conditional logistic regression, adjusted for education, disposable personal income, cohabitation status, railway noise exposure, municipal population density, and municipal income. A two-year time-weighted mean road traffic noise exposure was associated with an adjusted odds ratio of 0.92 (0.82-1.03) for developing VS, per 10 dB increment. There was no clear trend in categorical analyses. Similarly, linear and categorical analyses of residential railway noise did not suggest an association. We found no interaction with demographics, year of diagnosis, individual and municipal socioeconomic variables, and railway noise exposure. The results did not differ by tumor side, spread or size. The present study does not suggest an association between residential traffic noise and VS.

  7. Monitored performance of residential geothermal heat pumps in central Texas and Southern Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, W.N.

    1997-11-01

    This report summarizes measured performance of residential geothermal heat pumps (GHP`s) that were installed in family housing units at Ft. Hood, Texas and at Selfridge Air National Guard base in Michigan. These units were built as part of a joint Department of Defense/Department of Energy program to evaluate the energy savings potential of GHP`s installed at military facilities. At the Ft. Hood site, the GHP performance was compared to conventional forced air electric air conditioning and natural gas heating. At Selfridge, the homes under test were originally equipped with electric baseboard heat and no air conditioning. Installation of the GHP systems at both sites was straightforward but more problems and costs were incurred at Selfridge because of the need to install ductwork in the homes. The GHP`s at both sites produced impressive energy savings. These savings approached 40% for most of the homes tested. The low cost of energy on these bases relative to the incremental cost of the GHP conversions precludes rapid payback of the GHP`s from energy savings alone. Estimates based on simple payback (no inflation and no interest on capital) indicated payback times from 15 to 20 years at both sites. These payback times may be reduced by considering the additional savings possible due to reduced maintenance costs. Results are summarized in terms of 15 minute, hourly, monthly, and annual performance parameters. The results indicate that all the systems were working properly but several design shortcomings were identified. Recommendations are made for improvements in future installations at both sites.

  8. Residential traffic exposure and pregnancy-related outcomes: A prospective birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooven, E.H. van den; Jaddoe, V.W.; Kluizenaar, Y. de; Hofman, A.; MacKenbach, J.P.; Steegers, E.A.; Miedema, H.M.; Pierik, F.H.

    2009-01-01

    Background. The effects of ambient air pollution on pregnancy outcomes are under debate. Previous studies have used different air pollution exposure assessment methods. The considerable traffic-related intra-urban spatial variation needs to be considered in exposure assessment. Residential proximity

  9. Increasing First-Semester Student Engagement: A Residential Community Retention Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briggs, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to increase first year residential student engagement and participation in residence hall programs during the 2011 fall semester at the Downtown Phoenix Campus of Arizona State University. Six upperclassmen (Taylor Place Leaders) residing in a residence hall (Taylor Place) were matched by academic major with 17 first…

  10. An Empirical Typology of Residential Care/Assisted Living Based on a Four-State Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Nan Sook; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Sloane, Philip D.; Gruber-Baldini, Ann L.; Eckert, J. Kevin

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: Residential care/assisted living describes diverse facilities providing non-nursing home care to a heterogeneous group of primarily elderly residents. This article derives typologies of assisted living based on theoretically and practically grounded evidence. Design and Methods: We obtained data from the Collaborative Studies of Long-Term…

  11. An Ethnographic Study of Stigma and Ageism in Residential Care or Assisted Living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, Debra; Eckert, J. Kevin; Rubinstein, Bob; Keimig, Lynn; Clark, Leanne; Frankowski, Ann Christine; Zimmerman, Sheryl

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This study explored aspects of stigmatization for older adults who live in residential care or assisted living (RC-AL) communities and what these settings have done to address stigma. Design and Methods: We used ethnography and other qualitative data-gathering and analytic techniques to gather data from 309 participants (residents, family…

  12. A Case Study in Market Transformation for Residential Energy Efficiency Programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Building Technologies Office

    2017-09-01

    This case study describes how the Midwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (MEEA) partnered with gas and electric utilities in Iowa to establish the Iowa residential heating, ventilation, and air conditioning System Adjustment and Verified Efficiency (HVAC SAVE) program, taking it to scale improving the performance and energy efficiency of HVAC systems, growing businesses, and gaining consumer trust.

  13. Feasibility study and roadmap to improve residential hot water distribution systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lutz, James D.

    2004-03-31

    Residential building practice currently ignores the losses of energy and water caused by the poor design of hot water systems. These losses include: the waste of water while waiting for hot water to get to the point of use; the wasted heat as water cools down in the distribution system after a draw; and the energy to reheat water that was already heated once before. A feasibility study and an action plan for a proposed research project involving residential hot water distribution systems is being developed. The feasibility study will use past work to estimate of hot water and energy loses caused by current hot water distribution systems in residences. Proposed research project, or roadmap, will develop recommendations for improvements to residential hot water distribution systems. The roadmap addresses the technical obstacles and gaps in our knowledge that prevent water and energy reductions and market adoption of water- and energy-efficient technologies. The initial results of the feasibility study are presented here along with a discussion of a roadmap to improve the efficiency of residential hot water distribution systems.

  14. Residential environmental education meeting teachers' science needs and beyond: A Bradford Woods case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gatzke, Jenna M.

    With the continued increase of environmental problems facing the world, the need for environmental education (EE) is greater than ever before. Residential EE centers offer unique opportunities that have the potential to increase EE in student education. The purpose of this study was to explore classroom teachers’ understandings and ideas about and what role residential EE programming and curricula play in their classroom curriculum. Using an embedded mixed methods instrumental case study design, this study worked with 58 classroom teachers attending Bradford Woods, a residential EE center. Data collection sources included an on-line survey, on-site trail observations, and semi-structured phone interviews. Results of the study indicated that teachers found multiple meanings in EE, relating the field to being about, from and in, and for the environment. Residential EE centers were seen to provide both social and academic benefits for students as well as to challenge teachers to take on new and varying roles. Results also linked connections between teachers’ values, beliefs and knowledge to their use of EE in their curriculum. Discussion and implications of the study focus on what overarching findings have been gained from the founding literature base. These findings include a detailed look at the complex role of the teacher in EE programming settings and a discussion on what little has changed in our understandings of the EE, residential EE center, and classroom milieu over the past few decades. Suggestions for future research are outlined based on these overarching findings. Finally, limitations of the study and main contributions to the research base are also presented.

  15. Residential Radon Exposure and Risk of Lung Cancer in Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    A case-control study of lung cancer and residential radon exposure in which investigators carried out both standard year-long air measurements and CR-39 alpha detector measurements (call surface monitors)

  16. Residential Treatment Following Outpatient Treatment for Children with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disabilities: A Study of Child and Family Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Embregts, Petri J. C. M.

    2009-01-01

    In this study, the question was explored whether children with a mild intellectual disability (MID) who were placed in residential treatment following outpatient treatment differ significantly on child and family characteristics from children with MID and not placed in residential treatment following outpatient treatment. The records of the…

  17. Analysis Thermal Comfort Condition in Complex Residential Building, Case Study: Chiangmai, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juangjandee, Warangkana

    2017-10-01

    Due to the increasing need for complex residential buildings, it appears that people migrate into the high-density urban areas because the infrastructural facilities can be easily found in the modern metropolitan areas. Such rapid growth of urbanization creates congested residential buildings obstructing solar radiation and wind flow, whereas most urban residents spend 80-90% of their time indoor. Furthermore, the buildings were mostly built with average materials and construction detail. This causes high humidity condition for tenants that could promote mould growth. This study aims to analyse thermal comfort condition in complex residential building, Thailand for finding the passive solution to improve indoor air quality and respond to local conditions. The research methodology will be in two folds: 1) surveying on case study 2) analysis for finding the passive solution of reducing humidity indoor air The result of the survey indicated that the building need to find passive solution for solving humidity problem, that can be divided into two ways which raising ventilation and indoor temperature including increasing wind-flow ventilation and adjusting thermal temperature, for example; improving building design and stack driven ventilation. For raising indoor temperature or increasing mean radiant temperature, daylight can be passive solution for complex residential design for reducing humidity and enhance illumination indoor space simultaneous.

  18. Residential road traffic noise exposure and colorectal cancer survival - A Danish cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roswall, Nina; Bidstrup, Pernille Envold; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Solvang Jensen, Steen; Overvad, Kim; Halkjær, Jytte; Sørensen, Mette

    2017-01-01

    Residential traffic noise exposure may entail sleep disruption and compromised circadian functioning; two factors which have been associated with a poor colorectal cancer (CRC) prognosis. Hence, the aim of the present study was to investigate the association between residential road traffic noise and CRC survival. Road traffic noise was calculated for all residential addresses from 1987 to February 2012 for incident CRC cases (n = 1,234) in a cohort of 57,053 Danes. We used Cox Proportional Hazard Models to investigate the association between residential road traffic noise at different time-windows, and overall and CRC-specific mortality. Furthermore, we investigated interaction with sex, age, prognostic factors, and comorbidity. Mortality Rate Ratios (MRR) were calculated in unadjusted models, and adjusted for railway noise, lifestyle factors, and socioeconomic variables. During a median follow-up of 4 years, 594 patients died; 447 from CRC. We found no association between road traffic noise exposure and overall (MRR 1.00 (0.88-1.13) per 10 dB) or CRC-specific mortality (MRR 0.98 (0.85-1.13) per 10 dB) over the entire follow-up period, or 1 year preceding death. Results did not differ when examining colon and rectal cancer separately. Interaction analyses suggested that patients with less clinically advanced disease could be more susceptible to harmful effects of traffic noise. The present study suggests no overall association between residential road traffic noise and concurrent mortality in CRC patients. As it is the first study of its kind, with relatively limited power, further studies are warranted.

  19. National estimation of children in residential care institutions in Cambodia: a modelling study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stark, Lindsay; Rubenstein, Beth L; Pak, Kimchoeun; Kosal, Sok

    2017-01-16

    The primary objective of this study was to collect baseline data on the number of children living in residential care institutions in Cambodia. The secondary objective was to describe the characteristics of the children (eg, age, sex, duration of stay, education and health). The data were intended to guide recent efforts by the Government of Cambodia to reduce the number of children living in residential care institutions and increase the number of children growing up in supportive family environments. Data were collected in Cambodia across 24 sites at the commune level. Communes-administrative divisions roughly equivalent to counties-were selected by the National Institute of Statistics using a two-stage sampling method. Government lists and key informant interviews were used to construct a complete roster of institutions across the 24 communes. All identified institutions were visited to count the number of children and gather data on their basic characteristics. The rate of children in residential care in the selected communes was calculated as a percentage of total population using a Poisson model. This rate was applied to all districts in Cambodia with at least one reported residential care institution. A total of 3588 children were counted across 122 institutions. A child living in a residential care institution was defined as anyone under the age of 18 years who was sleeping in the institution for at least four nights per week during the data collection period. There are an estimated 48 775 children living in residential care institutions in Cambodia. The vast majority of children have a living parent and are school-aged. More than half are between 13 and 17 years of age. Nearly 1 of every 100 children in Cambodia is living in residential care. This raises substantial concerns for child health, protection and national development. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go

  20. Studying the Infleunce of Burning Fireworks on Air Quality and Human Health in a Residential Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kota, S. H.; Garaga, R.

    2016-12-01

    India observes Diwali as the celebration of lights, which fully brightens the nation with its splendour, and amazes all with its happiness. To understand the impact of fireworks on air quality and human health, a ten-day short term study was conducted in one of the residential colleges in North-East India. The PM10 concentration during fireworks was 311µg/m3, which was 81% higher than a normal day. Additionally, ambient noise level measured during fireworks day was found to be 101 dB, which was 65% higher than a normal day's mean noise level. SO42-, NO3-, Cl-, F-, Na+, Ca2+, NH4+, K+, Zn, Fe, Cd, Co, Ni and Sr increased by 1.29, 0.51, 0.48, 1.08, 0.6, 0.54, 1.79, 1.43, 1.72, 0.34, 0.42, 0.82, 0.56, 0.17 times respectively, on fireworks compared to a normal day. Additionally, microorganisms decreased by 40% to the concentration of CFU/m3, on fireworks day. This implies that the fireworks burning inhibit the growth of microbial activity. The source apportionment studies carried out using principal component analysis revealed five factors related to fireworks, construction activities, biomass burning, vehicle emission and industries. The average number of patients in the hospital increased three folds, evidently signifying the negative impact of fireworks on human health. Patients suffering from cough, sneezing, headache and nasal congestion increased by 64, 69, 65 and 82%, respectively. This study stresses the importance of regulated and monitored practice of burning of fireworks in regions with high population density.

  1. Nursing staff work patterns in a residential aged care home: a time-motion study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Siyu; Yu, Ping; Hailey, David

    2016-11-01

    Objective Residential aged care services are challenged by an increasing number of residents and a shortage of nursing staff. Developing strategies to overcome this challenge requires an understanding of nursing staff work patterns. The aim of the present study was to investigate the work processes followed by nursing staff and how nursing time is allocated in a residential aged care home. Methods An observational time-motion study was conducted at two aged care units for 12 morning shifts. Seven nurses were observed, one per shift. Results In all, there were 91h of observation. The results showed that there was a common work process followed by all nurse participants. Medication administration, documentation and verbal communication were the most time-consuming activities and were conducted most frequently. No significant difference between the two units was found in any category of activities. The average duration of most activities was less than 1min. There was no difference in time utilisation between the endorsed enrolled nurses and the personal carers in providing nursing care. Conclusion Medication administration, documentation and verbal communication were the major tasks in morning shifts in a residential aged care home. Future research can investigate how verbal communication supports nursing care. What is known about the topic? The aging population will substantially increase the demand for residential aged care services. There is a lack of research on nurses' work patterns in residential aged care homes. What does this paper add? The present study provides a comprehensive understanding of nurses' work patterns in a residential aged care home. There is a common work process followed by nurses in providing nursing care. Medication administration, verbal communication and documentation are the most time-consuming activities and they are frequently conducted in the same period of time. Wound care, physical review and documentation on desktop computers are

  2. Residential Lighting End-Use Consumption Study: Estimation Framework and Initial Estimates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gifford, Will R.; Goldberg, Miriam L.; Tanimoto, Paulo M.; Celnicker, Dane R.; Poplawski, Michael E.

    2012-12-01

    The U.S. DOE Residential Lighting End-Use Consumption Study is an initiative of the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Solid-State Lighting Program that aims to improve the understanding of lighting energy usage in residential dwellings. The study has developed a regional estimation framework within a national sample design that allows for the estimation of lamp usage and energy consumption 1) nationally and by region of the United States, 2) by certain household characteristics, 3) by location within the home, 4) by certain lamp characteristics, and 5) by certain categorical cross-classifications (e.g., by dwelling type AND lamp type or fixture type AND control type).

  3. Modeling of Residential Water Demand Using Random Effect Model,Case Study: Arak City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Hossein Sajadifar

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The present study tries to apply the “Partial Adjustment Model” and “Random Effect Model” techniques to the Stone-Greay’s linear expenditure system, in order to estimate the "Residential Seasonal Demand" for water in Arak city. Per capita water consumption of family residences is regressed on marginal price, per capita income, price of other goods, average temperature and average rainfall. Panel data approaches based on a sample of 152 observations from Arak city referred to 1993-2003. From the estimation of the Elasticity-price of the residential water demand, we want to know how a policy of responsive pricing can lead to more efficient household water consumption inArakcity. Results also indicated that summer price elasticity was twice the winter and price and income elasticity was less than 1 in all cases.

  4. Impacts and consequences of residential segregation of Roma in urban spaces: Case studies from Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenö Zsolt Farkas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores residential segregation and its characteristics in medium-sized and small towns in the Southern Great Plain statistical region of Hungary. The study highlights the main features and driving forces of segregation connected to post-communist urban development. We are approaching this from the perspective of the following questions: How are segregation processes connected to ethnic issues and living conditions? What can the local government do to solve this problem? The article concludes that residential segregation is a frequent phenomenon in Hungarian agro-towns. These processes share some similarities but also differ to some degree from western European or US examples. The results emphasise the importance of complex thinking about social integration, local planning and more effective financial allocation.

  5. Residential radon exposure and lung cancer risk in Misasa, Japan. A case-control study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sobue, Tomotaka; Lee, Valerie S.; Ye, Weimin; Tanooka, Hiroshi; Mifune, Masaaki; Suyama, Akihiko; Koga, Taeko; Morishima, Hiroshige; Kondo, Sohei

    2000-01-01

    In order to investigate an association between residential radon exposure and risk of lung cancer, a case-control study was conducted in Misasa Town, Tottori Prefecture, Japan. The case series consisted of 28 people who had died of lung cancer in the years 1976-96 and 36 controls chosen randomly from the residents in 1976, matched by sex and year of birth. Individual residential radon concentrations were measured for 1 year with alpha track detectors. The average radon concentration was 46 Bq/m 3 for cases and 51 Bq/m 3 for controls. Compared to the level of 24 or less Bq/m 3 , the adjusted odds ratios of lung cancer associated with radon levels of 25-49, 50-99 and 100 or more Bq/m 3 , were 1.13 (95% confidence interval; 0.29-4.40), 1.23 (0.16-9.39) and 0.25 (0.03-2.33), respectively. None of the estimates showed statistical significance, due to small sample size. When the subjects were limited to only include residents of more than 30 years, the estimates did not change substantially. This study did not find that the risk pattern of lung cancer, possibly associated with residential radon exposure, in Misasa Town differed from patterns observed in other countries. (author)

  6. Measuring the Externality Effects of Commercial Land Use on Residential Land Value: A Case Study of Seoul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Jin Yang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Two contrasting theories purport to explain the effects of neighborhood non-residential use on residential property values. In traditional zoning theory, separating land from commercial land use is considered to protect residential environments from negative externalities such as noise, litter, and congestion. By contrast, contemporary planning principles including Smart Growth emphasize positive impacts of mixed land use on residential environment, which lead to more walkable and sustainable communities. This study attempts to empirically investigate how positive and negative externalities of commercial land use, referred to as “proximity effects” and “disamenity effects” respectively, affect residential land values. Using data gathered in Seoul, we pay attention to two particular aspects of commercial land use: spatial concentration and neighborhood scale. Spatial concentration is determined by the number of commercial employees present in the buffer zone around an individual residential parcel. We model four geographically distinct neighborhood scales as we compare spatial concentrations in and across commercial zones. Quadratic regression analyses of our data show the trade-off relationship that a higher spatial concentration of commercial land use in a neighborhood initially results in increased residential land values, but drops off beyond a threshold level by excessive noise or crowding.

  7. Modeling future demand for energy resources: A study of residential electricity usage in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilagupta, Prapassara

    1999-12-01

    Thailand has a critical need for effective long-term energy planning because of the country's rapidly increasing energy consumption. In this study, the demand for electricity by the residential sector is modeled using a framework that provides detailed estimates of the timing and spatial distribution of changes in energy demand. A population model was developed based on the Cohort-Component method to provide estimates of population by age, sex and urban/non-urban residency in each province. A residential electricity end user model was developed to estimate future electricity usage in urban and non-urban households of the seventy-six provinces in Thailand during the period 1999--2019. Key variables in this model include population, the number of households, family household size, and characteristics of eleven types of electric household appliance such as usage intensity, input power, and saturation rate. The methodology employed in this study is a trending method which utilizes expert opinion to estimate future variables based on a percentage change from the most current value. This study shows that from 1994 to 2019 Thailand will experience an increase in population from 55.4 to 83.6 million. Large percentage population increases will take place in Bangkok, Nonthaburi, Samut Prakarn, Nakhon Pathom and Chonburi. At a national level, the residential electricity consumption will increase from approximately 19,000 to 8 1,000 GWh annually. Consumption in non-urban households will be larger than in urban households, with respective annual increases of 8.0% and 6.2% in 2019. The percent increase of the average annual electricity consumption will be four times the average annual percent population increase. Increased electricity demand is largely a function of increased population and increased demand for high-energy appliances such as air conditioners. In 1994, air conditioning was responsible for xx% of total residential electricity demand. This study estimates that in

  8. Case-control study of maternal residential atrazine exposure and male genital malformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agopian, A J; Lupo, Philip J; Canfield, Mark A; Langlois, Peter H

    2013-05-01

    Exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals has been associated with risk for male genital malformations. However, residential prenatal exposure to atrazine, an endocrine disrupting pesticide, has not been evaluated. We obtained data from the Texas Birth Defects Registry for 16,433 cases with isolated male genital malformations and randomly selected, population-based controls delivered during 1999-2008. County-level estimates of atrazine exposure from the United States Geological Survey were linked to all subjects. We evaluated the relationship between estimated maternal residential atrazine exposure and risk for male genital malformations in offspring. Separate unconditional logistic regression analyses were conducted for hypospadias, cryptorchidism, and small penis. We observed modest, but consistent, associations between medium-low and/or medium levels of estimated periconceptional maternal residential atrazine exposure and every male genital malformation category evaluated (e.g., adjusted odds ratio for medium compared to low atrazine levels and all male genital malformations: 1.2, 95% confidence interval: 1.1-1.3). Previous literature from animal and epidemiological studies supports our findings. Our results provide further evidence of a suspected teratogenic role of atrazine. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Main challenges of residential areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Luca

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article is a position paper aiming to initiate a professional debate related to the aspects related to the urban dysfunctions leading to the wear of the residential areas. The paper proposes a definition of the wear process, identify the main causes leading to its occurrence and propose a number of solutions to neutralise the dysfunctions. The three wearing phases of residential areas components are emphasized, exploring their lifecycle. In order to perform the study of urban wear, the status of the residential areas components can be established and monitored, and also the variables of the function that can mathematically model the specific wear process may be considered. The paper is considered a first step for the model adjustment, to be tested and validated in the following steps. Based on the mathematical method and model, there can be created, in a potential future research, the possibility of determining the precarity degree for residential areas/neighbourhoods and cities, by minimising the subjective component of the analyses preceding the decision for renovation or regeneration.

  10. Exploring staff diabetes medication knowledge and practices in regional residential care: triangulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellard, Sally Jane; Rasmussen, Bodil; Savage, Sally; Dunning, Trisha

    2013-07-01

    This study is drawn from a larger project that aimed to identify the staffing and organisational factors influencing the quality of diabetes care for older people living in residential care in regional Victoria, Australia. The focus of the current study is on medication management for residents with diabetes. With a continuous rise in diabetes in the population, there is an associated increase in the prevalence of diabetes in aged care residential settings. However, there is little specific guidance on how to manage diabetes in older people living in institutional settings who experience multiple concurrent chronic conditions. A triangulation strategy consisting of three phases. A one-shot cross-sectional survey (n = 68) focus group interviews and a case file audit (n = 20). Data were collected between May 2009-January 2010. Staff knowledge of diabetes and its contemporary medication management was found to be suboptimal. Challenges to managing residents with diabetes included limited time, resident characteristics and communication systems. Additionally, the variability in medical support available to residents and a high level of polypharmacy added to the complexity of medication management of resident. The current study suggests administering medicine to residents in aged care settings is difficult and has potentially serious medical, professional and economic consequences. Limitations to staff knowledge of contemporary diabetes care and medications potentially place residents with diabetes at risk of receiving less than optimal diabetes care. Providing evidence-based guidelines about diabetes care in residential care settings is essential to achieve acceptable outcomes and increase the quality of life for residents in public aged care. Continuing education programs in diabetes care specifically related to medication must be provided to all health professionals and encompass scope of practice. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Electric vehicles in low voltage residential grid: a danish case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna; Huang, Shaojun; Thøgersen, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Electric Vehicles (EVs) have gained large interest in the energy sector as a carrier to support clean transportation and green electricity. The potential to use battery storages of electric vehicles as a sink for excess electricity that may result from large integration of wind power, especially......, is absolutely essential for the system operators to plan and implement the levels of grid reinforcement and intelligence required. This paper investigates the local grid limitations to accommodate large amount of EVs of sizable power ratings in residential areas. The case study applied in this paper uses...

  12. Residential radon and lung cancer: a cohort study in Galicia, Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Barbosa-Lorenzo

    Full Text Available Case-control studies show an association between residential radon and lung cancer. The aim of this paper is to investigate this association through a cohort study. We designed an ambispective cohort study using the Galician radon map, Spain, with controls drawn from a previous case-control study. Subjects were recruited between 2002 and 2009. The data were cross-checked to ascertain lung cancer incidence and then analysed using a Cox regression model. A total of 2,127 subjects participated; 24 lung cancer cases were identified; 76.6% of subjects were drawn from the radon map. The adjusted hazard ratio was 1.2 (95%CI: 0.5-2.8 for the category of subjects exposed to 50Bq/m3 or more. This risk rose when subjects from the case-control study were analyzed separately. In conclusion, we did not observe any statistically significant association between residential radon exposure and lung cancer; however, it appears that with a sample of greater median age (such as participants from the case-control study, the risk of lung cancer would have been higher.

  13. Residential radon and lung cancer: a cohort study in Galicia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa-Lorenzo, Raquel; Ruano-Ravina, Alberto; Cerdeira-Caramés, Sara; Raíces-Aldrey, Mónica; Barros-Dios, Juan M

    2017-07-03

    Case-control studies show an association between residential radon and lung cancer. The aim of this paper is to investigate this association through a cohort study. We designed an ambispective cohort study using the Galician radon map, Spain, with controls drawn from a previous case-control study. Subjects were recruited between 2002 and 2009. The data were cross-checked to ascertain lung cancer incidence and then analysed using a Cox regression model. A total of 2,127 subjects participated; 24 lung cancer cases were identified; 76.6% of subjects were drawn from the radon map. The adjusted hazard ratio was 1.2 (95%CI: 0.5-2.8) for the category of subjects exposed to 50Bq/m3 or more. This risk rose when subjects from the case-control study were analyzed separately. In conclusion, we did not observe any statistically significant association between residential radon exposure and lung cancer; however, it appears that with a sample of greater median age (such as participants from the case-control study), the risk of lung cancer would have been higher.

  14. Modeling Spatial Effect in Residential Burglary: A Case Study from ZG City, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianguo Chen

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between burglary and socio-demographic factors has long been a hot topic in crime research. Spatial dependence and spatial heterogeneity are two issues to be addressed in modeling geographic data. When these two issues arise at the same time, it is difficult to model them simultaneously. A cross-comparison of three models is presented in this study to identify which spatial effect should be addressed first in crime analysis. The negative binominal model (NB, Bayesian hierarchical model (BHM and the geographically weighted Poisson regression model (GWPR were implemented based on a three-year residential burglary data set from ZG, China. The modeling result shows that both BHM and GWPR outperform NB as they capture either of the spatial effects. Compared to the NB model, the mean absolute deviation (MAD of BHM and GWPR was decreased by 83.71% and 49.39%, the mean squared error (MSE of BHM and GWPR was decreased by 97.88% and 77.15%, and the R d 2 of BHM and GWPR was improved by 26.7% and 19.1%, respectively. In comparison with BHM and GWPR, BHM fits the data better with lower MAD, MSE and higher R d 2 . The empirical analysis indicates that the percentage of renter population, percentage of people from other provinces, bus line density, and bus stop density have a significantly positive impact on the number of residential burglaries. The percentage of residents with a bachelor degree or higher, on the other hand, is negatively associated with the number of residential burglaries.

  15. Residential segregation, dividing walls and mental health: a population-based record linkage study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguire, Aideen; French, Declan; O'Reilly, Dermot

    2016-01-01

    Background Neighbourhood segregation has been described as a fundamental determinant of physical health, but literature on its effect on mental health is less clear. While most previous research has relied on conceptualised measures of segregation, Northern Ireland is unique as it contains physical manifestations of segregation in the form of segregation barriers (or ‘peacelines’) which can be used to accurately identify residential segregation. Methods We used population-wide health record data on over 1.3 million individuals, to analyse the effect of residential segregation, measured by both the formal Dissimilarity Index and by proximity to a segregation barrier, on the likelihood of poor mental health. Results Using multilevel logistic regression models, we found residential segregation measured by the Dissimilarity Index poses no additional risk to the likelihood of poor mental health after adjustment for area-level deprivation. However, residence in an area segregated by a ‘peaceline’ increases the likelihood of antidepressant medication by 19% (OR=1.19, 95% CI 1.14 to 1.23) and anxiolytic medication by 39% (OR=1.39, 95% CI 1.32 to 1.48), even after adjustment for gender, age, conurbation, deprivation and crime. Conclusions Living in an area segregated by a ‘peaceline’ is detrimental to mental health suggesting segregated areas characterised by a heightened sense of ‘other’ pose a greater risk to mental health. The difference in results based on segregation measure highlights the importance of choice of measure when studying segregation. PMID:26858342

  16. Study of structural capacity and serviceability affecting the obstruction of residential door

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Forcael

    Full Text Available The last Chilean earthquake, occurred on February 27, 2010, allowed establishing important patterns of structural failures in reinforced concrete residential buildings; however, limited progress has been made in the study of basic standards of serviceability, such as obstruction of doors. Thus, this study focused on measuring the influence of design specifications and construction criteria of lintels and columns, in terms of obstruction of doors, considering capacity thresholds for certain levels of displacement. The study consisted of the design and construction of a full-scale prototype of a reinforced concrete frame, designed in accordance with all the ACI-318-08 requirements, taking into account typical aspects of geometry and materiality widely used by the real estate industry, for location and size of doors. In order to quantify the structural capacity of the prototype and to study the serviceability of the door, a quasi-static cyclic test was conducted, according to load and displacement protocols specified in FEMA 356 and FEMA 461, which was adjusted by using virtual models based on a static nonlinear analysis called "Pushover". This research verified that, for displacement levels even five times higher than those established by codes considered, the cracking degree was minimal and fully recoverable. It was also found the door evidenced malfunction when the displacements were greater than those specified by design only, validating a high degree of accomplishment of current codes, in terms of capacity and serviceability, when dealing with obstruction of residential doors.

  17. A Longitudinal Study on the Carbon Emissions of a New Residential Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seppo Junnila

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Buildings account for nearly 50% of all greenhouse gases globally. While this has been widely recognized, the GHG mitigation strategies have traditionally concentrated on reducing the use phase emissions, as over 90% of the emissions are generated during the use phase according to several studies. However, two current developments increase the importance of the construction phase emissions and the embodied emissions of the building materials. Firstly, the improvements in the energy efficiency of buildings directly increase the relative share of the construction phase emissions. Secondly, the notification of the temporal allocation of the emissions increases the importance of the carbon spike from construction. While these perspectives have been noted, few studies exist that combine the two perspectives of the construction and the use phase. In this paper, we analyze the implications of low-carbon residential construction on the life cycle emissions of a residential area with a case study. Furthermore, we demonstrate that when the temporal allocation of the emissions is taken into account, the construction phase emissions can hinder or even reverse the carbon mitigation effect of low-carbon buildings for decades.

  18. Factors affecting long-term mortality of residential shade trees: evidence from Sacramento, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yekang Ko; Jun-Hak Lee; E. Gregory McPherson; Lara A. Roman

    2015-01-01

    Urban tree survival is essential to sustain the ecosystem services of urban forests and monitoring is needed to accurately assess benefits. While some urban forestry studies have reported street tree survival, little is known about the factors influencing residential yard tree survival, especially over the long-term. We assessed residential shade tree survival in...

  19. Residential radon exposure and brain cancer: an ecological study in a radon prone area (Galicia, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruano-Ravina, Alberto; Aragonés, Nuria; Kelsey, Karl T; Pérez-Ríos, Mónica; Piñeiro-Lamas, María; López-Abente, Gonzalo; Barros-Dios, Juan M

    2017-06-15

    We aimed to know if radon concentration is associated with municipal mortality due to brain cancer in Galicia, Spain. We designed an ecological study taking as study unit Galician municipalities. To be included, municipalities had to have at least three radon measurements. We correlated radon concentrations with municipal mortality due to these malignant tumors during the period 1999-2008. We calculated the relative risk of dying of brain cancers for each municipality and correlated this value with municipal radon concentration using Spearman's Rho. 251 municipalities were included, with close to 3,500 radon measurements and an average of 14 radon measurements at each municipality. We observed a significant correlation between residential radon with brain cancer mortality for males and females and the intensity of the correlation was higher for females. These results were reinforced when the analysis was restricted to municipalities with more than 5 radon measurements: Spearman's Rho 0.286 (p-value < 0.001) and Spearman's Rho 0.509 (p-value < 0.001) for males and females, respectively. These results suggest an association between residential radon and brain cancer mortality. More research using more robust epidemiological designs is needed to confirm these findings.

  20. Residential bioenergy heating: A study of consumer perceptions of improved woodstoves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyrud, Anders Q.; Roos, Anders; Sande, Jon Bingen

    2008-01-01

    Consumers' choices play a key role for the development of biomass heating in the residential sector. The city of Oslo has granted subsidies to households who change to new, improved low-emission woodstoves. The purpose of this study is to expand the knowledge about users' experiences and attitudes to residential biomass heating. An adapted model of the Theory of Planned Behavior was used to model households' inclination to continue using their woodstoves for heating. More than 800 questionnaires were collected from households that recently had invested in an improved woodstove. The respondents were satisfied with the new woodstoves. The respondents also considered themselves competent to use and maintain the stove and few had problems acquiring fuelwood. Further analyses showed that the intention to continue to use the new woodstove depends on economic benefits, heating performance, perceived time and effort to operate the stove, environmental effects of heating as well as perceived subjective norm. The results imply that when marketing a modern technology for bioenergy heating, both public authorities and producers should consider issues related to the users' perception of subjective norm, such as perceived status of using bioenergy or environmental concerns, when designing campaigns to promote the use of woodstoves

  1. AWARENESS ON ENERGY MANAGEMENT IN RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS: A CASE STUDY IN KAJANG AND PUTRAJAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAYTHAM S. AHMED

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a case study on a survey and measurement being carried out for the purpose of determining residential electric power consumption and awareness toward smart energy management system in the areas of Putrajaya and Kajang, Malaysia. Questionnaires were developed with 37 questions grouped in 5 different sections related to home appliance information. Data was collected from a sample size of 384 respondents with confidence level of 95%. The accuracy of the percentage energy usage data were analysed by applying the SPSS software. Actual residential electric power consumption was measured by using a power quality analyser to determine the total power consumption at weekday and weekend and power consumption of each electrical appliance. The measurement results showed that the average energy consumption is 25.8 kWh/day during weekend and 21.9 kWh/day during weekdays with 11.5 kWh/day for the air conditioner only. The survey results revealed that 89.06% of the respondents expressed awareness toward household power consumption and that they are willing to install home automation system to reducing their electricity bill.

  2. Change processes in residential cognitive and interpersonal psychotherapy for social phobia: a process-outcome study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffart, Asle; Borge, Finn-Magnus; Sexton, Harold; Clark, David M

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to test cognitive and interpersonal models for improving social phobia. Eighty patients with social phobia were randomized to 10-week residential cognitive (RCT) or residential interpersonal psychotherapy (RIPT). They completed process measures every Thursday and a sub-outcome measure every Monday. The ratings were analyzed with mixed models. Weekly changes in the process variables derived from the cognitive model (self-focus, estimated probability and estimated cost of negative social events, safety behaviors) predicted subsequent weekly changes in social anxiety. Changes in the interpersonal variable perceived acceptance by others also predicted subsequent changes in social anxiety. On the other hand, changes in social anxiety predicted changes in the four cognitive variables. There were no interactive effects of process with treatment. The cognitive variables decreased during treatment to a similar degree in both treatments. The results indicate that, to reduce social anxiety, therapy should target self-focus, estimated probability and cost of feared social events, safety behaviors, and perceived acceptance by others. The process of improvement may involve positive cycles in that a reduction of social anxiety, in turn, appeared to impact self-focus, probability, cost, and safety behaviors.

  3. The study of residential life support environment system to initiate policy on sustainable simple housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahaan, N. M.; Harahap, A. S.; Nababan, E.; Siahaan, E.

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to initiate sustainable simple housing system based on low CO2 emissions at Griya Martubung I Housing Medan, Indonesia. Since it was built in 1995, between 2007 until 2016 approximately 89 percent of houses have been doing various home renewal such as restoration, renovation, or reconstruction. Qualitative research conducted in order to obtain insights into the behavior of complex relationship between various components of residential life support environment that relates to CO2 emissions. Each component is studied by conducting in-depth interviews, observation of the 128 residents. The study used Likert Scale to measure residents’ perception about components. The study concludes with a synthesis describing principles for a sustainable simple housing standard that recognizes the whole characteristics of components. This study offers a means for initiating the practice of sustainable simple housing developments and efforts to manage growth and preserve the environment without violating social, economics, and ecology.

  4. Residential photovoltaic module and array requirement study. Low-Cost Solar Array Project engineering area. Final report appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    This volume contains the appendices to a study to identify design requirements for photovoltaic modules and arrays used in residential applications. Appendices include: (1) codes, standards, and manuals of accepted practice-definition and importance; (2) regional code variations-impact; (3) model and city codes-review; (4) National Electric Code (NEC)-review; (5) types of standards-definition and importance; (6) federal standards-review; (7) standards review method; (8) manuals of accepted practice; (9) codes and referenced standards-summary; (10) public safety testing laboratories; (11) insurance review; (12) studies approach; (13) mounting configurations; (14) module/panel size and shape cost analysis; (15) grounding, wiring, terminal and voltage studies; (16) array installation cost summary; (17) photovoltaic shingle/module comparison; (18) retrofit application; (19) residential photovoltaic module performance criteria; (20) critique of JPL's solar cell module design and test specifications for residential applications; and (21) CSI format specification. (WHK)

  5. Study of the Thermal Behaviour of Water for Residential Use in Tanks of Concrete and Polyethylene in Humid Subtropical Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego-Ayala Ulises

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a comparative study of the thermal behavior of residential water tanks of polyethylene and concrete exposed to the sun over a year in the state of Yucatan. The energy for radiation and their corresponding temperatures in each system were measured. Daily patterns of elevation and reduction of temperature were identified and the amount of energy acquired during the day as well as the heat dissipated overnight were determined, aiming to determine the possibility of using residential water tanks as a source of hot water in residential homes in the Yucatan region. Based on this study it has been found that the periods of the day with hot water temperature for showering with comfort is limited and that, interestingly, both systems show similar temperatures at the bottom of the tanks throughout the year.

  6. Comparing land use regression and dispersion modelling to assess residential exposure to ambient air pollution for epidemiological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Hoogh, Kees; Korek, Michal; Vienneau, Danielle; Keuken, Menno; Kukkonen, Jaakko; Nieuwenhuijsen, Mark J; Badaloni, Chiara; Beelen, Rob; Bolignano, Andrea; Cesaroni, Giulia; Pradas, Marta Cirach; Cyrys, Josef; Douros, John; Eeftens, Marloes; Forastiere, Francesco; Forsberg, Bertil; Fuks, Kateryna; Gehring, Ulrike; Gryparis, Alexandros; Gulliver, John; Hansell, Anna L; Hoffmann, Barbara; Johansson, Christer; Jonkers, Sander; Kangas, Leena; Katsouyanni, Klea; Künzli, Nino; Lanki, Timo; Memmesheimer, Michael; Moussiopoulos, Nicolas; Modig, Lars; Pershagen, Göran; Probst-Hensch, Nicole; Schindler, Christian; Schikowski, Tamara; Sugiri, Dorothee; Teixidó, Oriol; Tsai, Ming-Yi; Yli-Tuomi, Tarja; Brunekreef, Bert; Hoek, Gerard; Bellander, Tom

    2014-12-01

    Land-use regression (LUR) and dispersion models (DM) are commonly used for estimating individual air pollution exposure in population studies. Few comparisons have however been made of the performance of these methods. Within the European Study of Cohorts for Air Pollution Effects (ESCAPE) we explored the differences between LUR and DM estimates for NO2, PM10 and PM2.5. The ESCAPE study developed LUR models for outdoor air pollution levels based on a harmonised monitoring campaign. In thirteen ESCAPE study areas we further applied dispersion models. We compared LUR and DM estimates at the residential addresses of participants in 13 cohorts for NO2; 7 for PM10 and 4 for PM2.5. Additionally, we compared the DM estimates with measured concentrations at the 20-40 ESCAPE monitoring sites in each area. The median Pearson R (range) correlation coefficients between LUR and DM estimates for the annual average concentrations of NO2, PM10 and PM2.5 were 0.75 (0.19-0.89), 0.39 (0.23-0.66) and 0.29 (0.22-0.81) for 112,971 (13 study areas), 69,591 (7) and 28,519 (4) addresses respectively. The median Pearson R correlation coefficients (range) between DM estimates and ESCAPE measurements were of 0.74 (0.09-0.86) for NO2; 0.58 (0.36-0.88) for PM10 and 0.58 (0.39-0.66) for PM2.5. LUR and dispersion model estimates correlated on average well for NO2 but only moderately for PM10 and PM2.5, with large variability across areas. DM predicted a moderate to large proportion of the measured variation for NO2 but less for PM10 and PM2.5. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. European wood pellet market integration - A study of the residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olsson, Olle; Hillring, Bengt; Vinterbaeck, Johan

    2011-01-01

    The integration of European energy markets is a key goal of EU energy policy, and has also been the focal point of many scientific studies in recent years. International markets for coal, oil, natural gas and electricity have previously been investigated in order to determine the extent of the respective markets. This study enhances this field of research to bioenergy markets. Price series data and time series econometrics are used to determine whether residential sector wood pellet markets of Austria, Germany and Sweden are integrated. The results of the econometric tests show that the German and Austrian markets can be considered to be integrated, whereas the Swedish market is separate from the other two countries. Although increased internationalization of wood pellet markets is likely to contribute to European price convergence and market integration, this process is far from completed. (author)

  8. Application of Prefabricated Panels for the Energy Retrofit of Portuguese Residential Buildings Facades: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa J.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to evaluate the potential application of prefabricated panels in energy retrofit of facades in the Portuguese building stock. The fundamentals of this study were part of Annex 50, which was an international ECBCS IEA project, with the purpose of developing an innovative concept of building renovation for the most representative buildings based on prefabricated systems. To analyze the potential application of energy retrofit using prefabricated panels, was important to know the reality of the existing building stock and its morphology. To know the reality of the building stock, an analysis was done based on the existing statistical data and to find the most representative residential buildings, target of the study, three criteria were defined: buildings built before 1990, with 2 to 6 floors and with renovation needs in the exterior envelope.

  9. European wood pellet market integration - A study of the residential sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsson, Olle; Hillring, Bengt; Vinterbaeck, Johan [Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Department of Energy and Technology P.O. Box 7032 SE-750 07 Uppsala (Sweden)

    2011-01-15

    The integration of European energy markets is a key goal of EU energy policy, and has also been the focal point of many scientific studies in recent years. International markets for coal, oil, natural gas and electricity have previously been investigated in order to determine the extent of the respective markets. This study enhances this field of research to bioenergy markets. Price series data and time series econometrics are used to determine whether residential sector wood pellet markets of Austria, Germany and Sweden are integrated. The results of the econometric tests show that the German and Austrian markets can be considered to be integrated, whereas the Swedish market is separate from the other two countries. Although increased internationalization of wood pellet markets is likely to contribute to European price convergence and market integration, this process is far from completed. (author)

  10. BPA radon field monitoring study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thor, P.W.

    1984-01-01

    To learn more about radon in homes, and in particular, to determine the concentrations and ranges of concentrations in typical Pacific Northwest residences, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) conducted a Radon Field Monitoring Study during the 1982-83 winter heating season. Approximately 290 Northwest homeowners received up to three small passive radon detectors with instructions for deployment within their homes. After two to three months of exposure the detectors were returned for processing and analysis. Radon concentrations and basic house information were obtained for 270 houses located in just over 100 different locations in the region. Results of the monitoring and statistical analyses completed on the data are presented. Histograms are shown indicating the ranges of concentrations in various spaces within a residence. Correlations between these concentrations and house characteristics and construction styles are also presented

  11. BPA radon field monitoring study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thor, P.W.

    1984-01-01

    To learn more about radon in homes, and in particular, to determine the concentrations and ranges of concentrations in typical Pacific Northwest residences, the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) conducted a Radon Field Monitoring Study during the 1982-83 winter heating season. Approximately 290 Northwest homeowners received up to three small passive radon detectors with instructions for deployment within their homes. After two to three months of exposure the detectors were returned for processing and analysis. Radon concentrations and basic house information were obtained for 270 houses located in just over 100 different locations in the region. Results of the monitoring and statistical analyses completed on the data will be presented. Histograms will be shown indicating the ranges of concentrations in various spaces within a residence. Correlations between these concentrations and house characteristics and construction styles will also be presented. 11 figures

  12. Feasibility Study of Residential Grid-Connected Solar Photovoltaic Systems in the State of Indiana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Odeh, Mahmoud

    This study aims to measure the financial viability of installing and using a residential grid-connected PV system in the State of Indiana while predicting its performance in eighteen geographical locations within the state over the system's expected lifetime. The null hypothesis of the study is that installing a PV system for a single family residence in the State of Indiana will not pay for itself within 25 years. Using a systematic approach consisting of six steps, data regarding the use of renewable energy in the State of Indiana was collected from the website of the US Department of Energy to perform feasibility analysis of the installation and use of a standard-sized residential PV system. The researcher was not able to reject the null hypothesis that installing a PV system for a single family residence in the State of Indiana will not pay for itself within 25 years. This study found that the standard PV system does not produce a positive project balance and does not pay for itself within 25 years (the life time of the system) assuming the average cost of a system. The government incentive programs are not enough to offset the cost of installing the system against the cost of the electricity that would not be purchased from the utility company. It can be concluded that the cost of solar PV is higher than the market valuation of the power it produces; thus, solar PV did not compete on the cost basis with the traditional competitive energy sources. Reducing the capital cost will make the standard PV system economically viable in Indiana. The study found that the capital cost for the system should be reduced by 15% - 56%.

  13. Impact of spatial fragmentation on value of residential housing using the hedonic price methodology, case of study: Mosquera, Cundinamarca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Angélica Cadena Contreras

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study develops the methodology to determine the economic impact of spatial fragmentation on the commercial value of property with residential use, it is using the hedonic price method based on attributes that are considered most relevant for the model, it is considering that this is an heterogeneous property that is in function on their physical characteristics and their environment. The methodology is applied to analyze the real states values in the municipality of Mosquera, Cundinamarca. The results of spatial econometric estimates suggest that fragmentation besides being significant, at low levels it impacts negatively the residential house prices and at high levels it increases the price.

  14. Quantitative Study on Computer Self-Efficacy and Computer Anxiety Differences in Academic Major and Residential Status

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binkley, Zachary Wayne McClellan

    2017-01-01

    This study investigates computer self-efficacy and computer anxiety within 61 students across two academic majors, Aviation and Sports and Exercise Science, while investigating the impact residential status, age, and gender has on those two psychological constructs. The purpose of the study is to find if computer self-efficacy and computer anxiety…

  15. Study of PAH emission from the solid fuels combustion in residential furnaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kakareka, Sergey V.; Kukharchyk, Tamara I.; Khomich, Valery S.

    2005-01-01

    The procedure for and results of a test study of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission from a few types of solid fuels combustion in residential furnaces of various designs typical for Belarus are discussed. Greatest levels of PAH emission were detected from domestic wastes and wood waste combustion. Lowest levels of PAH emission are from peat briquette combustion. It was found that PAH concentration in off-gases from firewood combustion also varies significantly depending on the type of wood: the highest values of PAH are typical for waste gases from birch firewood combustion in comparison with pine firewood combustion. Draft PAH emission factors are proposed with intended application for emission inventory of such installations

  16. Residential exposure to traffic noise and leisure-time sports - A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roswall, Nina; Ammitzbøll, Gunn; Christensen, Jeppe Schultz; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Jensen, Steen Solvang; Tjønneland, Anne; Sørensen, Mette

    2017-08-01

    Traffic levels have been found a significant environmental predictor for physical inactivity. A recent study suggested that traffic noise annoyance was associated with lower physical activity. We investigated associations between modelled residential traffic noise and leisure-time sports. In the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort, we performed cross-sectional analyses using data from the baseline questionnaire (1993-97), and longitudinal analyses of change between baseline and follow-up (2000-02). People reported participation (yes/no) and hours of leisure-time sport, from which we calculated MET hrs/week. Present and historical addresses from 1987 to 2002 were found in national registries, and traffic noise was modelled 1 and 5 years before enrolment, and from baseline to follow-up. Analyses were performed using logistic and linear regression. Traffic noise exposure 5 years before baseline was associated with higher prevalence odds ratio of non-participation in leisure-time sports; significantly for road traffic noise (odds ratio (OR): 1.10; 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.07-1.13) and borderline for railway noise (OR: 1.03; 95% CI: 0.99-1.07), per 10dB. In longitudinal analyses, a 10dB higher road traffic noise was associated with a higher prevalence odds ratio of ceasing (OR: 1.12; 95% CI: 1.07-1.18) and a lower prevalence odds ratio of initiating (OR: 0.92; 95% CI: 0.87-0.96) leisure-time sports. Exposure to railway noise was negatively associated with baseline MET hrs/week, whereas no association was found in longitudinal analyses, or for road traffic noise. The study suggests that long-term exposure to residential road traffic noise is negatively associated with leisure-time sports. Results for railway noise were less consistent. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  17. A qualitative study of transgender individuals' experiences in residential addiction treatment settings: stigma and inclusivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, Tara; Shannon, Kate; Pierre, Leslie; Small, Will; Krüsi, Andrea; Kerr, Thomas

    2015-05-07

    While considerable research has been undertaken on addiction treatment, the experiences of transgender individuals who use drugs are rarely explored in such research, as too often transgender individuals are excluded entirely or grouped with those of sexual minority groups. Consequently, little is known about the treatment experiences in this population. Thus, we sought to qualitatively investigate the residential addiction treatment experiences of transgender individuals who use illicit drugs in a Canadian setting. In-depth semi-structured interviews were conducted with 34 transgender individuals in Vancouver, Canada between June 2012 and May 2013. Participants were recruited from three open prospective cohorts of individuals who use drugs and an open prospective cohort of sex workers. Theory-driven and data-driven approaches were used to analyze the data and two transgender researcher assistants aided with the coding and the interpretation of data in a process called participatory analysis. Fourteen participants had previous experience of addiction treatment and their experiences varied according to whether their gender identity was accepted in the treatment programs. Three themes emerged from the data that characterized individuals' experiences in treatment settings: (1) enacted stigma in the forms of social rejection and violence, (2) transphobia and felt stigma, and (3) "trans friendly" and inclusive treatment. Participants who reported felt and enacted stigma, including violence, left treatment prematurely after isolation and conflicts. In contrast, participants who felt included and respected in treatment settings reported positive treatment experiences. The study findings demonstrate the importance of fostering respect and inclusivity of gender diverse individuals in residential treatment settings. These findings illustrate the need for gender-based, anti-stigma policies and programs to be established within existing addiction treatment programs

  18. Study on the optimum PCM melting temperature for energy savings in residential buildings worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffari, M.; de Gracia, A.; Fernández, C.; Zsembinszki, G.; Cabeza, L. F.

    2017-10-01

    To maintain comfort conditions in residential buildings along a full year period, the use of active systems is generally required to either supply heating or cooling. The heating and cooling demands strongly depend on the climatic conditions, type of building and occupants’ behaviour. The overall annual energy consumption of the building can be reduced by the use of renewable energy sources and/or passive systems. The use of phase change materials (PCM) as passive systems in buildings enhances the thermal mass of the envelope, and reduces the indoor temperature fluctuations. As a consequence, the overall energy consumption of the building is generally lower as compared to the case when no PCM systems are used. The selection of the PCM melting temperature is a key issue to reduce the energy consumption of the buildings. The main focus of this study is to determine the optimum PCM melting temperature for passive heating and cooling according to different weather conditions. To achieve that, numerical simulations were carried out using EnergyPlus v8.4 coupled with GenOpt® v3.1.1 (a generic optimization software). A multi-family residential apartment was selected from ASHRAE Standard 90.1- 2013 prototype building model, and different climate conditions were considered to determine the optimum melting temperature (in the range from 20ºC to 26ºC) of the PCM contained in gypsum panels. The results confirm that the optimum melting temperature of the PCM strongly depends on the climatic conditions. In general, in cooling dominant climates the optimum PCM temperature is around 26ºC, while in heating dominant climates it is around 20ºC. Furthermore, the results show that an adequate selection of the PCM as passive system in building envelope can provide important energy savings for both heating dominant and cooling dominant regions.

  19. A prospective study to evaluate a residential community reintegration program for patients with chronic acquired brain injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurtsen, Gert J.; van Heugten, Caroline M.; Martina, Juan D.; Rietveld, Antonius C.; Meijer, Ron; Geurts, Alexander C.

    2011-01-01

    To examine the effects of a residential community reintegration program on independent living, societal participation, emotional well-being, and quality of life in patients with chronic acquired brain injury and psychosocial problems hampering societal participation. A prospective cohort study with

  20. A FEASIBILITY STUDY EXAMINING THE POTENTIAL FOR HUMAN HEALTH EXPOSURE TO PET-BORNE DIAZINON RESIDUES FOLLOWING RESIDENTIAL TURF APPLICATIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The domestic dog may be a vehicle for translocation of pesticide residues following residential applications to turf. In addition, human occupants may be exposed to residues deposited inside homes by pets or by intimate contacts with them. This study examines the potential of a...

  1. Development of a residential wood smoke reduction plan in a wood burning community: A case study in Libby, Montana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fox, R.J.; Manderino, L.; Lyons, C.E.; Morris, A.L.; Anderson, R.L.

    1992-01-01

    Libby, Montana depends on wood as a heating fuel. Libby exceeded the 24-hour federal PM10 ambient air quality standard every year since monitoring began in 1987. Residential wood smoke significantly contributes to its air pollution. To decrease residential wood smoke's contribution to air pollution, residents have to modify their heating habits. County officials sponsored the development of a comprehensive community-oriented plan to reduce wood smoke. This paper describes how the plan was developed and the components of the air pollution reduction strategies. The plan was developed using community input and tailored to local conditions. Four specific strategies were developed to reduce residential wood smoke pollution. Development of strategies required analysis of home heating habits and potential alternatives. Economic conditions were also considered. Expensive control strategies would be worthless unless alternative funding methods were provided. Thus, the plan included an array of funding sources to facilitate implementation. The development and implementation techniques are applicable to other communities with similar air pollution challenges

  2. General Electric Company study for defining the number of residential and non-residential projects, National Solar Demonstration Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1976-04-01

    The methodology used to perform the ''Parametric Study'' to define a recommended demonstration program involved a decision making process. In this approach, selective solar buying factors were quantitatively evaluated for influencing key decision makers to install solar HVAC equipment. The selection of the recommended demo level also considered the probability of a decision maker actually seeing a demonstration as a function of how far he is located from a demo and how far he is willing to travel to see one. Demonstration levels of 200, 400, 800, 1600 and 3200 were assumed to determine the effects on Solar HVAC market penetration. The 800 demo level program is recommended to effectively stimulate the private sector to install solar HVAC systems. (WDM)

  3. Open Space between Residential Buildings as a Factor of Sustainable Development - Case Studies in Brno (Czech Republic) and Vienna (Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilnarová, Pavla; Wittmann, Maxmilian

    2017-12-01

    The characteristics of open spaces between residential buildings have, as authors suppose, an impact on the sustainable development of urban areas. Spatial arrangement and accessibility of these spaces, the type and height of surrounding buildings, the quantity and character of greenery, and many more characteristics influence the quality of environment, and the quality of life of local residents. These and further characteristics of the open spaces between residential buildings influence the ecological stability of the area, its hygienic qualities, the intensity and way of using by various social groups, and also the prices of real estates. These qualities indicate the environmental, social and economic sustainability of the urban area. The proposed research methodology assessed specific indicators of sustainability within a range from 0 to 10 points. 5 points correspond to the general standard in the area, 0 points indicate degradation, and 10 points indicate the highest contribution to sustainable development. Observation methods, questionnaire survey, statistical analyses, and methods of measurement were used to determine the values of the given indicators. The paper analyses the impact of the open spaces between residential buildings on sustainability via the case studies performed in the Central European cities of Brno, Czech Republic and Vienna, Austria. Two forms of residential urban structures in the City of Brno in the Czech Republic were selected for the analysis: the closed courtyards in the urban block from the 19th century and the open spaces in the housing estates constructed under socialism in the 20th century. The question is, if the different forms of spaces between residential buildings influence the sustainability of urban area and satisfaction of inhabitants in different ways. A complementary case study in Vienna indicates that inhabitants of a housing estate in Vienna, as well as inhabitants of housing estates in Brno, highly appreciate the

  4. Residential Mobility di Pinggiran Kota Semarang Jawa Tengah (Studi Kasus Kaum Miskin Kota di Kota Semarang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh. Gamal Rindarjono

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed in analyzing and examining the development of slum residential in Semarang, including its center of the city urban, urban-fringe and sub-urban area. Within the development of the slum residential due to mobility of the urban poor, the phenomenon in the term of residential mobility occurred. Using both qualitative and quantitative methods, this research was applying distant-interpretation data in examining slum residential phenomenon and terrestrial data in analyzing both social and cultural issues related to development of slum residential. This research resulting a residential mobility model throughout areas of research, especially sub-urban including the Chinese cemetery area; the new migrant was the urbanist namely the bridge headers group, consists of tramp and hobos whom should be concerned more. Though they just have settled in short-period within the area, their income was categorized financially settled. They owned their own home not as the renter and even, built housing for their subordinates amounted 7-15 families in a complex of residential. Stability of the income was also supported by resident-owning whereas selecting its location based on the land-availability which initially settled the location illegally among the graves. This location was selected since its less-maintained condition by neither their descendant nor cemetery officer which then densely covered by bushes. Availability of the sufficient land leads them to build their residential which also used as the scrap collection space. During the times, their number was increased referred to their raising income. Legalizing their residential was the next step for their existence and sustainability by purchasing or renting the land. Eventually this bridge header was earning a stable income, owning their own home, and locating their residential in the sub-urban area furthermore but unfortunately less-supported by a highly established life style but an

  5. Residential radon exposure, diet and lung cancer: a case-control study in a Mediterranean region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochicchio, Francesco; Forastiere, Francesco; Farchi, Sara; Quarto, Maria; Axelson, Olav

    2005-05-10

    We performed a case-control study in Lazio, a region in central Italy characterized by high levels of indoor radon, Mediterranean climate and diet. Cases (384) and controls (404) aged 35-90 years were recruited in the hospital. Detailed information regarding smoking, diet and other risk factors were collected by direct interview. Residential history during the 30-year period ending 5 years before enrollment was ascertained. In each dwelling, radon detectors were placed in both the main bedroom and the living room for 2 consecutive 6-month periods. We computed odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for time-weighted radon concentrations using both categorical and continuous unconditional logistic regression analysis and adjusting for smoking, diet and other variables. Radon measurements were available from 89% and 91% of the time period for cases and controls, respectively. The adjusted ORs were 1.30 (1.03-1.64), 1.48 (1.08-2.02), 1.49 (0.82-2.71) and 2.89 (0.45-18.6) for 50-99, 100-199, 200-399 and 400+ Bq/m(3), respectively, compared with 0-49 Bq/m(3) (OR = 1; 0.56-1.79). The excess odds ratio (EOR) per 100 Bq/m(3) was 0.14 (-0.11, 0.46) for all subjects, 0.24 (-0.09, 0.70) for subjects with complete radon measurements and 0.30 (-0.08, 0.82) for subjects who had lived in 1 or 2 dwellings. There was a tendency of higher risk estimates among subjects with low-medium consumption of dietary antioxidants (EOR = 0.32; -0.19, 1.16) and for adenocarcinoma, small cell and epidermoid cancers. This study indicates an association, although generally not statistically significant, between residential radon and lung cancer with both categorical and continuous analyses. Subjects with presumably lower uncertainty in the exposure assessment showed a higher risk. Dietary antioxidants may act as an effect modifier.

  6. Risk of cancer associated with residential exposure to asbestos insulation: a whole-population cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korda, Rosemary J; Clements, Mark S; Armstrong, Bruce K; Law, Hsei Di; Guiver, Tenniel; Anderson, Philip R; Trevenar, Susan M; Kirk, Martyn D

    2017-11-01

    The health risks associated with living in houses insulated with asbestos are unknown. Loose-fill asbestos was used to insulate some houses in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT). We compared the incidence of mesothelioma and other cancers in residents of the ACT who did and did not live in these houses. Our cohort study included all ACT residents identified using Medicare enrolment data. These data were linked to addresses of affected residential properties in the ACT to ascertain exposure. We followed up residents by linking data to the Australian Cancer Database and National Death Index. Outcomes were diagnosis of mesothelioma and selected other cancers. Effects were estimated for males and females separately using standardised incidence ratios (SIRs), adjusting for age and calendar time of diagnosis. Between Nov 1, 1983, and Dec 31, 2013, 1 035 578 ACT residents were identified from the Medicare database. Of these, 17 248 (2%) had lived in an affected property, including seven (2%) of 285 people diagnosed with mesothelioma. The adjusted incidence of mesothelioma in males who had lived at an affected property was 2·5 times that of unexposed males (SIR 2·54, 95% CI 1·02-5·24). No mesotheliomas were reported among females who had lived at an affected property. Among individuals who had lived at an affected property, there was an elevated incidence of colorectal cancer in women (SIR 1·73, 95% CI 1·29-2·26) and prostate cancer in men (1·29, 1·07-1·54); colorectal cancer was increased, although not significantly, in males (SIR 1·32, 95% CI 0·99-1·72), with no significant increase in the other cancers studied. Residential asbestos insulation is likely to be unsafe. Our findings have important health, social, financial, and legal implications for governments and communities in which asbestos has been used to insulate houses. ACT Government. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY

  7. Risk of cancer associated with residential exposure to asbestos insulation: a whole-population cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary J Korda, Dr, PhD

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: The health risks associated with living in houses insulated with asbestos are unknown. Loose-fill asbestos was used to insulate some houses in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT. We compared the incidence of mesothelioma and other cancers in residents of the ACT who did and did not live in these houses. Methods: Our cohort study included all ACT residents identified using Medicare enrolment data. These data were linked to addresses of affected residential properties in the ACT to ascertain exposure. We followed up residents by linking data to the Australian Cancer Database and National Death Index. Outcomes were diagnosis of mesothelioma and selected other cancers. Effects were estimated for males and females separately using standardised incidence ratios (SIRs, adjusting for age and calendar time of diagnosis. Findings: Between Nov 1, 1983, and Dec 31, 2013, 1 035 578 ACT residents were identified from the Medicare database. Of these, 17 248 (2% had lived in an affected property, including seven (2% of 285 people diagnosed with mesothelioma. The adjusted incidence of mesothelioma in males who had lived at an affected property was 2·5 times that of unexposed males (SIR 2·54, 95% CI 1·02–5·24. No mesotheliomas were reported among females who had lived at an affected property. Among individuals who had lived at an affected property, there was an elevated incidence of colorectal cancer in women (SIR 1·73, 95% CI 1·29–2·26 and prostate cancer in men (1·29, 1·07–1·54; colorectal cancer was increased, although not significantly, in males (SIR 1·32, 95% CI 0·99–1·72, with no significant increase in the other cancers studied. Interpretation: Residential asbestos insulation is likely to be unsafe. Our findings have important health, social, financial, and legal implications for governments and communities in which asbestos has been used to insulate houses

  8. Residential radon exposure and risk of incident hematologic malignancies in the Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teras, Lauren R.; Diver, W. Ryan; Turner, Michelle C.; Krewski, Daniel; Sahar, Liora; Ward, Elizabeth; Gapstur, Susan M.

    2016-01-01

    Dosimetric models show that radon, an established cause of lung cancer, delivers a non-negligible dose of alpha radiation to the bone marrow, as well as to lymphocytes in the tracheobronchial epithelium, and therefore could be related to risk of hematologic cancers. Studies of radon and hematologic cancer risk, however, have produced inconsistent results. To date there is no published prospective, population-based study of residential radon exposure and hematologic malignancy incidence. We used data from the American Cancer Society Cancer Prevention Study-II Nutrition Cohort established in 1992, to examine the association between county-level residential radon exposure and risk of hematologic cancer. The analytic cohort included 140,652 participants (66,572 men, 74,080 women) among which 3019 incident hematologic cancer cases (1711 men, 1308 women) were identified during 19 years of follow-up. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to calculate multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for radon exposure and hematologic cancer risk. Women living in counties with the highest mean radon concentrations (>148 Bq/m 3 ) had a statistically significant higher risk of hematologic cancer compared to those living in counties with the lowest (<74 Bq/m 3 ) radon levels (HR=1.63, 95% CI:1.23–2.18), and there was evidence of a dose-response relationship (HR continuous =1.38, 95% CI:1.15–1.65 per 100 Bq/m 3 ; p-trend=0.001). There was no association between county-level radon and hematologic cancer risk among men. The findings of this large, prospective study suggest residential radon may be a risk factor for lymphoid malignancies among women. Further study is needed to confirm these findings. - Highlights: • This is the first prospective, general population study of residential radon and risk of hematologic cancer. • Findings from this study suggest that residential radon exposure may be a risk factor for lymphoid

  9. Study of menstrual patterns in adolescent girls with disabilities in a residential institution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Ganesh Arun; Joshi, Prajakta Ganesh

    2015-02-01

    The gynecological health needs of girls with disabilities is an issue related to their rights as individuals. The objective of this study is to describe the menstrual pattern of girls with disabilities. A descriptive study was undertaken on thirty girls with different types of disabilities in a residential institution. The diagnosis, type of disability, secondary sexual characters, age at menarche, menstrual pattern and practice of menstrual hygiene was noted. The girls with intellectual disabilities had later age of menarche, irregular cycles and more behaviour problems. The girls with hearing impairment and locomotor disabilities had normal menstrual pattern. The girl with low vision had earlier menarche and regularized cycles. Girls with normal intelligence and mild intellectual disabilities were independent in maintaining menstrual hygiene. The menstrual disorders are managed conservatively in accordance with latest guidelines. Onset of menarche is towards the extremes of normal age range in girls with intellectual disabilities or visual impairment but not in girls with hearing impairments or locomotor disabilities. Girls with disabilities have potential for independent menstrual care. Menstrual disorders were managed conservatively.

  10. Reaching people with energy conservation information: four statewide residential case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peelle, E.; Braid, R.B.; Jones, D.W.; Reed, J.H.

    1983-09-01

    Four state residential energy conservation programs are reviewed in terms of their origins, evolutions, purposes and goals, administration, organization, and outcomes. The four programs chosen were selected from among 30 nominated by state energy offices and regional Department of Energy personnel as being illustrative in terms of organization and/or outcomes. While intended primarily for state-level program managers and staff, the profiles of programs, conclusions, and recommendations should be useful to anyone interested in developing viable, action-oriented conservation programs. The four case studies included Oregon's Master Conserver program, Oklahoma's energy education project for low-income and elderly families, Virginia's workshops for heating dealers service and contractors, and Maine's three energy education projects - the Energy Bus, Energy Conservation Month, and the Home Energy Check-up. All four programs utilized Energy Extension Service (EES) funds from the federal government, and three were directly managed through the state EES organization. The findings of the study indicate that these programs (1) had flexibility to experiment, iterate, and reorganize as a result of their initial experiences, (2) made extensive use of networking to involve local groups in program delivery, (3) employed a large variety of delivery methods, and (4) made substantial efforts to tailor literature and handouts to the target audiences.

  11. The Se.Ko.Ph. study: a European multicentre study on falls in elderly subjects living in residential homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aladar Bruno Ianes

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim was to investigate risk factors for falls in elderly people living in residential nursing homes. An observational, prospective, multicentre study was conducted between March 2010 and March 2011 investigating falls in elderly residents living in residential nursing homes (4 Italian¸ 4 French and 5 German nursing homes. A number of risk factors were assessed as well as details of the fall (dynamics, reasons, location and time of occurrence. Differences were observed between the countries related to different nursing practices. Fallers comprised 36.5% of all residents and approximately 40% were injured as a consequence. Six logistic regression models were created to assess which fallrelated variables had the most impact, and showed subjects with faecal incontinence had a lower risk of falling, while subjects afflicted with dementia and visual impairment showed an increased risk of falling. Higher Tinetti scores were found to be related to an increased fall risk. Falls in the elderly occur due to complex interactions between demographic, physical, behavioural and environmental risk factors. Differences between countries in fall rates were seen, probably due to different medical practices, use of aids and restraints, and characteristics of the populations (i.e. the Italian residents tended to be more cognitively impaired and more impaired in balance and gait compared to the French and German residents. There was evidence that subjects with a better clinical status fall more frequently, whereas non-fallers had a worse clinical status and therefore tended to be more bedridden.

  12. A residential location approach to traffic safety: two case studies from Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheiner, Joachim; Holz-Rau, Christian

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to spatially differentiate the road accident risk associated with living at a certain place of residence. Official accident data usually record the place the accident occurred, but not the casualties' places of residence. Among those involved in an accident at a certain place there may obviously be some non-residents, such as in-commuters and transients. Hence spatial analysis based on place of accident may not be suitable for drawing conclusions about specific risk levels for people living in certain places. People's risk of encountering an accident in areas other than that where they live may vary with their mobility. We report on two case studies for the German states of North Rhine-Westphalia and Lower Saxony, which are based on casualties' places of residence. We draw on two data sets both of which have specific advantages and disadvantages. From the data we calculate population-based risk figures on the district level and, for Lower Saxony, on the municipality level. For North Rhine-Westphalia these are categorised by age group and transport mode. We also investigate to what extent accident related analyses can be used to estimate residential related risks. The results show that the risk of being killed or seriously injured in a road accident is considerably lower for the population of agglomeration cores than for the suburban and rural population. Macro-economically this means that suburban and rural areas have markedly higher accident costs than cities. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Relationship between self-reported residential indoor remodeling and semen quality: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mao-Hua Miao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the association between residential indoor remodeling and poor semen quality. Sperm donors aged 18-45 years old were recruited in Shanghai, China. Semen specimens were collected and analyzed. An in-person interview was conducted to obtain information on the history of indoor remodeling and potential confounders. A total of 70 participants with abnormal semen quality (case group and 68 controls were examined. A total of 20 subjects reported indoor remodeling in the recent 24 months, and among them 17 subjects reported indoor remodeling in the recent 12 months. Compared with participants with no history of indoor remodeling, participants with a history of indoor remodeling in the recent 24 months were more than three times as likely to have poor sperm quality (adjusted odds ratio = 3.8, 95% confidence interval: 1.3-12.0 after controlling for potential confounders. The association was strengthened when the analysis was restricted to those who had indoor remodeling in the recent 12 months. Our findings provide preliminary evidence that indoor remodeling has an adverse effect on semen quality.

  14. Professionals' perspectives towards health promotion in residential aged care: an explorative study in Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marent, Benjamin; Wieczorek, Christina C; Krajic, Karl

    2018-04-01

    Following the trend in most developed countries, in Austria the oldest old are the fastest growing population group. Among this group, there is a high prevalence of multimorbidity, functional impairment, dementia and psychiatric conditions. While health promotion (HP) has been considered relevant in coping with the challenges of an aging population, it has so far been viewed as a foreign concept in relation to the oldest old, especially those living in residential aged care (RAC) facilities. Although there is an acknowledgement that HP should be integrated into routine nursing, there has been little research on how professionals working with RAC interpret and implement HP. In this study, 13 semi-structured interviews were carried out with professionals from four major Austrian RAC providers. The data were analysed using thematic analysis. The findings show that, typically, professionals understand HP as a concept that is oriented towards maintaining potentials and resources, thereby promoting self-determination, autonomy and social integration, including frail and functionally impaired elderly residents. However, data analysis also revealed a gap between the conceptual understanding and positive attitudes towards HP and its implementation in practice. Implementation of HP seems to occur in isolated cases, related to specific health issues. It seems that more complex HP approaches, especially the 'settings approach', are hardly practiced. To implement more comprehensive and systematic HP in Austrian RAC, support from external HP agencies as well as changes in financial incentives are needed.

  15. Implementing nutrition guidelines for older people in residential care homes: a qualitative study using Normalization Process Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bamford Claire

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Optimizing the dietary intake of older people can prevent nutritional deficiencies and diet-related diseases, thereby improving quality of life. However, there is evidence that the nutritional intake of older people living in care homes is suboptimal, with high levels of saturated fat, salt, and added sugars. The UK Food Standards Agency therefore developed nutrient- and food-based guidance for residential care homes. The acceptability of these guidelines and their feasibility in practice is unknown. This study used the Normalization Process Theory (NPT to understand the barriers and facilitators to implementing the guidelines and inform future implementation. Methods We conducted a process evaluation in five care homes in the north of England using qualitative methods (observation and interviews to explore the views of managers, care staff, catering staff, and domestic staff. Data were analyzed thematically and discussed in data workshops; emerging themes were then mapped to the constructs of NPT. Results Many staff perceived the guidelines as unnecessarily restrictive and irrelevant to older people. In terms of NPT, the guidelines simply did not make sense (coherence, and as a result, relatively few staff invested in the guidelines (cognitive participation. Even where staff supported the guidelines, implementation was hampered by a lack of nutritional knowledge and institutional support (collective action. Finally, the absence of observable benefits to clients confirmed the negative preconceptions of many staff, with limited evidence of reappraisal following implementation (reflexive monitoring. Conclusions The successful implementation of the nutrition guidelines requires that the fundamental issues relating to their perceived value and fit with other priorities and goals be addressed. Specialist support is needed to equip staff with the technical knowledge and skills required for menu analysis and development and to

  16. Implementing nutrition guidelines for older people in residential care homes: a qualitative study using Normalization Process Theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Optimizing the dietary intake of older people can prevent nutritional deficiencies and diet-related diseases, thereby improving quality of life. However, there is evidence that the nutritional intake of older people living in care homes is suboptimal, with high levels of saturated fat, salt, and added sugars. The UK Food Standards Agency therefore developed nutrient- and food-based guidance for residential care homes. The acceptability of these guidelines and their feasibility in practice is unknown. This study used the Normalization Process Theory (NPT) to understand the barriers and facilitators to implementing the guidelines and inform future implementation. Methods We conducted a process evaluation in five care homes in the north of England using qualitative methods (observation and interviews) to explore the views of managers, care staff, catering staff, and domestic staff. Data were analyzed thematically and discussed in data workshops; emerging themes were then mapped to the constructs of NPT. Results Many staff perceived the guidelines as unnecessarily restrictive and irrelevant to older people. In terms of NPT, the guidelines simply did not make sense (coherence), and as a result, relatively few staff invested in the guidelines (cognitive participation). Even where staff supported the guidelines, implementation was hampered by a lack of nutritional knowledge and institutional support (collective action). Finally, the absence of observable benefits to clients confirmed the negative preconceptions of many staff, with limited evidence of reappraisal following implementation (reflexive monitoring). Conclusions The successful implementation of the nutrition guidelines requires that the fundamental issues relating to their perceived value and fit with other priorities and goals be addressed. Specialist support is needed to equip staff with the technical knowledge and skills required for menu analysis and development and to devise ways of evaluating

  17. Impact of Residential Mobility on Exposure Assessment in Longitudinal Air Pollution Studies: A Sensitivity Analysis within the ESCAPE Project

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Oudin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Exposure misclassification in longitudinal studies of air pollution exposure and health effects can occur due to residential mobility in a study population over followup. The aim of this study was to investigate to what extent residential mobility during followup can be expected to cause exposure misclassification in such studies, where exposure at the baseline address is used as the main exposure assessment. The addresses for each participant in a large population-based study (N>25,000 were obtained via national registers. We used a Land Use Regression model to estimate the NOx concentration for each participant's all addresses during the entire follow-up period (in average 14.6 years and calculated an average concentration during followup. The Land Use Regression model explained 83% of the variation in measured levels. In summary, the NOx concentration at the inclusion address was similar to the average concentration over followup with a correlation coefficient of 0.80, indicating that air pollution concentration at study inclusion address could be used as indicator of average air pollution concentrations over followup. The differences between an individual's inclusion and average follow-up mean concentration were small and seemed to be nondifferential with respect to a large range of factors and disease statuses, implying that bias due to residential mobility was small.

  18. ïSCOPE: Safer care for older persons (in residential environments: A study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barnard Debbie

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The current profile of residents living in Canadian nursing homes includes elder persons with complex physical and social needs. High resident acuity can result in increased staff workload and decreased quality of work life. Aims Safer Care for Older Persons [in residential] Environments is a two year (2010 to 2012 proof-of-principle pilot study conducted in seven nursing homes in western Canada. The purpose of the study is to evaluate the feasibility of engaging front line staff to use quality improvement methods to integrate best practices into resident care. The goals of the study are to improve the quality of work life for staff, in particular healthcare aides, and to improve residents' quality of life. Methods/design The study has parallel research and quality improvement intervention arms. It includes an education and support intervention for direct caregivers to improve the safety and quality of their care delivery. We hypothesize that this intervention will improve not only the care provided to residents but also the quality of work life for healthcare aides. The study employs tools adapted from the Institute for Healthcare Improvement's Breakthrough Series: Collaborative Model and Canada's Safer Healthcare Now! improvement campaign. Local improvement teams in each nursing home (1 to 2 per facility are led by healthcare aides (non-regulated caregivers and focus on the management of specific areas of resident care. Critical elements of the program include local measurement, virtual and face-to-face learning sessions involving change management, quality improvement methods and clinical expertise, ongoing virtual and in person support, and networking. Discussion There are two sustainability challenges in this study: ongoing staff and leadership engagement, and organizational infrastructure. Addressing these challenges will require strategic planning with input from key stakeholders for sustaining quality improvement

  19. Modeling and parametric study of a 1 kWe HT-PEMFC-based residential micro-CHP system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arsalis, Alexandros; Nielsen, Mads Pagh; Kær, Søren Knudsen

    2011-01-01

    A detailed thermodynamic, kinetic and geometric model of a micro-CHP (Combined-Heatand-Power) residential system based on High Temperature-Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (HT-PEMFC) technology is developed, implemented and validated. HT-PEMFC technology is investigated as a possible candidate...... for fuel cell-based residential micro-CHP systems, since it can operate at higher temperature than Nafion-based fuel cells, and therefore can reach higher cogeneration efficiencies. The proposed system can provide electric power, hot water, and space heating for a typical Danish single-family household....... A complete fuel processing subsystem, with all necessary balance-of-plant components, is modeled and coupled to the fuel cell stack subsystem. The micro-CHP system’s synthesis/ design and operational pattern is analyzed by means of a parametric study. The parametric study is conducted to determine the most...

  20. A qualitative study exploring issues related to medication management in residential aged care facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Nizaruddin M

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Mariani Ahmad Nizaruddin, Marhanis-Salihah Omar, Adliah Mhd-Ali, Mohd Makmor-Bakry Faculty of Pharmacy, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Background: Globally, the population of older people is on the rise. As families are burdened with the high cost of care for aging members, demand is increasing for medical care and nursing homes. Thus, medication management is crucial to ensure that residents in a care center benefit and assist the management of the care center in reducing the burden of health care. This study is aimed to qualitatively explore issues related to medication management in residential aged care facilities (RACFs.Participants and methods: A total of 11 stakeholders comprising health care providers, administrators, caretakers and residents were recruited from a list of registered government, nongovernmental organization and private RACFs in Malaysia from September 2016 to April 2017. An exploratory qualitative study adhering to Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Studies was conducted. In-depth interview was conducted with consent of all participants, and the interviews were audio recorded for later verbatim transcription. Observational analysis was also conducted in a noninterfering manner.Results and discussion: Three themes, namely medication use process, personnel handling medications and culture, emerged in this study. Medication use process highlighted an unclaimed liability for residents’ medication by the RACFs, whereas personnel handling medications were found to lack sufficient training in medication management. Culture of the organization did affect the medication safety and quality improvement. The empowerment of the residents in their medication management was limited. There were unclear roles and responsibility of who manages the medication in the nongovernment-funded RACFs, although they were well structured in the private nursing homes.Conclusion: There are important issues

  1. A qualitative study exploring issues related to medication management in residential aged care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Nizaruddin, Mariani; Omar, Marhanis-Salihah; Mhd-Ali, Adliah; Makmor-Bakry, Mohd

    2017-01-01

    Globally, the population of older people is on the rise. As families are burdened with the high cost of care for aging members, demand is increasing for medical care and nursing homes. Thus, medication management is crucial to ensure that residents in a care center benefit and assist the management of the care center in reducing the burden of health care. This study is aimed to qualitatively explore issues related to medication management in residential aged care facilities (RACFs). A total of 11 stakeholders comprising health care providers, administrators, caretakers and residents were recruited from a list of registered government, nongovernmental organization and private RACFs in Malaysia from September 2016 to April 2017. An exploratory qualitative study adhering to Consolidated Criteria for Reporting Qualitative Studies was conducted. In-depth interview was conducted with consent of all participants, and the interviews were audio recorded for later verbatim transcription. Observational analysis was also conducted in a noninterfering manner. Three themes, namely medication use process, personnel handling medications and culture, emerged in this study. Medication use process highlighted an unclaimed liability for residents' medication by the RACFs, whereas personnel handling medications were found to lack sufficient training in medication management. Culture of the organization did affect the medication safety and quality improvement. The empowerment of the residents in their medication management was limited. There were unclear roles and responsibility of who manages the medication in the nongovernment-funded RACFs, although they were well structured in the private nursing homes. There are important issues related to medication management in RACFs which require a need to establish policy and guidelines.

  2. Residential characteristics and household risk factors and respiratory diseases in Chinese women: The Seven Northeast Cities (SNEC) Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dong, Guang-Hui; Qian, Zhengmin; Wang, Jing; Trevathan, Edwin; Ma, Wenjun; Chen, Weiqing; Xaverius, Pamela K.; Buckner-Petty, Skye; Ray, Asheesh; Liu, Miao-Miao; Wang, Da; Ren, Wan-Hui; Emo, Brett; Chang, Jen-Jen

    2013-01-01

    Background: Few studies have assessed the impact of residential home characteristics and home environmental risk factors on respiratory diseases in Chinese women. Therefore, this study sought to determine the association between residential home features, domestic pets, home renovation and other indoor environmental risk factors with respiratory health outcomes of Chinese women. Methods: This cross-sectional study included a study sample of 30,780 Chinese women aged 23 to 49 from 25 districts of seven cities in Liaoning Province, Northeast China. Information on respiratory health, residential characteristics, and indoor air pollution sources was obtained by a standard questionnaire from the American Thoracic Society. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate prevalence odds ratios (POR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI). Results: The odds of respiratory diseases were higher for those who lived near the main road, or near ambient air pollution sources. Pet-keeping was associated with increased odds of chronic bronchitis (POR = 1.40; 95%CI: 1.09–1.81) and doctor-diagnosed asthma (POR = 2.07; 95%CI: 1.18–3.64). Additionally, humidifier use was associated with increased odds of chronic bronchitis (POR = 1.44; 95%CI: 1.07–1.94). Home renovation in recent 2 years was associated with increased likelihood of allergic rhinitis (POR = 1.39; 95%CI 1.17–1.64). Conclusion: Home renovation and residential home environmental risk factors were associated with an increased likelihood of respiratory morbidity among Chinese women. - Highlights: • Relatively few significant associations were observed. • Pet ownership was associated with increased odds of asthma and chronic bronchitis. • Home renovation was associated with increased odds of allergic rhinitis in women. • Humidifier use was associated with increased odds of chronic bronchitis in women

  3. Residential characteristics and household risk factors and respiratory diseases in Chinese women: The Seven Northeast Cities (SNEC) Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Guang-Hui [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning Province 110001 (China); Department of Occupational and Environmental Health, School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning Province 110001 (China); Qian, Zhengmin, E-mail: zqian2@slu.edu [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, MO 63104 (United States); Wang, Jing [Department of Biostatistics, School of Public Health, Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, MO 63104 (United States); Trevathan, Edwin [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, MO 63104 (United States); Ma, Wenjun [Guangdong Provincial Institute of Public Health, Guangdong Provincial Center for Disease Control and Prevention, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province 510300 (China); Chen, Weiqing [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080 (China); Xaverius, Pamela K.; Buckner-Petty, Skye; Ray, Asheesh [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, MO 63104 (United States); Liu, Miao-Miao; Wang, Da [Department of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, School of Public Health, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning Province 110001 (China); Ren, Wan-Hui [Department of Ambient Air Pollution Monitor, Shenyang Environmental Monitoring Center, Shenyang, Liaoning Province 110014 (China); Emo, Brett [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health School of Public Health, Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, MO 63104 (United States); Chang, Jen-Jen [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Saint Louis University, Saint Louis, MO 63104 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    Background: Few studies have assessed the impact of residential home characteristics and home environmental risk factors on respiratory diseases in Chinese women. Therefore, this study sought to determine the association between residential home features, domestic pets, home renovation and other indoor environmental risk factors with respiratory health outcomes of Chinese women. Methods: This cross-sectional study included a study sample of 30,780 Chinese women aged 23 to 49 from 25 districts of seven cities in Liaoning Province, Northeast China. Information on respiratory health, residential characteristics, and indoor air pollution sources was obtained by a standard questionnaire from the American Thoracic Society. Multivariable logistic regression was used to estimate prevalence odds ratios (POR) and 95% confidence interval (95%CI). Results: The odds of respiratory diseases were higher for those who lived near the main road, or near ambient air pollution sources. Pet-keeping was associated with increased odds of chronic bronchitis (POR = 1.40; 95%CI: 1.09–1.81) and doctor-diagnosed asthma (POR = 2.07; 95%CI: 1.18–3.64). Additionally, humidifier use was associated with increased odds of chronic bronchitis (POR = 1.44; 95%CI: 1.07–1.94). Home renovation in recent 2 years was associated with increased likelihood of allergic rhinitis (POR = 1.39; 95%CI 1.17–1.64). Conclusion: Home renovation and residential home environmental risk factors were associated with an increased likelihood of respiratory morbidity among Chinese women. - Highlights: • Relatively few significant associations were observed. • Pet ownership was associated with increased odds of asthma and chronic bronchitis. • Home renovation was associated with increased odds of allergic rhinitis in women. • Humidifier use was associated with increased odds of chronic bronchitis in women.

  4. Maternal residential proximity to chlorinated solvent emissions and birth defects in offspring: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brender, Jean D; Shinde, Mayura U; Zhan, F Benjamin; Gong, Xi; Langlois, Peter H

    2014-11-19

    Some studies have noted an association between maternal occupational exposures to chlorinated solvents and birth defects in offspring, but data are lacking on the potential impact of industrial air emissions of these solvents on birth defects. With data from the Texas Birth Defects Registry for births occurring in 1996-2008, we examined the relation between maternal residential proximity to industrial air releases of chlorinated solvents and birth defects in offspring of 60,613 case-mothers and 244,927 control-mothers. Maternal residential exposures to solvent emissions were estimated with metrics that took into account residential distances to industrial sources and annual amounts of chemicals released. Logistic regression was used to generate odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals for the associations between residential proximity to emissions of 14 chlorinated solvents and selected birth defects, including neural tube, oral cleft, limb deficiency, and congenital heart defects. All risk estimates were adjusted for year of delivery and maternal age, education, race/ethnicity, and public health region of residence. Relative to exposure risk values of 0, neural tube defects were associated with maternal residential exposures (exposure risk values >0) to several types of chlorinated solvents, most notably carbon tetrachloride (adjusted odds ratio [aOR] 1.42, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.09, 1.86); chloroform (aOR 1.40, 95% CI 1.04, 1.87); ethyl chloride (aOR 1.39, 95% CI 1.08, 1.79); 1,1,2-trichloroethane (aOR 1.56, 95% CI 1.11, 2.18); and 1,2,3-trichloropropane (aOR 1.49, 95% CI 1.08, 2.06). Significant associations were also noted between a few chlorinated solvents and oral cleft, limb deficiency, and congenital heart defects. We observed stronger associations between some emissions and neural tube, oral cleft, and heart defects in offspring of mothers 35 years or older, such as spina bifida with carbon tetrachloride (aOR 2.49, 95% CI 1.09, 5.72), cleft palate

  5. Practice leadership and active support in residential services for people with intellectual disabilities: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beadle-Brown, J; Mansell, J; Ashman, B; Ockenden, J; Iles, R; Whelton, B

    2014-09-01

    We hypothesised that a key factor determining the quality of active support was 'practice leadership' - provided by the first-line manager to focus staff attention and develop staff skills in providing direct support to enable people with intellectual disabilities to have a good quality of life. This exploratory study focused on what levels of practice leadership were found and its role in explaining variation in active support. Relevant aspects of management, including practice leadership, were assessed by questionnaires administered to staff in residential settings alongside observational measures of active support and resident engagement in meaningful activity. Relationships between these variables were explored using regression and post hoc group comparisons. There was wide variation, with average levels of practice leadership being low, though improving over the period studied. Practice leadership had a significant impact on active support, but was fully mediated by the effect of quality of management. When the quality of management was higher better practice leadership did produce a significant difference in active support. However, higher quality of management on its own did not produce better active support. A number of limitations are acknowledged and further research is required. Practice leadership appears to be an important factor in enabling staff to provide active support but as part of generally good management. Given the rather low levels found, attention needs to be given to the training, career development and support of practice leaders and also to how to protect their time from their many other responsibilities. © 2013 MENCAP and International Association of the Scientific Study of Intellectual and Developmental Disabilities and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Changes in walking, body mass index, and cardiometabolic risk factors following residential relocation: Longitudinal results from the CARDIA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Lindsay M; Rodriguez, Daniel A; Song, Yan; Meyer, Katie A; Lewis, Cora E; Reis, Jared P; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2016-12-01

    While many studies have found the built environment to be associated with walking, most have used cross-sectional research designs and few have examined more distal cardiometabolic outcomes. This study contributes longitudinal evidence based on changes in walking, body mass index (BMI), and cardiometabolic risk following residential relocation. We examined 1,079 participants in the CARDIA study who moved residential locations between 2000 and 2006 (ages 32-46 in 2000, 49% white/51% black, 55% female). We created a walkability index from measures of population density, street connectivity, and food and physical activity resources, measured at participants' pre- and post-move residential locations. Outcomes measured before and after the move included walking, BMI, waist circumference, blood pressure, insulin resistance, triglycerides, cholesterol, atherogenic dyslipidemia, and C-reactive protein. Fixed effects (FE) models were used to estimate associations between within-person change in walkability and within-person change in each outcome. These estimates were compared to those from random effects (RE) models to assess the implications of unmeasured confounding. In FE models, a one-SD increase in walkability was associated with a 0.81 mmHg decrease in systolic blood pressure [95% CI: (-1.55, -0.07)] and a 7.36 percent increase in C-reactive protein [95% CI: (0.60, 14.57)]. Although several significant associations were observed in the RE models, Hausman tests suggested that these estimates were biased for most outcomes. RE estimates were most commonly biased away from the null or in the opposite direction of effect as the FE estimates. Greater walkability was associated with lower blood pressure and higher C-reactive protein in FE models, potentially reflecting competing health risks and benefits in dense, walkable environments. RE models tended to overstate or otherwise misrepresent the relationship between walkability and health. Approaches that base estimates on

  7. Micro grants as a stimulus for community action in residential health programmes: a case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, M.; Plochg, T.; Harting, J.; Klazinga, N. S.; Stronks, K.

    2009-01-01

    This paper aimed to explore the contribution of a micro grant financing scheme to community action in terms of residential health-promoting initiatives, interorganizational collaboration and public participation. The scheme was two-fold, consisting of (i) micro grants of 500-3500 Euros, which were

  8. Visual and functional components of the built environment: a case study of urban residential neighborhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher J. Smith

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that visual and functional characteristics of neighborhoods influence the psychological well-being of residents was tested. An informal test by a survey of advertising strategies for selling real estate was first used. Second, data from a variety of published sources were used to identify some of the underlying dimensions of residential neighborhoods The...

  9. Residential Knowledge of Native Tree Species: A Case Study of Residents in Four Southern Ontario Municipalities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almas, Andrew D.; Conway, Tenley M.

    2017-01-01

    In the past decade, municipalities across North America have increased investment in their urban forests in an effort to maintain and enhance the numerous benefits provided by them. Some municipalities have now drafted long-term urban forest management plans that emphasize the planting of native trees, to improve ecological integrity, and participation of residents, since the majority of urban trees are typically located on residential property. Yet it is unclear if residents are familiar with native trees or municipalities' urban forest management goals. Through a case study of southern Ontario municipalities, we administered a survey exploring residents' ability to correctly label common tree species as native or non-native, as well as their knowledge of urban forest management plans to test four hypotheses: 1) residents in municipalities with an urban forest management plans will be more knowledgeable about the native status of common street trees; 2) residents who have lived in the area longer will have greater knowledge; 3) knowledge level will be correlated with education level, ethnicity, and income; and 4) residents' knowledge will be related to having planted trees on their property. Our results indicate that residents are better able to identify common native trees than correctly determine which trees are non-native, although knowledge levels are generally low. Knowledge was significantly related to length of residency and tree planting experience, supporting hypotheses 2 and 4. These results highlight the importance of experience and local knowledge acquisition in relation to basic knowledge about urban trees, and also point to the failures of resident outreach within the case study municipalities.

  10. Prioritizing investment in residential energy efficiency and renewable energy-A case study for the U.S. Midwest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brecha, R.J.; Mitchell, A.; Hallinan, K.; Kissock, K.

    2011-01-01

    Residential building energy use is an important contributor to greenhouse gas emissions and in the United States represents about 20% of total energy consumption. A number of previous macro-scale studies of residential energy consumption and energy-efficiency improvements are mainly concerned with national or international aggregate potential savings. In this paper we look into the details of how a collection of specific homes in one region might reduce energy consumption and carbon emissions, with particular attention given to some practical limits to what can be achieved by upgrading the existing residential building stock. Using a simple model of residential, single-family home construction characteristics, estimates are made for the efficacy of (i) changes to behavioral patterns that do not involve building shell modifications; (ii) straightforward air-infiltration mitigation measures, and (iii) insulation measures. We derive estimates of net lifetime savings resulting from these measures, in terms of energy, carbon emissions and dollars. This study points out explicitly the importance of local and regional patterns in decision-making about what fraction of necessary regional or national emissions reduction might be accomplished through energy-efficiency measures and how much might need to concentrate more heavily on renewable or other carbon-free sources of energy. - Highlights: → Macro-scale estimates of building energy efficiency measures are not adequate for implementing policy decisions. → Measures taken to implement building energy efficiency upgrades will likely encounter practical limits given the existing building stock. → Energy efficiency measures combined with increases in renewable energy use will be necessary for climate change mitigation. → Regional and local variations in building energy use must be taken into account in energy and climate policy.

  11. [A pilot study on pain assessment among elderly with severe dementiain residential aged care facilities of Reggio Emilia district].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargellini, Annalisa; Mastrangelo, Stefano; Cervi, Monica; Bagnasco, Michele; Reghizzi, Jlenia; Coriani, Sandra

    2017-01-01

    . A pilot study on pain assessment among elderly with severe dementia in residential aged care facilities of Reggio Emilia district. Despite the availability of pain assessment tools and best practice recommendations for the assessment and management of pain in people with severe dementia, pain in residential aged care facilities is still undetected or misinterpreted. To assess pain prevalence and analgesic load medication in people with severe cognitive impairment admitted to residential aged care facilities of Reggio Emilia (Italy) province. A pilot cross-sectional study was conducted on 84 elderly patients affected by severe dementia and resident in aged care facilities. Pain was assessed with the PAINAD observational scale, both at rest and during routine procedures: positioning in bed, from bed to standing position, from bed to chair or during the medication of a pressure sore (under challenge). 33.4% of patients had pain at rest, mainly mild, and 86.9 % under challenge. During routine interventions, in 64 patients (76.2%) pain increased compared to at rest condition (for 39, 2/3, moderate-severe); although 46 of them were prescribed as-required analgesic medication, none had received the drug. Also patients with analgesics on regular basis experienced more pain during routine procedures. Many patients experienced pain during routine procedures. The regular use of pain assessment tools and adequate training of all healthcare professionals are essential requirements for an effective pain control.

  12. Residential Proximity to Major Roadways Is Not Associated with Cardiac Function in African Americans: Results from the Jackson Heart Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Weaver

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cardiovascular disease (CVD, including heart failure, is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, particularly among African Americans. Exposure to ambient air pollution, such as that produced by vehicular traffic, is believed to be associated with heart failure, possibly by impairing cardiac function. We evaluated the cross-sectional association between residential proximity to major roads, a marker of long-term exposure to traffic-related pollution, and echocardiographic indicators of left and pulmonary vascular function in African Americans enrolled in the Jackson Heart Study (JHS: left ventricular ejection fraction, E-wave velocity, isovolumic relaxation time, left atrial diameter index, and pulmonary artery systolic pressure. We examined these associations using multivariable linear or logistic regression, adjusting for potential confounders. Of 4866 participants at study enrollment, 106 lived <150 m, 159 lived 150–299 m, 1161 lived 300–999 m, and 3440 lived ≥1000 m from a major roadway. We did not observe any associations between residential distance to major roads and these markers of cardiac function. Results were similar with additional adjustment for diabetes and hypertension, when considering varying definitions of major roadways, or when limiting analyses to those free from cardiovascular disease at baseline. Overall, we observed little evidence that residential proximity to major roads was associated with cardiac function among African Americans.

  13. Socioeconomic residential segregation and public housing policies. An approach from the Program “Mi Casa, Mi Vida”. Case study in the city of Cordoba, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia Molinatti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the possible effects of the housing program “Mi Casa, Mi Vida” in socioeconomic residential segregation in the city of Córdoba (Argentina. These effects are estimated from the study of the socioeconomic residential composition (before and after the implementation of the program, the mapping of residential movements generated by the program and the application of bivariate autocorrelation techniques. Among the key findings, most of the program beneficiaries are concentrated in poor areas surrounded by others in similar conditions. This fact favors the existence of a large cluster of poverty in the peripheries of the city and promotes marginalization and social exclusion.

  14. Perceived annoyance from environmental odors and association with atmospheric ammonia levels in non-urban residential communities: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanes-Vidal Victoria

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective Odor exposure is an environmental stressor that is responsible of many citizens complains about air pollution in non-urban areas. However, information about the exposure-response relation is scarce. One of the main challenges is to identify a measurable compound that can be related with odor annoyance responses. We investigated the association between regional and temporal variation of ammonia (NH3 concentrations in five Danish non-urban regions and environmental odor annoyance as perceived by the local residents. Methods A cross-sectional study where NH3 concentration was obtained from the national air quality monitoring program and from emission-dispersion modelling, and odor pollution perception from questionnaires. The exposure-response model was a sigmoid model. Linear regression analyses were used to estimate the model constants after equation transformations. The model was validated using leave-one-out cross validation (LOOCV statistical method. Results About 45% of the respondents were annoyed by odor pollution at their residential areas. The perceived odor was characterized by all respondents as animal waste odor. The exposure-annoyance sigmoid model showed that the prevalence of odor annoyance was significantly associated with NH3 concentrations (measured and estimated at the local air quality monitoring stations (p 2 = 0.99; and p 2 = 0.93; respectively. Prediction errors were below 5.1% and 20% respectively. The seasonal pattern of odor perception was associated with the seasonal variation in NH3 concentrations (p 2 = 0.68. Conclusion The results suggest that atmospheric NH3 levels at local air quality stations could be used as indicators of prevalence of odor annoyance in non-urban residential communities.

  15. Residential energy-tax-credit eligibility: a case study for the heat-pump water heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohn, S M; Cardell, N S

    1982-09-01

    Described are the methodology and results of an analysis to determine the eligibility of an energy-efficient item for the residential energy-tax credit. Although energy credits are granted only on a national basis, an attempt to determine the tax-credit eligibility for an item such as the heat-pump water heater (HPWH) analyzing national data is inappropriate. The tax-credit eligibility of the HPWH is evaluated for the ten federal regions to take into consideration the regional differences of: (1) HPWH annual efficiency, (2) existing water heater stocks by fuel type, (3) electricity, fuel oil, and natural-gas price variations, and (4) electric-utility oil and gas use for electricity generation. A computer model of consumer choice of HPWH selection as well as a computer code evaluating the economics of tax-credit eligibility on a regional basis were developed as analytical tools for this study. The analysis in this report demonstrates that the HPWH meets an important criteria for eligibility by the Treasury Department for an energy tax credit (nationally, the estimated dollar value of savings of oil and gas over the lifetime of those HPWH's sold during 1981 to 1985 due to the tax credit exceeds the revenue loss to the treasury). A natural-gas price-deregulation scenario is one of two fuel scenarios that are evaluated using the equipment choice and tax-credit models. These two cases show the amounts of oil and gas saved by additional HPWH units sold (due to the tax credit during 1981 to 1985 (range from 13.9 to 23.1 million barrels of oil equivalent over the lifetime of the equipment.

  16. Residential Exposure to Road and Railway Noise and Risk of Prostate Cancer: A Prospective Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roswall, Nina; Eriksen, Kirsten T; Hjortebjerg, Dorrit; Jensen, Steen S; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Sørensen, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Few modifiable risk factors for prostate cancer are known. Recently, disruption of the circadian system has been proposed to affect risk, as it entails an inhibited melatonin production, and melatonin has demonstrated beneficial effects on cancer inhibition. This suggests a potential role of traffic noise in prostate cancer. Road traffic and railway noise was calculated for all present and historical addresses from 1987-2010 for a cohort of 24,473 middle-aged, Danish men. During follow-up, 1,457 prostate cancer cases were identified. We used Cox Proportional Hazards Models to calculate the association between noise exposure and incident prostate cancer. Incidence Rate Ratios (IRR) were calculated as crude and adjusted for smoking status, education, socioeconomic position, BMI, waist circumference, physical activity, calendar year, and traffic noise from other sources than the one investigated. There was no association between residential road traffic noise and risk of prostate cancer for any of the three exposure windows: 1, 5 or 10-year mean noise exposure before prostate cancer diagnosis. This result persisted when stratifying cases by aggressiveness. For railway noise, there was no association with overall prostate cancer. There was no statistically significant effect modification by age, education, smoking status, waist circumference or railway noise, on the association between road traffic noise and prostate cancer, although there seemed to be a suggestion of an association among never smokers (IRR: 1.16; 95% CI: 1.00-1.36). The present study does not support an overall association between either railway or road traffic noise and overall prostate cancer.

  17. Preliminary study on influences of radioactivity of residential granite building materials upon parent mice and their offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Minyi; Zhang Jinghong; Zhu Weiyun; Li Yinyan; Liang Yongqing; Zhang Songshuan; Zhu Daming; Li Jinlin; Lu Qingpu

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effects of radioactivity of the residential granite building materials on the survival and fertility of mice. Methods: The radioactivities of A, B, C, and D granite building materials were measured and screened by gamma-ray spectrometer, and then these materials were placed into the mice cages. The residential radon was measured with solid state nuclear track detector's and 24-hour continuous measurement. Ninety-six healthy and ablactated mice were randomly selected and put into the four animal cages with different levels of radioactivity, and fed for 120 days. Mice mated and bred naturally. The fertilities and survivals of P, F 1 , and F 2 generation were observed and analyzed. Results: External exposures in the four mice cages were higher than those from the internal exposure. The differences of rates of pregnancy, abortion, and infertility between the P and F 1 generations had no statistical significance among all the groups after being fed for 120 days (P>0.05). There was significant difference among each group in the fertility of F 1 generation (P< 0.001), and the survival rates of the offspring were decreased with increase of radioactivity in granite building materials (P<0.001). Conclusion: Compared with the residential radon, the gamma rays released from the granite building materials had a greater influence on animals. The study suggested that different granite building materials had different influences on the survival and fertility of mice. (authors)

  18. The impact of area residential property values on self-rated health: A cross-sectional comparative study of Seattle and Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfeng Jiao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the impact of area residential property values, an objective measure of socioeconomic status (SES, on self-rated health (SRH in Seattle, Washington and Paris, France. This study brings forth a valuable comparison of SRH between cities that have contrasting urban forms, population compositions, residential segregation, food systems and transportation modes. The SOS (Seattle Obesity Study was based on a representative sample of 1394 adult residents of Seattle and King County in the United States. The RECORD Study (Residential Environment and Coronary Heart Disease was based on 7131 adult residents of Paris and its suburbs in France. Socio-demographics, SRH and body weights were obtained from telephone surveys (SOS and in-person interviews (RECORD. All home addresses were geocoded using ArcGIS 9.3.1 (ESRI, Redlands, CA. Residential property values were obtained from tax records (Seattle and from real estate sales (Paris. Binary logistic regression models were used to test the associations among demographic and SES variables and SRH. Higher area property values significantly associated with better SRH, adjusting for age, gender, individual education, incomes, and BMI. The associations were significant for both cities. A one-unit increase in body mass index (BMI was more detrimental to SRH in Seattle than in Paris. In both cities, higher area residential property values were related to a significantly lower obesity risk and better SRH. Ranked residential property values can be useful for health and weight studies, including those involving social inequalities and cross-country comparisons.

  19. A qualitative study of transgender individuals? experiences in residential addiction treatment settings: stigma and inclusivity

    OpenAIRE

    Lyons, Tara; Shannon, Kate; Pierre, Leslie; Small, Will; Kr?si, Andrea; Kerr, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Background While considerable research has been undertaken on addiction treatment, the experiences of transgender individuals who use drugs are rarely explored in such research, as too often transgender individuals are excluded entirely or grouped with those of sexual minority groups. Consequently, little is known about the treatment experiences in this population. Thus, we sought to qualitatively investigate the residential addiction treatment experiences of transgender individuals who us...

  20. Residential Energy Performance Metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Wright

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Techniques for residential energy monitoring are an emerging field that is currently drawing significant attention. This paper is a description of the current efforts to monitor and compare the performance of three solar powered homes built at Missouri University of Science and Technology. The homes are outfitted with an array of sensors and a data logger system to measure and record electricity production, system energy use, internal home temperature and humidity, hot water production, and exterior ambient conditions the houses are experiencing. Data is being collected to measure the performance of the houses, compare to energy modeling programs, design and develop cost effective sensor systems for energy monitoring, and produce a cost effective home control system.

  1. Metrics for monitoring cancer inequities: residential segregation, the Index of Concentration at the Extremes (ICE), and breast cancer estrogen receptor status (USA, 1992-2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krieger, Nancy; Singh, Nakul; Waterman, Pamela D

    2016-09-01

    To address the paucity of evidence on residential segregation and cancer, we explored their relationship using a new metric: the Index of Concentration at the Extremes (ICE). We focused on breast cancer estrogen receptor (ER) status, a biomarker associated with survival and, etiologically, with social and economic privilege. We obtained data from the 13 registry group of US Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) program for 1992-2012 on all women aged 25-84 who were diagnosed with primary invasive breast cancer (n = 516,382). We appended to each case's record her annual county median household income quintile and the quintile for her annual county value for ICE measures for income (≤20th vs. ≥80th household income quintile), race/ethnicity (black vs. white), and income plus race/ethnicity (low-income black vs. high-income white). The odds of being ER+ versus ER- were estimated in relation to the county-level income and ICE measures, adjusting for relevant covariates. Women in the most privileged versus deprived county quintile for household income and for all three ICE measures had a 1.1- to 1.3-fold increased odds (95 % confidence intervals excluding 1) of having an ER+ tumor. These results were robust to adjustment for age at diagnosis, cancer registry, tumor characteristics (tumor stage, size, histology, grade), and race/ethnicity. A focus on segregation offers news possibilities for understanding how inequitable group relations contribute to cancer inequities. The utility of employing the ICE for monitoring cancer inequities should be investigated in relation to other cancer outcomes.

  2. Residential Customer Enrollment in Time-based Rate and Enabling Technology Programs: Smart Grid Investment Grant Consumer Behavior Study Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, Annika [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cappers, Peter [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-05-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) Smart Grid Investment Grant (SGIG) program is working with a subset of the 99 SGIG projects undertaking Consumer Behavior Studies (CBS), which examine the response of mass market consumers (i.e., residential and small commercial customers) to time-varying electricity prices (referred to herein as time-based rate programs) in conjunction with the deployment of advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) and associated technologies. The effort presents an opportunity to advance the electric industry’s understanding of consumer behavior.

  3. Changes in Objectively-Determined Walkability and Physical Activity in Adults: A Quasi-Longitudinal Residential Relocation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Gavin R; McLaren, Lindsay; Salvo, Grazia; Blackstaffe, Anita

    2017-05-22

    Causal evidence for the built environment's role in supporting physical activity is needed to inform land use and transportation policies. This quasi-longitudinal residential relocation study compared within-person changes in self-reported transportation walking, transportation cycling, and overall physical activity during the past 12 months among adults who did and did not move to a different neighbourhood. In 2014, a random sample of adults from 12 neighbourhoods (Calgary, AB, Canada) with varying urban form and socioeconomic status provided complete self-administered questionnaire data ( n = 915). Participants, some of whom moved neighbourhood during the past 12 months ( n = 95), reported their perceived change in transportation walking and cycling, and overall physical activity during that period. The questionnaire also captured residential self-selection, and sociodemographic and health characteristics. Walk Scores ® were linked to each participant's current and previous neighbourhood and three groups identified: walkability "improvers" ( n = 48); "decliners" ( n = 47), and; "maintainers" ( n = 820). Perceived change in physical activity was compared between the three groups using propensity score covariate-adjusted Firth logistic regression (odds ratios: OR). Compared with walkability maintainers, walkability decliners (OR 4.37) and improvers (OR 4.14) were more likely ( p transportation walking since moving neighbourhood, while walkability decliners were also more likely (OR 3.17) to report decreasing their transportation walking since moving. Walkability improvers were more likely than maintainers to increase their transportation cycling since moving neighbourhood (OR 4.22). Temporal changes in neighbourhood walkability resulting from residential relocation appear to be associated with reported temporal changes in transportation walking and cycling in adults.

  4. Study of personnel monitoring programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guerra, Aline B.; Lorenzini, Fabiane; Carlos, Janaina; Bernasiuk, Maria E.B.; Rizzatti, Mara R.; Fuentefria, Jose L.B.

    1996-01-01

    Surveillance of several health institutions who use ionizing radiation sources, as well as data from the state of Rio Grande do Sul (Brazil) are studied concerning the use of personnel dosimeters. The results show that several institutions do not provide them and those which provide do not know how to use them

  5. Residential ozone and lung function in the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braeuner, Elvira V.; Karottki, Dorina Gabriela; Frederiksen, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Ground level ozone arises primarily from traffic, it is a powerful oxidant and its primary target organ is the lung. Most epidemiological studies reporting the health effects of ozone have estimated individual exposure from measurements obtained from outdoor monitors but surrogates of personal...... exposure may not adequately reflect personal exposures. Also, the main focus has been on infants and children. Our purpose was to assess associations between urban background ozone and indoor residential ozone levels as well as to investigate the effects of indoor residential ozone on lung function in 51...... elderly non-smokers. Indoor ozone was measured passively in homes, while urban background outdoor ozone was monitored continuously at a fixed monitoring station located on the roof of the 20-m high university H.C. Ørsteds campus building in a park area. Lung function was measured at baseline as well...

  6. Technology Solutions Case Study: Optimizing Hydronic System Performance in Residential Applications, Ithaca, New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2013-11-01

    Condensing boiler technology has been around for many years and has proven to be a durable, reliable method of heating. Based on previous research efforts, however, it is apparent that these types of systems are not designed and installed to achieve maximum efficiency. For example, in order to protect their equipment in the field, manufacturers of low-mass condensing boilers typically recommend design strategies and components that ensure steady, high flow rates through the heat exchangers, such as primary-secondary piping, which ultimately result in decreased efficiency. There is also a significant lack of information for contractors on how to configure these systems to optimize overall efficiency. In response to these findings, researchers from Building America team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings worked with industry partners to develop hydronic system designs that would address these issues and result in higher overall system efficiencies and improved response times.

  7. Spatial distribution of large income earners: an empirical study on the formation of exclusive residential districts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaizoji, Taisei

    2005-03-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate the statistical properties of the spatial distribution for each of the towns in Japan, of the number of large income earners living in them and their total income. Using a Japanese database of high-income taxpayers for two consecutive years, 1997 and 1998, we found that the complementary cumulative distribution functions of the number of large income earners and the total income of all of them for each of the towns is well described by a power-law distribution with an exponent close to 2. Our results show that large income earners tend to gravitate to a small number of towns, leading to the evolution of so-called high-class residential streets and neighborhoods.

  8. Are Housing Markets Decoupled? A Case Study of Residential Real Estate Affordability in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian PHILIPP

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Real estate arguably forms the most important asset to most households and the basis for their wealth. Around this context a model has been set up testing the relative affordability of real estate for the median household in Austria and the consequences of lower borrowing costs between 2004 and 2013 by vintage year. In this paper the hypothesis that the significant decline in base interest rates is not sufficient to offset the relative affordability loss caused by declining net household incomes and the simultaneous increase of real estate prices. To test this hypothesis a model has been set up comparing two different Housing Affordability Indices – one including and one excluding financing effects, having been compared via a multi factor model. Based on this calculation the author finds decreased base interest rates to offset relative affordability losses by only approximately 50%, verifying the hypothesis. The paper therefore argues for a potential decoupling of the residential housing market in Austria.

  9. Energy efficient of the residential buildings based climatic condition using experimental design: a case study in malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahraee Seyed Mojib

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, energy consumption has become a critical issue in the developed and developing countries. Residential buildings are one of the most users of energy in the construction sector that use the highest share of energy. This paper aims at evaluating the effect of four factors that are temperature, humidity, airflow and pressure on the cooling load in the residential buildings. To achieve this goal, statistical experimental design is used to determine the optimum setting of factors that result in optimum energy usage. Simulation software and energy analysis is used to simulate a two-storey building in Malaysia as the case of study. Final results showed that the temperature, humidity and interaction between them have the most significant effect on the energy cooling load. Moreover, to obtain the minimum value of cooling load the temperature and humidity should be equal to A=20 Celsius degree and B=60% respectively. In addition, the other two insignificant factors, airflow and pressure should be placed at the high level which are equal to C=3 cubic meters per hour, and D=6 Pascal (P respectively.

  10. A pilot neighborhood study towards establishing a benchmark for reducing electromagnetic field levels within single family residential dwellings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richman, Russell; Munroe, Alan James; Siddiqui, Yasmeen

    2014-01-01

    Electromagnetic fields (EMF) permeate the built environment in different forms and come from a number of sources including electrical wiring and devices, wireless communication, 'energy-efficient' lighting, and appliances. It can be present in the indoor environment directly from indoor sources, or can be transmitted through building materials from outside sources. Scientists have identified it as an indoor environmental pollutant or toxin that has ubiquitously plagued developed nations causing a variety of adverse health effects such as sick-building syndrome symptoms, asthma, diabetes, multiple sclerosis, leukemia, electro-hypersensitivity (EHS), behavior disorders, and more. There is currently no international consensus on guidelines and exposure limits. This paper presents the results of 29 EMF field audits in single family residential dwellings located within an urban neighborhood in Toronto (Canada). The following EMF spectra were evaluated: radio frequency, power frequency electric fields, power frequency magnetic fields and high frequency voltage transients. The field audits were conducted in order to provide initial baseline statistics to be used in future studies and in order to be compared to a low-cost EMF reduction design incorporated within the Renovation2050 research house - located within the test neighborhood. The results show the low-cost reduction strategy to be effective, on average reducing exposure by 80% for high-intensity EMF metrics. Research of this nature has not been conducted with relation to the built environment and can be used to spark an industry movement to design for low-exposure to EMF in a residential context. © 2013.

  11. Childhood residential mobility, schizophrenia, and bipolar disorder: a population-based study in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paksarian, Diana; Eaton, William W; Mortensen, Preben B; Pedersen, Carsten B

    2015-03-01

    Childhood adversity is gaining increasing attention as a plausible etiological factor in the development of psychotic disorders. Childhood residential mobility is a potential risk factor that has received little attention in this context. We used registry data to estimate associations of residential mobility with narrow and broad schizophrenia and bipolar disorder across the course of childhood among 1.1 million individuals born in Denmark 1971-1991 and followed from age 15 through 2010. We assessed effect modification by sex, family history of mental disorder, the presence of siblings close in age, and distance moved. In individual-year models adjusted for family history, urbanicity at birth, and parental age, mobility at all ages except the year of birth was associated with heightened risk of narrow and broad schizophrenia, and risk increased with age at moving and with the number of moves. Further adjustment for mobility at all ages 0-15 revealed associations mainly during the latter half of childhood, which were strongest during adolescence. Associations between mobility and bipolar disorder were fewer and weaker compared to schizophrenia. There was modest evidence of interaction with family history of psychiatric diagnosis, but little evidence for interaction by sex, the presence of closely-aged siblings, or distance moved. Schizophrenia associations did not appear attributable to increased mobility among adolescents with earlier onset. Mobility may increase risk for psychotic disorders, particularly schizophrenia. Children may be especially vulnerable during adolescence. Future research should investigate the importance of school changes and the potential for interaction with genetic risk. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center 2014. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  12. Investigate and Comparsion Self-Esteem and Happiness Among Residential and Non-Residential Old People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakieh Nasiri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The main aim of this study was to investigate and to compare elderly happiness and self-esteem among residential and non-residential. Methods & Materials: This research was designed as descriptive. Two groups were selected in convenience method. Member of residential elderly (416 elderly were chosen based on Morgan Table. Hundred-twenty elderly, 60 residential (30 men and 30 women and 60 non-residential (30 men and 30 women were chosen for study. Data used the three questionnaires, like Demographic questionnaires, Oxford Happiness Inventory and Self-esteem Scale’s Rozenberg. Data were gathered and analyzed with Pearson test, t-student test. Results: The results were indicated that a significant relationship between happiness and self-esteem, among residential and non- residential old people. The findings showed significant difference in happiness, self-esteem among residential and home participants in both groups (P<0.01. Conclusion: The results were showed that a significant relationship between social support and self-esteem, among residential and non-residential old people. Also, the results were indicated that significant difference between social support. In general, residential participants had lower social support and self-esteem than non-residential participants.

  13. Residential neighborhood, geographic work environment, and work economic sector: associations with body fat measured by bioelectrical impedance in the RECORD Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Antoine; Pannier, Bruno; Méline, Julie; Karusisi, Noëlla; Thomas, Frédérique; Chaix, Basile

    2014-03-01

    Studies of associations between geographic environment and obesity have mostly examined body mass index and focused on residential neighborhoods. We investigated associations between residential neighborhoods, geographic work environments, and work economic sectors and the fat mass index (FMI) and percentage of fat mass (%FM). Data on 4331 participants from the French RECORD Study geolocated at their residence and workplace were analyzed. Body composition was assessed by bioelectrical impedance analyzers. Multilevel linear regression was used to investigate the determinants of FMI and %FM. After adjustment, among men, the FMI and %FM increased independently with decreasing density of population and educational level in the residential neighborhood. Among women, the residential educational level was related to the FMI and %FM. Among men, a higher FMI and %FM were observed among participants working in the construction and transportation/communication sectors than in the education sector. For women, the FMI was higher among participants working in the public administration and health/social work sectors than in the transport/communication sector. A long home-work distance was associated with a higher FMI among women. There was evidence that body mass index cannot fully capture work economic sector effects on fat mass. Public health interventions to reduce social/territorial disparities in obesity should also consider the different contexts to which the participants belong, such as residential environments and work economic sectors. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Smoking and Looked-After Children: A Mixed-Methods Study of Policy, Practice, and Perceptions Relating to Tobacco Use in Residential Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Huddlestone

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Despite the implementation of smoke-free policies by local authorities and a statutory requirement to promote the health and well-being of looked-after children and young people in England, rates of tobacco use by this population are substantially higher than in the general youth population. A mixed-methods study, comprising a survey of residential care officers in 15 local authority-operated residential units and semi-structured, face-to-face interviews with residential carers in three local authority-operated residential units, was conducted in the East Midlands. Survey data were descriptively analysed; and interview data were transcribed and analysed using thematic framework analysis. Forty-two care officers (18% response rate completed the survey, and 14 participated in the interviews. Despite reporting substantial awareness of smoke-free policies, a lack of adherence and enforcement became apparent, and levels of reported training in relation to smoking and smoking cessation were low (21%. Potential problems relating to wider tobacco-related harms, such as exploitative relationships; a reliance on tacit knowledge; and pessimistic attitudes towards LAC quitting smoking, were indicated. The findings highlight the need for the development of comprehensive strategies to promote adherence to and enforcement of local smoke-free policy within residential units for looked-after children and young people, and to ensure appropriate support pathways are in place for this population.

  15. Wood products and other building materials used in new residential construction in Canada, with comparison to previous studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe Elling; David B. McKeever

    2015-01-01

    New residential construction is a critical driver of the demand for lumber, structural panels and engineered wood products in Canada. For the period 2010 through 2013, residential construction accounted for roughly 23 percent of the lumber consumed in Canada and 47 percent of structural panel usage. Insufficient data concerning imports and exports prevent estimates of...

  16. The lived experiences of resilience in Iranian adolescents living in residential care facilities: A hermeneutic phenomenological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manijeh Nourian

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Resilience is one of the main factors affecting human health, and perceiving its meaning for high-risk adolescents is of particular importance in initiating preventive measures and providing resilience care. Objectives: This qualitative study was conducted to explain the meaning of resilience in the lived experiences of Iranian adolescents living in governmental residential care facilities. Materials and methods: This study was conducted using the hermeneutic phenomenological method. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight adolescents aged 13–17 living in governmental residential care facilities of Tehran province affiliated to the Welfare Organization of Iran who articulated their experiences of resilience. Sampling lasted from May 2014 to July 2015 and continued until new themes were no longer emerging. The researchers analyzed the verbatim transcripts using Van Manen's six-step method of phenomenology. Results: The themes obtained in this study included “going through life's hardships,” “aspiring for achievement,” “self-protection,” “self-reliance,” and “spirituality.” Conclusion: Our study indicates that the meaning of resilience coexists with self-reliance in adolescents’ lived experiences. Adolescents look forward to a better future. They always trust God in the face of difficulties and experience resilience by keeping themselves physically and mentally away from difficulties. Adverse and bitter experiences of the past positively affected their positive view on life and its difficulties and also their resilience. The five themes that emerged from the findings describe the results in detail. The findings of this study enable nurses, health administrators, and healthcare providers working with adolescents to help this vulnerable group cope better with their stressful life conditions and improve their health through increasing their capacity for resilience.

  17. The lived experiences of resilience in Iranian adolescents living in residential care facilities: A hermeneutic phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nourian, Manijeh; Shahbolaghi, Farahnaz Mohammadi; Tabrizi, Kian Nourozi; Rassouli, Maryam; Biglarrian, Akbar

    2016-01-01

    Resilience is one of the main factors affecting human health, and perceiving its meaning for high-risk adolescents is of particular importance in initiating preventive measures and providing resilience care. This qualitative study was conducted to explain the meaning of resilience in the lived experiences of Iranian adolescents living in governmental residential care facilities. This study was conducted using the hermeneutic phenomenological method. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight adolescents aged 13-17 living in governmental residential care facilities of Tehran province affiliated to the Welfare Organization of Iran who articulated their experiences of resilience. Sampling lasted from May 2014 to July 2015 and continued until new themes were no longer emerging. The researchers analyzed the verbatim transcripts using Van Manen's six-step method of phenomenology. The themes obtained in this study included "going through life's hardships," "aspiring for achievement," "self-protection," "self-reliance," and "spirituality." Our study indicates that the meaning of resilience coexists with self-reliance in adolescents' lived experiences. Adolescents look forward to a better future. They always trust God in the face of difficulties and experience resilience by keeping themselves physically and mentally away from difficulties. Adverse and bitter experiences of the past positively affected their positive view on life and its difficulties and also their resilience. The five themes that emerged from the findings describe the results in detail. The findings of this study enable nurses, health administrators, and healthcare providers working with adolescents to help this vulnerable group cope better with their stressful life conditions and improve their health through increasing their capacity for resilience.

  18. STUDIES ON TOOL WEAR CONDITION MONITORING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüseyin Metin ERTUNÇ

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, wear mechanisms on cutting tools, especially for the drill bits, during the cutting operation have been investigated. As the importance of full automation in industry has gained substantial importance, tool wear condition monitoring during the cutting operation has been the subject of many investigators. Tool condition monitoring is very crucial in order to change the tool before breakage. Because tool breakage can cause considerable economical damage to both the machine tool and workpiece. In this paper, the studies on the monitoring of drill bit wear in literature have been introduced; the direct/indirect techniques used and sensor fusion techniques have been summarized. The methods which were proposed to determine tool wear evolution as processing the sensor signals collected have been provided and their references have been given for detailed information.

  19. Cost-competitiveness of organic photovoltaics for electricity self-consumption at residential buildings: A comparative study of Denmark and Greece under real market conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chatzisideris, Marios Dimos; Laurent, Alexis; Christoforidis, Georgios C.

    2017-01-01

    To address sustainability challenges, photovoltaics (PV) are regarded as a promising renewable energy technology. Decreasing PV module costs and increasing residential electricity prices have made self-consumption of PV-generated electricity financially more attractive than exporting to the grid...... has not been evaluated under real market conditions, especially under PV self-consumption schemes. In this study, we investigate the self-consumption of electricity generation from conventional and organic PV systems installed at residential houses in two different countries, Denmark and Greece, under...... applying to all PV technologies show that PV systems installed at residential houses in Greece perform economically better than those in Denmark do in terms of self-sufficiency and gross electricity bill savings (i.e. excluding PV costs). Using the two country cases, which present very different settings...

  20. Mechanisms which help explain implementation of evidence-based practice in residential aged care facilities: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masso, Malcolm; McCarthy, Grace; Kitson, Alison

    2014-07-01

    The context for the study was a nation-wide programme in Australia to implement evidence-based practice in residential aged care, in nine areas of practice, using a wide range of implementation strategies and involving 108 facilities. The study drew on the experiences of those involved in the programme to answer the question: what mechanisms influence the implementation of evidence-based practice in residential aged care and how do those mechanisms interact? The methodology used grounded theory from a critical realist perspective, informed by a conceptual framework that differentiates between the context, process and content of change. People were purposively sampled and invited to participate in semi-structured interviews, resulting in 44 interviews involving 51 people during 2009 and 2010. Participants had direct experience of implementation in 87 facilities, across nine areas of practice, in diverse locations. Sampling continued until data saturation was reached. The quality of the research was assessed using four criteria for judging trustworthiness: credibility, transferability, dependability and confirmability. Data analysis resulted in the identification of four mechanisms that accounted for what took place and participants' experiences. The core category that provided the greatest understanding of the data was the mechanism On Common Ground, comprising several constructs that formed a 'common ground' for change to occur. The mechanism Learning by Connecting recognised the ability to connect new knowledge with existing practice and knowledge, and make connections between actions and outcomes. Reconciling Competing Priorities was an ongoing mechanism whereby new practices had to compete with an existing set of constantly shifting priorities. Strategies for reconciling priorities ranged from structured approaches such as care planning to more informal arrangements such as conversations during daily work. The mechanism Exercising Agency bridged the gap between

  1. Training of Residential Social Care Staff to Meet the Needs of Older People with Intellectual Disabilities who Develop Age-Related Health Problems: An Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Northway, Ruth; Jenkins, Robert; Holland-Hart, Daniella

    2017-09-01

    Despite awareness of the age related health needs of people with intellectual disabilities little is known regarding how residential social care staff are prepared to meet such needs. Data were gathered via semi-structured interviews from 14 managers of supported living settings. Transcripts were thematically analysed. Staff may work in supported living settings with no prior experience of care work, and previous knowledge/experience of supporting people in relation to their health is not required. Whilst health related training is provided there is a lack of specific training regarding healthy ageing, and training seems to be reactive to changing needs of tenants meaning that proactive monitoring for changes in health status may not occur. Whilst some training is provided for residential social care staff in relation to health and ageing a more proactive approach is required which should include a focus on healthy ageing. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Bioaerosols in residential micro-environments in low income countries: A case study from Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nasir, Zaheer Ahmad; Colbeck, Ian; Sultan, Sikander; Ahmed, Shakil

    2012-01-01

    Our knowledge of the concentrations of bioaerosols in residential micro-environments in low income countries is scanty. The present investigation was conducted to assess the culturable concentration and size distribution of bacteria, gram negative bacteria and fungi in two rural and an urban site in Pakistan. The highest indoor culturable bacteria concentration was found at Rural Site II (14,650 CFU/m 3 ) while the outdoor maximum occurred at the urban site (16,416 CFU/m 3 ). With reference to fungi, both indoor and outdoor concentrations were considerably higher at Rural Site I than the other sites. The size distribution of culturable bacteria at all sites showed greater variability than that of culturable fungi. At all sites more than the half (55–93%) of the culturable bacterial and fungal counts were observed in the respirable fraction ( 3 in the indoor environment. ► Elevated levels outdoors due to proximity to cattle and poor sanitary conditions. ► More that 50% of the bacterial and fungal aerosols were respirable. ► Possible increased respiratory exposure of inhabitants. - Bioaerosol concentrations up to 14,650 CFU/m 3 were measured in the indoor environment reflecting the proximity to cattle and poor sanitary conditions. These elevated levels pose a significant health risk.

  3. Complex analysis of energy efficiency in operated high-rise residential building: Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korniyenko Sergey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy conservation and human thermal comfort enhancement in buildings is a topical issue of modern architecture and construction. The innovative solution of this problem makes it possible to enhance building ecological and maintenance safety, to reduce hydrocarbon fuel consumption, and to improve life standard of people. The requirements to increase of energy efficiency in buildings should be provided at all the stages of building's life cycle that is at the stage of design, construction and maintenance of buildings. The research purpose is complex analysis of energy efficiency in operated high-rise residential building. Many actions for building energy efficiency are realized according to the project; mainly it is the effective building envelope and engineering systems. Based on results of measurements the energy indicators of the building during annual period have been calculated. The main reason of increase in heat losses consists in the raised infiltration of external air in the building through a building envelope owing to the increased air permeability of windows and balcony doors (construction defects. Thermorenovation of the building based on ventilating and infiltration heat losses reduction through a building envelope allows reducing annual energy consumption. Energy efficiency assessment based on the total annual energy consumption of building, including energy indices for heating and a ventilation, hot water supply and electricity supply, in comparison with heating is more complete. The account of various components in building energy balance completely corresponds to modern direction of researches on energy conservation and thermal comfort enhancement in buildings.

  4. Study protocol: A Montessori approach to dementia-related, non-residential respite services in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanna, Andrew; Donnelly, James; Aggar, Christina

    2018-03-27

    Given the social burden and significant cost of dementia care in Australia, finding evidence-based approaches that improve outcomes, maintain independence, and reduce the impact on patients and families is essential. Finding effective ways to train and assist the healthcare staff who support these individuals is also critical, as they are considered to be at risk of workplace stress, burnout, and other psychological disturbances which negatively affects standards of care. The current paper describes a protocol for evaluating the effects of a Montessori-based approach to dementia care, in non-residential respite centres. An 18 month prospective observational, cohort controlled design is suggested that will compare participants from a community respite service that has undergone a Montessori-based workplace culture change and those from a service that provides a person-centred 'care as usual' approach. To achieve this, the protocol includes the assessment of participants across multiple variables on a monthly basis including the cognitive, behavioural, and emotional functioning of clients with dementia, levels of caregiver burden experienced by informal carers, and burnout, compassion satisfaction and workplace engagement among respite staff. The protocol also employs a qualitative evaluation of program fidelity. This approach will provide further insight into the potential benefits of early intervention with Montessori approaches for persons living with dementia in the community, their caregivers, and the staff and volunteers who assist them. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Relation between residential radon concentrations and housing characteristics. The Cracow study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jedrychowski, W.; Flak, E.; Wesolowski, J.; Liu Kaishen

    1995-01-01

    The survey on indoor radon exposure was undertaken to explain whether the excess in lung cancer deaths in the Cracow city center may be attributed to this particular exposure. A total of 310 detectors was placed in households randomly chosen from three homogeneous strata of residential buildings. The first stratum included houses in the old city center constructed predominantly from stone bricks. The second stratum covered the city area with big apartment condominiums built from concrete blocks. The third stratum consisted of single family houses located in a suburban area. From each of these residency strata a random sample of an equal number of households was chosen, and the radon detectors were placed in households located at various levels of the buildings. The three-month radon sampling data were used to determine the distribution of various levels of radon in the households. In the measurement of radon exposure, Landauer α-track samplers were used. The data collected show that the type of building was the best single predictor of indoor radon concentrations. Other variables found to be associated significantly with indoor concentrations were the household level in the building and the house age. In general, residences with concrete slabs and dwellings with rarely-opened windows were found to have slightly higher radon concentrations. (author) 2 tabs., 15 refs

  6. Complex analysis of energy efficiency in operated high-rise residential building: Case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korniyenko, Sergey

    2018-03-01

    Energy conservation and human thermal comfort enhancement in buildings is a topical issue of modern architecture and construction. The innovative solution of this problem makes it possible to enhance building ecological and maintenance safety, to reduce hydrocarbon fuel consumption, and to improve life standard of people. The requirements to increase of energy efficiency in buildings should be provided at all the stages of building's life cycle that is at the stage of design, construction and maintenance of buildings. The research purpose is complex analysis of energy efficiency in operated high-rise residential building. Many actions for building energy efficiency are realized according to the project; mainly it is the effective building envelope and engineering systems. Based on results of measurements the energy indicators of the building during annual period have been calculated. The main reason of increase in heat losses consists in the raised infiltration of external air in the building through a building envelope owing to the increased air permeability of windows and balcony doors (construction defects). Thermorenovation of the building based on ventilating and infiltration heat losses reduction through a building envelope allows reducing annual energy consumption. Energy efficiency assessment based on the total annual energy consumption of building, including energy indices for heating and a ventilation, hot water supply and electricity supply, in comparison with heating is more complete. The account of various components in building energy balance completely corresponds to modern direction of researches on energy conservation and thermal comfort enhancement in buildings.

  7. Economic viability study of micro-cogeneration plants at residential scale; Estudo de viabilidade economica de plantas de micro-cogeracao em escala residencial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dutra, Jose Carlos Charamba; Ramalho e Soares, Ravi [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil); Michalewicz, Jacek Stanislaw [Centro Federal de Educacao Tecnologica de Pernambuco (CEFET-PE), Recife, RN (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    This paper presents the results of a technical and economical feasibility study for the use of micro cogeneration systems in residential scale, using natural gas as an energy source. It was considered two micro-cogeneration systems to meet demand of some types of fictitious establishment of commercial and residential plants, each with its advantages and disadvantages. The first system has as a main driving machine a micro turbine with a nominal capacity of 30 kw, the second one uses a gas motor-generator, with nominal capacity of 35 kw. (author)

  8. Combustion Products Monitor: Trade Study Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, William T.; Trowbridge, John B.

    2011-01-01

    Current combustion products monitoring on the International Space Station (ISS) uses a handheld device (Compound Specific Analyzer-Combustion Products, CSA-CP) containing electrochemical sensors used to measure the concentration of carbon monoxide (CO), hydrogen chloride (HCl), hydrogen cyanide (HCN), and oxygen (O2). The CO sensor in this device accounts for a well-known cross-sensitivity with hydrogen (H2), which is important, as ISS air can contain up to 100 ppm H2. Unfortunately, this current device is being discontinued, and due to space constraints, the new model cannot accommodate the size of the current CO sensor. Therefore, a trade study was conducted in order to determine which CO sensors on the market were available with compensation for H2, and which instruments used these sensors, while also measuring HCN, O2, and carbon dioxide (CO2). The addition of CO2 to the device is helpful, as current monitoring of this gas requires a second hand-held monitor. By providing a device that will monitor both combustion products and CO2, volume and up-mass can be reduced as these monitors are delivered to ISS.

  9. Scabies outbreaks in residential care homes: factors associated with late recognition, burden and impact. A mixed methods study in England.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewitt, K A; Nalabanda, A; Cassell, J A

    2015-05-01

    Scabies is an important public health problem in residential care homes. Delayed diagnosis contributes to outbreaks, which may be prolonged and difficult to control. We investigated factors influencing outbreak recognition, diagnosis and treatment, and staff experiences of outbreak control, identifying areas for intervention. We carried out a semi-structured survey of managers, affected residents and staff of seven care homes reporting suspected scabies outbreaks in southern England over a 6-month period. Attack rates ranged from 2% to 50%, and most cases had dementia (37/39, 95%). Cases were diagnosed clinically by GPs (59%) or home staff (41%), none by dermatologists. Most outbreaks were attributable to avoidably late diagnosis of the index case. Participants reported considerable challenges in managing scabies outbreaks, including late diagnosis and recognition of outbreaks; logistically difficult mass treatment; distressing treatment processes and high costs. This study demonstrates the need for improved support for care homes in detecting and managing these outbreaks.

  10. Large-Scale Urban Riots and Residential Segregation: A Case Study of the 1960s U.S. Riots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brazil, Noli

    2016-04-01

    Despite a well-established literature investigating race-related predictors of riot incidence, the racial aftermath of riots remains unexamined. In this study, I use the 1960s U.S. race riots to investigate trends in black residential segregation levels following large-scale riot activity in seven major U.S. cities. I use a novel approach--namely, synthetic control matching--to select a group of cities against which segregation trends can be compared. I find that levels of black segregation rose in 1970 for four of the seven cities, but these increases disappeared in 1980 and 1990 except in Detroit. These results mask differential trends at lower geographic levels: suburban neighborhoods in affected areas experienced larger and longer-term increases in segregation, particularly in traditionally hypersegregated cities in the Midwest and Northeast.

  11. Urban environment and well-being: cross-cultural studies on Perceived Residential Environment Quality Indicators (PREQIs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonaiuto, Marino; Fornara, Ferdinando; Alves, Susana; Ferreira, Ines; Mao, Yanhui; Moffat, Eva; Piccinin, Gloria; Rahimi, Leila

    2015-09-01

    Architectural and environmental psychology literature has shown the importance of urban design in provoking stress feelings or enhancing well-being and quality of life. The aim of this contribution is to show the main results of a set of cross-cultural survey studies concerning the perceived quality of urban features at the neighbourhood level. A questionnaire was used including the extended or the short version of the 11 scales measuring Perceived Residential Environment Quality Indicators (PREQIs), which cover architectural, social, functional, and contextual aspects. Both versions of PREQIs showed a similar factorial structure and a good (or at least acceptable) reliability across different geographical contexts, even though some differences emerged in those countries that are more distant from the Western linguistic and cultural milieu. The development of tools like PREQIs should increase a "user-centred" vision on urban issues.

  12. Feasibility study of a hybrid renewable energy system with geothermal and solar heat sources for residential buildings in South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Ju; Woo, Nam Sub; Jang, Sung Cheol; Choi, Jeong Ju

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the economic feasibility of a hybrid renewable energy system (HRES) that uses geothermal and solar heat sources for water heating, space heating, and space cooling in a residential building in Korea. A small-scale HRES consists of a geothermal heat pump for heating and cooling, solar collectors for hot water, a gas-fired backup boiler, and incidental facilities. To determine whether the Hares will produce any economic benefits for homeowners, an economic analysis is conducted to compare the Hares with conventional methods of space heating and cooling in Korea. The payback period of a small-scale Hares is predicted as a maximum of 9 yrs by life cycle costing based on a performance index compared with conventional systems. However, the payback period of large-scale HRES above 400 RT is 6 yrs to 7 yrs.

  13. Residential proximity to agricultural pesticide use and incidence of breast cancer in the California Teachers Study cohort

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reynolds, Peggy; Hurley, S.E.; Goldberg, D.E.; Yerabati, Sauda; Gunier, R.B.; Hertz, Andrew; Anton-Culver, Hoda; Bernstein, Leslie; Deapen, Dennis; Horn-Ross, P.L.; Peel, David; Pinder, Richard; Ross, R.K.; West, Dee; Wright, W.E.; Ziogas, Argyrios

    2004-01-01

    We examined the association between residential proximity to agricultural pesticide use and breast cancer incidence among members of the California Teachers Study cohort, a large study of professional school employees with extensive information on breast cancer risk factors, followed for cancer incidence since 1995. We identified 1552 invasive breast cancer cases, diagnosed between 1996 and 1999, among 114,835 cohort members. We used California Pesticide Use Reporting data to select pesticides for analysis based on use volume, carcinogenic potential, and exposure potential; a Geographic Information System was used to estimate pesticide applications within a half-mile radius of subjects' residences. We applied Cox proportional hazard models to estimate hazard rate ratios (HR) for selected pesticides, adjusting for age, race, and socioeconomic status. We saw no association between residential proximity to recent agricultural pesticide use and invasive breast cancer incidence. HR estimates for the highest compared to the lowest exposure categories for groups of agents were as follows: probable or likely carcinogens (1.07, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.86-1.32), possible or suggestive carcinogens (1.06, 95% CI: 0.87-1.29), mammary carcinogens (1.15, 95% CI: 0.90-1.48), and endocrine disruptors (1.03, 95% CI: 0.86-1.25). HR estimates for other groups and individual pesticides did not differ from unity, nor was there a trend for any groupings of or individual pesticides examined. Stratifying by menopausal status or family history of breast cancer did not substantially affect our results. Our analyses suggest that breast cancer incidence is not elevated in areas of recent, high agricultural pesticide use in California

  14. Space-time analysis of testicular cancer clusters using residential histories: a case-control study in Denmark.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantel D Sloan

    Full Text Available Though the etiology is largely unknown, testicular cancer incidence has seen recent significant increases in northern Europe and throughout many Western regions. The most common cancer in males under age 40, age period cohort models have posited exposures in the in utero environment or in early childhood as possible causes of increased risk of testicular cancer. Some of these factors may be tied to geography through being associated with behavioral, cultural, sociodemographic or built environment characteristics. If so, this could result in detectable geographic clusters of cases that could lead to hypotheses regarding environmental targets for intervention. Given a latency period between exposure to an environmental carcinogen and testicular cancer diagnosis, mobility histories are beneficial for spatial cluster analyses. Nearest-neighbor based Q-statistics allow for the incorporation of changes in residency in spatial disease cluster detection. Using these methods, a space-time cluster analysis was conducted on a population-wide case-control population selected from the Danish Cancer Registry with mobility histories since 1971 extracted from the Danish Civil Registration System. Cases (N=3297 were diagnosed between 1991 and 2003, and two sets of controls (N=3297 for each set matched on sex and date of birth were included in the study. We also examined spatial patterns in maternal residential history for those cases and controls born in 1971 or later (N= 589 case-control pairs. Several small clusters were detected when aligning individuals by year prior to diagnosis, age at diagnosis and calendar year of diagnosis. However, the largest of these clusters contained only 2 statistically significant individuals at their center, and were not replicated in SaTScan spatial-only analyses which are less susceptible to multiple testing bias. We found little evidence of local clusters in residential histories of testicular cancer cases in this Danish

  15. Space-time analysis of testicular cancer clusters using residential histories: a case-control study in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Chantel D; Nordsborg, Rikke B; Jacquez, Geoffrey M; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Meliker, Jaymie R

    2015-01-01

    Though the etiology is largely unknown, testicular cancer incidence has seen recent significant increases in northern Europe and throughout many Western regions. The most common cancer in males under age 40, age period cohort models have posited exposures in the in utero environment or in early childhood as possible causes of increased risk of testicular cancer. Some of these factors may be tied to geography through being associated with behavioral, cultural, sociodemographic or built environment characteristics. If so, this could result in detectable geographic clusters of cases that could lead to hypotheses regarding environmental targets for intervention. Given a latency period between exposure to an environmental carcinogen and testicular cancer diagnosis, mobility histories are beneficial for spatial cluster analyses. Nearest-neighbor based Q-statistics allow for the incorporation of changes in residency in spatial disease cluster detection. Using these methods, a space-time cluster analysis was conducted on a population-wide case-control population selected from the Danish Cancer Registry with mobility histories since 1971 extracted from the Danish Civil Registration System. Cases (N=3297) were diagnosed between 1991 and 2003, and two sets of controls (N=3297 for each set) matched on sex and date of birth were included in the study. We also examined spatial patterns in maternal residential history for those cases and controls born in 1971 or later (N= 589 case-control pairs). Several small clusters were detected when aligning individuals by year prior to diagnosis, age at diagnosis and calendar year of diagnosis. However, the largest of these clusters contained only 2 statistically significant individuals at their center, and were not replicated in SaTScan spatial-only analyses which are less susceptible to multiple testing bias. We found little evidence of local clusters in residential histories of testicular cancer cases in this Danish population.

  16. Study protocol: a randomised controlled trial testing the effectiveness of 'Op Volle Kracht' in Dutch residential care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeland, Martine M; Nijhof, Karin S; Vermaes, Ignace; Engels, Rutger C M E; Buitelaar, Jan K

    2015-07-21

    Although adolescents are often referred to residential treatment centres because of severe externalizing behaviours, a vast majority demonstrated comorbid symptoms of depression and anxiety. Covert internalizing symptoms in these adolescents might be easily unrecognized and therefore untreated. Adolescents with mild intellectual disability (MID) are overrepresented among youth with both externalizing and internalizing problems. There are yet few treatment programs available for adolescents with both externalizing and internalizing problems. The CBT-based resiliency program, Op Volle Kracht (OVK), which is based on the US Penn Resiliency Program (PRP), was adapted to suit the needs of adolescents with both externalizing and internalizing problems, either with or without MID, in Dutch residential treatment centres. The effectiveness of this group intervention program of eight sessions will be tested in a randomised controlled trial (RCT) with N = 182 adolescents aged 12-16, allocated to either the target intervention plus treatment as usual (OVK + TAU) or treatment as usual only (TAU). The main outcome variables include depressive symptoms (primary), anxiety, behavioural problems, and group therapeutic climate. Cognitive styles and coping styles will be included as possible mediators. Assessments take place at baseline (T1), one week before the start of the program (T2), immediately after the program (T3), and at three months follow-up (T4). The program assets include its wide implementation possibilities due to low costs, the short duration of the program and the delivery by group care workers, and its suitability for adolescents with MID. Further strengths of the present study design include its robust method (RCT), the ecological validity, and the inclusion of possible mediators of treatment effect. The program emphasizes individual risk factors for depression rather than social and family factors. Implications for practice and future research are

  17. Look who's talking : A Motivational Interviewing based observation study of one-on-one conversations between residential care workers and adolescents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eenshuistra, Annika; Harder, Annemiek T.; Van Zonneveld, Neeltje L.; Knorth, Erik J.

    Despite its relevance and effectiveness in adjoining fields, still surprisingly little attention has been paid to Motivational Interviewing (MI) in the context of residential youth care. This study aims to analyse observed interactions between adolescents and group care workers during one-on-one

  18. Drug Administration via Enteral Feeding Tube in Residential Care Facilities for Individuals with Intellectual Disability: A Focus Group Study on Guideline Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joos, Elke; Van Tongelen, Inge; Wijnants, Karen; Mehuys, Els; Van Bocxlaer, Jan; Remon, Jean Paul; Grypdonck, Maria; Van Winckel, Myriam; Boussery, Koen

    2016-01-01

    People with profound intellectual disabilities often receive medication through enteral feeding tube (EFT). In a previous study, we found that current guidelines concerning medication preparation and administration through EFT are often not followed in residential care facilities (RCFs) for individuals with intellectual disabilities. The present…

  19. The residential context and the division of household and childcare tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Meester, E.; Zorlu, A.; Mulder, C.H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports a study of the division of household and childcare tasks between partners from a time - space perspective. Data from the 2005 Netherlands Kinship Panel Study and the 2004 ABF Real Estate Monitor are used. The impact of the residential context on the division of household and

  20. The residential context and the division of household and child-caring tasks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Meester, E.; Zorlu, A.; Mulder, Clara H.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports a study of the division of household and childcare tasks between partners from a time – space perspective. Data from the 2005 Netherlands Kinship Panel Study and the 2004 ABF Real Estate Monitor are used. The impact of the residential context on the division of household and

  1. A prospective study to evaluate a residential community reintegration program for patients with chronic acquired brain injury

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurtsen, G.J.; Heugten, C.M. van; Martina, J.D.; Rietveld, A.C.; Meijer, R.; Geurts, A.C.H.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effects of a residential community reintegration program on independent living, societal participation, emotional well-being, and quality of life in patients with chronic acquired brain injury and psychosocial problems hampering societal participation. DESIGN: A prospective

  2. Study protocol: a randomised controlled trial testing the effectiveness of 'Op Volle Kracht' in Dutch residential care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weeland, M.M.; Nijhof, K.S.; Vermaes, I.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Buitelaar, J.K.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although adolescents are often referred to residential treatment centres because of severe externalizing behaviours, a vast majority demonstrated comorbid symptoms of depression and anxiety. Covert internalizing symptoms in these adolescents might be easily unrecognized and therefore

  3. Study protocol: a randomized controlled trial of a computer-based depression and substance abuse intervention for people attending residential substance abuse treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Peter J

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A large proportion of people attending residential alcohol and other substance abuse treatment have a co-occurring mental illness. Empirical evidence suggests that it is important to treat both the substance abuse problem and co-occurring mental illness concurrently and in an integrated fashion. However, the majority of residential alcohol and other substance abuse services do not address mental illness in a systematic way. It is likely that computer delivered interventions could improve the ability of substance abuse services to address co-occurring mental illness. This protocol describes a study in which we will assess the effectiveness of adding a computer delivered depression and substance abuse intervention for people who are attending residential alcohol and other substance abuse treatment. Methods/Design Participants will be recruited from residential rehabilitation programs operated by the Australian Salvation Army. All participants who satisfy the diagnostic criteria for an alcohol or other substance dependence disorder will be asked to participate in the study. After completion of a baseline assessment, participants will be randomly assigned to either a computer delivered substance abuse and depression intervention (treatment condition or to a computer-delivered typing tutorial (active control condition. All participants will continue to complete The Salvation Army residential program, a predominantly 12-step based treatment facility. Randomisation will be stratified by gender (Male, Female, length of time the participant has been in the program at the commencement of the study (4 weeks or less, 4 weeks or more, and use of anti-depressant medication (currently prescribed medication, not prescribed medication. Participants in both conditions will complete computer sessions twice per week, over a five-week period. Research staff blind to treatment allocation will complete the assessments at baseline, and then 3, 6, 9

  4. Evaluation of User Satisfaction in Public Residential Housing - A Case Study in the Outskirts of Naples, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Fabiana; Russo, Yvonne

    2017-10-01

    Nowadays the quality of homes and social life are two closely interacting categories which require a more careful interpretation of the users’ needs. Their opinions, expectations and “desires” have to be incorporated into both the design and evaluation processes. With specific reference to the experiences of public housing, the practice of “user satisfaction” should be increasingly incorporated during the ex-post (or monitoring) evaluation in order to verify the quality and validity of the service offered, thus activating a real co-participation of the user in the creation and improvement of the housing service. It is well-known that the principle of customer satisfaction derives from the field of marketing as a tool to evaluate how and how much the products/services offered meet the needs of the consumers. In the field of the construction industry, customer satisfaction has been incorporated into the “Post-Occupation Evaluation”, an evaluation tool of the performance of the building “in use” through the combination of objective and subjective variables expressed by the occupiers. Widely used since the 1970s in Anglo-Saxon countries, Italy is still struggling to find a systematic implementation. In this perspective, the article presents an application of the customer satisfaction method for the identification of some interventions aimed at improving the quality of a complex of public residential housing localized in Ponticelli, the second most populated district in the outskirts of the metropolitan city of Naples, in the Campania Region (Italy). Following a synthetic introduction of the theme and the explanation of the object of evaluation, the article discusses the methodology and the results, focalizing on some intervention hypotheses verified in terms of economic sustainability.

  5. Feasibility and effectiveness of a combined individual and psychoeducational group intervention in psychiatric residential facilities: A controlled, non-randomized study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magliano, Lorenza; Puviani, Marta; Rega, Sonia; Marchesini, Nadia; Rossetti, Marisa; Starace, Fabrizio

    2016-01-30

    This controlled, non-randomized study explored the feasibility of introducing a Combined Individual and Group Intervention (CIGI) for users with mental disorders in residential facilities, and tested whether users who received the CIGI had better functioning than users who received the Treatment-As-Usual (TAU), at two-year follow up. In the CIGI, a structured cognitivebehavioral approach called VADO (in English, Skills Assessment and Definition of Goals) was used to set specific goals with each user, while Falloon's psychoeducational treatment was applied with the users as a group. Thirty-one professionals attended a training course in CIGI, open to users' voluntary participation, and applied it for two years with all users living in 8 residential facilities of the Mental Health Department of Modena, Italy. In the same department, 5 other residential facilities providing TAU were used as controls. ANOVA for repeated measures showed a significant interaction effect between users' functioning at baseline and follow up assessments, and the intervention. In particular, change in global functioning was higher in the 55 CIGI users than in the 44 TAU users. These results suggest that CIGI can be successfully introduced in residential facilities and may be useful to improve functioning in users with severe mental disorders. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  6. Effective Recruitment Challenges Faced by the Hospitality Industry in Bangladesh: A Study on Selected Star Rated Residential Hotels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazi HUDA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In Human Resource Management (HRM, Recruitment is the first and foremost issue to be considered with full of sincerity, because its role is to create a positive impression about the employer in the job market by ensuring effective stimuli for the job seekers. At the beginning, the study sets a picture that focuses on the importance of effective recruitment in the hospitality sector of Bangladesh and then the study details obligatory determinants of attracting efficient human resource for the development of this sector. The main objective of the paper is to study the status and the scopes of recruitment function in hospitality industry with focus towards star rated residential hotels. This study is based on primary data collection through a formal questionnaire. The questionnaire was of mixed mode with most questions in likert-type scale and few were dichotomous in nature. The key finding of the study is that recruitment is a highly challenging task in hospitality and it is quite evident that attractive compensation package is the key factor to attract potential employees. The need and scope to modernize the recruitment practices along with the line of company and employer branding ideas are also recommended in details. There is a long way to go on the way of conceptualizing and actualizing recruitment functions and practices. A paper like this can help to discuss and debate on the necessity of developing better recruitment cultural and conceptual change in these sectors.

  7. Modeling Residential Electricity Consumption Function in Malaysia: Time Series Approach

    OpenAIRE

    L. L. Ivy-Yap; H. A. Bekhet

    2014-01-01

    As the Malaysian residential electricity consumption continued to increase rapidly, effective energy policies, which address factors affecting residential electricity consumption, is urgently needed. This study attempts to investigate the relationship between residential electricity consumption (EC), real disposable income (Y), price of electricity (Pe) and population (Po) in Malaysia for 1978-2011 period. Unlike previous studies on Malaysia, the current study focuses on the residential secto...

  8. Evaluation of DOE's Partnership in Low-Income Residential Retrofit (PILIRR) Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callaway, J.W.; Lee, A.D.

    1989-05-01

    In July 1986, the US Department of Energy (DOE) awarded competitive grants to five states to conduct pilot projects to establish partnerships and use resource leveraging to stimulate support for low-income residential energy retrofits. The projects were conducted under DOE's Partnerships in Low-Income Residential Retrofit (PILIRR) Program. These projects have been monitored and analyzed through a concurrent process evaluation conducted by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). This study reports the findings of that evaluation. The overriding goal of the PILIRR Program was to determine whether the states could stimulate support for low-income residential energy improvements from non-federal sources. The goal for the process evaluation was to conduct an assessment of the processes used by the states and the extent to which they successfully established partnerships and leveraged resources. Five states were selected to participate in the program: Florida, Iowa, Kentucky, Oklahoma and Washington. Each state proposed a different approach to promote non-federal support for low-income residential weatherization. Three of the five states--Florida, Iowa, and Washington--established partnerships that led to retrofits during the monitoring period (October 1986--October 1988). Kentucky established its partnership during the monitoring period, but did not accomplish its retrofits until after monitoring was complete. Oklahoma completed development of its marketing program and had begun marketing efforts by the end of the monitoring period. 16 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Modeling the Association Between Home Care Service Use and Entry Into Residential Aged Care: A Cohort Study Using Routinely Collected Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Mikaela; Siette, Joyce; Georgiou, Andrew; Warland, Andrew; Westbrook, Johanna

    2018-02-01

    To examine home care service-related and person-based factors associated with time to entry into permanent residential aged care. Longitudinal cohort study using routinely collected client management data. A large aged care service provider in New South Wales and the Australian Capital Territory, Australia. A total of 1116 people aged 60 years and older who commenced home care services for higher-level needs between July 1, 2015 and June 30, 2016. Survival analysis methods were used to examine service-related and person-based factors that were associated with time between first home care service and entry into permanent residential aged care. Predictors included service hours per week, combination of service types, demographics, needs, hospital leave, and change in care level. Cluster analysis was used to determine patterns of types of services used. By December 31, 2016, 21.1% of people using home care services had entered into permanent residential care (n = 235). After adjusting for significant factors such as age and care needs, each hour of service received per week was associated with a 6% lower risk of entry into residential care (hazard ratio = 0.94, 95% confidence interval 0.90-0.98). People who were predominant users of social support services, those with an identified carer, and those born in a non-main English-speaking country also remained in their own homes for longer. Greater volume of home care services was associated with significantly delayed entry into permanent residential care. This study provides much-needed evidence about service outcomes that could be used to inform older adults' care choices. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Determinants of establishment survival for residential trees in Sacramento County, CA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara A. Roman; John J. Battles; Joe R. McBride

    2014-01-01

    Urban forests can provide ecosystem services that motivate tree planting campaigns, and tree survival is a key element of program success and projected benefits. We studied survival in a shade tree give-away program in Sacramento, CA, monitoring a cohort of young trees for five years on single-family residential properties. We used conditional inference trees to...

  11. Credit Scores, Race, and Residential Sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Ashlyn Aiko

    2010-01-01

    Credit scores have a profound impact on home purchasing power and mortgage pricing, yet little is known about how credit scores influence households' residential location decisions. This study estimates the effects of credit scores on residential sorting behavior using a novel mortgage industry data set combining household demographic, credit, and…

  12. Associations between residential traffic noise exposure and smoking habits and alcohol consumption-A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roswall, Nina; Christensen, Jeppe Schultz; Bidstrup, Pernille Envold; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Jensen, Steen Solvang; Tjønneland, Anne; Sørensen, Mette

    2018-05-01

    Traffic noise stresses and disturbs sleep. It has been associated with various diseases, and has recently also been associated with lifestyle. Hence, the association between traffic noise and disease could partly operate via a pathway of lifestyle habits, including smoking and alcohol intake. We investigated associations between modelled residential traffic noise and smoking habits and alcohol consumption. In a cohort of 57,053 participants, we performed cross-sectional analyses using data from a baseline questionnaire (1993-97), and longitudinal analyses of change between baseline and follow-up (2000-02). Smoking status (never, former, current) and intensity (tobacco, g/day) and alcohol consumption (g/day) was self-reported at baseline and follow-up. Address history from 1987-2002 for all participants were found in national registries, and road traffic and railway noise was modelled 1 and 5 years before enrolment, and from baseline to follow-up. Analyses were performed using logistic and linear regression, and adjusted for demographics, socioeconomic variables, leisure-time sports, and noise from the opposite source (road/railway). Road traffic noise exposure 5 years before baseline was positively associated with alcohol consumption (adjusted difference per 10 dB: 1.38 g/day, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.10-1.65), smoking intensity (adjusted difference per 10 dB: 0.40 g/day, 95% CI: 0.19-0.61), and odds for being a current vs. never/former smoker at baseline (odds ratio (OR): 1.14; 95% CI: 1.10-1.17). In longitudinal analyses, we found no association between road traffic noise and change in smoking and alcohol habits. Railway noise was not associated with smoking habits and alcohol consumption, neither in cross-sectional nor in longitudinal analyses. The study suggests that long-term exposure to residential road traffic is associated with smoking habits and alcohol consumption, albeit only in cross-sectional, but not in longitudinal analyses. Copyright

  13. Facilities Management Service Delivery in Public and Private High Rise Residential Buildings in Nigeria: A case study of Eko Court Complex and Niger Towers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olanrele O. O.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed and compared the delivery of Facilities Management (FM services in public and private high rise residential buildings in Lagos, Nigeria. While some facilities or services may not be available in some public estates, the efficiency of the available ones is inadequate in comparison with the adequacy and efficiency of services provided in private estates. The objectives set for the study include identification of services that are provided in the case studies, service delivery method, and an assessment of the residents’ satisfaction of the services. This study adopted questionnaire survey for collection of data. 127 questionnaires were distributed to the residents of the case studies and 93 were returned. Three of which were discarded for incompleteness, thus 90 were analysed. The study found that most but not all of the facilities services expected in high rise buildings are available in the case studies and the services are outsourced under a standard Service Level Agreement. The service delivery in private high rise residential building is better than the public residential high rise buildings as revealed by the study. The study recommends improved standardization of services, customized services and meeting customer’s expectation for improved service delivery.

  14. A Longitudinal Study of Child Maltreatment and Mental Health Predictors of Admission to Psychiatric Residential Treatment Facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderick A. Rose

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The child welfare system is an access point for children’s mental health services. Psychiatric residential treatment facilities (PRTFs are the most restrictive, and most expensive setting for children to receive long-term care. Given the high rates of behavioral health concerns among maltreated children in out-of-home care, research is needed to examine the factors that predict entry in PRTFs among children investigated for maltreatment. This exploratory study used cross-sector administrative records linked across multiple systems, including child welfare records and Medicaid claims, from a single state over a five-year period (n = 105,982. Cox proportional hazards modeling was used to predict entry into a PRTF. After controlling for many factors, PRTF entry was predicted by diagnosis code indicating a trauma-related condition, antipsychotic medication prescriptions, and entry into lower levels of out-of-home care, supporting the view that youth are admitted to PRTFs largely due to clinical need. However, PRTF admission is also associated with characteristics of their experiences with the social service system, primarily foster care placement stability and permanency. Implications for practice and research are discussed.

  15. A COMPREHENSIVE STUDY OF RESIDENTIAL, GEOGENIC AND WATER RADON IN THE NORTH AREA OF MUREŞ COUNTY, ROMANIA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papp, Botond; Cucos Dinu, Alexandra; Cosma, Constantin

    2017-11-18

    This study presents results of a complex survey about residential, soil and water radon in the North of Mureş county (Romania). Indoor radon measurements were performed by using CR-39 track detectors, while radon concentrations in soil and in water were measured by using the LUK3C device and accessories. The indoor radon concentrations of 157 houses ranged from 9 to 414 Bq m-3, with an arithmetic mean of 131 Bq m-3 and a geometric mean of 105 Bq m-3. In ~3.2% of the investigated houses exceed the recommended reference level of 300 Bq m-3. The soil gas radon concentrations in 137 sampling points varied from 5.0 to 88.0 kBq m-3, with a geometric mean of 14.6 kBq m-3. Results of 190 water samples shows radon concentrations from 0.2 to 28.0 Bq L-1, with a geometric mean of 5.0 Bq L-1. Beside these results, indoor, soil and water radon maps were performed, divided into cells of 5 km × 5 km. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. Tracing a Path to the Past: Exploring the Use of Commercial Credit Reporting Data to Construct Residential Histories for Epidemiologic Studies of Environmental Exposures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurley, Susan; Hertz, Andrew; Nelson, David O; Layefsky, Michael; Von Behren, Julie; Bernstein, Leslie; Deapen, Dennis; Reynolds, Peggy

    2017-02-01

    Large-scale environmental epidemiologic studies often rely on exposure estimates based on linkage to residential addresses. This approach, however, is limited by the lack of residential histories typically available for study participants. Our objective was to evaluate the feasibility of using address data from LexisNexis (a division of RELX, Inc., Dayton, Ohio), a commercially available credit reporting company, to construct residential histories for participants in the California Teachers Study (CTS), a prospective cohort study initiated in 1995-1996 to study breast cancer (n = 133,479). We evaluated the degree to which LexisNexis could provide retrospective addresses prior to study enrollment, as well as the concordance with existing prospective CTS addresses ascertained at the time of the completion of 4 self-administered questionnaires. For approximately 80% of CTS participants, LexisNexis provided at least 1 retrospective address, including nearly 25,000 addresses completely encompassed by time periods prior to enrollment. This approach more than doubled the proportion of the study population for whom we had an address of residence during the childbearing years-an important window of susceptibility for breast cancer risk. While overall concordance between the prospective addresses contained in these 2 data sources was good (85%), it was diminished among black women and women under the age of 40 years. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

  17. Self-reported exposure to pesticides in residential settings and risk of breast cancer: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graber Nora J

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pesticides are widely used in households to control insects and weeds. Several studies, over the past decades, have examined the possible relationship of serum concentration of organochlorine pesticides and the development of breast cancer. However, little data exists regarding an association between self-reported, residential exposure to pesticides and breast cancer risk. We, therefore, present a case-control study examining self-reported exposure to household pesticides with regard to associated risk of breast cancer. Methods This study was conducted in the area in and around New York City, NY and included 1205 patients (447 cases and 758 controls. Cases were defined as women with newly diagnosed breast cancer or carcinoma in-situ, while controls included women with benign breast diseases or those undergoing non-breast related surgery. All patients were asked a series of questions to determine their pesticide exposure, including the type of pesticide, location of exposure (inside vs. outside the home, who applied the pesticide (self vs. a professional and duration of pesticide use. Logistic regression models were used to estimate unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios (OR and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI. Results The most common pests encountered in participants' homes were ants, carpenter ants, and cockroaches. The calculated adjusted odds ratios for both self and professionally applied pesticides, specifically against the above mentioned insects, with regard to breast cancer risk were 1.25 (95% CI: 0.79-1.98 and 1.06 (95% CI: 0.65-1.73, respectively. Similarly, odds ratios and confidence intervals were calculated for other types of pesticides. Conclusions Overall, the results of our study did not show an association between self-reported exposure to pesticides and breast cancer risk. Future studies, utilizing a larger sample size and more specific detail on time frame of pesticide exposure, are needed to

  18. Analysis of Social Return on Investment in two systems of support for people with severe disabilities: personal assistance and residential service. A case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agustín Huete García

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available At present, there are several alternatives to support daily life of people with disabilities, which require different resources: human, institutional, technical, material, financial, etc. In addition, these alternatives involve different impacts on both the life of people with disabilites and their immediate environment. This paper presents a case study that compares an user of personal assistance services of the Program for Independent Living (PAVI with an user of a residential service. The study method used is based on the approach of Social Return on Investment (SROI. It also specifies the selection of cases, the partners consulted to gather concepts and values, data collection, variables and formulas for calculating and monetization. Despite its limited scope, it is possible to draw conclusions about the social return on investment in a “standard profile” receiving personal assistance services compared with a “standard profile” in a residential service.

  19. Risk of leukaemia and residential exposure to air pollution in an industrial area in Northern Italy: a case-control study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parodi, Stefano; Santi, Irene; Casella, Claudia; Puppo, Antonella; Montanaro, Fabio; Fontana, Vincenzo; Pescetto, Massimiliano; Stagnaro, Emanuele

    2015-01-01

    Leukaemia risk in adult populations exposed to environmental air pollution is poorly investigated. We have carried out a population-based case-control study in an area that included a fossil fuel power plant, a coke oven and two big chemical industries. Information on residential history and several risk factors for leukaemia was obtained from 164 cases, diagnosed between 2002 and 2005, and 279 controls. A higher risk for subjects residing in polluted areas was observed, but statistical significance was not reached (adjusted OR = 1.11 and 1.56 for subjects living in moderately and in heavily polluted zones, respectively, p = 0.190). Results suggest a possible aetiological role of residential air pollution from industrial sites on the risk of developing leukaemia in adult populations. However, the proportion of eligible subjects excluded from the study and the lack of any measure of air pollution prevent definitive conclusions from being drawn.

  20. The Influence of Place Making’s Attributes on the Resident’s Usage and Satisfaction in High-Rise Residential Community: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aflaki Ardalan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The vitality and viability of open spaces in urban neighborhoods, particularly in high-density residential areas with limited buildable land, have become extremely complex phenomenon. Researchers and designers are seeking the standard of designed environment to successfully meet the human needs and desires. In order to reach this goal, limited studies have been implemented to bridge the gap between research and design and consequently improve the physical and social qualities of open spaces. This paper examines the two specific features of open space accessibility, social interactions - which contribute significantly to both the vitality and viability with a view to provide an understanding of the relative importance of these elements from users’ perceptions and satisfaction. The methods involve quantitative research with questionnaire-based survey, and case study to evaluate residents’ perceptions. The research scope is a high-density residential condominium in Kuala Lumpur where the rapid transformation of urban elements in city center has negative impacts on basic qualities of open spaces. The result is a framework for understanding the relative priority of the different elements (variables for users which vary depending on the location of the residential block they live in; in particular its proximity to the open space. The study concludes with recommendations for how the most valuable elements can be better harnessed in order to promote the satisfaction with open spaces.

  1. Criminal Violence and Drug Use: An Exploratory Study among Substance Abusers in Residential Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Workowski, Eric J.

    2003-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between criminal violence and type of substance abuse among 184 current and former residents of an inpatient non-hospital drug and alcohol treatment facility. The criminal justice system functioned as the source of referral into the program for 89% of the subjects studied while only 11% came to treatment…

  2. Modular health services : A single case study approach to the applicability of modularity to residential mental healthcare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Soffers, R.; Meijboom, B.R.; van Zaanen, J.; van der Feltz, C.M.

    2014-01-01

    Background The Dutch mental healthcare sector has to decrease costs by reducing intramural capacity with one third by 2020 and treating more patients in outpatient care. This transition necessitates enabling patients to become as self-supporting as possible, by customising the residential care they

  3. The importance of historical residential address information in longitudinal studies using administrative health data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youens, David; Preen, David B; Harris, Mark N; Moorin, Rachael E

    2018-02-01

    When information on changes in address or migration of people to or from a study jurisdiction is unavailable in longitudinal studies, issues relating to loss-to-follow-up and misclassification bias may result. This study investigated how estimations of associations between general practitioner (GP) contact and hospital use were affected by incomplete address and migration data. This was a retrospective population-based cohort study of Western Australians from 1990 to 2004. Linked administrative data including mortality records, hospital admissions, primary care and Electoral Roll records were used. Regularity of GP contact, based on the variance of the number of days between GP visits, was calculated for each person-year. Outcomes were the number and costs (A$2014) of diabetes-related hospital admissions in the following year. Models were estimated separately for cohorts where (i) postcode was ascertained at study commencement and held constant, and (ii) postcode and residency within Western Australia were updated with each change of address recorded on the Electoral Roll over the study period. Updating address data reduced total person-years by 11% and changed the distribution of covariates. Estimations of associations between patterns of GP contact and number of hospitalizations changed; the incidence rate ratios measuring the relationship with the most regular GP contact (baseline of those with <2 GP visits) changed from 0.81 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.66-1.00] to 0.42 (95% CI 0.33-0.53) after updating postcode information. Impacts on cost models were smaller, though still statistically significant. Longitudinal studies using administrative data may report biased results if they ignore address changes and migration. Researchers should attempt to link to these data wherever possible, or choose study designs which these issues are less likely to affect. Custodians should be aware that such data can be vital to high quality research. © The Author 2017; all

  4. Congestion and residential moving behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Marott; Pilegaard, Ninette; Van Ommeren, Jos

    2008-01-01

    we study how congestion and residential moving behaviour are interrelated, using a two-region job search model. Workers choose between interregional commuting and residential moving, in order to live closer to their place of work. This choice affects the external costs of commuting, due to conges......we study how congestion and residential moving behaviour are interrelated, using a two-region job search model. Workers choose between interregional commuting and residential moving, in order to live closer to their place of work. This choice affects the external costs of commuting, due...... to congestion. We focus on the equilibrium in which some workers currently living in one region accept jobs in the other, with a fraction of them choosing to commute from their current residence to the new job in the other region and the remainder choosing to move to the region in which the new job is located....... The welfare-maximising road tax is derived, which is essentially the Pigouvian tax, given the absence of a tax on moving. Given the presence of moving taxes, which are substantial in Europe, the optimal road tax for commuters is the Pigouvian tax plus the amortised value of the moving tax, evaluated...

  5. Residential traffic exposure and pregnancy-related outcomes: A prospective birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.H. van den Hooven (Edith); V.W.V. Jaddoe (Vincent); Y. de Kluizenaar (Yvonne); A. Hofman (Albert); J.P. Mackenbach (Johan); R.P.M. Steegers-Theunissen (Régine); H.M. Miedema (Henk); F.H. Pierik (Frank)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractBackground. The effects of ambient air pollution on pregnancy outcomes are under debate. Previous studies have used different air pollution exposure assessment methods. The considerable traffic-related intra-urban spatial variation needs to be considered in exposure assessment.

  6. Case study field evaluation of a systems approach to retrofitting a residential HVAC system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain S.; McWiliams, Jennifer A.; Konopacki, Steven J.

    2003-09-01

    This case study focusing on a residence in northern California was undertaken as a demonstration of the potential of a systems approach to HVAC retrofits. The systems approach means that other retrofits that can affect the HVAC system are also considered. For example, added building envelope insulation reduces building loads so that smaller capacity HVAC system can be used. Secondly, we wanted to examine the practical issues and interactions with contractors and code officials required to accomplish the systems approach because it represents a departure from current practice. We identified problems in the processes of communication and installation of the retrofit that led to compromises in the final energy efficiency of the HVAC system. These issues must be overcome in order for HVAC retrofits to deliver the increased performance that they promise. The experience gained in this case study was used to optimize best practices guidelines for contractors (Walker 2003) that include building diagnostics and checklists as tools to assist in ensuring the energy efficiency of ''house as a system'' HVAC retrofits. The best practices guidelines proved to be an excellent tool for evaluating the eight existing homes in this study, and we received positive feedback from many potential users who reviewed and used them. In addition, we were able to substantially improve the energy efficiency of the retrofitted case study house by adding envelope insulation, a more efficient furnace and air conditioner, an economizer and by reducing duct leakage.

  7. Shared Stories of Successful Graduates of Juvenile Residential Programs: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mincey, Barrett; Maldonado, Nancy

    2011-01-01

    Criminologists, lawmakers, policymakers, educators, and others discuss juvenile delinquency and recidivism and note the relationship to adult offending and cost factors. Poverty, peer relations, family life, and school are risk factors that have been linked to define the problem of juvenile crime. The purpose of this phenomenological study was to…

  8. Investigation of indoor air quality at residential homes in Hong Kong - case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shun Cheng Lee; Waiming Li; Chiohang Ao

    2002-01-01

    Indoor air quality (IAQ) has been a matter of public concern in Hong Kong. Recently, the Hong Kong Government has recognized the potential risk and problems related to indoor air pollution, and it is striving to establish IAQ objectives for different types of indoor environments. This study attempts to provide more information about the present IAQ of local resident flats. Air pollutants measured in this study included carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), respirable suspended particulate matter (PM 10 ), formaldehyde (HCHO), volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and airborne bacteria. The results of this study indicate that the 8-h average concentrations of CO 2 and PM 10 in the domestic kitchens investigated were 14% and 67% higher than those measured in the living rooms. The indoor air pollution caused by PM 10 was more serious in domestic kitchens than in living rooms as almost all of the kitchens investigated had higher indoor levels of PM 10 . The majority of the domestic living rooms and kitchens studied had average concentrations of airborne bacteria higher than 500CFU/m 3 . The mean total bacteria count recorded in kitchens was greater than that obtained in living rooms by 23%. In homes where occupants smoke, the negative impact of benzene, toluene and m,p-xylene on the IAQ was greatly enhanced. The use of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) stove has more significant impact on indoor VOCs than the use of cooking stoves with natural gas as cooking fuel. (Author)

  9. Environmental impacts assessment study on residential-industrial suburban community of Rome, Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barni, E.

    1991-01-01

    Valle Galeria, a 8x5 km Roman suburb, with a population of about 30,000 residents, is host to a 4.3 million tonnes/year refinery, a 5,500 tonnes/day municipal waste dump site, an asphalt production plant and an incinerator for hospital and industrial wastes. To assist community planners in their decision making relative to the proposed construction of a refuse derived power plant, a new incinerator complex and a turbogas electric power station, ENEA (Italian Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment) performed a study to characterize the community's current environmental quality, in particular, its air quality. In addition to the effects caused by present industrial activities, the local natural environment has already suffered negative effects in the past due to the presence of numerous quarries. This paper tables the study's results concerning air pollution concentration levels and sources of air pollution

  10. Voluntary Management of Residential Water Demand in Low and Middle-Low Income Households: Case Study of Soacha (colombia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta, R.; Rodriguez, J. P.

    2016-12-01

    Water resources availability is a global concern due to increasing demands, decreasing quality and uncertain spatio-temporal variability (United Nations, 2009). In urban contexts research on efficient water use is a priority to cope with the future vulnerability of water supplies as a result of the impacts of climate change (Bates et al, 2008). Following the proposed methodologies of He and Kua (2013) for implementing programs to promote sustainable energy consumption, we focused on the use of educational strategies to promote a voluntary rationalization of residential water demand. We collaborated with three schools in Soacha (Colombia) where students ranging from 12 to 15 years participated in the project as promoters of educational campaigns inside their families, covering 120 low and middle-low income households. Three intervention or treatment strategies (i.e. e-learning, in-person active learning activities and graphical learning tools) were carried out over a period of 5 months. We analyzed the effects of the treatments strategies in reducing water consumption rates and the dependence of this variable on socio-demographic, economic, environmental, and life quality factors by using personal interviews and self reported water saving technics. The results showed that educational campaigns have a positive effect on reducing consumption in the households. Graphical learning tools accounted for the highest reduction in water consumption. Moreover, the results of the study suggests that socio-economic factors such as type of house, social level, income, and life quality variables significantly affect the variability in water consumption, which is an important fact to consider in similar cases where communities face difficult socio-economic conditions, displacement or high rates of urban growth.

  11. Sustainable solutions for cooling systems in residential buildings: case study in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foudzai, F.; M' Rithaa, M. [Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Cape Town (South Africa). Dept. of Industrial Design

    2010-07-01

    The energy demand in building sectors for summer air-conditioning is growing exponentially due to thermal loads, increased living standards and occupant comfort demands throughout the last decades. This increasing consumption of primary energy is contributing significantly to emission of greenhouse gases and therefore to global warming. Moreover, fossil fuels, current main sources of energy used for electricity generation, are being depleted at an alarming rate despite continued warning. In addition, most air-conditioning equipment still utilise CFCs, promoting further destruction of our planet's protective ozone layer. Concerns over these environmental changes, have begun shifting the emphasis from current cooling methods, to 'sustainable strategies' of achieving equally comfortable conditions in building interiors. Study of ancient strategies applied by vernacular architecture shows how the indigenously clean energies to satisfy the cooling need were used. One of the most important influences on vernacular architecture is the macro-climate of the area in which the building is constructed. Mediterranean vernacular architecture, as well as that of much of the Middle East, often includes a courtyard with a fountain or pond; air cooled by water mist and evaporation is drawn through the building by the natural ventilation set up by the building form, and in many cases also includes wind-catchers to draw air through the internal spaces. Similarly, Northern African vernacular designs often have very high thermal mass and small windows to keep the occupants cool. Not only vernacular structure but also the recent development in solar and geothermal cooling technologies could be used to the needs for environmental control. Intelligent coupling of these methods as alternative design strategies could help developing countries such as South Africa toward sustainable development in airconditioning of building. In this paper, the possible strategies for

  12. Promoting student learning and increasing organizational capacity to host students in residential aged care: a mixed method research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grealish, Laurie; Lucas, Nikki; Neill, James; McQuellin, Carmel; Bacon, Rachel; Trede, Franziska

    2013-07-01

    In Australia, the Federal government's agenda to increase clinical training places to address the forecast shortfall of nurses is driving innovation in clinical education. A student leadership model of clinical education, named the Student Nurse Led Ward model, was designed for the aged care context to provide a high number of clinical placements for pre-service Bachelor of Nursing students in an under-utilized clinical education setting. The research aimed to determine the viability of the innovation by (1) developing a preliminary understanding of what students were learning and (2) exploring stakeholders' perceptions about student learning. A mixed methods design included an ageing knowledge test and ageing attitudes survey, both administered before and after the placement, student narratives of a learning event written after the placement, as well as focus group and individual interviews with stakeholders. Three residential aged care facilities partnering with one university in one Australian jurisdiction. Included 35 of the 45 students who began placement in the aged care facilities during one semester, a convenience sample of 15 staff and each of the managers and educators from the three agencies. Descriptive statistical analysis of student pre-post knowledge test and attitude survey, hermeneutic analysis of student narratives, and content analysis of individual and group interview data. There was an increase in student knowledge around sensory changes, delirium, and drug reactions in older people. There was a slight increase in students' expression of ageist attitudes following the clinical experience. The clinical educator position was considered to be critical to the success of the model. This Student Nurse Led Ward model is a viable model to increase clinical placements, with preliminary evidence in this study suggesting that students benefit through increased knowledge, understanding and capacity to work with older people. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd

  13. Staff awareness of food and fluid care needs for older people with dementia in residential care: A qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Emma J; Goldberg, Lynette R; Price, Andrea D; Tierney, Laura T; McInerney, Fran

    2017-12-01

    To examine awareness of aged care home staff regarding daily food and fluid care needs of older people with dementia. Older people in residential care frequently are malnourished, and many have dementia. Staff knowledge of the food and fluid needs of people with dementia is limited. Qualitative research on this topic is scarce but can provide insight into how nutrition and hydration care may be improved. Qualitative, interview-based study. Eleven staff in a range of positions at one care home were interviewed regarding their perceptions of current and potential food/fluid care practices. Transcripts were coded and analysed thematically. Key food and fluid issues reported by these staff members were weight loss and malnutrition, chewing and swallowing difficulties (dysphagia), and inadequate hydration. Staff identified a number of current care practices that they felt to be effective in facilitating older people's food and fluid intake, including responsiveness to their needs. Staff suggestions to facilitate food and fluid intake centred on improved composition and timing of meals, enhanced physical and social eating environment, and increased hydration opportunities. Staff commented on factors that may prevent changes to care practices, particularly the part-time workforce, and proposed changes to overcome such barriers. Staff were aware of key food and fluid issues experienced by the older people in their care and of a range of beneficial care practices, but lacked knowledge of many promising care practices and/or how to implement such practices. Staff need to be supported to build on their existing knowledge around effective food and fluid care practices. The numerous ideas staff expressed for changing care practices can be leveraged by facilitating staff networking to work and learn together to implement evidence-based change. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Overview of Socio-economic Transformations Based on Residential Architecture in a Suburban Area – Case Study of Villages in the Polish Region of Warmia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Źróbek-Różańska, Alina; Zysk, Elżbieta; Źróbek, Sabina

    2017-10-01

    Poland has a turbulent and rich history. Partitions, wars, a centrally planned economy of the socialist era and the rapid transition to a market economy left visible marks on the Polish landscape. The changes that took place in the 20th century and the early 21st century have vastly influenced the country’s architecture. Residential buildings in rural suburbs bear witness to turbulent historical events and change processes. This study analyzed residential buildings in two villages situated in the historical district of Warmia (north-eastern Poland) which is now a part of the Region of Warmia and Mazury. The results of the observations were used to review the social, economic, legal and planning factors that influenced residential architecture between 1900 and 2017. The traditional layout of Warmian villages is well preserved in the analyzed locations where pre-war architectural design mingles with buildings erected in the socialist era when construction materials were scarce. Many buildings in the surveyed villages are reminiscent of collective farms, the prescribed architectural style of the 1970s as well as the stylistic diversity of the early transformation period when customized building plans and construction materials became available. The local landscape also features buildings erected in successive decades which brought a significant increase in the price of land and maintenance costs.

  15. Do self-referent metacognition and residential context predict depressive symptoms across late-life span? A developmental study in an Italian sample.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fastame, Maria Chiara; Hitchcott, Paul Kenneth; Penna, Maria Pietronilla

    2015-01-01

    There is controversial evidence concerning the variables favoring depression in community-dwelling elderly individuals. This study mainly investigates the impact of lifestyle, residential environment, cognitive efficiency and social desirability in predicting self-assessed depressive signs in late adult span. One hundred forty-nine elders were recruited in Northern Italy and Sardinia - an Italian island characterized by the longevity of people living in the inner areas. Participants were presented a battery of questionnaires assessing cognitive efficiency and self-referent measures of depression, metacognition and social desirability. A hierarchical regression analysis showed that residential environment was the most effective predictor of depressive symptoms, along with gardening and spending time for hobbies. In contrast, social desirability and metacognitive scores played a minor role in predicting mental health. An analysis of variance showed that Sardinian elders showed fewer signs of depression than age-matched elders residing in Northern Italy. The Sardinian residential environment is a strong predictor of preserved mental health in late adulthood. In contrast, self-rated metacognitive efficiency and social desirability play a very marginal role in predicting depression among the elderly.

  16. Improving Thermal Performance of a Residential Building, Related to Its Orientations - A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akshaya, S.; Harish, S.; Arthy, R.; Muthu, D.; Venkatasubramanian, C.

    2017-07-01

    Urban planners and stakeholders require knowledge about the effectiveness of city-scale climate adaptation measures in order to develop climate resilient cities and to push forward the political process for the implementation of climate adaptation strategies. This study examines the impact of modifications in orientation of buildings with respect to heat load. Heat load calculation is a mathematical process to determine the best capacity, application and style of HVAC system. The purpose is to ensure energy efficiency while also maximizing comfort inside the building. This study of load calculation is essential for a building because it helps to pick the best orientation and focuses to find an orientation that will reduce energy due to direct solar radiation. One of the factors affecting this assessment is the latitude of the location. The heat gain is effective through walls and fenestration. Improper management through ineffective orientation of the building’s natural heat gain leads to excessive consumption of energy in the form of CL. The total heat gain for the above factors is calculated with the equations and assumptions as per ASHRAE code. After the calculation of heat load for different orientations, the best suited orientation of the building is found. By altering the building to suitable orientation, the dependence on electrical equipment can be minimized and thereby helps in energy conservation.

  17. A social work study on the impact of age, gender and residential status on drug addiction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Iravani

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available During the past few years, there have been growing interests on intellectual capital due to industrial changes on the market. Thus, identifying different ways to create, manage, and evaluate the impact of intellectual capital has remained an open area of research. One of the most important organizational capabilities, which could help organizations create and share knowledge is to effectively use knowledge to create competitive advantage. The primary objective of this study is to investigate the effects of intellectual capital on other components and their impacts on organizational learning capability using structural equation modeling. The statistical population includes 500 employees of an Iranian organization. The study uses a sample size including 273 people using Morgan statistical table. In our survey, human capital influences positively (0.330 on structural capital, human capital influences positively on relational capital (0.47 and relational capital influences positively on structural capital (0.455. In addition human capital influences positively on learning capabilities (0.06, structural capital impacts learning capabilities (0.355 and relational capital on learning capabilities (0.545.

  18. Multi-Objective Optimization for Energy Performance Improvement of Residential Buildings: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangji Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Numerous conflicting criteria exist in building design optimization, such as energy consumption, greenhouse gas emission and indoor thermal performance. Different simulation-based optimization strategies and various optimization algorithms have been developed. A few of them are analyzed and compared in solving building design problems. This paper presents an efficient optimization framework to facilitate optimization designs with the aid of commercial simulation software and MATLAB. The performances of three optimization strategies, including the proposed approach, GenOpt method and artificial neural network (ANN method, are investigated using a case study of a simple building energy model. Results show that the proposed optimization framework has competitive performances compared with the GenOpt method. Further, in another practical case, four popular multi-objective algorithms, e.g., the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II, multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO, the multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA and multi-objective differential evolution (MODE, are realized using the propose optimization framework and compared with three criteria. Results indicate that MODE achieves close-to-optimal solutions with the best diversity and execution time. An uncompetitive result is achieved by the MOPSO in this case study.

  19. College residential sleep environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton-Radek, Kathy; Hartley, Andrew

    2013-12-01

    College students regularly report increased sleep disturbances as well as concomitant reductions in performance (e.g., academic grades) upon entering college. Sleep hygiene refers to healthy sleep practices that are commonly used as first interventions in sleep disturbances. One widely used practice of this sort involves arranging the sleep environment to minimize disturbances from excessive noise and light at bedtime. Communal sleep situations such as those in college residence halls do not easily support this intervention. Following several focus groups, a questionnaire was designed to gather self-reported information on sleep disturbances in a college population. The present study used The Young Adult Sleep Environment Inventory (YASEI) and sleep logs to investigate the sleep environment of college students living in residential halls. A summary of responses indicated that noise and light are significant sleep disturbances in these environments. Recommendations are presented related to these findings.

  20. STANDALONE PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEMS SIZING OPTIMIZATION USING DESIGN SPACE APPROACH: CASE STUDY FOR RESIDENTIAL LIGHTING LOAD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. F. AL RIZA

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a sizing optimization methodology of panel and battery capacity in a standalone photovoltaic system with lighting load. Performance of the system is identified by performing Loss of Power Supply Probability (LPSP calculation. Input data used for the calculation is the daily weather data and system components parameters. Capital Cost and Life Cycle Cost (LCC is calculated as optimization parameters. Design space for optimum system configuration is identified based on a given LPSP value, Capital Cost and Life Cycle Cost. Excess energy value is used as an over-design indicator in the design space. An economic analysis, including cost of the energy and payback period, for selected configurations are also studied.

  1. Multiple dimensions of residential environments, neighborhood experiences, and jogging behavior in the RECORD Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karusisi, Noëlla; Bean, Kathy; Oppert, Jean-Michel; Pannier, Bruno; Chaix, Basile

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between a broad range of environmental characteristics and jogging behavior while taking into account different complementary outcomes to describe the behavior. Using the RECORD Cohort Study (7290 participants, 2007-2008, Paris region, France), multilevel models were used to investigate individual/neighborhood variables associated with the probability of jogging; the time spent jogging; and the location of the practice. The presence and quality of green and open spaces was associated both with a greater probability of jogging [risk ratio (RR) for the first vs. the fourth quartile=1.22, 95% credible interval (CrI): 1.03-1.44] and with the practice of jogging within rather than outside the neighborhood (RR=1.29; 95% CrI: 1.10-1.53). Moreover, a high social cohesion and the presence of enjoyable places were associated with a higher probability of jogging (RR=1.15; 95% CrI: 1.00-1.31; RR=1.22; 95% CrI: 1.03-1.44) while the presence of parks or a lake increased the probability of jogging inside rather than outside the neighborhood (RR=1.29; 95% CrI: 1.10-1.53; RR=1.14; 95% CrI: 1.03-1.26). Paying attention to physical and social environments, related neighborhood experiences, and attitudes toward health may be an effective approach to promote outdoor physical activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Sustainability based on LCM of residential dwellings: A case study in Catalonia, Spain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortiz, Oscar [Environmental and Analysis Management Group (AGA), Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Rovira i Virgili (URV), Av. dels Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Department of Industrial Engineering, University of Pamplona, Km 1 Via Bucaramanga, Pamplona N. de S. (Colombia); Bonnet, Cecile; Bruno, Joan Carles [Group of Applied Thermal Engineering (CREVER), Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Rovira I Virgili (URV), Av. dels Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona (Spain); Castells, Francesc [Environmental and Analysis Management Group (AGA), Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Rovira i Virgili (URV), Av. dels Paisos Catalans 26, 43007 Tarragona (Spain)

    2009-03-15

    Life cycle management (LCM) can be applied to the whole construction process, thus making it possible to improve sustainability indicators and also minimize the environmental loads of the full building life cycle. To illustrate this, a case study has been carried out based on the application of the LCM approach to a typical Spanish Mediterranean house located in Barcelona with a total area of 160 m{sup 2} and a projected 50-year life span, which has been modeled according to the Spanish building technical code (CTE). The aim of this research is to use sustainability indicators in the pre-construction and operation (use and maintenance) phases and also to promote and support the adoption of the LCM within the construction industry. This paper concludes that regarding the significant environmental issue of climate change, there was a total emission of 2.34E03 kg CO{sub 2}-Eq/m{sup 2} per 50 years, of which about 90.5% was during the operation phase (use 88.9% and maintenance 1.7%) and the pre-construction phase account for a total of 9.5%. In terms of this dwelling's environmental loads, the operation phase is the most critical because of the high environmental loads from energy consumption for heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC), lighting, electrical appliances and cooking. Additionally, the findings of this study state that the appropriate combination of building materials, improvement in behaviors and patterns of cultural consumption, and the application of government codes would enhance decision-making in the construction industry. Therefore, there is no doubt that applying LCM to the full building life cycle is very important for reducing environmental loads and thereby improving sustainability indicators. Finally, this research will help develop guidelines based on LCM for the construction industry to assist stakeholders in improving customer patterns during the dwelling life cycle. (author)

  3. Food Environment and Weight Change: Does Residential Mobility Matter?: The Diabetes Study of Northern California (DISTANCE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laraia, Barbara A; Downing, Janelle M; Zhang, Y Tara; Dow, William H; Kelly, Maggi; Blanchard, Samuel D; Adler, Nancy; Schillinger, Dean; Moffet, Howard; Warton, E Margaret; Karter, Andrew J

    2017-05-01

    Associations between neighborhood food environment and adult body mass index (BMI; weight (kg)/height (m)2) derived using cross-sectional or longitudinal random-effects models may be biased due to unmeasured confounding and measurement and methodological limitations. In this study, we assessed the within-individual association between change in food environment from 2006 to 2011 and change in BMI among adults with type 2 diabetes using clinical data from the Kaiser Permanente Diabetes Registry collected from 2007 to 2011. Healthy food environment was measured using the kernel density of healthful food venues. Fixed-effects models with a 1-year-lagged BMI were estimated. Separate models were fitted for persons who moved and those who did not. Sensitivity analysis using different lag times and kernel density bandwidths were tested to establish the consistency of findings. On average, patients lost 1 pound (0.45 kg) for each standard-deviation improvement in their food environment. This relationship held for persons who remained in the same location throughout the 5-year study period but not among persons who moved. Proximity to food venues that promote nutritious foods alone may not translate into clinically meaningful diet-related health changes. Community-level policies for improving the food environment need multifaceted strategies to invoke clinically meaningful change in BMI among adult patients with diabetes. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Residential segregation and infant mortality: a multilevel study using Iranian census data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, Ss Hashemi; Mahmoodi, M; Mansournia, Ma; Naieni, K Holakouie

    2012-01-01

    There is a great amount of literature concerning the effect of racial segregation on health outcomes but few papers have discussed the effect of segregation on the basis of social, demographic and economic characteristics on health. We estimated the independent effect of segregation of determinants of socioeconomic status on infant mortality in Iranian population. For measuring segregation, we used generalized dissimilarity index for two group and multi group nominal variables and ordinal information theory index for ordinal variables. Sample data was obtained from Iranian latest national census and multilevel modeling with individual variables at level one and segregation indices measured at province level for socioeconomic status variables at level two were used to assess the effect of segregation on infant mortality. Among individual factors, mother activity was a risk factor for infant mortality. Segregated provinces in regard to size of the house, ownership of a house and motorcycle, number of literate individual in the family and use of natural gas for cooking and heating had higher infant mortality. Segregation indices measured for education level, migration history, activity, marital status and existence of bathroom were negatively associated with infant mortality. Segregation of different contextual characteristics of neighborhood had different effects on health outcomes. Studying segregation of social, economic, and demographic factors, especially in communities, which are racially homogenous, might reveal new insights into dissimilarities in health.

  5. The Simulation Study of a Restructured Residential Low-Voltage Distribution System Microgrid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Ramesh

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A primary and necessary focus in creating a greener environment is the conversion of existing power-generation sources to renewable power sources in the near future. Another important focus is to develop sustainable household power generation to a low-voltage electricity grid with a power purchase and selling facility. To help with achieving the above vision, the objective of this work is to critically analyze the existing low-voltage distribution system and make suggestions for restructuring it to the low-voltage interconnected microgrid (MG. The test was carried out in the Tamil Nadu Electricity Board (TNEB 100kVA transformer feeder which was connected to supply around 100 houses with electricity. The performance analysis of the proposed system was examined through different case studies, represented as a normal operating condition of the existing distribution system and a reconstructed and interconnected MG to the TNEB grid. The project was designed and analyzed using PSCAD software. The results discussed in the project are helpful in examining the effects of multiple distributed energy resources on distributed generation. In future, knowledge of these effects may be helpful for rural area electrification.

  6. Residential Segregation and Infant Mortality: A Multilevel Study Using Iranian Census Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazari, SS Hashemi; Mahmoodi, M; Mansournia, MA; Naieni, K Holakouie

    2012-01-01

    Background There is a great amount of literature concerning the effect of racial segregation on health outcomes but few papers have discussed the effect of segregation on the basis of social, demographic and economic characteristics on health. We estimated the independent effect of segregation of determinants of socioeconomic status on infant mortality in Iranian population. Methods: For measuring segregation, we used generalized dissimilarity index for two group and multi group nominal variables and ordinal information theory index for ordinal variables. Sample data was obtained from Iranian latest national census and multilevel modeling with individual variables at level one and segregation indices measured at province level for socioeconomic status variables at level two were used to assess the effect of segregation on infant mortality. Results: Among individual factors, mother activity was a risk factor for infant mortality. Segregated provinces in regard to size of the house, ownership of a house and motorcycle, number of literate individual in the family and use of natural gas for cooking and heating had higher infant mortality. Segregation indices measured for education level, migration history, activity, marital status and existence of bathroom were negatively associated with infant mortality. Conclusion: Segregation of different contextual characteristics of neighborhood had different effects on health outcomes. Studying segregation of social, economic, and demographic factors, especially in communities, which are racially homogenous, might reveal new insights into dissimilarities in health. PMID:23113167

  7. Social Diffusion of Water Conservation: A Study of Residential Turf Rebate Programs in Orange County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duong, K.; Grant, S. B.; Rippy, M.; Feldman, D.

    2017-12-01

    From 2011 to 2017, the combination of record low precipitation and extreme warm temperatures resulted in the most severe drought in California's written history. In April 2015, Governor Jerry Brown issued an executive order mandating a statewide 25% reduction in potable urban water usage. Under such circumstances, outdoor watering is an obvious target for restriction, because it can account for a large fraction of total domestic water usage, up to 50% in the arid southwest [Syme et. al 2004, Cameron et. al 2012]. In this study we analyzed one such effort, in which the Irvine Ranch Water District (IRWD) in Orange County (California) offered a financial incentive through a turf rebate program to encourage Irvine residents to replace turf grass with drought tolerant landscaping. We focused specifically on the number of residents who applied to the turf rebate program. Our hypothesis was that the observed application rate (number of applicants per month) is influenced by a combination of (a) financial incentives issued by IRWD, (b) drought awareness, and (c) the fraction of neighbors that have already applied to the program (a phenomenon that can be described quantitatively through models of social contagion or social diffusion [Karsai et. al 2014]). Our preliminary results indicate that applications to the program occurred in geographic "hot spots", consistent with the idea that early adopters may have influenced neighbors to retrofit their lawns. We are currently evaluating the geographic, demographic, and temporal drivers that influence the rate of spontaneous adoption, the rate of adoption under influence, and the total size of the susceptible population. Overall, our goal is to identify the key factors that contribute to early rapid uptake of conservation behavior, and the rapid diffusion of that behavior through the community.

  8. Smog chamber study on the evolution of fume from residential coal combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Chunmei; Wang, Kun; Wang, Wei; Chen, Jianhua; Liu, Xiaoyu; Liu, Hongjie

    2012-01-01

    Domestic coal stoves are widely used in countryside and greenbelt residents in China for heating and cooking, and emit considerable pollutants to the atmosphere because of no treatment of their exhaust, which can result in deteriorating local air quality. In this study, a dynamic smog chamber was used to investigate the real-time emissions of gaseous and particulate pollutants during the combustion process and a static smog chamber was used to investigate the fume evolution under simulate light irradiation. The real-time emissions revealed that the total hydrocarbon (THC) and CO increased sharply after ignition, and then quickly decreased, indicating volatilization of hydrocarbons with low molecular weight and incomplete combustion at the beginning stage of combustion made great contribution to these pollutants. There was evident shoulder peak around 10 min combustion for both THC and CO, revealing the emissions from vitrinite combustion. Additionally, another broad emission peak of CO after 30 min was also observed, which was ascribed to the incomplete combustion of the inertinite. Compared with THC and CO, there was only one emission peak for NOx, SO2 and particular matters at the beginning stage of combustion. The fume evolution with static chamber simulation indicated that evident consumption of SO2 and NOx as well as new particle formation were observed. The consumption rates for SO2 and NOx were about 3.44% hr(-1) and 3.68% hr(-1), the new particle formation of nuclei particles grew at a rate of 16.03 nm/hr during the first reaction hour, and the increase of the diameter of accumulation mode particles was evident. The addition of isoprene to the diluted mixture of the fume could promote 03 and secondary particle formation.

  9. Differences between Residential and Non-Residential Fathers on Sexual Socialisation of African American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneed, Carl D.; Willis, Leigh A.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated differences between residential and non-residential fathers on topics discussed during father-child sex communication and factors associated with child sexual socialisation. Young people (N = 159, 53% female) provided self-reports using computer surveys on the role of their fathers on father-child sex communication, general…

  10. Unidirectionality Between Borderline Personality Disorder Traits and Psychopathology in a Residential Addictions Sample: A Short-Term Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Troy A; Kiselica, Andrew M; Arango, Alejandra; Rojas, Elizabeth; Neale, Michael C; Bornovalova, Marina A

    2015-12-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a barrier to treatment, yet the relationship between BPD features and other psychopathology symptoms in residential addictions treatment samples is understudied. Using a sample of adults enrolled in a residential drug treatment facility measured at baseline and 2-3 month follow-up, the authors examined the prospective relationship between BPD features and five indices of psychopathology: depression, anxiety, interpersonal sensitivity, hostility, and psychoticism, as well as psychopathology global severity. There was no effect of time on any of the forms of psychopathology, but females reported higher levels of BPD features, anxiety symptoms, and interpersonal sensitivity than males. A series of latent change score models indicated that BPD features predicted increases in all psychopathology scales at follow-up, while the reverse was not true. These results suggest that targeting BPD features in residents of drug treatment facilities may reduce the emergence of new psychopathology in the short term.

  11. Space-time clustering of non-hodgkin lymphoma using residential histories in a danish case-control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baastrup Nordsborg, Rikke; Meliker, Jaymie R; Kjær Ersbøll, Annette

    2013-01-01

    System. Residential addresses of cases and controls from 1971 to 2003 were collected from the Civil Registration System and geocoded. Data on pervious hospital diagnoses and operations were obtained from the National Patient Register. We applied the methods of the newly developed Q-statistics to identify...... space-time clustering of NHL. All analyses were conducted with each of the two control groups, and we adjusted for previous history of autoimmune disease, HIV/AIDS or organ transplantation. Some areas with statistically significant clustering were identified; however, results were not consistent across...... the two control groups; thus we interpret the results as chance findings. We found no evidence for clustering of NHL in space and time using 33 years of residential histories, suggesting that if the rise in incidence of NHL is a result of risk factors that vary across space and time, the spatio...

  12. Implementing nutrition guidelines for older people in residential care homes: a qualitative study using Normalization Process Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Bamford, Claire; Heaven, Ben; May, Carl; Moynihan, Paula

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Optimizing the dietary intake of older people can prevent nutritional deficiencies and diet-related diseases, thereby improving quality of life. However, there is evidence that the nutritional intake of older people living in care homes is suboptimal, with high levels of saturated fat, salt, and added sugars. The UK Food Standards Agency therefore developed nutrient- and food-based guidance for residential care homes. The acceptability of these guidelines and their feasibi...

  13. Residential care: Dutch and Italian residents of residential care facilities compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Heer-Wunderink, Charlotte; Caro-Nienhuis, Annemarie D; Sytema, Sjoerd; Wiersma, Durk

    2008-01-01

    Characteristics of patients living in residential care facilities and the availability of mental hospital- and residential beds in Italy and The Netherlands were compared to assess whether differences in the process of deinstitutionalisation have influenced the composition of their residential patient populations. Data from the Dutch UTOPIA-study (UTilization & Outcome of Patients In the Association of Dutch residential care providers) and the Italian PROGRES-study were used. Dutch residents were more likely to suffer from substance or alcohol abuse than Italian residents. The latter were more likely to suffer from schizophrenia or a related disorder, less likely to have experienced mental hospital admissions and showed an overall shorter duration of stay in residential care facilities. Contrary to our expectations Dutch residents, who still have good access to long stay beds in mental hospitals, are not less disabled than Italian residents. Finally, the number of beds in residential care facilities per 10,000 inhabitants in the Netherlands is twice (6) as high as in Italy (3). The Italian and Dutch deinstitutionalisation processes have resulted in a different availability in the number of residential beds. However, it did not influence the overall level of functioning of both residential populations.

  14. How much CO2 does vegetation capture in tropical cities? Case study of a residential neighborhood in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velasco, E.; Roth, M.; Tan, S.; Quak, M.; Seth, N.; Norford, L.

    2012-12-01

    Urban vegetation might have an important role in reducing the CO2 emitted by anthropogenic activities in cities, particularly in cities with extensive and/or evergreen vegetation. In a few urban sites negative daytime CO2 fluxes during the growing season have been observed. These sites correspond to suburban neighborhoods with abundant vegetation and low population density. Usually urban surfaces are net sources of CO2 modulated in some cases by vegetation during daytime. A direct and accurate estimation of carbon uptake by urban vegetation is a difficult task due to the particular characteristics of the urban ecosystem and high variability in tree distribution and species. Here, we investigate the role of urban vegetation in the CO2 flux from a residential neighborhood in Singapore using two different approaches. CO2 fluxes measured directly by eddy covariance were compared with emissions estimated by emissions factors and activity data. The latter includes contributions from vehicular traffic, household combustion, soil respiration and human breathing. The difference between estimated emissions and measured fluxes should primarily correspond to the biogenic flux. Independently, a tree survey was conducted to estimate the annual CO2 sequestration using allometric equations and an alternative model of the theory of metabolic ecology for tropical forests. This model predicts the biomass growth rate of woody trees as a function of their size. Palm trees were also included in the survey, but their annual CO2 uptake was obtained from growth curves/rates published in the literature. Both approaches suggest that vegetation captures between 5% and 8% of the CO2 emitted in this neighborhood. Annual uptakes of 510 and 324 ton km-2 were obtained from the difference between measured fluxes and estimated emissions, and the approach based on allometric equations, respectively. The difference between both approaches can be due to uncertainties in the emissions estimates and

  15. Modeling radon transport in multistory residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persily, A.K.

    1993-01-01

    Radon concentrations have been studied extensively in single-family residential buildings, but relatively little work has been done in large buildings, including multistory residential buildings. The phenomena of radon transport in multistory residential buildings is made more complicated by the multizone nature of the airflow system and the numerous interzone airflow paths that must be characterized in such a system. This paper presents the results of a computer simulation of airflow and radon transport in a twelve-story residential building. Interzone airflow rates and radon concentrations were predicted using the multizone airflow and contaminant dispersal program (CON-TAM88). Limited simulations were conducted to study the influence of two different radon source terms, indoor-outdoor temperature difference and exterior wall leakage values on radon transport and radon concentration distributions

  16. A pilot study using "apps" as a novel strategy for the management of challenging behaviors seen in people living in residential care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loi, Samantha M; Mazur, Angela; Huppert, David; Hoy, Bernadette; Swan, Jodie; Lautenschlager, Nicola T

    2017-04-01

    Many adults living in residential care will demonstrate challenging behaviors. Non-pharmacological strategies are recommended as first-line treatment. Using applications (apps) is a novel approach to managing these behaviors, and has yet to be assessed in this group. This paper describes a pilot study to test apps as a novel non-pharmacological strategy to manage challenging behaviors in adults living in residential care. A non-blinded, non-randomized crossover trial design was implemented which compared apps to a control situation and usual care to determine whether apps were able to decrease challenging behaviors. The primary outcome measure was the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) that measures the frequency and severity of these behaviors. Fifteen residents participated whose mean age was 78.5 years. There were a range of diagnoses and comorbidities, including dementia and schizophrenia. IPads were used as the medium for delivering the apps and residential care staff implemented the interventions. There was a significant decrease in the total NPI score using the apps intervention (10.6 points) compared to the control (17.7 points) and to usual care (21.1 points). There was positive qualitative feedback from the staff who were involved in the study, but they also cited barriers such as lack of confidence using the apps and lack of time. Although this was a small and limited study, results suggest that using apps may be a feasible and personalized approach to managing challenging behaviors. A more rigorous study design that includes larger sample sizes and staff training may enable further research and benefits in this area.

  17. Residential mobility and childhood leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoon, A T; Oksuzyan, S; Crespi, C M; Arah, O A; Cockburn, M; Vergara, X; Kheifets, L

    2018-07-01

    Studies of environmental exposures and childhood leukemia studies do not usually account for residential mobility. Yet, in addition to being a potential risk factor, mobility can induce selection bias, confounding, or measurement error in such studies. Using data collected for California Powerline Study (CAPS), we attempt to disentangle the effect of mobility. We analyzed data from a population-based case-control study of childhood leukemia using cases who were born in California and diagnosed between 1988 and 2008 and birth certificate controls. We used stratified logistic regression, case-only analysis, and propensity-score adjustments to assess predictors of residential mobility between birth and diagnosis, and account for potential confounding due to residential mobility. Children who moved tended to be older, lived in housing other than single-family homes, had younger mothers and fewer siblings, and were of lower socioeconomic status. Odds ratios for leukemia among non-movers living mobility, including dwelling type, increased odds ratios for leukemia to 2.61 (95% CI: 1.76-3.86) for living mobility of childhood leukemia cases varied by several sociodemographic characteristics, but not by the distance to the nearest power line or calculated magnetic fields. Mobility appears to be an unlikely explanation for the associations observed between power lines exposure and childhood leukemia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Gentrification and Residential Mobility in Philadelphia

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Lei; Hwang, Jackelyn; Divringi, Eileen

    2016-01-01

    Gentrification has provoked considerable controversy surrounding its effects on residential displacement. Using a unique individual-level, longitudinal data set, this study examines mobility rates and residential destinations of residents in gentrifying neighborhoods during the recent housing boom and bust in Philadelphia for various strata of residents and different types of gentrification. We find that vulnerable residents, those with low credit scores and without mortgages, are generally n...

  19. Architectural design of passive solar residential building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Jing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies thermal environment of closed balconies that commonly exist in residential buildings, and designs a passive solar residential building. The design optimizes the architectural details of the house and passive utilization of solar energy to provide auxiliary heating for house in winter and cooling in summer. This design might provide a more sufficient and reasonable modification for microclimate in the house.

  20. Garden greenery and the health of older people in residential care facilities: a multi-level cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlkvist, Eva; Hartig, Terry; Nilsson, Annika; Högberg, Hans; Skovdahl, Kirsti; Engström, Maria

    2016-09-01

    To test the relationship between greenery in gardens at residential facilities for older people and the self-perceived health of residents, mediated by experiences of being away and fascination when in the garden and the frequency of visitation there. To examine how these indirect effects vary with the number of physical barriers to visiting the garden. Many older people in residential facilities suffer from complex health problems. Access to a green outdoor environment may enable psychological distance, engage effortless attention, encourage more frequent visitation and promote resident health. A multi-level, cross-sectional, correlational design. Questionnaires were administered June-August, 2011 to convenience samples of residents at 72 facilities for older people with complex healthcare needs. One to 10 eligible residents were sampled during self-motivated garden visits at each facility (n = 290). They reported on their garden experiences and health. Facility staff reported on objective garden characteristics and barriers to access. A serial mediation model was tested with multiple linear regression analysis. The total indirect effect of greenery on self-perceived health was positive and significant. Garden greenery appears to affect health by enhancing a sense of being away, affording possibilities to experience the outdoor environment as interesting and encouraging visitation. Among residents in homes with multiple barriers, only fascination mediated the relationship between greenery and self-perceived health. Ample greenery in outdoor space at residential facilities for older people appears to promote experiences of being away and fascination, more frequent visitation and better health. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Advanced Nursing Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Residential Road Traffic Noise and High Depressive Symptoms after Five Years of Follow-up: Results from the Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orban, Ester; McDonald, Kelsey; Sutcliffe, Robynne; Hoffmann, Barbara; Fuks, Kateryna B; Dragano, Nico; Viehmann, Anja; Erbel, Raimund; Jöckel, Karl-Heinz; Pundt, Noreen; Moebus, Susanne

    2016-05-01

    Traffic noise affects a large number of people, particularly in urbanized areas. Noise causes stress and annoyance, but less is known about the relationship between noise and depression. We investigated the association of residential road traffic noise with depressive symptoms using 5-year follow-up data from a German population-based study. We analyzed data from 3,300 participants in the Heinz Nixdorf Recall study who were between 45 and 75 years old and were without depressive symptoms at baseline (2000-2003). Depressive symptoms were defined based on the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale (CES-D) 15-item questionnaire (total score ≥ 17) and antidepressant medication intake. Road traffic noise was modeled according to European Parliament/Council Directive 2002/49/EC. High noise exposure was defined as annual mean 24-hr noise levels > 55 A-weighted decibels [dB(A)]. Poisson regression with robust variance was used to estimate relative risks (RRs) a) adjusting for the potential confounders age, sex, socioeconomic status (SES), neighborhood-level SES, and traffic proximity; b) additionally adjusting for body mass index and smoking; and c) additionally adjusting for the potential confounders/intermediates comorbidities and insomnia. Overall, 35.7% of the participants were exposed to high residential road traffic noise levels. At follow-up (mean = 5.1 years after baseline), 302 participants were classified as having high depressive symptoms, corresponding to an adjusted RR of 1.29 (95% CI: 1.03, 1.62; Model 1) for exposure to > 55 versus ≤ 55 dB(A). Adjustment for potential confounders/intermediates did not substantially alter the results. Associations were stronger among those who reported insomnia at baseline (RR = 1.62; 95% CI: 1.10, 2.59 vs. RR = 1.21; 95% CI: 0.94, 1.57) and appeared to be limited to those with ≤ 13 years of education (RR = 1.43; 95% CI: 1.10, 1.85 vs. 0.92; 95% CI: 0.56, 1.53 for > 13 years). Our results suggest that

  2. Residential greenness and prevalence of major depressive disorders: a cross-sectional, observational, associational study of 94 879 adult UK Biobank participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Chinmoy; Webster, Chris; Gallacher, John

    2018-04-01

    Increased urbanisation and the associated reduced contact of individuals with natural environments have led to a rise in mental disorders, including depression. Residential greenness, a fundamental component of urban design, has been shown to reduce the public health burden of mental disorders. The present study investigates the association between residential green exposure and prevalence of major depressive disorders using a large and diverse cross-sectional dataset from the UK Biobank. In this cross-sectional, observational, associational study, we used baseline data from the UK Biobank cohort of participants aged 37-73 years from across the UK. Environmental exposure data were derived from a modelled and linked built environment database. Residential greenness was assessed with a 0·5 m resolution Normalised Difference Vegetation Index, which is derived from spectral reflectance measurements in remotely sensed colour infrared data and measured within geocoded dwelling catchments. Other environment metrics included street-level movement density, terrain, and fine particulate exposures. A series of logistic models examined associations between residential greenness and odds of major depressive disorder after adjusting for activity-influencing environments and individual covariates. Of 122 993 participants with data on major depressive disorder, the study analytical sample comprised 94 879 (77·1%) participants recruited across ten UK Biobank assessment centres between April 29, 2009, and Oct 1, 2010. A protective effect of greenness on depression was consistently observed, with 4·0% lower odds of major depressive disorder per interquartile increment in Normalised Difference Vegetation Index greenness (odds ratio 0·960, 95% CI 0·93-0·99; p=0·0044). Interaction analyses indicated that the beneficial effects of greenness were more pronounced among women, participants younger than 60 years, and participants residing in areas with low neighbourhood

  3. Residential greenness and prevalence of major depressive disorders: a cross-sectional, observational, associational study of 94 879 adult UK Biobank participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinmoy Sarkar, PhD

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Background: Increased urbanisation and the associated reduced contact of individuals with natural environments have led to a rise in mental disorders, including depression. Residential greenness, a fundamental component of urban design, has been shown to reduce the public health burden of mental disorders. The present study investigates the association between residential green exposure and prevalence of major depressive disorders using a large and diverse cross-sectional dataset from the UK Biobank. Methods: In this cross-sectional, observational, associational study, we used baseline data from the UK Biobank cohort of participants aged 37–73 years from across the UK. Environmental exposure data were derived from a modelled and linked built environment database. Residential greenness was assessed with a 0·5 m resolution Normalised Difference Vegetation Index, which is derived from spectral reflectance measurements in remotely sensed colour infrared data and measured within geocoded dwelling catchments. Other environment metrics included street-level movement density, terrain, and fine particulate exposures. A series of logistic models examined associations between residential greenness and odds of major depressive disorder after adjusting for activity-influencing environments and individual covariates. Findings: Of 122 993 participants with data on major depressive disorder, the study analytical sample comprised 94 879 (77·1% participants recruited across ten UK Biobank assessment centres between April 29, 2009, and Oct 1, 2010. A protective effect of greenness on depression was consistently observed, with 4·0% lower odds of major depressive disorder per interquartile increment in Normalised Difference Vegetation Index greenness (odds ratio 0·960, 95% CI 0·93–0·99; p=0·0044. Interaction analyses indicated that the beneficial effects of greenness were more pronounced among women, participants younger than 60 years, and

  4. Exercise Capacity and Selected Physiological Factors by Ancestry and Residential Altitude: Cross-Sectional Studies of 9–10-Year-Old Children in Tibet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berntsen, Sveinung; Andersen, Lars Bo; Stigum, Hein; Ouzhuluobu; Nafstad, Per; Wu, Tianyi; Bjertness, Espen

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Bianba, Sveinung Bernsten, Lars Bo Andersen, Hein Stegum, Ouzhuluobu, Per Nafstad, Tianyi Wu, and Espen Bjertness. Exercise capacity and selected physiological factors by ancestry and residential altitude—Cross-sectional studies of 9–10-year-old children in Tibet. High Alt Med Biol. 15:162–169, 2014.—Aim: Several physiological compensatory mechanisms have enabled Tibetans to live and work at high altitude, including increased ventilation and pulmonary diffusion capacity, both of which serve to increase oxygen transport in the blood. The aim of the present study was to compare exercise capacity (maximal power output) and selected physiological factors (arterial oxygen saturation and heart rate at rest and during maximal exercise, resting hemoglobin concentration, and forced vital capacity) in groups of native Tibetan children living at different residential altitudes (3700 vs. 4300 m above sea level) and across ancestry (native Tibetan vs. Han Chinese children living at the same altitude of 3700 m). Methods: A total of 430 9–10-year-old native Tibetan children from Tingri (4300 m) and 406 native Tibetan- and 406 Han Chinese immigrants (77% lowland-born and 33% highland-born) from Lhasa (3700 m) participated in two cross-sectional studies. The maximal power output (Wmax) was assessed using an ergometer cycle. Results: Lhasa Tibetan children had a 20% higher maximal power output (watts/kg) than Tingri Tibetan and 4% higher than Lhasa Han Chinese. Maximal heart rate, arterial oxygen saturation at rest, lung volume, and arterial oxygen saturation were significantly associated with exercise capacity at a given altitude, but could not fully account for the differences in exercise capacity observed between ancestry groups or altitudes. Conclusions: The superior exercise capacity in native Tibetans vs. Han Chinese may reflect a better adaptation to life at high altitude. Tibetans at the lower residential altitude of 3700 m demonstrated a better

  5. An investigation into thermal comfort and residential thermal environment in an intertropical sub-Saharan Africa region: Field study report during the Harmattan season in Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Djongyang, Noel; Tchinda, Rene

    2010-01-01

    Investigations on thermal comfort have attracted authors for years throughout the world and the most important findings are now the basis of international thermal comfort standards. There is little information available concerning occupant comfort and residential thermal environment in the intertropical sub-Saharan Africa. Thus the purpose for this study is to conduct a field study on comfort and residential thermal environments in a typical intertropical climatic region. A field survey has been conducted during the Harmattan season in two cities from the two climatic regions of Cameroon concerned by that wind. Specific study objectives were to evaluate and characterize some thermal perceptions of occupants in their residence, compare observed and predicted percent of dissatisfied, and discern differences between the study area and other climate zones where similar studies have been performed. It was found that the thermoneutral temperatures in both climatic regions range from 24.69 deg. C to 27.32 deg. C and, in traditional living room, it differs from that of modern living room with approximately 1 deg. C.

  6. Response comparative study of Rn-222 alpha particles track monitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, Osvaldo Luiz dos Santos

    2010-01-01

    This work was a comparative study between the responses of three monitors, the NRPB, an acrylic monitor (in thin film geometry) and the aluminum monitor (also thin film geometry) in controlled and mixed environment. The experiments consisted on placing the monitors in a plastic tube, with a radio-226 source internal. Only internal CR-39 plastic detectors were analyzed in this work. It was found that the monitors in thin film geometry had activities response of approximately 15% less than the NRPB monitors. All monitors responded the same way when in controlled environment. Related to the type of material, conductive plastic or dielectric (insulator) plastic, the NRPB, in environments without ventilation, responded in the same way. (author)

  7. A cluster-randomised trial of staff education to improve the quality of life of people with dementia living in residential care: the DIRECT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, Christopher; Horner, Barbara; Flicker, Leon; Scherer, Samuel; Lautenschlager, Nicola T; Bretland, Nick; Flett, Penelope; Schaper, Frank; Almeida, Osvaldo P

    2011-01-01

    The Dementia In Residential care: EduCation intervention Trial (DIRECT) was conducted to determine if delivery of education designed to meet the perceived need of GPs and care staff improves the quality of life of participants with dementia living in residential care. This cluster-randomised controlled trial was conducted in 39 residential aged care facilities in the metropolitan area of Perth, Western Australia. 351 care facility residents aged 65 years and older with Mini-Mental State Examination ≤ 24, their GPs and facility staff participated. Flexible education designed to meet the perceived needs of learners was delivered to GPs and care facility staff in intervention groups. The primary outcome of the study was self-rated quality of life of participants with dementia, measured using the QOL-Alzheimer's Disease Scale (QOL-AD) at 4 weeks and 6 months after the conclusion of the intervention. Analysis accounted for the effect of clustering by using multi-level regression analysis. Education of GPs or care facility staff did not affect the primary outcome at either 4 weeks or 6 months. In a post hoc analysis excluding facilities in which fewer than 50% of staff attended an education session, self-rated QOL-AD scores were 6.14 points (adjusted 95%CI 1.14, 11.15) higher at four-week follow-up among residents in facilities randomly assigned to the education intervention. The education intervention directed at care facilities or GPs did not improve the quality of life ratings of participants with dementia as a group. This may be explained by the poor adherence to the intervention programme, as participants with dementia living in facilities where staff participated at least minimally seemed to benefit. ANZCTR.org.au ACTRN12607000417482.

  8. A cluster-randomised trial of staff education to improve the quality of life of people with dementia living in residential care: the DIRECT study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Beer

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Dementia In Residential care: EduCation intervention Trial (DIRECT was conducted to determine if delivery of education designed to meet the perceived need of GPs and care staff improves the quality of life of participants with dementia living in residential care. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: This cluster-randomised controlled trial was conducted in 39 residential aged care facilities in the metropolitan area of Perth, Western Australia. 351 care facility residents aged 65 years and older with Mini-Mental State Examination ≤ 24, their GPs and facility staff participated. Flexible education designed to meet the perceived needs of learners was delivered to GPs and care facility staff in intervention groups. The primary outcome of the study was self-rated quality of life of participants with dementia, measured using the QOL-Alzheimer's Disease Scale (QOL-AD at 4 weeks and 6 months after the conclusion of the intervention. Analysis accounted for the effect of clustering by using multi-level regression analysis. Education of GPs or care facility staff did not affect the primary outcome at either 4 weeks or 6 months. In a post hoc analysis excluding facilities in which fewer than 50% of staff attended an education session, self-rated QOL-AD scores were 6.14 points (adjusted 95%CI 1.14, 11.15 higher at four-week follow-up among residents in facilities randomly assigned to the education intervention. CONCLUSION: The education intervention directed at care facilities or GPs did not improve the quality of life ratings of participants with dementia as a group. This may be explained by the poor adherence to the intervention programme, as participants with dementia living in facilities where staff participated at least minimally seemed to benefit. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ANZCTR.org.au ACTRN12607000417482.

  9. Classification of residential areas according to physical vulnerability to natural hazards: a case study of Çanakkale, Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Başaran-Uysal, Arzu; Sezen, Funda; Ozden, Süha; Karaca, Oznur

    2014-01-01

    The selection of new settlement areas and the construction of safe buildings, as well as rendering built-up areas safe, are of great importance in mitigating the damage caused by natural disasters. Most cities in Turkey are unprepared for natural hazards. In this paper, Çanakkale, located in a first-degree seismic zone and sprawled around the Sartçay Delta, is examined in terms of its physical vulnerability to natural hazards. Residential areas are analysed using GIS (geographic information system) and remote-sensing technologies in relation to selected indicators. Residential areas of the city are divided into zones according to an evaluation of geological characteristics, the built-up area's features, and urban infrastructure, and four risk zones are determined. The results of the analysis show that the areas of the city suitable for housing are very limited. In addition, the historical centre and the housing areas near Sartçay stream are shown to be most problematic in terms of natural disasters and sustainability. © 2014 The Author(s). Disasters © Overseas Development Institute, 2014.

  10. Hypospadias and residential proximity to pesticide applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carmichael, Suzan L; Yang, Wei; Roberts, Eric M; Kegley, Susan E; Wolff, Craig; Guo, Liang; Lammer, Edward J; English, Paul; Shaw, Gary M

    2013-11-01

    Experimental evidence suggests pesticides may be associated with hypospadias. Examine the association of hypospadias with residential proximity to commercial agricultural pesticide applications. The study population included male infants born from 1991 to 2004 to mothers residing in 8 California counties. Cases (n = 690) were ascertained by the California Birth Defects Monitoring Program; controls were selected randomly from the birth population (n = 2195). We determined early pregnancy exposure to pesticide applications within a 500-m radius of mother's residential address, using detailed data on applications and land use. Associations with exposures to physicochemical groups of pesticides and specific chemicals were assessed using logistic regression adjusted for maternal race or ethnicity and age and infant birth year. Forty-one percent of cases and controls were classified as exposed to 57 chemical groups and 292 chemicals. Despite >500 statistical comparisons, there were few elevated odds ratios with confidence intervals that excluded 1 for chemical groups or specific chemicals. Those that did were for monochlorophenoxy acid or ester herbicides; the insecticides aldicarb, dimethoate, phorate, and petroleum oils; and adjuvant polyoxyethylene sorbitol among all cases; 2,6-dinitroaniline herbicides, the herbicide oxyfluorfen, and the fungicide copper sulfate among mild cases; and chloroacetanilide herbicides, polyalkyloxy compounds used as adjuvants, the insecticides aldicarb and acephate, and the adjuvant nonyl-phenoxy-poly(ethylene oxy)ethanol among moderate and severe cases. Odds ratios ranged from 1.9 to 2.9. Most pesticides were not associated with elevated hypospadias risk. For the few that were associated, results should be interpreted with caution until replicated in other study populations.

  11. Field-Metered Data from Portable Unit Dehumidifiers in the U.S. Residential Sector: Initial Results of a Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willem, Henry [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Beraki, Bereket [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Burke, Tom [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Melody, Moya [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Nagaraju, Mythri [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Ni, Chun Chun [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Pratt, Stacy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Dominique Yang, Hung-Chia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division

    2013-01-29

    The work described herein is intended to enrich the body of literature regarding dehumidifiers in residential settings—in particular the hours of use and energy consumption of various types of dehumidifiers. In the United States, portable unit dehumidifiers most commonly are used in basements during humid summer days in northern climates. Dehumidifier energy consumption differs among households depending on settings selected by the user, frequency of use, and conditions of operation. Although some estimates of dehumidifier use have been developed, and a few metering studies performed, there remains a paucity of metered data collected from individual households that use dehumidifiers. For this study we obtained field data on the energy consumption of dehumidifiers to supplement currently available analyses. Our goal was to obtain data from a pilot study that we could use to develop initial distributions describing the capacities and applications of dehumidifiers used in individual homes. More precisely characterizing the use of dehumidifiers in real-world applications will enable a more accurate estimate of the range of energy use in various operational modes. Our pilot field-metering exercise was aimed at compiling real-time data on the energy consumption of portable dehumidifiers in residential households in the New England and Mid-Atlantic areas. Our analysis furthers the process of developing a more precise estimate of dehumidifier energy use, which will support the evaluation of the potential energy savings and attendant costs associated with more energy efficient dehumidifiers.

  12. A comparison between self-reported and GIS-based proxies of residential exposure to environmental pollution in a case-control study on lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordioli, M; Ranzi, A; Freni Sterrantino, A; Erspamer, L; Razzini, G; Ferrari, U; Gatti, M G; Bonora, K; Artioli, F; Goldoni, C A; Lauriola, P

    2014-06-01

    In epidemiological studies both questionnaire results and GIS modeling have been used to assess exposure to environmental risk factors. Nevertheless, few studies have used both these techniques to evaluate the degree of agreement between different exposure assessment methodologies. As part of a case-control study on lung cancer, we present a comparison between self-reported and GIS-derived proxies of residential exposure to environmental pollution. 649 subjects were asked to fill out a questionnaire and give information about residential history and perceived exposure. Using GIS, for each residence we evaluated land use patterns, proximity to major roads and exposure to industrial pollution. We then compared the GIS exposure-index values among groups created on the basis of questionnaire responses. Our results showed a relatively high agreement between the two methods. Although none of these methods is the "exposure gold standard", understanding similarities, weaknesses and strengths of each method is essential to strengthen epidemiological evidence. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Triangle-Area Mobile Monitoring Barriers Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    These data are measurement time series collected onboard multiple mobile monitoring vehicles. The data are at a high time resolution (seconds to minutes).This dataset is associated with the following publication:Humphries, A., S. AYVAZIAN, J. CAREY, B. Hancock, S. Grabbert, D. J. COBB, C. J. STROBEL, AND R. Fulweiler. Directly measured denitrification reveals oyster aquaculture and restored oyster reefs remove nitrogen at comparable high rates. Frontiers in Marine Science. Frontiers, Lausanne, Switzerland, 3(74):doi: 10.3389/fmars.2, (2016).

  14. Optimizing study design for multi-species avian monitoring programmes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamie S. Sanderlin; William M. Block; Joseph L. Ganey

    2014-01-01

    Many monitoring programmes are successful at monitoring common species, whereas rare species, which are often of highest conservation concern, may be detected infrequently. Study designs that increase the probability of detecting rare species at least once over the study period, while collecting adequate data on common species, strengthen programme ability to address...

  15. Update of energy performance certificates in the residential sector and scenarios that consider the impact of automation, control and management systems: A case study of La Rioja

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    López-González, Luis M.; López-Ochoa, Luis M.; Las-Heras-Casas, Jesús; García-Lozano, César

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A total of 9416 energy performance certificates in the residential sector were analyzed. • Approximately 40% of the energy performance certificates were incorrect. • The developed algorithms can be generalized for the remainder of Spain. • Introducing BACS and TBM systems can reduce building energy consumption by up to 26.36%. - Abstract: Energy performance certificates are considered to be tools for knowledge and energy planning in the residential sector. Although energy performance certificates describe primary energy consumption and the associated emissions of a home or building, they do not consider the influence of building automation control systems (BACS) or technical building management (TBM) systems on these parameters. The European Standard EN 15232 remedies this shortcoming and evaluates the savings in primary energy and the reduction of CO 2 emissions that can be achieved by these systems. This study investigates the energy performance certificates registered in the Autonomous Community of La Rioja and considers the policy changes in the Technical Building Code (Código Técnico de la Edificación) and, specifically, the Basic Document for Energy Saving (Documento Básico de Ahorro de Energía) (CTE-DB-HE). Due to this regulatory change, we corrected the certificates and outlined different scenarios based on the implementation of these systems in this study. These scenarios show the potential distribution of energy performance certificates and the improvements in the ratings obtained.

  16. Case Study - Monitoring the Photovoltaic Panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PACURAR Ana Talida

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The photovoltaic cell represents one of the most dynamic and attractive way to converts renewable energy sources in electricity production. That means to convert solar energy into electricity. In this paper is presented a analogy between two types of photovoltaic panels installed, with educational role for students. Also the objective of this paper is to estimate the performance of photovoltaic panels and to provide the best solution for industry. These two types of photovoltaic panels were monitored at the same time and taking into account the same weather conditions. In introduction of this paper is a short description regarding the silicon, because it is considered to be the most frequently used material for photovoltaic cell production at industrial level. In this context are mentioned below photovoltaic cells: mono-crystalline, polycrystalline, ribbon silicon and amorphous silicon (thin film cells. It is also presented for all these types of cells the structure, the function, the advantages and the disadvantages.

  17. Nearly Zero Energy Standard for Non-Residential Buildings with high Energy Demands—An Empirical Case Study Using the State-Related Properties of BAVARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Keltsch

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD 2010 calls for the Nearly Zero Energy Building (nZEB Standard for new buildings from 2021 onwards: Buildings using “almost no energy” are powered by renewable sources or by the energy produced by the building itself. For residential buildings, this ambitious new standard has already been reached. But for other building types, this goal is still far away. The potential of these buildings to meet a nZEB Standard was investigated by analyzing ten case studies, representing non-residential buildings with different uses. The analysis shows that the primary characteristics common to critical building types are a dense building context with a very high degree of technical installation (such as hospital, research, and laboratory buildings. The large primary energy demand of these types of buildings cannot be compensated by building- and property-related energy generation, including off-site renewables. If the future nZEB Standard were to be defined with lower requirements because of this, the state-related properties of Bavaria suggest that the real potential energy savings available in at least 85% of all new buildings would be insufficiently exploited. Therefore, it would be more useful to individualize the legal energy verification process for new buildings, to distinguish critical building types such as laboratories and hospitals from the other building types.

  18. Catchment-scale evaluation of pollution potential of urban snow at two residential catchments in southern Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillanpää, Nora; Koivusalo, Harri

    2013-01-01

    Despite the crucial role of snow in the hydrological cycle in cold climate conditions, monitoring studies of urban snow quality often lack discussions about the relevance of snow in the catchment-scale runoff management. In this study, measurements of snow quality were conducted at two residential catchments in Espoo, Finland, simultaneously with continuous runoff measurements. The results of the snow quality were used to produce catchment-scale estimates of areal snow mass loads (SML). Based on the results, urbanization reduced areal snow water equivalent but increased pollutant accumulation in snow: SMLs in a medium-density residential catchment were two- to four-fold higher in comparison with a low-density residential catchment. The main sources of pollutants were related to vehicular traffic and road maintenance, but also pet excrement increased concentrations to a high level. Ploughed snow can contain 50% of the areal pollutant mass stored in snow despite its small surface area within a catchment.

  19. Residential Mechanical Precooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, a. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This research conducted by the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team evaluated mechanical air conditioner pre-cooling strategies in homes throughout the United States. EnergyPlus modeling evaluated two homes with different performance characteristics in seven climates. Results are applicable to new construction homes and most existing homes built in the last 10 years, as well as fairly efficient retrofitted homes.

  20. Residential Solar Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulkerson, Dan

    This publication contains student and teacher instructional materials for a course in residential solar systems. The text is designed either as a basic solar course or as a supplement to extend student skills in areas such as architectural drafting, air conditioning and refrigeration, and plumbing. The materials are presented in four units…

  1. Residential land values and their determinants in high density ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study identified that residential segregation exists in Nigerian cities and the study area. Among urbanization and residential land use problems identified by the study are poor level of social and technical infrastructure, poor land and city management system capacity, paucity of planning laws, funding, poor institutional ...

  2. Effects of Vernacular Climatic Strategies (VCS on Energy Consumption in Common Residential Buildings in Southern Iran: The Case Study of Bushehr City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Mohammadi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to use the vernacular climatic strategies (VCS of traditional dwellings in Bushehr, in the common residential buildings of this southern Iranian city (which is characterized by its hot and humid climate, and provide answers to the following question: What effects do VCS have in terms of energy consumption in these buildings? This study has been conducted at three levels. At the first level, three context-based climatic solutions including shading, natural ventilation, and insulation of external walls and roofs were identified and selected based on bibliographic study. At the second level, a case study reflecting the current typology of common residential buildings in Bushehr city was selected. A combination of the mentioned climatic solutions was used in the baseline case to create a developed model. Based on the space layout of the developed model and some design criteria, a series of proposed models was also created and modeled. The selected case study building was also used to establish a local weather station at a height of 12 m based on the roof, collecting local climate data which were then used for simulation to improve simulation accuracy. Finally, all models were simulated with the use of Design Builder software under natural ventilation conditions during moderate climatic periods of the year while split air-conditioning systems were used during hot and humid periods. The results showed reductions of 16% in energy consumption and 22% in CO2 emissions for the developed model, and reductions of 24–26% in energy consumption and 32–34% in CO2 emissions for the proposed models, as compared with the baseline model. Furthermore, all proposed models achieved lower annual energy consumption when compared with a selection of international sustainable low energy standards and domestic energy performance references for the Middle East region. Further studies are also recommended, and there is potential for combining VCS with

  3. Modeling the residential infiltration of outdoor PM(2.5) in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Ryan W; Adar, Sara D; Avol, Ed; Cohen, Martin; Curl, Cynthia L; Larson, Timothy; Liu, L-J Sally; Sheppard, Lianne; Kaufman, Joel D

    2012-06-01

    Epidemiologic studies of fine particulate matter [aerodynamic diameter ≤ 2.5 μm (PM(2.5))] typically use outdoor concentrations as exposure surrogates. Failure to account for variation in residential infiltration efficiencies (F(inf)) will affect epidemiologic study results. We aimed to develop models to predict F(inf) for > 6,000 homes in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis and Air Pollution (MESA Air), a prospective cohort study of PM(2.5) exposure, subclinical cardiovascular disease, and clinical outcomes. We collected 526 two-week, paired indoor-outdoor PM(2.5) filter samples from a subset of study homes. PM(2.5) elemental composition was measured by X-ray fluorescence, and F(inf) was estimated as the indoor/outdoor sulfur ratio. We regressed F(inf) on meteorologic variables and questionnaire-based predictors in season-specific models. Models were evaluated using the R² and root mean square error (RMSE) from a 10-fold cross-validation. The mean ± SD F(inf) across all communities and seasons was 0.62 ± 0.21, and community-specific means ranged from 0.47 ± 0.15 in Winston-Salem, North Carolina, to 0.82 ± 0.14 in New York, New York. F(inf) was generally greater during the warm (> 18°C) season. Central air conditioning (AC) use, frequency of AC use, and window opening frequency were the most important predictors during the warm season; outdoor temperature and forced-air heat were the best cold-season predictors. The models predicted 60% of the variance in 2-week F(inf), with an RMSE of 0.13. We developed intuitive models that can predict F(inf) using easily obtained variables. Using these models, MESA Air will be the first large epidemiologic study to incorporate variation in residential F(inf) into an exposure assessment.

  4. At the intersection of place, race, and health in Brazil: Residential segregation and cardio-metabolic risk factors in the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Sharrelle; Diez Roux, Ana V; Cardoso, Letícia; Santos, Simone; Toste, Veronica; James, Sherman; Barreto, Sandhi; Schmidt, Maria; Giatti, Luana; Chor, Dora

    2018-02-01

    Residential segregation is the spatial manifestation of entrenched socioeconomic and racial inequities and is considered a fundamental cause of racial inequalities in health. Despite the well-documented racialized spatial inequalities that exist in urban areas throughout Brazil, few empirical investigations have examined the link between residential segregation and health and considered its implications for racial health inequalities in this setting. In the present study, we used data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (2008-2010) to examine the association between economic residential segregation and two major cardio-metabolic risk factors-hypertension and diabetes. We also examined whether associations were stronger for historically marginalized racial groups in Brazil. Residential segregation was calculated for study-defined neighborhoods using the Getis-Ord Local G i * statistic and was based on household income data from the 2010 IBGE demographic census. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to examine associations. In our sample, Blacks and Browns were more likely to live in economically segregated neighborhoods. After taking into account income, education, and other demographic characteristics we found that individuals living in the most economically segregated neighborhoods were 26% more likely to have hypertension and 50% more likely to have diabetes than individuals living in more affluent areas. Although Blacks and Browns living in highly segregated neighborhoods had higher prevalence of hypertension and diabetes compared to Whites, we observed no statistically significant racial differences in the associations with residential segregation. Our findings suggest that residential segregation may be an important structural determinant of cardio-metabolic risk factors in Brazil. Moreover, the systematic and disproportionate exposure of Blacks and Browns to highly segregated neighborhoods may implicate these settings as

  5. CE: Original research: the use of surveillance technology in residential facilities for people with dementia or intellectual disabilities: a study among nurses and support staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemeijer, Alistair R; Depla, Marja; Frederiks, Brenda; Francke, Anneke L; Hertogh, Cees

    2014-12-01

    The use of surveillance technology in residential care facilities for people with dementia or intellectual disabilities is often promoted both as a solution to understaffing and as a means to increasing clients' autonomy. But there are fears that such use might attenuate the care relationship. To investigate how surveillance technology is actually being used by nurses and support staff in residential care facilities for people with dementia or intellectual disabilities, in order to explore the possible benefits and drawbacks of this technology in practice. An ethnographic field study was carried out in two residential care facilities: a nursing home for people with dementia and a facility for people with intellectual disabilities. Data were collected through field observations and informal conversations as well as through formal interviews. Five overarching themes on the use of surveillance technology emerged from the data: continuing to do rounds, alarm fatigue, keeping clients in close proximity, locking the doors, and forgetting to take certain devices off. Despite the presence of surveillance technology, participants still continued their rounds. Alarm fatigue sometimes led participants to turn devices off. Though the technology allowed wandering clients to be tracked more easily, participants often preferred keeping clients nearby, and preferably behind locked doors at night. At times participants forgot to remove less visible devices (such as electronic bracelets) when the original reason for use expired. A more nuanced view of the benefits and drawbacks of surveillance technology is called for. Study participants tended to incorporate surveillance technology into existing care routines and to do so with some reluctance and reservation. They also tended to favor certain technologies, for example, making intensive use of certain devices (such as digital enhanced cordless telecommunications phones) while demonstrating ambivalence about others (such as the

  6. Biological characteristics as a part of pollution monitoring studies

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, V.R.; Govindan, K.

    Ecosystem modifications can be considered as an integral part of any pollution monitoring studies and in such cases community structure/diversity is of prime importance. Considering this advantage of aquatic life, pelagic and benthic communities...

  7. In-home performance of residential cordwood stoves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houck, J.E.; Barnett, S.G.; Roholt, R.B.

    1991-01-01

    The air quality impacts of residential cordwood stoves have been of concern to regulators, energy planners, and members of the woodstove industry. In addition, the reliability of laboratory certification emission values in predicting 'real world' emissions has been questioned. In response to these concerns, particulate emissions from residential cordwood stoves under actual in-home use have been measured for 5 heating seasons as part of 12 separate studies in Oregon, New York, Vermont, and the Yukon Territory. Monitoring was conducted using an automated emission sampler (AES) system. The system has been deployed in nearly 100 individual homes. Typically, emissions from several 1-week-long integrated sampling periods over the course of the heating season were measured with the AES system at each home. Particulate emission rates in grams of particles per hour of stove operation, grams of particles per kilogram of dry wood burned, and grams of particles per million Joules were calculated. Ancillary data provided by the studies included wood burn rates, homeowner wood loading patterns, wood moisture content and species, hours of operation of auxiliary heating appliances in the study homes, room ambient, flue gas, catalyst, and pre-catalyst temperatures, and hours of catalyst operation. Conventional stoves, high-technology non-catalytic stoves, catalytic stoves, and stoves equipped with retrofit catalytic devices have been studied. In addition to the 12 cordwood stove studies, the AES system has been used in 2 pellet stove studies and 1 fireplace study

  8. Monitoring of environmental parameters for CO2 sequestration: a case study of Nagpur City, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, P R; Gajghate, D G; Dhadse, Sharda; Suple, Sonali; Satapathy, D R; Wate, S R

    2007-12-01

    Carbon dioxide concentration is an index of total amount of combustion and natural ventilation in an urban environment and therefore required more careful attention for assessment of CO(2) level in air environment. An attempt was made to monitor CO(2) levels in ambient air of Nagpur city at industrial, commercial and residential sites. In addition to this a remote sensing studies and biotic survey for floral biodiversity were carried out to study the green cover at respective sampling locations. The observations showed that the largest amount of CO(2) occurred at night due to absence of photosynthesis and lowest concentration of CO(2) was observed in the afternoon due to photosynthesis at its maximum level. The most pollution tolerant species found in Nagpur city are having higher Air Pollution Tolerance Index (APTI) value, which acts as a natural sink for CO(2) sequestration. In case of commercial site the CO(2) level is highest (366 ppm) because of lowest vegetation and vehicular pollution. The generation of database of CO(2) concentration and floral biodiversity along with percentage of green cover helps to formulate the strategy for prevention of global worming phenomenon.

  9. Prevalence and influencing factors of hepatitis B among a rural residential population in Zhejiang Province, China: a cross-sectional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shigui; Ding, Cheng; Cui, Yuanxia; Wu, Jie; Yu, Chengbo; Chen, Ping; Xu, Kaijin; Deng, Min; Li, Yiping; Liu, Juanjuan; Yin, Pei; Ren, Wen; Qiu, Yan; Cao, Qing; Zhou, Yuqing; Yao, Jun; Ruan, Bing; Ren, Jingjing; Li, Lanjuan

    2017-01-01

    Objectives To reveal the prevalence and associated influencing factors of hepatitis B among a rural residential population in Zhejiang, China, in order to help develop specific control strategies. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional study among a rural residential population in Zhejiang, China. Stratified multistage cluster sampling was utilised in five districts; a structured questionnaire was used to collect the information such as age, gender, education, occupation, living status, and other health related information of the participants by trained local staff; and the hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection status of the participants was determined by the chemiluminescence immunoassay test. Univariate and multivariate analyses were applied to evaluate the influencing factors of HBV infection. The odds ratio of each related factor was assessed with or without adjustment separately. Results The mean age of the 16 601 participants (7881 males and 8720 females) who completed the survey was 40.28±19.47 years. The positive rate of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was 4.04% (95% CI 3.74% to 4.35%), and 3.85% when standardised by age and gender. Univariate analysis showed that age, educational level, occupation, living status, history of hepatitis B examinations, history of blood transfusion, vaccination, family history, coastal living, and district were the potential influencing factors. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that occupation, living status, history of hepatitis B examinations, vaccination and district were the influencing factors. Undertaking a service-based tertiary industry job (ORa 1.19, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.51) and non-single living (ORa 2.84, 95% CI 2.17 to 3.70) might be risk factors, while vaccination (ORa 0.43, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.53) and history of hepatitis B examinations (ORa 0.71, 95% CI 0.48 to 1.03) were potential protective factors. Conclusions The prevalence of hepatitis B is at an intermediate epidemic level in a rural residential

  10. Prevalence and influencing factors of hepatitis B among a rural residential population in Zhejiang Province, China: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shigui; Ding, Cheng; Cui, Yuanxia; Wu, Jie; Yu, Chengbo; Chen, Ping; Xu, Kaijin; Deng, Min; Li, Yiping; Liu, Juanjuan; Yin, Pei; Ren, Wen; Qiu, Yan; Cao, Qing; Zhou, Yuqing; Yao, Jun; Ruan, Bing; Ren, Jingjing; Li, Lanjuan

    2017-04-03

    To reveal the prevalence and associated influencing factors of hepatitis B among a rural residential population in Zhejiang, China, in order to help develop specific control strategies. We conducted a cross-sectional study among a rural residential population in Zhejiang, China. Stratified multistage cluster sampling was utilised in five districts; a structured questionnaire was used to collect the information such as age, gender, education, occupation, living status, and other health related information of the participants by trained local staff; and the hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection status of the participants was determined by the chemiluminescence immunoassay test. Univariate and multivariate analyses were applied to evaluate the influencing factors of HBV infection. The odds ratio of each related factor was assessed with or without adjustment separately. The mean age of the 16 601 participants (7881 males and 8720 females) who completed the survey was 40.28±19.47 years. The positive rate of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) was 4.04% (95% CI 3.74% to 4.35%), and 3.85% when standardised by age and gender. Univariate analysis showed that age, educational level, occupation, living status, history of hepatitis B examinations, history of blood transfusion, vaccination, family history, coastal living, and district were the potential influencing factors. Multivariate logistic regression indicated that occupation, living status, history of hepatitis B examinations, vaccination and district were the influencing factors. Undertaking a service-based tertiary industry job (OR a 1.19, 95% CI 0.94 to 1.51) and non-single living (OR a 2.84, 95% CI 2.17 to 3.70) might be risk factors, while vaccination (OR a 0.43, 95% CI 0.34 to 0.53) and history of hepatitis B examinations (OR a 0.71, 95% CI 0.48 to 1.03) were potential protective factors. The prevalence of hepatitis B is at an intermediate epidemic level in a rural residential population in Zhejiang, China

  11. Study of the Effect of Time-Based Rate Demand Response Programs on Stochastic Day-Ahead Energy and Reserve Scheduling in Islanded Residential Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vahedipour-Dahraie, Mostafa; Najafi, Hamid Reza; Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad

    2017-01-01

    In recent deregulated power systems, demand response (DR) has become one of the most cost-effective and efficient solutions for smoothing the load profile when the system is under stress. By participating in DR programs, customers are able to change their energy consumption habits in response...... to energy price changes and get incentives in return. In this paper, we study the effect of various time-based rate (TBR) programs on the stochastic day-ahead energy and reserve scheduling in residential islanded microgrids (MGs). An effective approach is presented to schedule both energy and reserve...... in presence of renewable energy resources (RESs) and electric vehicles (EVs). An economic model of responsive load is also proposed on the basis of elasticity factor to model the behavior of customers participating in various DR programs. A two-stage stochastic programming model is developed accordingly...

  12. Electrification Opportunities in the Transportation Sector and Impact of Residential Charging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muratori, Matteo [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-04-04

    This presentation provides an overview of electrification opportunities in the transportation sector and present results of a study assessing the impact of residential charging on residential power demand and electric power distribution infrastructure.

  13. Association of Changes in Neighborhood-Level Racial Residential Segregation With Changes in Blood Pressure Among Black Adults: The CARDIA Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershaw, Kiarri N; Robinson, Whitney R; Gordon-Larsen, Penny; Hicken, Margaret T; Goff, David C; Carnethon, Mercedes R; Kiefe, Catarina I; Sidney, Stephen; Diez Roux, Ana V

    2017-07-01

    Despite cross-sectional evidence linking racial residential segregation to hypertension prevalence among non-Hispanic blacks, it remains unclear how changes in exposure to neighborhood segregation may be associated with changes in blood pressure. To examine the association of changes in neighborhood-level racial residential segregation with changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure over a 25-year period. This observational study examined longitudinal data of 2280 black participants of the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study, a prospective investigation of adults aged 18 to 30 years who underwent baseline examinations in field centers in 4 US locations from March 25, 1985, to June 7, 1986, and then were re-examined for the next 25 years. Racial residential segregation was assessed using the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic, a measure of SD between the neighborhood's racial composition (ie, percentage of black residents) and the surrounding area's racial composition. Segregation was categorized as high (Gi* >1.96), medium (Gi* 0-1.96), and low (Gi* segregation and within-person change in blood pressure while tightly controlling for time-invariant confounders. Data analyses were performed between August 4, 2016, and February 9, 2017. Within-person changes in systolic and diastolic blood pressure across 6 examinations over 25 years. Of the 2280 participants at baseline, 974 (42.7%) were men and 1306 (57.3%) were women. Of these, 1861 (81.6%) were living in a high-segregation neighborhood; 278 (12.2%), a medium-segregation neighborhood; and 141 (6.2%), a low-segregation neighborhood. Systolic blood pressure increased by a mean of 0.16 (95% CI, 0.06-0.26) mm Hg with each 1-SD increase in segregation score after adjusting for interactions of time with age, sex, and field center. Of the 1861 participants (81.6%) who lived in high-segregation neighborhoods at baseline, reductions in exposure to segregation were associated with reductions in

  14. Guidelines for residential commissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wray, Craig P.; Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.

    2003-01-31

    Currently, houses do not perform optimally or even as many codes and forecasts predict, largely because they are field assembled and there is no consistent process to identify problems or to correct them. Residential commissioning is a solution to this problem. This guide is the culmination of a 30-month project that began in September 1999. The ultimate objective of the project is to increase the number of houses that undergo commissioning, which will improve the quality, comfort, and safety of homes for California citizens. The project goal is to lay the groundwork for a residential commissioning industry in California focused on end-use energy and non-energy issues. As such, we intend this guide to be a beginning and not an end. Our intent is that the guide will lead to the programmatic integration of commissioning with other building industry processes, which in turn will provide more value to a single site visit for people such as home energy auditors and raters, home inspectors, and building performance contractors. Project work to support the development of this guide includes: a literature review and annotated bibliography, which facilitates access to 469 documents related to residential commissioning published over the past 20 years (Wray et al. 2000), an analysis of the potential benefits one can realistically expect from commissioning new and existing California houses (Matson et al. 2002), and an assessment of 107 diagnostic tools for evaluating residential commissioning metrics (Wray et al. 2002). In this guide, we describe the issues that non-experts should consider in developing a commissioning program to achieve the benefits we have identified. We do this by providing specific recommendations about: how to structure the commissioning process, which diagnostics to use, and how to use them to commission new and existing houses. Using examples, we also demonstrate the potential benefits of applying the recommended whole-house commissioning approach to

  15. Detailed residential electric determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-06-01

    Data on residential loads has been collected from four residences in real time. The data, measured at 5-second intervals for 53 days of continuous operation, were statistically characterized. An algorithm was developed and incorporated into the modeling code SOLCEL. Performance simulations with SOLCEL using these data as well as previous data collected over longer time intervals indicate that no significant errors in system value are introduced through the use of long-term average data.

  16. Epidemiology of unintentional injuries among children under six years old in floating and residential population in four communities in Beijing: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Tao; Gong, Limin; Wang, Huishan; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Xiaoying; Kaime-Atterhög, Wanjiku

    2014-05-01

    To explore and compare the epidemiological characteristics of non-fatal unintentional injury among children in floating and residential population. Using a structured survey, quantitative data were collected on a total of 352 floating and 201 residential families. Some potential influencing factors were questioned, such as socio-demographic characteristics, injury-related family environment, knowledge, attitude and behavior, and child's character. The self-reported incidence of non-fatal unintentional injuries was 11.9 % in the floating group and 12.9 % in the residential group. Unintentional injuries were more serious and caused more disease burden in floating children than residential children, with the average medical cost being over ten times in the floating group than in the residential group. Results of multiple regression analysis showed that children living in floating families have more risk of unintentional injuries than those children in residential families. Older children and children with extroverted character were more vulnerable to unintentional injuries. Risky family environment was also an important risk factor of unintentional injuries. Better household economic status and having more siblings appeared to reduce the probability of unintentional injuries among children. Floating children are more vulnerable to unintentional injuries comparing with residential children. These findings can be used as preliminary data supporting intervention strategies and activities to promote safe living environment and decrease injury incidence among floating children.

  17. Residential damage in an area of underground coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padgett, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    In order to estimate the potential for future subsidence-related residential damage, a statistical analysis of past residential damage in the Boulder-Weld, Colorado, coal field was performed. The objectives of this study were to assess the difference in damage severity and frequency between undermined and non-undermined areas, and to determine, where applicable, which mining factors significantly influence the severity and frequency of residential damage. The results of this study suggest that undermined homes have almost three times the risk of having some type of structural damage than do non-undermined homes. The study also indicated that both geologic factors, such as the ratio of sandstone/claystone in the overburden, and mining factors, such as the mining feature (room, pillar, entry, etc.), can significantly affect the severity of overlying residential damage. However, the results of this study are dependent on local conditions and should not be applied elsewhere unless the geologic, mining, and residential conditions are similar

  18. Feasibility study of patient motion monitoring using tactile array sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae Ho; Kang, Seong Hee; Kim, Dong Su; Cho, Min Seok; Kim, Kyeong Hyeon; Suh, Tae Suk [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, Research Institute of Biomedical Engineering, the Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Si Yong [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond (United States)

    2014-11-15

    The aim of this study is to evaluate patient pretreatment set-up error and intra-fraction motion using the tactile array sensors (Pressure Profile Systems Inc, Los Angeles, CA) which could measure distributed pressure profiles along the contacting surface and to check a feasibility of the sensor (tactile array sensor) in the patient motion monitoring. Laser alignment and optical camera based monitoring system are very useful for reduce patient set-up error but these systems could not monitor the blind area like patient's back position. Actually after patient alignment using laser or optical monitoring system, it was assumed that there is no error in the patient's back position (pressure profile distribution). But if an error occurs in the patient's back position, it will affect the radiation therapy accuracy. In spite of optical motion monitoring or using the immobilization tool, distributed pressure profiles of patient's back position was changed during inter and intra-fraction. For more accurate patient set-up, blind area (patient's back) monitoring was necessary. We expect that the proposed method will be very useful for make up for the weakness of optical monitoring method.

  19. Living Alone or With Others and Depressive Symptoms, and Effect Modification by Residential Social Cohesion Among Older Adults in Japan: The JAGES Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honjo, Kaori; Tani, Yukako; Saito, Masashige; Sasaki, Yuri; Kondo, Katsunori; Kawachi, Ichiro; Kondo, Naoki

    2018-02-03

    There is little longitudinal evidence on the impact of specific living arrangements (ie, who individuals live with) on mental health among older adults, and no studies have examined the modifying effect of residential social cohesion level on this association. We aimed to examine the association between living arrangements and depressive symptoms and whether this association varies with residential neighborhood social cohesion level among 19,656 men and 22,513 women aged 65 years and older in Japan. We analyzed the association between baseline living arrangements in 2010 and depressive symptoms in 2013. We calculated gender-specific odds ratios (ORs) of living arrangements for depressive symptoms using a logistic regression and conducted subgroup analyses by neighborhood social cohesion level. Among men (but not women), living alone (OR 1.43; 95% confidence intervals [CI], 1.18-1.73) and living with spouse and parent (OR 1.47, 95% CI, 1.09-1.98) were associated with increased odds of depressive symptoms compared with living with a spouse only. Living with spouse and child was a risk for men in the young age group but a protective factor for women. We also identified that the negative impact of living arrangements on depressive symptoms was attenuated in neighborhoods with higher levels of social cohesion. Living arrangements are associated with risk of depressive symptoms among men and women; these associations differ by gender and neighborhood social cohesion level. Our results suggest the need to pay more attention to whether individuals live alone, as well as who individuals live with, to prevent depressive symptoms among older adults.

  20. Successful ingredients in the SMILE study: resident, staff, and management factors influence the effects of humor therapy in residential aged care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brodaty, Henry; Low, Lee-Fay; Liu, Zhixin; Fletcher, Jennifer; Roast, Joel; Goodenough, Belinda; Chenoweth, Lynn

    2014-12-01

    To test the hypothesis that individual and institutional-level factors influence the effects of a humor therapy intervention on aged care residents. Data were from the humor therapy group of the Sydney Multisite Intervention of LaughterBosses and ElderClowns, or SMILE, study, a single-blind cluster randomized controlled trial of humor therapy conducted over 12 weeks; assessments were performed at baseline, week 13, and week 26. One hundred eighty-nine individuals from 17 Sydney residential aged care facilities were randomly allocated to the humor therapy intervention. Professional performers called "ElderClowns" provided 9-12 weekly humor therapy 2-hour sessions, augmented by trained staff, called "LaughterBosses." Outcome measures were as follows: Cornell Scale for Depression in Dementia, Cohen-Mansfield Agitation Inventory, Neuropsychiatric Inventory, the withdrawal subscale of Multidimensional Observation Scale for Elderly Subjects, and proxy-rated quality of life in dementia population scale. Facility-level measures were as follows: support of the management for the intervention, commitment levels of LaughterBosses, Environmental Audit Tool scores, and facility level of care provided (high/low). Resident-level measures were engagement, functional ability, disease severity, and time-in-care. Multilevel path analyses simultaneously modeled resident engagement at the individual level (repeated measures) and the effects of management support and staff commitment to humor therapy at the cluster level. Models indicated flow-on effects, whereby management support had positive effects on LaughterBoss commitment, and LaughterBoss commitment increased resident engagement. Higher resident engagement was associated with reduced depression, agitation, and neuropsychiatric scores. Effectiveness of psychosocial programs in residential aged care can be enhanced by management support, staff commitment, and active resident engagement. Copyright © 2014 American Association for

  1. Children's residential weight-loss programs can work: a prospective cohort study of short-term outcomes for overweight and obese children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gately, Paul J; Cooke, Carlton B; Barth, Julian H; Bewick, Bridgette M; Radley, Duncan; Hill, Andrew J

    2005-07-01

    The evidence base for child obesity treatment is weak. Children's weight-loss camps, despite their popularity, have not been properly evaluated. This study evaluated the effectiveness of a residential weight-loss camp program for overweight and obese children. A total of 185 overweight children (mean age: 13.9 years) enrolled in 1 of 4 consecutive programs between 1999 and 2002 (intervention group) were compared with 94 children of similar ages who were not camp attendees, ie, 38 overweight children and 56 normal-weight children. The intervention group attended a 6-week (maximum) summer residential weight-loss camp. The program included a daily schedule of six 1-hour, skill-based, fun, physical activity sessions, moderate dietary restriction, and group-based educational sessions. All children were assessed for body weight, height, and other anthropometric measures, blood pressure, aerobic fitness, self-esteem, and selected sports skills. Campers, who stayed for a mean of 29 days, lost 6.0 kg, reduced their BMI by 2.4 units, and reduced their BMI SD scores by 0.28. Fat mass decreased significantly (from 42.7 to 37.1 kg), whereas fat-free mass did not change. In contrast, both comparison groups gained weight during this period. Camp attendees also showed significant improvements in blood pressure, aerobic fitness, and self-esteem. Longer durations of stay were associated with greater improvements in outcomes. In the short term at least, this weight-loss program was effective across a range of health outcomes. Ongoing research is examining the maintenance of these improvements. Future research should investigate whether benefits can be generalized across weight-loss camps and how the intervention can be adapted to nonresidential, term-time settings.

  2. Information Processing and Creative Thinking Abilities of Residential and Non-Residential School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atasi Mohanty

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to assess and compare the residential and non-residential schoolchildren in information-processing skills and creative thinking abilities. A sample of 80 children from Classes 5 and 7 were selected from two types of schools, residential/ashram (02 and non-residential/formal schools (02 in Bolpur subdivision of West Bengal in India where the medium of instruction is Bengali language/mother-tongue. All the children were individually administered the PASS (Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, Successive, Stroop, Matching Familiar Figure Test (MFFT-20, and creative thinking tasks. The residential school children were found to perform better both in information processing and creative thinking tasks. The developmental trend could not be clearly observed due to small sample size, but with increasing age, children were using better processing strategies. Due to ashram environment, creative pedagogy, and various co-curricular activities, the residential school children were found to be more creative than their formal school counterparts. Moreover, some significant positive correlations were found among information processing skills and creative thinking dimensions.

  3. Effect of Land Use and Transportation Infrastructure on Residential Burglary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montoya, L.

    2011-01-01

    This research studies the relationship between land uses and infrastructure on residential burglary. The objective was to assess which theory is better at explaining residential burglary: -the “awareness space,‿ which states that crime takes place at edges or along paths on the way to work, school,

  4. Effect of Organizational Climate on Youth Outcomes in Residential Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Neil; Leon, Scott C.; Epstein, Richard A.; Durkin, Elizabeth; Helgerson, Jena; Lakin-Starr, Brittany L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the association between organizational climate and changes in internalizing and externalizing behavior for youth in residential treatment centers (RTCs). The sample included 407 youth and 349 front-line residential treatment staff from 17 RTCs in Illinois. Youth behavior was measured using the Child Functional Assessment Rating…

  5. Inflation Hedging Abilities of Residential Properties in Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study employed the Ordinary Least Squares regression model to regress the rates of returns of the considered residential property investments against actual, ... However, with regards to expected inflation, the capital and total returns of residential properties in Akobo sub-market completely hedged; while for Bodija ...

  6. Examination of Negative Peer Contagion in a Residential Care Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huefner, Jonathan C.; Ringle, Jay L.

    2012-01-01

    There has been ongoing concern about the negative impact of residential treatment on youth in care. Research examining the impact of negative peer influence in juvenile justice, education, and residential care settings is reviewed. A study was conducted to examine the impact of negative peer contagion on the level of problem behavior in a…

  7. Student Preference for Residential or Online Project Work in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Helen; Barrett, Jane P.; Knightley, Wendy M.

    2013-01-01

    Psychology students at the Open University (OU) can choose whether to complete their project work at residential school or by participating in an online equivalent. This study identifies different factors governing module choice and student experience: When choosing residential school, social aspects are important, whereas for online, students are…

  8. RESULTS OF A PILOT FIELD STUDY TO EVALUATE THE EFFECTIVENESS OF CLEANING RESIDENTIAL HEATING AND AIR-CONDITIONING SYSTEMS AND THE IMPACT ON INDOOR AIR QUALITY AND SYSTEM PERFORMANCE

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report discusses and gives results of a pilot field study to evaluate the effectiveness of air duct cleaning (ADC) as a source removal technique in residential heating and air-conditioning (HAC) systems and its impact on airborne particle, fiber, and bioaerosol concentrations...

  9. Gentrification and Residential Mobility in Philadelphia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lei; Hwang, Jackelyn; Divringi, Eileen

    2016-11-01

    Gentrification has provoked considerable controversy surrounding its effects on residential displacement. Using a unique individual-level, longitudinal data set, this study examines mobility rates and residential destinations of residents in gentrifying neighborhoods during the recent housing boom and bust in Philadelphia for various strata of residents and different types of gentrification. We find that vulnerable residents, those with low credit scores and without mortgages, are generally no more likely to move from gentrifying neighborhoods compared with their counterparts in nongentrifying neighborhoods. When they do move, however, they are more likely to move to lower-income neighborhoods. Residents in gentrifying neighborhoods at the aggregate level have slightly higher mobility rates, but these rates are largely driven by more advantaged residents. These findings shed new light on the heterogeneity in mobility patterns across residents in gentrifying neighborhoods and suggest that researchers should focus more attention on the quality of residential moves and nonmoves for less advantaged residents, rather than mobility rates alone.

  10. Guidelines for Transferring Residential Courses into Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tüzün, Hakan; Çinar, Murat

    2016-01-01

    This study shared unique design experiences by examining the process of transferring residential courses to the Web, and proposed a design model for individuals who want to transfer their courses into this environment. The formative research method was used in the study, and two project teams' processes of putting courses, which were being taught…

  11. DETERMINANTS OF RESIDENTIAL PER CAPITA WATER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This report presents the findings of the study on the determinants of residential per capita water demand of Makurdi metropolis in Benue State, Nigeria. Data for the study was obtained by the use of questionnaires, oral interviews and observations. The data was analyzed using SPSS. Twenty variables were considered in ...

  12. 'Nothing works' in secure residential youth care?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souverein, F.A.; van der Helm, G.H.P.; Stams, G.J.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    A debate about the effectiveness of secure residential youth care is currently going on. While some continue to support secure residential youth care, others conclude that ‘nothing works’ in secure residential youth care, and argue that non-residential treatment is superior to secure residential

  13. Assessment of Spatial-Temporal Expansion of Built-up and Residential-Commercial Dwellings with Some Economic Implications: A Case Study in the Lower Hunter of Eastern Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramita Manandhar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Built-up areas have been expanding throughout the world. Monitoring and prediction of the build-up is not only important for the economic development but also acts as sentinels of environmental decline important for ecologically sustainable development of a region. The aim of this paper is to model the growth of built-up and residential-commercial dwellings over the recent past and thus predict the near future growth for a popular tourist destination of the Lower Hunter of New South Wales, Australia. The land use and land cover change analysis, based on classification of Landsat imageries from 1985 to 2005 at a 5-yearly interval, indicates that built-up areas increased steadily; it was 2.0% of the total landscape in 1985 but increased to 4.2% by the year 2005. If this trend continues, the built-up area will have grown to over 6.5% by 2025—which is equivalent to growth of over 325% from the 1985 base. In order to further evaluate the residential and commercial growth, orthorectified aerial photographs of nearby periods of 1985, 1995 and 2005 were utilized to manually delineate residential/commercial dwellings, and thereby dwelling densities were derived. The results indicate that the mean dwelling density has more than doubled within a decade.

  14. That which goes unsaid: Experiences of everyday life in residential care for residents with limited communication ability. A collective case study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MSc Donna Frost

    2008-01-01

    Background The experiences of residents who have communication difficulties such as dysphasia are largely absent from the literature. Aim To illuminate the everyday experiences of four residents with severe communication difficulties living in a residential care setting in the Netherlands.

  15. Simulation study on reduction of peak power demand and energy consumption in residential houses with solar thermal and PV systems; Taiyo energy riyo jutaku no fuka heijunka oyobi energy sakugen koka no simulation ni yoru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, T. [Yokohama City Office, Yokohama (Japan); Udagawa, M. [Kogakuin Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-11-20

    In this study, taking the all factors involved in the energy consumption in residential houses as subjects, the effectiveness of the solar PV system and solar thermal utilizing system in residential houses has been studied by simulating a model residential house considering the improvement of the residual environment in the future. Therefore, a model residual house is assumed, 18 kinds of combinations of construction style, cooling and heating type and solar energy utilizing form are assumed and year round simulation is carried out. The conclusions obtained by the simulation are as follows. The energy consumption in residential houses may decrease greatly by using a solar hot water supplying system. If combined with a solar PV system, the energy consumption in one year is about 8.7 to 9.7 MWh. The combined use of a solar thermal utilizing system and a PV system is more effective to reduce the second-time energy in comparison with the PV system only. 36% of the space heating energy consumption may be decreased by using the solar space heating system, but the decrease effect of the energy consumption of the solar space heating system is smaller than the solar hot water supplying system. 12 refs., 26 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. The Correlation Between Residential Density and Greenhouse Gas Emissions in Surabaya City

    OpenAIRE

    Setiawan, Rulli Pratiwi; Umilia, Ema; Martha Erli Handayeni, Ketut Dewi

    2014-01-01

    Population growth is happening in cities, including Surabaya as the second largest metropolitan region in Indonesia. The population growth has an impact to the residential density, whereas residential is usually the largest part of land use in urban areas. In urabaya, residential use covers more than 60% of the total area. The intensive use of residential area has impacts on the environment. One significant issue is the consumption of energy that produces greenhouse gas emissions. This study ...

  17. Analysis of Energy Consumption and Possibilities of Thermal-Modernization in Residential Buildings in Poland Case Study: The Town of Zielona Góra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsabry, A.; Truszkiewicz, P.; Szymański, K.; Łaskawiec, K.; Rojek, Ł.

    2017-12-01

    The article presents an analysis of buildings belonging the Department of Public Utilities and Housing in Zielona Góra. The research was based on a set of questions for building operators. The questionnaires consisted of 30 questions concerning general and detailed information about the buildings. In order to clearly present the results, this article includes data only about residential and residential-commercial buildings. Forty building built in different periods were selected for analysis.

  18. Re-thinking residential mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ham, Maarten; Findlay, Allan M.

    2015-01-01

    While researchers are increasingly re-conceptualizing international migration, far less attention has been devoted to re-thinking short-distance residential mobility and immobility. In this paper we harness the life course approach to propose a new conceptual framework for residential mobility research. We contend that residential mobility and immobility should be re-conceptualized as relational practices that link lives through time and space while connecting people to structural conditions. Re-thinking and re-assessing residential mobility by exploiting new developments in longitudinal analysis will allow geographers to understand, critique and address pressing societal challenges. PMID:27330243

  19. Large-Scale Residential Demolition

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA provides resources for handling residential demolitions or renovations. This includes planning, handling harmful materials, recycling, funding, compliance assistance, good practices and regulations.

  20. Continuity of Care and Outcomes in Residential Care: A Comparison of Two Care Giving Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Loring

    2006-01-01

    This study examined differences in two residential care giving models (houseparent vs. child care worker) in providing continuity of care for youth in residential placement, and the effect that a care giving model had on selected program outcomes. Data for this research were collected in a residential facility that used both models. Youth with…

  1. Illusions of Competence in Monitoring One's Knowledge During Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koriat, Asher; Bjork, Robert A.

    2005-01-01

    The monitoring of one's own knowledge during study suffers from an inherent discrepancy between study and test situations: Judgments of learning (JOLs) are made in the presence of information that is absent but solicited during testing. The failure to discount the effects of that information when making JOLs can instill a sense of competence…

  2. Residential heat pumps in the future Danish energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrovic, Stefan; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Denmark is striving towards 100% renewable energy system in 2050. Residential heat pumps are expected to be a part of that system.We propose two novel approaches to improve the representation of residential heat pumps: Coefficients of performance (COPs) are modelled as dependent on air and ground...... temperature while installation of ground-source heat pumps is constrained by available ground area. In this study, TIMES-DK model is utilised to test the effects of improved modelling of residential heat pumps on the Danish energy system until 2050.The analysis of the Danish energy system was done...... for politically agreed targets which include: at least 50% of electricity consumption from wind power starting from 2020, fossil fuel free heat and power sector from 2035 and 100% renewable energy system starting from 2050. Residential heat pumps supply around 25% of total residential heating demand after 2035...

  3. ASHRAE and residential ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max H.

    2003-10-01

    In the last quarter of a century, the western world has become increasingly aware of environmental threats to health and safety. During this period, people psychologically retreated away from outdoors hazards such as pesticides, smog, lead, oil spills, and dioxin to the seeming security of their homes. However, the indoor environment may not be healthier than the outdoor environment, as has become more apparent over the past few years with issues such as mold, formaldehyde, and sick-building syndrome. While the built human environment has changed substantially over the past 10,000 years, human biology has not; poor indoor air quality creates health risks and can be uncomfortable. The human race has found, over time, that it is essential to manage the indoor environments of their homes. ASHRAE has long been in the business of ventilation, but most of the focus of that effort has been in the area of commercial and institutional buildings. Residential ventilation was traditionally not a major concern because it was felt that, between operable windows and envelope leakage, people were getting enough outside air in their homes. In the quarter of a century since the first oil shock, houses have gotten much more energy efficient. At the same time, the kinds of materials and functions in houses changed in character in response to people's needs. People became more environmentally conscious and aware not only about the resources they were consuming but about the environment in which they lived. All of these factors contributed to an increasing level of public concern about residential indoor air quality and ventilation. Where once there was an easy feeling about the residential indoor environment, there is now a desire to define levels of acceptability and performance. Many institutions--both public and private--have interests in Indoor Air Quality (IAQ), but ASHRAE, as the professional society that has had ventilation as part of its mission for over 100 years, is the

  4. Electricity: Residential Wiring. Secondary Schools. Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands Dept. of Education, Saipan.

    This curriculum guide on residential wiring for secondary students is one of six developed for inservice teachers at Marianas High School in Saipan. The guide provides the rationale, description, goals, and objectives of the program; the program of studies and performance objectives by levels; samples of lesson plans for effective delivery of…

  5. Vibration Analysis of a Residential Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampaio Regina Augusta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the results of a study regarding vibration problems in a 17 storey residential building during pile driving in its vicinity. The structural design of the building was checked according to the Brazilian standards NBR6118 and NBR6123, and using commercial finite element software. An experimental analysis was also carried out using low frequency piezo-accelerometers attached to the building structure. Structure vibrations were recorded under ambient conditions. Four monitoring tests were performed on different days. The objective of the first monitoring test was an experimental modal analysis. To obtain de modal parameters, data was processed in the commercial software ARTEMIS employing two methods: the Stochastic Subspace Identification and the Frequency Domain Decomposition. Human comfort was investigated considering the International Standard ISO 2631. The Portuguese standard, NP2074, was also used as a reference, since it aims to limit the adverse effects of vibrations in structures caused by pile driving in the vicinity of the structure. The carried out experimental tests have shown that, according to ISO2301, the measure vibration levels are above the acceptance limits. However, velocity peaks are below the limits established by NP2074. It was concluded that, although the structure has adequate capacity to resist internal forces according to normative criteria, it has low horizontal stiffness, which could be verified by observing the vibration frequencies and mode shapes obtained with the finite element models, and its similarity with the experimental results. Thus, the analyses indicate the occurrence of discomfort by the residents.

  6. Nevada Test Site tortoise population monitoring study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, J.M.; Zander, K.K.

    1994-12-01

    A Tortoise Population Monitoring Study was initiated to determine and monitor the density of desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) on the Nevada Test Site. Quadrat sampling was conducted following methodology described in the Draft Desert Tortoise Recovery Plan (FWS, 1993). So few tortoises were found that densities could not be calculated. Based on estimates of capture probabilities and densities from other studies, it was determined that 1-km{sup 2} (0.4 mi{sup 2}) plots did not contain enough tortoises for estimating densities with the Recovery Plan methods. It was recommended that additional surveys on the Nevada Test Site using those methods not be conducted. Any future efforts to monitor desert tortoise densities should start by identifying other possible methods, determining their relative power to detect changes, and estimating their cost.

  7. Analytical & Experimental Study of Radio Frequency Cavity Beam Profile Monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balcazar, Mario D. [Fermilab; Yonehara, Katsuya [Fermilab

    2017-10-22

    The purpose of this analytical and experimental study is multifold: 1) To explore a new, radiation-robust, hadron beam profile monitor for intense neutrino beam applications; 2) To test, demonstrate, and develop a novel gas-filled Radio-Frequency (RF) cavity to use in this monitoring system. Within this context, the first section of the study analyzes the beam distribution across the hadron monitor as well as the ion-production rate inside the RF cavity. Furthermore a more effecient pixel configuration across the hadron monitor is proposed to provide higher sensitivity to changes in beam displacement. Finally, the results of a benchtop test of the tunable quality factor RF cavity will be presented. The proposed hadron monitor configuration consists of a circular array of RF cavities located at a radial distance of 7cm { corresponding to the standard deviation of the beam due to scatering { and a gas-filled RF cavity with a quality factor in the range 400 - 800.

  8. Monitoring with MonAMI: a case study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Millar, A P; Stewart, G A [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Glasgow, University Avenue, Glasgow, G12 8QQ (United Kingdom); Cowan, G A [Department of Physics, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom)], E-mail: p.millar@physics.gla.ac.uk

    2008-07-15

    Computing resources in HEP are increasingly delivered utilising grid technologies, which presents new challenges in terms of monitoring. Monitoring involves the flow of information between different communities: the various resource-providers and the different user communities. The challenge is providing information so everyone can find what they need: from the local site administrators, regional operational centres through to end-users. To meet this challenge, MonAMI was developed. MonAMI aims to be a universal sensor framework with a plugin architecture. This plugin structure allows flexibility in what is monitored and how the gathered information is reported. MonAMI supports gathering statistics from many standard daemons, such as MySQL and Apache, and system data, such as network sockets and memory consumption. The gathered data can be sent to many monitoring systems, including Ganglia, Nagios, MonALISA and R-GMA. This flexibility allows MonAMI to be integrated into whatever monitoring system is being used. This avoids the current duplication of sensors and allows the gathered statistics to be presented within a greater diversity of monitoring systems. Using the MonAMI framework, sensors have been developed for the DPM and dCache storage systems, both common at HEP grid centres. The development of these tools specifically to tackle the challenges of high availability storage is described. We illustrate how MonAMI's architecture allows a single sensor to both deliver long term trend information and to trigger alarms in abnormal conditions. The use of MonAMI within the ScotGrid distributed Tier-2 is examined as a case study, illustrating both the ease with which MonAMI integrates into existing systems and helps provide a framework for extending monitoring where necessary.

  9. Monitoring with MonAMI: a case study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Millar, A P; Stewart, G A; Cowan, G A

    2008-01-01

    Computing resources in HEP are increasingly delivered utilising grid technologies, which presents new challenges in terms of monitoring. Monitoring involves the flow of information between different communities: the various resource-providers and the different user communities. The challenge is providing information so everyone can find what they need: from the local site administrators, regional operational centres through to end-users. To meet this challenge, MonAMI was developed. MonAMI aims to be a universal sensor framework with a plugin architecture. This plugin structure allows flexibility in what is monitored and how the gathered information is reported. MonAMI supports gathering statistics from many standard daemons, such as MySQL and Apache, and system data, such as network sockets and memory consumption. The gathered data can be sent to many monitoring systems, including Ganglia, Nagios, MonALISA and R-GMA. This flexibility allows MonAMI to be integrated into whatever monitoring system is being used. This avoids the current duplication of sensors and allows the gathered statistics to be presented within a greater diversity of monitoring systems. Using the MonAMI framework, sensors have been developed for the DPM and dCache storage systems, both common at HEP grid centres. The development of these tools specifically to tackle the challenges of high availability storage is described. We illustrate how MonAMI's architecture allows a single sensor to both deliver long term trend information and to trigger alarms in abnormal conditions. The use of MonAMI within the ScotGrid distributed Tier-2 is examined as a case study, illustrating both the ease with which MonAMI integrates into existing systems and helps provide a framework for extending monitoring where necessary

  10. Residential Mechanical Precooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, Alea [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States). Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI); Hoeschele, Marc [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States). Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI)

    2014-12-01

    Residential air conditioning (AC) represents a challenging load for many electric utilities with poor load factors. Mechanical precooling improves the load factor by shifting cooling operation from on-peak to off-peak hours. This provides benefits to utilities and the electricity grid, as well as to occupants who can take advantage of time-of-use (TOU) electricity rates. Performance benefits stem from reduced compressor cycling, and shifting condensing unit operation to earlier periods of the day when outdoor temperatures are more favorable to operational efficiency. Finding solutions that save energy and reduce demand on the electricity grid is an important national objective and supports key Building America goals. The Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team evaluated mechanical AC precooling strategies in homes throughout the United States. EnergyPlus modeling was used to evaluate two homes with different performance characteristics in seven climates. Results are applicable to new construction homes and most existing homes built in the last 10 years, as well as fairly efficient retrofitted homes. A successful off-peak AC strategy offers the potential for increased efficiency and improved occupant comfort, and promotes a more reliable and robust electricity grid. Demand response capabilities and further integration with photovoltaic TOU generation patterns provide additional opportunities to flatten loads and optimize grid impacts.

  11. Field assessment of the impacts of landscape structure on different-sized airborne particles in residential areas of Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shuxin; Li, Xiaopeng; Han, Jing; Cao, Yu; Dong, Li

    2017-10-01

    In high-density metropolis, residential areas are important human living environments. Aimed at investigating the impacts of landscape structure on the levels of different-sized airborne particle in residential areas, we conducted field monitoring of the levels of TSP, PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 using mobile traverses in 18 residential areas during the daytime in winter (Dec. 2015-Feb. 2016) and summer (Jun.-Aug. 2016) in Beijing, China. The net concentration differences (d) of the four-sized particles (dTSP, dPM10, dPM2.5 and dPM1) between residential environments and nearby corresponding urban backgrounds, which can be regarded as the reduction of particle concentration in residential environments, were calculated. The effects and relative contributions of different landscape structure parameters on these net concentration differences were further investigated. Results showed that the distribution of particle concentrations has great spatial variation in urban environments. Within the residential environment, there were overall lower concentrations of the four-sized particles compared with the nearby urban background. The net concentration differences of the four-sized particles were all significantly different among the 18 studied residential areas. The average dTSP, dPM10, dPM2.5 and dPM1 reached 18.92, 12.28, 2.01 and 0.53 μg/m3 in summer, and 9.91, 7.81, 1.39 and 0.38 μg/m3 in winter, respectively. The impacts and relative contribution of different landscape structure parameters on the reductions of TSP, PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 in residential environments differed and showed seasonal variation. Percentage of vegetation cover (PerVC) and building cover (PerBC) had the greatest impact. A 10% increase in PerVC would increase about 5.03, 8.15, 2.16 and 0.20 μg/m3 of dTSP, dPM10, dPM2.5 and dPM1 in summer, and a 10% increase in PerBC would decreased about 41.37, 16.54, 2.47 and 0.95 μg/m3 of them in winter. Increased vegetation coverage and decreased building

  12. Monitoring dental erosion by colour measurement : An in vitro study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krikken, J. B.; Zijp, J. R.; Huysmans, M. C. D. N. J. M.

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to develop a method to monitor dental erosion by evaluation of the colour change of teeth as a function of enamel loss, and to evaluate the reproducibility of the method used. Methods: Light reflectance spectra of 12 extracted human incisors were measured using

  13. Monitoring dental erosion by colour measurement: an in vitro study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krikken, J.B.; Zijp, J.R.; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to develop a method to monitor dental erosion by evaluation of the colour change of teeth as a function of enamel loss, and to evaluate the reproducibility of the method used. METHODS: Light reflectance spectra of 12 extracted human incisors were measured using

  14. ELF communications system ecological monitoring program. Small vertebrate studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaver, Donald L.; Hill, Richard W.; Hill, Susan D.

    1994-10-01

    The U.S. Navy has completed a program monitoring flora, fauna, and ecological relationships tor possible effects from electromagnetic fields produced by its Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Communications System. This report documents studies of small mammals and nesting birds conducted near its transmitting antenna in Michigan. From 1982 through 1993 researchers from the Michigan State University (MSU) monitored organismal and population aspects of vertebrates in areas near (treatment) and far (control) from the Michigan antenna. They examined the reproductive, developmental, behavioral, and physiological characteristics of representative vertebrate species. Studied species were the deer mouse, chipmunk, tree swallow, and blackcapped - chickadee. Investigators had also monitored ecological aspects of the mammalian community until 1988 when this study element was discontinued due to highly variable results. In a different project, ornithologists from the University of Minnesota-Duluth monitored the ecological characteristics of the bird community near the ELF System. The MSU research team used several statistical tests to examine data; however, nested analysis of variance was the most often used test. Based on the results of their study, they conclude that the EM fields produced by the Naval Radio Transmitting Facility-Republic, Michigan did not affect small vertebrates.

  15. Vessel Monitoring Systems Study. Volume I - Technical Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-09-01

    In the Port and Tanker Safety Act of 1978 the U.S. Conress directed the Department of Transportation to performa a study on the desirability and feasibility of a shore-station system for monitoring vessels (including fishing vessels)offshore within t...

  16. Challenges of monitoring reproductive health services: a case study ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Challenges of monitoring reproductive health services: a case study of antenatal clinics in Kinondoni municipality, Dar Es Salaam. ... was descriptive cross sectional employing both qualitative and quantitative methods. The sample population included nurse-midwives who manage ANC clinics in Kinondoni Municipality.

  17. Residential radon survey in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvela, H.; Maekelaeinen, I.; Castren, O.

    1993-02-01

    The study measured the indoor radon concentration in the dwellings of 3074 persons, selected randomly from the central population register of Finland. Alpha track detectors and two consecutive half year measuring periods were used. The national mean of indoor radon concentration for persons living in low-rise residential buildings as well as blocks of flats was 145 and 82 Bq/m 3 , respectively. The mean for the total population was 123 Bq/m 3 . Based on the decision of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health in 1992, the indoor radon concentration should not exceed 400 Bq/m 3 in already existing houses, the target for new construction being less than 200 Bq/m 3 . According to the study, the percentage of the Finnish population living in houses with an indoor radon concentration exceeding 200, 400 and 800 Bq/m 3 was 12.3 %, 3.6 % and 1.0 %

  18. Indoor air quality in green buildings: A case-study in a residential high-rise building in the northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Youyou; Krogmann, Uta; Mainelis, Gediminas; Rodenburg, Lisa A; Andrews, Clinton J

    2015-01-01

    Improved indoor air quality (IAQ) is one of the critical components of green building design. Green building tax credit (e.g., New York State Green Building Tax Credit (GBTC)) and certification programs (e.g., Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design (LEED)) require indoor air quality measures and compliance with allowable maximum concentrations of common indoor air pollutants. It is not yet entirely clear whether compliance with these programs results in improved IAQ and ultimately human health. As a case in point, annual indoor air quality measurements were conducted in a residential green high-rise building for five consecutive years by an industrial hygiene contractor to comply with the building's GBTC requirements. The implementation of green design measures resulted in better IAQ compared to data in references of conventional homes for some parameters, but could not be confirmed for others. Relative humidity and carbon dioxide were satisfactory according to existing standards. Formaldehyde levels during four out of five years were below the most recent proposed exposure limits found in the literature. To some degree, particulate matter (PM) levels were lower than that in studies from conventional residential buildings. Concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) with known permissible exposure limits were below levels known to cause chronic health effects, but their concentrations were inconclusive regarding cancer health effects due to relatively high detection limits. Although measured indoor air parameters met all IAQ maximum allowable concentrations in GBTC and applicable LEED requirements at the time of sampling, we argue that these measurements were not sufficient to assess IAQ comprehensively because more sensitive sampling/analytical methods for PM and VOCs are needed; in addition, there is a need for a formal process to ensure rigor and adequacy of sampling and analysis methods. Also, we suggest that a comprehensive IAQ assessment should

  19. Hospital in the Nursing Home program reduces emergency department presentations and hospital admissions from residential aged care facilities in Queensland, Australia: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lijun; Hou, Xiang-Yu; Zhao, Jingzhou; Sun, Jiandong; Dingle, Kaeleen; Purtill, Rhonda; Tapp, Sam; Lukin, Bill

    2016-02-09

    There has been considerable publicity regarding population ageing and hospital emergency department (ED) overcrowding. Our study aims to investigate impact of one intervention piloted in Queensland Australia, the Hospital in the Nursing Home (HiNH) program, on reducing ED and hospital attendances from residential aged care facilities (RACFs). A quasi-experimental study was conducted at an intervention hospital undertaking the program and a control hospital with normal practice. Routine Queensland health information system data were extracted for analysis. Significant reductions in the number of ED presentations per 1000 RACF beds (rate ratio (95 % CI): 0.78 (0.67-0.92); p = 0.002), number of hospital admissions per 1000 RACF beds (0.62 (0.50-0.76); p Home program could be effective in reducing ED presentations and hospital admissions from RACF residents. Implementation of the program across a variety of settings is preferred to fully assess the ongoing benefits for patients and any possible cost-savings.

  20. Development of a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staff Scientist; Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max; Dickerhoff, Darryl

    2011-12-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller (RIVEC) to reduce the energy impact of required mechanical ventilation by 20percent, maintain or improve indoor air quality and provide demand response benefits. This represents potential energy savings of about 140 GWh of electricity and 83 million therms of natural gas as well as proportional peak savings in California. The RIVEC controller is intended to meet the 2008 Title 24 requirements for residential ventilation as well as taking into account the issues of outdoor conditions, other ventilation devices (including economizers), peak demand concerns and occupant preferences. The controller is designed to manage all the residential ventilation systems that are currently available. A key innovation in this controller is the ability to implement the concept of efficacy and intermittent ventilation which allows time shifting of ventilation. Using this approach ventilation can be shifted away from times of high cost or high outdoor pollution towards times when it is cheaper and more effective. Simulations, based on the ones used to develop the new residential ventilation requirements for the California Buildings Energy code, were used to further define the specific criteria and strategies needed for the controller. These simulations provide estimates of the energy, peak power and contaminant improvement possible for different California climates for the various ventilation systems. Results from a field test of the prototype controller corroborate the predicted performance.

  1. Application of Energy Performance Indicators for Residential Building Stocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Kragh, Jesper; Diefenbach, Nikolaus

    2016-01-01

    Energy performance indicators of residential building stocks can either describe existing empirical data of a building stock or the input and outcome of building stock modelling. In EPISCOPE both types of quantities are clearly separated by distinguishing monitoring indicators and scenario indica...

  2. Sensorless PV Array Diagnostic Method for Residential PV Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sera, Dezso; Spataru, Sergiu; Mathe, Laszlo

    2011-01-01

    This work proposes a temperature and irradiance sensorless diagnostic method suitable for small residential PV installations, focusing on detection of partial shadows. The method works by detection of failures in crystalline silicone PV arrays by concomitant monitoring of some of their key...

  3. Integrating working level monitor EML Type TF-11

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Latner, N.; Watnick, S.; Graveson, R.T.

    1981-01-01

    A time-integrating working level radiation monitor is described. The purpose of the instrument is the evaluation of the alpha emission from radon and its daughter products. It has been designed to be virtually silent in operation, making it suitable for residential studies

  4. Using Smartphones to Monitor Bipolar Disorder Symptoms: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beiwinkel, Till; Kindermann, Sally; Maier, Andreas; Kerl, Christopher; Moock, Jörn; Barbian, Guido; Rössler, Wulf

    2016-01-06

    Relapse prevention in bipolar disorder can be improved by monitoring symptoms in patients' daily life. Smartphone apps are easy-to-use, low-cost tools that can be used to assess this information. To date, few studies have examined the usefulness of smartphone data for monitoring symptoms in bipolar disorder. We present results from a pilot test of a smartphone-based monitoring system, Social Information Monitoring for Patients with Bipolar Affective Disorder (SIMBA), that tracked daily mood, physical activity, and social communication in 13 patients. The objective of this study was to investigate whether smartphone measurements predicted clinical symptoms levels and clinical symptom change. The hypotheses that smartphone measurements are (1) negatively related to clinical depressive symptoms and (2) positively related to clinical manic symptoms were tested. Clinical rating scales were administered to assess clinical depressive and manic symptoms. Patients used a smartphone with the monitoring app for up to 12 months. Random-coefficient multilevel models were computed to analyze the relationship between smartphone data and externally rated manic and depressive symptoms. Overall clinical symptom levels and clinical symptom changes were predicted by separating between-patient and within-patient effects. Using established clinical thresholds from the literature, marginal effect plots displayed clinical relevance of smartphone data. Overall symptom levels and change in clinical symptoms were related to smartphone measures. Higher overall levels of clinical depressive symptoms were predicted by lower self-reported mood measured by the smartphone (beta=-.56, Psmartphone (ie, cell tower movements: beta=-.11, P=.03). Higher overall levels of clinical manic symptoms were predicted by lower physical activity on the smartphone (ie, distance travelled: beta=-.37, Psmartphone (beta=-.17, Psmartphone measurements, but not all smartphone measures predicted the occurrence of

  5. Spatial access to residential care resources in Beijing, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Yang

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As the population is ageing rapidly in Beijing, the residential care sector is in a fast expansion process with the support of the municipal government. Understanding spatial accessibility to residential care resources by older people supports the need for rational allocation of care resources in future planning. Methods Based on population data and data on residential care resources, this study uses two Geographic Information System (GIS based methods – shortest path analysis and a two-step floating catchment area (2SFCA method to analyse spatial accessibility to residential care resources. Results Spatial accessibility varies as the methods and considered factors change. When only time distance is considered, residential care resources are more accessible in the central city than in suburban and exurban areas. If care resources are considered in addition to time distance, spatial accessibility is relatively poor in the central city compared to the northeast to southeast side of the suburban and exurban areas. The resources in the northwest to southwest side of the city are the least accessible, even though several hotspots of residential care resources are located in these areas. Conclusions For policy making, it may require combining various methods for a comprehensive analysis. The methods used in this study provide tools for identifying underserved areas in order to improve equity in access to and efficiency in allocation of residential care resources in future planning.

  6. Power and Energy Management with Battery Storage for a Hybrid Residential PV-Wind System – A Case Study for Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stroe, Daniel-Ioan; Zaharof, Andreea; Iov, Florin

    2018-01-01

    The energy generation paradigm is shifting from centralized fossil-fuel-based generation to distributed-based renewable generation. Thus, hybrid residential energy systems based on wind turbines, PV panels and/or micro-turbines are gaining more and more terrain. Nevertheless, such a system needs...... to be coupled with an energy storage solution, most often a battery, in order to mitigate its power generation variability and to ensure a stable and reliable operation. In this work, two power and energy management strategies for a hybrid residential PV-wind system with battery energy storage were evaluated...

  7. Adverse Health Effects in Relation to Urban Residential Soundscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    SKÅNBERG, A.; ÖHRSTRÖM, E.

    2002-02-01

    Noise pollution from road traffic in residential areas is a growing environmental problem. New approaches to turn the negative trend are needed. The programme “Soundscape Support to Health” will achieve new knowledge about the adverse health effects of noise pollution on humans and will investigate the link between well-being and health and perceived soundscapes for optimizing the acoustic soundscapes in urban residential areas. This paper will briefly present the programme and presents preliminary results from the first study of how various adverse health effects are related to individual noise exposures among individuals in residential areas with and without access to a quiet side of the dwelling.

  8. The effectiveness of an integrated collaborative care model vs. a shifted outpatient collaborative care model on community functioning, residential stability, and health service use among homeless adults with mental illness: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stergiopoulos, Vicky; Schuler, Andrée; Nisenbaum, Rosane; deRuiter, Wayne; Guimond, Tim; Wasylenki, Donald; Hoch, Jeffrey S; Hwang, Stephen W; Rouleau, Katherine; Dewa, Carolyn

    2015-08-28

    Although a growing number of collaborative mental health care models have been developed, targeting specific populations, few studies have utilized such interventions among homeless populations. This quasi-experimental study compared the outcomes of two shelter-based collaborative mental health care models for men experiencing homelessness and mental illness: (1) an integrated multidisciplinary collaborative care (IMCC) model and (2) a less resource intensive shifted outpatient collaborative care (SOCC) model. In total 142 participants, 70 from IMCC and 72 from SOCC were enrolled and followed for 12 months. Outcome measures included community functioning, residential stability, and health service use. Multivariate regression models were used to compare study arms with respect to change in community functioning, residential stability, and health service use outcomes over time and to identify baseline demographic, clinical or homelessness variables associated with observed changes in these domains. We observed improvements in both programs over time on measures of community functioning, residential stability, hospitalizations, emergency department visits and community physician visits, with no significant differences between groups over time on these outcome measures. Our findings suggest that shelter-based collaborative mental health care models may be effective for individuals experiencing homelessness and mental illness. Future studies should seek to confirm these findings and examine the cost effectiveness of collaborative care models for this population.

  9. The role of non-governmental organizations in residential solid waste management: a case study of Puducherry, a coastal city of India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajamanikam, Ramamoorthy; Poyyamoli, Gopalsamy; Kumar, Sunil; R, Lekshmi

    2014-09-01

    Poorly planned and uncontrolled urbanization in India has caused a variety of negative, often irreversible, environmental impacts. The impacts appear to be unavoidable and not easily mitigable due to the mounting public health problems caused by non-segregation of solid wastes at source and their subsequent improper management. Recently in India, non-governmental organizations (NGOs) and other civil society organizations have increasingly started to get involved in improving waste management services. Municipal solid waste management being a governmental function, the contribution of NGOs in this field has not been well documented. This study highlights the activities and services of Shuddham, an NGO functioning in the town of Puducherry within the Union Territory of Puducherry in South India. The NGO program promoted much needed awareness and education, encouraged source separation, enhanced door-to-door collection, utilized wastes as raw materials and generated more job opportunities. Even though source separation prior to door-to-door collection is a relatively new concept, a significant percentage of residents (39%) in the study area participated fully, while a further 48% participated in the collection service. The average amount of municipal solid waste generated by residential units in the Raj Bhavan ward was 8582 kg/month of which 47% was recovered through active recycling and composting practices. The study describes the features and performance of NGO-mediated solid waste management, and evaluates the strengths and weaknesses as well as the opportunities and threats of this system to see whether this model can sustainably replace the low-performance conventional solid waste management in practice in the town of Puducherry. The experiences from this case study are expected to provide broad guidelines to better understand the role of NGOs and their contributions towards sustainable waste management practices in urban areas. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. Temporal and Other Exposure Aspects of Residential Magnetic Fields Measurement in Relation to Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia in Children: The National Cancer Institute Children's Cancer Group Study (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baris, D.; Linet, M.; Auvinen, A.; Kaune, W.T.; Wacholder, S.; Kleinerman, R.; Hatch, E.; Robison, L.; Niwa, S.; Haines, C.; Tarone, R.E.

    1999-01-01

    Case-control studies have used a variety of measurements to evaluate the relationship of children's exposure to magnetic fields (50 or 60 Hz) with childhood leukaemia and other childhood cancers. In the absence of knowledge about which exposure metrics may be biologically meaningful, studies during the past 10 years have often used time-weighted average (TWA) summaries of home measurements. Recently, other exposure metrics have been suggested, usually based on theoretical considerations or limited laboratory data. In this paper, the rationale and associated preliminary studies undertaken are described as well as feasibility and validity issues governing the choice of the primary magnetic field exposure assessment methods and summary metric used to estimate children's exposure in the National Cancer Institute/Children's Cancer Group (NCI/CCG) case-control study. Also provided are definitions and discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of the various exposure metrics used in exploratory analyses of the NCI/CCG measurement data. Exposure metrics evaluated include measures of central tendency (mean, median, 30th to 70th percentiles), peak exposures (90th and higher percentiles, peak values of the 24 h measurements), and measurements of short-term temporal variability (rate of change). This report describes correlations of the various metrics with the time-weighted average for the 24 h period (TWA-24-h). Most of the metrics were found to be positively and highly correlated with TWA-24-h, but lower correlations of TWA-24-h with peak exposure and with rate of change were observed. To examine further the relation between TWA and alternative metrics, similar exploratory analysis should be considered for existing data sets and for forthcoming measurement investigations of residential magnetic fields and childhood leukaemia. (author)

  11. Efficient Energy Management for a Grid-Tied Residential Microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Guerrero, Josep M.; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2017-01-01

    generation characteristics, heat transfer and thermal dynamics of sustainable residential buildings and load scheduling potentials of household appliances with associated constraints. Through various simulation studies under different working scenarios with real data, different system constraints and user...

  12. Renewables in residential development: An integrated GIS-based multicriteria approach for decentralized micro-renewable energy production in new settlement development: A case study of the eastern metropolitan area of Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Palmas, Claudia; Abis, Emanuela; Haaren, Christina von; Lovett, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Background: In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in using micro-renewable energy sources. However, planning has not yet developed methodological approaches (1) for spatially optimizing residential development according to the different renewable energy potentials and (2) for integrating objectives of optimized energy efficiency with other environmental requirements and concerns. This study addresses these topics by firstly presenting a new concept for the regional planning. ...

  13. Decision-making experiences of family members of older adults with moderate dementia towards community and residential care home services: a grounded theory study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Low, Lisa Pau; Lam, Lai Wah; Fan, Kim Pong

    2017-06-05

    Caring and supporting older people with dementia have become a major public health priority. Recent reports have also revealed a diminishing number of family carers to provide dementia care in the future. Carers who are engaged in the caring role are known to bear significant psychological, practical and economic challenges as the disease advances over time. Seemingly, evidence indicates that the burden of care can be relieved by formal services. This study aims to explore decision-making experiences of family members of older adults with moderate dementia towards the use of community support (CS) and residential care home (RCH) services. A large multi-site constructivist grounded theory in a range of non-government organizations and a private aged home will frame this Hong Kong study. Purposive sampling will begin the recruitment of family members, followed by theoretical sampling. It is estimated that more than 100 family members using CS and RCH services will participate in an interview. The process of successive constant comparative analysis will be undertaken. The final product, a theory, will generate an integrated and comprehensive conceptual understanding which will explain the processes associated with decision-making of family members for dementia sufferers. Deeper understanding of issues including, but not exclusive to, service needs, expectations and hopes among family carers for improving service support to serve dementia sufferers in CS and RCH services will also be revealed. Importantly, this study seeks to illustrate the practical and strategic aspects of the theory and how it may be useful to transfer its applicability to various service settings to better support those who deliver formal and informal care to the dementia population.

  14. An Alternative to Residential Neighborhoods: An Exploratory Study of How Activity Spaces and Perception of Neighborhood Social Processes Relate to Maladaptive Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freisthler, Bridget; Thomas, Crystal A.; Curry, Susanna R.; Wolf, Jennifer Price

    2016-01-01

    Background: The environments where parents spend time, such as at work, at their child's school, or with friends and family, may exert a greater influence on their parenting behaviors than the residential neighborhoods where they live. These environments, termed activity spaces, provide individualized information about the where parents go,…

  15. An energy integrated, multi-microgrid, MILP (mixed-integer linear programming) approach for residential distributed energy system planning – A South Australian case-study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wouters, Carmen; Fraga, Eric S.; James, Adrian M.

    2015-01-01

    The integration of distributed generation units and microgrids in the current grid infrastructure requires an efficient and cost effective local energy system design. A mixed-integer linear programming model is presented to identify such optimal design. The electricity as well as the space heating and cooling demands of a small residential neighbourhood are satisfied through the consideration and combined use of distributed generation technologies, thermal units and energy storage with an optional interconnection with the central grid. Moreover, energy integration is allowed in the form of both optimised pipeline networks and microgrid operation. The objective is to minimise the total annualised cost of the system to meet its yearly energy demand. The model integrates the operational characteristics and constraints of the different technologies for several scenarios in a South Australian setting and is implemented in GAMS. The impact of energy integration is analysed, leading to the identification of key components for residential energy systems. Additionally, a multi-microgrid concept is introduced to allow for local clustering of households within neighbourhoods. The robustness of the model is shown through sensitivity analysis, up-scaling and an effort to address the variability of solar irradiation. - Highlights: • Distributed energy system planning is employed on a small residential scale. • Full energy integration is employed based on microgrid operation and tri-generation. • An MILP for local clustering of households in multi-microgrids is developed. • Micro combined heat and power units are key components for residential microgrids

  16. A Comparative Study of the Behavioral, Personality, and Fire History Characteristics of Residential and Outpatient Adolescents (Ages 12-17) With Firesetting Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollinger, Joyce; Samuels, Laura; Stadolnik, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Juvenile firesetting behavior has received relatively little research attention and previous attempts to systematically classify this heterogeneous population of children has been only partially successful. Currently there is no literature available that defines treatment and intervention needs of adolescents in residential treatment with…

  17. The use of surveillance technology in residential facilities for people with dementia or intellectual disabilities: a study among nurses and support staff.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niemeijer, A.R.; Depla, M.; Hertogh, C.; Frederiks, B.; Francke, A.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The use of surveillance technology in residential care facilities for people with dementia or intellectual disabilities is often promoted both as a solution to understaffing and as a means to increasing clients' autonomy. But there are fears that such use might attenuate the care

  18. Invisible Elderly in Danish and Swedish Residential Care Home Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    E Andersson, Jonas; Grangaard, Sidse

    2015-01-01

    This study of two architectural competitions suggests that the fit between architectural design and older users, who depend on regular caregiving due to cognitive or functional disabilities, requires a particular consideration when designing new residential care homes.......This study of two architectural competitions suggests that the fit between architectural design and older users, who depend on regular caregiving due to cognitive or functional disabilities, requires a particular consideration when designing new residential care homes....

  19. Insights into the impact and use of research results in a residential long-term care facility: a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cranley Lisa A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Engaging end-users of research in the process of disseminating findings may increase the relevance of findings and their impact for users. We report findings from a case study that explored how involvement with the Translating Research in Elder Care (TREC study influenced management and staff at one of 36 TREC facilities. We conducted the study at ‘Restwood’ (pseudonym nursing home because the Director of Care engaged actively in the study and TREC data showed that this site differed on some areas from other nursing homes in the province. The aims of the case study were two-fold: to gain a better understanding of how frontline staff engage with the research process, and to gain a better understanding of how to share more detailed research results with management. Methods We developed an Expanded Feedback Report for use during this study. In it, we presented survey results that compared Restwood to the best performing site on all variables and participating sites in the province. Data were collected regarding the Expanded Feedback Report through interviews with management. Data from staff were collected through interviews and observation. We used content analysis to derive themes to describe key aspects related to the study aims. Results We observed the importance of understanding organizational routines and the impact of key events in the facility’s environment. We gleaned additional information that validated findings from prior feedback mechanisms within TREC. Another predominant theme was the sense that the opportunity to engage in a research process was reaffirming for staff (particularly healthcare aides—what they did and said mattered, and TREC provided a means of having one’s voice heard. We gained valuable insight from the Director of Care about how to structure and format more detailed findings to assist with interpretation and use of results. Conclusions Four themes emerged regarding staff engagement with

  20. Insights into the impact and use of research results in a residential long-term care facility: a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Engaging end-users of research in the process of disseminating findings may increase the relevance of findings and their impact for users. We report findings from a case study that explored how involvement with the Translating Research in Elder Care (TREC) study influenced management and staff at one of 36 TREC facilities. We conducted the study at ‘Restwood’ (pseudonym) nursing home because the Director of Care engaged actively in the study and TREC data showed that this site differed on some areas from other nursing homes in the province. The aims of the case study were two-fold: to gain a better understanding of how frontline staff engage with the research process, and to gain a better understanding of how to share more detailed research results with management. Methods We developed an Expanded Feedback Report for use during this study. In it, we presented survey results that compared Restwood to the best performing site on all variables and participating sites in the province. Data were collected regarding the Expanded Feedback Report through interviews with management. Data from staff were collected through interviews and observation. We used content analysis to derive themes to describe key aspects related to the study aims. Results We observed the importance of understanding organizational routines and the impact of key events in the facility’s environment. We gleaned additional information that validated findings from prior feedback mechanisms within TREC. Another predominant theme was the sense that the opportunity to engage in a research process was reaffirming for staff (particularly healthcare aides)—what they did and said mattered, and TREC provided a means of having one’s voice heard. We gained valuable insight from the Director of Care about how to structure and format more detailed findings to assist with interpretation and use of results. Conclusions Four themes emerged regarding staff engagement with the research process

  1. Feasibility and benefits of group-based exercise in residential aged care adults: a pilot study for the GrACE programme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samantha Fien

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to examine the feasibility and benefits of a group resistance training exercise programme for improving muscle function in institutionalised older adults. A feasibility and acceptability study was designed for a residential aged care (RAC facility, based on the Gold Coast, Australia. Thirty-seven adults, mean age 86.8 ± 6.1 years (30 females living in a RAC facility. Participants were allocated into an exercise (n = 20 or control (n = 17 group. The exercise group, the Group Aged Care Exercise (GrACE programme, performed 12 weeks of twice weekly resistance exercises. Feasibility was measured via recruitment rate, measurement (physiological and surveys completion rate, loss-to-follow-up, exercise session adherence, adverse events, and ratings of burden and acceptability. Muscle function was assessed using gait speed, sit-to-stand and handgrip strength assessments. All intervention participants completed pre- and post-assessments, and the exercise intervention, with 85% (n = 17 of the group attending ≥ 18 of the 24 sessions and 15% (n = 3 attending all sessions. Acceptability was 100% with exercise participants, and staff who had been involved with the programme strongly agreed that the participants “Benefited from the programme.” There were no adverse events reported by any participants during the exercise sessions. When compared to the control group, the exercise group experienced significant improvements in gait speed (F(4.078 = 8.265, p = 0.007, sit to stand performance (F(3.24 = 11.033, p = 0.002 and handgrip strength (F(3.697 = 26.359, p < 0.001. Resistance training via the GrACE programme is feasible, safe and significantly improves gait speed, sit-to-stand performance and handgrip strength in RAC adults.

  2. Residential energy usage comparison: Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, B.A.; Uhlaner, R.T.; Cason, T.N.; Courteau, S. (Quantum Consulting, Inc., Berkeley, CA (United States))

    1991-08-01

    This report presents the research methods and results from the Residential Energy Usage Comparison (REUC) project, a joint effort by Southern California Edison Company (SCE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The REUC project design activities began in early 1986. The REUC project is an innovative demand-site project designed to measure and compare typical energy consumption patterns of energy efficient residential electric and gas appliances. 95 figs., 33 tabs.

  3. Industrial and residential electricity demand dynamics in Japan: How did price and income elasticities evolve from 1989 to 2014?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Nan; Mogi, Gento

    2017-01-01

    This study estimates the price and income elasticities of industrial and residential electricity demand in Japan with the annual data from 1989 to 2014. A time varying parameter (TVP) model with the Kalman filter is applied to monitor the evolution of consumer behaviors in the “post-bubble” period given the exogenous shock (financial crisis in 2008) and the structural breaks (electricity deregulation and Fukushima Daiichi crisis). The TVP model can provide a robust estimation of elasticities and can detect the outliers and the structural breaks. The results suggest that both industrial and residential consumers become less sensitive to price after the electricity deregulation and the financial crisis, and more sensitive to price after the Fukushima Daiichi crisis. Especially the industrial sector is less sensitive to price after the retail deregulation. By contrast, the income elasticities of industrial and residential sector consumers are stable during the examined period. Results also indicate that a negative relationship exists between the price elasticity of electricity demand and the price level of electricity after the electric sector deregulation. Some insights on the further electric sector reform and the environmental taxation in Japan are also provided. - Highlights: • A time varying parameter model is calculated with the Kalman filter. • Income elasticities are stable while price elasticities are time-varying. • Industrial sector is less sensitive to price change than residential sector. • Negative relationship between price elasticity and price level is found.

  4. Adding Breadth and Depth to College and University Residential Communities: A Phenomenological Study of Faculty-in-Residence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davenport, Amy M.; Pasque, Penny A.

    2014-01-01

    Faculty-in-residence programs in residence halls are unique opportunities for student-faculty involvement, with high levels of commitment from faculty, students, staff, and institutional resources. This hermeneutic phenomenological study explores a faculty-in-residence program at a four-year public university where the FIR program has resulted in…

  5. The Effectiveness of Group Cognitive Hypnotherapy on Major Depression Referred to Residential and Semi-residential Addiction Recovery Centers

    OpenAIRE

    S Haghighi; B Movahedzadeh; M Malekzadeh

    2016-01-01

    Background and aim: Psychological consequences of addiction, such as major depression regardless of physical problems, economic, cultural and social is cause problems for both families and society. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of group cognitive hypnotherapy on major depression in residential and semi-residential addiction recovery centers in the city of Yasuj. Methods: The present quasi-experimental study was conducted using a pre-test, post-test and control ...

  6. Neighborhood Landscape Spatial Patterns and Land Surface Temperature: An Empirical Study on Single-Family Residential Areas in Austin, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Hyun; Gu, Donghwan; Sohn, Wonmin; Kil, Sung-Ho; Kim, Hwanyong; Lee, Dong-Kun

    2016-01-01

    Rapid urbanization has accelerated land use and land cover changes, and generated the urban heat island effect (UHI). Previous studies have reported positive effects of neighborhood landscapes on mitigating urban surface temperatures. However, the influence of neighborhood landscape spatial patterns on enhancing cooling effects has not yet been fully investigated. The main objective of this study was to assess the relationships between neighborhood landscape spatial patterns and land surface temperatures (LST) by using multi-regression models considering spatial autocorrelation issues. To measure the influence of neighborhood landscape spatial patterns on LST, this study analyzed neighborhood environments of 15,862 single-family houses in Austin, Texas, USA. Using aerial photos, geographic information systems (GIS), and remote sensing, FRAGSTATS was employed to calculate values of several landscape indices used to measure neighborhood landscape spatial patterns. After controlling for the spatial autocorrelation effect, results showed that larger and better-connected landscape spatial patterns were positively correlated with lower LST values in neighborhoods, while more fragmented and isolated neighborhood landscape patterns were negatively related to the reduction of LST. PMID:27598186

  7. Feasibility Study of Standalone PV-Wind-Diesel Energy Systems for Coastal Residential Application in Pekan, Pahang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zailan Roziah

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Techno economic study is feasible to optimize the usage of renewable energy components that targeting low cost of electricity generation system. The selected case study area is coastal area in Pekan, Pahang, Malaysia. The autonomous system designed in this study is hybrid standalone PV-wind-diesel energy system to fulfil a basic power demand of 20.1 kWh/day. Such power system was designed and optimized further to meet the power demand at a minimum cost of energy using energy optimization software, Hybrid Optimization Model for Electric Renewables (HOMER. The analysis focused on the operational characteristics and economics. The standalone PV-wind-diesel energy system has total net present cost about $61, 911 with cost of energy $0.66/kWh. Apparently, the generation of electricity from both wind turbine and PV can be inflated with the diesel generator. In comparison, return of investment (ROI value turned out lower for Feed in Tariff (FIT as compared to self-sustained house. Payback period also longer for FIT program that makes the selling back of electricity generated to Tenaga National Berhad (TNB is considered not favourable.

  8. Neighborhood Landscape Spatial Patterns and Land Surface Temperature: An Empirical Study on Single-Family Residential Areas in Austin, Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Hyun Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization has accelerated land use and land cover changes, and generated the urban heat island effect (UHI. Previous studies have reported positive effects of neighborhood landscapes on mitigating urban surface temperatures. However, the influence of neighborhood landscape spatial patterns on enhancing cooling effects has not yet been fully investigated. The main objective of this study was to assess the relationships between neighborhood landscape spatial patterns and land surface temperatures (LST by using multi-regression models considering spatial autocorrelation issues. To measure the influence of neighborhood landscape spatial patterns on LST, this study analyzed neighborhood environments of 15,862 single-family houses in Austin, Texas, USA. Using aerial photos, geographic information systems (GIS, and remote sensing, FRAGSTATS was employed to calculate values of several landscape indices used to measure neighborhood landscape spatial patterns. After controlling for the spatial autocorrelation effect, results showed that larger and better-connected landscape spatial patterns were positively correlated with lower LST values in neighborhoods, while more fragmented and isolated neighborhood landscape patterns were negatively related to the reduction of LST.

  9. Neighborhood Landscape Spatial Patterns and Land Surface Temperature: An Empirical Study on Single-Family Residential Areas in Austin, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Hyun; Gu, Donghwan; Sohn, Wonmin; Kil, Sung-Ho; Kim, Hwanyong; Lee, Dong-Kun

    2016-09-02

    Rapid urbanization has accelerated land use and land cover changes, and generated the urban heat island effect (UHI). Previous studies have reported positive effects of neighborhood landscapes on mitigating urban surface temperatures. However, the influence of neighborhood landscape spatial patterns on enhancing cooling effects has not yet been fully investigated. The main objective of this study was to assess the relationships between neighborhood landscape spatial patterns and land surface temperatures (LST) by using multi-regression models considering spatial autocorrelation issues. To measure the influence of neighborhood landscape spatial patterns on LST, this study analyzed neighborhood environments of 15,862 single-family houses in Austin, Texas, USA. Using aerial photos, geographic information systems (GIS), and remote sensing, FRAGSTATS was employed to calculate values of several landscape indices used to measure neighborhood landscape spatial patterns. After controlling for the spatial autocorrelation effect, results showed that larger and better-connected landscape spatial patterns were positively correlated with lower LST values in neighborhoods, while more fragmented and isolated neighborhood landscape patterns were negatively related to the reduction of LST.

  10. Studying feasibility and effects of a two-stage nursing staff training in residential geriatric care using a 30 month mixed-methods design [ISRCTN24344776

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hantikainen Virpi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Transfer techniques and lifting weights often cause back pain and disorders for nurses in geriatric care. The Kinaesthetics care conception claims to be an alternative, yielding benefits for nurses as well as for clients. Starting a multi-step research program on the effects of Kinaesthetics, we assess the feasibility of a two-stage nursing staff training and a pre-post research design. Using quantitative and qualitative success criteria, we address mobilisation from the bed to a chair and backwards, walking with aid and positioning in bed on the staff level as well as on the resident level. In addition, effect estimates should help to decide on and to prepare a controlled trial. Methods/Design Standard basic and advanced Kinaesthetics courses (each comprising four subsequent days and an additional counselling day during the following four months are offered to n = 36 out of 60 nurses in a residential geriatric care home, who are in charge of 76 residents. N = 22 residents needing movement support are participating to this study. On the staff level, measurements include focus group discussions, questionnaires, physical strain self-assessment (Borg scale, video recordings and external observation of patient assistance skills using a specialised instrument (SOPMAS. Questionnaires used on the resident level include safety, comfort, pain, and level of own participation during mobilisation. A functional mobility profile is assessed using a specialised test procedure (MOTPA. Measurements will take place at baseline (T0, after basic training (T1, and after the advanced course (T2. Follow-up focus groups will be offered at T1 and 10 months later (T3. Discussion Ten criteria for feasibility success are established before the trial, assigned to resources (missing data, processes (drop-out of nurses and residents and science (minimum effects criteria. This will help to make rational decision on entering the next stage of the research

  11. End-of-life care in residential care homes: a retrospective study of the perspectives of family members using the VOICES questionnaire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersson, Sofia; Lindqvist, Olav; Fürst, Carl-Johan; Brännström, Margareta

    2017-03-01

    In Europe, residential care homes (RCHs) are replacing hospitals as the place where death occurs, and they play an important role in end-of-life (EOL) care. The aim was to describe the quality of care during the last 3 months and last 3 days of life of those who died in RCHs as reported by family members. We also investigated whether there were differences in the EOL care of younger patients (family members. A retrospective survey design. Deaths (n = 189) at 19 RCHs in one municipality in Sweden were included. Family members were sent the VOICES questionnaire 1 month after their elderly relative had died. Descriptive statistics were used. In the last 3 days before death, most family members reported there was enough help with nursing (93%) and personal care (78.5%). Among the family members, 86% were told that the resident was likely to die shortly. Most (94.1%) of residents were reported to have died at their preferred place. No significant difference was found between age groups. Family members also reported that about half of the elderly had pain (46.5%) and 86.4% received treatment; 55.9% had breathlessness and 39.7% received treatment. Breathlessness was significantly (p = 0.01) more common in the younger group, and they were treated more often (p = 0.006) than the oldest old. This study revealed an overall positive picture of personal and nursing care and communication. These findings indicate that the quality of EOL care at RCHs is high. Inadequate management was found for symptom relief the last days of life. This suggests that this subject merits further attention by care professionals. To achieve better quality of EOL care at RCHs, we emphasise the importance of systematically working to improve symptom relief. © 2016 Nordic College of Caring Science.

  12. Electricity demand for South Korean residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sa'ad, Suleiman

    2009-01-01

    This study estimates the electricity demand function for the residential sector of South Korea with the aim of examining the effects of improved energy efficiency, structural factors and household lifestyles on electricity consumption. In the study, time series data for the period from 1973 to 2007 is used in a structural time series model to estimate the long-term price and income elasticities and annual growth of underlying energy demand trend (UEDT) at the end of the estimation period. The result shows a long-term income elasticity of 1.33 and a long-term price elasticity of -0.27% with -0.93% as the percentage growth of UEDT at the end of the estimation period. This result suggests that, in order to encourage energy efficiency in the residential sector, the government should complement the market based pricing policies with non-market policies such as minimum energy efficiency standards and public enlightenment.

  13. Residential indoor air quality guideline : ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Ozone (O 3 ) is a colourless gas that reacts rapidly on surfaces and with other constituents in the air. Sources of indoor O 3 include devices sold as home air cleaners, and some types of office equipment. Outdoor O 3 is also an important contributor to indoor levels of O 3 , depending on the air exchange rate with indoor environments. This residential indoor air quality guideline examined factors that affect the introduction, dispersion and removal of O 3 indoors. The health effects of prolonged exposure to O 3 were discussed, and studies conducted to evaluate the population health impacts of O 3 were reviewed. The studies demonstrated that there is a significant association between ambient O 3 and adverse health impacts. Exposure guidelines for residential indoor air quality were discussed. 14 refs.

  14. Residential neighbourhood greenspace is associated with reduced risk of incident diabetes in older people: a prospective cohort study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice M. Dalton

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Three cross sectional studies suggest that neighbourhood greenspace may protect against incident diabetes. This study uses data from a longitudinal study with a large sample size to investigate the association between greenspace and the occurrence of incident diabetes over time. Methods Data was from the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer Norfolk, UK, cohort, recruitment 1993–2007 (N = 23,865. Neighbourhoods were defined as 800 m circular buffers around participants’ home locations, according to their home postcode (zip code. Greenspace exposure was defined as the percentage of the home neighbourhood that was woodland, grassland, arable land, mountain, heath and bog, according to the UK Land Cover Map. Cox proportional hazards regression examined the association between neighbourhood greenspace exposure and incident diabetes. The population attributable fraction assessed the proportion of diabetes cases attributable to exposure to least green neighbourhoods. Mediation analysis assessed if physical activity explained associations between greenspace and diabetes. Interaction analysis was used to test for the modifying effect of rurality and socio-economic status on the relationship between greenspace and diabetes. Models were adjusted for known and hypothesised confounders. Results The mean age of participants was 59 years at baseline and 55.1% were female. The mean follow-up time was 11.3 years. Individuals living in the greenest neighbourhood quartile had a 19% lower relative hazard of developing diabetes (HR 0.81; 95% CI 0.67, 0.99; p = 0.035; linear trend p = 0.010. The hazard ratio remained similar (HR 0.81; 95% CI 0.65, 0.99; p = 0.042 after adjusting for age, sex, BMI, whether a parent had been diagnosed with diabetes and socio-economic status at the individual and neighbourhood level. A HR of 0.97 was attributed to the pathway through physical activity in a fully adjusted model, although

  15. Renewables in residential development. An integrated GIS-based multicriteria approach for decentralized micro renewable energy production in new settlement development. A case study of the eastern metropolitan area of Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmas, Claudia [Cagliari Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Land Engineering; Abis, Emanuela [Cagliari Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Architecture; Haaren, Christina von [Leibniz Univ. of Hannover (Germany). Dept. of Environmental Planning; Lovett, Andrew [East Anglia Univ., Norwich (United Kingdom). School of Environmental Sciences

    2011-07-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing interest in using micro renewable energy sources to heat and power homes. However, planning has not yet developed methodological approaches for integrating such objectives of optimized energy efficiency with other environmental requirements and concerns of sustainable residential development. This study addresses such integration by first presenting an approach to assess the different potentials of the landscape for generating renewable energy (solar, wind, geothermic, biomass). Subsequently, optimized locations for residential development according to other sustainability criteria are identified and the two sets of results integrated by systematic GIS operations. The methodological approach for evaluating spatial variations in energy potential and producing the energy potential maps was based on existing methods for assessing the energy potential of the landscape which were adapted to the local scale and data availability. In the case of bioenergy potential a new method was developed. Other environmental criteria for deciding about sustainable locations for residential areas with different types of micro generation were identified through a survey of more than 100 expert respondents. This survey involved pairwise comparisons of relevant factors, which were then translated using the Analytical Hierarchy Process into relative weights. Subsequently these weights were applied to factor maps in a GIS via a weighted linear combination method to obtain suitable areas for new settlements and preferred locations for micro renewable technologies in the eastern metropolitan area of Cagliari, Sardinia. (orig.)

  16. Residential cognitive-behavioral weight-loss intervention for obesity with and without binge-eating disorder: A prospective case-control study with five-year follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calugi, Simona; Ruocco, Antonella; El Ghoch, Marwan; Andrea, Coppini; Geccherle, Eleonora; Sartori, Federica; Dalle Grave, Riccardo

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this prospective case-control study was to compare the long-term effects of a residential cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) for weight loss in severely obese patients with and without binge-eating disorder (BED). We assessed weight-loss outcomes and psychological impairment in 54 severely obese female patients with BED and 54 patients matched by age, gender, and body mass index (BMI) without BED admitted to a residential CBT program. Body weight was measured at baseline and at 6-month follow-up and was reported by patients in a telephone interview at 5-year follow-up. Depression, eating disorder psychopathology, general psychopathology, and quality of life were assessed using validated instruments at baseline and at 6-month follow-up. Obese patients with and without BED had similar weight loss at 6-month and 5-year follow-ups. Although both groups showed improved psychosocial variables, at 6 months the BED group maintained higher psychological impairment. Nevertheless, at 5-year follow-up more than half of the BED participants were no longer classifiable as having BED. The presence of BED does not affect weight-loss outcome in obese patients treated with the residential CBT for weight loss program considered. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.(Int J Eat Disord 2016; 49:723-730). © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. The flame dilemma: A data analytics study of fireplace influence on winter energy consumption at the residential household level

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afamia Elnakat

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effect of the presence of fireplaces at the household level independent of the function of ambiance and indoor air quality. The focus of this study is on the winter heating energy use of homes with and without fireplaces to promote energy conservation. Three years of winter energy usage (2011–2013 of 365,190 single-family homes are analyzed and compared. The data is further segmented by fuel type, all-electric versus dual-fuel homes as well as by size and vintage. On average, homes with fireplaces used 23,650 kBtu, source energy, for heating purposes during the winter months versus 18,055 kBtu (p≤0.0001 during the same time period, January, February, and December. There is a significant 31% increase in energy use in homes with fireplaces. In conclusion, policy prescriptions and retrofits are recommended during new home construction permits, renovations, and utility rebate outreach programs to encourage more efficient and cleaner fireplace technology applications.

  18. Study on the association between residential exposure to N, N-dimethylformamide and hospitalization for respiratory disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cui; Tian, WeiLi; Wei, YuMei; Li, XiaoXiao; Zhang, QingYu; Huang, ChanKe

    2013-10-01

    Some studies have confirmed the adverse effects of N, N-dimethylformamide (DMF) on the different organs in occupational exposure workers. However, to the best of our knowledge, risk assessment in the general population has not been available. In this study, a time series analysis of the relationship between DMF exposure and respiratory hospitalization was performed in Longwan district of China in 2008. Generalized additive model (GAMs) reflected that a 101.0 μg m-3 (inter-quartile range) increase in the 1-day lag concentration of DMF resulted in a 1.17 (95% CI: 1.09-1.25) increased relative risk of hospitalization for respiratory problems. The dose-response curve representing the relationship between DMF and the logarithm of the number of hospitalization was adequately linear at 4-200 μg m-3. We proposed a risk on respiratory disease in non-occupational DMF exposure. More information is required to verify this observation and the other endpoints to general population should be investigated during long-term DMF exposure.

  19. Clustering cities with similar fine particulate matter exposure characteristics based on residential infiltration and in-vehicle commuting factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baxter, Lisa K; Sacks, Jason D

    2014-02-01

    Epidemiological studies have observed between city heterogeneity in PM2.5-mortality risk estimates. These differences could potentially be due to the use of central-site monitors as a surrogate for exposure which do not account for an individual's activities or ambient pollutant infiltration to the indoor environment. Therefore, relying solely on central-site monitoring data introduces exposure error in the epidemiological analysis. The amount of exposure error produced by using the central-site monitoring data may differ by city. The objective of this analysis was to cluster cities with similar exposure distributions based on residential infiltration and in-vehicle commuting characteristics. Factors related to residential infiltration and commuting were developed from the American Housing Survey (AHS) from 2001 to 2005 for 94 Core-Based Statistical Areas (CBSAs). We conducted two separate cluster analyses using a k-means clustering algorithm to cluster CBSAs based on these factors. The first only included residential infiltration factors (i.e. percent of homes with central air conditioning (AC) mean year home was built, and mean home size) while the second incorporated both infiltration and commuting (i.e. mean in-vehicle commuting time and mean in-vehicle commuting distance) factors. Clustering on residential infiltration factors resulted in 5 clusters, with two having distinct exposure distributions. Cluster 1 consisted of cities with older, smaller homes with less central AC while homes in Cluster 2 cities were newer, larger, and more likely to have central AC. Including commuting factors resulted in 10 clusters. Clusters with shorter in-vehicle commuting times had shorter in-vehicle commuting distances. Cities with newer homes also tended to have longer commuting times and distances. This is the first study to employ cluster analysis to group cities based on exposure factors. Identifying cities with similar exposure distributions may help explain city

  20. Air pollution exposure estimation using dispersion modelling and continuous monitoring data in a prospective birth cohort study in the Netherlands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van den Hooven Edith H

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Previous studies suggest that pregnant women and children are particularly vulnerable to the adverse effects of air pollution. A prospective cohort study in pregnant women and their children enables identification of the specific effects and critical periods. This paper describes the design of air pollution exposure assessment for participants of the Generation R Study, a population-based prospective cohort study from early pregnancy onwards in 9778 women in the Netherlands. Individual exposures to PM10 and NO2 levels at the home address were estimated for mothers and children, using a combination of advanced dispersion modelling and continuous monitoring data, taking into account the spatial and temporal variation in air pollution concentrations. Full residential history was considered. We observed substantial spatial and temporal variation in air pollution exposure levels. The Generation R Study provides unique possibilities to examine effects of short- and long-term air pollution exposure on various maternal and childhood outcomes and to identify potential critical windows of exposure.

  1. Analysis of urban residential environments using color infrared aerial photography: An examination of socioeconomic variables and physical characteristics of selected areas in the Los Angeles basin, with addendum: An application of the concepts of the Los Angeles residential environment study to the Ontario-Upland region of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullens, R. H., Jr.; Senger, L. W.

    1969-01-01

    Aerial photographs taken with color infrared film were used to differentiate various types of residential areas in the Los Angeles basin, using characteristics of the physical environment which vary from one type of residential area to another. Residential areas of varying quality were classified based on these characteristics. Features of the physical environment, identifiable on CIR aerial photography were examined to determine which of these are the best indicators of quality of residential areas or social areas, as determined by the socioeconomic characteristics of the inhabitants of the selected areas. Association between several physical features and the socioeconomic variables was found to exist.

  2. Energy demand of occupant's spatial modification in residential buildings. Case study of Médéa, Algeria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soufiane, Boukarta; Ewa, Berezowska-Azzag

    2018-03-01

    Housing is rated as one of the most commonly consuming energy field in terms of energy end-use with 41%. Regarding the transformations dealt by dwellers for functional and social uses. The aim of this paper is: Firstly, to highlight the non-controlled transformation process made by the occupant in Algeria; Secondly, to explore the impact of the energy load of such spatial transformations. The question is approached in two tracks, (i) Through Ecotect software's simulations (ii) and measurements through a collection of energy end-use data. Basically, the energy demand is bound to dwelling's spatial and socioeconomic criteria. Three cases studied showed consequently 2 positive and 1 negative energy load, in which two explanations may be given: Insulation quality that occupant is lacking facilities to improve may be stated as a physical explanation, as well as for the socio economic one, the density per dwelling plays a major role, but it is the income which explains within the two approaches more than 87% of the energy end use.

  3. Study on autonomous decentralized-cooperative function monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Takeshi; Numano, Masayoshi; Someya, Minoru; Fukuto, Junji; Mitomo, Nobuo; Miyazaki, Keiko; Matsukura, Hiroshi; Tanba, Yasuyuki

    1999-01-01

    In this study, a study further advanced on a base of results of study on artificial intelligence for nuclear power', one of nuclear basis crossover studies, conducted at five years planning from 1989 fiscal year was executed. Here was conducted on study on a system technology for supplying cooperation, judgement process, judgement results, and so forth between decentralized artificial intelligent elements (agents) to operation managers (supervisors) by focussing a system for monitoring if autonomous decentralized system containing plant operation and robot group action functioned appropriately. In 1997 fiscal year, by mainly conducting development for displaying working state of robot group, some investigations on integrated management of each function already development and maintained were executed. Furthermore, some periodical meetings on realization of its integration with operation control system and maintenance system with other research institutes were conducted. (G.K.)

  4. Residential environments, alcohol advertising, and initiation and continuation of alcohol consumption among adolescents in urban Taiwan: A prospective multilevel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yen-Tyng; Cooper, Hannah L F; Windle, Michael; Haardörfer, Regine; Crawford, Natalie D; Chen, Wei J; Chen, Chuan-Yu

    2016-12-01

    Research indicates that place characteristics and the media environment are important contextual determinants of underage drinking behaviors in Western countries, but it is unknown whether these exposures influence adolescent alcohol consumption outside Western contexts, including in Asia׳s emerging global alcohol markets. Guided by the social ecological framework, we prospectively investigated the influences of place characteristics and alcohol advertising on initiation and continuation of alcohol consumption among adolescents in Taipei, Taiwan. Data on individual-level characteristics, including alcohol use behaviors and perceived exposure to alcohol advertising, were obtained from two waves of a longitudinal school-based study through a stratified probability sampling method in 2010 (Grade 7/Grade 8, aged 13-14 years old) and 2011-2012 (Grade 9, aged 15 years old) from 1795 adolescents residing in 22 of 41 districts in Taipei. Data on district-level characteristics were drawn from administrative sources and Google Street View virtual audit to describe districts where adolescents lived at baseline. Hierarchical generalized linear models tested hypotheses about the associations of place characteristics and perceived alcohol advertising with underage drinking, with stratification by baseline lifetime alcohol consumption. Among alcohol-naïve adolescents, lower district-level economic disadvantage, a higher proportion of betel nut kiosks (a relatively unregulated alcohol source) compared to off-premises alcohol outlets, and exposure to television-based alcohol advertising predicted increased likelihood of alcohol initiation at one-year follow-up. Among alcohol-experienced adolescents, greater spatial access to off-premises alcohol outlets, and lower access to metro rapid transportation (MRT) and to temples were found to predict a subsequent increased likelihood of continued alcohol use. Parental drinking moderated the relationship between district-level violent

  5. Risks from Radon: Reconciling Miner and Residential Epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, Douglas B.; Harley, Naomi H.

    2008-01-01

    Everyone is exposed to radon, an inert radioactive gas that occurs naturally and is present everywhere in the atmosphere. The annual dose from radon and its (short-lived) decay products is typically about one-half of the dose received by members of the public from all natural sources of ionizing radiation. Data on exposures and consequent effects have recently been reviewed by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). Studies of underground miners provides a well-established basis for estimating risks from occupational exposures to radon and for studying factors that may affect the dose response relationship such as the reduction of risk (coefficients) with increasing time since exposure. Miners' studies previously formed the basis for estimating risks to people exposed to radon at home, with downward extrapolation from exposures in mines to residential levels of radon. Presently, the risk estimates from residential studies are adequate to estimate radon risks in homes. Although there are major uncertainties in extrapolating the risks of exposure to radon from the miner studies to assessing risks in the home, there is remarkably good agreement between the average of risk factors derived from miner studies and those from pooled residential case-control studies. There are now over 20 analytical studies of residential radon and lung cancer. These studies typically assess the relative risk from exposure to radon based on estimates of residential exposure over a period of 25 to 30 years prior to diagnosis of lung cancer. Recent pooled analyses of residential case-control studies support a small but detectable lung cancer risk from residential exposure, and this risk increases with increasing concentrations. The excess relative risk of lung cancer from long-term residential exposure is about the same for both smokers and non-smokers; however, because the

  6. A Practical Review of Studies on Operator's Supervisory Monitoring Behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha, Jun Su; Seong, Poong Hyun

    2009-01-01

    Correct situation awareness (SA) has been considered a crucial key to improving performance and reducing error in NPPs. There are a lot of information sources that should be monitored in NPPs, but operators have only limited capacity of attention and memory. Operators in NPPs selectively attend to important information sources to effectively develop SA when an abnormal or accidental situation occurs. Selective attention to important information sources is continued while maintaining SA as well. In this work, various models of operator's visual sampling behavior are reviewed for the use in human factors studies in NPPs

  7. Dynamic management of integrated residential energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Matteo

    This study combines principles of energy systems engineering and statistics to develop integrated models of residential energy use in the United States, to include residential recharging of electric vehicles. These models can be used by government, policymakers, and the utility industry to provide answers and guidance regarding the future of the U.S. energy system. Currently, electric power generation must match the total demand at each instant, following seasonal patterns and instantaneous fluctuations. Thus, one of the biggest drivers of costs and capacity requirement is the electricity demand that occurs during peak periods. These peak periods require utility companies to maintain operational capacity that often is underutilized, outdated, expensive, and inefficient. In light of this, flattening the demand curve has long been recognized as an effective way of cutting the cost of producing electricity and increasing overall efficiency. The problem is exacerbated by expected widespread adoption of non-dispatchable renewable power generation. The intermittent nature of renewable resources and their non-dispatchability substantially limit the ability of electric power generation of adapting to the fluctuating demand. Smart grid technologies and demand response programs are proposed as a technical solution to make the electric power demand more flexible and able to adapt to power generation. Residential demand response programs offer different incentives and benefits to consumers in response to their flexibility in the timing of their electricity consumption. Understanding interactions between new and existing energy technologies, and policy impacts therein, is key to driving sustainable energy use and economic growth. Comprehensive and accurate models of the next-generation power system allow for understanding the effects of new energy technologies on the power system infrastructure, and can be used to guide policy, technology, and economic decisions. This

  8. The incidence of depression and its risk factors in Dutch nursing homes and residential care homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boorsma, Marijke; Joling, Karlijn; Dussel, Martine; Ribbe, Miel; Frijters, Dinnus; van Marwijk, Harm W J; Nijpels, Giel; van Hout, Hein

    2012-11-01

    Although it is known that depression is highly prevalent in institutionalized older adults, little is known about its incidence and risk factors in nursing homes and residential care homes. The aim of this study was to investigate and compare the incidence and associated risk factors for depression in Dutch nursing homes and residential care homes. Data on depression were extracted from the Vrije Universiteit naturalistic cohort on routine care monitoring with the Minimum Data Set of the Resident Assessment Instrument. A total of 1,324 residents in six nursing homes and 1,723 residents in 23 residential care homes with an average follow-up of 1.2 years. Depression was defined as a clinical diagnosis according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria and the use of antidepressants. Residents with prevalent depression at baseline were excluded. The incidence rate was 13.6 per 100 person years in the nursing homes and 10.2 per 100 person years in the residential care homes. The independent risk factors for in-home depression for residents in nursing homes included dementia (OR: 1.7; 95% CI: 1.02-2.95) and a score of 3 or more on the Depression Rating Scale (odds ratio [OR]: 2.1; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.23-3.70). A protective effect was seen on the use of a hearing aid (OR: 0.3; 95% CI: 0.12-0.80). In the residential care homes, being male (OR: 2.1; 95% CI: 1.27-3.30), having cancer (OR: 2.9; 95% CI: 1.64-4.95), and a score of 2 or higher on the Cognitive Performance Scale (OR: 1.5; 95% CI: 1.05-2.22) increased the risk to develop depression. Age greater than 85 years (OR: 0.5; 95% CI: 0.31-0.67) and hearing impairment (OR: 0.8; 95% CI: 0.60-1.00) appeared to be protective. The incidence rate for depression in residents of Dutch nursing homes and residential care homes was high and the associated risk factors found may have important implications for staff. 2012 American Association for Geriatric Psychiatry

  9. Multicenter Study of Voriconazole Pharmacokinetics and Therapeutic Drug Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolton, Michael J.; Ray, John E.; Chen, Sharon C.-A.; Ng, Kingsley; Pont, Lisa G.

    2012-01-01

    Voriconazole is a first-line agent in the treatment of many invasive fungal infections and is known to display highly variable pharmacokinetics. Previous studies of voriconazole therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) have suggested concentration monitoring to be clinically useful but have been limited by small patient samples at a single institution. This multicenter retrospective study aimed to investigate relationships between voriconazole concentration and clinical outcomes and adverse events and to assess clinical factors and drug interactions that may affect voriconazole concentration. Medical records were reviewed for patients who received voriconazole and had at least 1 concentration measured at seven hospitals in Australia. The study included 201 patients with 783 voriconazole trough concentrations. Voriconazole concentrations of voriconazole concentrations of >5 mg/liter (10/31 patients [32%]) than at concentrations of ≤5 mg/liter (2/170 patients [1.2%]) (P voriconazole concentration identified associations between increasing patient weight, oral administration of voriconazole, and coadministration of phenytoin or rifampin and significantly reduced concentrations, and associations between increasing patient age and coadministration of proton pump inhibitors and increased concentrations. Coadministration of glucocorticoids was found to significantly reduce voriconazole concentrations, inferring a previously unreported drug interaction between glucocorticoids and voriconazole. PMID:22751544

  10. Residential Segregation at the Local Level in Poland. Case Studies for Praga Północ, Włochy and Ursynów

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaczewska Barbara

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to answer two questions concerning the scale and the pattern of residential segregation in Warsaw at the local level and the character of contemporary processes accompanying and modifying this phenomenon. While examining residential segregation we have applied a multidimensional approach to underline the complex nature of this phenomenon. We have focused on data concerning different demographic and socio-economic categories. Furthermore we indicate and describe three socio-spatial, contemporary processes that have accompanied an increase in social inequalities in Warsaw (the creation of enclaves of poverty and wealth and the process of gentrification. The research reveals increasing social inequalities at the local level that began in the socialist era and have strengthened during the transformation period, as well as the stability of the socio-spatial pattern in selected districts that influence their local specifics.

  11. Residential Mobility Across Early Childhood and Children's Kindergarten Readiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Lawrence, Elizabeth; Root, Elisabeth Dowling

    2018-04-01

    Understanding residential mobility in early childhood is important for contextualizing family, school, and neighborhood influences on child well-being. We examined the consequences of residential mobility for socioemotional and cognitive kindergarten readiness using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, a nationally representative longitudinal survey that followed U.S. children born in 2001 from infancy to kindergarten. We described individual, household, and neighborhood characteristics associated with residential mobility for children aged 0-5. Our residential mobility indicators examined frequency of moves, nonlinearities in move frequency, quality of moves, comparisons between moving houses and moving neighborhoods, and heterogeneity in the consequences of residential mobility. Nearly three-quarters of children moved by kindergarten start. Mobility did not predict cognitive scores. More moves, particularly at relatively high frequencies, predicted lower kindergarten behavior scores. Moves from socioeconomically advantaged to disadvantaged neighborhoods were especially problematic, whereas moves within a ZIP code were not. The implications of moves were similar across socioeconomic status. The behavior findings largely support an instability perspective that highlights potential disruptions from frequent or problematic moves. Our study contributes to literature emphasizing the importance of contextualizing residential mobility. The high prevalence and distinct implications of early childhood moves support the need for further research.

  12. Ambient Levels of Primary and Secondary Pollutants in a Residential Area: Population Risk and Hazard Index Calculation over a Three Years Study Period

    OpenAIRE

    S. Al-Salem; A. Al-Fadhlee

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims at presenting data collected over the period of three years (2004-2006) in a residential area in the state of Kuwait. The data collected include ambient levels of primary and secondary pollutants with a number of metrological parameters. A series of unfiltered and filtered concentration roses were plotted to determine the predominant sources as well as the prevailing winds affecting the area under investigation. Local and international air quality regulations were cross refere...

  13. Risk-based monitored natural attenuation--a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, F I; Husain, T

    2001-08-17

    The term "monitored natural attenuation" (MNA) refers to a reliance on natural attenuation (NA) processes for remediation through the careful monitoring of the behavior of a contaminant source in time and space domains. In recent years, policymakers are shifting to a risk-based approach where site characteristics are measured against the potential risk to human health and the environment, and site management strategies are prioritized to be commensurate with that risk. Risk-based corrective action (RBCA), a concept developed by the American Society for Testing Materials (ASTM), was the first indication of how this approach could be used in the development of remediation strategies. This paper, which links ASTM's RBCA approach with MNA, develops a systematic working methodology for a risk-based site evaluation and remediation through NA. The methodology is comprised of seven steps, with the first five steps intended to evaluate site characteristics and the feasibility of NA. If NA is effective, then the last two steps will guide the development of a long-term monitoring plan and approval for a site closure. This methodology is used to evaluate a site contaminated with oil from a pipeline spill. The case study concluded that the site has the requisite characteristics for NA, but it would take more than 80 years for attenuation of xylene and ethylbenzene, as these chemicals appear in the pure phase. If fast remediation is sought, then efforts should be made to remove the contaminant from the soil. Initially, the site posed a serious risk to both on-site and off-site receptors, but it becomes acceptable after 20 years, as the plume is diluted and drifts from its source of origin.

  14. Occupational safety issues in residential construction surveyed in Wisconsin, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang D; Carlson, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Residential construction is a high-risk industry in the U.S. due to the exposure to work-related safety hazards and fall injuries. This study aimed to examine the safety training and safe work practices of construction workers within the small residential construction industry. In order to achieve the study objectives, a survey was designed and sent to approximately 200 Wisconsin based residential construction contractors. About one third of the respondents stated that they did not have any form of safety programs. The study indicated that the most common types of work-related injuries in residential construction were slips/trips/falls and cuts/lacerations. The survey findings also suggested that the residential construction contractors needed to increase the utilization of fall protection safety equipment. Further education and subject matter expert training could provide benefits to improve occupational safety and health of the small business workforce in the residential construction industry.

  15. Metal contamination in environmental media in residential ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hard-rock mining for metals, such as gold, silver, copper, zinc, iron and others, is recognized to have a significant impact on the environmental media, soil and water, in particular. Toxic contaminants released from mine waste to surface water and groundwater is the primary concern, but human exposure to soil contaminants either directly, via inhalation of airborne dust particles, or indirectly, via food chain (ingestion of animal products and/or vegetables grown in contaminated areas), is also, significant. In this research, we analyzed data collected in 2007, as part of a larger environmental study performed in the Rosia Montana area in Transylvania, to provide the Romanian governmental authorities with data on the levels of metal contamination in environmental media from this historical mining area. The data were also considered in policy decision to address mining-related environmental concerns in the area. We examined soil and water data collected from residential areas near the mining sites to determine relationships among metals analyzed in these different environmental media, using the correlation procedure in SAS statistical software. Results for residential soil and water analysis indicate that the average values for arsenic (As) (85 mg/kg), cadmium (Cd) (3.2 mg/kg), mercury (Hg) (2.3 mg/kg) and lead (Pb) (92 mg/kg) exceeded the Romanian regulatory exposure levels [the intervention thresholds for residential soil in case of As (25 mg/kg) and Hg

  16. Residential outage cost estimation: Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, C.K.; Ho, T.; Shiu, A.; Cheng, Y.S.; Horowitz, I.; Wang, J.

    2014-01-01

    Hong Kong has almost perfect electricity reliability, the result of substantial investments ultimately financed by electricity consumers who may be willing to accept lower reliability in exchange for lower bills. But consumers with high outage costs are likely to reject the reliability reduction. Our ordered-logit regression analysis of the responses by 1876 households to a telephone survey conducted in June 2013 indicates that Hong Kong residents exhibit a statistically-significant preference for their existing service reliability and rate. Moreover, the average residential cost estimate for a 1-h outage is US$45 (HK$350), topping the estimates reported in 10 of the 11 studies published in the last 10 years. The policy implication is that absent additional compelling evidence, Hong Kong should not reduce its service reliability. - Highlights: • Use a contingent valuation survey to obtain residential preferences for reliability. • Use an ordered logit analysis to estimate Hong Kong's residential outage costs. • Find high outage cost estimates that imply high reliability requirements. • Conclude that sans new evidence, Hong Kong should not reduce its reliability

  17. Sorption of organic gases in residential rooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Brett C.; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Hotchi, Toshifumi; Ming, Katherine Y.; Sextro, Richard G.; Wood, Emily E.; Brown, Nancy J.

    Experiments were conducted to characterize organic gas sorption in residential rooms studied "as-is" with furnishings and material surfaces unaltered and in a furnished chamber designed to simulate a residential room. Results are presented for 10 rooms (five bedrooms, two bathrooms, a home office, and two multi-function spaces) and the chamber. Exposed materials were characterized and areas quantified. A mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was rapidly volatilized within each room as it was closed and sealed for a 5-h Adsorb phase; this was followed by 30-min Flush and 2-h closed-room Desorb phases. Included were alkane, aromatic, and oxygenated VOCs representing a range of ambient and indoor air pollutants. Three organophosphorus compounds served as surrogates for Sarin-like nerve agents. Measured gas-phase concentrations were fit to three variations of a mathematical model that considers sorption occurring at a surface sink and potentially a second, embedded sink. The 3-parameter sink-diffusion model provided acceptable fits for most compounds and the 4-parameter two-sink model provided acceptable fits for the others. Initial adsorption rates and sorptive partitioning increased with decreasing vapor pressure for the alkanes, aromatics and oxygenated VOCs. Best-fit sorption parameters obtained from experimental data from the chamber produced best-fit sorption parameters similar to those obtained from the residential rooms.

  18. Evaluation of heat pumps usage and energy savings in residential buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Nehad Elsawaf, Tarek Abdel-Salam, Leslie Pagliari

    2012-01-01

    The residential housing sector is a major consumer of energy in most countries around the world. In the United States the residential sector consumes about 21 % of the energy and about 35% of the electricity production. Of the total energy consumption per house hold about 33% is consumed for space heating. This study evaluates the energy consumption in residential houses during the heating season. The main objective of the study is to test the effectiveness of using heat pumps for space heati...

  19. ITRAP - an international pilot study on border monitoring systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beck, P.; Duftschmid, K.E.

    1999-01-01

    The paper describes the design and preliminary results of an extended pilot study of commercially available monitoring systems for the detection of nuclear and other radioactive materials at borders. The study consists of a laboratory test phase and field tests at the Austrian/Hungarian border and the Vienna airport, each for a duration of one year. The results will be used to derive realistic performance requirements for border control systems in view of optimized technical and economic conditions as well as to propose an 'investigation level'. The ITRAP study consists of three phases. In the first phase equipment currently available on the market is subjected to laboratory testing at the Austrian Research Centres Seibersdorf. The instrument categories include hand-held, portable, and fixed-installed equipment. The test criteria defined as minimum requirements have been established together with the manufacturers. The laboratory tests started in May 1998 and will last until end of this year. During the second phase, the field study, equipment passing the laboratory tests will be installed at a major Austrian-Hungarian border crossing (Nickelsdorf) for monitoring of cars, trucks and trains, as well as at the Vienna airport for pedestrians, luggage and cargo. In this phase the results gained from the lab tests about the 'fitness for use' will be verified in practice, in close co-operation with the law enforcement officers at the borders. Also training issues and questions of maintenance and support shall be evaluated. In the third phase, realistic specifications and performance requirements shall be derived with the help of international experts and selected specialists from the users and manufacturers. The results of the field study will focus not only on the technical aspects of monitoring equipment (e.g. detection threshold and rate of false alarms) but also on the operational (e.g. ease of use, reliability, training requirements, field support) and economic

  20. The impact of residential density on vehicle usage and fuel consumption: Evidence from national samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Jinwon; Brownstone, David

    2013-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of residential density on household vehicle usage and fuel consumption. We estimate a simultaneous equations system to account for the potential residential self-selection problem. While most previous studies focus on a specific region, this paper uses national...... samples from the 2001 National Household Travel Survey. The estimation results indicate that residential density has a statistically significant but economically modest influence on vehicle usage, which is similar to that in previous studies. However, the joint effect of the contextual density measure...... (density in the context of its surrounding area) and residential density on vehicle usage is quantitatively larger than the sole effect of residential density. Moving a household from a suburban to an urban area reduces household annual mileage by 18%. We also find that a lower neighborhood residential...

  1. Maladaptive Schemas as a Predictor of Residential Treatment Outcomes in Females with Eating Disorders

    OpenAIRE

    Cullum, Jodi Leigh

    2009-01-01

    The present study aimed to examine the relationship between maladaptive schemas and treatment outcomes of adolescent and adult women with an eating disorder receiving residential treatment. Existing data were obtained from 67 females aged 11 to 47 years (m =18.61) that had entered residential treatment for anorexia nervosa (AN), bulimia nervosa (BN), or eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) at a Western United States residential eating disorder treatment facility. Pre- and posttreat...

  2. Idaho Steelhead Monitoring and Evaluation Studies : Annual Progress Report 2007.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Copeland, Timothy; Putnam, Scott

    2008-12-01

    The goal of Idaho Steelhead Monitoring and Evaluation Studies is to collect monitoring data to evaluate wild and natural steelhead populations in the Clearwater and Salmon river drainages. During 2007, intensive population data were collected in Fish Creek (Lochsa River tributary) and Rapid River (Little Salmon River tributary); extensive data were collected in other selected spawning tributaries. Weirs were operated in Fish Creek and Rapid River to estimate adult escapement and to collect samples for age determination and genetic analysis. Snorkel surveys were conducted in Fish Creek, Rapid River, and Boulder Creek (Little Salmon River tributary) to estimate parr density. Screw traps were operated in Fish Creek, Rapid River, Secesh River, and Big Creek to estimate juvenile emigrant abundance, to tag fish for survival estimation, and to collect samples for age determination and genetic analysis. The estimated wild adult steelhead escapement in Fish Creek was 81 fish and in Rapid River was 32 fish. We estimate that juvenile emigration was 24,127 fish from Fish Creek; 5,632 fish from Rapid River; and 43,674 fish from Big Creek. The Secesh trap was pulled for an extended period due to wildfires, so we did not estimate emigrant abundance for that location. In cooperation with Idaho Supplementation Studies, trap tenders PIT tagged 25,618 steelhead juveniles at 18 screw trap sites in the Clearwater and Salmon river drainages. To estimate age composition, 143 adult steelhead and 5,082 juvenile steelhead scale samples were collected. At the time of this report, 114 adult and 1,642 juvenile samples have been aged. Project personnel collected genetic samples from 122 adults and 839 juveniles. We sent 678 genetic samples to the IDFG Eagle Fish Genetics Laboratory for analysis. Water temperature was recorded at 37 locations in the Clearwater and Salmon river drainages.

  3. Comparison of image quality between mammography dedicated monitor and UHD 4K monitor, using standard mammographic phantom: A preliminary study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Young; Cha, Soon Joo; Hong, Sung Hwan; Kim, Su Young; Kim, Yong Hoon; Kim, You Sung; Kim, Jeong A [Dept. of Radiology, Inje Unveristy Ilsan Paik Hospital, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-03-15

    Using standard mammographic phantom images, we compared the image quality obtained between a mammography dedicated 5 megapixel monitor (5M) and a UHD 4K (4K) monitor with digital imaging and communications in medicine display, to investigate the possibility of clinical application of 4K monitors. Three different exposures (autoexposure, overexposure and underexposure) images of mammographic phantom were obtained, and six radiologists independently evaluated the images in 5M and 4K without image modulation, by scoring of fibers, groups of specks and masses within the phantom image. The mean score of each object on both monitors was independently analyzed, using t-test and interobserver reliability by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of SPSS. The overall mean scores of fiber, group of specks, and mass in 5M were 4.25, 3.92, and 3.28 respectively, and scores obtained in 4K monitor were 3.81, 3.58, and 3.14, respectively. No statistical difference was seen in scores of fiber and mass between the two monitors at all exposure conditions, but the score of group of specks in 4K was statistically lower in the overall (p = 0.0492) and in underexposure conditions (p = 0.012). The ICC for interobserver reliability was excellent (0.874). Our study suggests that since the mammographic phantom images are appropriate with no significant difference in image quality observed between the two monitors, the 4K monitor could be used for clinical studies. Since this is a small preliminary study using phantom images, the result may differ in actual mammographic images, and subsequent investigation with clinical mammographic images is required.

  4. Post-Retrofit Residential Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lancaster, Ross; lutzenhiser, Loren; Moezzi, Mithra; Widder, Sarah H.; Chandra, Subrato; Baechler, Michael C.

    2012-04-30

    This study examined a range of factors influencing energy consumption in households that had participated in residential energy-efficiency upgrades. The study was funded by a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and was conducted by faculty and staff of Portland State University Center for Urban Studies and Department of Economics. This work was made possible through the assistance and support of the Energy Trust of Oregon (ETO), whose residential energy-efficiency programs provided the population from which the sample cases were drawn. All households in the study had participated in the ETO Home Performance with Energy Star (HPwES) program. A number of these had concurrently pursued measures through other ETO programs. Post-retrofit energy outcomes are rarely investigated on a house-by-house basis. Rather, aggregate changes are ordinarily the focus of program impact evaluations, with deviation from aggregate expectations chalked up to measurement error, the vagaries of weather and idiosyncrasies of occupants. However, understanding how homes perform post-retrofit on an individual basis can give important insights to increase energy savings at the participant and the programmatic level. Taking a more disaggregated approach, this study analyzed energy consumption data from before and after the retrofit activity and made comparisons with engineering estimates for the upgrades, to identify households that performed differently from what may have been expected based on the estimates. A statistical analysis using hierarchal linear models, which accounted for weather variations, was performed looking separately at gas and electrical use during the periods before and after upgrades took place. A more straightforward comparison of billing data for 12-month periods before and after the intervention was also performed, yielding the majority of the cases examined. The later approach allowed total energy use and costs to be

  5. The importance of engaging residential energy customers' hearts and minds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olaniyan, Monisola J.; Evans, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    In an attempt to reduce the contribution of residential greenhouse gas emissions the EU has implemented a variety of policy measures. The focus has been to promote domestic energy efficiency and ultimately a reduction in residential energy demand. In this study we estimate residential energy demand using Underlying Energy Demand Trend (UEDT) and Asymmetric Price Responses for 14 European OECD countries between 1978 and 2008. Our results support the conclusion that policies to reduce residential energy consumption and the consequent emissions need to account for behavioural, lifestyle and cultural factors in order to be effective. - Highlights: • Residential energy demand is estimated for 14 European OECD countries between 1978 and 2008. • Investigate the relative contributions of Underlying Energy Demand Trend (UEDT) which captures exogenous technical progress. • The most effective policies target behavioural, lifestyle and cultural factors to reduce residential energy consumption

  6. Silent and suffering: a pilot study exploring gaps between theory and practice in pain management for people with severe dementia in residential aged care facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peisah C

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Carmelle Peisah,1–3 Judith Weaver,1 Lisa Wong,1 Julie-Anne Strukovski1 1Behaviour Assessment Management Service, Specialist Mental Health Services for Older People, Mental Health Drug and Alcohol, Northern Sydney Local Health District, 2University of Sydney, 3University of NSW, Sydney, NSW, Australia Background: Pain is common in older people, particularly those in residential aged care facilities (RACF and those with dementia. However, despite 20 years of discourse on pain and dementia, pain is still undetected or misinterpreted in people with dementia in residential aged care facilities, particularly those with communication difficulties. Methods: A topical survey typology with semistructured interviews was used to gather attitudes and experiences of staff from 15 RACF across Northern Sydney Local Health District. Results: While pain is proactively assessed and pain charts are used in RACF, this is more often regulatory-driven than patient-driven (eg, prior to accreditation. Identification of pain and need for pain relief was ill defined and poorly understood. Both pharmacological and nonpharmacological regimes were used, but in an ad hoc, variable and unsystematic manner, with patient, staff, and attitudinal obstacles between the experience of pain and its relief.Conclusion: A laborious “pain communication chain” exists between the experience of pain and its relief for people with severe dementia within RACF. Given the salience of pain for older people with dementia, we recommend early, proactive consideration and management of pain in the approach to behaviors of concern. Individualized pain measures for such residents; empowerment of nursing staff as “needs interpreters”; collaborative partnerships with common care goals between patients where possible; RACF staff, doctors, and family carers; and more meaningful use of pain charts to map response to stepped pain protocols may be useful strategies to explore in clinical settings

  7. The Life of the Elderly in Residential Care Facilities - A Study of Autonomy and Life Situation of Elderly People in the Context of the Political Organisation of the Facilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skjødt, Ulla

    the political organisation of these facilities have an impact on the understanding of autonomy in practice and thereby on life situation of impaired elderly in this context. Methods: The dissertation is based on a practical-philosophical approach in which theory and practice are inextricably linked as well...... as mutually informing each other. Empirical material is generated by participant observation studies and interviews in residential care facilities as well as policy documents concerning the arrangement of public help to impaired elderly people are analysed. Results: Analysis of the empirical material...

  8. Preliminary study of volcano monitoring using geochemical composition of lichen

    Science.gov (United States)

    KUAN, S.

    2012-12-01

    Taipei City, the capital of Taiwan, is bounded with Tatun Volcano Group (TVG), which is not active since 200 ka. However, some evidences indicate that the latest explosion of volcanic ash was dated to 5-6 ka as well as TVG is so close to metropolis. The monitoring on TVG is crucial for crisis management. For monitoring TVG, changes of geochemical signal in some volcanic gases and hot springs are currently assessed by monthly sampling. The geochemistry of volcanic gas and hot spring represents a short-term condition on sampling time and is highly controlled by temperature and precipitation on the surface. A long-term average geochemistry will be very helpful to be compared with the results of volcanic gas and hot spring. A bioindicator not only has the ability to store geochemical compositions in their tissues but also has a wide geographical distribution. It is very suitable in this kind of study and lichen is one of the best bioindicators mainly because lichens grow slowly and have a large-scale dependence upon the environment for their nutrition, In TVG, the high SO2 content in the atmosphere results in the absence of fruticose lichen. On the contrary, crustos lichen is the most common species in the study area. For the preliminary analysis, one fruticose, four foliose and four crustos lichens were collected around the major emission centers of volcanic gas. According to the results of ICP-MS analysis, the abundances of heavy metals are generally in the order of Zn, Fe, Mn, Cu, Cr, Pb, Cd, Ni, V, Co and U. Factor analysis (FA) demonstrates that most of the metals show very high loadings in the first factor. This means that the fractionation of metals among different lichen species is minor and the geochemical compositions of lichen are possibly controlled by the same source (atmosphere). The second factor of FA includes Mn, Sr and Ba, which share the same oxidation state of +2 in acidic environment. This factor can describe the variation of Mn, Sr and Ba in the

  9. Trends of Sustainable Residential Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Narvydas, A

    2014-01-01

    The article is based on Master’s research conducted during Scottish Housing Expo 2010. The aim of the research was to determine the prevailing trends in sustainable residential architecture. Each trend can be described by features detected during visual and technical observation of project data. Based on that architects may predict possible problems related to a specific trend.

  10. Technical Problems of Residential Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowogońska, Beata; Cibis, Jerzy

    2017-10-01

    Beauty, utility, durability - these are the features of good architecture and should also be the distinguishing qualities of every residential building. But do beauty and utility remain along with the passing of time? Performance characteristics are an indicator of both, the technical as well as aesthetic state of buildings. Aesthetic needs are in disagreement with the merciless aging process. The beauty of a city is formed not only by the original forms of new residential buildings, but also by existing tenement housing; thus preserving their aesthetics becomes a necessity. Time is continuously passing and along with it, aging intensifies. The aging process is a natural phenomenon for every material. The life expectancy of building materials is also limited. Along with the passing of time, the technical state of residential buildings continuously deteriorates. With the passing of time, the aesthetic values and preferences of users of flats change and the usability of the building decreases. The permanence of buildings, including residential buildings, is shaped not only by the forces of nature but also by activities of humans. A long lifespan is ensured by carrying out ongoing, systematic renovation-repair works. It is thanks to them that buildings derived from past centuries are still being used, and their market attractiveness is not decreasing.

  11. Convergence of Residential Gateway Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, F.T.H. den; Balm, M.; Jong, C.M. de; Kwaaitaal, J.J.B.

    2004-01-01

    A new OSI-based model is described that can be used for the classification of residential gateways. It is applied to analyze current gateway solutions and draw evolutionary paths for the medium to long term. From this it is concluded that particularly set-top boxes and broadband modems, as opposed

  12. A Measure of the Parent-Team Alliance in Youth Residential Psychiatry: The Revised Short Working Alliance Inventory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, A.; Delsing, M.J.M.H.; Van Widenfelt, B.M.; Vermeiren, R.R.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The therapeutic alliance between multidisciplinary teams and parents within youth (semi) residential psychiatry is essential for the treatment process and forms a promising process variable for Routine Outcome Monitoring (ROM). No short evaluative instrument, however, is currently

  13. Quantifying the economic benefit of groundwater monitoring: A pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geer, F. van; Marsman, A.; Janssen, G.M.C.M.

    2007-01-01

    Usually the design of the monitoring system is based on the relation between the monitoring effort and the uncertainty of the information. Often the estimation error standard deviation is used as a criterion for the design. Despite the fact that, for scientists, the standard deviation as a measure

  14. Global Positioning System (GPS) civil signal monitoring (CSM) trade study report

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-07

    This GPS Civil Signal Monitoring (CSM) Trade Study has been performed at the direction of DOT/FAA Navigation Programs as the agency of reference for consolidating civil monitoring requirements on the Global Positioning System (GPS). The objective of ...

  15. Urban Neighborhood and Residential Factors Associated with Breast Cancer in African American Women: a Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Brandi Patrice; Madak-Erdogan, Zeynep

    2018-04-01

    Residential characteristics in urban neighborhoods impact health and might be important factors contributing to health disparities, especially in the African American population. The purpose of this systematic review is to understand the relationship between urban neighborhood and residential factors and breast cancer incidence and prognosis in African American women. Using PubMed and Web of Science, the existing literature was reviewed. Observational, cross-sectional, cohort, and prospective studies until February 2017 were examined. Studies including populations of African American women, setting in "urban" areas, and a measure of a neighborhood or residential factor were reviewed. Four parameters related to neighborhood or residential factors were extracted including: neighborhood socioeconomic status (nSES), residential segregation, spatial access to mammography, and residential pollution. Our analysis showed that African American women living in low nSES have greater odds of late stage diagnosis and mortality. Furthermore, African American women living in segregated areas (higher percentage of Blacks) have higher odds of late stage diagnosis and mortality compared to White and Hispanic women living in less segregated areas (lower percentage of Blacks). Late stage diagnosis was also shown to be significantly higher in areas with poor mammography access and areas with higher Black residential segregation. Lastly, residential pollution did not affect breast cancer risk in African American women. Overall, this systematic review provides a qualitative synthesis of major neighborhood and residential factors on breast cancer outcomes in African American women.

  16. Citizen Science as a Tool for Conservation in Residential Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caren B. Cooper

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Human activities, such as mining, forestry, and agriculture, strongly influence processes in natural systems. Because conservation has focused on managing and protecting wildlands, research has focused on understanding the indirect influence of these human activities on wildlands. Although a conservation focus on wildlands is critically important, the concept of residential area as an ecosystem is relatively new, and little is known about the potential of such areas to contribute to the conservation of biodiversity. As urban sprawl increases, it becomes urgent to construct a method to research and improve the impacts of management strategies for residential landscapes. If the cumulative activities of individual property owners could help conserve biodiversity, then residential matrix management could become a critical piece of the conservation puzzle. "Citizen science" is a method of integrating public outreach and scientific data collection locally, regionally, and across large geographic scales. By involving citizen participants directly in monitoring and active management of residential lands, citizen science can generate powerful matrix management efforts, defying the "tyranny of small decisions" and leading to positive, cumulative, and measurable impacts on biodiversity.

  17. Silent and suffering: a pilot study exploring gaps between theory and practice in pain management for people with severe dementia in residential aged care facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peisah, Carmelle; Weaver, Judith; Wong, Lisa; Strukovski, Julie-Anne

    2014-01-01

    Pain is common in older people, particularly those in residential aged care facilities (RACF) and those with dementia. However, despite 20 years of discourse on pain and dementia, pain is still undetected or misinterpreted in people with dementia in residential aged care facilities, particularly those with communication difficulties. A topical survey typology with semistructured interviews was used to gather attitudes and experiences of staff from 15 RACF across Northern Sydney Local Health District. While pain is proactively assessed and pain charts are used in RACF, this is more often regulatory-driven than patient-driven (eg, prior to accreditation). Identification of pain and need for pain relief was ill defined and poorly understood. Both pharmacological and non-pharmacological regimes were used, but in an ad hoc, variable and unsystematic manner, with patient, staff, and attitudinal obstacles between the experience of pain and its relief. A laborious "pain communication chain" exists between the experience of pain and its relief for people with severe dementia within RACF. Given the salience of pain for older people with dementia, we recommend early, proactive consideration and management of pain in the approach to behaviors of concern. Individualized pain measures for such residents; empowerment of nursing staff as "needs interpreters"; collaborative partnerships with common care goals between patients where possible; RACF staff, doctors, and family carers; and more meaningful use of pain charts to map response to stepped pain protocols may be useful strategies to explore in clinical settings.

  18. Chemical mass balance source apportionment of PM10 and TSP in residential and industrial sites of an urban region of Kolkata, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, A K; Karar, Kakoli; Srivastava, Anjali

    2007-04-02

    Daily average PM(10) (particulate matter which passes through a size selective impactor inlet with a 50% efficiency cut-off at 10 microm aerodynamic diameter), TSP (total suspended particulate matter) and their chemical species mass concentrations were measured at residential and industrial sites of an urban region of Kolkata during November 2003-November 2004. Source apportionment using chemical mass balance model revealed that the most dominant source throughout the study period at residential site was coal combustion (42%), while vehicular emission (47%) dominates at industrial site to PM(10). Paved road, field burning and wood combustion contributed 21%, 7% and 1% at residential site, while coal combustion, metal industry and soil dust contributed 34%, 1% and 1% at industrial site, respectively, to PM(10) during the study period. The contributors to TSP included coal combustion (37%), soil dust (19%), road dust (17%) and diesel combustion (15%) at residential site, while soil dust (36%), coal combustion (17%), solid waste (17%), road dust (16%) and tyre wear (7%) at industrial site. Significant seasonal variations of the particulate matters have been observed during the study period. In the monitoring sites total carbon, organic carbon and iron were found to be the marker species of road dust, while organic carbon, total carbon, chloride and sulfate have been observed as the marker species of soil dust in TSP.

  19. Blood pressure in young adulthood and residential greenness in the early-life environment of twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijnens, Esmée M; Nawrot, Tim S; Loos, Ruth Jf; Gielen, Marij; Vlietinck, Robert; Derom, Catherine; Zeegers, Maurice P

    2017-06-05

    Previous research shows that, besides risk factors in adult life, the early-life environment can influence blood pressure and hypertension in adults. However, the effects of residential traffic exposure and residential greenness in the early-life on blood pressure in young adulthood are currently unknown. Ambulatory (24-h) blood pressures of 278 twins (132 pairs) of the East Flanders Prospective Twins Study were obtained at the age of 18 to 25 years. Prenatal and adulthood residential addresses were geocoded and used to assign prenatal and postnatal traffic and greenness indicators. Mixed modelling was performed to investigate blood pressure in association with greenness while adjusting for potential confounding factors. Night-time systolic blood pressure was inversely associated with greenness at the residential address in twins living at the same address their entire life (non-movers, n = 97, 34.9%). An interquartile increase in residential greenness exposure (1000 m radius) was associated with a 3.59 mmHg (95% CI: -6.0 to -1.23; p = 0.005) lower adult night systolic blood pressure. Among twins who were living at a different address than their birth address at time of the measurement (n = 181, 65.1%), night-time blood pressure was inversely associated with residential surrounding greenness at adult age as well as with residential greenness in early-life. However after additional adjustment for residential greenness exposure in adulthood, only residential greenness exposure in early-life was significantly associated with night systolic blood pressure. While no significant effect of adult residential greenness with adult blood pressure was observed, while accounting for the early-life greenness exposure. Lower residential greenness in the early-life environment was independently associated with a higher adult blood pressure. This indicates that residential greenness has persistent effects on blood pressure.

  20. Racial/Ethnic Residential Segregation, Obesity, and Diabetes Mellitus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kershaw, Kiarri N; Pender, Ashley E

    2016-11-01

    Persistent racial/ethnic disparities in obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus seen in the US are likely due to a combination of social, biological, and environmental factors. A growing number of studies have examined the role of racial/ethnic residential segregation with respect to these outcomes because this macro-level process is believed to be a fundamental cause of many of the factors that contribute to these disparities. This review provides an overview of findings from studies of racial/ethnic residential segregation with obesity and diabetes published between 2013 and 2015. Findings for obesity varied by geographic scale of the segregation measure, gender, ethnicity, and racial identity (among Hispanics/Latinos). Recent studies found no association between racial/ethnic residential segregation and diabetes prevalence, but higher segregation of Blacks was related to higher diabetes mortality. Implications of these recent studies are discussed as well as promising areas of future research.

  1. Objectively Measured Activity Patterns among Adults in Residential Aged Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Reid

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the feasibility of using the activPAL3TM activity monitor, and, to describe the activity patterns of residential aged care residents. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Randomly selected aged care facilities within 100 km of the Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia. Participants: Ambulatory, older (≥60 years residential aged care adults without cognitive impairment. Measurements: Feasibility was assessed by consent rate, sleep/wear diary completion, and through interviews with staff/participants. Activity patterns (sitting/lying, standing, and stepping were measured via activPAL3TM monitors worn continuously for seven days. Times spent in each activity were described and then compared across days of the week and hours of the day using linear mixed models. Results: Consent rate was 48% (n = 41. Activity patterns are described for the 31 participants (mean age 84.2 years who provided at least one day of valid monitor data. In total, 14 (45% completed the sleep/wear diary. Participants spent a median (interquartile range of 12.4 (1.7 h sitting/lying (with 73% of this accumulated in unbroken bouts of ≥30 min, 1.9 (1.3 h standing, and 21.4 (36.7 min stepping during their monitored waking hours per day. Activity did not vary significantly by day of the week (p ≥ 0.05; stepping showed significant hourly variation (p = 0.018. Conclusions: Older adults in residential aged care were consistently highly sedentary. Feasibility considerations for objective activity monitoring identified for this population include poor diary completion and lost monitors.

  2. The Value of Green Infrastructure on Vacant and Residential Land in Roanoke, Virginia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunwoo Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Using the City of Roanoke, Virginia as a study site, this paper quantifies the forest structure, ecosystem services and values of vacant and residential land. Single family residential land had more trees (1,683,000 than vacant land (210,000 due largely to the differences in land area (32.44 km2 of vacant land vs. 57.94 km2 residential. While the percentage of tree coverage was almost identical across land uses (30.6% in vacant to 32.3% in residential, the number of trees per ha is greater on residential land (290.3 than on vacant land (63.4. The average healthy leaf surface area on individual trees growing on vacant land was greater than that of individual trees on residential land. The fact that trees in vacant land were found to provide more ecosystem services per tree than residential trees was attributed to this leaf area difference. Trees on vacant land are growing in more natural conditions and there are more large trees per ha. Assessing the forest structure and ecosystem services of Roanoke’s vacant and residential land provides a picture of the current extent and condition of the vacant and residential land. Understanding these characteristics provides the information needed for improved management and utilization of urban vacant land and estimating green infrastructure value.

  3. Specialist Cohort Event Monitoring studies: a new study method for risk management in pharmacovigilance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Layton, Deborah; Shakir, Saad A W

    2015-02-01

    The evolving regulatory landscape has heightened the need for innovative, proactive, efficient and more meaningful solutions for 'real-world' post-authorization safety studies (PASS) that not only align with risk management objectives to gather additional safety monitoring information or assess a pattern of drug utilization, but also satisfy key regulatory requirements for marketing authorization holder risk management planning and execution needs. There is a need for data capture across the primary care and secondary care interface, or for exploring use of new medicines in secondary care to support conducting PASS. To fulfil this need, event monitoring has evolved. The Specialist Cohort Event Monitoring (SCEM) study is a new application that enables a cohort of patients prescribed a medicine in the hospital and secondary care settings to be monitored. The method also permits the inclusion of a comparator cohort of patients receiving standard care, or another counterfactual comparator group, to be monitored concurrently, depending on the study question. The approach has been developed in parallel with the new legislative requirement for pharmaceutical companies to undertake a risk management plan as part of post-authorization safety monitoring. SCEM studies recognize that the study population comprises those patients who may have treatment initiated under the care of specialist health care professionals and who are more complex in terms of underlying disease, co-morbidities and concomitant medications than the general disease population treated in primary care. The aims of this paper are to discuss the SCEM new-user study design, rationale and features that aim to address possible bias (such as selection bias) and current applications.

  4. Influence of natural amenities on residential property values in a rural setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    E.M. White; L.A. Leefers

    2007-01-01

    Most hedonic pricing studies have been completed in suburban and urban communities rather than rural areas. The hedonic pricing study presented here includes developed residential parcel transactions occurring in a rural county in Michigan. We develop two hedonic pricing models using transactions data for two rural residential parcel types: developed parcels located in...

  5. Improving the Quality of Services in Residential Treatment Facilities: A Strength-Based Consultative Review Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavkov, Thomas W.; Lourie, Ira S.; Hug, Richard W.; Negash, Sesen

    2010-01-01

    This descriptive case study reports on the positive impact of a consultative review methodology used to conduct quality assurance reviews as part of the Residential Treatment Center Evaluation Project. The study details improvement in the quality of services provided to youth in unmonitored residential treatment facilities. Improvements were…

  6. Attachment Style, Home-Leaving Age and Behavioral Problems among Residential Care Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shechory, Mally; Sommerfeld, Eliane

    2007-01-01

    In a prospective study, the attachment style, home-leaving age, length of time in residential care, and behavioral problems among Israeli residential care children (N=68), were studied. Data analyses showed that children removed from their homes at a later age suffered from higher levels of anxiety, depression and social problems compared to…

  7. The Role of Therapeutic Alliance in Therapy Outcomes for Youth in Residential Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handwerk, Michael L.; Huefner, Jonathan C.; Ringle, Jay L.; Howard, Brigid K.; Soper, Stephen H.; Almquist, Julie K.; Chmelka, M. Beth

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the impact of therapeutic alliance (TA) on therapy outcomes for youth with behavioral and emotional problems residing in residential care. Study participants were 71 youth in an out-of-home family-style residential treatment facility who were referred to an onsite psychotherapy clinic. A therapeutic alliance scale was completed…

  8. Residential Transitions among Adults with Intellectual Disability across 20 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodman, Ashley C.; Mailick, Marsha R.; Anderson, Kristy A.; Esbensen, Anna J.

    2014-01-01

    The present study addresses critical gaps in the literature by examining residential transitions among 303 adults with intellectual disability over 10 years (Part 1) and 75 adults with Down syndrome over 20 years (Part 2). All adults lived at home at the start of the study, but many moved to a variety of settings. Several characteristics of the adults with intellectual disability differed across settings, most notably adaptive behavior and the number of residential transitions, while characteristics such as age, type of disability, and behavior problems were less predictive of residential placements. The number of moves over the course of the study varied widely, with critical links to earlier family dynamics, social relationships, and health and adaptive behavior. PMID:25354121

  9. Numerical simulation model of flood-induced flows in urban residential area and the study of damage reduction; Misshu shigaichi no hanran simulation model no kaihatsu to kozui higai keigen taisaku no kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukuoka, S.; Mizuguchi, M. [Hiroshima Univ. (Japan); Yokoyama, H

    1998-08-21

    Most of large cities in Japan are situated at flood area of rivers. At these large cities, population, fortune, and central management function accumulate, and if a bank-damaged flood is occurred at the river, it is anxious for the flood to suffer a large damage to life, fortune, and social economy. And that, risk on a bank-damaged flood is always present. However, even when the bank-damaged flood occurs, destructive damage is no longer allowed and risk management countermeasure for controlling the damage to minimum is much desired. An object of this study consists in construction of a flood simulation model with high commonness and presumable behavior of flood-induced flow in the urban residential area and in study on a damage reduction countermeasure by using this model. At first, a fluid force acting to a house group with various arrangement was measured and a calculation equation explainable in unity for the measured fluid force was introduced. Secondly, on the flood-induced flow at the urban residential area, a common curve coordinate system was adopted to intend precise modeling of road nets and house groups and to construct the flood simulation model. 16 refs., 21 figs.

  10. Field testing plan for unsaturated zone monitoring and field studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, M.H.; Wierenga, P.J.; Warrick, A.W.

    1996-10-01

    The University of Arizona, in cooperation with the Bureau of Economic Geology at The University of Texas at Austin, and Stephens and Associates in Albuquerque, New Mexico has developed a field testing plan for evaluating subsurface monitoring systems. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission has requested development of these testing plans for low-level radioactive waste disposal sites (LLW) and for monitoring at decommissioned facilities designated under the open-quotes Site Decommissioning Management Planclose quotes (SDMP). The tests are conducted on a 50 m by 50 m plot on the University of Arizona's Maricopa Agricultural Center. Within the 50 m by 50 m plot one finds: (1) an instrumented buried trench, (2) monitoring islands similar to those proposed for the Ward Valley, California LLW Facility, (3) deep borehole monitoring sites, (4) gaseous transport monitoring, and (5) locations for testing non-invasive geophysical measurement techniques. The various subplot areas are instrumented with commercially available instruments such as neutron probes, time domain reflectometry probes, tensiometers, psychrometers, heat dissipation sensors, thermocouples, solution samplers, and cross-hole geophysics electrodes. Measurement depths vary from ground surface to 15 m. The data from the controlled flow and transport experiments, conducted over the plot, will be used to develop an integrated approach to long-term monitoring of the vadose zone at waste disposal sites. The data will also be used to test field-scale flow and transport models. This report describes in detail the design of the experiment and the methodology proposed for evaluating the data

  11. Consumer behavior and energy conservation. A policy-oriented field experimental study on the effectiveness of behavioral interventions promoting residential energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ester, P.

    1984-01-01

    The primary goal of this study is to investigate the effectiveness of behavioral interventions aimed at promoting energy conservation by consumers. It is argued that energy conservation has many advantages over other energy policy options, especially with respect to sociopolitical, economic, technical, safety and environmental considerations. Theories are discussed which deal with micromotives behind individual energy consumption and their macroconsequences. Antecedent and consequence behavioral interventions (information/education, prompting, modeling, feedback, self-monitoring, reinforcement/punishment) for promoting energy conservation by consumers are analyzed, and an extensive review is presented of behavioral experiments conducted in this area. Discussed is how the field experiment, which was conducted in five cities in the Netherlands with appr. 400 subjects, has been implemented. Hypotheses are tested regarding belief structures with respect to energy conservation. Provided are data about the absolute and relative effectiveness of energy conservation information, biweekly and monthly feedback, and self-monitoring in encouraging consumers to conserve energy. Hypotheses are tested about cognitive aspects related to responsiveness to behavioral interventions and attitude change toward energy conservation. Conclusions are presented and some energy policy recommendations and directions for future research are formulated. (J.C.R.)

  12. LHC Transvers Profile Monitors studies (MD on May 6th, 2011)

    CERN Document Server

    Bravin, E; Dehning, B; Emery, J; Lefevre, T; Gras, JJ; Jeff, A; Rabiller, A; Roncarolo, F; Sapinski, M; Kain, V; Pojer, M; Bartosik, H; Salvant, B

    2011-01-01

    This note contains the preliminary results of the LHC MD that took place on 6-May-2011 (from 2 to 10 a.m.), dedicated to study Wire Scanners (WS), Synchrotron Radiation Monitors (BSRT) and Beam Gas Ionization Monitors (BGI). The MD aimed at performing different studies on the individual monitors as well as at cross calibrating them with beams composed of bunches with different transverse emittances in stable conditions. At the same time, it was possible to perform calibration studies with the Abort Gap Monitor (AGM) and Longitudinal Density Monitor (LDM) that share the extracted light with the BSRT.

  13. Competitive solar heating systems for residential buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Thür, Alexander; Fiedler, Frank

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes the ongoing research project “Competitive solar heating systems for residential buildings”. The aim of the project is to develop competitive solar combisystems which are attractive to buyers. The solar combisystems must be attractive compared to traditional energy systems, both....... In Denmark and Norway the focus is on solar heating/natural gas systems, and in Sweden and Latvia the focus is on solar heating/pellet systems. Additionally, Lund Institute of Technology and University of Oslo are studying solar collectors of various types being integrated into the roof and facade...... of the building....

  14. Methodology of Dynamic Monitoring of Structures in the Vicinity of Hydrotechnical Works – Selected Case Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wyjadłowski Marek

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The constant development of geotechnical technologies imposes the necessity of monitoring techniques to provide a proper quality and the safe execution of geotechnical works. Several monitoring methods enable the preliminary design of work process and current control of hydrotechnical works (pile driving, sheet piling, ground improvement methods. Wave parameter measurements and/or continuous histogram recording of shocks and vibrations and its dynamic impact on engineering structures in the close vicinity of the building site enable the modification of the technology parameters, such as vibrator frequency or hammer drop height. Many examples of practical applications have already been published and provide a basis for the formulation of guidelines, for work on the following sites. In the current work the author’s experience gained during sheet piling works for the reconstruction of City Channel in Wrocław (Poland was presented. The examples chosen describe ways of proceedings in the case of new and old residential buildings where the concrete or masonry walls were exposed to vibrations and in the case of the hydrotechnical structures (sluices, bridges.

  15. Methodology of Dynamic Monitoring of Structures in the Vicinity of Hydrotechnical Works - Selected Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wyjadłowski, Marek

    2017-12-01

    The constant development of geotechnical technologies imposes the necessity of monitoring techniques to provide a proper quality and the safe execution of geotechnical works. Several monitoring methods enable the preliminary design of work process and current control of hydrotechnical works (pile driving, sheet piling, ground improvement methods). Wave parameter measurements and/or continuous histogram recording of shocks and vibrations and its dynamic impact on engineering structures in the close vicinity of the building site enable the modification of the technology parameters, such as vibrator frequency or hammer drop height. Many examples of practical applications have already been published and provide a basis for the formulation of guidelines, for work on the following sites. In the current work the author's experience gained during sheet piling works for the reconstruction of City Channel in Wrocław (Poland) was presented. The examples chosen describe ways of proceedings in the case of new and old residential buildings where the concrete or masonry walls were exposed to vibrations and in the case of the hydrotechnical structures (sluices, bridges).

  16. Hazards and operability study for the surface moisture monitoring system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Board, B.D.

    1996-01-01

    The Hanford Nuclear Reservation Tank Farms' underground waste tanks have been used to store liquid radioactive waste from defense materials production since the 1940's. Waste in certain of the tanks may contain material in the form of ferrocyanide or various organic compounds which could potentially be susceptible to condensed phase chemical reactions. Because of the presence of oxidizing materials (nitrate compounds) and heat sources (radioactive decay and chemical reactions), the ferrocyanide or organic material could potentially fuel a propagating exothermic reaction with undesirable consequences. Analysis and experiments indicate that the reaction propagation and/or initiation may be prevented by the presence of sufficient moisture in the waste. Because the reaction would probably be initiated at the surface of the waste, evidence of sufficient moisture concentration would help provide evidence that the tank waste can continue to be safely stored. The Surface Moisture Measurement System (SMMS) was developed to collect data on the surface moisture in the waste by inserting two types of probes (singly) into a waste tank-a neutron probe and an electromagnetic inductance (EMI) probe. The sensor probes will be placed on the surface of the waste utilizing a moveable deployment arm to lower them through an available riser. The movement of the SMMS within the tank will be monitored by a camera lowered through an adjacent riser. The SMMS equipment is the subject of this study. Hazards and Operability Analysis (HAZOP) is a systematic technique for assessing potential hazards and/or operability problems for a new activity. It utilizes a multidiscipline team of knowledgeable individuals in a systematic brainstorming effort. The results of this study will be used as input to an Unreviewed Safety Question determination

  17. The value of price transparency in residential solar photovoltaic markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O’Shaughnessy, Eric; Margolis, Robert

    2018-06-01

    Installed prices for residential solar photovoltaic (PV) systems have declined significantly in recent years. However price dispersion and limited customer access to PV quotes prevents some prospective customers from obtaining low price offers. This study shows that improved customer access to prices - also known as price transparency - is a potential policy lever for further PV price reductions. We use customer search and strategic pricing theory to show that PV installation companies face incentives to offer lower prices in markets with more price transparency. We test this theoretical framework using a unique residential PV quote dataset. Our results show that installers offer lower prices to customers that are expected to receive more quotes. Our study provides a rationale for policies to improve price transparency in residential PV markets.

  18. Simulation and optimization study on a solar space heating system combined with a low temperature ASHP for single family rural residential houses in Beijing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Jie; Tian, Zhiyong; Fan, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    A pilot project of the solar water heating system combined with a low temperature air source heat pump (ASHP) unit was established in 2014 in a detached residential house in the rural region of Beijing, in order to investigate the system application prospect for single family houses via system op...... the integrated solar space heating for reducing carbon emission, it is suggested that the Beijing municipal government should offer some financial subsidy to compensate the equivalent solar heat price per kWh....... pilot household on the current electricity price level of 0.5 RMB/kWh, comparing with the reference condition of the fully ASHP space heating. It is further found that the equivalent solar heat price per kWh is too high under the current solar market cost price and collector technology. To put forward...

  19. Developing networks between residential aged care facilities as a result of engagement in a falls prevention project: an action research study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lea, Emma; Andrews, Sharon; Haines, Terry; Nitz, Jennifer; Haralambous, Betty; Moore, Kirsten; Hill, Keith; Robinson, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Residential aged care facility (RACF) staff often operate in isolation. Research is lacking on networking between facilities. To explore outcomes associated with network formation between two RACFs as part of an action research approach to reducing falls. Action research approach with qualitative data collected. Twelve RACF staff from two facilities in regional Tasmania, Australia, formed a falls prevention action research group. Thematic analysis was undertaken of 22 audio-recorded fortnightly group meetings. This was the first opportunity for participants to meet colleagues from another facility in a professional context. The formation of an inter-facility network enabled the sharing of ideas and systems related to evidence-based falls prevention activities and other issues and galvanised a collaborative focus for action. An action research process can be used to create an inter-facility network. Such networks can decrease staff isolation and facilitate best resident care.

  20. A Measure of the Parent-Team Alliance in Youth Residential Psychiatry: The Revised Short Working Alliance Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamers, Audri; Delsing, Marc J M H; van Widenfelt, Brigit M; Vermeiren, Robert R J M

    The therapeutic alliance between multidisciplinary teams and parents within youth (semi) residential psychiatry is essential for the treatment process and forms a promising process variable for Routine Outcome Monitoring (ROM). No short evaluative instrument, however, is currently available to assess parent-team alliance. In this study, the Working Alliance Inventory-Short Version (WAV-12), a widely used alliance questionnaire, was adjusted to assess parent-team alliance from both a parent and team perspective within a youth residential setting. Psychometric properties, including factor structure and validity of the subscales, were explored. A sample of youth with mainly complex developmental disorders admitted to 11 inpatient and day patient units of a child and adolescent psychiatric institute participated in this study. The case manager involved with the youth and the primary caregiver of 87 youth completed the revised WAV-12 (WAV-12R). The team version of the WAV-12R showed a good fit to the original conceptualized model, and distinguished Bond, Task and Goal scales. For the parents' version an adjusted model with Insight, Bond and combined Task/Goal scales had the best fit. The reliability and validity of the scales were shown to be good. This paper presents preliminary evidence that the parent and treatment team versions of the WAV-12R are psychometrically sound for assessing parent-team alliance within youth (semi) residential psychiatry in the Netherlands. The team and parents' versions of the WAV-12R are recommended instruments to complement outcome measures in ROM.

  1. Study on intermediate frequency power supply automatic monitor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Yuntong; Xu Bin

    2007-06-01

    A new design project of the automatic monitor system for the intermediate frequency power supply system by using the communication server is put for- ward and the realizing principle method and the key technique are clarified in detail. This system made use of the conversion function with the series communication server's control, realized the data collecting function by the double machine backup and redundancy. The new network system adopted the photoelectric-insulated-communication connect device and the diagnosis technique, increased the anti-interference ability, the communication adopted the technique by the alarm information sending out in first and circularly repeating, the slowly speed is overcame in the original monitor network system, and strengthened the celerity of the monitor system and the reliability of the alarm report. After the new monitor system running, the result shows that the functions is more perfect than the original monitor system, the usage is more convenient, have the higher and dependable stability, the report of alarm is more quickly, and is convenient for the analysis after the trouble, at the same time, the system still have the strong ability and value to expand. (authors)

  2. Practical Diagnostics for Evaluating Residential Commissioning Metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wray, Craig; Walker, Iain; Siegel, Jeff; Sherman, Max

    2002-06-11

    In this report, we identify and describe 24 practical diagnostics that are ready now to evaluate residential commissioning metrics, and that we expect to include in the commissioning guide. Our discussion in the main body of this report is limited to existing diagnostics in areas of particular concern with significant interactions: envelope and HVAC systems. These areas include insulation quality, windows, airtightness, envelope moisture, fan and duct system airflows, duct leakage, cooling equipment charge, and combustion appliance backdrafting with spillage. Appendix C describes the 83 other diagnostics that we have examined in the course of this project, but that are not ready or are inappropriate for residential commissioning. Combined with Appendix B, Table 1 in the main body of the report summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of all 107 diagnostics. We first describe what residential commissioning is, its characteristic elements, and how one might structure its process. Our intent in this discussion is to formulate and clarify these issues, but is largely preliminary because such a practice does not yet exist. Subsequent sections of the report describe metrics one can use in residential commissioning, along with the consolidated set of 24 practical diagnostics that the building industry can use now to evaluate them. Where possible, we also discuss the accuracy and usability of diagnostics, based on recent laboratory work and field studies by LBNL staff and others in more than 100 houses. These studies concentrate on evaluating diagnostics in the following four areas: the DeltaQ duct leakage test, air-handler airflow tests, supply and return grille airflow tests, and refrigerant charge tests. Appendix A describes those efforts in detail. In addition, where possible, we identify the costs to purchase diagnostic equipment and the amount of time required to conduct the diagnostics. Table 1 summarizes these data. Individual equipment costs for the 24

  3. Fertility expectations and residential mobility in Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ermisch

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is plausible that people take into account anticipated changes in family size in choosing where to live. But estimation of the impact of anticipated events on current transitions in an event history framework is challenging because expectations must be measured in some way and, like indicators of past childbearing, expected future childbearing may be endogenous with respect to housing decisions. Objective: The objective of the study is to estimate how expected changes in family size affect residential movement in Great Britain in a way which addresses these challenges. Methods: We use longitudinal data from a mature 18-wave panel survey, the British Household Panel Survey, which incorporates a direct measure of fertility expectations. The statistical methods allow for the potential endogeneity of expectations in our estimation and testing framework. Results: We produce evidence consistent with the idea that past childbearing mainly affects residential mobility through expectations of future childbearing, not directly through the number of children in the household. But there is heterogeneity in response. In particular, fertility expectations have a much greater effect on mobility among women who face lower costs of mobility, such as private tenants. Conclusions: Our estimates indicate that expecting to have a(nother child in the future increases the probability of moving by about 0.036 on average, relative to an average mobility rate of 0.14 per annum in our sample. Contribution: Our contribution is to incorporate anticipation of future events into an empirical model of residential mobility. We also shed light on how childbearing affects mobility.

  4. Microclimate Patterns of Residential Landscapes Across the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learned, J.; Hall, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    Urban development has altered the physical and biological properties of native ecosystems worldwide. Research on the environmental outcomes of development continues to increase in scope. Climate phenomena, such as the Urban Heat Island (UHI) and Park Cool Island (PCI), are frequently used to illustrate how cities and managed landscapes differ from rural lands. The UHI describes the disparity between urban and rural temperatures, and results from heat retention within the built environment. These effects may be locally mitigated by vegetation (PCI). While the UHI is a useful tool for examining cities on a large scale, the methods are often too coarse to describe what individuals experience. We wondered: What large-scale climate trends are detectable at microclimate levels? Are microclimate patterns within residential landscapes typical, or are they geographically variable? To investigate, we installed sensors to monitor the air temperature within yards (residential landscapes) and native landscapes of 6 US cities from unique climate zones; Los Angeles, Phoenix, Minneapolis, Baltimore, Miami, and Boston. We hypothesized that microclimate trends would be similar among cities, and that microclimate patterns would predominate over large-scale climate trends within residential landscapes, especially when atmospheric mixing is low. Air temperature data collected between Aug. 2012 and July 2014 reveal that residential landscapes experience significantly different temperatures than native landscapes (pre-sunrise). The differences drive cities toward similarity, despite the variability of climate zones. The 6 cities also experience similar patterns of diurnal temperature fluctuations. Daily temperature ranges in yards are significantly greater than in their corresponding native landscapes during cooler months (p microclimates in residential landscapes can create local heat sinks within the built environment that may alleviate UHI effects in some cities. Additionally

  5. THE PULL FACTORS OF INTRA-URBAN RESIDENTIAL MOBILITY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Abstract. The principal objective of this study is to identify the major dimensions of the pull factors of residential mobility in Calabar, Nigeria. The data used in the study were generated from a comprehensive questionnaire survey involving. 869 households in the study area. The Principal Component Analysis (PCA).

  6. Deep Residential Retrofits in East Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudreaux, Philip R [ORNL; Hendrick, Timothy P [ORNL; Christian, Jeffrey E [ORNL; Jackson, Roderick K [ORNL

    2012-04-01

    Executive Summary Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is furthering residential energy retrofit research in the mixed-humid climate of East Tennessee by selecting 10 homes and guiding the homeowners in the energy retrofit process. The homeowners pay for the retrofits, and ORNL advises which retrofits to complete and collects post-retrofit data. This effort is in accordance with the Department of Energy s Building America program research goal of demonstrating market-ready energy retrofit packages that reduce home energy use by 30 50%. Through this research, ORNL researchers hope to understand why homeowners decide to partake in energy retrofits, the payback of home energy retrofits, and which retrofit packages most economically reduce energy use. Homeowner interviews help the researchers understand the homeowners experience. Information gathered during the interviews will aid in extending market penetration of home energy retrofits by helping researchers and the retrofit industry understand what drives homeowners in making positive decisions regarding these retrofits. This report summarizes the selection process, the pre-retrofit condition, the recommended retrofits, the actual cost of the retrofits (when available), and an estimated energy savings of the retrofit package using EnergyGauge . Of the 10 households selected to participate in the study, only five completed the recommended retrofits, three completed at least one but no more than three of the recommended retrofits, and two households did not complete any of the recommended retrofits. In the case of the two homes that did none of the recommended work, the pre-retrofit condition of the homes and the recommended retrofits are reported. The five homes that completed the recommended retrofits are monitored for energy consumption of the whole house, appliances, space conditioning equipment, water heater, and most of the other circuits with miscellaneous electric loads (MELs) and lighting. Thermal comfort is

  7. RESIDENTIAL MORTGAGE IN MODERN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dementiev N. P.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a comparative analysis of residential mortgages in Russia and the United States. The primary ways of mortgage refinancing are outlined. Predominance of the elements of two-level refinancing system of residential mortgage in Russia and the United States is shown. The activity of the Agency for Housing Mortgage Lending (AHML, the basic tool of the Russian government’s mortgage policy, is described in detail. In its objectives and functions the AHML is similar to the American mortgage agencies Ginnie Mae, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. Similarities were identified in the Russian and US residential mortgages in the pre-crisis period (high rates of mortgage growth, favourable economic conjuncture, low interest rates, large increase in house prices, speculative housing demand. During the mortgage crisis, the policies of the Russian and US governments and monetary authorities had also much in common (monetary policy easing, cheap central banks loans, extended facilities of mortgage refinancing on the part of state agencies, mortgage rescue scheme, social mortgage programs. But the scope of mortgage in Russia is enormously narrow as compared to the US mortgage. The most important reason for that - low incomes of the Russian population.

  8. Geiger Muller (GM) detector as online monitor: an experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayan, M.P.; Pawar, V.J.; Krishnakumar, P.; Sureshkumar, M.

    2014-01-01

    Monitoring the inadvertent release of radioactivity into otherwise inactive liquid streams is a common requirement in nuclear industry. In addition to conventional off-line sampling and measurement methods, nuclear facilities usually uses online methods to get real-time detection of activity contents in process cooling water lines and steam condensate lines. Due to its simplicity, ruggedness and cost effectiveness, Geiger Muller counter is obviously the first choice for online application. Though GM based monitors for such online application were in industrial use for a long time, practical data on the response of the detector with respect low level activities in the effluents is scarce in literature. This work was carried out to fill this information gap. The data generated in these experiments may be useful in giving a realistic interpretation of the response of the existing monitors and setting up their alarm limits

  9. Neurobiological correlates of EMDR monitoring - an EEG study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, Marco; Di Lorenzo, Giorgio; Verardo, Anna Rita; Nicolais, Giampaolo; Monaco, Leonardo; Lauretti, Giada; Russo, Rita; Niolu, Cinzia; Ammaniti, Massimo; Fernandez, Isabel; Siracusano, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) is a recognized first-line treatment for psychological trauma. However its neurobiological bases have yet to be fully disclosed. Electroencephalography (EEG) was used to fully monitor neuronal activation throughout EMDR sessions including the autobiographical script. Ten patients with major psychological trauma were investigated during their first EMDR session (T0) and during the last one performed after processing the index trauma (T1). Neuropsychological tests were administered at the same time. Comparisons were performed between EEGs of patients at T0 and T1 and between EEGs of patients and 10 controls who underwent the same EMDR procedure at T0. Connectivity analyses were carried out by lagged phase synchronization. During bilateral ocular stimulation (BS) of EMDR sessions EEG showed a significantly higher activity on the orbito-frontal, prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex in patients at T0 shifting towards left temporo-occipital regions at T1. A similar trend was found for autobiographical script with a higher firing in fronto-temporal limbic regions at T0 moving to right temporo-occipital cortex at T1. The comparisons between patients and controls confirmed the maximal activation in the limbic cortex of patients occurring before trauma processing. Connectivity analysis showed decreased pair-wise interactions between prefrontal and cingulate cortex during BS in patients as compared to controls and between fusiform gyrus and visual cortex during script listening in patients at T1 as compared to T0. These changes correlated significantly with those occurring in neuropsychological tests. The ground-breaking methodology enabled our study to image for the first time the specific activations associated with the therapeutic actions typical of EMDR protocol. The findings suggest that traumatic events are processed at cognitive level following successful EMDR therapy, thus supporting the evidence of distinct

  10. Neurobiological correlates of EMDR monitoring - an EEG study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Pagani

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR is a recognized first-line treatment for psychological trauma. However its neurobiological bases have yet to be fully disclosed. METHODS: Electroencephalography (EEG was used to fully monitor neuronal activation throughout EMDR sessions including the autobiographical script. Ten patients with major psychological trauma were investigated during their first EMDR session (T0 and during the last one performed after processing the index trauma (T1. Neuropsychological tests were administered at the same time. Comparisons were performed between EEGs of patients at T0 and T1 and between EEGs of patients and 10 controls who underwent the same EMDR procedure at T0. Connectivity analyses were carried out by lagged phase synchronization. RESULTS: During bilateral ocular stimulation (BS of EMDR sessions EEG showed a significantly higher activity on the orbito-frontal, prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex in patients at T0 shifting towards left temporo-occipital regions at T1. A similar trend was found for autobiographical script with a higher firing in fronto-temporal limbic regions at T0 moving to right temporo-occipital cortex at T1. The comparisons between patients and controls confirmed the maximal activation in the limbic cortex of patients occurring before trauma processing. Connectivity analysis showed decreased pair-wise interactions between prefrontal and cingulate cortex during BS in patients as compared to controls and between fusiform gyrus and visual cortex during script listening in patients at T1 as compared to T0. These changes correlated significantly with those occurring in neuropsychological tests. CONCLUSIONS: The ground-breaking methodology enabled our study to image for the first time the specific activations associated with the therapeutic actions typical of EMDR protocol. The findings suggest that traumatic events are processed at cognitive level following successful

  11. Neurobiological Correlates of EMDR Monitoring – An EEG Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pagani, Marco; Di Lorenzo, Giorgio; Verardo, Anna Rita; Nicolais, Giampaolo; Monaco, Leonardo; Lauretti, Giada; Russo, Rita; Niolu, Cinzia; Ammaniti, Massimo; Fernandez, Isabel; Siracusano, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    Background Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) is a recognized first-line treatment for psychological trauma. However its neurobiological bases have yet to be fully disclosed. Methods Electroencephalography (EEG) was used to fully monitor neuronal activation throughout EMDR sessions including the autobiographical script. Ten patients with major psychological trauma were investigated during their first EMDR session (T0) and during the last one performed after processing the index trauma (T1). Neuropsychological tests were administered at the same time. Comparisons were performed between EEGs of patients at T0 and T1 and between EEGs of patients and 10 controls who underwent the same EMDR procedure at T0. Connectivity analyses were carried out by lagged phase synchronization. Results During bilateral ocular stimulation (BS) of EMDR sessions EEG showed a significantly higher activity on the orbito-frontal, prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortex in patients at T0 shifting towards left temporo-occipital regions at T1. A similar trend was found for autobiographical script with a higher firing in fronto-temporal limbic regions at T0 moving to right temporo-occipital cortex at T1. The comparisons between patients and controls confirmed the maximal activation in the limbic cortex of patients occurring before trauma processing. Connectivity analysis showed decreased pair-wise interactions between prefrontal and cingulate cortex during BS in patients as compared to controls and between fusiform gyrus and visual cortex during script listening in patients at T1 as compared to T0. These changes correlated significantly with those occurring in neuropsychological tests. Conclusions The ground-breaking methodology enabled our study to image for the first time the specific activations associated with the therapeutic actions typical of EMDR protocol. The findings suggest that traumatic events are processed at cognitive level following successful EMDR therapy, thus

  12. A Study on Drug Safety Monitoring Program in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, A.; Patel, Isha; Sanyal, Sudeepa; Balkrishnan, R.; Mohanta, G. P.

    2014-01-01

    Pharmacovigilance is useful in assuring the safety of medicines and protecting the consumers from their harmful effects. A number of single drugs as well as fixed dose combinations have been banned from manufacturing, marketing and distribution in India. An important issue about the availability of banned drugs over the counter in India is that sufficient adverse drug reactions data about these drugs have not been reported. The most common categories of drugs withdrawn in the last decade were nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (28%), antidiabetics (14.28%), antiobesity (14.28%), antihistamines (14.28%), gastroprokinetic drugs (7.14%), breast cancer and infertility drugs (7.14%), irritable bowel syndrome and constipation drugs (7.14%) and antibiotics (7.14%). Drug withdrawals from market were made mainly due to safety issues involving cardiovascular events (57.14%) and liver damage (14.28%). Majority of drugs have been banned since 3-5 years in other countries but are still available for sale in India. The present study compares the drug safety monitoring systems in the developed countries such as the USA and UK and provides implications for developing a system that can ensure the safety and efficacy of drugs in India. Absence of a gold standard for a drug safety surveillance system, variations in culture and clinical practice across countries makes it difficult for India to completely adopt another country's practices. There should be a multidisciplinary approach towards drug safety that should be implemented throughout the entire duration spanning from drug discovery to usage by consumers. PMID:25425751

  13. Supporting Residential Student Organization Advisers: A 21st Century Adviser Training and Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapiro, Cory Adam

    2012-01-01

    The purpose for this doctoral action research study was to discover if and how an updated training and development curriculum benefited residential student organization advisers at Arizona State University (ASU). Eleven advisers of residential student organizations completed a pilot training and development program and agreed to participate in a…

  14. What Do They Do at Home? The Literacies of Children Living in Residential Care in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jennifer

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents an ethnographic study of the out of school literacy practices of children living in residential care in Malaysia. Although residential homes generate much publicity, especially during the festive seasons, not much is known about the children living within the confines of these homes. Even more lacking is research on their…

  15. Homesick: residential and care patterns in patients with severe mental illness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Mooij, Liselotte D.; Kikkert, Martijn; Lommerse, Nick M.; Theunissen, Jan; de Koning, Mariken B.; de Haan, Lieuwe; Beekman, Aartjan T. F.; Duurkoop, Pim W. R. A.; Dekker, Jack J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Changes in the residential and care settings of patients with severe mental illness (SMI) are a concern because of the large variety of possible negative consequences. This study describes patterns of changes in the residential and care settings of SMI patients and explores associations between

  16. The Trajectory of Change for Children and Youth in Residential Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noftle, J. W.; Cook, S.; Leschied, A.; St. Pierre, J.; Stewart, S. L.; Johnson, A. M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the symptom response trajectories for 225 children and youth throughout a period of residential treatment. With the 10-item "Conners' Global Index" ("CGI") as the primary outcome measure, assessments were completed on a bi-weekly basis during the average 4 month stay within the youth's residential treatment. Clients…

  17. Refining the COPES to Measure Social Climate in Therapeutic Residential Youth Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leipoldt, Jonathan David; Kayed, Nanna; Harder, A.T.; Grietens, Hans; Rimehaug, Tormod

    Background Previous studies have shown that social climate in therapeutic residential youth care (TRC) is important to the welfare of residents, staff, and assessing treatment outcomes. The most influential theory on social climate in residential settings is the theory of Moos. The measurement of

  18. Improving management and effectiveness of home blood pressure monitoring: a qualitative UK primary care study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Sabrina; Greenfield, Sheila M; Nouwen, Arie; McManus, Richard J

    2015-11-01

    Self-monitoring blood pressure (SMBP) is becoming an increasingly prevalent practice in UK primary care, yet there remains little conceptual understanding of why patients with hypertension engage in self-monitoring. To identify psychological factors or processes prompting the decision to self-monitor blood pressure. A qualitative study of patients previously participating in a survey study about SMBP from four general practices in the West Midlands. Taped and transcribed in-depth interviews with 16 patients (6 currently monitoring, 2 used to self-monitor, and 8 had never self-monitored). Thematic analysis was undertaken. Three main themes emerged: 'self' and 'living with hypertension' described the emotional element of living with an asymptomatic condition; 'self-monitoring behaviour and medication' described overall views about self-monitoring, current practice, reasons for monitoring, and the impact on medication adherence; and 'the GP-patient transaction' described the power relations affecting decisions to self-monitor. Self-monitoring was performed by some as a protective tool against the fears of a silent but serious condition, whereas others self-monitor simply out of curiosity. People who self-monitored tended not to discuss this with their nurse or GP, partly due to perceiving minimal or no interest from their clinician about home monitoring, and partly due to fear of being prescribed additional medication. The decision to self-monitor appeared often to be an individual choice with no schedule or systems to integrate it with other medical care. Better recognition by clinicians that patients are self-monitoring, perhaps utilising the results in shared decision-making, might help integrate it into daily practice. © British Journal of General Practice 2015.

  19. Integrated Urban System and Energy Consumption Model: Residential Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Papa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a segment of research conducted within the project PON 04a2_E Smart Energy Master for the energetic government of the territory conducted by the Department of Civil, Architectural and Environment Engineering, University of Naples "Federico II".  In particular, this article is part of the study carried out for the definition of the comprehension/interpretation model that correlates buildings, city’s activities and users’ behaviour in order to promote energy savings. In detail, this segment of the research wants to define the residential variables to be used in the model. For this purpose a knowledge framework at international level has been defined, to estimate the energy requirements of residential buildings and the identification of a set of parameters, whose variation has a significant influence on the energy consumption of residential buildings.

  20. Potential energy savings by using direct current for residential applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diaz, Enrique Rodriguez; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the potential energy savings by implementing dc distribution systems for residential applications. In general, it is commonly accepted that the use of dc voltage improves the efficiency of the distribution, due to a decrease in the conduction losses and an efficiency...... improvement in the power converter units. However, for residential applications, the efficiency is not always improved. A grid connected residential microgrid, with renewable energy sources (RES), energy storage systems (ESS) and local loads, is presented in this work. The microgrid has been modelled...... loads. However, for isolated microgrids, the use of dc voltage has the potential to bring a significant efficiency improvement. Nevertheless the potential for cost reduction in all scenarios is very promising....

  1. Hypertension in a residential home for the elderly in Penang, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ong, H T; Oung, L S; Ong, L M; Tan, K P S

    2010-03-01

    A study of residents at the Silver Jubilee Home for the Aged was conducted to determine the prevalence, awareness and control of hypertension in this elderly community in Penang, Malaysia. Prevalence of hypertension was 36%, with 81% of patients being initially aware of this diagnosis. This relatively low hypertension prevalence rate may be because residents have a fairly sheltered lifestyle with less social stress and a daily routine that incorporates adequate exercise. Similarly, the high hypertension awareness rate compared to reported figures in the community may be because residents are more regularly monitored by the attending medical care-givers. At the beginning of the study, only 34% of hypertensive patients were well controlled with a blood pressure less than 140/90 mm Hg. This proportion rose to 53% at the end of study period. Compliance is better at a residential home because medication is served by their care-givers and cost is absorbed in this charitable organization. Our study suggests that hypertension awareness and control can be reasonable for the elderly in a residential home.

  2. The Impact of Legislative Factor in the Identity of Modern Residential Urban in Iraq

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kadhim Faris Dhumad

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The Urban Residential has developed and changed in different periods of time with successive and gradual shifts, as it cast a shadow over the characterization of modern urbanism in Iraq. The semi-total absence of the governing legislation of urbanization as well as the weakness of the State's role of supervisory in addition to neglecting urban heritage contributed in offering a strange environment in relation to its traditional identity. That was increased by the pressure of the using urban environment as a result of the increasing of population as well as the growth of people’s needs. The research aims to provide an objective view for a mechanism of the application of urban legislation to monitor the implementation of the business relating to the urban structure in general and specifically the urban residential areas in order to preserve the traditional identity of the modern Iraqi city. For the purpose of treating the problem of research and to achieve its goals, the research supposes that the legislative system is based on a pyramid arrangement in its vocabulary, which is flexible in its application, and are drawn from objective reality, it can produce urban residential with local identity. The elements of the practical influential process of the legislative factor identified by the planning legislation, laws, regulations, controls and limitations, supervision and oversight. And then draw theoretical indicators which affect the urban environment, namely: proportionately, essence and appearance, construction and the sky line, the scale and size, bearings, cover-up, opening-up and containment through the study of a number of legislative irregularities in neighborhoods and residential areas that produced these indicators. For applying and testing these indicators practically, two selective neighborhoods in Al Rabeea'a District in Baghdad has been chosen and with a précised field survey the search findings are: the poverty of Urban elements

  3. Studies on Monitoring and Tracking Genetic Resources: An Executive Summary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garrity, GM; Thompson, LM; Ussery, David

    2009-01-01

    such resources are located and to mutually agreed terms regarding the sharing of benefits that could be derived from such access. One issue of particular concern for pro-vider countries is how to monitor and track genetic resources once they have left the provider country and enter into use in a variety of forms...

  4. Monitoring Requirements Coverage Using Reconstructed Views : An Industrial Case Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lormans, M.; Gross, H.; Van Deursen, A.; Van Solingen, R.; Stehouwer, A.

    2006-01-01

    Requirements views, such as coverage and status views, are an important asset for monitoring and managing software development. We have developed a method that automates the process for reconstructing these views, and built a tool, ReqAnalyst, to support this method. In this paper, we investigate to

  5. Solar Energy Systems for Ohioan Residential Homeowners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckett, Rickey D.

    Dwindling nonrenewable energy resources and rising energy costs have forced the United States to develop alternative renewable energy sources. The United States' solar energy industry has seen an upsurge in recent years, and photovoltaic holds considerable promise as a renewable energy technology. The purpose of this case study was to explore homeowner's awareness of the benefits of solar energy. Disruptive-innovation theory was used to explore marketing strategies for conveying information to homeowners about access to new solar energy products and services. Twenty residential homeowners were interviewed face-to-face to explore (a) perceived benefits of solar energy in their county in Ohio, and (b) perceptions on the rationale behind the marketing strategy of solar energy systems sold for residential use. The study findings used inductive analyses and coding interpretation to explore the participants' responses that revealed 3 themes: the existence of environmental benefits for using solar energy systems, the expensive cost of equipment associated with government incentives, and the lack of marketing information that is available for consumer use. The implications for positive social change include the potential to enable corporate leaders, small business owners, and entrepreneurs to develop marketing strategies for renewable energy systems. These strategies may promote use of solar energy systems as a clean, renewable, and affordable alternative electricity energy source for the 21st century.

  6. RETHINKING RESIDENTIAL MOBILITY: AN INTERDISCIPLINARY INTERPRETATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderick J. Lawrence

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1950s academics and professionals have proposed a number of disciplinary and sector based interpretations of why, when and where households move or choose to stay in the same housing unit at different periods of the life cycle and especially the family cycle. This article challenges studies that only analyse one set of factors. The article stems from a synthesis of 20 years of research by the author who  has an interdisciplinary training in the broad field of people-environment relations. First, it reviews some key concepts related to human ecology, including housing, culture, identity and cultivation. Then it will consider how these concepts can be applied to interpret residential mobility using an interdisciplinary approach. An empirical case study of residential mobility in Geneva, Switzerland is presented in order to show how this approach can help improve our understanding of the motives people have regarding the wish to stay in their residence or to move elsewhere.

  7. Family Structure, Residential Mobility, and Environmental Inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downey, Liam; Crowder, Kyle; Kemp, Robert J

    2017-04-01

    This study combines micro-level data on families with children from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics with neighborhood-level industrial hazard data from the Environmental Protection Agency and neighborhood-level U.S. census data to examine both the association between family structure and residential proximity to neighborhood pollution and the micro-level, residential mobility processes that contribute to differential pollution proximity across family types. Results indicate the existence of significant family structure differences in household proximity to industrial pollution in U.S. metropolitan areas between 1990 and 1999, with single-mother and single-father families experiencing neighborhood pollution levels that are on average 46% and 26% greater, respectively, than those experienced by two-parent families. Moreover, the pollution gap between single-mother and two-parent families persists with controls for household and neighborhood socioeconomic, sociodemographic, and race/ethnic characteristics. Examination of underlying migration patterns reveals that single-mother, single-father, and two-parent families are equally likely to move in response to pollution. However, mobile single-parent families move into neighborhoods with significantly higher pollution levels than do mobile two-parent families. Thus, family structure differences in pollution proximity are maintained more by these destination neighborhood differences than by family structure variations in the likelihood of moving out of polluted neighborhoods.

  8. Energy and IAQ Implications of Residential Ventilation Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, William [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluates the energy, humidity and indoor air quality (IAQ) implications of residential ventilation cooling in all U.S. IECC climate zones. A computer modeling approach was adopted, using an advanced residential building simulation tool with airflow, energy and humidity models. An economizer (large supply fan) was simulated to provide ventilation cooling while outdoor air temperatures were lower than indoor air temperatures (typically at night). The simulations were performed for a full year using one-minute time steps to allow for scheduling of ventilation systems and to account for interactions between ventilation and heating/cooling systems.

  9. Residential greenness and adiposity: Findings from the UK Biobank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Chinmoy

    2017-09-01

    With the rapid urbanization and prevailing obesity pandemic, the role of residential green exposures in obesity prevention has gained renewed focus. The study investigated the effects of residential green exposures on adiposity using a large and diverse population sample drawn from the UK Biobank. This was a population based cross-sectional study of 333,183 participants aged 38-73years with individual-level data on residential greenness and built environment exposures. Residential greenness was assessed through 0.50-metre resolution normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) derived from spectral reflectance measurements in remotely sensed colour infrared data and measured around geocoded participants' dwelling. A series of continuous and binary outcome models examined the associations between residential greenness and markers of adiposity, expressed as body-mass index (BMI) in kg/m 2 , waist circumference (WC) in cm, whole body fat (WBF) in kg and obesity (BMI≥30kg/m 2 ) after adjusting for other activity-influencing built environment and individual-level confounders. Sensitivity analyses involved studying effect modification by gender, age, urbanicity and SES as well as examining relationships between residential greenness and active travel behaviour. Residential greenness was independently and consistently associated with lower adiposity, the association being robust to adjustments. An interquartile increment in NDVI greenness was associated with lower BMI (β BMI =-0.123kg/m 2 , 95% CI: -0.14, -0.10kg/m 2 ), WC (β WC =-0.551cm, 95% CI: -0.61, -0.50cm), and WBF (β WBF =-0.138kg, 95% CI: -0.18, -0.10kg) as well as a reduced relative risk of obesity (RR=0.968, 95% CI: 0.96, 0.98). Residential greenness was beneficially related with active travel, being associated with higher odds of using active mode for non-work travel (OR=1.093, 95% CI: 1.08, 1.11) as well as doing >30min walking (OR=1.039, 95% CI: 1.03, 1.05). Residing in greener areas was associated

  10. Space-time clusters of breast cancer using residential histories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordsborg, Rikke Baastrup; Meliker, Jaymie R; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær

    2014-01-01

    cancer existed in space and time in Denmark, using 33 years of residential histories. METHODS: We conducted a population-based case-control study of 3138 female cases from the Danish Cancer Registry, diagnosed with breast cancer in 2003 and two independent control groups of 3138 women each, randomly...... selected from the Civil Registration System. Residential addresses of cases and controls from 1971 to 2003 were collected from the Civil Registration System and geo-coded. Q-statistics were used to identify space-time clusters of breast cancer. All analyses were carried out with both control groups...

  11. Swimming pools and intra-city climates: Influences on residential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    While determinants such as household income, regional climate, water price, property size and household occupancy have been comprehensively studied and modelled, other determinants such as swimming pools and intra-city climates have not. This study examines residential water consumption in the City of Cape Town ...

  12. Residential care : Dutch and Italian residents of residential care facilities compared

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Heer-Wunderink, Charlotte; Caro-Nienhuis, Annemarie D.; Sytema, Sjoerd; Wiersma, Durk

    2008-01-01

    Aims - Characteristics of patients living in residential care facilities and the availability of mental hospital- and residential beds in Italy and The Netherlands were compared to assess whether differences in the process of deinstitutionalisation have influenced the composition of their

  13. Long-term cost reduction of routine medications following a residential programme combining physical activity and nutrition in the treatment of type 2 diabetes: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanhers, Charlotte; Walther, Guillaume; Chapier, Robert; Lesourd, Bruno; Naughton, Geraldine; Pereira, Bruno; Duclos, Martine; Vinet, Agnès; Obert, Philippe; Courteix, Daniel; Dutheil, Frédéric

    2017-04-16

    To demonstrate that lifestyle modifications will reduce the cost of routine medications in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D), through a mechanism involving glycaemic control. A within-trial cost-medication analysis with a 1-year time horizon. Controlled environment within the spa resort of Chatel-Guyon, France. Twenty-nine participants (aged 50-70 years) with T2D. A 1-year follow-up intervention, beginning with a 3-week residential programme combining high exercise volume (15-20 hours/week), restrictive diet (-500 kcal/day) and education. Participants continued their routine medication, independently managed by their general practitioner. Number of medications, number of pills, cost of medications and health-related outcomes. Twenty-six participants completed the 1-year intervention. At 1 year, 14 patients out of 26 (54%) stopped/decreased their medications whereas only 5 (19%) increased or introduced new drugs (χ 2 =6.3, p=0.02). The number of pills per day decreased by 1.3±0.3 at 12 months (pDiabetics patients with HbA1c >6.5% in the highest (last) quartile doubled their routine medication costs (66% vs 33%, p=0.037). Individuals with T2D reduced routine medication costs following a long-term lifestyle intervention that started with a 3-week residential programme. Combining high exercise volume, restrictive diet and education effectively supported the health of T2D. The main factor explaining reduced medication costs was better glycaemic control, independent of weight changes. Despite limitations precluding generalisability, cost-effective results of reduced medication should contribute to the evidence base required to promote lifestyle interventions for individuals with T2D. NCT00917917; Post-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  14. Qualitative exploration of relationships between peers in residential addiction treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neale, Joanne; Tompkins, Charlotte N E; Strang, John

    2018-01-01

    Relationships between peers are often considered central to the therapeutic process, yet there is relatively little empirical research either on the nature of peer-to-peer relationships within residential treatment or on how those relationships generate positive behaviour change or facilitate recovery. In this paper, we explore relationships between peers in residential addiction treatment, drawing upon the concept of social capital to frame our analyses. Our study was undertaken during 2015 and 2016 in two English residential treatment services using the same therapeutic community-informed model of treatment. We conducted 22 in-depth interviews with 13 current and 9 former service residents. All interviews were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, coded in MAXQDA, and analysed using Iterative Categorisation. Residents reported difficult relationship histories and limited social networks on entry into treatment. Once in treatment, few residents described bonding with their peers on the basis of shared experiences and lifestyles. Instead, interpersonal differences polarised residents in ways that undermined their social capital further. Some senior peers who had been in residential treatment longer acted as positive role models, but many modelled negative behaviours that undermined others' commitment to treatment. Relationships between peers could generate feelings of comfort and connectedness, and friendships developed when residents found things in common with each other. However, residents more often reported isolation, loneliness, wariness, bullying, manipulation, intimidation, social distancing, tensions and conflict. Overall, relationships between peers within residential treatment seemed to generate some positive but more negative social capital; undermining the notion of the community as a method of positive behaviour change. With the caveat that our data have limitations and further research is needed, we suggest that residential treatment providers should

  15. Residential fuel choice in the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.D.; Englin, J.E.; Harkreader, S.A.

    1989-02-01

    In 1983, the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) issued Model Conservation Standards (MCS) designed to improve the efficiency of electrically heated buildings. Since then, the standards have been adopted by numerous local governments and utilities. The Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) has played an active role in marketing residential energy efficiency improvements through the Super Good Cents Program (SGCP) and encouraging the adoption and implementation of the MCS as local codes through the Early Adopter Program (EAP). Since the inception of the MCS, however, questions have arisen about the effect of the code and programs on the selection of heating fuels for new homes. Recently, Bonneville has proposed a gradual reduction in the incentive levels under these two programs prior to 1995 based on several assumptions about the market for MCS homes: builder costs will decline as builders gain experience building them; buyers will seek out MCS homes as their appreciation for their lower energy costs and greater comfort increases; and the resale market will increasingly reflect the greater quality of MCS homes. The growing availability of data from several jurisdictions where the MCS have been implemented has recently made it possible to begin assessing the effect of the MCS programs on residential fuel choice and evaluating assumptions underlying the programs and Bonneville's plans to revise them. This study is the first such assessment conducted for Bonneville.

  16. Residential carbon monoxide poisoning from motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Neil B

    2011-01-01

    Although morbidity and mortality from accidental carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning are high in the United States, identification of common but poorly recognized sources should help prevention efforts. The study aimed to describe CO poisoning of home occupants due to a vehicle left running in an attached garage. News stories reporting incidents of US CO poisoning were collected daily from March 2007 to September 2009 via a news.Google.com search and data extracted. Patients were individuals reported in the media to have been poisoned with CO in their home by a vehicle running in the attached garage. Main outcome measures were frequency of occurrence, geographic distribution, patient demographics, and mortality. Of 837 CO poisoning incidents reported in US news media over 2 and a half years, 59 (8%) were the result of a vehicle left running in the garage. The elderly were disproportionately affected, with incidents most common in states with larger elderly populations and 29% of cases with age specified occurring in individuals older than 80 years. Among those older than 80 years, 15 of 17 were found dead at the scene. Residential CO poisoning from a vehicle running in the garage is common, disproportionately affects the elderly, has a high mortality rate, and should be preventable with a residential CO alarm. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Sensitivity Studies with the SPS Rest Gas Profile Monitor

    CERN Document Server

    Ferioli, G; Koopman, J; Sillanoli, M

    2001-01-01

    During the SPS run in the year 2000 further test measurements were performed with the rest gas monitor. First, profiles of single circulating proton bunches were measured and the bunch charge progressively reduced, in order to determine the smallest bunch intensity which can be scanned under the present operating conditions. The image detector in this case was a CMOS camera. Using a multi-anode strip photo-multiplier with fast read-out electronics, the possibility to record profiles on a single beam passage and on consecutive turns was also investigated. This paper presents the results of these tests and discusses the expected improvements for the operation in 2001. Moreover, the issue of micro channel plate ageing effects was tackled and a calibration system based on electron emission from a heating wire is proposed. The gained experience will be used for the specification of a new monitor with optimised design, to be operated both in the SPS and in the LHC.

  18. Pilot Variability Study for Federal Aviation Administration Health and Usage Monitoring Mock Certification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    ARL-TR-6922 ● SEP 2015 US Army Research Laboratory Pilot Variability Study for Federal Aviation Administration Health and Usage ...Laboratory Pilot Variability Study for Federal Aviation Administration Health and Usage Monitoring Mock Certification by Natasha C Bradley...October 2009–April 2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Pilot Variability Study for Federal Aviation Administration Health and Usage Monitoring Mock Certification

  19. Study on online monitoring for BESIII DAQ system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yi Zili; Chen Xuan; Ma Si; Ji Xiaolu; Gu Minghao; Li Fei; Zhu Kejun

    2014-01-01

    The online monitoring system, is responsible for real-time analysis on state parameters and data histograms of the DAQ system for high-energy physics experiments like BESIII, and diagnosing exceptions or errors. It can report exceptions and errors in DAQ to the on-shift officer and other staffs by flexible means (like alarm, e-mail, web page) during data taking. The system includes four subsystems: Data taking subsystem, data analysis subsystem, results display subsystem and configuration subsystem. (authors)

  20. Leak detection, monitoring, and mitigation technology trade study update

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    HERTZEL, J.S.

    1998-01-01

    This document is a revision and update to the initial report that describes various leak detection, monitoring, and mitigation (LDMM) technologies that can be used to support the retrieval of waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) at the Hanford Site. This revision focuses on the improvements in the technical performance of previously identified and useful technologies, and it introduces new technologies that might prove to be useful

  1. Leak detection, monitoring, and mitigation technology trade study update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HERTZEL, J.S.

    1998-11-10

    This document is a revision and update to the initial report that describes various leak detection, monitoring, and mitigation (LDMM) technologies that can be used to support the retrieval of waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) at the Hanford Site. This revision focuses on the improvements in the technical performance of previously identified and useful technologies, and it introduces new technologies that might prove to be useful.

  2. Leak Detection by Acoustic Emission Monitoring. Phase 1. Feasibility Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-05-26

    ino ,nfv~tO $.dem"uradfqtn ~d titati raye te Ofec t colIH~ron ou ,efeaonnIdn MIi9qtoMIfrrrcn Mb~8 to". WaI i.ngton HtadQam9 a fttt rcan. Directorae or...f.,ORESS(ES) 10. SPONSORING iMONITORING Armstrong Laboratory Environics Directorate AEC EOTNME 139 Bar ~ies Drive. Suite 2 Tyndall AFB FL 32403-5323

  3. Design studies on the RHIC position monitor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shea, T.

    1992-09-01

    The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory will consist of two superconducting storage rings 3.8 km in circumference sharing one tunnel in a side by side configuration. After injection from the existing AGS, the collider will accelerate and store a range of ion species extending from protons through gold to energies of 250 GeV for protons and 100 GeV/nucleon for fully stripped gold ions. Storage times should exceed 10 hours. As in most modem colliders the RHIC beam position monitor system is the most extensive beam diagnostic in terms of both cost and channel multiplicity. The final system will consist of approximately 500 position monitors with over 600 measurement planes of electronics. Development of this system began early so that the monitors would be available for installation into the magnet cryostats. The following document summarizes some of the efforts undertaken during the design phase of this system. Because much of this work is still in progress, the document is necessarily incomplete and some details may not reflect the final system configuration

  4. Studies on radioactivity monitoring proceedure for marine organisms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyanagi, Taku; Hirano, Shigeki

    1978-01-01

    Suitability of several species of mollusca and seaweeds as indicator organisms for radioactivity monitoring of marine environment was examined by radioisotope tracer experiments or stable elements analyses from the standpoints of the affinities for radionuclides, the sampling procedures, and the distribution of radioactive and stable elements in the body of these organisms. Extremely high concentration factor of 54 Mn was shown by kidney of scallop suggesting the suitability for the efficient monitoring of the nuclide though the contribution of kidney to the weight of scallop was very small. Higher concentration of 54 Mn in midgut gland rather than kidney was observed in the case of other species of shellfishes but distribution of the nuclide among organs or tissues of the organisms varied during the period of intake and excretion. Ununiform distribution of radioactive and stable elements among the species of seaweeds and in the body of seaweeds observed by the tracer experiments and stable element analyses suggested the necessity of careful selection of the samples for monitoring of these nuclides. From the results of tracer experiments carried out in order to elucidate the relation between existing state of radionuclides in seawater and uptake by marine organisms, it was supposed that the complexed forms with inorganic or organic ligands in seawater were predominant species of radioactive cerium in seawater. (author)

  5. A statistical method to investigate national energy consumption in the residential building sector of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shuqin; Li, Nianping; Guan, Jun; Xie, Yanqun; Sun, Fengmei; Ni, Ji [Civil Engineering College, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan 410082 (China)

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this research is to found a national statistical system of energy consumption in the residential building sector of China, so as to look into the actuality of residential energy consumption, and to provide data support for building energy efficiency work in China. The frame of a national statistical system of residential energy consumption is presented in this paper, according to current status of the climate, social and historic conditions, and energy consumption characteristics in the five architecture climate divisions in China. The statistical index system of residential energy consumption is constituted which refers to housing unit characteristics, household characteristics, possession and utilization of energy consuming equipment, and residential energy consumption quantities. This index system suits for all the different utilization structures of residential energy consumption in different architecture climate divisions. On this base, a complete set of statistical reports is worked out to measure the energy consumption of cities, provinces and the country stage by stage. Finally the statistical method above is applied to measure residential energy consumption by case studies, in order to validate the feasibility of this method. The research in this paper covers the first step of the elaboration of the statistical method to investigate energy consumption in China, and more work will be done in future to further impel national statistics of residential energy consumption. (author)

  6. Residential Consumer-Centric Demand-Side Management Based on Energy Disaggregation-Piloting Constrained Swarm Intelligence: Towards Edge Computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Hsiu; Hu, Yu-Chen

    2018-04-27

    The emergence of smart Internet of Things (IoT) devices has highly favored the realization of smart homes in a down-stream sector of a smart grid. The underlying objective of Demand Response (DR) schemes is to actively engage customers to modify their energy consumption on domestic appliances in response to pricing signals. Domestic appliance scheduling is widely accepted as an effective mechanism to manage domestic energy consumption intelligently. Besides, to residential customers for DR implementation, maintaining a balance between energy consumption cost and users’ comfort satisfaction is a challenge. Hence, in this paper, a constrained Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)-based residential consumer-centric load-scheduling method is proposed. The method can be further featured with edge computing. In contrast with cloud computing, edge computing—a method of optimizing cloud computing technologies by driving computing capabilities at the IoT edge of the Internet as one of the emerging trends in engineering technology—addresses bandwidth-intensive contents and latency-sensitive applications required among sensors and central data centers through data analytics at or near the source of data. A non-intrusive load-monitoring technique proposed previously is utilized to automatic determination of physical characteristics of power-intensive home appliances from users’ life patterns. The swarm intelligence, constrained PSO, is used to minimize the energy consumption cost while considering users’ comfort satisfaction for DR implementation. The residential consumer-centric load-scheduling method proposed in this paper is evaluated under real-time pricing with inclining block rates and is demonstrated in a case study. The experimentation reported in this paper shows the proposed residential consumer-centric load-scheduling method can re-shape loads by home appliances in response to DR signals. Moreover, a phenomenal reduction in peak power consumption is achieved

  7. Effect of a Residential Integrated Yoga Program on Blood Glucose Levels, Physiological Variables, and Anti-Diabetic Medication Score of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus: A Retrospective Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amit Singh

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM is a highly prevalent disease characterized by chronic hyperglycemia. Yoga is a form of mind-body intervention shown to have a positive impact on several health conditions in both healthy and diseased patients. The present study is intended to assess the effects of the Residential Integrated Yoga Program (RIYP on blood glucose levels in patients with T2DM. Material and Methods: Data of 598 (186 females T2DM patients from a holistic health center in Bengaluru, India, who attended a 15-day RIYP between January 2013 and December 2015 was obtained retrospectively. Average age of the participants was 56.45 ± 11.02 years. All subjects underwent a 15-day RIYP which involved yoga-based lifestyle changes with components of regulated sleep, balanced diet, asanas, pranayama, relaxation techniques, meditations, yogic cleaning procedures, and tuning to the nature. Fasting and post-prandial blood sugar, medication score, symptom score, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, pulse rate, and respiratory rate were assessed before and after intervention. Result: There was a significant decrease in fasting (p < 0.001 and post-prandial blood sugar levels (p < 0.001 along with a significant reduction in medication and symptom scores after 15 days of RIYP compared to baseline. Conclusion: The present study indicates that 2 weeks of a yoga-based residential program improves blood glucose levels, blood pressure, and medication score in patients with T2DM. However, further randomized controlled studies need to be performed in order to confirm the present findings.

  8. Reflection in Learning through a Self-monitoring Device: Design Research on EEG Self-Monitoring during a Study Session

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Durall

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The increasing availability of self-monitoring technologies has created opportunities for gaining awareness about one’s own behavior and reflecting on it. In teaching and learning, there is interest in using self-monitoring technologies, but very few studies have explored the possibilities. In this paper, we present a design study that investigates a technology (called Feeler that guides students to follow a specific learning script, monitors changes in their electroencephalogram (EEG while studying, and later provides visualization of the EEG data. The results are two-fold: (1 the hardware/software prototype and (2 the conclusions from the proof-of-concept research conducted with the prototype and six participants. In the research, we collected qualitative data from interviews to identify whether the prototype supported students to develop their reflective skills. The thematic analysis of the interviews showed that the Feeler’s learning script and visualization of the EEG data supported greater levels of reflection by fostering students’ curiosity, puzzlement, and personal inquiry. The proof-of-concept research also provided insights into several factors, such as the value of personal experience, the challenge of assumptions, and the contextualization of the data that trigger reflective thinking. The results validate the design concept and the role of the prototype in supporting awareness of and reflection about students’ mental states when they perform academic tasks.

  9. Chapter 17: Residential Behavior Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, James [Cadmus Group, Waltham, MA (United States); Todd, Annika [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Residential behavior-based (BB) programs use strategies grounded in the behavioral social sciences to influence household energy use. Strategies may include providing households with real-time or delayed feedback about their energy use; supplying energy-efficiency education and tips; rewarding households for reducing their energy use; comparing households to their peers; and establishing games, tournaments, and competitions. BB programs often target multiple energy end uses and encourage energy savings, demand savings, or both. Savings from BB programs are usually a small percentage of energy use, typically less than 5%.

  10. Distance to parks and non-residential destinations influences physical activity of older people, but crime doesn't: a cross-sectional study in a southern European city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Ana Isabel; Pires, Andrea; Carvalho, Marilia Sá; Pina, Maria Fátima

    2015-06-27

    Physical activity (PA) has numerous health benefits, but older adults live mostly sedentary lifestyles. The physical and social neighborhood environment may encourage/dissuade PA. In particular, neighborhood crime may lead to feeling unsafe and affect older adults' willingness to be physically active. Yet, research on this topic is still inconclusive. Older population, probably the age group most influenced by the neighborhood environment, has been understudied, especially in Southern Europe. In this study, we aimed to analyze the association between leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) in older adults and objective crime, alongside other neighborhood characteristics. We obtained data from a population-based cohort from Porto (2005-2008) to assess LTPA. Only adults aged 65 years or more were included (n = 532). A Geographic Information System was used to measure neighborhood characteristics. Neighborhood crime was expressed as crime rates by category (incivilities, criminal offenses with and without violence and traffic crime). Neighborhood characteristics such as socioeconomic deprivation, land gradient, street density, transportation network, distance to parks, non-residential destinations and sport spaces were also included. Generalized Additive Models were fitted to estimate the association between neighborhood characteristics and the participation (being active vs. inactive) and frequency (min/day) of LTPA. Forty-six percent of the men and 61 % of the women did not engage in any kind of LTPA. Among the active participants, men spent on average 50.5 (35.2 Standard Deviation, SD) min/day in LTPA, whereas the average among women was 36.9 (35.1 SD) min/day (p crime was unrelated to the participation in, or frequency of, LTPA. On the other hand, two neighborhood characteristics - distance to the nearest park (β = -0.0262, p = 0.029) and to the nearest non-residential destination (β = -0.0735, p = 0.019) - were associated with time spent on LTPA, but only

  11. Assessment of Residential History Generation Using a Public-Record Database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David C. Wheeler

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In studies of disease with potential environmental risk factors, residential location is often used as a surrogate for unknown environmental exposures or as a basis for assigning environmental exposures. These studies most typically use the residential location at the time of diagnosis due to ease of collection. However, previous residential locations may be more useful for risk analysis because of population mobility and disease latency. When residential histories have not been collected in a study, it may be possible to generate them through public-record databases. In this study, we evaluated the ability of a public-records database from LexisNexis to provide residential histories for subjects in a geographically diverse cohort study. We calculated 11 performance metrics comparing study-collected addresses and two address retrieval services from LexisNexis. We found 77% and 90% match rates for city and state and 72% and 87% detailed address match rates with the basic and enhanced services, respectively. The enhanced LexisNexis service covered 86% of the time at residential addresses recorded in the study. The mean match rate for detailed address matches varied spatially over states. The results suggest that public record databases can be useful for reconstructing residential histories for subjects in epidemiologic studies.

  12. Polysubstance Use and Heroin Relapse among Adolescents following Residential Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branson, Christopher E.; Clemmey, Philip; Harrell, Paul; Subramaniam, Geetha; Fishman, Marc

    2012-01-01

    This study examined posttreatment patterns of polysubstance use and heroin relapse in a sample of 43 adolescents (ages 14-20) entering short-term residential treatment for primary heroin use. At 12-month follow-up, youths that achieved heroin abstinence (N = 19) were significantly less likely than youths that relapsed to heroin (N = 24) to endorse…

  13. Perceived public health effects of occupational and residential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    High levels of environmental contamination can occur from e-waste processing, putting workers and residents in surrounding areas at risk as they are likely to be exposed to complex mixtures of unknown toxicity. This study was aimed at assessing the perceived public health effects of occupational and residential exposures ...

  14. Evaluation of Malaria Infection In Relation to Age and Residential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To investigate malaria infection in relation to age and residential area. Design: A cross sectional study. Setting: Kipsamoite Dispensary of Nandi County in Kenya. Subjects: The demographic details and medical history for all consenting patients was taken by the clinical officer/nurse. Intervention: Clinical ...

  15. Influence of macroeconomic factors on residential property returns in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An attempt was made in this study to bridge the existing gap in the knowledge of the influence exerted by macro-economic factors on residential property returns in Abuja. The backward and forward relationship between property market and the economy has influenced a rise and fall in future of property returns in Abuja ...

  16. Effects of Urban Renewal on Residential Property Values in Two ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to examine Urban Renewal exercise and its effect on residential property values in Oke–Aro and Odopetu neighbourhoods in Akure, A structured questionnaire was administered on selected residents in the two neighbourhoods (Oke–Aro and Odopetu) using the Systematic Random Sampling ...

  17. Emissions Characterization of Residential Wood-Fired Hydronic Heater Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Residential wood-fired hydronic heaters (RWHHs) can negatively impact the local ambient air quality and thus are of major environmental concern in wood burning areas of the U. S. Few studies have been conducted which characterize the emissions from RWHHs. To address the lack of e...

  18. Residential Real Estate Properties in Nigeria: How Fair are the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study investigated the price fixing mechanism for residential housing units in Nigeria, using Benin and Lagos housing markets as examples. The objective was to determine the fairness of the price fixing mechanism in the Nigerian real estate market. To achieve this objective, a total sample of 3,034 real estate market ...

  19. Dental Care Utilization and Satisfaction of Residential University ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: The objective of this study was to provide information on the level of utilization and satisfaction of residential university students with the dental services provided by the dental clinic of a teaching hospital. Volunteers and Material: A stratified sampling technique was used to recruit volunteers from the outpatient clinic of ...

  20. Hepatitis B infection in black children from residential care facilities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. A study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of hepatitis B infection in selected residential child care facilmes in Natal. Design. All residents at three facilities in the Durban and. Pietermaritzburg areas of Kwazulu-Natal were tested for markers of hepatitis B infection as part of a broader health.

  1. Impact of HVOTLs on Residential Property Rental Values in High ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study encouraged the use of buried armour cables instead of overhead power-lines in future and the strict enforcement of ROWs within Lagos metropolis where power-lines already exist, in a bid to abate the effect of power line on property investments. Keywords: HVOTLs, Power-line, Residential, Property, Rental ...

  2. Determinants of Residential Property Value in Nigeria – A Neural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated, by means of artificial intelligent system, the influence of residential real estate property characteristics on property values (prices) in Nigeria, using two major cities (Benin and Lagos) as examples. It revealed a high positive linear correlation between property characteristics and the property market ...

  3. Risk-return performance of residential property investment in Abuja ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The paper examined the performance of residential property market in Abuja with a view to determining the most performed market and the level of associated risk. The study utilized both descriptive (average rate of returns and coefficient of variation) and inferential methods (ANOVA and HSD). The results of descriptive ...

  4. Application of Geographic Information System (GIS) in residential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Application of Geographic Information System (GIS) in residential land capability index mapping of a developing country. A case study of Enugu ... The thematic layers were weighted on a scale of 0%-100% and 0-2 inclusive, using the criteria obtained from field work and laboratory investigation. The thematic layers were ...

  5. MEASUREMENT OF CUSTOMER SATISFACTION AT RESIDENTIAL MARKETING: SAFRANBOLU SAMPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hicran Özgüner Kılıç

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Keeping existing customers has become more important for busineses than the acquisition of a new customer in the context of both the globalization process and the intense competition lived within this period in all business sectors. Therefore, the determination of customer satisfaction has become one of the primary priorities of businesses. Goods and services produceers put emphasis on consumer satisfaction which is the one of the important issues, as well as residential producer individuals and businesses. Although there are numerous studies which dealt with the customer satisfaction issue in the literatüre, the number of studies made in the residential marketing field is so few that this matter has been the biggest motivation to perform this study. In this context, this study has been done to determine the customer satisfaction level reached by residential producers whose number is increasing day after day in Safranbolu. At the same time, the investigation has been conducted to determine residential buyers’ satisfaction in Safranbolu by using the face-to-face survey method with customers who led to 247 usable surveys. The obtained results evaluation shows, in a general way, that the participants who bought houses have gained a moderate level of satisfaction.

  6. Monitoring urban growth on the European side of the Istanbul metropolitan area: A case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, S.; Curran, P. J.

    2006-01-01

    Istanbul is the largest city in Turkey with an area of around 5750 km 2 and a population of around 10.8 M (2000). In 1980, the population was only around 4.7 M and so has more than doubled in only 2 decades. In 2000, around 65% of the population were living on the European side of the city with its large industrial/commercial and trade centres. The population is increasing as a result of both births exceeding deaths and mass immigration. Consequently, planned and unplanned housing are increasing while green areas are decreasing in area. Monitoring urban growth will enable the Municipality of Istanbul to better manage this complex urban area. The primary aim of this research was to quantify urban growth on the European side of Istanbul. Six land covers were identified using Landsat 5 TM images for 1987, 1992, 1997 and 2001 and differences in land cover area between these dates were used to determine the rate of change. The accuracy of land cover maps was determined using aerial photographs, topographic maps and field surveys. The overall accuracy of these classifications was between 80 and 86%; urban residential areas increased by around 1000 ha year -1 and forest, semi-natural vegetation, crop and bare soil areas decreased collectively at a similar rate. The paper ends with a discussion of the relationship between urban growth and population growth.

  7. Cosmic ray heliospheric transport study with neutron monitor data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, H. S.; Ygbuhay, R. C.; Modzelewska, R.; Dorman, L. I.; Alania, M. V.

    2015-10-01

    Determining transport coefficients for galactic cosmic ray (GCR) propagation in the turbulent interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) poses a fundamental challenge in modeling cosmic ray modulation processes. GCR scattering in the solar wind involves wave-particle interaction, the waves being Alfven waves which propagate along the ambient field (B). Empirical values at 1 AU are determined for the components of the diffusion tensor for GCR propagation in the heliosphere using neutron monitor (NM) data. At high rigidities, particle density gradients and mean free paths at 1 AU in B can only be computed from the solar diurnal anisotropy (SDA) represented by a vector A (components Ar, Aϕ, and Aθ) in a heliospherical polar coordinate system. Long-term changes in SDA components of NMs (with long track record and the median rigidity of response Rm ~ 20 GV) are used to compute yearly values of the transport coefficients for 1963-2013. We confirm the previously reported result that the product of the parallel (to B) mean free path (λ||) and radial density gradient (Gr) computed from NM data exhibits a weak Schwabe cycle (11y) but strong Hale magnetic cycle (22y) dependence. Its value is most depressed in solar activity minima for positive (p) polarity intervals (solar magnetic field in the Northern Hemisphere points outward from the Sun) when GCRs drift from the polar regions toward the helioequatorial plane and out along the heliospheric current sheet (HCS), setting up a symmetric gradient Gθs pointing away from HCS. Gr drives all SDA components and λ|| Gr contributes to the diffusive component (Ad) of the ecliptic plane anisotropy (A). GCR transport is commonly discussed in terms of an isotropic hard sphere scattering (also known as billiard-ball scattering) in the solar wind plasma. We use it with a flat HCS model and the Ahluwalia-Dorman master equations to compute the coefficients α (=λ⊥/λ∥) and ωτ (a measure of turbulence in the solar wind) and transport

  8. Possibility of hydrogen supply by shared residential fuel cell systems for fuel cell vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ono Yusuke

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Residential polymer electrolyte fuel cells cogeneration systems (residential PEFC systems produce hydrogen from city gas by internal gas-reformer, and generate electricity, the hot water at the same time. From the viewpoint of the operation, it is known that residential PEFC systems do not continuously work but stop for long time, because the systems generate enough hot water for short operation time. In other words, currently residential PEFC systems are dominated by the amount of hot water demand. This study focuses on the idle time of residential PEFC systems. Since their gas-reformers are free, the systems have potential to produce hydrogen during the partial load operations. The authors expect that residential PEFC systems can take a role to supply hydrogen for fuel cell vehicles (FCVs before hydrogen fueling stations are distributed enough. From this perspective, the objective of this study is to evaluate the hydrogen production potential of residential PEFC systems. A residential PEFC system was modeled by the mixed integer linear programming to optimize the operation including hydrogen supply for FCV. The objective function represents annual system cost to be minimized with the constraints of energy balance. It should be noted that the partial load characteristics of the gas-reformer and the fuel cell stack are taken into account to derive the optimal operation. The model was employed to estimate the possible amount of hydrogen supply by a residential PEFC system. The results indicated that the system could satisfy at least hydrogen demand for transportation of 8000 km which is as far as the average annual mileage of a passenger car in Japan. Furthermore, hydrogen production by sharing a residential PEFC system with two households is more effective to reduce primary energy consumption with hydrogen supply for FCV than the case of introducing PEFC in each household.

  9. Does Black Socioeconomic Mobility Explain Recent Progress Toward Black-White Residential Integration?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagmiller, Robert L; Gage-Bouchard, Elizabeth; Karraker, Amelia

    2017-08-01

    Studies of racial residential segregation have found that black-white segregation in U.S. metropolitan areas has declined slowly but steadily since the early 1970s. As of this writing, black-white residential segregation in the United States is approximately 25 % lower than it was in 1970. To identify the sources of this decline, we used individual-level, geocoded data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) to compare the residential attainment of different cohorts of blacks. We analyzed these data using Blinder-Oaxaca regression decomposition techniques that partition the decline in residential segregation among cohorts into the decline resulting from (1) changes in the social and economic characteristics of blacks and (2) changes in the association between blacks' social and economic characteristics and the level of residential segregation they experience. Our findings show that black cohorts entering adulthood prior to the civil rights movement of the 1960s experienced consistently high levels of residential segregation at middle age, but that cohorts transitioning to adulthood during and after this period of racial progress experienced significantly lower levels of residential segregation. We find that the decline in black-white residential segregation for these later cohorts reflects both their greater social and economic attainment and a strengthening of the association between socioeconomic characteristics and residential segregation. Educational gains for the post-civil rights era cohorts and improved access to integrated neighborhoods for high school graduates and college attendees in these later cohorts were the principal source of improved residential integration over this period.

  10. Performance of a residential heat pump operating in the cooling mode with single faults imposed

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Minsung; Payne, W. Vance; Domanski, Piotr A.; Yoon, Seok Ho; Hermes, Christian J.L.

    2009-01-01

    The system behavior of a R410A residential unitary split heat pump operating in the cooling mode was investigated. Seven artificial faults were implemented: compressor/reversing valve leakage, improper outdoor air flow, improper indoor air flow, liquid line restriction, refrigerant undercharge, refrigerant overcharge, and presence of non-condensable gas in the refrigerant. This study monitored eight fault detection features and identified the most sensitive features for each fault. The effect of the various fault levels on energy efficiency ratio (EER) was also estimated. Since the studied system employed a thermostatic expansion valve (TXV) as an expansion device, it could adapt to some faults making the fault less detectable. The distinctiveness of the fault depended on the TXV status (fully open or not)

  11. Study on Semi-Parametric Statistical Model of Safety Monitoring of Cracks in Concrete Dams

    OpenAIRE

    Gu, Chongshi; Qin, Dong; Li, Zhanchao; Zheng, Xueqin

    2013-01-01

    Cracks are one of the hidden dangers in concrete dams. The study on safety monitoring models of concrete dam cracks has always been difficult. Using the parametric statistical model of safety monitoring of cracks in concrete dams, with the help of the semi-parametric statistical theory, and considering the abnormal behaviors of these cracks, the semi-parametric statistical model of safety monitoring of concrete dam cracks is established to overcome the limitation of the parametric model in ex...

  12. Wind Turbine Gearbox Condition Monitoring Round Robin Study - Vibration Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheng, S.

    2012-07-01

    The Gearbox Reliability Collaborative (GRC) at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) tested two identical gearboxes. One was tested on the NWTCs 2.5 MW dynamometer and the other was field tested in a turbine in a nearby wind plant. In the field, the test gearbox experienced two oil loss events that resulted in damage to its internal bearings and gears. Since the damage was not severe, the test gearbox was removed from the field and retested in the NWTCs dynamometer before it was disassembled. During the dynamometer retest, some vibration data along with testing condition information were collected. These data enabled NREL to launch a Wind Turbine Gearbox Condition Monitoring Round Robin project, as described in this report. The main objective of this project was to evaluate different vibration analysis algorithms used in wind turbine condition monitoring (CM) and find out whether the typical practices are effective. With involvement of both academic researchers and industrial partners, the project sets an example on providing cutting edge research results back to industry.

  13. Residential Electricity Consumption in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Ropuszyńska-Surma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Key factors influencing electricity consumption in the residential sector in Poland have been identified. A fixed-effects model was used, which includes time effects, and a set of covariates, based on the model developed by Houthakker et al. This model estimates electricity demand by using lagged values of the dependent variable along with current and lagged values of electricity prices, and other variables that affect electricity demand such as: population, economic growth, income per capita, price of related goods, etc. The model has been identified according to the research results of the authors and those obtained by Bentzen and Engsted. The set of covariates was extended to the lagged electricity price given by a tariff (taken from two years previous to the time of interest and heating degree days index, a very important factor in European Union countries, where the climate is temperate. The authors propose four models of residential electricity demand, for which a confidence interval of 95% has been assumed. Estimation was based on Polish quarterly data for the years 2003-2013. (original abstract

  14. From detection monitoring to evaluation monitoring - a case study involving crown dieback in northern white-cedar

    Science.gov (United States)

    KaDonna Randolph; William Bechtold; Randall Morin; Stanley Zarnoch

    2009-01-01

    The Forest Inventory and Analysis (FIA) Phase 3 plot network is a crucial part of the U.S. Forest Health Monitoring program's detection monitoring system, where select indicators are monitored for signals that may indicate deteriorating forest health. When a negative signal is identified, evaluation monitoring provides a mechanism whereby a potential problem can...

  15. Long-term residential road traffic noise and NO2 exposure in relation to risk of incident myocardial infarction - A Danish cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roswall, Nina; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole; Ketzel, Matthias; Gammelmark, Anders; Overvad, Kim; Olsen, Anja; Sørensen, Mette

    2017-07-01

    Road traffic is a source of both air pollution and noise; two environmental hazards both found to increase the risk of ischemic heart disease. Given the high correlation between these pollutants, it is important to investigate combined effects, in relation to myocardial infarction (MI). Among 50,744 middle-aged Danes enrolled into the Diet, Cancer and Health cohort from 1993 to 97, we identified 2403 cases of incident MI during a median follow-up of 14.5 years. Present and historical residential addresses from 1987 to 2011 were found in national registries, and traffic noise (L den ) and air pollution (NO 2 ) were modelled for all addresses. Analyses were performed using Cox proportional hazard models. Road traffic noise and NO 2 were both individually associated with a higher risk of MI, with hazard ratios of 1.14 (1.07-1.21) and 1.08 (1.03-1.12) per inter-quartile range higher 10-year mean of road traffic noise and NO 2 , respectively. Mutual exposure adjustment reduced the association with 10-year NO 2 exposure (1.02 (0.96-1.08)), whereas the association with road traffic noise remained: 1.12 (1.03-1.21). For fatal incident MI, the pattern was similar, but the associations for both pollutants were stronger. In analyses of tertiles across both pollutants, the strongest effects were seen for combined medium/high exposure, especially for fatal MI's. Both road traffic noise and NO 2 were associated with a higher risk of MI in single-pollutant models. In two-pollutant models, mainly noise was associated with MI. Combined exposure to both pollutants was associated with the highest risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Implications of Cost Effectiveness Screening Practices in a Low Natural Gas Price Environment: Case Study of a Midwestern Residential Energy Upgrade Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Ian M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Borgeson, Merrian Goggio [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Zimring, Mark [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-04-12

    With the proliferation of statewide energy savings targets and other policies favorable to energy efficiency, savings from utility customer-funded energy efficiency programs could rise to offset much of annual load growth by 2025 (Barbose et al 2013). For these increased savings to occur, however, nearly all of these programs must pass screening for cost effectiveness. Some program administrators and state regulators are finding that conventional analyses, which only consider a narrow set of energy-savings related efficiency program benefits, are now resulting in some natural gas efficiency programs failing their cost-effectiveness criteria in the new low natural gas price environment. Regulators are considering whether to scale back or terminate gas portfolios in at least four states (WA, OR, ID, NM) because of cost-effectiveness concerns. Stakeholders in several regions of the country have asked LBNL to help assess alternatives to reducing the pursuit of energy savings in their regions. We address these requests by producing two working papers: one exploring cost-effectiveness screening policy implications of low to moderate natural gas prices, and a second assessing some of the values that policymakers may take into account in weighing the pros and cons of ending natural gas efficiency programs. In this policy brief, we lay out the challenges that low gas prices pose for cost effectiveness of an electric-gas efficiency program and portfolio. We then quantify options available to regulators and administrators who want to evaluate the tradeoffs among multiple policy objectives. A multi-measure, residential energy upgrade program in the Midwest is used as a lens to explore the implications of common and emerging cost-effectiveness policies in the context of low prices for natural gas. We illustrate the results across a range of cost-effectiveness screening options, including different discount rates, levels of test application, various benefit-cost tests, and the

  17. The development of rural area residence based on participatory planning case study: A rural residential area of Pucungrejo village, Magelang through "neighborhood development" program

    Science.gov (United States)

    KP, R. M. Bambang Setyohadi; Wicaksono, Dimas

    2018-03-01

    The poverty is one of the prevailing problems in Indonesia until now. Even a change of the era of governance has not succeeded in eradicating the problem of poverty. The program of poverty alleviation program has always been a focus in the budget allocation in all era of leadership in Indonesia. Those programs were strategic because it prepared the foundation of community self-reliance in the form of representative, entrenched and conducive community leadership institutions to develop of social capital of society in the future. Developing an area of the village requires an integrated planning (Grand Design) to figure out the potential and the problems existing in the rural area as well as the integration of the rural area surrounding. In addition, the grand design needs to be synchronized to the more comprehensive spatial plan with a hierarchical structure such as RTBL, RDTRK / RRTRK, RTRK, and RTRW. This rural area management plan can be oriented or refer to the pattern developed from neighborhood Development program which is part of the PNPM Mandiri program. The neighborhood development program is known as residential area development plan whose process involves of the entire community. Therefore, the regional development up to the scale of the environment requires the planning phase. Particularly, spatial planning which emphasizes the efforts to optimize sectorial development targets to be integrated into an integrated development process must be conducted, in addition to taking into consideration the opportunities, potentials and limitations of the resources, the level of interconnection with the central government within the district and between sub-districts and rural areas.

  18. Does risk and urgency of requested out-of-hours general practitioners care differ for people with intellectual disabilities in residential settings compared with the general population in the Netherlands? A cross-sectional routine data-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heutmekers, Marloes; Naaldenberg, Jenneken; Verheggen, Sabine A; Assendelft, Willem J J; Lantman-de Valk, Henny M J van Schrojenstein; Tobi, Hilde; Leusink, Geraline L

    2017-11-03

    To investigate whether people with intellectual disabilities (ID) in residential setting were more likely than people from the general population to request out-of-hours general practitioner (GP) care and whether these requests had a similar level of urgency. Cross-sectional routine data-based study. Two GP cooperatives providing out-of-hours primary care in an area in the Netherlands. 432 582 persons living in the out-of-hours service areas, of which 1448 could be identified as having an ID. GP cooperative records of all contacts in 2014 for people with and without ID were used to calculate the relative risk of requesting care and the associated level of urgency. Of the people with ID (448/1448), 30.9% requested out-of-hours GP care, whereas for the general population this was 18.4% (79 206/431 134), resulting in a relative risk of 1.7 (95% CI 1.6 to 1.8). We found a different distribution of urgency level for people with and without ID. Generally, requests for people with ID were rated as less urgent. People with ID in residential setting were more likely to request out-of-hours GP care than the general population. The distribution of the urgency level of requests differed between the two groups. The high percentage of demands relating to people with ID requesting counselling and advice suggests that some out-of-hours GP care may be avoidable. However, more insight is needed into the nature of out-of-hours primary care requests of people with ID to direct structural and reasonable adjustments towards the improvement of health information exchange in and around-the-clock access to primary care for people with ID. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  19. Residential instability: a perspective on system imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, Lawrence; Desai, Prakash

    1987-10-01

    In an exploration of residential instability and recidivism in chronic mental patients, 215 psychiatric admissions were followed for a year after the initial episode. In addition to an unusually high incidence of residential mobility, a relationship between mobility and number of hospitalizations was evident, as were isolation, disruptive family situations, and homelessness. The needed response of the mental health system is discussed.

  20. Does immigrant residential crowding reflect hidden homelessness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Haan

    2011-12-01

    the extent to which heightened levels of residential crowding might reflect “hidden homelessness.” I find mixed evidence to support this link, and, if anything, find some evidence to suggest that the link between residential crowding and hidden homelessness, if one exists, is strongest for the Canadian-born.

  1. Working towards residential Radon survey in South America

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zielinski, Jan M.; University of Ottawa, ON; Canoba, Analia C.; Shilnikova, Natalia S.; Veiga, Lene H. S.

    2008-01-01

    Information about residential radon levels in low and middle income countries is very sparse. In response to the World Health Organization initiative in the International Radon Project, we propose a research project that will address this knowledge gap in South America by conducting a residential radon survey. Following initial in vitro and in vivo studies of radon and studies of uranium miners exposed to radon, over twenty large case-control studies of lung cancer risk from exposure to residential radon have been completed worldwide by year 2004. Recently pooled data from these individual studies have been analyzed. These collaborative analyses of the indoor studies in Europe, North America, and China provide strong direct evidence that radon is causing a substantial number of lung cancers in the general population. To reduce radon lung cancer risk, national authorities must have methods and tools based on solid scientific evidence to develop sound public health policies. We propose to conduct a survey in ten South American countries using the distribution and analysis of passive alpha tracking detectors in houses selected at random in pre-selected cities in each participating country. We also present an approach to estimate the cost of carrying out such a survey and the radon laboratory infrastructure needed. The results of the proposed survey will allow to conduct assessment of the exposure to residential radon in the populations of South American countries and to assess the health impact of this exposure. The results of the project will also help national health authorities in developing national residential radon action levels and regulations, as well as provide public health guidance for radon awareness and mitigation. (author)

  2. Smart density: A more accurate method of measuring rural residential density for health-related research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Peter M; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Gibson, Lucinda; Beach, Michael L; Beauregard, Sandy; Dalton, Madeline A

    2010-02-12

    Studies involving the built environment have typically relied on US Census data to measure residential density. However, census geographic units are often unsuited to health-related research, especially in rural areas where development is clustered and discontinuous. We evaluated the accuracy of both standard census methods and alternative GIS-based methods to measure rural density. We compared residential density (units/acre) in 335 Vermont school neighborhoods using conventional census geographic units (tract, block group and block) with two GIS buffer measures: a 1-kilometer (km) circle around the school and a 1-km circle intersected with a 100-meter (m) road-network buffer. The accuracy of each method was validated against the actual residential density for each neighborhood based on the Vermont e911 database, which provides an exact geo-location for all residential structures in the state. Standard census measures underestimate residential density in rural areas. In addition, the degree of error is inconsistent so even the relative rank of neighborhood densities varies across census measures. Census measures explain only 61% to 66% of the variation in actual residential density. In contrast, GIS buffer measures explain approximately 90% of the variation. Combining a 1-km circle with a road-network buffer provides the closest approximation of actual residential density. Residential density based on census units can mask clusters of development in rural areas and distort associations between residential density and health-related behaviors and outcomes. GIS-defined buffers, including a 1-km circle and a road-network buffer, can be used in conjunction with census data to obtain a more accurate measure of residential density.

  3. Smart density: a more accurate method of measuring rural residential density for health-related research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibson Lucinda

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies involving the built environment have typically relied on US Census data to measure residential density. However, census geographic units are often unsuited to health-related research, especially in rural areas where development is clustered and discontinuous. Objective We evaluated the accuracy of both standard census methods and alternative GIS-based methods to measure rural density. Methods We compared residential density (units/acre in 335 Vermont school neighborhoods using conventional census geographic units (tract, block group and block with two GIS buffer measures: a 1-kilometer (km circle around the school and a 1-km circle intersected with a 100-meter (m road-network buffer. The accuracy of each method was validated against the actual residential density for each neighborhood based on the Vermont e911 database, which provides an exact geo-location for all residential structures in the state. Results Standard census measures underestimate residential density in rural areas. In addition, the degree of error is inconsistent so even the relative rank of neighborhood densities varies across census measures. Census measures explain only 61% to 66% of the variation in actual residential density. In contrast, GIS buffer measures explain approximately 90% of the variation. Combining a 1-km circle with a road-network buffer provides the closest approximation of actual residential density. Conclusion Residential density based on census units can mask clusters of development in rural areas and distort associations between residential density and health-related behaviors and outcomes. GIS-defined buffers, including a 1-km circle and a road-network buffer, can be used in conjunction with census data to obtain a more accurate measure of residential density.

  4. Competitive solar heating systems for residential buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Thür, Alexander; Fiedler, Frank

    2005-01-01

    .D. studies in Denmark, Sweden and Latvia, and a post-doc. study in Norway. Close cooperation between the researchers and the industry partners ensures that the results of the project can be utilized. By the end of the project the industry partners will be able to bring the developed systems onto the market...... from an economical and architectural point of view. The project includes education, research, development and demonstration. The project started in 2003 and will be finished by the end of 2006. The participants of the project, which is financed by Nordic Energy Research and the participants themselves......The paper describes the ongoing research project “Competitive solar heating systems for residential buildings”. The aim of the project is to develop competitive solar combisystems which are attractive to buyers. The solar combisystems must be attractive compared to traditional energy systems, both...

  5. Particulate emissions from residential wood combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo; Jensen, Ole Michael; Tarelho, Luis A. C.

    Residential wood combustion (RWC) in fireplaces and conventional appliances is the main contributor to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions in Denmark and Portugal representing more than 30% of the total emissions [1;2]. Such estimations are uncertain concerning the wood consumption...... and official emission factors, not taking into account actual burning conditions in dwellings [3]. There is limited knowledge on the real-life performance and spatial distribution of existing appliance types. Few studies have been targeting to understand the influence of fuel operation habits on PM2.5...... the available estimations for Denmark and Portugal, suggesting a methodology to increase the accuracy of activity data and emission factors. This work is based on new studies carried out to quantify the PM2.5 emissions in daily life through field experiments in Danish dwellings and by considering typical...

  6. Social Monitoring Matters for Deterring Social Deviance in Stable but Not Mobile Socio-Ecological Contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Jenny C; Chiu, Chi-Yue; Lin, Wei-Fang; Oishi, Shigehiro

    2016-01-01

    Previous research suggests that reputational concerns can incentivize cooperation and deter socially deviant behavior. The current research showed that social monitoring of information that has the potential to damage one's reputation has differential effects on deviant behavior in social-ecological environments that vary in level of mobility. Study 1 showed that residentially stable cities that employed more journalists-who can be regarded as social monitoring agents in a community-tended to have lower rates of violent crime than residentially stable cities that employed fewer journalists; by contrast, in residentially mobile cities, violent crime rates did not vary as a function of the number of journalists employed. In Study 2, we found that individual differences in perceptions of relational mobility moderated the effects of social monitoring on cheating in a die-under-cup game. Specifically, social monitoring cues reduced the likelihood of cheating but only among participants who perceived their immediate social environment to be low in relational mobility. The same results were replicated in Study 3, an experiment in which participants' perception of relational mobility was manipulated before completing an online maze game that allowed them to earn extra cash. In the low mobility condition, the percentage of participants who continued working on the mazes after reaching the time limit decreased as a function of social monitoring; however, this pattern was not observed in the high mobility condition. Together, our findings suggest that socioecological context matters for understanding effective mechanisms of social control.

  7. Optimizing Hydronic System Performance in Residential Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, L.; Faakye, O.

    2013-10-01

    Even though new homes constructed with hydronic heat comprise only 3% of the market (US Census Bureau 2009), of the 115 million existing homes in the United States, almost 14 million of those homes (11%) are heated with steam or hot water systems according to 2009 US Census data. Therefore, improvements in hydronic system performance could result in significant energy savings in the US. When operating properly, the combination of a gas-fired condensing boiler with baseboard convectors and an indirect water heater is a viable option for high-efficiency residential space heating in cold climates. Based on previous research efforts, however, it is apparent that these types of systems are typically not designed and installed to achieve maximum efficiency. Furthermore, guidance on proper design and commissioning for heating contractors and energy consultants is hard to find and is not comprehensive. Through modeling and monitoring, CARB sought to determine the optimal combination(s) of components - pumps, high efficiency heat sources, plumbing configurations and controls - that result in the highest overall efficiency for a hydronic system when baseboard convectors are used as the heat emitter. The impact of variable-speed pumps on energy use and system performance was also investigated along with the effects of various control strategies and the introduction of thermal mass.

  8. Study on Acoustic Catheter of Boiler Tube Leakage Monitoring Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yongxing; Feng, Qiang

    Boiler tube leakage is the major reason of affecting the safe operation of the unit now, there are 3 methods of the "four tube" leakage detection: Traditional method, filtering method and acoustic spectrum analysis, acoustic spectrum analysis is the common method, but this method have low sensitivity and the sensor damage easily. Therewith, designed the special acoustic catheter with acoustic resonance cavity type, proved by experiments, the acoustic catheter with acoustic resonance cavity type can enhance leakage sound, can accurately extract leakage signals, has high sensitivity, and can avoid the effect of sensor by fire and hot-gas when the furnace is in positive pressure situation, reduce the installation and maintenance costs of the boiler tube leakage monitor system.

  9. Envelope Thermal Design Optimization for Urban Residential Buildings in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amos Kalua

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to optimize the envelope thermal design of free-running urban residential buildings in Malawi. It specifically set out to improve the urban residential buildings’ thermal comfort and suggest optimal envelope thermal design features for these buildings. The research study was primarily dependent on computer simulations in EnergyPlus to replicate the typical Malawian urban residential building’s thermal behaviour and then study the impacts of various envelope configurations on the thermal comfort conditions registered in the building. The simulation model was experimentally validated to check its appropriateness to the climatic design conditions prevalent in Malawi and out of the three major cities that were considered, the model was found to be appropriate for use in the two cities of Mzuzu and Lilongwe leaving out the city of Blantyre. The optimization methodology that was employed involved the use of orthogonal arrays, statistical analyses and the listing method. It was found that the optimal envelope thermal design, which registered up to 18% lower discomfort hours than that of the typical urban residential building, consists of a 50 mm concrete floor slab, 230 mm burnt brick walls with an external layer of 19 mm EPS, tiled roof with an internal layer of sarking and 50 mm EPS, double Low-E Glazing with a transparency ratio of 45% and 0.2408 m2 of adaptable operational surface area for the air bricks. Out of all the envelope features that were studied, air infiltration registered the most significant contribution towards the ultimate residential building thermal performance. It was demonstrated that controlled air infiltration through the use of operable air bricks whose operational surface area is adaptable can be very effective in enhancing the building’s comfort levels. It was further observed that excessive insulation of the building envelope generally has a detrimental effect on the indoor space thermal comfort

  10. Experimental study on the performance of an epithermal neutron flux monitor for BNCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Xingcai; Manabe, Masanobu; Tamaki, Shingo; Liu, Shuangtong; Sato, Fuminobu; Murata, Isao; Wang, Tieshan

    2016-07-01

    The performance of an epithermal neutron (0.5eVflux monitor designed for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) was experimentally studied by using a prototype monitor in an appropriate neutron field at the intense deuterium-tritium neutron source facility OKTAVIAN of Osaka University, Japan. It was convinced from the experimental results that the developed monitor worked well and the epithermal neutron fluxes in BNCT neutron sources can be measured within 5% by the monitor. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Space Weather Monitoring for ISS Geomagnetic Storm Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minow, Joseph I.; Parker, Linda Neergaard

    2013-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) space environments community utilizes near real time space weather data to support a variety of ISS engineering and science activities. The team has operated the Floating Potential Measurement Unit (FPMU) suite of plasma instruments (two Langmuir probes, a floating potential probe, and a plasma impedance probe) on ISS since 2006 to obtain in-situ measurements of plasma density and temperature along the ISS orbit and variations in ISS frame potential due to electrostatic current collection from the plasma environment (spacecraft charging) and inductive (vxB) effects from the vehicle motion across the Earth s magnetic field. An ongoing effort is to use FPMU for measuring the ionospheric response to geomagnetic storms at ISS altitudes and investigate auroral charging of the vehicle as it passes through regions of precipitating auroral electrons. This work is challenged by restrictions on FPMU operations that limit observation time to less than about a third of a year. As a result, FPMU campaigns ranging in length from a few days to a few weeks are typically scheduled weeks in advance for ISS engineering and payload science activities. In order to capture geomagnetic storm data under these terms, we monitor near real time space weather data from NASA, NOAA, and ESA sources to determine solar wind disturbance arrival times at Earth likely to be geoeffective (including coronal mass ejections and high speed streams associated with coronal holes) and activate the FPMU ahead of the storm onset. Using this technique we have successfully captured FPMU data during a number of geomagnetic storm periods including periods with ISS auroral charging. This presentation will describe the strategies and challenges in capturing FPMU data during geomagnetic storms, the near real time space weather resources utilized for monitoring the space weather environment, and provide examples of auroral charging data obtained during storm operations.

  12. Design of an Air Pollution Monitoring Campaign in Beijing for Application to Cohort Health Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sverre Vedal

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available No cohort studies in China on the health effects of long-term air pollution exposure have employed exposure estimates at the fine spatial scales desirable for cohort studies with individual-level health outcome data. Here we assess an array of modern air pollution exposure estimation approaches for assigning within-city exposure estimates in Beijing for individual pollutants and pollutant sources to individual members of a cohort. Issues considered in selecting specific monitoring data or new monitoring campaigns include: needed spatial resolution, exposure measurement error and its impact on health effect estimates, spatial alignment and compatibility with the cohort, and feasibility and expense. Sources of existing data largely include administrative monitoring data, predictions from air dispersion or chemical transport models and remote sensing (specifically satellite data. New air monitoring campaigns include additional fixed site monitoring, snapshot monitoring, passive badge or micro-sensor saturation monitoring and mobile monitoring, as well as combinations of these. Each of these has relative advantages and disadvantages. It is concluded that a campaign in Beijing that at least includes a mobile monitoring component, when coupled with currently available spatio-temporal modeling methods, should be strongly considered. Such a campaign is economical and capable of providing the desired fine-scale spatial resolution for pollutants and sources.

  13. Design of an Air Pollution Monitoring Campaign in Beijing for Application to Cohort Health Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vedal, Sverre; Han, Bin; Xu, Jia; Szpiro, Adam; Bai, Zhipeng

    2017-12-15

    No cohort studies in China on the health effects of long-term air pollution exposure have employed exposure estimates at the fine spatial scales desirable for cohort studies with individual-level health outcome data. Here we assess an array of modern air pollution exposure estimation approaches for assigning within-city exposure estimates in Beijing for individual pollutants and pollutant sources to individual members of a cohort. Issues considered in selecting specific monitoring data or new monitoring campaigns include: needed spatial resolution, exposure measurement error and its impact on health effect estimates, spatial alignment and compatibility with the cohort, and feasibility and expense. Sources of existing data largely include administrative monitoring data, predictions from air dispersion or chemical transport models and remote sensing (specifically satellite) data. New air monitoring campaigns include additional fixed site monitoring, snapshot monitoring, passive badge or micro-sensor saturation monitoring and mobile monitoring, as well as combinations of these. Each of these has relative advantages and disadvantages. It is concluded that a campaign in Beijing that at least includes a mobile monitoring component, when coupled with currently available spatio-temporal modeling methods, should be strongly considered. Such a campaign is economical and capable of providing the desired fine-scale spatial resolution for pollutants and sources.

  14. Community Design Parameters and the Performance of Residential Cogeneration Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazem Rashed-Ali

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The integration of cogeneration systems in residential and mixed-use communities has the potential of reducing their energy demand and harmful emissions and can thus play asignificant role in increasing their environmental sustainability. This study investigated the impact of selected planning and architectural design parameters on the environmental and economic performances of centralized cogeneration systems integrated into residential communities in U.S.cold climates. Parameters investigated include: 1 density, 2 use mix, 3 street configuration, 4 housing typology, 5 envelope and building systems’ efficiencies, and 6 passive solar energyutilization. The study integrated several simulation tools into a procedure to assess the impact of each design parameter on the cogeneration system performance. This assessment procedure included: developing a base-line model representing typical design characteristics of U.S. residential communities; assessing the cogeneration system’s performance within this model using three performance indicators: percentage of reduction in primary energy use, percentage of reduction in CO2 emissions; and internal rate of return; assessing the impact of each parameter on the system performance through developing 46 design variations of the base-line model representing potential changes in each parameter and calculating the three indicators for each variation; and finally, using a multi-attribute decision analysis methodology to evaluate the relative impact of each parameter on the cogeneration system performance. The study results show that planning parameters had a higher impact on the cogeneration system performance than architectural ones. Also, a significant correlation was found between design characteristics identified as favorable for the cogeneration system performance and those of sustainable residential communities. These include high densities, high use mix, interconnected street networks, and mixing of

  15. Mathematical modeling to predict residential solid waste generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez, Sara Ojeda; Lozano-Olvera, Gabriela; Morelos, Raúl Adalberto; Vega, Carolina Armijo de

    2008-01-01

    One of the challenges faced by waste management authorities is determining the amount of waste generated by households in order to establish waste management systems, as well as trying to charge rates compatible with the principle applied worldwide, and design a fair payment system for households according to the amount of residential solid waste (RSW) they generate. The goal of this research work was to establish mathematical models that correlate the generation of RSW per capita to the following variables: education, income per household, and number of residents. This work was based on data from a study on generation, quantification and composition of residential waste in a Mexican city in three stages. In order to define prediction models, five variables were identified and included in the model. For each waste sampling stage a different mathematical model was developed, in order to find the model that showed the best linear relation to predict residential solid waste generation. Later on, models to explore the combination of included variables and select those which showed a higher R(2) were established. The tests applied were normality, multicolinearity and heteroskedasticity. Another model, formulated with four variables, was generated and the Durban-Watson test was applied to it. Finally, a general mathematical model is proposed to predict residential waste generation, which accounts for 51% of the total.

  16. Indoor Environment in Residential Prefabricated Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michal; Juhásová Šenitková, Ingrid

    2017-10-01

    The contribution presents results of the experimental measurement of indoor air quality in residential prefabricated buildings. People spend about 90% of their life in the indoor environment of buildings. Hygrothermal parameters and indoor air quality are the essential component that define the quality of the indoor environment. The results of case study characterize the quality of the indoor environment of the ordinary occupants in housing unit of residential prefabricated building. A current problem of revitalized prefabricated buildings is inadequate air exchange and related thereto to poor indoor air quality. The experimental measurements were carried out just before and at the beginning of the heating season (from 1st October