WorldWideScience

Sample records for residential landscaping features

  1. Microclimate Patterns of Residential Landscapes Across the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learned, J.; Hall, S. J.

    2014-12-01

    Urban development has altered the physical and biological properties of native ecosystems worldwide. Research on the environmental outcomes of development continues to increase in scope. Climate phenomena, such as the Urban Heat Island (UHI) and Park Cool Island (PCI), are frequently used to illustrate how cities and managed landscapes differ from rural lands. The UHI describes the disparity between urban and rural temperatures, and results from heat retention within the built environment. These effects may be locally mitigated by vegetation (PCI). While the UHI is a useful tool for examining cities on a large scale, the methods are often too coarse to describe what individuals experience. We wondered: What large-scale climate trends are detectable at microclimate levels? Are microclimate patterns within residential landscapes typical, or are they geographically variable? To investigate, we installed sensors to monitor the air temperature within yards (residential landscapes) and native landscapes of 6 US cities from unique climate zones; Los Angeles, Phoenix, Minneapolis, Baltimore, Miami, and Boston. We hypothesized that microclimate trends would be similar among cities, and that microclimate patterns would predominate over large-scale climate trends within residential landscapes, especially when atmospheric mixing is low. Air temperature data collected between Aug. 2012 and July 2014 reveal that residential landscapes experience significantly different temperatures than native landscapes (pre-sunrise). The differences drive cities toward similarity, despite the variability of climate zones. The 6 cities also experience similar patterns of diurnal temperature fluctuations. Daily temperature ranges in yards are significantly greater than in their corresponding native landscapes during cooler months (p microclimates in residential landscapes can create local heat sinks within the built environment that may alleviate UHI effects in some cities. Additionally

  2. Quantifying radiation from thermal imaging of residential landscape elements★

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loveday Jane

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The microclimate of a residential landscape can affect both the energy use in your home and the human thermal comfort in your garden, ultimately affecting the heat in the neighbourhood or precinct. A thermal imaging camera provides information about the temperature of surfaces. By using Stefan–Boltzmann’s law and the surface properties, these temperatures can be used to calculate the emission of longwave radiation (radiant exitance in W m−2. A thermal camera was used to determine the amount of radiant exitance from a range of residential landscape elements. A standard procedure for capturing these images was developed, taking into account factors which affect the quality of the radiometric data. A quantitative database comparing this radiation has been compiled for different times of day and different seasons. The sky view factor of these elements was chosen such that it was as close to 1 as possible. For a particular landscape design, areas of each landscape element can be measured and the amount of radiation reduced or emitted at different times can be calculated. This data can be used to improve landscape designs to reduce home energy use and human thermal comfort through shading and reduction of surfaces which emit longwave radiation close to the house.

  3. Mapping land cover in urban residential landscapes using fine resolution imagery and object-oriented classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    A knowledge of different types of land cover in urban residential landscapes is important for building social and economic city-wide policies including landscape ordinances and water conservation programs. Urban landscapes are typically heterogeneous, so classification of land cover in these areas ...

  4. Different social drivers, including perceptions of urban wildlife, explain the ecological resources in residential landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Amy Belaire; Lynne M. Westphal; Emily S. Minor

    2016-01-01

    The conservation value of residential landscapes is becoming increasingly apparent in our urbanizing world. The ecological characteristics of residential areas are largely determined by the decisions of many individual "managers." In these complex socio-ecological systems, it is important to understand the factors that motivate human decision-making. Our...

  5. Residential hospice environments: evidence-based architectural and landscape design considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verderber, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The residential hospice care movement is increasingly accepted and supported globally, and yet, unfortunately, the amount of literature on best practices in the planning and design of residential hospice facilities and adjacent outdoor spaces remains relatively small. This paper reports on a compendium of architectural and landscape design considerations that reflect the fundamental dimensions of the residential hospice experience: site and context, arrival spaces, communal and private spaces of the residential milieu, transitional spaces, and nature connectivity. Additionally, key staffing and administrative ramifications of this built-environment compendium are addressed, as are prognostications and challenges for the future.

  6. Arthropod reaction to landscape and habitat features in agricultural landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Jeanneret, Philippe; Schüpbach, Beatrice; Pfiffner, Lukas; Walter, Th.

    2003-01-01

    Determining explanatory environmental factors that lead to patterns of biodiversity in cultivated landscapes is an important step for the assessment of the impact of landscape changes. In the context of an assessment of the effect of agricultural national extensification programme on biodiversity, field data of 2 regions were collected according to a stratified sampling method. A distribution model of 3 indicator species taxa (butterflies, spiders, and carabid beetles) is related to influenci...

  7. The effects of landscaping on the residential cooling energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misni, A.

    2018-02-01

    This paper examines the effectiveness of landscaping on the air-conditioning energy saving of houses in a tropical environment. This case study involved looking at the construction and landscaping of three single-family houses in three sections of Shah Alam, Selangor, Malaysia. The houses ranged in age from 5 to 30 years old, which provided different examples of construction and maturity levels of the surrounding landscaping. Landscaping affects the thermal performance as well as on the air-conditioning energy of houses, in how it provides shade, channels wind, and evapotranspiration. While the construction of the three houses was similar, they were different in size and design, including their landscape design. These houses were chosen because they are representative of single-family tropical houses and landscaping styles in Malaysia since 30 years ago. Three houses were chosen; the 30-year-old house, the 10-year-old house, and the 5-year-old house. In a tropical country, landscaping is used to reduce the effects of the hot and humid climate. The houses spent 15-45% of the electricity cost on cooling. These results were influenced by human factors and the surrounding landscaping. Every type of vegetation, such as trees, grass, shrubs, groundcover, and turf, contributes to reducing air temperatures near the house and providing evaporative cooling.

  8. Estimating renewable water flux from landscape features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Heidi; Nieber, John; Kanivetsky, Roman; Shmagin, Boris

    2010-05-01

    Water level fluctuations are not always an indicator of ground water recharge or discharge. Fluctuations occurring over a period of decades can be attributed to naturally occurring climatic changes or anthropogenic activities including land use changes, pumping, irrigation and other engineering modifications. When long-term ground water extraction exceeds recharge, impacts on the natural hydrodynamics of the ground water system, including decreases in the hydrologic unit storage and hydraulic head, may occur. If extraction limitations are set, these ground water units can still take decades to centuries to recover. The complexity of vadose zone, ground water and surface water interactions presents hydrological research challenges for the development of operational hierarchies and up-scaling from reaches to watersheds. Multiple techniques for quantifying ground and surface water exchanges, specifically Geographic Information System (GIS) technology, numerical models and statistical analyses must be applied to overcome these challenges. These techniques promote a multidisciplinary and multi-scale approach to addressing hydrologic system research. By using watershed boundaries as a quantification unit and applying the three types of flow systems resulting from Laplace equation solutions (Tóth, 1963), regional, intermediate and local systems could be addressed. Multivariate exploratory data analysis techniques were used to establish watershed interconnections based on the spatio-temporal structure of annual, seasonal, monthly and minimal monthly runoff. The analysis of an initial dataset of 129 watersheds spanning the State of Minnesota, USA, and split into three varying time periods, resulted in five hydrologic regimes with either a positive, negative or absence of trend in annual stream discharge. At a given point on the earth's surface, a combination of different layers, each representing fundamental landscape components, yields unique features related to

  9. Ecosystem services in managing residential landscapes: priorities, value dimensions, and cross-regional patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    K.L. Larson; K.C. Nelson; S.R. Samples; S.J. Hall; N. Bettez; J. Cavender-Bares; P.M. Groffman; M. Grove; J.B. Heffernan; S.E. Hobbie; J. Learned; J.L. Morse; C. Neill; L.A. Ogden; Jarlath O' Neil-Dunne; D.E. Pataki; C. Polsky; R. Roy Chowdhury; M. Steele; T.L.E. Trammell

    2016-01-01

    Although ecosystem services have been intensively examined in certain domains (e.g., forests and wetlands), little research has assessed ecosystem services for the most dominant landscape type in urban ecosystems—namely, residential yards. In this paper, we report findings of a cross-site survey of homeowners in six U.S. cities to 1) examine how residents subjectively...

  10. Artificial neural networks : applications in morphometric and landscape features analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ehsani, Amir Houshang

    2007-01-01

    In this thesis a semi-automatic method is developed to analyze morphometric features and landscape elements based on Self Organizing Map (SOM) as a unsupervised Artificial Neural Network algorithm. Analysis and parameterization of topography into simple and homogenous land elements (landform) can play an important role as basic information in planning processes and environmental modeling. Landforms and land cover are the main components of landscapes. Landscapes are dynamic systems that invol...

  11. A Multi-Scalar Approach to Theorizing Socio-Ecological Dynamics of Urban Residential Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rinku Roy Chowdhury

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban residential expansion increasingly drives land use, land cover and ecological changes worldwide, yet social science theories explaining such change remain under-developed. Existing theories often focus on processes occurring at one scale, while ignoring other scales. Emerging evidence from four linked U.S. research sites suggests it is essential to examine processes at multiple scales simultaneously when explaining the evolution of urban residential landscapes. Additionally, focusing on urbanization dynamics across multiple sites with a shared research design may yield fruitful comparative insights. The following processes and social-hierarchical scales significantly influence the spatial configurations of residential landscapes: household-level characteristics and environmental attitudes; formal and informal institutions at the neighborhood scale; and municipal-scale land-use governance. While adopting a multi-scale and multi-site approach produces research challenges, doing so is critical to advancing understanding of coupled socio-ecological systems and associated vulnerabilities in a dynamic and environmentally important setting: residential landscapes.

  12. Assessing the visual quality of green landscaping in rural residential areas: the case of Changzhou, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yumin; Zhu, Xiaodong; Xu, Yingbi; Yang, Haiyan; Wu, Xian; Li, Yangfan; Zhang, Yanfeng

    2012-01-01

    Changzhou is a typical waterside municipality with approximately 2,500 years of history located south of the Yangtze River. It was an agriculturally oriented region but is becoming an industrialized region. Rural green landscaping in this region possesses characteristics of traditional Chinese gardens. This paper presents a methodology for assessing the visual quality of green landscaping in rural residential areas through public perception-based and expert/design approaches. The former approach enables us to rank green landscaping based on a survey of public preference; the latter weighs the contributions of the attributes contained in a photograph to its overall scenic beauty via correlation, regression, and factor analyses. The photographs used in the survey included road greenways, riparian greenways, residential public gardens and green landscaping around houses, with each type of landscape represented by seven photographs. In total, 141 college students and 41 other participants ranked photographs of each landscaping type from highest to lowest preference. The results indicate that the preferences of students are similar to those of the general public. Examples of green landscaping depicted in the "best" four photographs possessed more attractive qualities regarding the variety of vegetation, richness of colors and a selection of human additions compared to those depicted in the "worst" photographs. The perceived visual quality was positively influenced by, in decreasing order of importance, the variety of vegetation, color contrast, the openness of green spaces, the area of vegetation, and positive man-made elements; conversely, it was negatively influenced by the type of topography. Moreover, some suggestions were offered for future rural greening regarding perceived visual beauty.

  13. Remotely-Sensed Detection of Foreclosure Effects on Residential Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutts, B.; Minn, M.; Pavlovic, N. R.; Greenberg, J. A.; Fraterrigo, J.; Turner, V. K.

    2014-12-01

    This project aims to understand whether the foreclosure crisis of 2007-2010 led to change in yard management with consequences for property and neighborhood land cover. By triangulating across analyses that vary in spatial and temporal resolution, this study examines whether foreclosure has resulted in changes in household and neighborhood vegetation structure. One common hypothesis is that the of financial distress is a reduction in lawn management (mowing, irrigating, and fertilizing ) due to economic constraint, vacancy or abandonment. However, changes in these practices differ across space as they are mediated by individual idiosyncrasies as well as complex social norms encoded in formal and informal institutions. The aim of our broader research project is to gain understanding of how foreclosure changes yard management within the context of these institutions. This poster presents preliminary results of analyses that aim to understand the relationship between foreclosure and land cover change in Maricopa County (Phoenix), Arizona. We synthesize foreclosure data with other social data sources focused on demographics, property characteristics, and vacancy to quantify both general and spatially dependent signatures of foreclosure in remotely-sensed NDVI data from MODIS and LANDSAT. Through results from multiple sources of data, we aim to isolate and describe signals that can be correlated with housing distress and foreclosure-induced vacancy. Arizona is analytically advantageous as area with an arid climate where the vegetation changes resulting from cessation of lawn maintenance are often dramatic and clearly observable. Our preliminary analysis indicates that there are specific NDVI signatures reflecting differing landscape-maintenance responses to foreclosure, supporting our central thesis that foreclosure influences land cover. These results provide a foundation upon which we will engage in both detailed investigation of the environmental effects of this

  14. Quantifying the impact of landscape and habitat features on biodiversity in cultivated landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Jeanneret, Philippe; Schüpbach, Beatrice; Luka, Henryk

    2003-01-01

    Determining habitat and landscape features that lead to patterns of biodiversity in cultivated landscapes is an important step for the assessment of the impact of extensification programmes in agriculture. In the context of an assessment of the effect of national extensification programme on biodiversity in agriculture, field data of three regions (7 km2 each) were collected according to a stratified sampling method. A distribution model of three taxa (spiders, carabid beetles, and butterflie...

  15. Residential landscapes and house societies of the late prehistoric Society Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, J.G.; Kirch, P.V.

    2013-01-01

    We extend the 'house society' perspective to one of the most complex Eastern Polynesian chiefdoms, the Society Islands. Employing a landscape approach, we argue that competing elites used the flexibility of the 'house society' structure and its landed estates to promulgate and manipulate status differences. Our study documents how the social hierarchy and its ideological underpinnings were materialised in archaeologically visible ways, including investments in residential landscapes, site proxemics, and construction sequences. While communal investments in the landed material estate were staged over a few centuries, investments in the house's ideology and corporate identity were established early on. Differences in house rank afforded some houses greater access to essential resources and facilitated their abilities to maintain and extend their corporate group, while affording them greater access to labor and continued wealth production over time. Our case study exemplifies the significant role that small-scale relations - quotidian interactions within neighborhoods - played as sources of social power. (author). 105 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Homeowner attitudes and practices towards residential landscape management in Ohio, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaine, Thomas W; Clayton, Susan; Robbins, Paul; Grewal, Parwinder S

    2012-08-01

    This study describes the results of a survey of 432 homeowners in Ohio, USA concerning their perceptions and practices regarding management of residential landscapes. The results reveal that outdoor residential environments are extremely important to homeowners, who tend to view their yards as serving multiple functions: a place to observe nature and to socialize as well as a place of beauty and recreation. Use of a lawn care company to apply chemicals is reported by 22 % of respondents, while 40 % either apply chemicals themselves or have someone other than a lawn care company do it. Logistic regressions reveal that factors influencing a homeowner's decision to employ a lawn care company or to apply chemicals themselves include: household income (+), perceived impacts on the environment (-), whether the next door neighbor does it (+), and type of residential environment (rural -, suburban and urban +). A theme that emerges throughout the study is the perceived importance of the role of the lawn in residents' sense of social status or acceptance in the neighborhood. This perception can be viewed as a positive in ensuring that residential environments are well maintained, but also as a negative resulting in environmental degradation or presenting a barrier to creativity in the development of alternative residential environments. Specific policy implications of these findings are that efforts aimed at educating homeowners about the environmental impacts of their lawn care choices are likely to have more success if they are directed at neighborhood groups rather than individuals, show that alternatives are easy to adopt, affordable, and can produce the characteristics of lawns that homeowners seek.

  17. Exploring quantum control landscapes: Topology, features, and optimization scaling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, Katharine W.; Rabitz, Herschel

    2011-01-01

    Quantum optimal control experiments and simulations have successfully manipulated the dynamics of systems ranging from atoms to biomolecules. Surprisingly, these collective works indicate that the effort (i.e., the number of algorithmic iterations) required to find an optimal control field appears to be essentially invariant to the complexity of the system. The present work explores this matter in a series of systematic optimizations of the state-to-state transition probability on model quantum systems with the number of states N ranging from 5 through 100. The optimizations occur over a landscape defined by the transition probability as a function of the control field. Previous theoretical studies on the topology of quantum control landscapes established that they should be free of suboptimal traps under reasonable physical conditions. The simulations in this work include nearly 5000 individual optimization test cases, all of which confirm this prediction by fully achieving optimal population transfer of at least 99.9% on careful attention to numerical procedures to ensure that the controls are free of constraints. Collectively, the simulation results additionally show invariance of required search effort to system dimension N. This behavior is rationalized in terms of the structural features of the underlying control landscape. The very attractive observed scaling with system complexity may be understood by considering the distance traveled on the control landscape during a search and the magnitude of the control landscape slope. Exceptions to this favorable scaling behavior can arise when the initial control field fluence is too large or when the target final state recedes from the initial state as N increases.

  18. Landscape and zonal features of the formation of producing economy in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizovtsev, Vyacheslav; Natalia, Erman

    2016-04-01

    Based on analysis of the extensive source base, including complex landscape, component, paleogeographic and archeological published and scientific materials as well as the connected analysis of published paleogeographical, paleolandscape and historical and geographic maps of the territory of Russia landscape and zonal features of the transition from appropriating economy to producing economy were determined. All the specifics of historical changes in the landscape use of the vast areas of Russia is caused by the variety of its landscape zones and the specifics of their constituent landscapes. Human economic activities as a factor of differentiation and development of landscapes became apparent almost in all landscape zones together with the emergence of the producing type of economy from the Aeneolithic-Bronze Age (Atlantic period) in the southern steppe regions (in the northern areas of the main centers of the producing economy) and from the Bronze Age in the forest areas. The emergence of the producing economy in the forest-steppe and steppe landscape zones on the territory of Russia is dated IV (Aeneolithic) - III (Early Bronze Age) millennium BC. It is from this period that on the European part of Russia and in Siberia the so-called Neolithic revolution begins. The use of copper and bronze axes helped to develop new areas for planting crops in the forest-steppe zone. In the forest-steppe zone swidden and lea tillage cultivation develops. In the steppe and forest-steppe Eurasia depending on the local landscape conditions two ways of producing economy with a predominance of cattle-breeding developed: nomadic cattle breeding and house cattle breeding with a significant influence of agriculture in the economy and long-term settlements. The steppe areas were completely dominated by the mobile nomadic herding, breeding cattle and small cattle. Along with the valley landscapes the interfluvial landscapes were also actively explored. Almost in all the steppe areas

  19. Field assessment of the impacts of landscape structure on different-sized airborne particles in residential areas of Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shuxin; Li, Xiaopeng; Han, Jing; Cao, Yu; Dong, Li

    2017-10-01

    In high-density metropolis, residential areas are important human living environments. Aimed at investigating the impacts of landscape structure on the levels of different-sized airborne particle in residential areas, we conducted field monitoring of the levels of TSP, PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 using mobile traverses in 18 residential areas during the daytime in winter (Dec. 2015-Feb. 2016) and summer (Jun.-Aug. 2016) in Beijing, China. The net concentration differences (d) of the four-sized particles (dTSP, dPM10, dPM2.5 and dPM1) between residential environments and nearby corresponding urban backgrounds, which can be regarded as the reduction of particle concentration in residential environments, were calculated. The effects and relative contributions of different landscape structure parameters on these net concentration differences were further investigated. Results showed that the distribution of particle concentrations has great spatial variation in urban environments. Within the residential environment, there were overall lower concentrations of the four-sized particles compared with the nearby urban background. The net concentration differences of the four-sized particles were all significantly different among the 18 studied residential areas. The average dTSP, dPM10, dPM2.5 and dPM1 reached 18.92, 12.28, 2.01 and 0.53 μg/m3 in summer, and 9.91, 7.81, 1.39 and 0.38 μg/m3 in winter, respectively. The impacts and relative contribution of different landscape structure parameters on the reductions of TSP, PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 in residential environments differed and showed seasonal variation. Percentage of vegetation cover (PerVC) and building cover (PerBC) had the greatest impact. A 10% increase in PerVC would increase about 5.03, 8.15, 2.16 and 0.20 μg/m3 of dTSP, dPM10, dPM2.5 and dPM1 in summer, and a 10% increase in PerBC would decreased about 41.37, 16.54, 2.47 and 0.95 μg/m3 of them in winter. Increased vegetation coverage and decreased building

  20. Exploring Socio-Technical Features of Green Interior Design of Residential Buildings: Indicators, Interdependence and Embeddedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Ning

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to develop indicators for assessing green interior design of new residential buildings in China, grounded in the socio-technical systems approach. The research was carried out through a critical literature review and two focus group studies. The results show that the boundaries of green interior design were identified with respect to three dimensions, namely performance, methodology and stakeholders. The socio-technical systems approach argues for the recognition of the interdependence between the systems elements and the feature of embeddedness. The interdependence of the systems elements exists within each of these three dimensions and across them. It is also found that the socio-technical systems of green interior design are embedded in the social, regulatory and geographic context. Taking interior design of residential buildings as the empirical setting, this study contributes to the literature of green building assessment by presenting a socio-technical systems approach.

  1. Feature mapping on extensive landscapes using GPS-enabled computers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landscapes in the western United States are vast yet managers are called upon to know them intimately so they can respond to natural events such as anthropogenic disturbance, fire, insect outbreaks, and invasive species. These landscapes are not static and naturally change with season and the progr...

  2. A Community Landscape Model of Pro-Environmental Behavior: The Effects of Landscape and Community Interaction on Residential Energy Behaviors in Two Pennsylvania Towns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mainzer, Stephen P.

    We are using more energy every year. Between 2001 and 2011, Pennsylvania residential electricity sales increased by two and a half times the number of new customers, accounting for almost one third of the state's total electricity consumption. Our ability to meet demand by acquiring new energy sources faces several challenges. Confusion surrounds the physical and economic accessibility of remaining fossil fuel sources. Immense land use requirements and subsequent environmental impacts challenge a total shift to renewable energy sources. The laws of thermodynamics limit the potential for new technology to efficiently convert raw energy to consumable sources. As a result, any rational strategy to meet future energy demands must involve conservation. Conservation is a pro-environmental behavior, an act intended to benefit the environment surrounding a person. I posit that a transdisciplinary model, the community landscape model of the pro-environmental behavior, unifies the conceptually analogous - yet disparate - fields of landscape, community, and behavior towards explaining residential energy conservation actions. Specifically, the study attempted to describe links between the physical environment, social environment, and conservation behaviors through a mixed-method framework. Two Pennsylvania townships - Spring and East Buffalo townships - were selected from an analysis of housing, electricity consumption, and land cover trends. Key informants from both townships informed the design of a survey instrument that captured the utility consumption, residential conservation actions, energy and environmental values, types and levels of community engagement, perceived barriers, and socio-demographic information from 107 randomly selected households. A mixed-method analysis produced evidence that place-based values and intention to participate in the community were significantly linked to lower utility consumption in households. People who cared deeply about their town

  3. Landscape features impact connectivity between soil populations: a comparative study of gene flow in earthworms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupont, L; Torres-Leguizamon, M; René-Corail, P; Mathieu, J

    2017-06-01

    Landscape features are known to alter the spatial genetic variation of aboveground organisms. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the genetic structure of belowground organisms also responds to landscape structure. Microsatellite markers were used to carry out a landscape genetic study of two endogeic earthworm species, Allolobophora chlorotica (N = 440, eight microsatellites) and Aporrectodea icterica (N = 519, seven microsatellites), in an agricultural landscape in the North of France, where landscape features were characterized with high accuracy. We found that habitat fragmentation impacted genetic variation of earthworm populations at the local scale. A significant relationship was observed between genetic diversity (H e , A r ) and several landscape features in A. icterica populations and A. chlorotica. Moreover, a strong genetic differentiation between sites was observed in both species, with a low degree of genetic admixture and high F st values. The landscape connectivity analysis at the regional scale, including isolation by distance, least-cost path and cost-weighted distance approaches, showed that genetic distances were linked to landscape connectivity in A. chlorotica. This indicates that the fragmentation of natural habitats has shaped their dispersal patterns and local effective population sizes. Landscape connectivity analysis confirmed that a priori favourable habitats such as grasslands may constitute dispersal corridors for these species. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Sixty-Year Changes in Residential Landscapes in Beijing: A Perspective from Both the Horizontal (2D and Vertical (3D Dimensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong Zheng

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Landscape changes associated with urbanization can lead to many serious ecological and environmental problems. Quantifying the vertical structure of the urban landscape and its change is important to understand its social and ecological impacts, but previous studies mainly focus on urban horizontal expansion and its impacts on land cover/land use change. This papers focuses on the residential landscape to investigate how the vertical dimension of the urban landscape (i.e., building height change through time, and how such change is related to changes in the horizontal dimension of the landscape, using Beijing, the capital of China, as a case study. We quantified the expansion of the residential neighborhoods from 1949 to 2009, and changes in vegetation coverage, building density, and building height within these neighborhoods, using 1 m spatial resolution imagery. One-way ANOVA and correlation analysis were used to examine the relationships of building height to vegetation coverage and building density. We found: (1 The residential areas expanded rapidly and were dominated by outward growth, with much less within-city infilling. The growth rate varied greatly through time, first increasing from 1949–2004 and then decreasing from 2005–2009. The expansion direction of newly built residential neighborhoods shifted from west to north in a clockwise direction. (2 The vertical structure of residential neighborhoods changed with time and varied in space, forming a “low-high” pattern from urban central areas to the urban edges within the 5th ring road of Beijing. (3 The residential neighborhoods built in different time periods had significant differences in vegetation coverage, building density, and building height. The residential neighborhoods built in more recent years tended to have taller buildings, lower building density and lower vegetation coverage.

  5. The Influences of Landscape Features on Visitation of Hospital Green Spaces-A Choice Experiment Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kaowen Grace; Chien, Hungju

    2017-07-05

    Studies have suggested that visiting and viewing landscaping at hospitals accelerates patient's recovery from surgery and help staff's recovery from mental fatigue. To plan and construct such landscapes, we need to unravel landscape features desirable to different groups so that the space can benefit a wide range of hospital users. Using discrete choice modeling, we developed experimental choice sets to investigate how landscape features influence the visitations of different users in a large regional hospital in Taiwan. The empirical survey provides quantitative estimates of the influence of each landscape feature on four user groups, including patients, caregivers, staff, and neighborhood residents. Our findings suggest that different types of features promote visits from specific user groups. Landscape features facilitating physical activities effectively encourage visits across user groups especially for caregivers and staff. Patients in this study specify a strong need for contact with nature. The nearby community favors the features designed for children's play and family activities. People across user groups value the features that provide a mitigated microclimate of comfort, such as a shelter. Study implications and limitations are also discussed. Our study provides information essential for creating a better healing environment in a hospital setting.

  6. The Influences of Landscape Features on Visitation of Hospital Green Spaces—A Choice Experiment Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Kaowen Grace; Chien, Hungju

    2017-01-01

    Studies have suggested that visiting and viewing landscaping at hospitals accelerates patient’s recovery from surgery and help staff’s recovery from mental fatigue. To plan and construct such landscapes, we need to unravel landscape features desirable to different groups so that the space can benefit a wide range of hospital users. Using discrete choice modeling, we developed experimental choice sets to investigate how landscape features influence the visitations of different users in a large regional hospital in Taiwan. The empirical survey provides quantitative estimates of the influence of each landscape feature on four user groups, including patients, caregivers, staff, and neighborhood residents. Our findings suggest that different types of features promote visits from specific user groups. Landscape features facilitating physical activities effectively encourage visits across user groups especially for caregivers and staff. Patients in this study specify a strong need for contact with nature. The nearby community favors the features designed for children’s play and family activities. People across user groups value the features that provide a mitigated microclimate of comfort, such as a shelter. Study implications and limitations are also discussed. Our study provides information essential for creating a better healing environment in a hospital setting. PMID:28678168

  7. Multi-scale Analysis of High Resolution Topography: Feature Extraction and Identification of Landscape Characteristic Scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Passalacqua, P.; Sangireddy, H.; Stark, C. P.

    2015-12-01

    With the advent of digital terrain data, detailed information on terrain characteristics and on scale and location of geomorphic features is available over extended areas. Our ability to observe landscapes and quantify topographic patterns has greatly improved, including the estimation of fluxes of mass and energy across landscapes. Challenges still remain in the analysis of high resolution topography data; the presence of features such as roads, for example, challenges classic methods for feature extraction and large data volumes require computationally efficient extraction and analysis methods. Moreover, opportunities exist to define new robust metrics of landscape characterization for landscape comparison and model validation. In this presentation we cover recent research in multi-scale and objective analysis of high resolution topography data. We show how the analysis of the probability density function of topographic attributes such as slope, curvature, and topographic index contains useful information for feature localization and extraction. The analysis of how the distributions change across scales, quantified by the behavior of modal values and interquartile range, allows the identification of landscape characteristic scales, such as terrain roughness. The methods are introduced on synthetic signals in one and two dimensions and then applied to a variety of landscapes of different characteristics. Validation of the methods includes the analysis of modeled landscapes where the noise distribution is known and features of interest easily measured.

  8. Complementary crops and landscape features sustain wild bee communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Kyle T; Albert, Cécile H; Lechowicz, Martin J; Gonzalez, Andrew

    2018-03-01

    Wild bees, which are important for commercial pollination, depend on floral and nesting resources both at farms and in the surrounding landscape. Mass-flowering crops are only in bloom for a few weeks and unable to support bee populations that persist throughout the year. Farm fields and orchards that flower in succession potentially can extend the availability of floral resources for pollinators. However, it is unclear whether the same bee species or genera will forage from one crop to the next, which bees specialize on particular crops, and to what degree inter-crop visitation patterns will be mediated by landscape context. We therefore studied local- and landscape-level drivers of bee diversity and species turnover in apple orchards, blueberry fields and raspberry fields that bloom sequentially in southern Quebec, Canada. Despite the presence of high bee species turnover, orchards and small fruit fields complemented each other phenologically by supporting two bee genera essential to their pollination: mining bees (Andrena spp.) and bumble bees (Bombus spp.). A number of bee species specialized on apple, blueberry or raspberry blossoms, suggesting that all three crops could be used to promote regional bee diversity. Bee diversity (rarefied richness, wild bee abundance) was highest across crops in landscapes containing hedgerows, meadows and suburban areas that provide ancillary nesting and floral resources throughout the spring and summer. Promoting phenological complementarity in floral resources at the farmstead and landscape scales is essential to sustaining diverse wild bee populations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Architectural Features and Preservation of Ancient Residential Complexes of the Changs in Xiangan, Xiamen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, J.; Chiou, S.

    2015-08-01

    Ancient architecture is an important cultural symbol of a nation, which has high historical, artistic and technology of cultural value. A building not only carries the creator of effort, but also the past with the future of the historical traditions and humanistic significance. It is not purely construction of artistic expression, even more the witness of the production and development of social groups. Therefore, it is not only the common cultural heritage of mankind, as more equally important to protect these ancient buildings for the promotion of spiritual civilization and local economic development. In recent years, China and other developing countries, which in the pursuit of rapid economic development, are also facing the problems of development and preservation, Especially influenced by the inherent "reform and innovation" traditional concepts, many ancient villages and buildings with rich cultural connotation are in a great danger. Xiang'an is one of the six administrative regions of Xiamen, The Tungyuan village and numerous surrounding villages which in Xiang'an retain a large number of ancient buildings of Ming and Qing Dynasties, but it has not been given due attention, many ancient buildings are facing the crisis of disappearing. Changs ancient residential is one of typical Minnan architectural which located in Tungyuan village. its main feature is as follows: Cheng is before the rear is Cuo, Facing south, Three bays with double Hucuo , Red brick and White stone wall, Architectural form of Hard mountain type roof and Double cocked dovetail ridge. In this paper, on the basis of the fieldwork, In addition to the overall building community environment and monomer building surveying and mapping, photograph, record, and through the collection, interviews and analysis of relevant historical materials, etc. Grasping the historical background of Changs ancient residential building community, exploring the formation and characteristics of the overall layout of

  10. Architectural Features and Preservation of Ancient Residential Complexes of the Changs in Xiangan, Xiamen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Xia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Ancient architecture is an important cultural symbol of a nation, which has high historical, artistic and technology of cultural value. A building not only carries the creator of effort, but also the past with the future of the historical traditions and humanistic significance. It is not purely construction of artistic expression, even more the witness of the production and development of social groups. Therefore, it is not only the common cultural heritage of mankind, as more equally important to protect these ancient buildings for the promotion of spiritual civilization and local economic development. In recent years, China and other developing countries, which in the pursuit of rapid economic development, are also facing the problems of development and preservation, Especially influenced by the inherent "reform and innovation" traditional concepts, many ancient villages and buildings with rich cultural connotation are in a great danger. Xiang'an is one of the six administrative regions of Xiamen, The Tungyuan village and numerous surrounding villages which in Xiang'an retain a large number of ancient buildings of Ming and Qing Dynasties, but it has not been given due attention, many ancient buildings are facing the crisis of disappearing. Changs ancient residential is one of typical Minnan architectural which located in Tungyuan village. its main feature is as follows: Cheng is before the rear is Cuo, Facing south, Three bays with double Hucuo , Red brick and White stone wall, Architectural form of Hard mountain type roof and Double cocked dovetail ridge. In this paper, on the basis of the fieldwork, In addition to the overall building community environment and monomer building surveying and mapping, photograph, record, and through the collection, interviews and analysis of relevant historical materials, etc. Grasping the historical background of Changs ancient residential building community, exploring the formation and characteristics of the

  11. A multi-scalar approach to theorizing socio-ecological dynamics of urban residential landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinku Roy Chowdhury; Kelli Larson; Morgan Grove; Colin Polsky; Elizabeth Cook; Jeffrey Onsted; Laura. Ogden

    2011-01-01

    Urban residential expansion increasingly drives land use, land cover and ecological changes worldwide, yet social science theories explaining such change remain under-developed. Existing theories often focus on processes occurring at one scale, while ignoring other scales. Emerging evidence from four linked U.S. research sites suggests it is essential to examine...

  12. Habitat selection in a rocky landscape: experimentally decoupling the influence of retreat site attributes from that of landscape features.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin M Croak

    Full Text Available Organisms selecting retreat sites may evaluate not only the quality of the specific shelter, but also the proximity of that site to resources in the surrounding area. Distinguishing between habitat selection at these two spatial scales is complicated by co-variation among microhabitat factors (i.e., the attributes of individual retreat sites often correlate with their proximity to landscape features. Disentangling this co-variation may facilitate the restoration or conservation of threatened systems. To experimentally examine the role of landscape attributes in determining retreat-site quality for saxicolous ectotherms, we deployed 198 identical artificial rocks in open (sun-exposed sites on sandstone outcrops in southeastern Australia, and recorded faunal usage of those retreat sites over the next 29 months. Several landscape-scale attributes were associated with occupancy of experimental rocks, but different features were important for different species. For example, endangered broad-headed snakes (Hoplocephalus bungaroides preferred retreat sites close to cliff edges, flat rock spiders (Hemicloea major preferred small outcrops, and velvet geckos (Oedura lesueurii preferred rocks close to the cliff edge with higher-than-average sun exposure. Standardized retreat sites can provide robust experimental data on the effects of landscape-scale attributes on retreat site selection, revealing interspecific divergences among sympatric taxa that use similar habitats.

  13. RESIDENTIAL LOAD ON THE STEPPE LANDSCAPE OF THE NORTHWEST AND WEST NORTHWEST CISCAUCASIA AND ITS TURIST-RECREATIONAL USE WITHIN THE KRASNODAR REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Alexandrovich Mishchenko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available As a result of the cumulative interaction of political, ethnic, demographic, economic, social, biological and other ties, processes and relationships the structure of modern landscapes was formed. Aggregate settlement the Krasnodar region, especially large and medium, together with the lines of communication between them forms a supporting framework of the settlement. Determination of anthropogenic loads on individual components of nature and also on the natural complexes in general, is a central part in assessing the contemporary geo-ecological situation of the area. Within the boundaries of the Northwest Ciscaucasia rural residential landscape occupies 99% of the residential landscape. Agricultural zoning based on landscape approaches is one of the main directions of the transition to sustainable agriculture, which focuses on the combination of high productivity and environmental sustainability of the agrogeosistems. The optimal existence of the landscapes requires that their functions are consistent with their natural properties, resource potential. Complex process of impacts on the landscape extends as chain reactions on the vertical and horizontal landscape relations. On this territory, there is a significant recreational potential. Territory can be used for weekend tours for urban residents, who are located quite close to these recreational richest places. Development of the agro-tourism is the most effective if the industry is evolving as a support towards the main tourist or agricultural specialization.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12731/2218-7405-2014-4-6

  14. [Variation pattern and its affecting factors of three-dimensional landscape in urban residential community of Shenyang].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pei-Feng; Hu, Yuan-Man; Xiong, Zai-Ping; Liu, Miao

    2011-02-01

    Based on the 1:10000 aerial photo in 1997 and the three QuickBird images in 2002, 2005, and 2008, and by using Barista software and GIS and RS techniques, the three-dimensional information of the residential community in Tiexi District of Shenyang was extracted, and the variation pattern of the three-dimensional landscape in the district during its reconstruction in 1997-2008 and related affecting factors were analyzed with the indices, ie. road density, greening rate, average building height, building height standard deviation, building coverage rate, floor area rate, building shape coefficient, population density, and per capita GDP. The results showed that in 1997-2008, the building area for industry decreased, that for commerce and other public affairs increased, and the area for residents, education, and medical cares basically remained stable. The building number, building coverage rate, and building shape coefficient decreased, while the floor area rate, average building height, height standard deviation, road density, and greening rate increased. Within the limited space of residential community, the containing capacity of population and economic activity increased, and the environment quality also improved to some extent. The variation degree of average building height increased, but the building energy consumption decreased. Population growth and economic development had positive correlations with floor area rate, road density, and greening rate, but negative correlation with building coverage rate.

  15. Feature co-localization landscape of the human genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Siu-Kin; Hu, Taobo; Long, Xi; Chan, Cheuk-Hin; Tsang, Shui-Ying; Xue, Hong

    2016-02-08

    Although feature co-localizations could serve as useful guide-posts to genome architecture, a comprehensive and quantitative feature co-localization map of the human genome has been lacking. Herein we show that, in contrast to the conventional bipartite division of genomic sequences into genic and inter-genic regions, pairwise co-localizations of forty-two genomic features in the twenty-two autosomes based on 50-kb to 2,000-kb sequence windows indicate a tripartite zonal architecture comprising Genic zones enriched with gene-related features and Alu-elements; Proximal zones enriched with MIR- and L2-elements, transcription-factor-binding-sites (TFBSs), and conserved-indels (CIDs); and Distal zones enriched with L1-elements. Co-localizations between single-nucleotide-polymorphisms (SNPs) and copy-number-variations (CNVs) reveal a fraction of sequence windows displaying steeply enhanced levels of SNPs, CNVs and recombination rates that point to active adaptive evolution in such pathways as immune response, sensory perceptions, and cognition. The strongest positive co-localization observed between TFBSs and CIDs suggests a regulatory role of CIDs in cooperation with TFBSs. The positive co-localizations of cancer somatic CNVs (CNVT) with all Proximal zone and most Genic zone features, in contrast to the distinctly more restricted co-localizations exhibited by germline CNVs (CNVG), reveal disparate distributions of CNVTs and CNVGs indicative of dissimilarity in their underlying mechanisms.

  16. Comparing Nitrous Oxide Emissions from Three Residential Landscapes under Different Management Schemes Following Natural Rainfall Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cultural lawn management practices that produce aesthetically appealing landscapes may also create environmental conditions that stimulate soil nitrous oxide (N2O) emissions. The purpose of this study is to investigate the effects of lawn management practices on N2O fluxes from ...

  17. Landscape features influence postrelease predation on endangered black-footed ferrets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poessel, S.A.; Breck, S.W.; Biggins, D.E.; Livieri, T.M.; Crooks, K.R.; Angeloni, L.

    2011-01-01

    Predation can be a critical factor influencing recovery of endangered species. In most recovery efforts lethal and nonlethal influences of predators are not sufficiently understood to allow prediction of predation risk, despite its importance. We investigated whether landscape features could be used to model predation risk from coyotes (Canis latrans) and great horned owls (Bubo virginianus) on the endangered black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes). We used location data of reintroduced ferrets from 3 sites in South Dakota to determine whether exposure to landscape features typically associated with predators affected survival of ferrets, and whether ferrets considered predation risk when choosing habitat near perches potentially used by owls or near linear features predicted to be used by coyotes. Exposure to areas near likely owl perches reduced ferret survival, but landscape features potentially associated with coyote movements had no appreciable effect on survival. Ferrets were located within 90 m of perches more than expected in 2 study sites that also had higher ferret mortality due to owl predation. Densities of potential coyote travel routes near ferret locations were no different than expected in all 3 sites. Repatriated ferrets might have selected resources based on factors other than predator avoidance. Considering an easily quantified landscape feature (i.e., owl perches) can enhance success of reintroduction efforts for ferrets. Nonetheless, development of predictive models of predation risk and management strategies to mitigate that risk is not necessarily straightforward for more generalist predators such as coyotes. ?? 2011 American Society of Mammalogists.

  18. Using landscape and bioclimatic features to predict the distribution of lions, leopards and spotted hyaenas in Tanzania's Ruaha landscape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Abade

    Full Text Available Tanzania's Ruaha landscape is an international priority area for large carnivores, supporting over 10% of the world's lions and important populations of leopards and spotted hyaenas. However, lack of ecological data on large carnivore distribution and habitat use hinders the development of effective carnivore conservation strategies in this critical landscape. Therefore, the study aimed to (i identify the most significant ecogeographical variables influencing the potential distribution of lions, leopards and spotted hyaenas across the Ruaha landscape; (ii identify zones with highest suitability for harbouring those species; and (iii use species distribution modelling algorithms (SDMs to define important areas for conservation of large carnivores. Habitat suitability was calculated based on environmental features from georeferenced presence-only carnivore location data. Potential distribution of large carnivores appeared to be strongly influenced by water availability; highly suitable areas were situated close to rivers and experienced above average annual precipitation. Net primary productivity and tree cover also exerted some influence on habitat suitability. All three species showed relatively narrow niche breadth and low tolerance to changes in habitat characteristics. From 21,050 km2 assessed, 8.1% (1,702 km2 emerged as highly suitable for all three large carnivores collectively. Of that area, 95.4% (1,624 km2 was located within 30 km of the Park-village border, raising concerns about human-carnivore conflict. This was of particular concern for spotted hyaenas, as they were located significantly closer to the Park boundary than lions and leopards. This study provides the first map of potential carnivore distribution across the globally important Ruaha landscape, and demonstrates that SDMs can be effective for understanding large carnivore habitat requirements in poorly sampled areas. This approach could have relevance for many other

  19. Using landscape and bioclimatic features to predict the distribution of lions, leopards and spotted hyaenas in Tanzania's Ruaha landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abade, Leandro; Macdonald, David W; Dickman, Amy J

    2014-01-01

    Tanzania's Ruaha landscape is an international priority area for large carnivores, supporting over 10% of the world's lions and important populations of leopards and spotted hyaenas. However, lack of ecological data on large carnivore distribution and habitat use hinders the development of effective carnivore conservation strategies in this critical landscape. Therefore, the study aimed to (i) identify the most significant ecogeographical variables influencing the potential distribution of lions, leopards and spotted hyaenas across the Ruaha landscape; (ii) identify zones with highest suitability for harbouring those species; and (iii) use species distribution modelling algorithms (SDMs) to define important areas for conservation of large carnivores. Habitat suitability was calculated based on environmental features from georeferenced presence-only carnivore location data. Potential distribution of large carnivores appeared to be strongly influenced by water availability; highly suitable areas were situated close to rivers and experienced above average annual precipitation. Net primary productivity and tree cover also exerted some influence on habitat suitability. All three species showed relatively narrow niche breadth and low tolerance to changes in habitat characteristics. From 21,050 km2 assessed, 8.1% (1,702 km2) emerged as highly suitable for all three large carnivores collectively. Of that area, 95.4% (1,624 km2) was located within 30 km of the Park-village border, raising concerns about human-carnivore conflict. This was of particular concern for spotted hyaenas, as they were located significantly closer to the Park boundary than lions and leopards. This study provides the first map of potential carnivore distribution across the globally important Ruaha landscape, and demonstrates that SDMs can be effective for understanding large carnivore habitat requirements in poorly sampled areas. This approach could have relevance for many other important wildlife

  20. Effect of landscape density in a residential area on thermal performance in a tropical climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamarulzaman Noorazlina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available It is a well-documented that the urban air temperature is gradually growing in all cities due to the rapid development of buildings, roads and other infrastructure, human activities and also decreasing in vegetated areas. In a tropical climate, outdoor environment is clearly warmer than indoor environment due to higher air temperatures, particularly in dry seasons. Since the indoor environment is influenced by its surroundings, this situation indirectly contributes to the discomfort indoor environment in the building. Thus, it generates to the dependence on mechanical ventilation and increase the energy consumption in buildings. Many research studies have proof that plants not only beauty a city, but also improve the urban environmental condition by reducing the transferring of heat flux on buildings and increasing the reflection of radiation and shading. Therefore strategically placed vegetation around a building could decrease the energy consumption in buildings by reducing the adverse impact of some climate elements. Overall, this paper focuses on the results of a preliminary pilot study of two Semi-Detached houses with different landscape density in Seri Iskandar, Perak. Three climatic parameters, building configuration, and landscape design measured and analyze in this paper.

  1. Measuring Spatio-temporal Trends in Residential Landscape Irrigation Extent and Rate in Los Angeles, California Using SPOT-5 Satellite Imagery

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, YJ; McFadden, JP; Clarke, KC; Roberts, DA

    2015-01-01

    © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Irrigation is a large component of urban water budgets in semi-arid regions and is critical for the management of landscape vegetation and water resources. This is particularly true for Mediterranean climate cities such as Los Angeles, where water availability is limited during dry summers. These interactions were examined by using 10-m resolution satellite imagery and a database of monthly water use records for all residential water customer...

  2. Explaining Andean potato weevils in relation to local and landscape features: a facilitated ecoinformatics approach.

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    Soroush Parsa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Pest impact on an agricultural field is jointly influenced by local and landscape features. Rarely, however, are these features studied together. The present study applies a "facilitated ecoinformatics" approach to jointly screen many local and landscape features of suspected importance to Andean potato weevils (Premnotrypes spp., the most serious pests of potatoes in the high Andes. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We generated a comprehensive list of predictors of weevil damage, including both local and landscape features deemed important by farmers and researchers. To test their importance, we assembled an observational dataset measuring these features across 138 randomly-selected potato fields in Huancavelica, Peru. Data for local features were generated primarily by participating farmers who were trained to maintain records of their management operations. An information theoretic approach to modeling the data resulted in 131,071 models, the best of which explained 40.2-46.4% of the observed variance in infestations. The best model considering both local and landscape features strongly outperformed the best models considering them in isolation. Multi-model inferences confirmed many, but not all of the expected patterns, and suggested gaps in local knowledge for Andean potato weevils. The most important predictors were the field's perimeter-to-area ratio, the number of nearby potato storage units, the amount of potatoes planted in close proximity to the field, and the number of insecticide treatments made early in the season. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Results underscored the need to refine the timing of insecticide applications and to explore adjustments in potato hilling as potential control tactics for Andean weevils. We believe our study illustrates the potential of ecoinformatics research to help streamline IPM learning in agricultural learning collaboratives.

  3. Balancing the Ecological Function of Residential Stormwater Ponds with Homeowner Landscaping Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Paul; Hu, Shangchun; Hansen, Gail; Ott, Emily; Nealis, Charles; Morera, Maria

    2016-11-01

    Stormwater ponds are installed in urban developments to provide the ecosystem services of flood control and water treatment. In coastal areas, these ponds are connected to watersheds that can drain directly into protected estuaries, making their design, function, and maintenance critical to environmental protection. However, stormwater ponds in residential areas are increasingly managed as aesthetic amenities that add value to real estate rather than as engineered devices with special maintenance requirements. To help extend the life of neighborhood stormwater systems and improve ecosystem services, homeowners should follow best management practices for nutrient management and add shoreline plantings and non-invasive, beneficial aquatic plants to their ponds. This study used focus group and survey research to document the knowledge, behaviors, and attitudes of homeowners living near stormwater ponds in a master-planned community in Florida. The study was designed to use a social marketing research approach to promote Extension best practices. Findings indicate that many residents were aware of the functional components of stormwater systems and respondents' receptivity to best management practices was mediated by age, their attitudes about water quality and whether their home was adjacent to a pond. These findings can be used to target Extension audiences and improve adoption of stormwater pond best management practices for increased protection of water quality.

  4. Balancing the Ecological Function of Residential Stormwater Ponds with Homeowner Landscaping Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monaghan, Paul; Hu, Shangchun; Hansen, Gail; Ott, Emily; Nealis, Charles; Morera, Maria

    2016-11-01

    Stormwater ponds are installed in urban developments to provide the ecosystem services of flood control and water treatment. In coastal areas, these ponds are connected to watersheds that can drain directly into protected estuaries, making their design, function, and maintenance critical to environmental protection. However, stormwater ponds in residential areas are increasingly managed as aesthetic amenities that add value to real estate rather than as engineered devices with special maintenance requirements. To help extend the life of neighborhood stormwater systems and improve ecosystem services, homeowners should follow best management practices for nutrient management and add shoreline plantings and non-invasive, beneficial aquatic plants to their ponds. This study used focus group and survey research to document the knowledge, behaviors, and attitudes of homeowners living near stormwater ponds in a master-planned community in Florida. The study was designed to use a social marketing research approach to promote Extension best practices. Findings indicate that many residents were aware of the functional components of stormwater systems and respondents' receptivity to best management practices was mediated by age, their attitudes about water quality and whether their home was adjacent to a pond. These findings can be used to target Extension audiences and improve adoption of stormwater pond best management practices for increased protection of water quality.

  5. Deciphering hierarchical features in the energy landscape of adenylate kinase folding/unfolding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, J. Nicholas; Pirchi, Menahem; Haran, Gilad; Komatsuzaki, Tamiki

    2018-03-01

    Hierarchical features of the energy landscape of the folding/unfolding behavior of adenylate kinase, including its dependence on denaturant concentration, are elucidated in terms of single-molecule fluorescence resonance energy transfer (smFRET) measurements in which the proteins are encapsulated in a lipid vesicle. The core in constructing the energy landscape from single-molecule time-series across different denaturant concentrations is the application of rate-distortion theory (RDT), which naturally considers the effects of measurement noise and sampling error, in combination with change-point detection and the quantification of the FRET efficiency-dependent photobleaching behavior. Energy landscapes are constructed as a function of observation time scale, revealing multiple partially folded conformations at small time scales that are situated in a superbasin. As the time scale increases, these denatured states merge into a single basin, demonstrating the coarse-graining of the energy landscape as observation time increases. Because the photobleaching time scale is dependent on the conformational state of the protein, possible nonequilibrium features are discussed, and a statistical test for violation of the detailed balance condition is developed based on the state sequences arising from the RDT framework.

  6. Feature context-dependency and complexity-reduction in probability landscapes for integrative genomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benecke Arndt

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The question of how to integrate heterogeneous sources of biological information into a coherent framework that allows the gene regulatory code in eukaryotes to be systematically investigated is one of the major challenges faced by systems biology. Probability landscapes, which include as reference set the probabilistic representation of the genomic sequence, have been proposed as a possible approach to the systematic discovery and analysis of correlations amongst initially heterogeneous and un-relatable descriptions and genome-wide measurements. Much of the available experimental sequence and genome activity information is de facto, but not necessarily obviously, context dependent. Furthermore, the context dependency of the relevant information is itself dependent on the biological question addressed. It is hence necessary to develop a systematic way of discovering the context-dependency of functional genomics information in a flexible, question-dependent manner. Results We demonstrate here how feature context-dependency can be systematically investigated using probability landscapes. Furthermore, we show how different feature probability profiles can be conditionally collapsed to reduce the computational and formal, mathematical complexity of probability landscapes. Interestingly, the possibility of complexity reduction can be linked directly to the analysis of context-dependency. Conclusion These two advances in our understanding of the properties of probability landscapes not only simplify subsequent cross-correlation analysis in hypothesis-driven model building and testing, but also provide additional insights into the biological gene regulatory problems studied. Furthermore, insights into the nature of individual features and a classification of features according to their minimal context-dependency are achieved. The formal structure proposed contributes to a concrete and tangible basis for attempting to formulate novel

  7. Acceptability of residential development in a regional landscape: Potential effects on wildlife occupancy patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bettigole, Charles A.; Donovan, Therese; Manning, Robert; Austin, John; Long, Robert

    2014-01-01

    The conversion of natural lands to developed uses may pose the single greatest human threat to global terrestrial biodiversity. Continued human growth and development over the next century will further exacerbate these effects of habitat loss and fragmentation. Natural resource managers are tasked with managing wildlife as a public trust, yet often have little say in land use decisions. Generally speaking, decision makers could benefit from an understanding of what different regulations mean in terms of wildlife distribution. In a previous paper (Bettigole et al., 2013), we surveyed town residents throughout Vermont to measure how respondents feel about a range of development levels within their town boundaries. We estimated the “social carrying capacity for development” – orSKd – for 251 towns in Vermont. SKd provides an estimate of the level of developed land cover classes that town residents deem “acceptable” within their town boundaries. In this paper, we design a framework for linking the town-specific SKd estimates with the wildlife distribution patterns for three wide-ranging mammalian species: American black bear (Ursus americanus), fisher (Martes pennanti), and bobcat (Lynx rufus). We simulated landscape conditions at SKd for each town in Vermont, and then used existing occupancy models for the three target species to spatially map and compare occupancy rates in the baseline year 2000 with occupancy rates at SKd. With nearly 90% of Vermont towns willing to increase developed landcover classes within town boundaries compared to baseline levels, significant state-wide changes in occupancy rates were predicted for all three focal species. Average occupancy rates declined by −15.9% and −3.1% for black bear and bobcats, respectively. Average occupancy rates for fisher increased by 9.0%. This study provides a method for linking development standards within a town with wildlife occurrence. Across towns, the methodology spatially identifies

  8. The Role of Near-Fault Relief in Creating and Maintaining Strike-Slip Landscape Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbert, S.; Duvall, A. R.; Tucker, G. E.

    2016-12-01

    Geomorphic landforms, such as shutter ridges, offset river terraces, and deflected stream channels, are often used to assess the activity and slip rates of strike-slip faults. However, in some systems, such as parts of the Marlborough Fault System (South Island, NZ), an active strike-slip fault does not leave a strong landscape signature. Here we explore the factors that dampen or enhance the landscape signature of strike-slip faulting using the Channel-Hillslope Integrated Landscape Development model (CHILD). We focus on variables affecting the length of channel offsets, which enhance the signature of strike-slip motion, and the frequency of stream captures, which eliminate offsets and reduce this signature. We model a strike-slip fault that passes through a mountain ridge, offsetting streams that drain across this fault. We use this setup to test the response of channel offset length and capture frequency to fault characteristics, such as slip rate and ratio of lateral to vertical motion, and to landscape characteristics, such as relief contrasts controlled by erodibility. Our experiments show that relief downhill of the fault, whether generated by differential uplift across the fault or by an erodibility contrast, has the strongest effect on offset length and capture frequency. This relief creates shutter ridges, which block and divert streams while being advected along a fault. Shutter ridges and the streams they divert have long been recognized as markers of strike-slip motion. Our results show specifically that the height of shutter ridges is most responsible for the degree to which they create long channel offsets by preventing stream captures. We compare these results to landscape metrics in the Marlborough Fault System, where shutter ridges are common and often lithologically controlled. We compare shutter ridge length and height to channel offset length in order to assess the influence of relief on offset channel features in a real landscape. Based on our

  9. Associations between children's diets and features of their residential and school neighbourhood food environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hulst, Andraea; Barnett, Tracie A; Gauvin, Lise; Daniel, Mark; Kestens, Yan; Bird, Madeleine; Gray-Donald, Katherine; Lambert, Marie

    2012-07-26

    Among studies of the built environment, few examine neighbourhood food environments in relation to children's diets. We examined the associations of residential and school neighbourhood access to different types of food establishments with children's diets. Data from QUALITY (Quebec Adipose and Lifestyle Investigation in Youth), an ongoing study on the natural history of obesity in 630 Quebec youth aged 8-10 years with a parental history of obesity, were analyzed (n=512). Three 24-hour diet recalls were used to assess dietary intake of vegetables and fruit, and sugar-sweetened beverages. Questionnaires were used to determine the frequency of eating/snacking out and consumption of delivered/take-out foods. We characterized residential and school neighbourhood food environments by means of a Geographic Information System. Variables included distance to the nearest supermarket, fast-food restaurant and convenience store, and densities of each food establishment type computed for 1 km network buffers around each child's residence and school. Retail Food Environment indices were also computed. Multivariable logistic regressions (residential access) and generalized estimating equations (school access) were used for analysis. Residential and school neighbourhood access to supermarkets was not associated with children's diets. Residing in neighbourhoods with lower access to fast-food restaurants and convenience stores was associated with a lower likelihood of eating and snacking out. Children attending schools in neighbourhoods with a higher number of unhealthful relative to healthful food establishments scored most poorly on dietary outcomes. Further investigations are needed to inform policies aimed at shaping neighbourhood-level food purchasing opportunities, particularly for access to fast-food restaurants and convenience stores.

  10. A smooth landscape: ending saddle point inflation requires features to be shallow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Battefeld, Diana; Battefeld, Thorsten

    2013-01-01

    We consider inflation driven near a saddle point in a higher dimensional field space, which is the most likely type of slow roll inflation on the string theoretical landscape; anthropic arguments need to be invoked in order to find a sufficiently flat region. To give all inflatons large masses after inflation and yield a small but positive cosmological constant, the trajectory in field space needs to terminate in a hole on the inflationary plateau, introducing a curved end-of-inflation hypersurface. We compute non-Gaussianities (bi- and tri-spectrum) caused by this curved hyper-surface and find a negative, potentially large, local non-linearity parameter. To be consistent with current observational bounds, the hole needs to be shallow, i.e. considerably wider than deep in natural units. To avoid singling out our vacuum as special (i.e. more special than a positive cosmological constant entails), we deduce that all features on field space should be similarly shallow, severely limiting the type of landscapes one may use for inflationary model building. We justify the use of a truncated Fourier series with random coefficients, which are suppressed the higher the frequency, to model such a smooth landscape by a random potential, as is often done in the literature without a good a priory reason

  11. Measuring and monitoring linear woody features in agricultural landscapes through earth observation data as an indicator of habitat availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasher, J.; McGovern, M.; Putinski, V.

    2016-02-01

    The loss of natural habitats and the loss of biological diversity is a global problem affecting all ecosystems including agricultural landscapes. Indicators of biodiversity can provide standardized measures that make it easier to compare and communicate changes to an ecosystem. In agricultural landscapes the amount and variety of available habitat is directly correlated with biodiversity levels. Linear woody features (LWF), including hedgerows, windbreaks, shelterbelts as well as woody shrubs along fields, roads and watercourses, play a vital role in supporting biodiversity as well as serving a wide variety of other purposes in the ecosystem. Earth observation can be used to quantify and monitor LWF across the landscape. While individual features can be manually mapped, this research focused on the development of methods using line intersect sampling (LIS) for estimating LWF as an indicator of habitat availability in agricultural landscapes. The methods are accurate, efficient, repeatable and provide robust results. Methods were tested over 9.5 Mha of agricultural landscape in the Canadian Mixedwood Plains ecozone. Approximately 97,000 km of LWF were estimated across this landscape with results useable both at a regional reporting scale, as well as mapped across space for use in wildlife habitat modelling or other landscape management research. The LIS approach developed here could be employed at a variety of scales in particular for large regions and could be adapted for use as a national scale indicator of habitat availability in heavily disturbed agricultural landscape.

  12. SOME FEATURES OF THE POWER SUPPLY OF RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS DURING THE HEATING SEASON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Osipov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A large proportion of consumption of different types of energy by the residential sector, especially in the heating period, makes the energy efficiency of buildings without considering the loss of fuel with a significant reduction in hourly load on the generators, especially at night, already insufficient for real energy savings. Therefore in Belarus, in order to attract the consumer, electricity tariff for heating at night hours (from 11 p.m. to 6.00 a.m. is three times cheaper than at any other time. Significant increase of the electricity consumption of at night could be achieved by using heat accumulators for heating and hot water supply to the residential sector. Particularly effective are water accumulators of heat and accumulators of underfloor heating that enable to use a coolant with a temperature of 40 оC and to increase the useful supply of heat. The use of heat accumulators for daily heating, ventilation and hot water supply of buildings significantly reduces the cost of creating the infrastructure of the territory under construction by eliminating the necessity of running the distribution network of heat or gas supply. The use of the heat accumulators is necessary due to the increase of the time-weighted average outdoor temperature. The mentioned increase in the City of Minsk in the heating season is of about 0.1 °C per year in average, and as for the last 20 years, the increase has led to a reduction of the required heat load on the premises by about 10 %. Research and project work on choosing the most effective options for the arrangement and use the heat accumulators in buildings of the various functions ought to be fulfilled in order to make the application of heat accumulators successful. In this respect civil and power engineers as well as operators should work together so to determine the chronological, technical and economic conditions of charging and use of heat accumulators.

  13. Assessment of geostatistical features for object-based image classification of contrasted landscape vegetation cover

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Silveira, Eduarda Martiniano; de Menezes, Michele Duarte; Acerbi Júnior, Fausto Weimar; Castro Nunes Santos Terra, Marcela; de Mello, José Márcio

    2017-07-01

    Accurate mapping and monitoring of savanna and semiarid woodland biomes are needed to support the selection of areas of conservation, to provide sustainable land use, and to improve the understanding of vegetation. The potential of geostatistical features, derived from medium spatial resolution satellite imagery, to characterize contrasted landscape vegetation cover and improve object-based image classification is studied. The study site in Brazil includes cerrado sensu stricto, deciduous forest, and palm swamp vegetation cover. Sentinel 2 and Landsat 8 images were acquired and divided into objects, for each of which a semivariogram was calculated using near-infrared (NIR) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) to extract the set of geostatistical features. The features selected by principal component analysis were used as input data to train a random forest algorithm. Tests were conducted, combining spectral and geostatistical features. Change detection evaluation was performed using a confusion matrix and its accuracies. The semivariogram curves were efficient to characterize spatial heterogeneity, with similar results using NIR and NDVI from Sentinel 2 and Landsat 8. Accuracy was significantly greater when combining geostatistical features with spectral data, suggesting that this method can improve image classification results.

  14. Neighborhood Landscape Spatial Patterns and Land Surface Temperature: An Empirical Study on Single-Family Residential Areas in Austin, Texas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Hyun; Gu, Donghwan; Sohn, Wonmin; Kil, Sung-Ho; Kim, Hwanyong; Lee, Dong-Kun

    2016-01-01

    Rapid urbanization has accelerated land use and land cover changes, and generated the urban heat island effect (UHI). Previous studies have reported positive effects of neighborhood landscapes on mitigating urban surface temperatures. However, the influence of neighborhood landscape spatial patterns on enhancing cooling effects has not yet been fully investigated. The main objective of this study was to assess the relationships between neighborhood landscape spatial patterns and land surface temperatures (LST) by using multi-regression models considering spatial autocorrelation issues. To measure the influence of neighborhood landscape spatial patterns on LST, this study analyzed neighborhood environments of 15,862 single-family houses in Austin, Texas, USA. Using aerial photos, geographic information systems (GIS), and remote sensing, FRAGSTATS was employed to calculate values of several landscape indices used to measure neighborhood landscape spatial patterns. After controlling for the spatial autocorrelation effect, results showed that larger and better-connected landscape spatial patterns were positively correlated with lower LST values in neighborhoods, while more fragmented and isolated neighborhood landscape patterns were negatively related to the reduction of LST. PMID:27598186

  15. Neighborhood Landscape Spatial Patterns and Land Surface Temperature: An Empirical Study on Single-Family Residential Areas in Austin, Texas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Hyun Kim

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Rapid urbanization has accelerated land use and land cover changes, and generated the urban heat island effect (UHI. Previous studies have reported positive effects of neighborhood landscapes on mitigating urban surface temperatures. However, the influence of neighborhood landscape spatial patterns on enhancing cooling effects has not yet been fully investigated. The main objective of this study was to assess the relationships between neighborhood landscape spatial patterns and land surface temperatures (LST by using multi-regression models considering spatial autocorrelation issues. To measure the influence of neighborhood landscape spatial patterns on LST, this study analyzed neighborhood environments of 15,862 single-family houses in Austin, Texas, USA. Using aerial photos, geographic information systems (GIS, and remote sensing, FRAGSTATS was employed to calculate values of several landscape indices used to measure neighborhood landscape spatial patterns. After controlling for the spatial autocorrelation effect, results showed that larger and better-connected landscape spatial patterns were positively correlated with lower LST values in neighborhoods, while more fragmented and isolated neighborhood landscape patterns were negatively related to the reduction of LST.

  16. Neighborhood Landscape Spatial Patterns and Land Surface Temperature: An Empirical Study on Single-Family Residential Areas in Austin, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jun-Hyun; Gu, Donghwan; Sohn, Wonmin; Kil, Sung-Ho; Kim, Hwanyong; Lee, Dong-Kun

    2016-09-02

    Rapid urbanization has accelerated land use and land cover changes, and generated the urban heat island effect (UHI). Previous studies have reported positive effects of neighborhood landscapes on mitigating urban surface temperatures. However, the influence of neighborhood landscape spatial patterns on enhancing cooling effects has not yet been fully investigated. The main objective of this study was to assess the relationships between neighborhood landscape spatial patterns and land surface temperatures (LST) by using multi-regression models considering spatial autocorrelation issues. To measure the influence of neighborhood landscape spatial patterns on LST, this study analyzed neighborhood environments of 15,862 single-family houses in Austin, Texas, USA. Using aerial photos, geographic information systems (GIS), and remote sensing, FRAGSTATS was employed to calculate values of several landscape indices used to measure neighborhood landscape spatial patterns. After controlling for the spatial autocorrelation effect, results showed that larger and better-connected landscape spatial patterns were positively correlated with lower LST values in neighborhoods, while more fragmented and isolated neighborhood landscape patterns were negatively related to the reduction of LST.

  17. Contrasting Patterns in Solitary and Eusocial Bees While Responding to Landscape Features in the Brazilian Cerrado: a Multiscaled Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, D P; Nogueira, D S; De Marco, P

    2017-06-01

    Landscape structure is an important determinant of biological fluxes and species composition, but species do not respond equally to landscape features or spatial extents. Evaluating "multi-scale" responses of species to landscape structure is an important framework to be considered, allowing insights about habitat requirements for different groups. We evaluated the response of Brazilian Cerrado's bees (eusocial vs. solitary ones) to both the amount and isolation of remnant vegetation in eight nested multiple-local scales. Response variables included abundance, observed, and estimated species richness, and beta diversity (split into nestedness and turnover resultant dissimilarities). Eusocial species' abundance responded to landscape structure at narrow scales of fragment isolation (250 m of radius from sampling sites), while solitary species' abundance responded to broader scales to fragment area (2000 m). Eusocial species nestedness also responded to landscape features in broader scales (1500 m), especially to increasing fragment isolation. However, all the remaining response variables did not respond to any other landscape variables in any spatial scale considered. Such contrasting responses of the abundances of eusocial vs. solitary species are related to the inherent life-history traits of each group. Important attributes in this context are different requirements on food resources, population features, and flight abilities. Species-specific dispersal abilities may be the main determinants of the nested patterns found for eusocial species at 1500 m. Considering these results, we suggest that different bee groups are considered separately in further landscape analyses, especially in other Brazilian biomes, for a better understanding of landscape effects on these organisms.

  18. Impacts of man-made landscape features on numbers of estuarine waterbirds at low tide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Niall H K; Armitage, Michael J S; Musgrove, Andrew J; Rehfisch, Mark M

    2002-12-01

    The potential impact of human disturbance on wintering waterbirds using intertidal mudflats was considered by relating their numbers to the presence of nearby footpaths, roads, railroads, and towns. Data were obtained for six English estuaries from the Wetland Bird Survey Low Tide Count scheme. Counts were undertaken monthly from November to February, and data were available for an average of 2.8 years per estuary for the period 1992-1993 to 1999-2000. Count sections and the positions of man-made landscape features were mapped using a GIS. Generalized linear models tested whether bird numbers varied according to the estuary, month, area, whether or not the section bordered water, and the proportion of each section within a specified distance of each landscape feature. In addition, the proximity of sections to the nearest footpath access point was considered. Numbers of six of nine species, northern shelduck (Tadorna tadorna), red knot (Calidris canutus), dunlin (Calidris alpina), black-tailed godwit (Limosa limosa), Eurasian curlew (Numenius arquata) and common redshank (Tringa totanus), were significantly lower where a footpath was close to a count section, while those of brant (Branta bernicla) were greater. Northern shelduck, black-bellied plover (Pluvialis squatarola), dunlin, and black-tailed godwit numbers were reduced close to railroads and those of common ringed plover (Charadrius hiaticula), black-bellied plover, and Eurasian curlew close to roads. Common ringed plover numbers were greater close to towns. The relative distances to which species were affected by footpaths corresponded to published information concerning their flight distances in response to human disturbance. The study provided evidence that sustained disturbance associated with footpaths, roads, and railroads reduced local habitat quality for waterbirds and the carrying capacity of estuaries.

  19. Wetland features and landscape context predict the risk of wetland habitat loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutzwiller, Kevin J; Flather, Curtis H

    2011-04-01

    Wetlands generally provide significant ecosystem services and function as important harbors of biodiversity. To ensure that these habitats are conserved, an efficient means of identifying wetlands at risk of conversion is needed, especially in the southern United States where the rate of wetland loss has been highest in recent decades. We used multivariate adaptive regression splines to develop a model to predict the risk of wetland habitat loss as a function of wetland features and landscape context. Fates of wetland habitats from 1992 to 1997 were obtained from the National Resources Inventory for the U.S. Forest Service's Southern Region, and land-cover data were obtained from the National Land Cover Data. We randomly selected 70% of our 40 617 observations to build the model (n = 28 432), and randomly divided the remaining 30% of the data into five Test data sets (n = 2437 each). The wetland and landscape variables that were important in the model, and their relative contributions to the model's predictive ability (100 = largest, 0 = smallest), were land-cover/ land-use of the surrounding landscape (100.0), size and proximity of development patches within 570 m (39.5), land ownership (39.1), road density within 570 m (37.5), percent woody and herbaceous wetland cover within 570 m (27.8), size and proximity of development patches within 5130 m (25.7), percent grasslands/herbaceous plants and pasture/hay cover within 5130 m (21.7), wetland type (21.2), and percent woody and herbaceous wetland cover within 1710 m (16.6). For the five Test data sets, Kappa statistics (0.40, 0.50, 0.52, 0.55, 0.56; P prediction of wetland habitat loss (69.1, 80.4, 81.7, 82.3, 83.1) indicated the model generally had substantial predictive ability across the South. Policy analysts and land-use planners can use the model and associated maps to prioritize at-risk wetlands for protection, evaluate wetland habitat connectivity, predict future conversion of wetland habitat based on

  20. Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus Urophasianus) Hen Survival: Effects of Raptors, Anthropogenic and Landscape Features, and Hen Behavior

    OpenAIRE

    Dinkins, Jonathan B.; Conover, Michael R.; Kirol, Christopher P.; Beck, Jeffrey L.; Frey, S. Nicole

    2014-01-01

    Survival of breeding-age hens has been identified as the demographic rate with the greatest potential to influence population growth of Greater Sage-Grouse (Centrocercus urophasianus (Bonaparte, 1827); hereafter “Sage-Grouse”). During 2008–2011, we collected summer survival data from 427 Sage-Grouse hens in southern Wyoming, USA. We assessed the effects of raptor densities, anthropogenic features, landscape features, and Sage-Grouse hen behavior on Sage-Grouse hen survival. Survival of Sage-G...

  1. Using social media photos to explore the relation between cultural ecosystem services and landscape features across five European sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oteros-Rozas, Elisa; Martín-López, Berta; Fagerholm, Nora

    2018-01-01

    Cultural ecosystem services, such as aesthetic and recreational enjoyment, as well as sense of place and local identity, play an outstanding role in the contribution of landscapes to human well-being. Online data shared on social networks, particularly geo-tagged photos, are becoming an increasin......Cultural ecosystem services, such as aesthetic and recreational enjoyment, as well as sense of place and local identity, play an outstanding role in the contribution of landscapes to human well-being. Online data shared on social networks, particularly geo-tagged photos, are becoming...... (in Estonia, Greece, Spain, Sweden and Switzerland). We have performed a content analysis of 1.404 photos uploaded in Flickr and Panoramio platforms that can represent cultural ecosystem services. Four bundles of landscapes features and cultural ecosystem services showed the relation of recreation...... with mountain areas (terrestrial recreation) and with water bodies (aquatic recreation). Cultural heritage, social and spiritual values were particularly attached to landscapes with woodpastures and grasslands, as well as urban features and infrastructures, i.e. to more anthropogenic landscapes. A positive...

  2. Identification of landscape features influencing gene flow: How useful are habitat selection models?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gretchen H. Roffler; Michael K. Schwartz; Kristine Pilgrim; Sandra L. Talbot; George K. Sage; Layne G. Adams; Gordon Luikart

    2016-01-01

    Understanding how dispersal patterns are influenced by landscape heterogeneity is critical for modeling species connectivity. Resource selection function (RSF) models are increasingly used in landscape genetics approaches. However, because the ecological factors that drive habitat selection may be different from those influencing dispersal and gene flow, it is...

  3. The effects of the urban built environment on the spatial distribution of lead in residential soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwarz, K.; Pickett, Steward T.A.; Lathrop, Richard G.; Weathers, Kathleen C.; Pouyat, Richard V.; Cadenasso, Mary L.

    2012-01-01

    Lead contamination of urban residential soils is a public health concern. Consequently, there is a need to delineate hotspots in the landscape to identify risk and facilitate remediation. Land use is a good predictor of some environmental pollutants. However, in the case of soil lead, research has shown that land use is not a useful proxy. We hypothesize that soil lead is related to both individual landscape features at the parcel scale and the landscape context in which parcels are embedded. We sampled soil lead on 61 residential parcels in Baltimore, Maryland using field-portable x-ray fluorescence. Thirty percent of parcels had average lead concentrations that exceeded the USEPA limit of 400 ppm and 53% had at least one reading that exceeded 400 ppm. Results indicate that soil lead is strongly associated with housing age, distance to roadways, and on a parcel scale, distance to built structures. - Highlights: ► We investigated the effect of landscape heterogeneity on lead in residential soil. ► Landscape heterogeneity was considered at two different spatial scales. ► We sampled soil lead on residential parcels using field-portable x-ray fluorescence. ► Soil lead was associated with housing age and distance to roadways and buildings. ► Research has implications for land planning, health policies and predictive models. - We investigated the influence of landscape heterogeneity on lead in residential soil using x-ray fluorescence and identified important correlations with elements of urban land cover.

  4. What’s (Not on the Map: Landscape Features from Participatory Sketch Mapping Differ from Local Categories Used in Language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flurina M. Wartmann

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Participatory mapping of local land use as the basis for planning and decision-making has become widespread around the globe. However, still relatively little is known about the conceptual underpinnings of geographic information produced through participatory mapping in given cultural and linguistic settings. In this paper, we therefore address the seemingly simple question of what is (not represented on maps through an exploratory case study comparing land use categories participants represented on sketch maps with categories elicited through more language-focused ethnographic fieldwork. To explore landscape categorization, we conducted sketch mapping with 29 participants and in-depth ethnographic fieldwork with 19 participants from the Takana indigenous people in the Bolivian Amazon. Sketch mapping resulted in 74 different feature types, while we elicited 156 landscape categories used in language, of which only 23 overlapped with feature types from the sketch mapping. Vegetation categories were highly diversified in language but seldom represented on maps, while more obviously anthropogenic features were represented on sketch maps. Furthermore, participants seldom drew culturally important landscape categories such as fallow plots or important plant harvesting sites on maps, with important potential consequences for natural resource management.

  5. On the effects of landscape configuration on summer diurnal temperatures in urban residential areas: application in Phoenix, AZ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarianakis, Yiannis; Li, Xiaoxiao; Turner, B. L., II; Brazel, Anthony J.

    2017-12-01

    The impacts of land-cover composition on urban temperatures, including temperature extremes, are well documented. Much less attention has been devoted to the consequences of land-cover configuration, most of which addresses land surface temperatures. This study explores the role of both composition and configuration—or land system architecture—of residential neighborhoods in the Phoenix metropolitan area, on near-surface air temperature. It addresses two-dimensional, spatial attributes of buildings, impervious surfaces, bare soil/rock, vegetation and the "urbanscape" at large, from 50 m to 550 m at 100 m increments, for a representative 30-day high sun period. Linear mixed-effects models evaluate the significance of land system architecture metrics at different spatial aggregation levels. The results indicate that, controlling for land-cover composition and geographical variables, land-cover configuration, specifically the fractal dimension of buildings, is significantly associated with near-surface temperatures. In addition, statistically significant predictors related to composition and configuration appear to depend on the adopted level of spatial aggregation.

  6. Effect of anthropogenic landscape features on population genetic differentiation of Przewalski's gazelle: main role of human settlement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Yang

    Full Text Available Anthropogenic landscapes influence evolutionary processes such as population genetic differentiation, however, not every type of landscape features exert the same effect on a species, hence it is necessary to estimate their relative effect for species management and conservation. Przewalski's gazelle (Procapra przewalskii, which inhabits a human-altered area on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, is one of the most endangered antelope species in the world. Here, we report a landscape genetic study on Przewalski's gazelle. We used skin and fecal samples of 169 wild gazelles collected from nine populations and thirteen microsatellite markers to assess the genetic effect of anthropogenic landscape features on this species. For comparison, the genetic effect of geographical distance and topography were also evaluated. We found significant genetic differentiation, six genetic groups and restricted dispersal pattern in Przewalski's gazelle. Topography, human settlement and road appear to be responsible for observed genetic differentiation as they were significantly correlated with both genetic distance measures [F(ST/(1-F(ST and F'(ST/(1-F'(ST] in Mantel tests. IBD (isolation by distance was also inferred as a significant factor in Mantel tests when genetic distance was measured as F(ST/(1-F(ST. However, using partial Mantel tests, AIC(c calculations, causal modeling and AMOVA analysis, we found that human settlement was the main factor shaping current genetic differentiation among those tested. Altogether, our results reveal the relative influence of geographical distance, topography and three anthropogenic landscape-type on population genetic differentiation of Przewalski's gazelle and provide useful information for conservation measures on this endangered species.

  7. Predator selection of prairie landscape features and its relation to duck nest success

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, M.L.; Clark, W.R.; Sovada, M.A.; Horn, D.J.; Koford, Rolf R.; Greenwood, R.J.

    2003-01-01

    Mammalian predation is a major cause of mortality for breeding waterfowl in the U.S. Northern Great Plains, and yet we know little about the selection of prairie habitats by predators or how this influences nest success in grassland nesting cover. We selected 2 41.4-km2 study areas in both 1996 and 1997 in North Dakota, USA, with contrasting compositions of perennial grassland. A study area contained either 15-20% perennial grassland (Low Grassland Composition [LGC]) or 45-55% perennial grassland (High Grassland Composition [HGC]). We used radiotelemetry to investigate the selection of 9 landscape cover types by red fox (Vulpes vulpes) and striped skunk (Mephitis mephitis), while simultaneously recording duck nest success within planted cover. The cover types included the edge and core areas of planted cover, wetland edges within planted cover or surrounded by cropland, pastureland, hayland, cropland, roads, and miscellaneous cover types. Striped skunks selected wetland edges surrounded by agriculture over all other cover types in LGC landscapes (P-values for all pairwise comparisons were Duck nest success was greater in HGC landscapes than in LGC landscapes for planted-cover core (P increased amount of planted-cover core area and the increased pastureland selection in HGC landscapes may have diluted predator foraging efficiency in the interior areas of planted cover and contributed to higher nest success in HGC landscapes. Our observations of predator cover-type selection not only support the restoration and management of large blocks of grassland but also indicate the influence of alternative cover types for mitigating nest predation in the Prairie Pothole Region.

  8. Landscape features associated to the occurrence of Amblyomma sculptum ticks: an application of zero inflated regression models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Bernardo Pedro

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. Bernardo-Pedro T., Silveira A.K. & Tassinari W.S. Landscape features associated to the occurrence of Amblyomma sculptum ticks: an application of zero inflated regression models. [Características de paisagem associadas à ocorrência de carrapatos Amblyomma sculptum: uma aplicação dos modelos de regressão inflacionados de zeros.] Revista Brasileira de Medicina Veterinária, 38(supl. 3:39-46, 2016. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Ciências Veterinárias, Departamento de Parasitologia Animal, Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro, BR-465, km 7, Seropédica, RJ 23890-000, Brasil. E-mail: thiago.b.pedro@gmail.com The aim of the present study was to analyze the association between landscape features and occurrence of A. sculptum ticks, using zero inflated regression models. A total of 503 ticks were collected during the period of the research. Most of them were captured in sites related to the following features: 20-40m altitude (93.64%, 0-2.5% declivity (57.65%, plain land (93.04%, albaqualf type of soil (52.68%, presence of capybaras (56.06% and high occurrence favorability of A. sculptum (84.89%. Regarding the non-inflated part of the bivariate models, all variables were significant, which means all of them contribute to A. sculptum occurrence. In the final multivariate model, only geomorphology and type of soil were relevant variables to explain A. sculptum occurrence. In conclusion, landscape features – especially geomorphology and type of soil – are associated to A. sculptum abundance in the research area, what indicates that these variables should be taken into consideration when planning tick control programs.

  9. The influence of prehistoric Anasazi cobble-mulch agricultural features of northern Rio Grande landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard D. Periman

    1996-01-01

    Research concerning ancient Pueblo Indian farming, specifically the innovation of cobble-mulch gardens, suggests a manipulation of the local environment on a landscape level that helped create existing ecosystems. This agricultural technology, which consisted of a protective layer of gravel covering the productive soil, trapped seasonal runoff moisture in field areas,...

  10. Temelín power plant as an unusual landscape feature

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Těšitel, Jan; Kušová, Drahomíra; Bartoš, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 24, č. 1 (2005), s. 139-149 ISSN 1335-342X Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60870520 Keywords : Temelín nuclear power plant * landscape character * quality of life * local community * visual contamination Subject RIV: DN - Health Impact of the Environment Quality Impact factor: 0.085, year: 2005

  11. MAPPING FEATURES OF A CULTURAL LANDSCAPE OF RYLSKY MONASTERY AND ITS ENVIRONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. I. Markova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available An experience of creating maps of culture landscapes of Rylsky monastery (Kursk Region and its environs in average and large scales has been considered.This territory is historically related with Rylsky monastery of Bulgaria and its holy ascetic Ioann Rylsky. It has a cultural-historical value, gets many monuments of architecture including the monument of federal value (Assumption Cathedral of Rylsk town. During the years of Soviet rule many objects of religious architecture were lost or in a state of desolation and destruction. In connection with the process of urbanization some rural settlements were abandoned, ceased their existence and turned into tracts in some places.In the restoration and transformation of the cultural landscape of the territory, in giving it spirituality a great role was played by the elder, the abbot of the St. Nicholas Monastery archimandrite Hippolytus (Khalin, 1928-2002. The St. Nicholas Monastery in the village Prigorodnyaya Slobodka near Rylsk town was picked up from ruins, five sketes in rural settlements of Rylsk district were opened, the Kazansky Convent in the village Bolshegneuschevo was created. Opening of monasteries and sketes made it possible to establish a monastic life, to realize a spiritual care of people and created the basis for restoration of temples that existed before in these settlements.Many natural components of cultural landscapes of this region are unusual: several holy springs, geological and geomorphological objects including a field of the curative blue clay, memorial plants, landscape plans. The Monastery and its cultural landscape attract pilgrims and tourists who illustrative here not only spiritual and moral, but also physical health.Mapping of the Monastery and its environs was implemented at two scale levels in traditions of geographical cartography using methods of illustrativeness of images and completeness of display of historical-geographical information. 

  12. A novel wavelet-based feature extraction from common mode currents for fault location in a residential DC microgrid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beheshtaein, Siavash; Yu, Junyang; Cuzner, Rob

    2017-01-01

    DC community and residential microgrids are recognized as effective means for electrification of remote areas as a result of monumental efforts in many parts of the world — most significantly in India — but also through similar efforts in Nepal, Cameroon, New Guinea and Nigeria. So far modular ap...... and proposes methodologies for extracting specific information about the location and type of fault using wavelets. The sensing hardware, sampling rates and processing requirements that are needed are also presented....

  13. POINT CLOUD MAPPING METHODS FOR DOCUMENTING CULTURAL LANDSCAPE FEATURES AT THE WORMSLOE STATE HISTORIC SITE, SAVANNAH, GEORGIA, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. R. Jordana

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Documentation of the three-dimensional (3D cultural landscape has traditionally been conducted during site visits using conventional photographs, standard ground surveys and manual measurements. In recent years, there have been rapid developments in technologies that produce highly accurate 3D point clouds, including aerial LiDAR, terrestrial laser scanning, and photogrammetric data reduction from unmanned aerial systems (UAS images and hand held photographs using Structure from Motion (SfM methods. These 3D point clouds can be precisely scaled and used to conduct measurements of features even after the site visit has ended. As a consequence, it is becoming increasingly possible to collect non-destructive data for a wide variety of cultural site features, including landscapes, buildings, vegetation, artefacts and gardens. As part of a project for the U.S. National Park Service, a variety of data sets have been collected for the Wormsloe State Historic Site, near Savannah, Georgia, USA. In an effort to demonstrate the utility and versatility of these methods at a range of scales, comparisons of the features mapped with different techniques will be discussed with regards to accuracy, data set completeness, cost and ease-of-use.

  14. The Effect of Landscaping and Building Facades on Perceptual-Behavioral Features of Citizens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Azma

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Perception could provide the first or the most fundamental layer for recognition and hence, studying it should be prior to any other layer like layers of cultural world and especially, the real world. One of the categories, in which cognition becomes important, is the urban landscape and its designation to improve perceptual perceptions of audiences to enhance items such as sense of belonging and recognition of space and orientation. Therefore, the main purpose of this study is to investigate physical factors affecting urban bodies and its impact on perception and behavior of citizens and considering the gap in this field. Method: The method used in this study is interpretive and in form of qualitative analysis of available references on urban landscape and perception of citizens. The data collected through library research. The procedure is based on classification and content analysis in this study. Results: Landscaping and city walls could lead to emergence of perceptions such as perception of attractiveness and emotions of space, perception of identity and sense of belonging, perception of useful information, perception of hidden order and reagent of life stream, living at the streets, explicit transfer of performance message and perception of urban diversity in citizens. Conclusion: The results obtained from this study could lead to recognizing the relationship between designation and environmental psychology in designing urban landscape and desirable perception of citizens about the environment and the interaction between designation strategies in designing the facade that could finally lead to promotion of quality of the environment and mental comfort and satisfaction of citizens.

  15. Which regional features of Danish agriculture favour the corn bunting in the contemporary farming landscape?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fox, Anthony David; Heldbjerg, Henning

    2008-01-01

    Corn buntings Miliaria calandra were abundant throughout arable agricultural landscapes in Europe, but have catastrophically declined since the mid 1970s with changes in farming practice and now give serious conservation cause for concern. Corn buntings declined in Denmark during 1976...... on land use correlation and bird surveillance, these results show an association between mixed farming and favourable conservation status of a species now red-listed throughout much of Europe. Further investigations of habitat use at small spatial scales and throughout the annual cycle are urgently...

  16. Landscape features and helminth co-infection shape bank vole immunoheterogeneity, with consequences for Puumala virus epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guivier, E; Galan, M; Henttonen, H; Cosson, J-F; Charbonnel, N

    2014-03-01

    Heterogeneity in environmental conditions helps to maintain genetic and phenotypic diversity in ecosystems. As such, it may explain why the capacity of animals to mount immune responses is highly variable. The quality of habitat patches, in terms of resources, parasitism, predation and habitat fragmentation may, for example, trigger trade-offs ultimately affecting the investment of individuals in various immunological pathways. We described spatial immunoheterogeneity in bank vole populations with respect to landscape features and co-infection. We focused on the consequences of this heterogeneity for the risk of Puumala hantavirus (PUUV) infection. We assessed the expression of the Tnf-α and Mx2 genes and demonstrated a negative correlation between PUUV load and the expression of these immune genes in bank voles. Habitat heterogeneity was partly associated with differences in the expression of these genes. Levels of Mx2 were lower in large forests than in fragmented forests, possibly due to differences in parasite communities. We previously highlighted the positive association between infection with Heligmosomum mixtum and infection with PUUV. We found that Tnf-α was more strongly expressed in voles infected with PUUV than in uninfected voles or in voles co-infected with the nematode H. mixtum and PUUV. H. mixtum may limit the capacity of the vole to develop proinflammatory responses. This effect may increase the risk of PUUV infection and replication in host cells. Overall, our results suggest that close interactions between landscape features, co-infection and immune gene expression may shape PUUV epidemiology.

  17. Determinants of extinction-colonization dynamics in Mediterranean butterflies: the role of landscape, climate and local habitat features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Chacón, Albert; Stefanescu, Constantí; Genovart, Meritxell; Nichols, James D; Hines, James E; Páramo, Ferran; Turco, Marco; Oro, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Many species are found today in the form of fragmented populations occupying patches of remnant habitat in human-altered landscapes. The persistence of these population networks requires a balance between extinction and colonization events assumed to be primarily related to patch area and isolation, but the contribution of factors such as the characteristics of patch and matrix habitats, the species' traits (habitat specialization and dispersal capabilities) and variation in climatic conditions have seldom been evaluated simultaneously. The identification of environmental variables associated with patch occupancy and turnover may be especially useful to enhance the persistence of multiple species under current global change. However, for robust inference on occupancy and related parameters, we must account for detection errors, a commonly overlooked problem that leads to biased estimates and misleading conclusions about population dynamics. Here, we provide direct empirical evidence of the effects of different environmental variables on the extinction and colonization rates of a rich butterfly community in the western Mediterranean. The analysis was based on a 17-year data set containing detection/nondetection data on 73 butterfly species for 26 sites in north-eastern Spain. Using multiseason occupancy models, which take into account species' detectability, we were able to obtain robust estimates of local extinction and colonization probabilities for each species and test the potential effects of site covariates such as the area of suitable habitat, topographic variability, landscape permeability around the site and climatic variability in aridity conditions. Results revealed a general pattern across species with local habitat composition and landscape features as stronger predictors of occupancy dynamics compared with topography and local aridity. Increasing area of suitable habitat in a site strongly decreased local extinction risks and, for a number of species

  18. Wide-area mapping of small-scale features in agricultural landscapes using airborne remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Jerome; Bradter, Ute; Benton, Tim G.

    2015-11-01

    Natural and semi-natural habitats in agricultural landscapes are likely to come under increasing pressure with the global population set to exceed 9 billion by 2050. These non-cropped habitats are primarily made up of trees, hedgerows and grassy margins and their amount, quality and spatial configuration can have strong implications for the delivery and sustainability of various ecosystem services. In this study high spatial resolution (0.5 m) colour infrared aerial photography (CIR) was used in object based image analysis for the classification of non-cropped habitat in a 10,029 ha area of southeast England. Three classification scenarios were devised using 4 and 9 class scenarios. The machine learning algorithm Random Forest (RF) was used to reduce the number of variables used for each classification scenario by 25.5 % ± 2.7%. Proportion of votes from the 4 class hierarchy was made available to the 9 class scenarios and where the highest ranked variables in all cases. This approach allowed for misclassified parent objects to be correctly classified at a lower level. A single object hierarchy with 4 class proportion of votes produced the best result (kappa 0.909). Validation of the optimum training sample size in RF showed no significant difference between mean internal out-of-bag error and external validation. As an example of the utility of this data, we assessed habitat suitability for a declining farmland bird, the yellowhammer (Emberiza citronella), which requires hedgerows associated with grassy margins. We found that ˜22% of hedgerows were within 200 m of margins with an area >183.31 m2. The results from this analysis can form a key information source at the environmental and policy level in landscape optimisation for food production and ecosystem service sustainability.

  19. Wide-area mapping of small-scale features in agricultural landscapes using airborne remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    O’Connell, Jerome; Bradter, Ute; Benton, Tim G.

    2015-01-01

    Natural and semi-natural habitats in agricultural landscapes are likely to come under increasing pressure with the global population set to exceed 9 billion by 2050. These non-cropped habitats are primarily made up of trees, hedgerows and grassy margins and their amount, quality and spatial configuration can have strong implications for the delivery and sustainability of various ecosystem services. In this study high spatial resolution (0.5 m) colour infrared aerial photography (CIR) was used in object based image analysis for the classification of non-cropped habitat in a 10,029 ha area of southeast England. Three classification scenarios were devised using 4 and 9 class scenarios. The machine learning algorithm Random Forest (RF) was used to reduce the number of variables used for each classification scenario by 25.5 % ± 2.7%. Proportion of votes from the 4 class hierarchy was made available to the 9 class scenarios and where the highest ranked variables in all cases. This approach allowed for misclassified parent objects to be correctly classified at a lower level. A single object hierarchy with 4 class proportion of votes produced the best result (kappa 0.909). Validation of the optimum training sample size in RF showed no significant difference between mean internal out-of-bag error and external validation. As an example of the utility of this data, we assessed habitat suitability for a declining farmland bird, the yellowhammer (Emberiza citronella), which requires hedgerows associated with grassy margins. We found that ∼22% of hedgerows were within 200 m of margins with an area >183.31 m2. The results from this analysis can form a key information source at the environmental and policy level in landscape optimisation for food production and ecosystem service sustainability. PMID:26664131

  20. Wide-area mapping of small-scale features in agricultural landscapes using airborne remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connell, Jerome; Bradter, Ute; Benton, Tim G

    2015-11-01

    Natural and semi-natural habitats in agricultural landscapes are likely to come under increasing pressure with the global population set to exceed 9 billion by 2050. These non-cropped habitats are primarily made up of trees, hedgerows and grassy margins and their amount, quality and spatial configuration can have strong implications for the delivery and sustainability of various ecosystem services. In this study high spatial resolution (0.5 m) colour infrared aerial photography (CIR) was used in object based image analysis for the classification of non-cropped habitat in a 10,029 ha area of southeast England. Three classification scenarios were devised using 4 and 9 class scenarios. The machine learning algorithm Random Forest (RF) was used to reduce the number of variables used for each classification scenario by 25.5 % ± 2.7%. Proportion of votes from the 4 class hierarchy was made available to the 9 class scenarios and where the highest ranked variables in all cases. This approach allowed for misclassified parent objects to be correctly classified at a lower level. A single object hierarchy with 4 class proportion of votes produced the best result (kappa 0.909). Validation of the optimum training sample size in RF showed no significant difference between mean internal out-of-bag error and external validation. As an example of the utility of this data, we assessed habitat suitability for a declining farmland bird, the yellowhammer ( Emberiza citronella ), which requires hedgerows associated with grassy margins. We found that ∼22% of hedgerows were within 200 m of margins with an area >183.31 m 2 . The results from this analysis can form a key information source at the environmental and policy level in landscape optimisation for food production and ecosystem service sustainability.

  1. Residential demolition and its impact on vacant lot hydrology: implications for the management of stormwater and sewer system overflows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased residential demolitions have made vacant lots a ubiquitous feature of the contemporary urban landscape. Vacant lots may provide ecosystem services such as stormwater runoff capture, but the extent of these functions will be regulated by soil hydrology. We evaluated soil...

  2. The influence of personality disorder features on social functioning in substance abusing women five year after compulsive residential treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jansson, Irene; Hesse, Morten; Fridell, Mats

    2009-01-01

    Background Personality disorders (PD) are related to negative outcome in substance abuse treatment, and in the general population, personality disorders are related to negative outcome in overall functioning. Little is known about the impact of PD on adjustment following substance abuse treatment...... associated with unemployment. Dependent PD and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder features were positively associated with employment. Borderline PD features were associated with hospital admissions. Discussion We discuss how strategies associated with various PDs may foster or hinder social...... status over the years, and linked with hospital and criminal justice registers. Results The impact of PD on functioning varied substantially between disorders and outcome domains. Conduct disorder alone was associated with criminal justice involvement, and conduct disorder and avoidant PD features were...

  3. Landscape linkages and biodiversity in European landscapes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongman, R.H.G.

    2004-01-01

    Linear features are structuring landscape elements. We change our landscapes and rebuild them into new linkages, and landscapes are even constructed around these linkages. Landscape linkages are important for species migration and dispersal on a large scale and a small scale: storks, bats and

  4. Microbial landscape features in patients with generalized periodontitis at pre-clinical and radiological stage of its development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vatamanyuk N.V.

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a comparative study of microbial landscape features in patients with generalized periodontitis at pre-clinical and radiological stage of its development in 42 patients. The purpose of the study is a comparative study of the composition of microbiocenosis of periodontal tissues in patients with chronic catarrhal gingivitis (CCG and chronic generalized periodontitis (CGP at an early stage of development and development studies of microbiological criteria for early emergence of the destructive process in periodontal structures. We found that the microflora isolated from dento-gingival grooves is of importance in diagnostics to identify the etiology of chronic generalized catarrhal gingivitis (CGCG and chronic generalized periodontitis in the early stages of its development. It was established that the presence of two or more types of fixed parodonto-pathogenic microorganisms in microbial association increases the likelihood of inflammatory and destructive events in periodontal tissues in patients with GCCG and is one of the reasons of is becoming CGP.

  5. Landscape Features Impact on Soil Available Water, Corn Biomass, and Gene Expression during the Late Vegetative Stage

    OpenAIRE

    Stephanie Hansen; Sharon A. Clay; David E. Clay; C. Gregg Carlson; Graig Reicks; Youssef Jarachi; David Horvath

    2013-01-01

    Crop yields at summit positions of rolling landscapes often are lower than backslope yields. The differences in plant response may be the result of many different factors. We examined corn ( L.) plant productivity, gene expression, soil water, and nutrient availability in two landscape positions located in historically high (backslope) and moderate (summit and shoulder) yielding zones to gain insight into plant response differences. Growth characteristics, gene expression, and soil parameters...

  6. PrEP as a feature in the optimal landscape of combination HIV prevention in sub-Saharan Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGillen, Jessica B; Anderson, Sarah-Jane; Hallett, Timothy B

    2016-01-01

    The new WHO guidelines recommend offering pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to people who are at substantial risk of HIV infection. However, where PrEP should be prioritised, and for which population groups, remains an open question. The HIV landscape in sub-Saharan Africa features limited prevention resources, multiple options for achieving cost saving, and epidemic heterogeneity. This paper examines what role PrEP should play in optimal prevention in this complex and dynamic landscape. We use a model that was previously developed to capture subnational HIV transmission in sub-Saharan Africa. With this model, we can consider how prevention funds could be distributed across and within countries throughout sub-Saharan Africa to enable optimal HIV prevention (that is, avert the greatest number of infections for the lowest cost). Here, we focus on PrEP to elucidate where, and to whom, it would optimally be offered in portfolios of interventions (alongside voluntary medical male circumcision, treatment as prevention, and behaviour change communication). Over a range of continental expenditure levels, we use our model to explore prevention patterns that incorporate PrEP, exclude PrEP, or implement PrEP according to a fixed incidence threshold. At low-to-moderate levels of total prevention expenditure, we find that the optimal intervention portfolios would include PrEP in only a few regions and primarily for female sex workers (FSW). Prioritisation of PrEP would expand with increasing total expenditure, such that the optimal prevention portfolios would offer PrEP in more subnational regions and increasingly for men who have sex with men (MSM) and the lower incidence general population. The marginal benefit of including PrEP among the available interventions increases with overall expenditure by up to 14% (relative to excluding PrEP). The minimum baseline incidence for the optimal offer of PrEP declines for all population groups as expenditure increases. We find that using

  7. Very high resolution Earth Observation features for testing the direct and indirect effects of landscape structure on local habitat quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mairota, Paola; Cafarelli, Barbara; Labadessa, Rocco; Lovergine, Francesco P.; Tarantino, Cristina; Nagendra, Harini; Didham, Raphael K.

    2015-02-01

    Modelling the empirical relationships between habitat quality and species distribution patterns is the first step to understanding human impacts on biodiversity. It is important to build on this understanding to develop a broader conceptual appreciation of the influence of surrounding landscape structure on local habitat quality, across multiple spatial scales. Traditional models which report that 'habitat amount' in the landscape is sufficient to explain patterns of biodiversity, irrespective of habitat configuration or spatial variation in habitat quality at edges, implicitly treat each unit of habitat as interchangeable and ignore the high degree of interdependence between spatial components of land-use change. Here, we test the contrasting hypothesis, that local habitat units are not interchangeable in their habitat attributes, but are instead dependent on variation in surrounding habitat structure at both patch- and landscape levels. As the statistical approaches needed to implement such hierarchical causal models are observation-intensive, we utilise very high resolution (VHR) Earth Observation (EO) images to rapidly generate fine-grained measures of habitat patch internal heterogeneities over large spatial extents. We use linear mixed-effects models to test whether these remotely-sensed proxies for habitat quality were influenced by surrounding patch or landscape structure. The results demonstrate the significant influence of surrounding patch and landscape context on local habitat quality. They further indicate that such an influence can be direct, when a landscape variable alone influences the habitat structure variable, and/or indirect when the landscape and patch attributes have a conjoined effect on the response variable. We conclude that a substantial degree of interaction among spatial configuration effects is likely to be the norm in determining the ecological consequences of habitat fragmentation, thus corroborating the notion of the spatial context

  8. Nitrate and Moisture Content of Broad Permafrost Landscape Features in the Barrow Peninsula: Predicting Evolving NO3 Concentrations in a Changing Arctic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arendt, C. A.; Heikoop, J. M.; Newman, B. D.; Wales, N. A.; McCaully, R. E.; Wilson, C. J.; Wullschleger, S.

    2017-12-01

    The geochemical evolution of Arctic regions as permafrost degrades, significantly impacts nutrient availability. The release of nitrogen compounds from permafrost degradation fertilizes both microbial decomposition and plant productivity. Arctic warming promotes permafrost degradation, causing geomorphic and hydrologic transitions that have the potential to convert saturated zones to unsaturated zones and subsequently alter the nitrate production capacity of permafrost regions. Changes in Nitrate (NO3-) content associated with shifting moisture regimes are a primary factor determining Arctic fertilization and subsequent primary productivity, and have direct feedbacks to carbon cycling. We have documented a broad survey of co-located soil moisture and nitrate concentration measurements in shallow active layer regions across a variety of topographic features in the expansive continuous permafrost region encompassing the Barrow Peninsula of Alaska. Topographic features of interest are slightly higher relative to surrounding landscapes with drier soils and elevated nitrate, including the rims of low centered polygons, the centers of flat and high centered polygons, the rims of young, old and ancient drain thaw lake basins and drainage slopes that exist across the landscape. With this information, we model the nitrate inventory of the Barrow Peninsula using multiple geospatial approaches to estimate total area cover by unsaturated features of interest and further predict how various drying scenarios increase the magnitude of nitrate produced in degrading permafrost regions across the Arctic. This work is supported by the US Department of Energy Next Generation Ecosystem Experiment, NGEE-Arctic.

  9. Conserving relics from ancient underground worlds: assessing the influence of cave and landscape features on obligate iron cave dwellers from the Eastern Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prous, Xavier; Calux, Allan; Gastauer, Markus; Nicacio, Gilberto; Zampaulo, Robson; Souza-Filho, Pedro W.M.; Oliveira, Guilherme; Brandi, Iuri V.; Siqueira, José O.

    2018-01-01

    The degradation of subterranean habitats is believed to represent a serious threat for the conservation of obligate subterranean dwellers (troglobites), many of which are short-range endemics. However, while the factors influencing cave biodiversity remain largely unknown, the influence of the surrounding landscape and patterns of subterranean connectivity of terrestrial troglobitic communities have never been systematically assessed. Using spatial statistics to analyze the most comprehensive speleological database yet available for tropical caves, we first assess the influence of iron cave characteristics and the surrounding landscape on troglobitic communities from the Eastern Amazon. We then determine the spatial pattern of troglobitic community composition, species richness, phylogenetic diversity, and the occurrence of frequent troglobitic species, and finally quantify how different landscape features influence the connectivity between caves. Our results reveal the key importance of habitat amount, guano, water, lithology, geomorphology, and elevation in shaping iron cave troglobitic communities. While mining within 250 m from the caves influenced species composition, increasing agricultural land cover within 50 m from the caves reduced species richness and phylogenetic diversity. Troglobitic species composition, species richness, phylogenetic diversity, and the occurrence of frequent troglobites showed spatial autocorrelation for up to 40 km. Finally, our results suggest that the conservation of cave clusters should be prioritized, as geographic distance was the main factor determining connectivity between troglobitic communities. Overall, our work sheds important light onto one of the most overlooked terrestrial ecosystems, and highlights the need to shift conservation efforts from individual caves to subterranean habitats as a whole. PMID:29576987

  10. BIODYNAMIC LANDSCAPE DESIGNING WITH BIOPONICS

    OpenAIRE

    SINGHANIA, PAWAN KUMAR; SINGHANIA, ARCHANA

    2014-01-01

    Never before the subject of Landscaping is covered in any of the past IFOAM Conferences. BIODYNAMIC Landscape Garden Designing is a new approach for Urban Landscaping where purposeful plantations are carried out, incorporating the science of BIOENERGETICS (measuring the energies in Plants, trees, and Earth Energies) which are also useful as Therapeutic (Healing) Gardens, suitable for Health Care institutes, Residential Complexes and Educational Institutions. The conventional approach is to fo...

  11. Residential Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde; Matsufuji, Y.

    2011-01-01

    are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing residential waste is faced with the problem that many residences already divert some waste away from the official collection systems, for example performing home composting of vegetable waste and garden waste, having their bundled newspaper picked up by the scouts...... twice a year or bringing their used furniture to the flea markets organized by charity clubs. Thus, much of the data available on residential waste represents collected waste and not necessarily all generated waste. The latter can only be characterized by careful studies directly at the source...

  12. Colonization history, host distribution, anthropogenic influence and landscape features shape populations of white pine blister rust, an invasive alien tree pathogen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brar, Simren; Tsui, Clement K M; Dhillon, Braham; Bergeron, Marie-Josée; Joly, David L; Zambino, P J; El-Kassaby, Yousry A; Hamelin, Richard C

    2015-01-01

    White pine blister rust is caused by the fungal pathogen Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fisch (Basidiomycota, Pucciniales). This invasive alien pathogen was introduced into North America at the beginning of the 20th century on pine seedlings imported from Europe and has caused serious economic and ecological impacts. In this study, we applied a population and landscape genetics approach to understand the patterns of introduction and colonization as well as population structure and migration of C. ribicola. We characterized 1,292 samples of C. ribicola from 66 geographic locations in North America using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and evaluated the effect of landscape features, host distribution, and colonization history on the structure of these pathogen populations. We identified eastern and western genetic populations in North America that are strongly differentiated. Genetic diversity is two to five times higher in eastern populations than in western ones, which can be explained by the repeated accidental introductions of the pathogen into northeastern North America compared with a single documented introduction into western North America. These distinct genetic populations are maintained by a barrier to gene flow that corresponds to a region where host connectivity is interrupted. Furthermore, additional cryptic spatial differentiation was identified in western populations. This differentiation corresponds to landscape features, such as mountain ranges, and also to host connectivity. We also detected genetic differentiation between the pathogen populations in natural stands and plantations, an indication that anthropogenic movement of this pathogen still takes place. These results highlight the importance of monitoring this invasive alien tree pathogen to prevent admixture of eastern and western populations where different pathogen races occur.

  13. Colonization history, host distribution, anthropogenic influence and landscape features shape populations of white pine blister rust, an invasive alien tree pathogen.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simren Brar

    Full Text Available White pine blister rust is caused by the fungal pathogen Cronartium ribicola J.C. Fisch (Basidiomycota, Pucciniales. This invasive alien pathogen was introduced into North America at the beginning of the 20th century on pine seedlings imported from Europe and has caused serious economic and ecological impacts. In this study, we applied a population and landscape genetics approach to understand the patterns of introduction and colonization as well as population structure and migration of C. ribicola. We characterized 1,292 samples of C. ribicola from 66 geographic locations in North America using single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs and evaluated the effect of landscape features, host distribution, and colonization history on the structure of these pathogen populations. We identified eastern and western genetic populations in North America that are strongly differentiated. Genetic diversity is two to five times higher in eastern populations than in western ones, which can be explained by the repeated accidental introductions of the pathogen into northeastern North America compared with a single documented introduction into western North America. These distinct genetic populations are maintained by a barrier to gene flow that corresponds to a region where host connectivity is interrupted. Furthermore, additional cryptic spatial differentiation was identified in western populations. This differentiation corresponds to landscape features, such as mountain ranges, and also to host connectivity. We also detected genetic differentiation between the pathogen populations in natural stands and plantations, an indication that anthropogenic movement of this pathogen still takes place. These results highlight the importance of monitoring this invasive alien tree pathogen to prevent admixture of eastern and western populations where different pathogen races occur.

  14. Detecting Precontact Anthropogenic Microtopographic Features in a Forested Landscape with Lidar: A Case Study from the Upper Great Lakes Region, AD 1000-1600.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howey, Meghan C L; Sullivan, Franklin B; Tallant, Jason; Kopple, Robert Vande; Palace, Michael W

    2016-01-01

    Forested settings present challenges for understanding the full extent of past human landscape modifications. Field-based archaeological reconnaissance in forests is low-efficiency and most remote sensing techniques are of limited utility, and together, this means many past sites and features in forests are unknown. Archaeologists have increasingly used light detection and ranging (lidar), a remote sensing tool that uses pulses of light to measure reflecting surfaces at high spatial resolution, to address these limitations. Archaeology studies using lidar have made significant progress identifying permanent structures built by large-scale complex agriculturalist societies. Largely unaccounted for, however, are numerous small and more practical modifications of landscapes by smaller-scale societies. Here we show these may also be detectable with lidar by identifying remnants of food storage pits (cache pits) created by mobile hunter-gatherers in the upper Great Lakes during Late Precontact (ca. AD 1000-1600) that now only exist as subtle microtopographic features. Years of intensive field survey identified 69 cache pit groups between two inland lakes in northern Michigan, almost all of which were located within ~500 m of a lakeshore. Applying a novel series of image processing techniques and statistical analyses to a high spatial resolution DTM we created from commercial-grade lidar, our detection routine identified 139 high potential cache pit clusters. These included most of the previously known clusters as well as several unknown clusters located >1500 m from either lakeshore, much further from lakeshores than all previously identified cultural sites. Food storage is understood to have emerged regionally as a risk-buffering strategy after AD 1000 but our results indicate the current record of hunter-gatherer cache pit food storage is markedly incomplete and this practice and its associated impact on the landscape may be greater than anticipated. Our study also

  15. Landscape features influence gene flow as measured by cost-distance and genetic analyses: a case study for giant pandas in the Daxiangling and Xiaoxiangling Mountains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Fuwen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Gene flow maintains genetic diversity within a species and is influenced by individual behavior and the geographical features of the species' habitat. Here, we have characterized the geographical distribution of genetic patterns in giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca living in four isolated patches of the Xiaoxiangling and Daxiangling Mountains. Three geographic distance definitions were used with the "isolation by distance theory": Euclidean distance (EUD, least-cost path distance (LCD defined by food resources, and LCD defined by habitat suitability. Results A total of 136 genotypes were obtained from 192 fecal samples and one blood sample, corresponding to 53 unique genotypes. Geographical maps plotted at high resolution using smaller neighborhood radius definitions produced large cost distances, because smaller radii include a finer level of detail in considering each pixel. Mantel tests showed that most correlation indices, particularly bamboo resources defined for different sizes of raster cell, were slightly larger than the correlations calculated for the Euclidean distance, with the exception of Patch C. We found that natural barriers might have decreased gene flow between the Xiaoxiangling and Daxiangling regions. Conclusions Landscape features were found to partially influence gene flow in the giant panda population. This result is closely linked to the biological character and behavior of giant pandas because, as bamboo feeders, individuals spend most of their lives eating bamboo or moving within the bamboo forest. Landscape-based genetic analysis suggests that gene flow will be enhanced if the connectivity between currently fragmented bamboo forests is increased.

  16. Using broad landscape level features to predict redd densities of steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Chinook Salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) in the Methow River watershed, Washington

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romine, Jason G.; Perry, Russell W.; Connolly, Patrick J.

    2013-01-01

    We used broad-scale landscape feature variables to model redd densities of spring Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) and steelhead trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) in the Methow River watershed. Redd densities were estimated from redd counts conducted from 2005 to 2007 and 2009 for steelhead trout and 2005 to 2009 for spring Chinook salmon. These densities were modeled using generalized linear mixed models. Variables examined included primary and secondary geology type, habitat type, flow type, sinuosity, and slope of stream channel. In addition, we included spring effect and hatchery effect variables to account for high densities of redds near known springs and hatchery outflows. Variables were associated with National Hydrography Database reach designations for modeling redd densities within each reach. Reaches were assigned a dominant habitat type, geology, mean slope, and sinuosity. The best fit model for spring Chinook salmon included sinuosity, critical slope, habitat type, flow type, and hatchery effect. Flow type, slope, and habitat type variables accounted for most of the variation in the data. The best fit model for steelhead trout included year, habitat type, flow type, hatchery effect, and spring effect. The spring effect, flow type, and hatchery effect variables explained most of the variation in the data. Our models illustrate how broad-scale landscape features may be used to predict spawning habitat over large areas where fine-scale data may be lacking.

  17. Landscape features influence gene flow as measured by cost-distance and genetic analyses: a case study for giant pandas in the Daxiangling and Xiaoxiangling Mountains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Lifeng; Zhan, Xiangjiang; Meng, Tao; Zhang, Shanning; Wei, Fuwen

    2010-07-23

    Gene flow maintains genetic diversity within a species and is influenced by individual behavior and the geographical features of the species' habitat. Here, we have characterized the geographical distribution of genetic patterns in giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) living in four isolated patches of the Xiaoxiangling and Daxiangling Mountains. Three geographic distance definitions were used with the "isolation by distance theory": Euclidean distance (EUD), least-cost path distance (LCD) defined by food resources, and LCD defined by habitat suitability. A total of 136 genotypes were obtained from 192 fecal samples and one blood sample, corresponding to 53 unique genotypes. Geographical maps plotted at high resolution using smaller neighborhood radius definitions produced large cost distances, because smaller radii include a finer level of detail in considering each pixel. Mantel tests showed that most correlation indices, particularly bamboo resources defined for different sizes of raster cell, were slightly larger than the correlations calculated for the Euclidean distance, with the exception of Patch C. We found that natural barriers might have decreased gene flow between the Xiaoxiangling and Daxiangling regions. Landscape features were found to partially influence gene flow in the giant panda population. This result is closely linked to the biological character and behavior of giant pandas because, as bamboo feeders, individuals spend most of their lives eating bamboo or moving within the bamboo forest. Landscape-based genetic analysis suggests that gene flow will be enhanced if the connectivity between currently fragmented bamboo forests is increased.

  18. Differential effects of landscape-level environmental features on genetic structure in three codistributed tree species in Central America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poelchau, Monica F; Hamrick, J L

    2012-10-01

    Landscape genetic studies use spatially explicit population genetic information to determine the physical and environmental causes of population genetic structure on regional scales. Comparative studies that identify common barriers to gene flow across multiple species within a community are important to both understand the evolutionary trajectories of populations and prioritize habitat conservation. Here, we use a comparative landscape genetic approach to ask whether gradients in temperature or precipitation seasonality structure genetic variation across three codistributed tree species in Central America, or whether a simpler (geographic distance) or more complex, species-specific environmental niche model is necessary to individually explain population genetic structure. Using descriptive statistics and causal modelling, we find that different factors best explain genetic distance in each of the three species: environmental niche distance in Bursera simaruba, geographic distance in Ficus insipida and historical barriers to gene flow or cryptic reproductive barriers for Brosimum alicastrum. This study confirms suggestions from previous studies of Central American tree species that imply that population genetic structure of trees in this region is determined by complex interactions of both historical and current barriers to gene flow. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. Landscape Features Impact on Soil Available Water, Corn Biomass, and Gene Expression during the Late Vegetative Stage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Hansen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Crop yields at summit positions of rolling landscapes often are lower than backslope yields. The differences in plant response may be the result of many different factors. We examined corn ( L. plant productivity, gene expression, soil water, and nutrient availability in two landscape positions located in historically high (backslope and moderate (summit and shoulder yielding zones to gain insight into plant response differences. Growth characteristics, gene expression, and soil parameters (water and N and P content were determined at the V12 growth stage of corn. At tassel, plant biomass, N content, C isotope discrimination (Δ, and soil water was measured. Soil water was 35% lower in the summit and shoulder compared with the lower backslope plots. Plants at the summit had 16% less leaf area, biomass, and N and P uptake at V12 and 30% less biomass at tassel compared with plants from the lower backslope. Transcriptome analysis at V12 indicated that summit and shoulder-grown plants had 496 downregulated and 341 upregulated genes compared with backslope-grown plants. Gene set and subnetwork enrichment analyses indicated alterations in growth and circadian response and lowered nutrient uptake, wound recovery, pest resistance, and photosynthetic capacity in summit and shoulder-grown plants. Reducing plant populations, to lessen demands on available soil water, and applying pesticides, to limit biotic stress, may ameliorate negative water stress responses.

  20. Participatory conservation approaches for satoyama, the traditional forest and agricultural landscape of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobori, Hiromi; Primack, Richard B

    2003-06-01

    The traditional agricultural landscape of Japan, known as satoyama, consists of a mixture of forests, wet rice paddy fields, grasslands, and villages. This landscape supports a great diversity of plant and animal species, many of which are significant to the Japanese culture. The satoyama landscape is currently being rapidly converted to residential and industrial uses in Japan's expanding metropolitan areas, with the local loss of many species. Only 7% of the land in the Yokohama area remains as satoyama. City residents and older farmers have become key participants in programs to protect examples of satoyama. Many urban residents value the experience of participating in agricultural and conservation activities once they are made aware of the threat faced by the satoyama landscape. In one particularly successful program, conservation efforts and fund-raising are linked to "Totoro", an imaginary forest animal featured in a popular animated film.

  1. Steering Angle Function Algorithm of Morphing of Residential Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XIE Tian

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A residential area feature morphing method based on steering angle function is presented. To residential area with the same representation under two different scales,transforming the representation of the residential area polygon from vector coordinates to steering angle function,then using the steering angle function to match,and finding out the similarity and the differences between the residential areas under different scale to get the steering angle function of the the residential areas under any middle scale,the final,transforming the middle scale steering angle function to vector coordinates form,and get the middle shape interpolation of the the residential area polygon.Experimental results show:the residential area morphing method by using steering angle function presented can realize the continuous multi-scale representation under the premise of keeping in shape for the residential area with the rectangular boundary features.

  2. Effects of landscape features on population genetic variation of a tropical stream fish, Stone lapping minnow, Garra cambodgiensis, in the upper Nan River drainage basin, northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaowalee Jaisuk

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatial genetic variation of river-dwelling freshwater fishes is typically affected by the historical and contemporary river landscape as well as life-history traits. Tropical river and stream landscapes have endured extended geological change, shaping the existing pattern of genetic diversity, but were not directly affected by glaciation. Thus, spatial genetic variation of tropical fish populations should look very different from the pattern observed in temperate fish populations. These data are becoming important for designing appropriate management and conservation plans, as these aquatic systems are undergoing intense development and exploitation. This study evaluated the effects of landscape features on population genetic diversity of Garra cambodgiensis, a stream cyprinid, in eight tributary streams in the upper Nan River drainage basin (n = 30–100 individuals/location, Nan Province, Thailand. These populations are under intense fishing pressure from local communities. Based on 11 microsatellite loci, we detected moderate genetic diversity within eight population samples (average number of alleles per locus = 10.99 ± 3.00; allelic richness = 10.12 ± 2.44. Allelic richness within samples and stream order of the sampling location were negatively correlated (P < 0.05. We did not detect recent bottleneck events in these populations, but we did detect genetic divergence among populations (Global FST = 0.022, P < 0.01. The Bayesian clustering algorithms (TESS and STRUCTURE suggested that four to five genetic clusters roughly coincide with sub-basins: (1 headwater streams/main stem of the Nan River, (2 a middle tributary, (3 a southeastern tributary and (4 a southwestern tributary. We observed positive correlation between geographic distance and linearized FST (P < 0.05, and the genetic differentiation pattern can be moderately explained by the contemporary stream network (STREAMTREE analysis, R2 = 0.75. The MEMGENE analysis

  3. Trends of Sustainable Residential Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Narvydas, A

    2014-01-01

    The article is based on Master’s research conducted during Scottish Housing Expo 2010. The aim of the research was to determine the prevailing trends in sustainable residential architecture. Each trend can be described by features detected during visual and technical observation of project data. Based on that architects may predict possible problems related to a specific trend.

  4. Influence of precipitation, landscape and hydrogeomorphic lake features on pelagic allochthonous indicators in two connected ultraoligotrophic lakes of North Patagonia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Queimaliños, Claudia; Reissig, Mariana; Diéguez, María del Carmen; Arcagni, Marina; Ribeiro Guevara, Sergio; Campbell, Linda; Soto Cárdenas, Carolina; Rapacioli, Raúl

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the terrestrial influence on two chained deep ultraoligotrophic lakes of North Patagonia (Argentina) through the seasonal analysis of two pelagic allochthonous indicators: i) water color, as a proxy of allochthonous dissolved organic matter in lakes; and ii) the color to chlorophyll a ratio (Color:Chla), as an indicator of the relationship between allochthonous and autochthonous carbon pools. We also evaluated the potential transfer pathways of the allochthonous dissolved organic matter into the pelagic food webs of these deep lakes, including the natural zooplankton δ 13 C in the analysis. The dynamics of the allochthonous indicators were related to the precipitation regime, water level fluctuations, and hydrogeomorphic and catchment features of lakes Moreno East and Moreno West. The water color (absorbance at 440 nm) was extremely low ( −1 ) in both lakes regardless of the season. However, precipitation and snowmelt regimes drove the increase and decrease of water color, respectively. A significant positive relationship between the zooplankton bulk δ 13 C with the water color would suggest an input of allochthonous organic carbon into the pelagic consumers. The incorporation of the dissolved allochthonous material into higher trophic levels is likely favored by the bacterivorous behavior of planktonic organisms, mixotrophic flagellates and ciliates, which dominate the pelagic food webs of these Patagonian lakes. Morphometric aspects, mainly the higher water residence time, led to lower values of allochthony in Moreno East compared to Moreno West, probably accentuated by its upper position in the lake chain. Overall, our results suggest that these allochthonous signals can bring insight into the magnitude of the interaction between terrestrial environments and lake ecosystems, even in extremely clear and ultraoligotrophic systems, such as the Andean Patagonian lakes. - Highlights: ► Pelagic allochthonous indicators were detected in two

  5. Influence of precipitation, landscape and hydrogeomorphic lake features on pelagic allochthonous indicators in two connected ultraoligotrophic lakes of North Patagonia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Queimalinos, Claudia, E-mail: queimalinosc@comahue-conicet.gob.ar [Laboratorio de Fotobiologia, Instituto de Investigaciones en Biodiversidad y Medio Ambiente (INIBIOMA, UNComahue-CONICET), Quintral 1250, R8400FRF Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina); Reissig, Mariana; Dieguez, Maria del Carmen [Laboratorio de Fotobiologia, Instituto de Investigaciones en Biodiversidad y Medio Ambiente (INIBIOMA, UNComahue-CONICET), Quintral 1250, R8400FRF Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina); Arcagni, Marina; Ribeiro Guevara, Sergio [Laboratorio de Analisis por Activacion Neutronica (LAAN), Centro Atomico Bariloche, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Av. Bustillo 9500, R8402AGP Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina); Campbell, Linda [School of Environmental Studies, Saint Mary' s University, 923 Robie Street, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada B3H-3C3 (Canada); Soto Cardenas, Carolina [Laboratorio de Fotobiologia, Instituto de Investigaciones en Biodiversidad y Medio Ambiente (INIBIOMA, UNComahue-CONICET), Quintral 1250, R8400FRF Bariloche, Rio Negro (Argentina); Rapacioli, Raul [Facultad de Ingenieria, Universidad Nacional del Comahue, Buenos Aires1400, Q8300IBX Neuquen (Argentina); and others

    2012-06-15

    We investigated the terrestrial influence on two chained deep ultraoligotrophic lakes of North Patagonia (Argentina) through the seasonal analysis of two pelagic allochthonous indicators: i) water color, as a proxy of allochthonous dissolved organic matter in lakes; and ii) the color to chlorophyll a ratio (Color:Chla), as an indicator of the relationship between allochthonous and autochthonous carbon pools. We also evaluated the potential transfer pathways of the allochthonous dissolved organic matter into the pelagic food webs of these deep lakes, including the natural zooplankton {delta}{sup 13}C in the analysis. The dynamics of the allochthonous indicators were related to the precipitation regime, water level fluctuations, and hydrogeomorphic and catchment features of lakes Moreno East and Moreno West. The water color (absorbance at 440 nm) was extremely low (< 0.28 m{sup -1}) in both lakes regardless of the season. However, precipitation and snowmelt regimes drove the increase and decrease of water color, respectively. A significant positive relationship between the zooplankton bulk {delta}{sup 13}C with the water color would suggest an input of allochthonous organic carbon into the pelagic consumers. The incorporation of the dissolved allochthonous material into higher trophic levels is likely favored by the bacterivorous behavior of planktonic organisms, mixotrophic flagellates and ciliates, which dominate the pelagic food webs of these Patagonian lakes. Morphometric aspects, mainly the higher water residence time, led to lower values of allochthony in Moreno East compared to Moreno West, probably accentuated by its upper position in the lake chain. Overall, our results suggest that these allochthonous signals can bring insight into the magnitude of the interaction between terrestrial environments and lake ecosystems, even in extremely clear and ultraoligotrophic systems, such as the Andean Patagonian lakes. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Pelagic

  6. Landscape metrics application in ecological and visual landscape assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavrilović Suzana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of landscape-ecological approach application in spatial planning provides exact theoretical and empirical evidence for monitoring ecological consequences of natural and/or anthropogenic factors, particularly changes in spatial structures caused by them. Landscape pattern which feature diverse landscape values is the holder of the unique landscape character at different spatial levels and represents a perceptual domain for its users. Using the landscape metrics, the parameters of landscape composition and configuration are mathematical algorithms that quantify the specific spatial characteristics used for interpretation of landscape features and processes (physical and ecological aspect, as well as forms (visual aspect and the meaning (cognitive aspect of the landscape. Landscape metrics has been applied mostly in the ecological and biodiversity assessments as well as in the determination of the level of structural change of landscape, but more and more applied in the assessment of the visual character of the landscape. Based on a review of relevant literature, the aim of this work is to show the main trends of landscape metrics within the aspect of ecological and visual assessments. The research methodology is based on the analysis, classification and systematization of the research studies published from 2000 to 2016, where the landscape metrics is applied: (1 the analysis of landscape pattern and its changes, (2 the analysis of biodiversity and habitat function and (3 a visual landscape assessment. By selecting representative metric parameters for the landscape composition and configuration, for each category is formed the basis for further landscape metrics research and application for the integrated ecological and visual assessment of the landscape values. Contemporary conceptualization of the landscape is seen holistically, and the future research should be directed towards the development of integrated landscape assessment

  7. Retrospective landscape analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritzbøger, Bo

    2011-01-01

    On the basis of maps from the 18th and 19th centuries, a retrospective analysis was carried out of documentary settlement and landscape data extending back to the Middle Ages with the intention of identifying and dating general structural and dynamic features of the cultural landscape in a select...

  8. Changing Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tunby Gulbrandsen, Ib; Kamstrup, Andreas; Koed Madsen, Anders

    to production, cooperation and communication. Following, we have witnessed a growing number of calls for attention to the effects of new ICT’s on the concept of strategic management and strategizing. Despite the numerous calls, few have answered. In this article we aim at providing a possible response beginning...... with an analysis of the changing organizational landscape created by new ICT’s like Google, Facebook, Wikipedia, iPods, smart phones and Wi-Fi. Based on five netno- and ethno-graphic investigations of the intertwinement of ICT’s and organizational work, we point to three features that have changed the scene: new...

  9. Identifying significant environmental features using feature recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The Department of Environmental Analysis at the Kentucky Transportation Cabinet has expressed an interest in feature-recognition capability because it may help analysts identify environmentally sensitive features in the landscape, : including those r...

  10. Landscape transformation

    OpenAIRE

    Koželj, Urša

    2014-01-01

    In my work, titled Landscape transformation, in the first theoretical-art part, I focus on a landscape painting style in fifteen exposed works, done by different authors. While analyzing depictions of the landscape I establish how the development of photography has in any way affected the transformation of the landscape. In the practical part I describe my work, soft ground graphics with the motive of the landscape, mountain landscape and caves. I devoted the last chapter of my thesis to the ...

  11. Landscape Studio

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Lundsgaard

    2017-01-01

    Landscape studio documents is the biography of the method 'design conversation' and contributes to the way we work with landscapes. The blog communicates renewed landscape didactics and leads to the innovation of design practices.......Landscape studio documents is the biography of the method 'design conversation' and contributes to the way we work with landscapes. The blog communicates renewed landscape didactics and leads to the innovation of design practices....

  12. Group dynamics and landscape features constrain the exploration of herds in fusion-fission societies: the case of European roe deer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Pays

    Full Text Available Despite the large number of movement studies, the constraints that grouping imposes on movement decisions remain essentially unexplored, even for highly social species. Such constraints could be key, however, to understanding the dynamics and spatial organisation of species living in group fusion-fission systems. We investigated the winter movements (speed and diffusion coefficient of groups of free-ranging roe deer (Capreolus capreolus, in an agricultural landscape characterised by a mosaic of food and foodless patches. Most groups were short-lived units that merged and split up frequently during the course of a day. Deer groups decreased their speed and diffusion rate in areas where food patches were abundant, as well as when travelling close to main roads and crest lines and far from forests. While accounting for these behavioural adjustments to habitat features, our study revealed some constraints imposed by group foraging: large groups reached the limit of their diffusion rate faster than small groups. The ability of individuals to move rapidly to new foraging locations following patch depression thus decreases with group size. Our results highlight the importance of considering both habitat heterogeneity and group dynamics when predicting the movements of individuals in group fusion-fission societies. Further, we provide empirical evidence that group cohesion can restrain movement and, therefore, the speed at which group members can explore their environment. When maintaining cohesion reduces foraging gains because of movement constraints, leaving the group may become a fitness-rewarding decision, especially when individuals can join other groups located nearby, which would tend to maintain highly dynamical group fusion-fission systems. Our findings also provide the basis for new hypotheses explaining a broad range of ecological patterns, such as the broader diet and longer residency time reported for larger herbivore groups.

  13. Technical Problems of Residential Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowogońska, Beata; Cibis, Jerzy

    2017-10-01

    Beauty, utility, durability - these are the features of good architecture and should also be the distinguishing qualities of every residential building. But do beauty and utility remain along with the passing of time? Performance characteristics are an indicator of both, the technical as well as aesthetic state of buildings. Aesthetic needs are in disagreement with the merciless aging process. The beauty of a city is formed not only by the original forms of new residential buildings, but also by existing tenement housing; thus preserving their aesthetics becomes a necessity. Time is continuously passing and along with it, aging intensifies. The aging process is a natural phenomenon for every material. The life expectancy of building materials is also limited. Along with the passing of time, the technical state of residential buildings continuously deteriorates. With the passing of time, the aesthetic values and preferences of users of flats change and the usability of the building decreases. The permanence of buildings, including residential buildings, is shaped not only by the forces of nature but also by activities of humans. A long lifespan is ensured by carrying out ongoing, systematic renovation-repair works. It is thanks to them that buildings derived from past centuries are still being used, and their market attractiveness is not decreasing.

  14. The utility of some metrics in developing a landscape diagnosis. Case study: Botoroaga commune, Teleorman County, Romania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihai Mustățea

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The major concern of this paper is represented by the capacity of rural areas to support residential sprawl, feature which generates strong implications on the structure and functions of the adjacent landscape. The process of residential sprawl is an aggressive one, without having a clear strategy of sustainable spatial planning, and without a preliminary diagnosis of multiplication functions and relations characteristic of the landscape in question. The main goal of this paper is to establish the „health condition” of the ecosystems which compose the rural landscape of Botoroaga commune, from Teleorman County, in the south-central part of the Romanian Plain, through an analysis which identifies features unaltered but especially malfunctions and spatial conflicts. The analysis was performed using ten metrics processed using FRAGSTATS software. The results revealed the presence of large surface classes, with a high level of connectivity, proximity and compact geometrical shapes, but also some small areas classes, characterized by low levels of connectivity and a high degree of spatial isolation. The importance of this analysis is the practical usefulness of its results that can be used to support the formulation of a strategy for sustainable planning, in order to maintain balanced building relationships between land cover classes within a landscape, and to minimize functional conflicts within ecosystems.

  15. Relative Path Impact Index (RPII): a morphometric approach to quantify the effect of anthropogenic features on surface flow processes in agricultural landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarolli, P.; Prosdocimi, M.; Sofia, G.; Preti, F.; Dalla Fontana, G.

    2014-12-01

    Soil erosion in cultivated land is one of the main critical issue because of its significant economic consequences, especially whether it occurs in hilly and mountainous environments. Among the cultivated lands, vineyards deserve a particular attention. In fact, they not only represent one of the most important crop in terms of income and employment, but they also constitute the form of agricultural land use that causes the highest soil loss. In these cultivated lands, the construction of terraces is one of the most widely used system for soil and water conservation measures. However, while favoring agricultural activities, terraces may cause local instabilities as well, if they are not properly maintained. Terraced fields are also served by agricultural roads and the construction of these anthropogenic features can have deep effects on water flows and instabilities. In fact, the plane surface of roads can intercept the overland and the subsurface flow and can modify the natural flow directions expanding the drainage network. The main objective of this work is to use high-resolution topography derived from lidar technology for a hydro-geomorphological analysis of terraced vineyards. We considered few case studies located in Italy. At first, the Relative Path Impact Index (RPII) is used to identify likely sections of terraces and agricultural roads subject to potential landsliding or erosion. Statistical thresholds of RPII are then defined to label the most critical areas. Afterwards, using the index and the defined thresholds, different scenarios of soil conservation measures are simulated, to establish the optimal solution for erosion reduction. The results prove the effectiveness of high-resolution topography in the analysis of surface erosion in terraced vineyards, when the surface water flow is the main factor triggering the instabilities. This preliminary analysis can help in scheduling a suitable planning to mitigate the consequences of the anthropogenic

  16. DHH-RHEBL1 fusion transcript: a novel recurrent feature in the new landscape of pediatric CBFA2T3-GLIS2-positive acute myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masetti, Riccardo; Togni, Marco; Astolfi, Annalisa; Pigazzi, Martina; Manara, Elena; Indio, Valentina; Rizzari, Carmelo; Rutella, Sergio; Basso, Giuseppe; Pession, Andrea; Locatelli, Franco

    2013-10-01

    remaining 12 CBFA2T3-GLIS2-rearranged patients not harboring DHH-RHEBL1 fusion (25% vs 55%, respectively, P=0.1). Taken together, these findings are unprecedented and indicate that the DHH-RHEBL1 fusion transcript is a novel recurrent feature in the changing landscape of CBFA2T3-GLIS2-positive childhood AML. Moreover, it could be instrumental in the identification of a subgroup of CBFA2T3-GLIS2-positive patients with a very poor outcome.

  17. How to analyse the typological features of stone terrace walls. A methodology applied to the rural landscape of the Tuscan Region (Central Italy)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnoletti, Mauro; Conti, Leonardo; Frezza, Lorenza; Santoro, Antonio

    2015-04-01

    Terraced systems currently represent an indubitable added value for Tuscany, as for other regions. This value goes beyond their original function of hosting new areas for cultivation. Indeed, the hydrological functions performed by such systems within the historic and modern agricultural matrix, including control of erosion, stabilisation of the slopes, prolongation of run-off times and the possible reduction of the volumes of surface runoff, are well-known. In addition they also play a strategic role in the conservation of biodiversity and in maintaining local identity value. These systems are evidence of the laborious knowledge built up by many generations of farmers in making the most of the territorial resources in terms of quality production through agronomic operations for the management of the crops. Within the framework of policies for the conservation and valorisation of the rural landscape, this recognised economic, environmental and historic-cultural value has engendered a growing awareness and sensitivity towards the safeguarding of such structural characteristics. Indeed, at national level the terraced agricultural systems come within the scope of actions scheduled in the National Strategic Plan for Rural Development 2007-2013, and the Cross-Compliance Decree envisages that they be maintained through the granting of economic aid as laid down in the Regional Development Plans, to be pursued through appropriate agronomic and environmental conditions in adherence to the obligatory management criteria for the protection of the soil. 18 sample areas, previously selected on the basis of the terracing intensity index (> 400 m/ha), were subjected to on-site surveys to determine the geo-typological features through the identification and measurement of the main technical-construction parameters of the dry stone walls. In view of the complexity of carrying out a census of the entire regional territory, it was essential to restrict the analysis to a limited

  18. Aspectos icónicos e identitarios en la caracterización del paisaje rural de Millana. Comarca de la Baja Alcarria / Iconic and identifying features in rural landscape characterization about Millana. Alcarria Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Eiroa Escalada

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa preocupación creciente hacia los paisajes de nuestro entorno, y los compromisos adquiridos por España tras la firma del Convenio Europeo del Paisaje, ha llevado a la elaboración de documentos de conocimiento y divulgación que sirvan de base para su protección. A partir de la descripción que de la Comarca de la Alcarria se hace en el Atlas de los Paisajes de Castilla-La Mancha, este trabajo hace una revisión de los componentes principales que configuran este paisaje típicamente rural. Posteriormente se hace un análisis equivalente a escala local, y mediante la realización de una serie de encuestas a vecinos, veraneantes y visitantes esporádicos, se pretende contrastar estos aspectos icónicos con la percepción que del paisaje tienen sus propios agentes. Finalmente se trata de evaluar si los rasgos identitarios detectados, fuertemente ligados a un modo de vida en rápida desaparición, están siendo suficientemente recogidos en los documentos que servirán de base para la gestión del paisaje.Palabras claveTerritorio, comarca, paisaje rural, aspectos icónicos, aspectos identitarios.AbstractThe growing concern about landscapes of our environment, and the commitments made by Spain, after signing the European Landscape Convention, has led to develop knowledge and disclosure documents as a basis for their protection. Starting with the description of the Alcarria region in the Atlas de los Paisajes de Castilla-La Mancha, this paper reviews the main components that make up the typical rural landscape. Subsequently, an equivalent analysis at local level was carried out, conducted by a series of surveys made to residents, tourists and casual visitors, intended to contrast these iconic features with the landscape perception that their own agents have. Finally it comes to assessing whether the detected identifying features, strongly linked to a quickly disappearing way of life, are being properly recorded in documents, which will

  19. Discrimination of Settlement and Industrial Area Using Landscape Metrics in Rural Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinyu Zheng

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Detailed and precise information of land-use and land-cover (LULC in rural area is essential for land-use planning, environment and energy management. The confusion in mapping residential and industrial areas brings problems in energy management, environmental management and sustainable land use development. However, they remain ambiguous in the former rural LULC mapping, and this insufficient supervision leads to inefficient land exploitation and a great waste of land resources. Hence, the extent and area of residential and industrial cover need to be revealed urgently. However, spectral and textural information is not sufficient for classification heterogeneity due to the similarity between different LULC types. Meanwhile, the contextual information about the relationship between a LULC feature and its surroundings still has potential in classification application. This paper attempts to discriminate settlement and industry area using landscape metrics. A feasible classification scheme integrating landscape metrics, chessboard segmentation and object-based image analysis (OBIA is proposed. First LULC map is generated from GeoEye-1 image, which delineated distribution of different land-cover materials using traditional OBIA method with spectrum and texture information. Then, a chessboard segmentation of the whole LULC map is conducted to create landscape units in a uniform spatial area. Landscape characteristics in each square of chessboard are adopted in the classification algorithm subsequently. To analyze landscape unit scale effect, a variety of chessboard scales are tested, with overall accuracy ranging from 75% to 88%, and Kappa coefficient from 0.51 to 0.76. Optimal chessboard scale is obtained through accuracy assessment comparison. This classification scheme is then compared to two other approaches: a top-down hierarchical classification network using only spectral, textural and shape properties, and lacunarity based hierarchical

  20. Landscape Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Andreas Aagaard; Brandt, Jesper; Svenningsen, Stig Roar

    2017-01-01

    pattern analysis and ecological interaction of land units. The landscape is seen as a holon: an assemblage of interrelated phenomena, both cultural and biophysical, that together form a complex whole. Enduring challenges to landscape ecology include the need to develop a systematic approach able......Landscape ecology is an interdisciplinary field of research and practice that deals with the mutual association between the spatial configuration and ecological functioning of landscapes, exploring and describing processes involved in the differentiation of spaces within landscapes......, and the ecological significance of the patterns which are generated by such processes. In landscape ecology, perspectives drawn from existing academic disciplines are integrated based on a common, spatially explicit mode of analysis developed from classical holistic geography, emphasizing spatial and landscape...

  1. Landscape Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Andreas Aagaard; Brandt, Jesper; Svenningsen, Stig Roar

    2017-01-01

    Landscape ecology is an interdisciplinary field of research and practice that deals with the mutual association between the spatial configuration and ecological functioning of landscapes, exploring and describing processes involved in the differentiation of spaces within landscapes......, and the ecological significance of the patterns which are generated by such processes. In landscape ecology, perspectives drawn from existing academic disciplines are integrated based on a common, spatially explicit mode of analysis developed from classical holistic geography, emphasizing spatial and landscape...... pattern analysis and ecological interaction of land units. The landscape is seen as a holon: an assemblage of interrelated phenomena, both cultural and biophysical, that together form a complex whole. Enduring challenges to landscape ecology include the need to develop a systematic approach able...

  2. The relationship between landscape planting patterns and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The relationship between plants and perceived safety in residential areas has been argued by landscape researchers, but there is inadequate or no relevant literature available on the effect of plants in urban parks' safety. Therefore, a photo-questionnaire survey was conducted among urban park users in Tabriz, Iran to ...

  3. Fieldwork, Heritage and Engaging Landscape Texts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mains, Susan P.

    2014-01-01

    This paper outlines and analyses efforts to critically engage with "heritage" through the development and responses to a series of undergraduate residential fieldwork trips held in the North Coast of Jamaica. The ways in which we read heritage through varied "texts"--specifically, material landscapes, guided heritage tours,…

  4. Planetary Landscape Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hargitai, H.

    the landscape. Unique or common landscape forms: Depending on the given planet, one feature can have special value (or can be of different scientific importance): on Io, a impact crater would be more important, than on the Moon, etc. Current processes: Naturally, "living" landscapes (with active volcanoes, geysers, dust devils or active weather processes) are more valuable than "dead" ones. Cultural landscape values. Human presence on a extraterrestrial body is of high impor- tance. Human landing sites with footprints or landing sites with spacecraft "debris" or scientific devices makes any - otherwise unimportant - landscape valuable for us. Even the proper names of surface features will change their physical value: for a Hungarian, for example, a crater named after a Hungarian scientist will have a special value and will attract more interest than other craters. These factors are comparable with our tourist value categories. Economical landscape values. As on Earth, it makes an area more valuable if it has economically usable and profitable raw materials: minerals, rocks (impactites and other materials formed in special conditions or a long time ago). Aesthetic landscape values. We, humans, consider this as an other important factor since the German painter A. Altdorfer in the 16th century has first chosen certain land- 2 scapes that he considered to be of artistic value even without human figures present in the landscape. Parts of aesthetic landscape values are not part of the surface or local environment but of the planet or planetary system: the color of lack of the atmosphere, clouds, the characteristics of the visible moons. The abiogenic surface elements of this category are for example sand dunes, relief forms with order in their shape or distri- bution, or extreme landforms: extensive smooth plains or deep canyons. "Human presence (or life) - friendliness" values. Conditions for longer human pres- ence will be one of the most important factors when we start

  5. Research needs for our national landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elwood L. Shafer

    1979-01-01

    The prevailing research problem for our national landscapes is: How shall we organize, control, and coordinate public and private development so as to protect, maintain, improve, and manage those landscape features that we value most? Research questions discussed include: environmental/political conflicts, taxation and zoning, landscape classification, public...

  6. Overview of Socio-economic Transformations Based on Residential Architecture in a Suburban Area – Case Study of Villages in the Polish Region of Warmia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Źróbek-Różańska, Alina; Zysk, Elżbieta; Źróbek, Sabina

    2017-10-01

    Poland has a turbulent and rich history. Partitions, wars, a centrally planned economy of the socialist era and the rapid transition to a market economy left visible marks on the Polish landscape. The changes that took place in the 20th century and the early 21st century have vastly influenced the country’s architecture. Residential buildings in rural suburbs bear witness to turbulent historical events and change processes. This study analyzed residential buildings in two villages situated in the historical district of Warmia (north-eastern Poland) which is now a part of the Region of Warmia and Mazury. The results of the observations were used to review the social, economic, legal and planning factors that influenced residential architecture between 1900 and 2017. The traditional layout of Warmian villages is well preserved in the analyzed locations where pre-war architectural design mingles with buildings erected in the socialist era when construction materials were scarce. Many buildings in the surveyed villages are reminiscent of collective farms, the prescribed architectural style of the 1970s as well as the stylistic diversity of the early transformation period when customized building plans and construction materials became available. The local landscape also features buildings erected in successive decades which brought a significant increase in the price of land and maintenance costs.

  7. Landscape relatedness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norman, Anita J; Strønen, Astrid Vik; Fuglstad, Geir-Arne

    2017-01-01

    Context Methods for detecting contemporary, fine-scale population genetic structure in continuous populations are scarce. Yet such methods are vital for ecological and conservation studies, particularly under a changing landscape. Objectives Here we present a novel, spatially explicit method...... that we call landscape relatedness (LandRel). With this method, we aim to detect contemporary, fine-scale population structure that is sensitive to spatial and temporal changes in the landscape. Methods We interpolate spatially determined relatedness values based on SNP genotypes across the landscape...

  8. Strategy Guideline: High Performance Residential Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holton, J.

    2012-02-01

    The Strategy Guideline: High Performance Residential Lighting has been developed to provide a tool for the understanding and application of high performance lighting in the home. The high performance lighting strategies featured in this guide are drawn from recent advances in commercial lighting for application to typical spaces found in residential buildings. This guide offers strategies to greatly reduce lighting energy use through the application of high quality fluorescent and light emitting diode (LED) technologies. It is important to note that these strategies not only save energy in the home but also serve to satisfy the homeowner's expectations for high quality lighting.

  9. Degree Landscapes in Scale-Free Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Axelsen, Jacob Bock; Bernhardsson, Sebastian; Rosvall, Martin; Sneppen, Kim; Trusina, Ala

    2005-01-01

    We generalize the degree-organizational view of real-world networks with broad degree-distributions in a landscape analogue with mountains (high-degree nodes) and valleys (low-degree nodes). For example, correlated degrees between adjacent nodes corresponds to smooth landscapes (social networks), hierarchical networks to one-mountain landscapes (the Internet), and degree-disassortative networks without hierarchical features to rough landscapes with several mountains. We also generate ridge la...

  10. Landscape Ecology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Andreas Aagaard; Brandt, Jesper; Svenningsen, Stig Roar

    2017-01-01

    pattern analysis and ecological interaction of land units. The landscape is seen as a holon: an assemblage of interrelated phenomena, both cultural and biophysical, that together form a complex whole. Enduring challenges to landscape ecology include the need to develop a systematic approach able...

  11. Nordic Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortshøj, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    This Box Set NORDIC LANDSCAPE presents Nordic Territories, a project by Rasmus Hjortshøj, exploring the man-made landscapes of the coastal territories and the entanglement of society and nature in times where it is no longer merely mankind subjected to nature, but where nature is equally being...

  12. Industrious Landscaping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brichet, Nathalia Sofie; Hastrup, Frida

    2018-01-01

    This article offers a history of landscaping at Søby brown coal beds – a former mining site in western Denmark. Exploring this industrial landscape through a series of projects that have made different natural resources appear, we argue that what is even recognized as resources shifts over time...... has been seen interchangeably to rest with brown coal business, inexpensive estates for do-it-yourself people, pasture for grazing, and recreational forest, among other things. We discuss these rifts in landscaping, motivated by what we refer to as industriousness, to show that in an industrial site...... analysis of shifting landscape projects and has an essential methodological corollary, namely that fieldwork must be improvisational, situated, and humble. Rather than finding the ‘right’ field materials for a canonical landscape history of Søby, we develop a method of ‘dustballing’ – being blown here...

  13. Unnameable landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Stuart-Murray

    1995-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper outlines the key concepts of opacity, back formation and toponymic activity used by place name historians, and relates them to the naming of contemporary artefacts in the cultural landscape. It categorises place names according to a three-layered analytical model of landscape and argues that place naming is now carried out largely within a cultural framework. Exceptions are names given by modern recreationalists who have regained something of the intimate relationship with the land possessed by earlier agricultural societies. This view is supported by findings that students of landscape architecture have difficulty in naming and describing character where landscapes have been shaped largely by physical and biological processes. It is also consistent with the increasing articulation of landscapes at the cultural level independent of physical and natural process, allowed by the sophistication of modern technology.

  14. Having our yards and sharing them too: the collective effects of yards on native bird species in an urban landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belaire, J Amy; Whelan, Christopher J; Minor, Emily S

    Residential yards comprise a substantial portion of urban landscapes, and the collective effects of the management of many individual yards may “scale up” to affect urban biodiversity. We conducted bird surveys and social surveys in Chicago-area (Illinois, USA) residential neighborhoods to identify the relative importance of yard design and management activities for native birds. We found that groups of neighboring yards, in the aggregate, were more important for native bird species richness than environmental characteristics at the neighborhood or landscape scale. The ratio of evergreen to deciduous trees in yards and the percentage of yards with trees and plants with fruits or berries were positively associated with native bird species richness, whereas the number of outdoor cats had a negative association. The number of birdfeeders was not an important predictor for native species richness. We also found that migratory birds were observed on transects with more wildlife-friendly features in yards, and nonnative birds were observed on transects with greater numbers of outdoor cats and dogs. Our results highlight the potential importance of residential matrix management as a conservation strategy in urban areas.

  15. Residential damage in an area of underground coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padgett, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    In order to estimate the potential for future subsidence-related residential damage, a statistical analysis of past residential damage in the Boulder-Weld, Colorado, coal field was performed. The objectives of this study were to assess the difference in damage severity and frequency between undermined and non-undermined areas, and to determine, where applicable, which mining factors significantly influence the severity and frequency of residential damage. The results of this study suggest that undermined homes have almost three times the risk of having some type of structural damage than do non-undermined homes. The study also indicated that both geologic factors, such as the ratio of sandstone/claystone in the overburden, and mining factors, such as the mining feature (room, pillar, entry, etc.), can significantly affect the severity of overlying residential damage. However, the results of this study are dependent on local conditions and should not be applied elsewhere unless the geologic, mining, and residential conditions are similar

  16. 20180311 - Use of ToxPrint chemotypes for exploring chemical feature enrichments across the ToxCast chemical-assay landscape (SOT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA’s ToxCast chemical library spans diverse chemical use-types, functionalities, structures and features potentially relevant to toxicity and environmental exposure. However, this structural diversity, along with assay noise and low average hit rates across the varied Tox...

  17. Industrious Landscaping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brichet, Nathalia Sofie; Hastrup, Frida

    2018-01-01

    This article offers a history of landscaping at Søby brown coal beds – a former mining site in western Denmark. Exploring this industrial landscape through a series of projects that have made different natural resources appear, we argue that what is even recognized as resources shifts over time...... has been seen interchangeably to rest with brown coal business, inexpensive estates for do-it-yourself people, pasture for grazing, and recreational forest, among other things. We discuss these rifts in landscaping, motivated by what we refer to as industriousness, to show that in an industrial site...

  18. Landscape relatedness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norman, Anita J; Strønen, Astrid Vik; Fuglstad, Geir-Arne

    2017-01-01

    Context Methods for detecting contemporary, fine-scale population genetic structure in continuous populations are scarce. Yet such methods are vital for ecological and conservation studies, particularly under a changing landscape. Objectives Here we present a novel, spatially explicit method...... that we call landscape relatedness (LandRel). With this method, we aim to detect contemporary, fine-scale population structure that is sensitive to spatial and temporal changes in the landscape. Methods We interpolate spatially determined relatedness values based on SNP genotypes across the landscape....... Interpolations are calculated using the Bayesian inference approach integrated nested Laplace approximation. We empirically tested this method on a continuous population of brown bears (Ursus arctos) spanning two counties in Sweden. Results Two areas were identified as differentiated from the remaining...

  19. Designability landscape reveals sequence features that define axial helix rotation in four-helical homo-oligomeric antiparallel coiled-coil structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepaniak, Krzysztof; Lach, Grzegorz; Bujnicki, Janusz M; Dunin-Horkawicz, Stanislaw

    2014-11-01

    Coiled coils are widespread protein domains comprising α-helices wound around each other in a regular fashion. Owing to their regularity, coiled-coil structures can be fully described by parametric equations. This in turn makes them an excellent model for studying sequence-structure relationships in proteins. Here, we used computational design to identify sequence features that determine the degree of helix axial rotation in four-helical homo-oligomeric antiparallel coiled coils. We designed 135,000 artificial sequences for a repertoire of backbone models representing all theoretically possible axial rotation states. Analysis of the designed sequences revealed features that precisely define the rotation of the helices. Based on these features we implemented a bioinformatic tool, which given a coiled-coil sequence, predicts the rotation of the helices in its structure. Moreover, we showed that another structural parameter, helix axial shift, is coupled to helix axial rotation and that dependence between these two parameters narrows the number of possible axial rotation states. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Electromagnetic Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak, Daniel; Okutsu, Ayaka; Jørgensen, Stina Marie Hasse

    2015-01-01

    Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath, Ayaka Okutsu, Stina Hasse. Electromagnetic Landscape - In-between Signal, Noise and Environment. Installation and artist talk. 21th International Symposium on Electronic Art (ISEA) 2015, Vancouver, CAN, Aug 14-18, 2015.......Daniel Cermak-Sassenrath, Ayaka Okutsu, Stina Hasse. Electromagnetic Landscape - In-between Signal, Noise and Environment. Installation and artist talk. 21th International Symposium on Electronic Art (ISEA) 2015, Vancouver, CAN, Aug 14-18, 2015....

  1. Nordic Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjortshøj, Rasmus

    2017-01-01

    This Box Set NORDIC LANDSCAPE presents Nordic Territories, a project by Rasmus Hjortshøj, exploring the man-made landscapes of the coastal territories and the entanglement of society and nature in times where it is no longer merely mankind subjected to nature, but where nature is equally being sh...... territories is not only their transient nature, but also the warm currents of the Gulf Stream making these northern shorelines habitable for human settlements....

  2. Parabolic Dunes Landform Features of Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — A landscape is a collection of land shapes or land forms. Landform Regions are a grouping of individual landscape features that have a common geomophology. In Iowa,...

  3. Lineated Ridges Landform Features of Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — A landscape is a collection of land shapes or land forms. Landform Regions are a grouping of individual landscape features that have a common geomophology. In Iowa,...

  4. Lineated Inliers Landform Features of Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — A landscape is a collection of land shapes or land forms. Landform regions are a grouping of individual landscape features that have a common geomophology. In Iowa,...

  5. Paha Ridges Landform Features of Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — A landscape is a collection of land shapes or land forms. Landform regions are a grouping of individual landscape features that have a common geomophology. In Iowa,...

  6. Geomorpho-Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farabollini, Piero; Lugeri, Francesca; Amadio, Vittorio

    2014-05-01

    Landscape is the object of human perceptions, being the image of spatial organization of elements and structures: mankind lives the first approach with the environment, viewing and feeling the landscape. Many definitions of landscape have been given over time: in this case we refer to the Landscape defined as the result of interaction among physical, biotic and anthropic phenomena acting in a different spatial-temporal scale (Foreman & Godron) Following an Aristotelic approach in studying nature, we can assert that " Shape is synthesis": so it is possible to read the land features as the expression of the endogenous and exogenous processes that mould earth surfaces; moreover, Landscape is the result of the interaction of natural and cultural components, and conditions the spatial-temporal development of a region. The study of the Landscape offers results useful in order to promote sustainable development, ecotourism, enhancement of natural and cultural heritage, popularization of the scientific knowledge. In Italy, a very important GIS-based tool to represent the territory is the "Carta della Natura" ("Map of Nature", presently coordinated by the ISPRA) that aims at assessing the state of the whole Italian territory, analyzing Landscape. The methodology follows a holistic approach, taking into consideration all the components of a landscape and then integrating the information. Each individual landscape, studied at different scales, shows distinctive elements: structural, which depend on physical form and specific spatial organization; functional, which depend on relationships created between biotic and abiotic elements, and dynamic, which depend on the successive evolution of the structure. The identification of the landscape units, recognized at different scales of analysis, allows an evaluation of the state of the land, referring to the dual risk/resource which characterizes the Italian country. An interesting opportunity is to discover those areas of unusual

  7. Changing Landscapes, Changing Landscape's Story

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lapka, Miloslav; Cudlínová, Eva

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 3 (2003), s. 323-328 ISSN 0142-6397. [Symposium on Sustainable Landscapes in an Enlarged Europe. Nové Hrady, 12.09.2001-14.09.2001] R&D Projects: GA MŠk ME 530 Grant - others:GA-(XE) QLK5-CT-2000-01211-SPRITE Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5039906 Keywords : Landscape stability * narrative approach * socio-economic typology Subject RIV: DO - Wilderness Conservation

  8. Pattern and Drivers of White-Tailed Deer (Odocoileus virginianus Herbivory on Tree Saplings across a Plateau Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan P. Evans

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus populations are impacting long-term regeneration across eastern United States forests. Deer distribution and resulting herbivory patterns are variable across a landscape due to habitat patchiness and topography. It is poorly understood how features associated with topography control deer herbivory. We examined the heterogeneity of deer herbivory as it affects sapling densities across a single forest-type landscape on the Cumberland Plateau. The 1242 hectare site represented a peninsula of tableland that transitioned from developed land to forest and was surrounded on three sides by a bluff, irregularly punctuated by drainages. We examined the spatial variability of deer impacts on sapling density and modeled the relative importance of plateau accessibility features related to topography, proximity to edge, and deer culling as predictors of sapling variation. We used a stratified random design to sample sapling density across the landscape in 2012 and 2015. The intensity of deer herbivory on saplings varied, with the fewest saplings in forests surrounded by residential development. Our model predicted that plateau accessibility measures best determined sapling densities, followed by distance from edge and deer culling measures. Our results suggest that herbivory impacts may not be homogeneous in a contiguous uniform landscape if there are topographic barriers.

  9. Predictability of evolutionary trajectories in fitness landscapes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander E Lobkovsky

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Experimental studies on enzyme evolution show that only a small fraction of all possible mutation trajectories are accessible to evolution. However, these experiments deal with individual enzymes and explore a tiny part of the fitness landscape. We report an exhaustive analysis of fitness landscapes constructed with an off-lattice model of protein folding where fitness is equated with robustness to misfolding. This model mimics the essential features of the interactions between amino acids, is consistent with the key paradigms of protein folding and reproduces the universal distribution of evolutionary rates among orthologous proteins. We introduce mean path divergence as a quantitative measure of the degree to which the starting and ending points determine the path of evolution in fitness landscapes. Global measures of landscape roughness are good predictors of path divergence in all studied landscapes: the mean path divergence is greater in smooth landscapes than in rough ones. The model-derived and experimental landscapes are significantly smoother than random landscapes and resemble additive landscapes perturbed with moderate amounts of noise; thus, these landscapes are substantially robust to mutation. The model landscapes show a deficit of suboptimal peaks even compared with noisy additive landscapes with similar overall roughness. We suggest that smoothness and the substantial deficit of peaks in the fitness landscapes of protein evolution are fundamental consequences of the physics of protein folding.

  10. Predictability of evolutionary trajectories in fitness landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobkovsky, Alexander E; Wolf, Yuri I; Koonin, Eugene V

    2011-12-01

    Experimental studies on enzyme evolution show that only a small fraction of all possible mutation trajectories are accessible to evolution. However, these experiments deal with individual enzymes and explore a tiny part of the fitness landscape. We report an exhaustive analysis of fitness landscapes constructed with an off-lattice model of protein folding where fitness is equated with robustness to misfolding. This model mimics the essential features of the interactions between amino acids, is consistent with the key paradigms of protein folding and reproduces the universal distribution of evolutionary rates among orthologous proteins. We introduce mean path divergence as a quantitative measure of the degree to which the starting and ending points determine the path of evolution in fitness landscapes. Global measures of landscape roughness are good predictors of path divergence in all studied landscapes: the mean path divergence is greater in smooth landscapes than in rough ones. The model-derived and experimental landscapes are significantly smoother than random landscapes and resemble additive landscapes perturbed with moderate amounts of noise; thus, these landscapes are substantially robust to mutation. The model landscapes show a deficit of suboptimal peaks even compared with noisy additive landscapes with similar overall roughness. We suggest that smoothness and the substantial deficit of peaks in the fitness landscapes of protein evolution are fundamental consequences of the physics of protein folding.

  11. Landscape Sustainability in a Sonoran Desert City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chris A. Martin

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper is to discuss concepts of landscape sustainability in the Phoenix metropolitan area. Phoenix is situated in the greater Salt River Valley of the lower Sonoran Desert in the southwest United States. In this paper I use the ecological frameworks of ecosystem services and resiliency as a metric for understanding landscape sustainability. An assessment of landscape sustainability performance benchmarks were made by surveying research findings of scientists affiliated with the Central Arizona Phoenix Long Term Ecological Research Project (CAP LTER. In Phoenix, present day emphases on cultural, aesthetic, and habitat formation ecosystem services within an arid ecoregion of low natural resilience coupled to a complex matrix of socioeconomic stratification, excessive landscape water use and pruning practices has had the undesired effect of degrading landscape sustainability. This has been measured as mixed patterns of plant diversity and human-altered patterns of carbon regulation, microclimate control, and trophic dynamics. In the future, sustainable residential landscaping in desert cities such as Phoenix may be fostered through use of water-conserving irrigation technologies, oasis-style landscape design motifs, recycling of landscape green waste, and conservative plant pruning strategies.

  12. Residential Mechanical Precooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, a. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This research conducted by the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team evaluated mechanical air conditioner pre-cooling strategies in homes throughout the United States. EnergyPlus modeling evaluated two homes with different performance characteristics in seven climates. Results are applicable to new construction homes and most existing homes built in the last 10 years, as well as fairly efficient retrofitted homes.

  13. Residential Solar Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fulkerson, Dan

    This publication contains student and teacher instructional materials for a course in residential solar systems. The text is designed either as a basic solar course or as a supplement to extend student skills in areas such as architectural drafting, air conditioning and refrigeration, and plumbing. The materials are presented in four units…

  14. The Impact of a Shopping Centre on the Value of Adjacent Residential Properties

    OpenAIRE

    M. C. Sale

    2015-01-01

    One of the most significant changes in the South African retail landscape over the past few decades is the increase in the number and size of retail shopping centres situated in, or close to, residential areas. These shopping centres have the potential to generate both positive and negative externalities which may, in turn, be capitalised into adjacent residential property prices. However, policy makers are still unsure as to the effect of commercial land uses such as shopping centres on surr...

  15. The landscapes of tourism space

    OpenAIRE

    Włodarczyk, Bogdan

    2009-01-01

    The author attempts to define the term ‘tourism landscape’. It is treated as an important attribute of tourism space therefore, apart from its definition, the author presents its characteristic features and various types of such spaces with differing tourism landscapes. The landscapes of tourism space are treated not only as tourism assets or attractions, but also as the consequences of tourism activity on the natural and cultural environment.

  16. [Landscape ecological planning of Jiaozuo city].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Fang, Chuanglin; Li, Hongwei

    2005-09-01

    With the application of the principles of landscape ecology and the techniques of geographic information systems, the landscape of Jiaozuo city was divided into six types, i. e., farmland, garden plot, woodland, residential and industrial area, waters, and others. The landscape diversity, dominance, fragmentation, and isolation indexes were calculated by models and GIS to analyze the spatial patterns of these landscape types. Based on the optimization of landscape spatial patterns, a pattern for developing a rational and natural ecosystem in Jiaozuo city was proposed, i. e., keeping four or five large natural patches, planning small artificial green patches, linking the large and small patches by various corridors to ensure the ecosystem inside the city to circulate well, combining residential areas properly to form a urban troop with Jiaozuo town as the center and with seven surrounding towns joined through highways to form a network city pattern. After doing these, urban built-up areas could be linked each other, and inlayed in a natural ecological matrix. This pattern could strengthen the ecological connection, raise the stability of the ecosystem, and maintain the balance of urban ecological system.

  17. Electromagnetic Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cermak, Daniel; Okutsu, Ayaka; Hasse, Stina

    2015-01-01

    Electromagnetic Landscape demonstrates in direct, tangible and immediate ways effects of the disruption of the familiar. An ubiquitous technological medium, FM radio, is turned into an alien and unfamiliar one. Audience participation, the environment, radio signals and noise create a site......-specific, ragged sonic landscape. The work exhibits intrinsic, non-trivial, emerging behaviour, cyclic or wave-like, which converges and ebbs. It varies its sonic and visual display through a dynamic interaction of light sources, fog and light sensors. The system maintains a fluxing state of ambivalence between...

  18. Surface and sub-surface anatomy of the landscape: integrating Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Structure from Motion (UAV-SfM) and Ground Penetrating Radar (GRP) to investigate sedimentary features in the field. - an example from NW Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callow, Nik; Leopold, Matthias; May, Simon Matthias

    2015-04-01

    Geomorphology is confronted by the challenge of reconstructing landscape features at appropriate scales, resolution and accuracy, that allows meaningful analysis of environmental processes and their implications. Field geomorphology offers a discrete snapshot (i.e. one or two field campaigns) to reconstruct how features have changed, evolved or responded over time. We explore the application of an emerging photogrammetry technique called Structure-from-Motion (SfM), which uses multiple photographs of the same feature (but taken at different locations) to create high-accuracy three-dimensional models of surface of sedimentary fans formed by extreme wave events. This approach is complimented by investigation of the sub-surface morphology using Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR). Using an UAV "octocopter", we captured 1208 photos with a DSLR camera (Canon EoS-M) at the height of 50m with a ground pixel resolution of 9mm, above a cyclone wash-over fan in the Exmouth Gulf (Western Australia) that measured about 500m inland by 300m wide. Based on 38 ground control point targets (with between 4 and 45 individual photographs per target) the SfM surface had an absolute total (XYZ) accuracy of 51mm (39mm X, 29mm Y and 14mm Y), based on RTK-DGPS surveying from a local ground reference station (with an absolute AUSPOS accuracy of 57mm X, 6mm Y, 50mm Z to AHD) and an overall relative point accuracy of 7mm. A sparse point cloud of over 5.5 million data points was generated using only points with a reconstruction accuracy of Python. The output was then manually classified into ground and non-ground points, and the geostatistical analyst functionality of ArcGIS used to produce a final bare-earth DEM. This approach has allowed the study team to economically collect an unprecedented high-resolution and accuracy topographic model of this feature to compliment on-ground sediment, geophysics and dating work to analyse the complex evolution structure of the wash-over sequence and the

  19. Sustaining ecosystem services in cultural landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Plieninger

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Classical conservation approaches focus on the man-made degradation of ecosystems and tend to neglect the social-ecological values that human land uses have imprinted on many environments. Throughout the world, ingenious land-use practices have generated unique cultural landscapes, but these are under pressure from agricultural intensification, land abandonment, and urbanization. In recent years, the cultural landscapes concept has been broadly adopted in science, policy, and management. The interest in both outstanding and vernacular landscapes finds expression in the UNESCO World Heritage Convention, the European Landscape Convention, and the IUCN Protected Landscape Approach. These policies promote the protection, management, planning, and governance of cultural landscapes. The ecosystem services approach is a powerful framework to guide such efforts, but has rarely been applied in landscape research and management. With this paper, we introduce a special feature that aims to enhance the theoretical, empirical and practical knowledge of how to safeguard the resilience of ecosystem services in cultural landscapes. It concludes (1 that the usefulness of the ecosystem services approach to the analysis and management of cultural landscapes should be reviewed more critically; (2 that conventional ecosystem services assessment needs to be complemented by socio-cultural valuation; (3 that cultural landscapes are inherently changing, so that a dynamic view on ecosystem services and a focus on drivers of landscape change are needed; and (4 that managing landscapes for ecosystem services provision may benefit from a social-ecological resilience perspective.

  20. Disposable Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2008-01-01

    Whether we are a traditionalist or on the cutting edge of landscape care, we need to take a deep breath and think about what we are trying to achieve, before we select a specific treatment or practice for tree care. We should measure that treatment or practice against what we know about the tree system. I say "system" because the recent years of Modern...

  1. Guidelines for residential commissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wray, Craig P.; Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.

    2003-01-31

    Currently, houses do not perform optimally or even as many codes and forecasts predict, largely because they are field assembled and there is no consistent process to identify problems or to correct them. Residential commissioning is a solution to this problem. This guide is the culmination of a 30-month project that began in September 1999. The ultimate objective of the project is to increase the number of houses that undergo commissioning, which will improve the quality, comfort, and safety of homes for California citizens. The project goal is to lay the groundwork for a residential commissioning industry in California focused on end-use energy and non-energy issues. As such, we intend this guide to be a beginning and not an end. Our intent is that the guide will lead to the programmatic integration of commissioning with other building industry processes, which in turn will provide more value to a single site visit for people such as home energy auditors and raters, home inspectors, and building performance contractors. Project work to support the development of this guide includes: a literature review and annotated bibliography, which facilitates access to 469 documents related to residential commissioning published over the past 20 years (Wray et al. 2000), an analysis of the potential benefits one can realistically expect from commissioning new and existing California houses (Matson et al. 2002), and an assessment of 107 diagnostic tools for evaluating residential commissioning metrics (Wray et al. 2002). In this guide, we describe the issues that non-experts should consider in developing a commissioning program to achieve the benefits we have identified. We do this by providing specific recommendations about: how to structure the commissioning process, which diagnostics to use, and how to use them to commission new and existing houses. Using examples, we also demonstrate the potential benefits of applying the recommended whole-house commissioning approach to

  2. Detailed residential electric determination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-06-01

    Data on residential loads has been collected from four residences in real time. The data, measured at 5-second intervals for 53 days of continuous operation, were statistically characterized. An algorithm was developed and incorporated into the modeling code SOLCEL. Performance simulations with SOLCEL using these data as well as previous data collected over longer time intervals indicate that no significant errors in system value are introduced through the use of long-term average data.

  3. WIND PROTECTION OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trubitsyna Natalja Anatolevna

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the interaction between the wind regime and the landscape. Examples of objects of landscape architecture in high-tech and science-intensive spheres, such as the launch pad of a spacecraft, are given. Wind protection is represented as a result of work on wind power engineering and a means of increasing bioclimatic comfort. The terms of landscape architecture are disclosed and mutual influence on the climate and impact on woody-shrub vegetation and field crops are analyzed. The phenomenon of air permeability for optimal operation of windproof structures and orientations of geoplastics and dendroplastics is described. In this paper, a classification of terrain types is described with a description of their elemental composition, as well as various categories of landscape. The proposal to consider the landscape as a territorial complex, and landscape buildings, landscape-architectural structures as objects of landscape architecture possessing properties of wind protection and air permeability was introduced. Thus, the concept of a landscape-architectural complex as a single group of landscape-architectural objects located on the territory and connected by a common system of communications, functions, technical elements and a visual image is formulated. Further research is based on the rationale for the use of the term ensemble in relation to the objects of the landscape and architectural complex and the identification of their design and planning features that can affect the parameters of wind protection and air permeability. The paper concludes that frequent coincidence of favorable for the fauna wind regime and mimicry of landscape architecture objects. The combination in the landscape of functions for wind protection and aesthetics is analyzed with analysis of such elements of landscape architecture as hedges and windproof properties of green plantations. In the work examples of wind engineering small architectural forms are

  4. 'Nothing works' in secure residential youth care?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souverein, F.A.; van der Helm, G.H.P.; Stams, G.J.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    A debate about the effectiveness of secure residential youth care is currently going on. While some continue to support secure residential youth care, others conclude that ‘nothing works’ in secure residential youth care, and argue that non-residential treatment is superior to secure residential

  5. Re-thinking residential mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ham, Maarten; Findlay, Allan M.

    2015-01-01

    While researchers are increasingly re-conceptualizing international migration, far less attention has been devoted to re-thinking short-distance residential mobility and immobility. In this paper we harness the life course approach to propose a new conceptual framework for residential mobility research. We contend that residential mobility and immobility should be re-conceptualized as relational practices that link lives through time and space while connecting people to structural conditions. Re-thinking and re-assessing residential mobility by exploiting new developments in longitudinal analysis will allow geographers to understand, critique and address pressing societal challenges. PMID:27330243

  6. Large-Scale Residential Demolition

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA provides resources for handling residential demolitions or renovations. This includes planning, handling harmful materials, recycling, funding, compliance assistance, good practices and regulations.

  7. Effective Exercises in Teaching Landscape Ecology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott M. Pearson; Monica G. Turner; Dean L. Urban

    1999-01-01

    The development of landscape ecology and its many applications to land management created a need for courses that address both the conceptual and practical sides of the discipline. Graduate seminars and full-fledged courses in landscape ecology are now featured at many colleges and universities; undergraduate ecology courses may include an introduction to principles...

  8. People's perceptions of managed and natural landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur W. Magill

    1995-01-01

    Research was undertaken to identify the opinions of what people saw in slides of managed and unmanaged landscapes. Most people were attracted by natural landscape features. Clearcuts were reported less frequently than roads, but dislike of them was more than 30 percent greater. Natural openings, bare areas, and sparse tree cover also were disliked.

  9. Thinking big: linking rivers to landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joan O’Callaghan; Ashley E. Steel; Kelly M. Burnett

    2012-01-01

    Exploring relationships between landscape characteristics and rivers is an emerging field, enabled by the proliferation of satellite date, advances in statistical analysis, and increased emphasis on large-scale monitoring. Landscapes features such as road networks, underlying geology, and human developments, determine the characteristics of the rivers flowing through...

  10. Measuring urban tree loss dynamics across residential landscapes

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The spatial arrangement of urban vegetation depends on urban morphology and socio-economic settings. Urban vegetation changes over time because of human management....

  11. ASHRAE and residential ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max H.

    2003-10-01

    In the last quarter of a century, the western world has become increasingly aware of environmental threats to health and safety. During this period, people psychologically retreated away from outdoors hazards such as pesticides, smog, lead, oil spills, and dioxin to the seeming security of their homes. However, the indoor environment may not be healthier than the outdoor environment, as has become more apparent over the past few years with issues such as mold, formaldehyde, and sick-building syndrome. While the built human environment has changed substantially over the past 10,000 years, human biology has not; poor indoor air quality creates health risks and can be uncomfortable. The human race has found, over time, that it is essential to manage the indoor environments of their homes. ASHRAE has long been in the business of ventilation, but most of the focus of that effort has been in the area of commercial and institutional buildings. Residential ventilation was traditionally not a major concern because it was felt that, between operable windows and envelope leakage, people were getting enough outside air in their homes. In the quarter of a century since the first oil shock, houses have gotten much more energy efficient. At the same time, the kinds of materials and functions in houses changed in character in response to people's needs. People became more environmentally conscious and aware not only about the resources they were consuming but about the environment in which they lived. All of these factors contributed to an increasing level of public concern about residential indoor air quality and ventilation. Where once there was an easy feeling about the residential indoor environment, there is now a desire to define levels of acceptability and performance. Many institutions--both public and private--have interests in Indoor Air Quality (IAQ), but ASHRAE, as the professional society that has had ventilation as part of its mission for over 100 years, is the

  12. Orientational dynamics and energy landscape features of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Recent optical kerr effect (OKE) studies have revealed that orientational relaxation of rodlike nematogens near the isotropic-nematic (I-N) phase boundary and also in the nematic phase exhibit temporal power law decay at intermediate times. Such behaviour has drawn an intriguing analogy with supercooled liquids. Here ...

  13. Orientational dynamics and energy landscape features of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    WINTEC

    separation between the two ellipsoids of revolution in a side-by-side configuration, rij is the distance bet- ween the centers of mass of the ellipsoids of revolu- tion i and j, and ˆ. / ij ij ij. r r r. = is a unit vector along the intermolecular separation vector rij. The molecular shape parameter σ and the energy parameter ε both.

  14. Processes of aesthetic transformation in ordinary landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Jonna Majgaard

    2004-01-01

    . These features determined the specific aesthetic and architectural identity of ordinary Danish, i.e. Nordic, landscapes. Contemporary cultural changes such as the aesthetification of everyday life and of ordinary landscape, i.e. farming landscape, are now manifest in the way the windbreaks are motivated...... with utilitarian aspects. This is seen both as an example of how transnational contemporary cultural changes have an impact on local Nordic farming landscapes and their aesthetic expression and as an example of how processes of transformation in aesthetic experience and interpretation have an impact on the general...

  15. Applying Landscape Science to Natural Resource Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy M. Robinson

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This is the introduction to the Ecology and Society special feature on "Applying Landscape Science to Natural Resource Management". Primarily drawing upon examples from Australia, the nine papers in the feature illustrate how landscape science seeks to integrate information from diverse sources to generate management solutions for implementation by individual land managers, communities, and governments at different levels. This introduction refers to the genesis of the feature, briefly outlines the nature and content of landscape science, and then summarizes key features of the nine papers. These are organized into two sections: one deals with inputs from human agents in the landscape, and one with the development of models enabling different management scenarios and environmental changes to be envisaged, understood, and applied to policy development.

  16. [Review on landscape heterogeneity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yutao; Yu, Xinxiao; Guang, Wenbin

    2002-04-01

    On the base of precedent studies, the occurring mechanism, classification, measurement methods, and the important role of landscape heterogeneity in landscape ecology were reviewed. The inner and outer uncertain factors result in landscape heterogeneity. Landscape heterogeneity has close relations with landscape stability, landscape design, architecture, management and disturbance, scale and ecological diversity in ecology. Complexity of landscape heterogeneity research, non-system of measurement indices and methods, difficulties and limitations of landscape heterogeneity modelling were all discussed respectively. In addition, it is suggested that the theory and methods of ecological complexity should be used to improve landscape heterogeneity research.

  17. Residential Mechanical Precooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, Alea [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States). Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI); Hoeschele, Marc [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States). Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI)

    2014-12-01

    Residential air conditioning (AC) represents a challenging load for many electric utilities with poor load factors. Mechanical precooling improves the load factor by shifting cooling operation from on-peak to off-peak hours. This provides benefits to utilities and the electricity grid, as well as to occupants who can take advantage of time-of-use (TOU) electricity rates. Performance benefits stem from reduced compressor cycling, and shifting condensing unit operation to earlier periods of the day when outdoor temperatures are more favorable to operational efficiency. Finding solutions that save energy and reduce demand on the electricity grid is an important national objective and supports key Building America goals. The Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team evaluated mechanical AC precooling strategies in homes throughout the United States. EnergyPlus modeling was used to evaluate two homes with different performance characteristics in seven climates. Results are applicable to new construction homes and most existing homes built in the last 10 years, as well as fairly efficient retrofitted homes. A successful off-peak AC strategy offers the potential for increased efficiency and improved occupant comfort, and promotes a more reliable and robust electricity grid. Demand response capabilities and further integration with photovoltaic TOU generation patterns provide additional opportunities to flatten loads and optimize grid impacts.

  18. Immaterial landscapes: Homeric geography and the Ionian Islands in Greece

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wijngaarden, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    To understand the human perception of landscapes in the past, archaeologists would require knowledge of the immaterial landscape elements: the stories that are connected to physical landscape features. One way of acquiring access to such stories is through written literature (poetry, prose), which

  19. Algorithm for dealing with depressions in dynamic landscape evolution models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temme, A.J.A.M.; Schoorl, J.M.; Veldkamp, A.

    2006-01-01

    Depressions in landscapes function as buffers for water and sediment. A landscape with depressions has less runoff, less erosion and more sedimentation than a landscape without depressions. Sinks in digital elevation models (DEMs) can be existing features that correctly represent depressions in

  20. Cuban Landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scarpaci, Joseph L.; Portela, Armando

    This accessible book offers a vivid geographic portrait of Cuba, exploring the island’s streetscapes, sugar cane fields, beaches, and rural settlements; its billboards, government buildings, and national landmarks. The authors illuminate how natural and built landscapes have shaped Cuban identity...... (cubanidad), and vice versa. They provide a unique perspective on Cuba’s distinct historical periods and political economies, from the colonial period through republicanism and today’s socialist era. Compelling topics include the legacies of slavery and the sugar industry, the past and future of urban...

  1. Processes of aesthetic transformation in ordinary landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krarup, Jonna Majgaard

    2004-01-01

    it was distributed systematically as an almost industrially produced landscape element. Windbreaks are now regarded as a traditional element in the Danish agricultural landscape. As a landscape element it is an international phenomenon known and used in Germany, France, England etc. Originally local farming...... practices, natural conditions, techniques and national legislation in the respective countries, formed the aesthetic expression. In this respect one could speak of the impact of northern nature on the aesthetic expression of the Danish windbreaks, as well as the impact from national phenomena....... These features determined the specific aesthetic and architectural identity of ordinary Danish, i.e. Nordic, landscapes. Contemporary cultural changes such as the aesthetification of everyday life and of ordinary landscape, i.e. farming landscape, are now manifest in the way the windbreaks are motivated...

  2. Buildings interoperability landscape - Draft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Dave B. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephan, Eric G. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Weimin [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Corbin, Charles D. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Widergren, Steven E. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Buildings are an integral part of our nation’s energy economy. The advancement in information and communications technology (ICT) has revolutionized energy management in industrial facilities and large commercial buildings. As ICT costs decrease and capabilities increase, buildings automation and energy management features are transforming the small-medium commercial and residential buildings sectors. A vision of a connected world in which equipment and systems within buildings coordinate with each other to efficiently meet their owners’ and occupants’ needs, and where buildings regularly transact business with other buildings and service providers (such as gas and electric service providers) is emerging. However, while the technology to support this collaboration has been demonstrated at various degrees of maturity, the integration frameworks and ecosystems of products that support the ability to easily install, maintain, and evolve building systems and their equipment components are struggling to nurture the fledging business propositions of their proponents.

  3. Landscape evolution of Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, S.S.R.; Sugden, D.E.

    2007-01-01

    The relative roles of fluvial versus glacial processes in shaping the landscape of Antarctica have been debated since the expeditions of Robert Scott and Ernest Shackleton in the early years of the 20th century. Here we build a synthesis of Antarctic landscape evolution based on the geomorphology of passive continental margins and former northern mid-latitude Pleistocene ice sheets. What makes Antarctica so interesting is that the terrestrial landscape retains elements of a record of change that extends back to the Oligocene. Thus there is the potential to link conditions on land with those in the oceans and atmosphere as the world switched from a greenhouse to a glacial world and the Antarctic ice sheet evolved to its present state. In common with other continental fragments of Gondwana there is a fluvial signature to the landscape in the form of the coastal erosion surfaces and escarpments, incised river valleys, and a continent-wide network of river basins. A selective superimposed glacial signature reflects the presence or absence of ice at the pressure melting point. Earliest continental-scale ice sheets formed around 34 Ma, growing from local ice caps centered on mountain massifs, and featured phases of ice-sheet expansion and contraction. These ice masses were most likely cold-based over uplands and warm-based across lowlands and near their margins. For 20 million years ice sheets fluctuated on Croll-Milankovitch frequencies. At ~14 Ma the ice sheet expanded to its maximum and deepened a preexisting radial array of troughs selectively through the coastal mountains and eroded the continental

  4. Strategy Guideline. High Performance Residential Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holton, J. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This report has been developed to provide a tool for the understanding and application of high performance lighting in the home. The strategies featured in this guide are drawn from recent advances in commercial lighting for application to typical spaces found in residential buildings. This guide offers strategies to greatly reduce lighting energy use through the application of high quality fluorescent and light emitting diode (LED) technologies. It is important to note that these strategies not only save energy in the home but also serve to satisfy the homeowner’s expectations for high quality lighting.

  5. Citizen Science as a Tool for Conservation in Residential Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caren B. Cooper

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Human activities, such as mining, forestry, and agriculture, strongly influence processes in natural systems. Because conservation has focused on managing and protecting wildlands, research has focused on understanding the indirect influence of these human activities on wildlands. Although a conservation focus on wildlands is critically important, the concept of residential area as an ecosystem is relatively new, and little is known about the potential of such areas to contribute to the conservation of biodiversity. As urban sprawl increases, it becomes urgent to construct a method to research and improve the impacts of management strategies for residential landscapes. If the cumulative activities of individual property owners could help conserve biodiversity, then residential matrix management could become a critical piece of the conservation puzzle. "Citizen science" is a method of integrating public outreach and scientific data collection locally, regionally, and across large geographic scales. By involving citizen participants directly in monitoring and active management of residential lands, citizen science can generate powerful matrix management efforts, defying the "tyranny of small decisions" and leading to positive, cumulative, and measurable impacts on biodiversity.

  6. PESP Landscaping Initiative

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landscaping practices can positively or negatively affect local environments and human health. The Landscaping Initiative seeks to enhance benefits of landscaping while reducing need for pesticides, fertilizers, etc., by working with partners.

  7. ECOLOGICAL FEATURES OF FUNCTIONAL AND PLANNING STRUCTURE OF MEDIUM- AND SMALL-SIZED CITIES AT THE SOUTHERN FAR EAST (EXEMPLIFIED BY BIROBIDZHAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. B. Kalmanova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available With account of perspective tendencies of formation and development of the cities at the southern part of the Russian Far East, and the formation of their ecological stability, the functional and planning structure for determining the landscaping of the urban land is analyzed. Historical mechanisms of the functional and planning structure forming in Birobidzhan are examined. Its main environmental features are analysed. Approaches to formation of the ecologically stable residential environment are described taking into account actual tasks of an urban development. The ratio of the built-up and undeveloped land, presence of green zones and sanitary buffer are the main indicators of ecologican stability of the residential environment. Effective usage of urban land is proposed.

  8. Derivation of two well-behaved theoretical contagion indices and their sampling properties and application for assessing forest landscape diversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernard R. Parresol

    2011-01-01

    Studies of spatial patterns of landscapes are useful to quantify human impact, predict wildlife effects, or describe variability of landscape features. A common approach to identify and quantify landscape structure is with a landscape scale model known as a contagion index. A contagion index quantifies two distinct components of landscape diversity: composition and...

  9. Residential Energy Performance Metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Wright

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Techniques for residential energy monitoring are an emerging field that is currently drawing significant attention. This paper is a description of the current efforts to monitor and compare the performance of three solar powered homes built at Missouri University of Science and Technology. The homes are outfitted with an array of sensors and a data logger system to measure and record electricity production, system energy use, internal home temperature and humidity, hot water production, and exterior ambient conditions the houses are experiencing. Data is being collected to measure the performance of the houses, compare to energy modeling programs, design and develop cost effective sensor systems for energy monitoring, and produce a cost effective home control system.

  10. College residential sleep environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sexton-Radek, Kathy; Hartley, Andrew

    2013-12-01

    College students regularly report increased sleep disturbances as well as concomitant reductions in performance (e.g., academic grades) upon entering college. Sleep hygiene refers to healthy sleep practices that are commonly used as first interventions in sleep disturbances. One widely used practice of this sort involves arranging the sleep environment to minimize disturbances from excessive noise and light at bedtime. Communal sleep situations such as those in college residence halls do not easily support this intervention. Following several focus groups, a questionnaire was designed to gather self-reported information on sleep disturbances in a college population. The present study used The Young Adult Sleep Environment Inventory (YASEI) and sleep logs to investigate the sleep environment of college students living in residential halls. A summary of responses indicated that noise and light are significant sleep disturbances in these environments. Recommendations are presented related to these findings.

  11. Contemporary danish landscape research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejre, H.; Brandt, J.

    2004-01-01

    Danish landscape research blossomed during the 1990’ies thanks to several transdisciplinary research programmes involving several institutions. The main themes of the programmes encompassed Landscape change, landscape and biological diversity, nature and landscape management, use and monitoring o...... of the countryside. The values of the Danish landscape pertain mainly to the coastal landscapes. The threats include the industrilization of the agricultural landsclaes and,in places urban sprawl....

  12. Cultural Landscape and Migration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunnar Haaland

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper focus on the way Nepalese migrants in Myanmar use features of the natural environment in their homeland in metaphoric constructions of a cultural landscape expressing ethnic identity. It is through such "symbolic work" that perceptions of "ethnoscapes" are shaped and indoctrinated. Although the appeal is to symbols that can serve to foster the importance of Nepaliness as a basis for belonging to an imagined community, this does not mean that the caste/ethnicity interaction boundaries are broken down. It does mean however that sectors of activities where such boundaries are made relevant have been changed and so has the cultural content organized through such interaction boundaries. Ethnoscapes do not exist by themselves from a 'primordial' past; they require ongoing expression and confirmation. Features of a natural environment most migrants have never seen is used as sources for spinning compelling webs of significance extolling the values of belonging to a group that shares a common past in that environment. I shall here present material of an ethnoscape very different from what is experienced in Nepal, namely Nepalese multi-caste/ethnic communities among Kachins, Shans, Burmese, Indian and Chinese traders in the Kachin state of Northern Myanmar. Keywords: Nepali migrants; Myanmar; ethnic identity; cultural landscape DOI: 10.3126/dsaj.v4i0.4515 Dhaulagiri Journal of Sociology and Anthropology Vol.4 2010 pp.99-110

  13. Examining the Business Case and Models for Sustainable Multifunctional Edible Landscaping Enterprises in the Phoenix Metro Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Robinson

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses whether multifunctional edible landscaping business models provide a sufficient business case at enterprise and city scales to justify widespread implementation. First, semi-structured interviews were conducted with four landscaping entrepreneurs, and the information obtained from the interviews was utilized to carry out a business model comparison with the Business Model Canvas framework. The comparison showed that the landscaping enterprises using multifunctional edible landscaping methods possessed a greater range of value propositions and revenue streams, enhancing their competitive advantage. Second, a GIS landscape analysis of seven Phoenix metro area cities was carried out to identify landscapes that were suited for becoming multifunctional edible landscapes. The GIS analysis identified single family residential, residential recreational open space, municipal parks, and municipal schools as being suitable landscapes, and that the area of these landscapes in the seven cities exceeded 180,000 acres. Third, scenarios were created using interview and GIS data to estimate potential value creation and return on investment of implementing multifunctional edible landscaping in the cities of interest. The scenarios found that the potential value creation of edible landscaping ranged between $3.9 and $66 billion, and that positive return on investment (ROI could be achieved in 11 out of 12 scenarios within one to five years. Finally, the paper concludes by discussing potential long-term implications of implementing multifunctional edible urban landscaping, as well as possible future directions for multifunctional landscaping business model development and research.

  14. Quantitative analyses of empirical fitness landscapes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szendro, Ivan G; Franke, Jasper; Krug, Joachim; Schenk, Martijn F; De Visser, J Arjan G M

    2013-01-01

    The concept of a fitness landscape is a powerful metaphor that offers insight into various aspects of evolutionary processes and guidance for the study of evolution. Until recently, empirical evidence on the ruggedness of these landscapes was lacking, but since it became feasible to construct all possible genotypes containing combinations of a limited set of mutations, the number of studies has grown to a point where a classification of landscapes becomes possible. The aim of this review is to identify measures of epistasis that allow a meaningful comparison of fitness landscapes and then apply them to the empirical landscapes in order to discern factors that affect ruggedness. The various measures of epistasis that have been proposed in the literature appear to be equivalent. Our comparison shows that the ruggedness of the empirical landscape is affected by whether the included mutations are beneficial or deleterious and by whether intragenic or intergenic epistasis is involved. Finally, the empirical landscapes are compared to landscapes generated with the rough Mt Fuji model. Despite the simplicity of this model, it captures the features of the experimental landscapes remarkably well. (paper)

  15. Residential energy usage comparison: Findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, B.A.; Uhlaner, R.T.; Cason, T.N.; Courteau, S. (Quantum Consulting, Inc., Berkeley, CA (United States))

    1991-08-01

    This report presents the research methods and results from the Residential Energy Usage Comparison (REUC) project, a joint effort by Southern California Edison Company (SCE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI). The REUC project design activities began in early 1986. The REUC project is an innovative demand-site project designed to measure and compare typical energy consumption patterns of energy efficient residential electric and gas appliances. 95 figs., 33 tabs.

  16. Exploring the Visual Landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, S.; Van Lammeren, R.; Van der Hoeven, F.

    2011-01-01

    Exploring the Visual Landscape is about the combination of landscape research and planning, visual perception and Geographic Information Science. It showcases possible ways of getting a grip on themes like: landscape openness, cluttering of the rural landscape, high-rise buildings in relation to

  17. [Dynamic changes of urban architecture landscape based on Barista: a case study in Tiexi District of Shenyang City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pei-feng; Hu, Yuan-man; He, Hong-shi; Xiong, Zai-ping; Liu, Miao

    2010-12-01

    In this paper, three-dimensional building information was extracted from high resolution satellite image based on Barista software. Combined with ArcGIS software, the dynamic changes of the building landscape in Tiexi District of Shenyang City during urban renewal process were analyzed from the conversion contribution rate, building density, average building height, and built-up area rate. It was found that during this urban renewal process, four dominant landscape types (vacant lot, residential building, industrial building, and road) were the main parts of the landscape changes. The areas of vacant lot, residential building, commercial building, and road increased, while that of industrial building decreased. The building density decreased, while the average building height increased. There was an obvious regional variation in building landscape. The building density in industrial district was higher than that in residential district, while the average building height was in adverse. The further from the city center, the lower the building density and building average height.

  18. Environment, agriculture, and settlement patterns in a marginal Polynesian landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirch, P.V.; Hartshorn, A.S.; Chadwick, O.A.; Vitousek, P.M.; Sherrod, D.R.; Coil, J.; Holm, L.; Sharp, W.D.

    2004-01-01

    Beginning ca. A.D. 1400, Polynesian farmers established permanent settlements along the arid southern flank of Haleakala Volcano, Maui, Hawaiian Islands; peak population density (43-57 persons per km2) was achieved by A.D. 1700-1800, and it was followed by the devastating effects of European contact. This settlement, based on dryland agriculture with sweet potato as a main crop, is represented by >3,000 archaeological features investigated to date. Geological and environmental factors are the most important influence on Polynesian farming and settlement practices in an agriculturally marginal landscape. Interactions between lava flows, whose ages range from 3,000 to 226,000 years, and differences in rainfall create an environmental mosaic that constrained precontact Polynesian farming practices to a zone defined by aridity at low elevation and depleted soil nutrients at high elevation. Within this productive zone, however, large-scale agriculture was concentrated on older, tephra-blanketed lava flows; younger flows were reserved for residential sites, small ritual gardens, and agricultural temples.

  19. Heritage landscape structure analysis in surrounding environment of the Grand Canal Yangzhou section

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Huan

    2018-03-01

    The Yangzhou section of the Grand Canal is selected for a case study in this paper. The ZY-3 satellite images of 2016 are adopted as the data source. RS and GIS are used to analyze the landscape classification of the surrounding landscape of the Grand Canal, and the classification results are precisely evaluated. Next, the overall features of the landscape pattern are analyzed. The results showed that the overall accuracy is 82.5% and the Kappa coefficient is 78.17% in the Yangzhou section. The producer’s accuracy of the water landscape is the highest, followed by that of the other landscape, farmland landscape, garden and forest landscape, architectural landscape. The user’s accuracy of different landscape types can be ranked in a descending order, as the water landscape, farmland landscape, road landscape, architectural landscape, other landscape, garden and forest landscape. The farmland landscape and the architectural landscape are the top advantageous landscape types of the heritage site. The research findings can provide basic data for landscape protection, management and sustainable development of the Grand Canal Yangzhou section.

  20. Landscape Evolution of Titan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    Titan may have acquired its massive atmosphere relatively recently in solar system history. The warming sun may have been key to generating Titan's atmosphere over time, starting from a thin atmosphere with condensed surface volatiles like Triton, with increased luminosity releasing methane, and then large amounts of nitrogen (perhaps suddenly), into the atmosphere. This thick atmosphere, initially with much more methane than at present, resulted in global fluvial erosion that has over time retreated towards the poles with the removal of methane from the atmosphere. Basement rock, as manifested by bright, rough, ridges, scarps, crenulated blocks, or aligned massifs, mostly appears within 30 degrees of the equator. This landscape was intensely eroded by fluvial processes as evidenced by numerous valley systems, fan-like depositional features and regularly-spaced ridges (crenulated terrain). Much of this bedrock landscape, however, is mantled by dunes, suggesting that fluvial erosion no longer dominates in equatorial regions. High midlatitude regions on Titan exhibit dissected sedimentary plains at a number of localities, suggesting deposition (perhaps by sediment eroded from equatorial regions) followed by erosion. The polar regions are mainly dominated by deposits of fluvial and lacustrine sediment. Fluvial processes are active in polar areas as evidenced by alkane lakes and occasional cloud cover.

  1. RTE and landscape; RTE et le paysage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-10-01

    The lines are essential for the smooth operation of the electrical system. For the great majority, they are overhead. Insertion into the landscape is one of the approaches to the RTE (French manager of the electricity transportation network) environmental policy. The integration of an overhead line means finding the best possible path, taking into consideration the geography, the residential areas, the natural environment and the economic activity zones (farming, existing infrastructures and easements), landscapes and sites. The various routing possibilities are investigated in deliberation with the government services, the local councils and the different voluntary organisations concerned to find the best route. Once validated by the prefect, it is submitted to a public inquiry. The choice of the most suitable technical solution will then include mitigation measures as shown by the examples given in this brochure: line integration (traditional lines, vegetable screen, painted towers, specific towers, tower competition, particular cases, substation incoming feeders), line burial (technology, cost comparison), substation insertion.

  2. Fairy circle landscapes under the sea

    KAUST Repository

    Ruiz-Reynés, Daniel

    2017-08-03

    Short-scale interactions yield large-scale vegetation patterns that, in turn, shape ecosystem function across landscapes. Fairy circles, which are circular patches bare of vegetation within otherwise continuous landscapes, are characteristic features of semiarid grasslands. We report the occurrence of submarine fairy circle seascapes in seagrass meadows and propose a simple model that reproduces the diversity of seascapes observed in these ecosystems as emerging from plant interactions within the meadow. These seascapes include two extreme cases, a continuous meadow and a bare landscape, along with intermediate states that range from the occurrence of persistent but isolated fairy circles, or solitons, to seascapes with multiple fairy circles, banded vegetation, and

  3. Determination of sustainable values for the parameters of the construction of residential buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoreva, Larisa; Grigoryev, Vladimir

    2018-03-01

    For the formation of programs for housing construction and planning of capital investments, when developing the strategic planning companies by construction companies, the norms or calculated indicators of the duration of the construction of high-rise residential buildings and multifunctional complexes are mandatory. Determination of stable values of the parameters for the high-rise construction residential buildings provides an opportunity to establish a reasonable duration of construction at the planning and design stages of residential complexes, taking into account the influence of market conditions factors. The concept of the formation of enlarged models for the high-rise construction residential buildings is based on a real mapping in time and space of the most significant redistribution with their organizational and technological interconnection - the preparatory period, the underground part, the above-ground part, external engineering networks, landscaping. The total duration of the construction of a residential building, depending on the duration of each redistribution and the degree of their overlapping, can be determined by one of the proposed four options. At the same time, a unified approach to determining the overall duration of construction on the basis of the provisions of a streamlined construction organization with the testing of results on the example of high-rise residential buildings of the typical I-155B series was developed, and the coefficients for combining the work and the main redevelopment of the building were determined.

  4. Determination of sustainable values for the parameters of the construction of residential buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigoreva Larisa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available For the formation of programs for housing construction and planning of capital investments, when developing the strategic planning companies by construction companies, the norms or calculated indicators of the duration of the construction of high-rise residential buildings and multifunctional complexes are mandatory. Determination of stable values of the parameters for the high-rise construction residential buildings provides an opportunity to establish a reasonable duration of construction at the planning and design stages of residential complexes, taking into account the influence of market conditions factors. The concept of the formation of enlarged models for the high-rise construction residential buildings is based on a real mapping in time and space of the most significant redistribution with their organizational and technological interconnection - the preparatory period, the underground part, the above-ground part, external engineering networks, landscaping. The total duration of the construction of a residential building, depending on the duration of each redistribution and the degree of their overlapping, can be determined by one of the proposed four options. At the same time, a unified approach to determining the overall duration of construction on the basis of the provisions of a streamlined construction organization with the testing of results on the example of high-rise residential buildings of the typical I-155B series was developed, and the coefficients for combining the work and the main redevelopment of the building were determined.

  5. Can money buy green? Demographic and socioeconomic predictors of lawn-care expenditures and lawn greenness in urban residential areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiqi Zhou; Austin Troy; J. Morgan Grove; Jennifer C. Jenkins

    2009-01-01

    It is increasingly important to understand how household characteristics influence lawn characteristics, as lawns play an important ecological role in human-dominated landscapes. This article investigates household and neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics as predictors of residential lawn-care expenditures and lawn greenness. The study area is the Gwynns Falls...

  6. Landscape Change Index as a Tool for Spatial Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krajewski, Piotr; Solecka, Iga; Barbara-Mastalska-Cetera

    2017-10-01

    This study analysed spatial and temporal changes in protected landscape of Ślęża Landscape Park in Poland, covering an area of 7724 ha. The main objective was to determine level of landscape change of the research area after Polish accession to European Union by comparing land-cover maps from 2004, 2009 and 2014. With the use of prepared land cover maps, we developed a database of the surface of the main elements constituting the background landscape of the research area. The data obtained made it feasible to assess the level of change in two different periods of time (2004 - 2009 and 2009 - 2014) by means of the landscape change index (LCI). This indicator is described by one value which is the result of all the change types taking place in the background landscape in a given period of time. Comparing the index of different parts of Ślęża Landscape Park helped to identify areas where the landscape changes were the highest and areas where the changes were hardly noticeable. The results show that when we take into account whole research area landscape changes are much more intense in the second of the analysed periods of time (2009 - 2014) (LCI=1,91) then in years 2004 - 2009 (LCI=0,71). The same analysis was done for each part of municipalities located within the Park. This made it possible to determine which part of the park is the most threatened by spatial transformations. In this context, it should be emphasized that the highest rates of landscape changes were recorded in the municipalities where the largest new residential area was located – in the municipalities Sobótka and Łagiewniki. Whereas municipality Dzierżoniów with a high percentage of forests inside the Park and unchanging area of arable land have the lowest landscape change index.

  7. Relationships between avian richness and landscape structure at multiple scales using multiple landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, M.S.; Rutzmoser, S.H.; Wigley, T.B.; Loehle, C.; Gerwin, J.A.; Keyser, P.D.; Lancia, R.A.; Perry, R.W.; Reynolds, C.J.; Thill, R.E.; Weih, R.; White, D.; Wood, P.B.

    2006-01-01

    Little is known about factors that structure biodiversity on landscape scales, yet current land management protocols, such as forest certification programs, place an increasing emphasis on managing for sustainable biodiversity at landscape scales. We used a replicated landscape study to evaluate relationships between forest structure and avian diversity at both stand and landscape-levels. We used data on bird communities collected under comparable sampling protocols on four managed forests located across the Southeastern US to develop logistic regression models describing relationships between habitat factors and the distribution of overall richness and richness of selected guilds. Landscape models generated for eight of nine guilds showed a strong relationship between richness and both availability and configuration of landscape features. Diversity of topographic features and heterogeneity of forest structure were primary determinants of avian species richness. Forest heterogeneity, in both age and forest type, were strongly and positively associated with overall avian richness and richness for most guilds. Road density was associated positively but weakly with avian richness. Landscape variables dominated all models generated, but no consistent patterns in metrics or scale were evident. Model fit was strong for neotropical migrants and relatively weak for short-distance migrants and resident species. Our models provide a tool that will allow managers to evaluate and demonstrate quantitatively how management practices affect avian diversity on landscapes.

  8. Meteorological and landscape influences on pollen beetle immigration into oilseed rape crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skellern, Matthew P; Welham, Sue J; Watts, Nigel P; Cook, Samantha M

    2017-04-01

    Heavy reliance on pesticide inputs to maintain crop yields has been an important aspect of agricultural intensification. Insecticide use has had detrimental impacts on pollinators and natural pest control agents, contributing to a decline in associated ecosystem services, and has also led to resistance development in pest populations. Throughout Europe, in oilseed rape ( Brassica napus L.) crops, prophylactic use of insecticides against pollen beetles ( Meligethes aeneus F. also known as Brassicogethes aeneus ) has led to such issues, and there is an urgent need to develop more sustainable pest management practices for the crop. Although advice is available to oilseed rape growers regarding control thresholds, it may not be adhered to due to the expense of pollen beetle monitoring relative to the inexpensive cost of pyrethroid insecticides. Thus, the key to reducing prophylactic insecticide applications may lie with improved, less labour intensive methods of pollen beetle monitoring. For these to be realized, a better understanding is needed of the effects of agri-landscape features and meteorological conditions on pollen beetle immigration into the crop. In this study, based on data from four years of pollen beetle monitoring on a total of 41 field sites, we model the effects of meteorological (wind speed and direction, rainfall and accumulated temperature) and landscape (areas of woodland, residential gardens, the current and previous seasons' oilseed rape crops, and lengths of hedgerows and treelines) variables on directional sticky trap catches, at both the single trap and field scales. Meteorological variables, particularly accumulated temperature and wind speed were more important than landscape variables in predicting the abundance of pollen beetles immigrating into OSR fields. Sticky traps that were facing downwind caught more beetles than those that were facing across-wind or upwind; this is the first study to show at a landscape-scale, direct evidence for

  9. SOME SPECIFIC FEATURES OF ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN MODERN RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Osipov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 20 years there have been significant changes in the customer requirements for housing in the countries of the former USSR. Besides, new materials and construction products, such as the ones for sealed windows and balcony doors have appeared in the market. The number of vacant flats with the heating off in the winter significantly increased that may cause condensation on the surfaces of interroom partitions and the formation of mold. Meanwhile, the requirements for lower energy consumption are constantly increasing, that is especially pronouncedly manifested in the growth of normative values of thermal resistance of enclosing structures of buildings and in the increased interest in the use of secondary energy resources extracted from the air and effluent wastewater. The present article describes the method to prevent moisture condensation on the fencing of adjacent premises with different temperatures containing heating systems and the use of waste heat removed from the room exhaust air. For quick emergency switching of in-house systems of heat and gas supply to outdoor mobile sources of heat and gas it is recommended to install special taps with connectors insulated in special niches in the walls or other parts of buildings considering the possibility of placing them close to the outer mobile sources of heat and gas. In the case of heating the building with the aid of a roof gas boiler or by doorto-door heaters fueled by gas, a single pipeline (collector, equipped with an additional device for the connection of emergency gas supply is being put along the wall. In order to reduce specific heat consumption for heating of buildings it is recommended to increase the net enclosure volume of buildings and to improve their form in various ways, including by combining two or more adjacent low-rise buildings in one secondary building with increasing height and with the broadening of either or each side for modernization and reconstruction. The dimensions of the reconstructed building are accepted as the maximum possible, and their proportions (in any number of merged buildings – as providing tend of shapes to spherical or equicylindrical, or cubic – in any combination.

  10. Complex Topographic Feature Ontology Patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanka, Dalia E.; Jerris, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    Semantic ontologies are examined as effective data models for the representation of complex topographic feature types. Complex feature types are viewed as integrated relations between basic features for a basic purpose. In the context of topographic science, such component assemblages are supported by resource systems and found on the local landscape. Ontologies are organized within six thematic modules of a domain ontology called Topography that includes within its sphere basic feature types, resource systems, and landscape types. Context is constructed not only as a spatial and temporal setting, but a setting also based on environmental processes. Types of spatial relations that exist between components include location, generative processes, and description. An example is offered in a complex feature type ‘mine.’ The identification and extraction of complex feature types are an area for future research.

  11. Evolution of the landscape along the Clear Creek Corridor, Colorado; urbanization, aggregate mining and reclamation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbogast, Belinda; Knepper, Daniel H.; Melick, Roger A.; Hickman, John

    2002-01-01

    Prime agricultural land along the Clear Creek floodplain, Colorado, attracted settlement in the 1850's but the demand for sand and gravel for 1900's construction initiated a sequence of events that exceeded previous interests and created the modified landscape and urban ecosystem that exists today. The Clear Creek valley corridor offers a landscape filled with a persistent visible and hidden reminder of it's past use. The map sheets illustrate the Clear Creek landscape as a series of compositions, both at the macro view (in the spatial context of urban structure and highways from aerial photographs) and micro view (from the civic scale where landscape features like trees, buildings, and sidewalks are included). The large-scale topographic features, such as mountains and terraces, appear 'changeless' (they do change over geologic time), while Clear Creek has changed from a wide braided stream to a narrow confined stream. Transportation networks (streets and highways) and spiraling population growth in adjacent cities (from approximately 38,000 people in 1880 to over a million in 1999) form two dominant landscape patterns. Mining and wetland/riparian occupy the smallest amount of land use acres compared to urban, transportation, or water reservoir activities in the Clear Creek aggregate reserve study area. Four types of reclaimed pits along Clear Creek were determined: water storage facilities, wildlife/greenbelt space, multiple-purpose reservoirs, and 'hidden scenery.' The latter involves infilling gravel pits (with earth backfill, concrete rubble, or sanitary landfill) and covering the site with light industry or residential housing making the landform hard to detect as a past mine site. Easier to recognize are the strong-edged, rectilinear water reservoirs, reclaimed from off-channel sand and gravel pits that reflect the land survey grid and property boundaries. The general public may not realize softly contoured linear wildlife corridors connecting urban

  12. Research using energy landscape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hack Jin

    2007-01-01

    Energy landscape is a theoretical tool used for the study of systems where cooperative processes occur such as liquid, glass, clusters, and protein. Theoretical and experimental researches related to energy landscape are introduced in this review

  13. Computers and the landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gary H. Elsner

    1979-01-01

    Computers can analyze and help to plan the visual aspects of large wildland landscapes. This paper categorizes and explains current computer methods available. It also contains a futuristic dialogue between a landscape architect and a computer.

  14. The Importance of Edible Landscape in the Cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz Çelik

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The 21st century sustainable city requires the merging of urbanism with sustainable food systems. The challenges industrial food system separates people from their food sources. The design strategies for edible landscape are about re-inviting food back into the city and re-connecting people with their local/regional food system to promote a healthier lifestyle. Edible landscapes are a movement in transition and sprouting up as a response to the slow food movement and living a greener lifestyle. These urban agricultural landscapes are fast becoming iconic media darlings and are demonstrating that they are far more than growing vegetables and fruits on abandoned lots. Edible landscaping is the use of food plants as design features in a landscape. These plants are used both for aesthetic value as well as consumption. Edible landscapes encompass a variety of garden types and scales but do not include food items produced for sale. Edible landscaping is the practical integration of food plants within an ornamental or decorative setting. Using edibles in landscape design can enhance a garden by providing a unique ornamental component with additional health, aesthetic, and economic benefits. In this study; emergence of edible landscape, edible landscape design and maintenance, samples of edible landscape, productive plants, importance of edible landscaping for urban environments have been explained.

  15. Rooftop Surface Temperature Analysis in an Urban Residential Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qunshan Zhao

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The urban heat island (UHI phenomenon is a significant worldwide problem caused by rapid population growth and associated urbanization. The UHI effect exacerbates heat waves during the summer, increases energy and water consumption, and causes the high risk of heat-related morbidity and mortality. UHI mitigation efforts have increasingly relied on wisely designing the urban residential environment such as using high albedo rooftops, green rooftops, and planting trees and shrubs to provide canopy coverage and shading. Thus, strategically designed residential rooftops and their surrounding landscaping have the potential to translate into significant energy, long-term cost savings, and health benefits. Rooftop albedo, material, color, area, slope, height, aspect and nearby landscaping are factors that potentially contribute. To extract, derive, and analyze these rooftop parameters and outdoor landscaping information, high resolution optical satellite imagery, LIDAR (light detection and ranging point clouds and thermal imagery are necessary. Using data from the City of Tempe AZ (a 2010 population of 160,000 people, we extracted residential rooftop footprints and rooftop configuration parameters from airborne LIDAR point clouds and QuickBird satellite imagery (2.4 m spatial resolution imagery. Those parameters were analyzed against surface temperature data from the MODIS/ASTER airborne simulator (MASTER. MASTER images provided fine resolution (7 m surface temperature data for residential areas during daytime and night time. Utilizing these data, ordinary least squares (OLS regression was used to evaluate the relationships between residential building rooftops and their surface temperature in urban environment. The results showed that daytime rooftop temperature was closely related to rooftop spectral attributes, aspect, slope, and surrounding trees. Night time temperature was only influenced by rooftop spectral attributes and slope.

  16. Envelope Thermal Design Optimization for Urban Residential Buildings in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amos Kalua

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to optimize the envelope thermal design of free-running urban residential buildings in Malawi. It specifically set out to improve the urban residential buildings’ thermal comfort and suggest optimal envelope thermal design features for these buildings. The research study was primarily dependent on computer simulations in EnergyPlus to replicate the typical Malawian urban residential building’s thermal behaviour and then study the impacts of various envelope configurations on the thermal comfort conditions registered in the building. The simulation model was experimentally validated to check its appropriateness to the climatic design conditions prevalent in Malawi and out of the three major cities that were considered, the model was found to be appropriate for use in the two cities of Mzuzu and Lilongwe leaving out the city of Blantyre. The optimization methodology that was employed involved the use of orthogonal arrays, statistical analyses and the listing method. It was found that the optimal envelope thermal design, which registered up to 18% lower discomfort hours than that of the typical urban residential building, consists of a 50 mm concrete floor slab, 230 mm burnt brick walls with an external layer of 19 mm EPS, tiled roof with an internal layer of sarking and 50 mm EPS, double Low-E Glazing with a transparency ratio of 45% and 0.2408 m2 of adaptable operational surface area for the air bricks. Out of all the envelope features that were studied, air infiltration registered the most significant contribution towards the ultimate residential building thermal performance. It was demonstrated that controlled air infiltration through the use of operable air bricks whose operational surface area is adaptable can be very effective in enhancing the building’s comfort levels. It was further observed that excessive insulation of the building envelope generally has a detrimental effect on the indoor space thermal comfort

  17. Main challenges of residential areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Luca

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article is a position paper aiming to initiate a professional debate related to the aspects related to the urban dysfunctions leading to the wear of the residential areas. The paper proposes a definition of the wear process, identify the main causes leading to its occurrence and propose a number of solutions to neutralise the dysfunctions. The three wearing phases of residential areas components are emphasized, exploring their lifecycle. In order to perform the study of urban wear, the status of the residential areas components can be established and monitored, and also the variables of the function that can mathematically model the specific wear process may be considered. The paper is considered a first step for the model adjustment, to be tested and validated in the following steps. Based on the mathematical method and model, there can be created, in a potential future research, the possibility of determining the precarity degree for residential areas/neighbourhoods and cities, by minimising the subjective component of the analyses preceding the decision for renovation or regeneration.

  18. Congestion and residential moving behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Marott; Pilegaard, Ninette; Van Ommeren, Jos

    2008-01-01

    we study how congestion and residential moving behaviour are interrelated, using a two-region job search model. Workers choose between interregional commuting and residential moving, in order to live closer to their place of work. This choice affects the external costs of commuting, due to conges......we study how congestion and residential moving behaviour are interrelated, using a two-region job search model. Workers choose between interregional commuting and residential moving, in order to live closer to their place of work. This choice affects the external costs of commuting, due...... to congestion. We focus on the equilibrium in which some workers currently living in one region accept jobs in the other, with a fraction of them choosing to commute from their current residence to the new job in the other region and the remainder choosing to move to the region in which the new job is located....... The welfare-maximising road tax is derived, which is essentially the Pigouvian tax, given the absence of a tax on moving. Given the presence of moving taxes, which are substantial in Europe, the optimal road tax for commuters is the Pigouvian tax plus the amortised value of the moving tax, evaluated...

  19. Convergence of Residential Gateway Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, F.T.H. den; Balm, M.; Jong, C.M. de; Kwaaitaal, J.J.B.

    2004-01-01

    A new OSI-based model is described that can be used for the classification of residential gateways. It is applied to analyze current gateway solutions and draw evolutionary paths for the medium to long term. From this it is concluded that particularly set-top boxes and broadband modems, as opposed

  20. Flowscapes : Infrastructure as landscape, landscape as infrastructure. Graduation Lab Landscape Architecture 2012/2013

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, S.; Jauslin, D.; De Vries, C.

    2012-01-01

    Flowscapes explores infrastructure as a type of landscape and landscape as a type of infrastructure, and is focused on landscape architectonic design of transportation-, green- and water infrastructures. These landscape infrastructures are considered armatures for urban and rural development. With

  1. New trajectories of post-socialist residential mobility in Bucharest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Suditu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the post-socialist period, residential mobility processes were very intense and took place on large areas. Flow intensity led to the emergence of new spatial and functional realities and created new relationships within the affected areas. During all this period, Bucharest’s metropolitan area was shaped by the spatial mobility of the city dwellers, as well as by the change of their social and residential aspirations. The majority of those who were registered as movers in Bucharest were actually residents of Bucharest (they only changed their domicile and the share of people coming to the city from elsewhere has increased constantly over the last decade. Except for the early 1990s, a period when residential legal status was pending clarification, migrations from peri-urban area, especially from Ilfov County, to Bucharest had a low intensity. Situation is quite different in terms of moving out of Bucharest, to the communes and towns of Ilfov County, located in close proximity, which have been continuously increasing values. The correlation between housing stock features (real estate supply and the demand of new dwellings (emphasized by the residential trajectories prove both that current mobility flows taking place at this time in Bucharest are segmented based on economic-spatial criteria and that Markov chains are functional.

  2. Trauma Experiences, Maltreatment-Related Impairments, and Resilience among Child Welfare Youth in Residential Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collin-Vezina, Delphine; Coleman, Kim; Milne, Lise; Sell, Jody; Daigneault, Isabelle

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to provide a description of the trauma experiences, trauma-related sequels, and resilience features of a sample of Canadian youth in residential care facilities, as well as to explore the impact of gender and of the number of different traumas experienced on trauma-related sequels and resilience features. A convenience…

  3. Why replication is important in landscape genetics: American black bear in the Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Bull R.A.; Cushman, S.A.; MacE, R.; Chilton, T.; Kendall, K.C.; Landguth, E.L.; Schwartz, Maurice L.; McKelvey, K.; Allendorf, F.W.; Luikart, G.

    2011-01-01

    We investigated how landscape features influence gene flow of black bears by testing the relative support for 36 alternative landscape resistance hypotheses, including isolation by distance (IBD) in each of 12 study areas in the north central U.S. Rocky Mountains. The study areas all contained the same basic elements, but differed in extent of forest fragmentation, altitude, variation in elevation and road coverage. In all but one of the study areas, isolation by landscape resistance was more supported than IBD suggesting gene flow is likely influenced by elevation, forest cover, and roads. However, the landscape features influencing gene flow varied among study areas. Using subsets of loci usually gave models with the very similar landscape features influencing gene flow as with all loci, suggesting the landscape features influencing gene flow were correctly identified. To test if the cause of the variability of supported landscape features in study areas resulted from landscape differences among study areas, we conducted a limiting factor analysis. We found that features were supported in landscape models only when the features were highly variable. This is perhaps not surprising but suggests an important cautionary note – that if landscape features are not found to influence gene flow, researchers should not automatically conclude that the features are unimportant to the species’ movement and gene flow. Failure to investigate multiple study areas that have a range of variability in landscape features could cause misleading inferences about which landscape features generally limit gene flow. This could lead to potentially erroneous identification of corridors and barriers if models are transferred between areas with different landscape characteristics.

  4. Managed and natural landscapes: what do people like?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthur W. Magill

    1992-01-01

    Visitors to wildland areas of the United States see an untold variety of natural and manmade features that comprise our national landscape. Efforts to assess public perceptions and concerns about the land and its management led to development of sensitivity levels that were presumed to be a measure of viewer concern for what they saw in the landscape. Sensitivity...

  5. MULTI-SCALE LANDSCAPE MAPPING OF THE TYUMEN REGION AS A GEOINFORMATION BASE FOR ORGANIZATION OF LANDSCAPE PLANNING, ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT AND REGIONAL SUSTAINABLE DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. R. Idrisov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Landscape analysis is considered with the following items: 1 a synthetic layer integral physiographic information about the natural environment; 2 an information basis for mapping and evaluation components of landscapes; 3 a basis for the assessment of natural resource potential; 4 a tool for assessment of landscape-ecological potential (functions, services, values, stability; 5 a tool for identifying ecological network. The procedure of landscape analysis and structure of landscape information system for sustainable development is considered. The major methods is landscape classification and mapping. The classification of typological landscape complexes represents their typology based on the most important and common for this level of dimension features. The basic units of landscape mapping in mesoscale are the type of terrain (mesochores and the type of urochishche (microchores. These landscape complexes were characterized based on collection of signs (geology, relief, permafrost, soil, vegetation etc. using GIS. The evaluation of a landscape based on the concepts of landscape functions and services. The landscapes carry out resource functions (tree-resource, mushrooms, hunting-trade, pascual et al. defining an economic value. The landscapes also fulfil nature protection (ecological functions: habitat (biotop, climate protecting, water protecting, water storage, runoff regulative, permafrost-stabilizing etc. The assessment of landscapes stability is carried out. Integral assessment of ecological characteristics (landscape functions and services, nature protection value, resource value, stability is the base for environmental constraints map.

  6. Evaluating the impact of regional development policies on future landscape services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willemen, L.; Hein, L.G.; Verburg, P.H.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper we analyse the potential impact of an integrated policy package for the Gelderse Vallei region in the Netherlands on seven landscape services (residential use, intensive livestock husbandry, drinking water supply, attractiveness for overnight tourism, habitat provision for rare,

  7. The Neighborhood Unit: Schools, Segregation, and the Shaping of the Modern Metropolitan Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Ansley T.; Highsmith, Andrew R.

    2018-01-01

    Background/Context: In the first half of the 20th century, American policy makers at all levels of government, alongside housing and real estate industry figures, crafted mechanisms of racial exclusion that helped to segregate metropolitan residential landscapes. Although educators and historians have recognized the long-term consequences of these…

  8. Classifying Residents who use Landscape Irrigation: Implications for Encouraging Water Conservation Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Laura A.; Lamm, Alexa J.; Rumble, Joy N.; Martin, Emmett T.; Cantrell, Randall

    2016-08-01

    Large amounts of water applied as urban irrigation can often be reduced substantially without compromising esthetics. Thus, encouraging the adoption of water-saving technologies and practices is critical to preserving water resources, yet difficult to achieve. The research problem addressed in this study is the lack of characterization of residents who use urban irrigation, which hinders the design of effective behavior change programs. This study examined audience segmentation as an approach to encouraging change using current residential landscape practices. K-means cluster analysis identified three meaningful subgroups among residential landscape irrigation users ( N = 1,063): the water considerate majority ( n = 479, 45 %), water savvy conservationists ( n = 378, 36 %), and unconcerned water users ( n = 201, 19 %). An important finding was that normative beliefs, attitudes, and perceived behavioral control characteristics of the subgroups were significantly different with large and medium practical effect sizes. Future water conservation behaviors and perceived importance of water resources were also significantly different among subgroups. The water considerate majority demonstrated capacity to conserve, placed high value on water, and were likely to engage in behavior changes. This article contributes to the literature on individuals who use residential landscape irrigation, an important target audience with potential to conserve water through sustainable irrigation practices and technologies. Findings confirm applicability of the capacity to conserve water to audience segmentation and extend this concept by incorporating perceived value of water resources and likelihood of conservation. The results suggest practical application to promoting residential landscape water conservation behaviors based on important audience characteristics.

  9. [Aesthetics theory and method of landscape resource assessment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baozhong; Wang, Baoming; He, Ping

    2006-09-01

    With the destruction of natural environment by human beings, scenic resources are no longer inexhaustible in supply and use. Human beings begin to lay the scenic resources on the same important strategic status as other natural resources, while landscape resources assessment is the prerequisite of their sustainable exploitation and conservation. This paper illustrated the psychological mechanisms of aesthetic and its approaches, compared with the methodologies of traditional and modem landscape aesthetic research, discussed the characteristics of important aesthetic theories (Platonism, Kant paradigm, Empathizing theory, Gestalt paradigm, Marxism aesthetics theory, and Appleton theory) and the landscape assessment theories of 4 paradigms (expert, psychological, cognitive, and empirical) and 2 groups (landscape environment science and landscape architecture culture), and summarized the important practices and successful examples at home and abroad. It was demonstrated that the historical development of landscape assessment had the feature of a contest between expert- and perception-based approaches, with the expert approach dominated in landscape management, while the perception-based approach dominated in landscape research. Both of these approaches generallty accepted that landscape quality was derived from the interaction between the biophysical features of landscape and the percepultual (judgmental) processes of human viewer. In the future, landscape quality assessment will evolve toward a shaky marriage, both expert- and perceptual approaches will be applied in parallel and merged in the final landscape management decision-making process in some but unspecified way, landscape information and complex geo-temporal dynamics representation central to scenic ecosystem management will present major challenges to the traditional landscape aesthetic assessment, and modem science and technology will continue to help meet these challenges. The main trends of landscape

  10. Characterizing European cultural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tieskens, Koen F.; Schulp, Catharina J E; Levers, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Almost all rural areas in Europe have been shaped or altered by humans and can be considered cultural landscapes, many of which now are considered to entail valuable cultural heritage. Current dynamics in land management have put cultural landscapes under a huge pressure of agricultural intensifi......Almost all rural areas in Europe have been shaped or altered by humans and can be considered cultural landscapes, many of which now are considered to entail valuable cultural heritage. Current dynamics in land management have put cultural landscapes under a huge pressure of agricultural...... intensification and land abandonment. To prevent the loss of cultural landscapes, knowledge on the location of different types of cultural landscapes is needed. In this paper, we present a characterization of European cultural landscapes based on the prevalence of three key dimensions of cultural landscapes......: landscape structure, management intensity, and value and meaning. We mapped these dimensions across Europe at a 1-km resolution by combining proxies on management intensity and landscape structure with new indicators such as social media usage and registered traditional food products. We integrated...

  11. Recent landscape research in Hungary

    OpenAIRE

    Csorba, Péter; Lóczy, Dénes; Mezosi, Gábor

    2015-01-01

    Both the study of landscape types and investigations of the interactions between landscape factors have a long tradition in Hungarian landscape geography. Major achievements in landscape synthesis were the two-volume Inventory of microregions in Hungary. In the various schools of landscape geography fundamental research is directed at investigations of landscape pattern, landscape sensitivity, geo-ecological mapping and urban ecology. The major trends in applied research are the optimisation ...

  12. Patterns of Residential Segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louf, Rémi; Barthelemy, Marc

    2016-01-01

    The spatial distribution of income shapes the structure and organisation of cities and its understanding has broad societal implications. Despite an abundant literature, many issues remain unclear. In particular, all definitions of segregation are implicitely tied to a single indicator, usually rely on an ambiguous definition of income classes, without any consensus on how to define neighbourhoods and to deal with the polycentric organization of large cities. In this paper, we address all these questions within a unique conceptual framework. We avoid the challenge of providing a direct definition of segregation and instead start from a definition of what segregation is not. This naturally leads to the measure of representation that is able to identify locations where categories are over- or underrepresented. From there, we provide a new measure of exposure that discriminates between situations where categories co-locate or repel one another. We then use this feature to provide an unambiguous, parameter-free method to find meaningful breaks in the income distribution, thus defining classes. Applied to the 2014 American Community Survey, we find 3 emerging classes-low, middle and higher income-out of the original 16 income categories. The higher-income households are proportionally more present in larger cities, while lower-income households are not, invalidating the idea of an increased social polarisation. Finally, using the density-and not the distance to a center which is meaningless in polycentric cities-we find that the richer class is overrepresented in high density zones, especially for larger cities. This suggests that density is a relevant factor for understanding the income structure of cities and might explain some of the differences observed between US and European cities.

  13. Publishing Landscape Archaeology in the Digital World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Howry Jeffrey C.

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The challenge of presenting micro- and macro-scale scale data in landscape archaeology studies is facilitated by a diversity of GIS technologies. Specific to scholarly research is the need to selectively share certain types of data with collaborators and academic researchers while also publishing general information in the public domain. This article presents a general model for scholarly online collaboration and teaching while providing examples of the kinds of landscape archaeology that can be published online. Specifically illustrated is WorldMap, an interactive mapping platform based upon open-source software which uses browsers built to open source standards. The various features of this platform allow tight user viewing control, views with URL referencing, commenting and certification of layers, as well as user annotation. Illustration of WorldMap features and its value for scholarly research and teaching is provided in the context of landscape archaeology studies.

  14. Residential mobility and childhood leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoon, A T; Oksuzyan, S; Crespi, C M; Arah, O A; Cockburn, M; Vergara, X; Kheifets, L

    2018-07-01

    Studies of environmental exposures and childhood leukemia studies do not usually account for residential mobility. Yet, in addition to being a potential risk factor, mobility can induce selection bias, confounding, or measurement error in such studies. Using data collected for California Powerline Study (CAPS), we attempt to disentangle the effect of mobility. We analyzed data from a population-based case-control study of childhood leukemia using cases who were born in California and diagnosed between 1988 and 2008 and birth certificate controls. We used stratified logistic regression, case-only analysis, and propensity-score adjustments to assess predictors of residential mobility between birth and diagnosis, and account for potential confounding due to residential mobility. Children who moved tended to be older, lived in housing other than single-family homes, had younger mothers and fewer siblings, and were of lower socioeconomic status. Odds ratios for leukemia among non-movers living mobility, including dwelling type, increased odds ratios for leukemia to 2.61 (95% CI: 1.76-3.86) for living mobility of childhood leukemia cases varied by several sociodemographic characteristics, but not by the distance to the nearest power line or calculated magnetic fields. Mobility appears to be an unlikely explanation for the associations observed between power lines exposure and childhood leukemia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. RESIDENTIAL MORTGAGE IN MODERN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dementiev N. P.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a comparative analysis of residential mortgages in Russia and the United States. The primary ways of mortgage refinancing are outlined. Predominance of the elements of two-level refinancing system of residential mortgage in Russia and the United States is shown. The activity of the Agency for Housing Mortgage Lending (AHML, the basic tool of the Russian government’s mortgage policy, is described in detail. In its objectives and functions the AHML is similar to the American mortgage agencies Ginnie Mae, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. Similarities were identified in the Russian and US residential mortgages in the pre-crisis period (high rates of mortgage growth, favourable economic conjuncture, low interest rates, large increase in house prices, speculative housing demand. During the mortgage crisis, the policies of the Russian and US governments and monetary authorities had also much in common (monetary policy easing, cheap central banks loans, extended facilities of mortgage refinancing on the part of state agencies, mortgage rescue scheme, social mortgage programs. But the scope of mortgage in Russia is enormously narrow as compared to the US mortgage. The most important reason for that - low incomes of the Russian population.

  16. Why Landscape Beauty Matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika Krebs

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This philosophical paper explores the aesthetic argument for landscape conservation. The main claim is that the experience of beautiful landscapes is an essential part of the good human life. Beautiful landscapes make us feel at home in the world. Their great and irreplaceable value lies therein. To establish this claim, the concepts of landscape and “Stimmung” are clarified. It is shown how “Stimmung” (in the sense of mood is infused into landscape (as atmosphere and how we respond to it aesthetically. We respond by resonating or feeling at home. The paper ends by indicating how art can help us to better appreciate landscape beauty. This is done by way of an example from contemporary nature poetry, Michael Donhauser’s Variationen in Prosa, which begins with “Und was da war, es nahm uns an” (“And what was there accepted us”.

  17. Lines of landscape organisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Løvschal, Mette

    2015-01-01

    This paper offers a landscape analysis of the earliest linear landscape boundaries on Skovbjerg Moraine, Denmark, during the first millennium BC. Using Delaunay triangulation as well as classic distribution analyses, it demonstrates that landscape boundaries articulated already established use......-patterns close to roads, but also intercepted the central lines of movement and conflicted with previous ways of organizing the landscape. This development is interpreted as a different form of large-scale landholding, in which livestock possibly played a dominant role and boundaries were used to confiscate land...... in the zones bordering suitable pastures. This situation shows obvious parallels with southern Britain centuries earlier. It is discussed how the study of these physical boundaries provides new insights into the organization of pre-Roman landscapes, not only demonstrating a continuing engagement with landscape...

  18. Evaluation of the changes of landscape types of Slovakia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zita IZAKOVIČOVÁ

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available In the last period landscape protection, its representative types more and more comes to the limelight. In October 2000 the European Landscape Convention - also known as the Florence Convention was adopted. The aims of this Convention are to promote landscape protection, management and planning, and to organise European co-operation on landscape issues.  Contracting states ought to analyse the landscape types on the whole area of their countries, to analyse their features, record their changes, specify motive power and pressure forming them and assess selected types with respect to special values attributed by engaged participants and inhabitants. Knowledge and identification of single landscape types enable the intensification of care of diversity of single landscape types and landscape biodiversity. It is an unavoidable condition in the strategic planning process and effective protection of regionally special landscape.Slovakia signed ELC in 2005 and became an active participant in its implementation. The Institute of the Landscape Ecology of Slovak Academy of Sciences elaborated methodology for specification and evaluation of the representative landscape types of Slovakia (RLTS.RLTS are defined as homogeneous units considering the landscape character, functions and current land-use. GIS (Geographical Information Systems tool was used to create RLTS, in particular by overlaying of abiotic landscape structure (type of relief, quaternary deposits, climatic regions, and soil types and land-cover map (CORINE Land Cover 2006 - CLC at national scale. This process yielded to a patched map of homogeneous areas, which were further interpreted, generalized, and regionalized to a final map of RLTS.Landscape types of Slovakia were defined by the synthesis of the mentioned maps. Totally there were identified 126 basic landscape types. Each landscape type represents unique combination of land-use in different abiotic conditions and gives the unique

  19. Genomic Energy Landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Wolynes, Peter G

    2017-02-07

    Energy landscape theory, developed in the context of protein folding, provides, to our knowledge, a new perspective on chromosome architecture. We review what has been learned concerning the topology and structure of both the interphase and mitotic chromosomes from effective energy landscapes constructed using Hi-C data. Energy landscape thinking raises new questions about the nonequilibrium dynamics of the chromosome and gene regulation. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Analysis of urban residential environments using color infrared aerial photography: An examination of socioeconomic variables and physical characteristics of selected areas in the Los Angeles basin, with addendum: An application of the concepts of the Los Angeles residential environment study to the Ontario-Upland region of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mullens, R. H., Jr.; Senger, L. W.

    1969-01-01

    Aerial photographs taken with color infrared film were used to differentiate various types of residential areas in the Los Angeles basin, using characteristics of the physical environment which vary from one type of residential area to another. Residential areas of varying quality were classified based on these characteristics. Features of the physical environment, identifiable on CIR aerial photography were examined to determine which of these are the best indicators of quality of residential areas or social areas, as determined by the socioeconomic characteristics of the inhabitants of the selected areas. Association between several physical features and the socioeconomic variables was found to exist.

  1. Energy landscapes and persistent minima

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carr, Joanne M.; Wales, David J., E-mail: dw34@cam.ac.uk [University Chemical Laboratories, University of Cambridge, Lensfield Road, Cambridge CB2 1EW (United Kingdom); Mazauric, Dorian; Cazals, Frédéric, E-mail: frederic.cazals@inria.fr [Inria Sophia Antipolis Méditerranée, 2004 route des Lucioles, F-06902 Sophia Antipolis (France)

    2016-02-07

    We consider a coarse-graining of high-dimensional potential energy landscapes based upon persistences, which correspond to lowest barrier heights to lower-energy minima. Persistences can be calculated efficiently for local minima in kinetic transition networks that are based on stationary points of the prevailing energy landscape. The networks studied here represent peptides, proteins, nucleic acids, an atomic cluster, and a glassy system. Minima with high persistence values are likely to represent some form of alternative structural morphology, which, if appreciably populated at the prevailing temperature, could compete with the global minimum (defined as infinitely persistent). Threshold values on persistences (and in some cases equilibrium occupation probabilities) have therefore been used in this work to select subsets of minima, which were then analysed to see how well they can represent features of the full network. Simplified disconnectivity graphs showing only the selected minima can convey the funnelling (including any multiple-funnel) characteristics of the corresponding full graphs. The effect of the choice of persistence threshold on the reduced disconnectivity graphs was considered for a system with a hierarchical, glassy landscape. Sets of persistent minima were also found to be useful in comparing networks for the same system sampled under different conditions, using minimum oriented spanning forests.

  2. Residential care : Dutch and Italian residents of residential care facilities compared

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Heer-Wunderink, Charlotte; Caro-Nienhuis, Annemarie D.; Sytema, Sjoerd; Wiersma, Durk

    2008-01-01

    Aims - Characteristics of patients living in residential care facilities and the availability of mental hospital- and residential beds in Italy and The Netherlands were compared to assess whether differences in the process of deinstitutionalisation have influenced the composition of their

  3. Assessing Urban Landscape Variables’ Contributions to Microclimates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammy E. Parece

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The well-known urban heat island (UHI effect recognizes prevailing patterns of warmer urban temperatures relative to surrounding rural landscapes. Although UHIs are often visualized as single features, internal variations within urban landscapes create distinctive microclimates. Evaluating intraurban microclimate variability presents an opportunity to assess spatial dimensions of urban environments and identify locations that heat or cool faster than other locales. Our study employs mobile weather units and fixed weather stations to collect air temperatures across Roanoke, Virginia, USA, on selected dates over a two-year interval. Using this temperature data, together with six landscape variables, we interpolated (using Kriging and Random Forest air temperatures across the city for each collection period. Our results estimated temperatures with small mean square errors (ranging from 0.03 to 0.14; landscape metrics explained between 60 and 91% of temperature variations (higher when the previous day’s average temperatures were included as a variable. For all days, similar spatial patterns appeared for cooler and warmer areas in mornings, with distinctive patterns as landscapes warmed during the day and over successive days. Our results revealed that the most potent landscape variables vary according to season and time of day. Our analysis contributes new dimensions and new levels of spatial and temporal detail to urban microclimate research.

  4. Quantitative analysis of forest island pattern in selected Ohio landscapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bowen, G.W.; Burgess, R.L.

    1981-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to quantitatively describe the various aspects of regional distribution patterns of forest islands and relate those patterns to other landscape features. Several maps showing the forest cover of various counties in Ohio were selected as representative examples of forest patterns to be quantified. Ten thousand hectare study areas (landscapes) were delineated on each map. A total of 15 landscapes representing a wide variety of forest island patterns was chosen. Data were converted into a series of continuous variables which contained information pertinent to the sizes, shape, numbers, and spacing of woodlots within a landscape. The continuous variables were used in a factor analysis to describe the variation among landscapes in terms of forest island pattern. The results showed that forest island patterns are related to topography and other environmental features correlated with topography.

  5. Landscape assessment in New Zealand: background and current issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Swaffield

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available One result of the growth in environmental awareness in the latter half of the twentieth century has been the recognition in New Zealand legislation of a public interest in landscape. The focus of environmental and landscape management in New Zealand is the Resource Management Act 1991 (RMA91. The stated purpose of the RMA91 is the sustainable management of natural and physical resources, and this includes a concern for aspects of landscape quality. In particular, councils' preparation of district and regional plans under the RMA91 requires, amongst other things, protection of 'outstanding natural features and landscapes' from 'inappropriate subdivision, use and development' (RMA91 s 6(b. As a consequence, councils have commissioned a large number of regional and district landscape assessments over the past decade, the results of which are now being translated into policy. Significant criticism has been expressed by some stakeholders - specifically landowners - of the outcomes of this process. Assessment of the effects of development on the landscape is also an important part of the resource consent process, and landscape assessment reports are frequently used by the Environment Court in its adjudication of resource consent cases. As a consequence, the practice of landscape assessment has come under increasing public, professional and judicial scrutiny. This article reviews the background to and summarises a recent survey of current practice in New Zealand landscape assessment. Issues in landscape assessment practice are then discussed, drawing on three professional workshops held in late 1998.

  6. Regular Topographic Patterning of Karst Depressions Suggests Landscape Self-Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintero, C.; Cohen, M. J.

    2017-12-01

    Thousands of wetland depressions that are commonly host to cypress domes dot the sub-tropical limestone landscape of South Florida. The origin of these depression features has been the topic of debate. Here we build upon the work of previous surveyors of this landscape to analyze the morphology and spatial distribution of depressions on the Big Cypress landscape. We took advantage of the emergence and availability of high resolution Light Direction and Ranging (LiDAR) technology and ArcMap GIS software to analyze the structure and regularity of landscape features with methods unavailable to past surveyors. Six 2.25 km2 LiDAR plots within the preserve were selected for remote analysis and one depression feature within each plot was selected for more intensive sediment and water depth surveying. Depression features on the Big Cypress landscape were found to show strong evidence of regular spatial patterning. Periodicity, a feature of regularly patterned landscapes, is apparent in both Variograms and Radial Spectrum Analyses. Size class distributions of the identified features indicate constrained feature sizes while Average Nearest Neighbor analyses support the inference of dispersed features with non-random spacing. The presence of regular patterning on this landscape strongly implies biotic reinforcement of spatial structure by way of the scale dependent feedback. In characterizing the structure of this wetland landscape we add to the growing body of work dedicated to documenting how water, life and geology may interact to shape the natural landscapes we see today.

  7. Linking foraging decisions to residential yard bird composition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susannah B Lerman

    Full Text Available Urban bird communities have higher densities but lower diversity compared with wildlands. However, recent studies show that residential urban yards with native plantings have higher native bird diversity compared with yards with exotic vegetation. Here we tested whether landscape designs also affect bird foraging behavior. We estimated foraging decisions by measuring the giving-up densities (GUD; amount of food resources remaining when the final forager quits foraging on an artificial food patch, i.e seed trays in residential yards in Phoenix, AZ, USA. We assessed how two yard designs (mesic: lush, exotic vegetation; xeric: drought-tolerant and native vegetation differed in foraging costs. Further, we developed a statistical model to calculate GUDs for every species visiting the seed tray. Birds foraging in mesic yards depleted seed trays to a lower level (i.e. had lower GUDs compared to birds foraging in xeric yards. After accounting for bird densities, the lower GUDs in mesic yards appeared largely driven by invasive and synanthropic species. Furthermore, behavioral responses of individual species were affected by yard design. Species visiting trays in both yard designs had lower GUDs in mesic yards. Differences in resource abundance (i.e., alternative resources more abundant and of higher quality in xeric yards contributed to our results, while predation costs associated with foraging did not. By enhancing the GUD, a common method for assessing the costs associated with foraging, our statistical model provided insights into how individual species and bird densities influenced the GUD. These differences we found in foraging behavior were indicative of differences in habitat quality, and thus our study lends additional support for native landscapes to help reverse the loss of urban bird diversity.

  8. Modeling the relationship between landscape characteristics and water quality in a typical highly intensive agricultural small watershed, Dongting lake basin, south central China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hongqing; Liu, Liming; Ji, Xiang

    2015-03-01

    Understanding the relationship between landscape characteristics and water quality is critically important for estimating pollution potential and reducing pollution risk. Therefore, this study examines the relationship between landscape characteristics and water quality at both spatial and temporal scales. The study took place in the Jinjing River watershed in 2010; seven landscape types and four water quality pollutions were chosen as analysis parameters. Three different buffer areas along the river were drawn to analyze the relationship as a function of spatial scale. The results of a Pearson's correlation coefficient analysis suggest that "source" landscape, namely, tea gardens, residential areas, and paddy lands, have positive effects on water quality parameters, while forests exhibit a negative influence on water quality parameters because they represent a "sink" landscape and the sub-watershed level is identified as a suitable scale. Using the principal component analysis, tea gardens, residential areas, paddy lands, and forests were identified as the main landscape index. A stepwise multiple regression analysis was employed to model the relationship between landscape characteristics and water quality for each season. The results demonstrate that both landscape composition and configuration affect water quality. In summer and winter, the landscape metrics explained approximately 80.7 % of the variance in the water quality variables, which was higher than that for spring and fall (60.3 %). This study can help environmental managers to understand the relationships between landscapes and water quality and provide landscape ecological approaches for water quality control and land use management.

  9. Towards ecologically scaled landscape indices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vos, C.C.; Verboom, J.; Opdam, P.F.M.; Braak, ter C.J.F.

    2001-01-01

    Nature conservation is increasingly based on a landscape approach rather than a species approach. Landscape planning that includes nature conservation goals requires integrated ecological tools. However, species differ widely in their response to landscape change. We propose a framework of

  10. Investigate and Comparsion Self-Esteem and Happiness Among Residential and Non-Residential Old People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakieh Nasiri

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The main aim of this study was to investigate and to compare elderly happiness and self-esteem among residential and non-residential. Methods & Materials: This research was designed as descriptive. Two groups were selected in convenience method. Member of residential elderly (416 elderly were chosen based on Morgan Table. Hundred-twenty elderly, 60 residential (30 men and 30 women and 60 non-residential (30 men and 30 women were chosen for study. Data used the three questionnaires, like Demographic questionnaires, Oxford Happiness Inventory and Self-esteem Scale’s Rozenberg. Data were gathered and analyzed with Pearson test, t-student test. Results: The results were indicated that a significant relationship between happiness and self-esteem, among residential and non- residential old people. The findings showed significant difference in happiness, self-esteem among residential and home participants in both groups (P<0.01. Conclusion: The results were showed that a significant relationship between social support and self-esteem, among residential and non-residential old people. Also, the results were indicated that significant difference between social support. In general, residential participants had lower social support and self-esteem than non-residential participants.

  11. Exploring indigenous landscape classification across different dimensions: a case study from the Bolivian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riu-Bosoms, Carles; Vidal-Amat, Teresa; Duane, Andrea; Fernandez-Llamazares, Alvaro; Guèze, Maximilien; Luz, Ana C; Macía, Manuel J; Paneque-Gálvez, Jaime; Reyes-García, Victoria

    Decisions on landscape management are often dictated by government officials based on their own understandings of how landscape should be used and managed, but rarely considering local peoples' understandings of the landscape they inhabit. We use data collected through free listings, field transects, and interviews to describe how an Amazonian group of hunter-horticulturalists, the Tsimane', classify and perceive the importance of different elements of the landscape across the ecological, socioeconomic, and spiritual dimensions. The Tsimane' recognize nine folk ecotopes (i.e., culturally-recognized landscape units) and use a variety of criteria (including geomorphological features and landscape uses) to differentiate ecotopes from one another. The Tsimane' rank different folk ecotopes in accordance with their perceived ecological, socioeconomic, and spiritual importance. Understanding how local people perceive their landscape contributes towards a landscape management planning paradigm that acknowledges the continuing contributions to management of landscape inhabitants, as well as their cultural and land use rights.

  12. The Value of Landscaping

    OpenAIRE

    Relf, Diane

    2009-01-01

    Landscaping is one of the most cost effective tools for improving and sustaining the quality of life, whether in the city, the suburbs, or the country. Landscaping is an integral part of our culture and plays an essential role in the quality of our environment, affecting our economic well-being and our physical and psychological health.

  13. Nature and landscape protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinda, J.; Lieskovska, Z.

    1998-01-01

    In accordance with National Council of the Slovak Republic Act N. 287/1994 Coll. on Nature and Landscape Protection, the system of complex nature landscape protection has been designed based on five levels of protection. Categories of protected areas as well as cultural monuments in the Slovak Republic are reviewed.Slovak contribution to the world heritage is included

  14. Glossary on agricultural landscapes.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruse, A.; Centeri, C.; Renes, J.; Roth, M.; Printsman, A.; Palang, H.; Benito Jorda, M.-D.; Verlarde, M.D.; Kruckenberg, H.

    2010-01-01

    T he following glossary of terms related to the European agricultural landscape shall serve as a common basis for all parties, working in or on agricultural landscapes. Some of the terms are quite common and sometimes used in our every day language, but they often have different meanings in

  15. Principles of landscape architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, S.

    2013-01-01

    The Department of Urbanism at the Faculty of Architecture and Built Environment, TU Delft considers urbanism as a planning and design oriented activity towards urban and rural landscapes. It aims to enhance, restore or create landscapes from a perspective of sustainable development, so as to guide,

  16. Numismatic and Pictorial Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Cheilik

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The landscapes seen on Greek coins beginning with the Roman Empire have their best analogies not in Greek art but in Roman paintings and coins of the first century B.C., and this implies a Roman origin for the genre of landscape.

  17. Globalization and Landscape Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Robert R. Hewitt

    2014-01-01

    The literature review examines globalization and landscape architecture as discourse, samples its various meanings, and proposes methods to identify and contextualize its specific literature. Methodologically, the review surveys published articles and books by leading authors and within the WorldCat.org Database associated with landscape architecture and globalization, analyzing survey results for comprehensive concept...

  18. Chapter 17: Residential Behavior Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, James [Cadmus Group, Waltham, MA (United States); Todd, Annika [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Residential behavior-based (BB) programs use strategies grounded in the behavioral social sciences to influence household energy use. Strategies may include providing households with real-time or delayed feedback about their energy use; supplying energy-efficiency education and tips; rewarding households for reducing their energy use; comparing households to their peers; and establishing games, tournaments, and competitions. BB programs often target multiple energy end uses and encourage energy savings, demand savings, or both. Savings from BB programs are usually a small percentage of energy use, typically less than 5%.

  19. Urban Landscape Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frederick Steiner

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Cities present significant opportunities for new landscape perspectives that can help inform conservation and development decisions. Early in the twenty-first century, the majority of the planet’s population became urban as more people lived in city-regions for the first time in our history. As the global population increases, so does this urbanization. The environmental challenges of population and urban growth are profound. Landscapes represent a synthesis of natural and cultural processes. Cities are certainly cultural phenomena. Historically, cities provided refuge from nature. The expanding field of urban ecology, coupled with landscape ecology, can enhance how the dual natural and cultural dimensions of landscapes in cities are understood. Furthermore, concepts such as ecosystem services and green infrastructure are proving useful for urban landscape planning and design. Examples from Dayton, Ohio; Brooklyn, New York; and Austin, Texas are presented.

  20. ECO-GEOGRAPHICAL APPROACH TO INVESTIGATION OF STABILITY OF CULTURAL LANDSCAPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Golubeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Today in Russia, much attention is given to research and practical identification of the cultural landscape (CL stability parameters that define its dependency on the character of the territorial land use. As a rule, these are projects of territorial and landscape planning (LP aimed at assessment of stability of the CL depending on the conditions of the social and natural environment, on the level of changes of its components, and on the direct relation with the nature and the type of natural resources management. This approach defines most fully conditions and the level of impact on the landscape.The paper discusses the main types of natural resource management of the CL. Residential areas are the most complex and multifunctional types of natural resource management. They are of the greatest interest to the research as an object of “co-creation of man and nature” [Sochava, 1978]. This is determined by an important role of residential areas with their infrastructure as a landscape reshaping element that influences the functioning and structure of the CL. Cities, suburbs and towns, as human environment, require a special attention in order to achieve an environmentally friendly and sustainable landscape.In the concept of LP, much attention is given to assessment of the natural components of the CL. As a rule, assessment of soil, climate (atmosphere, water, and landscape sensitivity and significance is conducted [Drozdov, 2006]. The selection of assessment criteria varies depending on the natural resource management type. Obtained results are compared with parameters that are indicative for or specific to naturally occurring landscape. The crisis of environmental components makes LP the vitally necessary management instrument. The goals of landscape planning are broadly formulated—landscape planning should cover the entire territory of the country, should consider both natural and socio-economic factors, and should develop measures to

  1. Residential ventilation standards scoping study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, Thomas E.; Sherman, Max H.

    2003-10-01

    The goals of this scoping study are to identify research needed to develop improved ventilation standards for California's Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards. The 2008 Title 24 Standards are the primary target for the outcome of this research, but this scoping study is not limited to that timeframe. We prepared this scoping study to provide the California Energy Commission with broad and flexible options for developing a research plan to advance the standards. This document presents the findings of a scoping study commissioned by the Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) program of the California Energy Commission to determine what research is necessary to develop new residential ventilation requirements for California. This study is one of three companion efforts needed to complete the job of determining the ventilation needs of California residences, determining the bases for setting residential ventilation requirements, and determining appropriate ventilation technologies to meet these needs and requirements in an energy efficient manner. Rather than providing research results, this scoping study identifies important research questions along with the level of effort necessary to address these questions and the costs, risks, and benefits of pursuing alternative research questions. In approaching these questions and corresponding levels of effort, feasibility and timing were important considerations. The Commission has specified Summer 2005 as the latest date for completing this research in time to update the 2008 version of California's Energy Code (Title 24).

  2. Residential Electricity Consumption in Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edyta Ropuszyńska-Surma

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Key factors influencing electricity consumption in the residential sector in Poland have been identified. A fixed-effects model was used, which includes time effects, and a set of covariates, based on the model developed by Houthakker et al. This model estimates electricity demand by using lagged values of the dependent variable along with current and lagged values of electricity prices, and other variables that affect electricity demand such as: population, economic growth, income per capita, price of related goods, etc. The model has been identified according to the research results of the authors and those obtained by Bentzen and Engsted. The set of covariates was extended to the lagged electricity price given by a tariff (taken from two years previous to the time of interest and heating degree days index, a very important factor in European Union countries, where the climate is temperate. The authors propose four models of residential electricity demand, for which a confidence interval of 95% has been assumed. Estimation was based on Polish quarterly data for the years 2003-2013. (original abstract

  3. Residential instability: a perspective on system imbalance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, Lawrence; Desai, Prakash

    1987-10-01

    In an exploration of residential instability and recidivism in chronic mental patients, 215 psychiatric admissions were followed for a year after the initial episode. In addition to an unusually high incidence of residential mobility, a relationship between mobility and number of hospitalizations was evident, as were isolation, disruptive family situations, and homelessness. The needed response of the mental health system is discussed.

  4. Credit Scores, Race, and Residential Sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Ashlyn Aiko

    2010-01-01

    Credit scores have a profound impact on home purchasing power and mortgage pricing, yet little is known about how credit scores influence households' residential location decisions. This study estimates the effects of credit scores on residential sorting behavior using a novel mortgage industry data set combining household demographic, credit, and…

  5. Does immigrant residential crowding reflect hidden homelessness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Haan

    2011-12-01

    the extent to which heightened levels of residential crowding might reflect “hidden homelessness.” I find mixed evidence to support this link, and, if anything, find some evidence to suggest that the link between residential crowding and hidden homelessness, if one exists, is strongest for the Canadian-born.

  6. Criteria of Architectural Composition Design in Residential Courtyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemeļniece, Aija; Īle, Una

    2017-10-01

    The totalitarian times of the 50s-80s of the 20th century have brought the building of high-rise residential blocks in Latvian cities, characterized by an uninteresting solution of standard buildings and the alien scale which does not meet the regional features. During the above period, areas of the residential courtyards have not been addressed. The conclusion of the research is that today the courtyards of the high-rise residential houses have become a stagnant, functionally irrelevant area that forms a depressing nature of the outdoor living space. The uncharted area of courtyards is not being used fully which highlights a wide range of issues that applies to car parks, recreation areas, and the green areas. With the development of the urban infrastructure, the creation of high-rise parking facilities and separate car parks are insufficiently addressed. Consequently, the implementation of improvements in courtyards of high-rise residential houses is not possible if the above issue on the removal of the car load from courtyards is not solved. Many building districts are characterized by the same compositional, architectural-spatial structure which even more influences and causes discomfort in these areas to stay. In recent years, the solution to the above issue is sought by the municipal authorities of Latvia to create a new courtyard zoning. It applies to the project development and construction works. In the research, courtyards of the city of Jelgava are analysed and evaluated which from the qualitative point of view demonstrates and is a vivid example where the issues of the research are readable. The city of Jelgava, located 45 km away from Riga, is an expressed satellite city and serves for the agglomeration of Riga as a huge high-rise residential district. Consequently, the research includes separate courtyards of high-rise residential buildings of the city of Jelgava and their study is carried out from the point of view of the architectural composition

  7. Energy Performance of Three Residential College Buildings in University of Malaya Campus, Kuala Lumpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Ainurzaman Jamaludin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Three residential colleges located in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, were selected for energy performance analysis in regards to its implementation of bioclimatic design strategies. Specifically, passive design strategies on daylighting and natural ventilation were examined. In Malaysia, the residential college or hostel is a multi-residential building providing accommodation to university students. The three residential colleges in this study, namely C1, C2 and C3, were built in different years with different designs and forms, particularly with regards to enclosure and facade design, solar control devices, passive daylight concepts, and natural ventilation strategies. The building designs were carefully studied and an electric consumption analysis was carried out in each residential college. This study revealed that the wide-scale implementation of bioclimatic design strategies in college C2 help reduced the annual energy consumption. The building bioclimatic design features that are accountable to reduce energy consumption are the internal courtyard and balconies on each unit of floor area, as shown in C3.Results from this study highly recommend internal courtyard and balcony building combination for multi residential building design, especially in tropical urban regions.

  8. Manufactured residential utility wall system (ResCore), overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Lundell, C.; Lau, T.M. [Auburn Univ., AL (United States)

    1997-05-01

    This paper provides an overview of the design and development of a manufactured residential utility wall system referred to as ResCore. ResCore is a self-contained, manufactured, residential utility wall that provides complete rough-in of utilities (power, gas, water, and phone) and other functions (exhaust, combustion make-up air, refrigerant lines, etc.) to serve the residential kitchen, bath, utility, and laundry rooms. Auburn University, Department of Industrial Design faculty and students, supported by a team of graduate student researchers and the project`s advisory team, developed the ResCore. The project was accomplished through a research subcontract from the US Department of Energy administered by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The ResCore wall system features a ``layered`` manufacturing technique that allows each major component group--structural, cold water, hot water, drain, gas, electric, etc.--to be built as a separate subassembly and easily brought together for final assembly. The two structural layers are reinforced with bridging that adds strength and also permits firm attachment of plumbing pipes and other systems to the wall frame.

  9. Estimating the Determinants of Residential Water Demand in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulia Romano

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to estimate the determinants of residential water demand for chief towns of every Italian province, in the period 2007–2009, using the linear mixed-effects model estimated with the restricted-maximum-likelihood method. Results confirmed that the applied tariff had a negative effect on residential water consumption and that it was a relevant driver of domestic water consumption. Moreover, income per capita had a positive effect on water consumption. Among measured climatic and geographical features, precipitation and altitude exerted a strongly significant negative effect on water consumption, while temperature did not influence water demand. Further, data show that small towns in terms of population served were characterized by lower levels of consumption. Water utilities ownership itself did not have a significant effect on water consumption but tariffs were significantly lower and residential water consumption was higher in towns where the water service was managed by publicly owned water utilities. However, further research is needed to gain a better understanding of the connection between ownership of water utilities and water prices and water consumption.

  10. From climate-smart agriculture to climate-smart landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scherr Sara J

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For agricultural systems to achieve climate-smart objectives, including improved food security and rural livelihoods as well as climate change adaptation and mitigation, they often need to be take a landscape approach; they must become ‘climate-smart landscapes’. Climate-smart landscapes operate on the principles of integrated landscape management, while explicitly incorporating adaptation and mitigation into their management objectives. Results An assessment of climate change dynamics related to agriculture suggests that three key features characterize a climate-smart landscape: climate-smart practices at the field and farm scale; diversity of land use across the landscape to provide resilience; and management of land use interactions at landscape scale to achieve social, economic and ecological impacts. To implement climate-smart agricultural landscapes with these features (that is, to successfully promote and sustain them over time, in the context of dynamic economic, social, ecological and climate conditions requires several institutional mechanisms: multi-stakeholder planning, supportive landscape governance and resource tenure, spatially-targeted investment in the landscape that supports climate-smart objectives, and tracking change to determine if social and climate goals are being met at different scales. Examples of climate-smart landscape initiatives in Madagascar’s Highlands, the African Sahel and Australian Wet Tropics illustrate the application of these elements in contrasting contexts. Conclusions To achieve climate-smart landscape initiatives widely and at scale will require strengthened technical capacities, institutions and political support for multi-stakeholder planning, governance, spatial targeting of investments and multi-objective impact monitoring.

  11. Residential construction cost: An Italian survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canesi, Rubina; Marella, Giuliano

    2017-04-01

    This paper reports data describing development projects for new buildings according to construction costs in North-East Italy. A survey was carried out on local companies undertaking new residential development projects in two Italian regions (Veneto and Lombardy). The aim of this survey was to record new real estate construction projects, collecting both technical and socio-economic cost features. It is extremely difficult to collect such data for the Italian real estate construction sector, due to its lack of transparency, so that the novelty for the Italian scenario is the dataset itself. Another interest perspective of this survey is that socio-economic characteristics were also recorded; they are often studied in urban economics, but are usually related to property purchase prices and values, not to construction costs. The data come from an analysis of Canesi and Marella regarding the relationship between the trend of construction costs and the socio-economic conditions of the reference setting, such as the mean years of schooling of the workforce, housing market trends, and average per capita income.

  12. Residential construction cost: An Italian survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubina Canesi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports data describing development projects for new buildings according to construction costs in North-East Italy. A survey was carried out on local companies undertaking new residential development projects in two Italian regions (Veneto and Lombardy. The aim of this survey was to record new real estate construction projects, collecting both technical and socio-economic cost features. It is extremely difficult to collect such data for the Italian real estate construction sector, due to its lack of transparency, so that the novelty for the Italian scenario is the dataset itself. Another interest perspective of this survey is that socio-economic characteristics were also recorded; they are often studied in urban economics, but are usually related to property purchase prices and values, not to construction costs. The data come from an analysis of Canesi and Marella regarding the relationship between the trend of construction costs and the socio-economic conditions of the reference setting, such as the mean years of schooling of the workforce, housing market trends, and average per capita income.

  13. Welfare Landscape and Communities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Ellen Marie

    2017-01-01

    Danish housing developments of the post-war era were a cornerstone in the implementation of the welfare vision and the overall urban and landscape planning in the post-war period. The new city was a horizontal city and – as it will be my primary ambition to show – a green and landscape-like city....... The landscape came, in Denmark, to play a prominent role and became synonymous with ‘The Good Life’, but it also presented a number of moral imperatives. The article concerns how communities and community feelings found their expression in the Danish ‘welfare landscapes’....

  14. Emergence of a Promising Lead Compound in the Treatment of Triple Negative Breast Cancer: An Insight into Conformational Features and Ligand Binding Landscape of c-Src Protein with UM-164.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndagi, Umar; Mhlongo, Ndumiso N; Soliman, Mahmoud E

    2017-12-27

    UM-164, a potent Src/p38 inhibitor, is a promising lead compound for developing the first targeted therapeutic strategy against triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). However, lack of understanding of conformational features of UM-164 in complex with Src serves a challenge in the rational design of novel Src dual inhibitors. Herein, we provide an in-depth insight into conformational features of Src-UM-164 using different computational approaches. This involved molecular dynamics (MD) simulation, principal component analysis (PCA), thermodynamics calculations, dynamic cross-correlation (DCCM) analysis, and hydrogen bond formation. Findings from this study revealed that (1) the binding of UM-164 to Src induces a more stable and compact conformation; (2) the binding of UM-164 results in increased correlation among the active site residue; (3) the presence of multiple phenyl rings and fluorinated phenyl group in UM-164 contributes to the steric effect; (4) a relatively high-binding free energy estimated for the Src-UM-164 system is affirmative of its experimental potency; (5) hydrophobic packing contributes significantly to the drug binding in Src-UM-164; and (6) observed increase in H-bond distance of interacting residue atoms and Dasatinib compared to UM-164. Findings from this study can serve as a baseline in the design of novel Src inhibitors with dual inhibitory properties.

  15. Residential Tourism and Multiple Mobilities: Local Citizenship and Community Fragmentation in Costa Rica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Femke van Noorloos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Current patterns of “move-in move-out” hypermobility are perfectly exemplified by residential tourism: the temporary or permanent mobility of relatively well-to-do citizens from mostly western countries to a variety of tourist destinations, where they buy property. The mobility of residential tourists does not stand alone, but has broader chain effects: it converts local destinations into transnational spaces, leading to a highly differentiated and segmented population landscape. In this article, residential tourism’s implications in terms of local society in Guanacaste, Costa Rica, are examined, starting from the idea that these implications should be viewed as complex and traveling in time and space. Mobile groups, such as residential tourists, can have an important local participation and involvement (independently of national citizenship, although recent flows of migrants settle more into compatriot social networks. The fact that various migrant populations continually travel back and forth and do not envision a future in the area may restrict their opportunities and willingness for local involvement. Transnational involvement in itself is not a problem and can be successfully combined with high local involvement; however, the great level of fragmentation, mobility, temporariness and absenteeism in Guanacaste circumscribes successful community organizing. Still, the social system has not completely dissolved.

  16. Landscape genetics and limiting factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samuel A. Cushman; Andrew J. Shirk; Erin L. Landguth

    2013-01-01

    Population connectivity is mediated by the movement of organisms or propagules through landscapes. However, little is known about how variation in the pattern of landscape mosaics affects the detectability of landscape genetic relationships. The goal of this paper is to explore the impacts of limiting factors on landscape genetic processes using simulation...

  17. Visualizing energy landscapes with metric disconnectivity graphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeeton, Lewis C; Oakley, Mark T; Johnston, Roy L

    2014-07-30

    The visualization of multidimensional energy landscapes is important, providing insight into the kinetics and thermodynamics of a system, as well the range of structures a system can adopt. It is, however, highly nontrivial, with the number of dimensions required for a faithful reproduction of the landscape far higher than can be represented in two or three dimensions. Metric disconnectivity graphs provide a possible solution, incorporating the landscape connectivity information present in disconnectivity graphs with structural information in the form of a metric. In this study, we present a new software package, PyConnect, which is capable of producing both disconnectivity graphs and metric disconnectivity graphs in two or three dimensions. We present as a test case the analysis of the 69-bead BLN coarse-grained model protein and show that, by choosing appropriate order parameters, metric disconnectivity graphs can resolve correlations between structural features on the energy landscape with the landscapes energetic and kinetic properties. Copyright © 2014 The Authors Journal of Computational Chemistry Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Enhancement Through Landscaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindley, Charles

    1985-01-01

    Landscaping can make the school environment more attractive, thus encouraging students' intellectual, emotional, and physical development. Guidelines are offered for comprehensive site planning, tree and plant selection, and grounds maintenance. (MLF)

  19. Archaeology, landscape and aesthetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David E. Cooper

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the role, if any, of aesthetic reflections in the discipline of landscape archaeology. It begins by rejecting the charge that archaeologists should set aside their own aesthetic sensibility when studying landscapes. The bulk of the paper, however, is concerned with arguing that attention to the aesthetic sensibilities of the peoples who made the landscapes studied is essential to the kind of understanding and reconstruction of ways of life that landscape archaeology aims to provide. Two important themes that are developed during the course of this argument are: (1 a distinction (ignored by some archaeologists who are critical of appeals to aesthetic enjoyment between aesthetic appreciation and a dilettante “aestheticism” and (2 the aesthetic satisfactions that must be taken in work, such as farming, if this is to flourish.

  20. Condensed landscape experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    ‘Re-thinking interaction between landscape and urban buildings’ participates in an interdisciplinary discourse about the theoretical and practical advantages of openly juxtaposing landscape and architecture without having one more advanced in importance. Recently, the greenification of buildings...... is becoming a standard in contemporary architecture. Merging architecture and landscape has turned into a principle for an ecological / sustainable architecture. Yet, my aspiration is to achieve a wider interaction involving an application of a wider range of perspectives, such as: urban identity, social...... demands, quality of space, mixture of functions, urban complexity, public life and cultural heritage. In order to launch such an approach, an understanding of the spatial, social and environmental significance of a radical re-thinking of relationships between architecture and landscape is necessary...

  1. Landscape Water Budget Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    WaterSense created the Water Budget Tool as one option to help builders, landscape professionals, and irrigation professionals certified by a WaterSense labeled program meet the criteria specified in the WaterSense New Home Specification.

  2. Condensed landscape experience

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Earon, Ofri

    2011-01-01

    demands, quality of space, mixture of functions, urban complexity, public life and cultural heritage. In order to launch such an approach, an understanding of the spatial, social and environmental significance of a radical re-thinking of relationships between architecture and landscape is necessary...... is becoming a standard in contemporary architecture. Merging architecture and landscape has turned into a principle for an ecological / sustainable architecture. Yet, my aspiration is to achieve a wider interaction involving an application of a wider range of perspectives, such as: urban identity, social......‘Re-thinking interaction between landscape and urban buildings’ participates in an interdisciplinary discourse about the theoretical and practical advantages of openly juxtaposing landscape and architecture without having one more advanced in importance. Recently, the greenification of buildings...

  3. PNW Hydrologic Landscape Class

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Work has been done to expand the hydrologic landscapes (HLs) concept and to develop an approach for using it to address streamflow vulnerability from climate change....

  4. Landscape character assessment with GIS using map-based indicators and photographs in the relationship between landscape and roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Belén; Ortega, Emilio; Otero, Isabel; Arce, Rosa M

    2016-09-15

    Planning and monitoring of landscapes cannot be reduced to its outstanding features, but must take into account all its characteristics. In this context, the relationship of landscape with roads is of particular importance, because roads alter the territory's environmental resources but also constitute a resource through which the individual comes into contact with the landscape. The aim of this work is to design a methodology to evaluate both the character and the scenic quality of the landscape as viewed from motorways and to provide measures to assess whether the motorway conveys the character of the landscape of which it forms part. The main contribution of this research consists of assessing landscape character through a novel series of map-based indicators and combining the findings with a photo-based method of assessing visual landscape quality. The method has been applied to a case study around a motorway in Madrid Region (Spain). Landscape character values regarding coherence, complexity, naturalness, visual scale, disturbance, historicity, and ephemera are obtained using Geographic Information Systems. Additionally, the landscape quality results derived using photographs allow the incorporation of the user's perception at a local scale. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. The relationship between residential yard management and neighborhood crime: An analysis from Baltimore City and County

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austin Troy; Ashley Nunery; Morgan Grove

    2016-01-01

    We analyzed the relationship between crime and indicators of residential yard management in Baltimore City and County. Data came from a survey we conducted of over one thousand front yards that included more than 40 indicators relating to lawns, trees, shrubs, beds and other features. These indicators were related to point counts of crime at the 150 m scale using a...

  6. Conflict Resolution, Restorative Justice Approaches and Bullying in Young People's Residential Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlechild, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Restorative justice has been an increasing feature in the discourses within adult and youth justice criminal justice systems in recent years. This article examines interpersonal conflicts arising from crime, bullying and antisocial behaviour in residential care, and the advantages and disadvantages of utilising such approaches in relation to these…

  7. Center for Real Life Kitchen Design open house to showcase latest in residential kitchens

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Jean

    2007-01-01

    Virginia Tech will unveil its newly refurbished Center for Real Life Kitchen Design at an open house set for Monday, April 2. The 1,500-square foot center, located in 247 Wallace Hall, features six fully functional residential kitchen designs that reflect a variety of price levels, lifestyles, and use of space for today's homeowner.

  8. Residential radon survey in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvela, H.; Maekelaeinen, I.; Castren, O.

    1993-02-01

    The study measured the indoor radon concentration in the dwellings of 3074 persons, selected randomly from the central population register of Finland. Alpha track detectors and two consecutive half year measuring periods were used. The national mean of indoor radon concentration for persons living in low-rise residential buildings as well as blocks of flats was 145 and 82 Bq/m 3 , respectively. The mean for the total population was 123 Bq/m 3 . Based on the decision of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health in 1992, the indoor radon concentration should not exceed 400 Bq/m 3 in already existing houses, the target for new construction being less than 200 Bq/m 3 . According to the study, the percentage of the Finnish population living in houses with an indoor radon concentration exceeding 200, 400 and 800 Bq/m 3 was 12.3 %, 3.6 % and 1.0 %

  9. Exploring fitness landscapes

    OpenAIRE

    Meer, Margarita V., 1986-

    2015-01-01

    Fitness landscape is a concept, which describes the dependence of phenotype on genotype. It was proposed almost a hundred years ago but only recent burst of technologies finally allowed exploring it. We studied different aspects of fitness landscape applying both: computational and experimental approaches. Using mammalian mitochondrial tRNAs we proved that evolution can proceed not only along the ridges of high fitness but also cross the low fitness valleys. Functional analysis...

  10. Evaluation of Multi Residential House Renovation Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiva Rapcevičienė

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Analyzed multi residential house renovation investment projects efficiency evaluation methods: economic-social, and environmental, as well as key financial valuation methods: simple pay-back period, the energy cost savings, the net present value, internal rate of return. Building walls condition regenerative rate which is used to evaluate investments in energy-saving measures is also discussed. According to reconstruction investments of multi residential house, three government financing programs of multi residential house are evaluated and selected the most effective program by comparing financial valuation methods taking and without taking into account building walls condition regenerative rate. Article in Lithuanian

  11. Sources and mechanisms of nitrate and orthophosphate transport in urban stormwater runoff from residential catchments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yun-Ya; Toor, Gurpal S

    2017-04-01

    Nutrients export from residential catchments contributes to water quality impairment in urban water bodies. We investigated the concentrations, transport mechanisms, and sources of nitrate-nitrogen (NO 3 -N) and orthophosphate-phosphorus (PO 4 -P) in urban stormwater runoff generated in residential catchments in Tampa Bay, Florida, United States. Street runoff samples, collected over 21 storm events, were supplemented with rainfall and roof runoff samples from six representative residential catchments. Samples were analyzed for N and P forms, N and oxygen (O) isotopes of nitrate (δ 18 O-NO 3 - and δ 15 N-NO 3 - ), and δ 18 O and hydrogen (δD) isotopes of water (H 2 O). We found that the main NO 3 -N source in street runoff was atmospheric deposition (range: 35-64%), followed by chemical N fertilizers (range: 1-39%), and soil and organic N (range: 7-33%), whereas PO 4 -P in the street runoff likely originated from erosion of soil particles and mineralization from organic materials (leaves, grass clippings). The variability in the sources and concentrations of NO 3 -N and PO 4 -P across catchments is attributed to different development designs and patterns, use of various fill materials during land development, and landscaping practices. This data can be useful to develop strategies to offset the impacts of urban development (e.g., designs and patterns resulting in variable impervious areas) and management (e.g., fertilizer use, landscaping practices) on NO 3 -N and PO 4 -P transport in urban residential catchments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. 12 CFR 541.16 - Improved residential real estate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Improved residential real estate. 541.16... REGULATIONS AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 541.16 Improved residential real estate. The term improved residential real estate means residential real estate containing offsite or other improvements...

  13. 12 CFR 541.23 - Residential real estate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Residential real estate. 541.23 Section 541.23... AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 541.23 Residential real estate. The terms residential real estate... home used in part for business); (c) Other real estate used for primarily residential purposes other...

  14. LANDSCAPE ARCHAEOLOGY ALONG LIMES TRANSALUTANUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugen S. Teodor

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The project addresses the historical monuments comprised in the longest Roman ‘linear defence’ structure present on the Romanian territory.Despite it being the longest, this historic structure is the least protected and the least known in its technical details. Was indeed Limes Transalutanus an incomplete limes (lacking civilian settlements, for example, an odd construction (a vallum without fossa, an early-alarm line rather than a proper defensive line? Taking on these historical and archaeological challenges, the team attempts to develop an investigation technology applicable to large scale archaeological landscapes - a full evaluation chain, involving aerial survey, surface survey, geophysical investigation, multispectral images analysis, statistic evaluation and archaeological diggings. This technological chain will be systematically applied on the whole length of the objective, that is, on a 155 km distance. The attempt to find answers to issues related to the earth works’ functionality, layout, structure, chronology and relation with adjacent sites will be grounded on exploring the relations of the monument with the surrounding environment, by focussing on finding methods to reconstruct the features of the ancient landscapes, like systematic drilling, palynological tests and toponymical studies.

  15. The Role of Contemporary Innovations on Flexible Residential Furniture with Smart and Green Materials

    OpenAIRE

    Farjami, Elnaz

    2014-01-01

    Sustainability, being comfortable, having innovative technologies in terms of furniture, especially in residential spaces, are important factors in interior architecture, for better future life and lifecycle. Togetherness of these factors is complicated, in order to achieve all mentioned features within a furniture design, however, some companies attempt to create innovative furniture having all desired features together. It seems that there are a number of problems, such as high cost or lack...

  16. Semiotics in landscape design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karsten Jorgensen

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper claims that concepts of language can help us create better and more relevant landscape design. It is based on research undertaken by Karsten Jørgensen (1989, and subsequent studies carried out at the department of Land Use and Landscape Planning at the Agricultural University in Norway. The 'signs' that constitute the design language are categorised using the analytical vocabulary of landscape design; for example, elements, materials, effects and shapes. Studies of these signs are based on elements of semiotics and cognitive science, especially the Umwelt-theories developed by Jakob von Uexküll (Hoffmeyer 1994. We are constantly exposed to numerous signs of different kinds. Everywhere in society we see signs around us; for example, traffic signs, advertising signs and logos. It is therefore relevant to introduce the term 'semiosphere' in order to focus on the significance of semiosis at all levels of activity in the world, from cellular activities, to complex systems of development such as those found in a population. This study focuses on the semantic aspects of landscape architecture. In explaining the meaning of a statement, it is useful to have a set of rules or 'codes' to correlate a specific expression with a specific interpretation. These codes may be based on conventions, or on similarity between or stylisation of objects, such as natural or cultural landscapes. In any case, they are based on the interpreter's language and 'mind-structure'. At a general level, it is only possible to study sign content. To analyse meaning in landscape design you have to look at the context; for example, the overall composition of a garden or park and the situation, which includes the interpreter's cultural background, their experiences and so on. In other words, you have to analyse a specific case to be able to speak reasonably about meaning in landscape (designs.

  17. New infrastructures, new landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara Nifosì

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available New infrastructures, new landscapes AbstractThe paper will discuss one recent Italian project that share a common background: the relevance of the existing maritime landscape as a non negotiable value. The studies will be discussed in details a feasibility study for the new port in Monfalcone. National infrastructural policies emphasize competitiveness and connection as a central issue incultural, economic and political development of communities . Based on networks and system development along passageways that make up the European infrastructural armor; the two are considered at the meantime as cause and effect of "territorialisation”. These two views are obviously mutually dependent. It's hard to think about a strong attractiveness out of the network, and to be part of the latter encourages competitiveness. Nonetheless this has proved to be conflictual when landscape values and the related attractiveness are considered.The presented case study project, is pursuing the ambition to promote a new approach in realizing large infrastructures; its double role is to improve connectivity and to generate lasting and positive impact on the local regions. It deal with issues of inter-modality and the construction of nodes and lines which connects Europe, and its markets.Reverting the usual approach which consider landscape project as as a way to mitigate or to compensate for the infrastructure, the goal is to succeed in realizing large infrastructural works by conceiving them as an occasion to reinterpret a region or, as extraordinary opportunities, to build new landscapes.The strategy proposed consists in achieving structural images based on the reinforcement of the environmental and historical-landscape systems. Starting from the reinterpretation of local maritime context and resources it is possible not just to preserve the attractiveness of a specific landscape but also to conceive infrastructure in a more efficient way. 

  18. Environmental Condition and its Impact on Landscape Description by Salient Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soleimani, S.; Malek, M. R.; Soleimani, Z.; Arabsheibani, R.

    2015-12-01

    Describing a landscape means making link between concepts of visible features and people's perception. Most landscape description methods underline salient entities which are a key trigger for wayfinding problems and tourism management. Searching for a better understanding of landscape descriptions implies to explore and identify the main visual properties that differentiate between landscapes depending on both human cognition and environmental condition. Furthermore, this environmental condition affects the credibility of data produced by people, particularly when using Volunteered Geographical Information systems which brings forward a huge amount of information. Then this paper proposes an approach to emerge patterns by which describing landscape in general and choosing salient objects in particular have been influenced.

  19. Landscape is the key. Exploring mass tourism alternatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raquel Huete

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available We offer a reflection on the possibility of developing innovative sustainable tourism projects around the concept of landscape in environments linked to mass tourism and real estate development. In the framework of the province of Alicante, an illustrative example of a region specializing in residential tourism, the project Vivood Landscape Hotel is identified as a paradigmatic case, whose immediate environment is the municipality of Benimantell and Guadalest Valley, a few kilometres from Benidorm. This reflection is based on qualitative research based primarily on the application of in-depth interviews with key stakeholders regarding this multi-awarded entrepreneurship. Here, criteria of architectural and environmental sustainability are combined with a development that is inclusive and respectful with the socio-economic interests of the local population.

  20. 5 CFR 1655.20 - Residential loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...'s primary residence is his or her principal residence. A primary residence may include a house, a... residence. A residential loan will not be made for a lease-to-buy option, unless the option to buy is being...

  1. RACIAL RESIDENTIAL SEGREGATION AND ADVERSE BIRTH OUTCOMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    INTRODUCTION. The disparity between black and white women's adverse birth outcomes has been subject to much investigation, yet the factors underlying its persistence remain elusive, which has encouraged research on neighborhood-level influences, including racial residential segr...

  2. Forecasting residential electricity demand in provincial China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hua; Liu, Yanan; Gao, Yixuan; Hao, Yu; Ma, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Kan

    2017-03-01

    In China, more than 80% electricity comes from coal which dominates the CO2 emissions. Residential electricity demand forecasting plays a significant role in electricity infrastructure planning and energy policy designing, but it is challenging to make an accurate forecast for developing countries. This paper forecasts the provincial residential electricity consumption of China in the 13th Five-Year-Plan (2016-2020) period using panel data. To overcome the limitations of widely used predication models with unreliably prior knowledge on function forms, a robust piecewise linear model in reduced form is utilized to capture the non-deterministic relationship between income and residential electricity consumption. The forecast results suggest that the growth rates of developed provinces will slow down, while the less developed will be still in fast growing. The national residential electricity demand will increase at 6.6% annually during 2016-2020, and populous provinces such as Guangdong will be the main contributors to the increments.

  3. Modeling radon transport in multistory residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persily, A.K.

    1993-01-01

    Radon concentrations have been studied extensively in single-family residential buildings, but relatively little work has been done in large buildings, including multistory residential buildings. The phenomena of radon transport in multistory residential buildings is made more complicated by the multizone nature of the airflow system and the numerous interzone airflow paths that must be characterized in such a system. This paper presents the results of a computer simulation of airflow and radon transport in a twelve-story residential building. Interzone airflow rates and radon concentrations were predicted using the multizone airflow and contaminant dispersal program (CON-TAM88). Limited simulations were conducted to study the influence of two different radon source terms, indoor-outdoor temperature difference and exterior wall leakage values on radon transport and radon concentration distributions

  4. Public preferences for ecosystem services on exurban landscapes: A case study from the Mid-Atlantic, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua M. Duke

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports data from a residential landscape preference study conducted in Delaware, USA. The researchers constructed an ecologically designed exurban residential landscape, which delivered 20 new environmental and human-related impacts, including 7 that delivered ecosystem services. Ecosystem services included impacts such as improved flood control and enhanced plant diversity. Using pictures before and after the intervention, an intercept survey of 105 non-neighboring residents estimated whether the 20 impacts positively, negatively, or did not affect the respondents’ household wellbeing. The public found that most landscape-intervention impacts had a positive effect on their quality of life, especially those impacts involving ecosystem services. All but one ecosystem service were found to be strong amenities and the other (moving indoor activities outside was an amenity. However, the landscape intervention delivered one clear disamenity: increased undesirable wildlife. Respondents also identified what impacts were the most important in affecting their welfare: undesirable wildlife (negative; flood control (positive; and water quality (positive. Ecosystem services accounted for 41.6% of the public’s importance rating, while undesirable wildlife was 12.9%. A planning process seeking more ecosystem services from residential landscapes should focus on all the most important drivers of preference, if it is to be accepted by residents.

  5. Globalization and Landscape Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert R. Hewitt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The literature review examines globalization and landscape architecture as discourse, samples its various meanings, and proposes methods to identify and contextualize its specific literature. Methodologically, the review surveys published articles and books by leading authors and within the WorldCat.org Database associated with landscape architecture and globalization, analyzing survey results for comprehensive conceptual and co-relational frameworks. Three “higher order” dimensions frame the review’s conceptual organization, facilitating the organization of subordinate/subtopical areas of interest useful for comparative analysis. Comparative analysis of the literature suggests an uneven clustering of discipline-related subject matter across the literature’s “higher order” dimensions, with a much smaller body of literature related to landscape architecture confined primarily to topics associated with the dispersion of global phenomena. A subcomponent of this smaller body of literature is associated with other fields of study, but inferentially related to landscape architecture. The review offers separate references and bibliographies for globalization literature in general and globalization and landscape architecture literature, specifically.

  6. Assessment of Karst Spring Features in a typical Mediterranean fluvial landscape with an Interdisciplinary Investigation nased on Radon-222 as an Environmental Indicator. The case study of the Bussento River basin (Campania region, Southern Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuomo, A.; Guadagnuolo, D.; Guida, D.; Guida, M.; Knoeller, K.; Schubert, M.; Siervo, V.

    2012-04-01

    Karst aquifers provide 25% of the overall drinking water resources to the world's population and sustain aquatic life in most fluvial systems, providing several ecological services to human beings, although, because of their complex links between surface and groundwater, turn out to be very vulnerable to contamination and pollution. Hydrological assessment of karst systems reveals to be extremely complex and difficult and requires a stepwise multi-tracers approach. This work describes some of the most relevant findings obtained from the implementation of an interdisciplinary approach based on the use of Environmental Tracers, consisting of Naturally Occurring Radionuclides like Radon-222 (referred to as Radon), for the investigation of Groundwater/Surface water Interaction (GSI) processes in fluvial water bodies. In particular, Radon activity concentration measurement data having been collected from streamflow and instream springs during monthly field campaigns performed in a typical Mediterranean karst river basin: the Bussento river system (Campania region, Southern Italy). The general task has been to investigate the complex interactions and exchanges between streamflow and groundwater in a fluvial water body, at scales that are imperceptible to standard hydrological and hydraulic analyses. The Bussento River basin has been chosen as a study case for the following features of extreme relevance: Its location inside the Cilento and Vallo di Diano National Park, its inclusion of a WWF Nature Reserve, it represents a remarkable Drinking Water resource for the territory and last but not least its system includes Submarine Groundwater Discharges (SGD) to the Policastro Gulf. All these issues causes, therefore, that the management of its relevant water resources requires not only groundwater protection for domestic drinking use, but also riverine wildlife preservation and coastal water quality maintenance. As a support for hydro-geomorphological and hydrological

  7. Gentrification and Residential Mobility in Philadelphia

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Lei; Hwang, Jackelyn; Divringi, Eileen

    2016-01-01

    Gentrification has provoked considerable controversy surrounding its effects on residential displacement. Using a unique individual-level, longitudinal data set, this study examines mobility rates and residential destinations of residents in gentrifying neighborhoods during the recent housing boom and bust in Philadelphia for various strata of residents and different types of gentrification. We find that vulnerable residents, those with low credit scores and without mortgages, are generally n...

  8. Architectural design of passive solar residential building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Jing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies thermal environment of closed balconies that commonly exist in residential buildings, and designs a passive solar residential building. The design optimizes the architectural details of the house and passive utilization of solar energy to provide auxiliary heating for house in winter and cooling in summer. This design might provide a more sufficient and reasonable modification for microclimate in the house.

  9. Review of Residential Comfort Control Products and Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metzger, Cheryn E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Goyal, Siddharth [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Baechler, Michael C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-12-15

    This paper begins by discussing the interaction of each major component in advanced sensor and control applications related to HVAC equipment. The paper also looks at the applications of these components to commissioning, maintenance and operations of the HVAC equipment in residential buildings. A summary of state-of-the-art product features is also provided. These products are categorized through their primary application type (commissioning/maintenance or operation) and the features are categorized by component type (sensors, data storage, human-in-the-loop, communication, and controls). A common theme that emerges from this study is the importance of the ability for various product categories to be connected to each other. There are many manufacturers of sensors and many manufacturers of controls, but the power to automate any commissioning, maintenance or operation application, requires connectivity.

  10. Landscape Ecology and problems of European cultural landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Jesper

    2011-01-01

    Parallel to a growing global cooperation among landscape ecologists, different regional trends within landscape ecology seems to arise, related to different geographical and historical conditions. Modern landscape ecology in Europe has developed as an interdisciplinary activity inspired...... by practical problems of European cultural – especial agricultural – landscapes since the rise of the environmental movement. Central themes have been the consequences of technological and structural changes within European agriculture for the landscape and the development of habitats and dispersal...... opportunities for wildlife, and a variety of landscape problems related to the trends towards multifunctional use of agricultural landscapes due to new types of land use and settlements affected by counterurbanisation processes. A number of interrelated landscape ecological projects in Denmark, with parallels...

  11. Integrated residential photovoltaic array development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royal, G. C., III

    1981-04-01

    Sixteen conceptual designs of residential photovoltaic arrays are described. Each design concept was evaluated by an industry advisory panel using a comprehensive set of technical, economic and institutional criteria. Key electrical and mechanical concerns that effect further array subsystem development are also discussed. Three integrated array design concepts were selected by the advisory panel for further optimization and development. From these concepts a single one will be selected for detailed analysis and prototype fabrication. The three concepts selected are: (1) An array of frameless panels/modules sealed in a T shaped zipper locking neoprene gasket grid pressure fitted into an extruded aluminum channel grid fastened across the rafters. (2) An array of frameless modules pressure fitted in a series of zipper locking EPDM rubber extrusions adhesively bonded to the roof. Series string voltage is developed using a set of integral tongue connectors and positioning blocks. (3) An array of frameless modules sealed by a silicone adhesive in a prefabricated grid of rigid tape and sheet metal attached to the roof.

  12. Landscape narratives: crossing realms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Potteiger

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available Landscape narratives are produced across three related realms: 1. the story 2. the context/intertext and 3. the discourse. The story realm is an analysable system of meaning created by the structuring elements within the world of the story. The contextual or intertextual realm describes the role of individual readers and communities in the production of narratives. The third realm of discourse attends to whose story is told, what purposes it serves and what ideologies inhere in the telling. We apply this framework to interpreting the narrative construction of one place, the Crosby Arboretum in Mississippi. To link the practices of making landscapes to narrative practices requires an expanded notion of text, of the role of readers in producing meaning, as well as recognition of landscape as a spatial narrative shaped by ongoing processes and multiple authors. Design practice derived from understanding these conditions forms 'open narratives', as opposed to the current trend for highly scripted and controlled narratives.

  13. Conceiving Landscape through Film

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farsø, Mads; Munck Petersen, Rikke

    2015-01-01

    This article shows how the media of film can be integrated, explored and can add value to architectural design studios and practice. It elucidates how film may offer an alternative position in architecture, where landscapes and cities are thought, planned and developed in closer relation to their......This article shows how the media of film can be integrated, explored and can add value to architectural design studios and practice. It elucidates how film may offer an alternative position in architecture, where landscapes and cities are thought, planned and developed in closer relation...... to their spatial and sensory effects on humans. It underscores that the film camera can work as a kind of amplifier of how we, with our bodies, perceive space and project space. In the “Landscape Film” Studio at University of Copenhagen the film medium was tested as a combined registration and design tool...

  14. Landscaping practices, land use patterns and stormwater quantity and quality in urban watersheds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, B.; Band, L. E.

    2011-12-01

    Increasing quantity and decreasing quality of urban stormwater threatens biodiversity in local streams and reservoirs, jeopardizes water supplies, and ultimately contributes to estuarine eutrophication. To estimate the effects that present and alternative landscaping practices and land use patterns may have on urban stormwater quantity and quality, simulations of existing land use/land cover using the Regional Hydro-Ecologic Simulation System (RHESSys), a process-based surface hydrology and biogeochemistry model, were developed for watersheds in Baltimore, MD (as part of the Baltimore Ecosystem Study (BES) NSF Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) site) and Durham, NC (as part of the NSF Urban Long-Term Research Area (ULTRA) program). The influence of land use patterns and landscaping practices on nutrient export in urban watersheds has been explored as part of the BES; this work has focused on improving our understanding of how residential landscaping practices (i.e. lawn fertilization rates) vary across land use and socioeconomic gradients. Elsewhere, others have explored the political ecology of residential landscaping practices - seeking to understand the economic, political, and cultural influences on the practice of high-input residential turf-grass management. Going forward, my research will synthesize and extend this prior work. Rather than pre-supposing predominant residential land use patterns and landscaping practices (i.e. lower-density periphery development incorporating high-input turf landscapes) alternate land use and landscaping scenarios (e.g. higher-density/transit-oriented development, rain gardens, vegetable gardens, native plant/xeriscaping) will be developed through interviews/focus groups with stakeholders (citizens, public officials, developers, non-profits). These scenarios will then be applied to the RHESSys models already developed for catchments in Baltimore and Durham. The modeled scenario results will be used to identify alternate land

  15. Comparative assessment of public opinion on the landscape quality of two biosphere reserves in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowińska-Świerkosz, Barbara; Chmielewski, Tadeusz J

    2014-09-01

    The European Landscape Convention (2000) obligates European Union countries to identify and implement landscape quality objectives (LQOs) understood as the specification of public expectations and preferences concerning the landscape of a given area, expressed by competent public authorities. The convention emphasizes the important role of local community representatives in this field. In Poland, the implementation of the LQO concept was first undertaken in two regions with radically different landscape characteristics: (1) the West Polesie Biosphere Reserve and (2) the selected protected areas of the Roztocze-Solska Forest, nominated to the rank of a biosphere reserve. The first stage of the presented study was the recognition of public opinion on the quality of key features of landscape, based on a questionnaire (n = 470). The primary objective of the study was to provide an answer to the following questions: (1) Whether similar social expectations regarding landscape quality exist in spite of radically different landscape characteristics of the regions investigated (landscape quality is understood as spatial arrangement, scenic beauty, and lack of environmental pollution); (2) which landscape features are considered to be most preservation worthy by the representatives of both local communities; and (3) What processes or development impacts pose the greatest threat to the landscape quality of both regions according to the public opinion? The conducted comparative assessment revealed that it is possible to define a set of features fundamental to the quality of both areas and that representatives of local communities pointed out the same threats to the natural and cultural values of both regions investigated.

  16. Qualifying Urban Landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clemmensen, Thomas Juel; Nielsen, Tom; Daugaard, Morten

    2010-01-01

    The article presents an attempt to develop alternatives to the dominant planning and design principles used in building and rebuilding the contemporary urban landscape. The basic idea is that the ‘forces of modernisation’ driving current development might result in a broader and more interesting...... for contemporary urban landscape design practice....... to the task of constructing and improving things. With this goal, a set of objectives based in important insights from recent urban theory are formulated constituting the normative spine of the analysis of a number of found situations as basis for formulating eight generic concepts of qualification...

  17. Imagine A Collective Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Silvia Campanini

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Iceland plays a key role in the circumpolar context. The research investigates the fields of both the icelandic cultural landscape perception and the icelandic cultural identity. It considers the book Ultima thule; or, a summer in Iceland and Ólafur Elíasson art works as two sides of a same medal: the Iceland on the brain concept (F. Burton. The transition from a cultural identity to a collective landscape identity is investigated analysing Imagine J. Lennon's song which inspired Yõko Ono's work art titled Imagine Peace Tower.

  18. Digital landscapes of imagination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Starlight Vattano

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Urban landscapes that exist in the expression of an imaginative sequence define their shape through the digital representation. These hyperreal dimensions, combine imagination and representation as constituents a new reality, which follows the utopian, suprematist and constructivist theories, where the two-dimensional dynamics is transformed into an infinite space in which the imagination creates new forms. Although interpretations of the urban landscape film, put in place a correspondence between reality and virtuality, into the modeling of spatial movements, from which do not arise contraries, but only interdependencies. It is a particular type of representation that takes shape via the digital in motion and provides new tools for urban representation.

  19. Landscapes and landforms of brazil

    CERN Document Server

    Vieira, Bianca Carvalho; Santos, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    This book examines the greater part of geomorphological sites in Brazil. It explains how these landscapes have influenced human settlements as well as provides details on parallel geological processes, climate variations and landscape changes.

  20. Landscape infrastructure : urbanism beyond engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bélanger, P.

    2013-01-01

    As ecology becomes the new engineering, the project of Landscape Infrastructure - a contemporary, synthetic alignment of the disciplines of landscape architecture, civil engineering and urban planning - is proposed here. Predominant challenges facing urban regions today are addressed, including

  1. Selecting Landscape Plants: Shade Trees

    OpenAIRE

    Relf, Diane; Appleton, Bonnie Lee, 1948-2012; Close, David

    2015-01-01

    Because of the permanency of trees and their importance in the landscape, care must be taken to select the best species for each situation. This publication goes over how to choose landscape trees that are shade tolerant.

  2. Residential care: Dutch and Italian residents of residential care facilities compared.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Heer-Wunderink, Charlotte; Caro-Nienhuis, Annemarie D; Sytema, Sjoerd; Wiersma, Durk

    2008-01-01

    Characteristics of patients living in residential care facilities and the availability of mental hospital- and residential beds in Italy and The Netherlands were compared to assess whether differences in the process of deinstitutionalisation have influenced the composition of their residential patient populations. Data from the Dutch UTOPIA-study (UTilization & Outcome of Patients In the Association of Dutch residential care providers) and the Italian PROGRES-study were used. Dutch residents were more likely to suffer from substance or alcohol abuse than Italian residents. The latter were more likely to suffer from schizophrenia or a related disorder, less likely to have experienced mental hospital admissions and showed an overall shorter duration of stay in residential care facilities. Contrary to our expectations Dutch residents, who still have good access to long stay beds in mental hospitals, are not less disabled than Italian residents. Finally, the number of beds in residential care facilities per 10,000 inhabitants in the Netherlands is twice (6) as high as in Italy (3). The Italian and Dutch deinstitutionalisation processes have resulted in a different availability in the number of residential beds. However, it did not influence the overall level of functioning of both residential populations.

  3. Differences between Residential and Non-Residential Fathers on Sexual Socialisation of African American Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sneed, Carl D.; Willis, Leigh A.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated differences between residential and non-residential fathers on topics discussed during father-child sex communication and factors associated with child sexual socialisation. Young people (N = 159, 53% female) provided self-reports using computer surveys on the role of their fathers on father-child sex communication, general…

  4. Classifying Residents who use Landscape Irrigation: Implications for Encouraging Water Conservation Behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Laura A; Lamm, Alexa J; Rumble, Joy N; Martin, Emmett T; Cantrell, Randall

    2016-08-01

    Large amounts of water applied as urban irrigation can often be reduced substantially without compromising esthetics. Thus, encouraging the adoption of water-saving technologies and practices is critical to preserving water resources, yet difficult to achieve. The research problem addressed in this study is the lack of characterization of residents who use urban irrigation, which hinders the design of effective behavior change programs. This study examined audience segmentation as an approach to encouraging change using current residential landscape practices. K-means cluster analysis identified three meaningful subgroups among residential landscape irrigation users (N = 1,063): the water considerate majority (n = 479, 45 %), water savvy conservationists (n = 378, 36 %), and unconcerned water users (n = 201, 19 %). An important finding was that normative beliefs, attitudes, and perceived behavioral control characteristics of the subgroups were significantly different with large and medium practical effect sizes. Future water conservation behaviors and perceived importance of water resources were also significantly different among subgroups. The water considerate majority demonstrated capacity to conserve, placed high value on water, and were likely to engage in behavior changes. This article contributes to the literature on individuals who use residential landscape irrigation, an important target audience with potential to conserve water through sustainable irrigation practices and technologies. Findings confirm applicability of the capacity to conserve water to audience segmentation and extend this concept by incorporating perceived value of water resources and likelihood of conservation. The results suggest practical application to promoting residential landscape water conservation behaviors based on important audience characteristics.

  5. Understanding Legacy Features with Featureous

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olszak, Andrzej; Jørgensen, Bo Nørregaard

    2011-01-01

    Feature-centric comprehension of source code is essential during software evolution. However, such comprehension is oftentimes difficult to achieve due the discrepancies between structural and functional units of object-oriented programs. We present a tool for feature-centric analysis of legacy...

  6. Richard Murphy: Autobiography and the Connemara landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Meihuizen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It could be argued that an important feature of Richard Murphy’s work, and of his identity as a poet is the relationship between the creative self and a particular place, where ‘place’ should be understood as referring not just to physical qualities of the natural environment, but in a broader sense to denote an environment in which everything is interrelated and connected, and in which there is no sharp division between the natural and the human. The landscape providing inspiration for Murphy’s poetic imagination is the landscapes and seascapes of Connemara in north-west Ireland. In 1959 he settled in this environment which was to be his base for the next 20 years and from this period and this location emanated the bulk of his poetic oeuvre. For Murphy committing to a life of writing poetry necessarily means being in the Connemara landscape. Returning to this environment in adulthood represents a quest for recovering childhood feelings, of belonging and love, as connected to particular places. Murphy’s Connemara poems could be read as an account of this process of re-placement, as a type of autobiographical text in which the artist creates a ‘double portrait’: in writing about the landscape he also writes about himself, creating a place-portrait which is, at the same time, a self-portrait.

  7. Richard Murphy: Autobiography and the Connemara landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Meihuizen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available It could be argued that an important feature of Richard Murphy’s work, and of his identity as a poet is the relationship between the creative self and a particular place, where ‘place’ should be understood as referring not just to physical qualities of the natural environment, but in a broader sense to denote an environment in which everything is interrelated and connected, and in which there is no sharp division between the natural and the human. The landscape providing inspiration for Murphy’s poetic imagination is the landscapes and seascapes of Connemara in north-west Ireland. In 1959 he settled in this environment which was to be his base for the next 20 years and from this period and this location emanated the bulk of his poetic oeuvre. For Murphy committing to a life of writing poetry necessarily means being in the Connemara landscape. Returning to this environment in adulthood represents a quest for recovering childhood feelings, of belonging and love, as connected to particular places. Murphy’s Connemara poems could be read as an account of this process of re-placement, as a type of autobiographical text in which the artist creates a ‘double portrait’: in writing about the landscape he also writes about himself, creating a place-portrait which is, at the same time, a self-portrait.

  8. Dynamic landscapes in human evolution and dispersal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devès, Maud; King, Geoffrey; Bailey, Geoffrey; Inglis, Robyn; Williams, Matthew; Winder, Isabelle

    2013-04-01

    Archaeological studies of human settlement in its wider landscape setting usually focus on climate change as the principal environmental driver of change in the physical features of the landscape, even on the long time scales of early human evolution. We emphasize that landscapes evolve dynamically due to an interplay of processes occurring over different timescales. Tectonic deformation, volcanism, sea level changes, by acting on the topography, the lithology and on the patterns of erosion-deposition in a given area, can moderate or amplify the influence of climate at the regional and local scale. These processes impose or alleviate physical barriers to movement, and modify the distribution and accessibility of plant and animal resources in ways critical to human ecological and evolutionary success (King and Bailey, JHE 2006; Bailey and King, Antiquity 2011, Winder et al. Antiquity in press). The DISPERSE project, an ERC-funded collaboration between the University of York and the Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, aims to develop systematic methods for reconstructing landscapes associated with active tectonics, volcanism and sea level change at a variety of scales in order to study their potential impact on patterns of human evolution and dispersal. Examples are shown to illustrate the ways in which changes of significance to human settlement can occur at a range of geographical scales and on time scales that range from lifetimes to tens of millennia, creating and sustaining attractive conditions for human settlement and exercising powerful selective pressures on human development.

  9. Post-Retrofit Residential Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lancaster, Ross; lutzenhiser, Loren; Moezzi, Mithra; Widder, Sarah H.; Chandra, Subrato; Baechler, Michael C.

    2012-04-30

    This study examined a range of factors influencing energy consumption in households that had participated in residential energy-efficiency upgrades. The study was funded by a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and was conducted by faculty and staff of Portland State University Center for Urban Studies and Department of Economics. This work was made possible through the assistance and support of the Energy Trust of Oregon (ETO), whose residential energy-efficiency programs provided the population from which the sample cases were drawn. All households in the study had participated in the ETO Home Performance with Energy Star (HPwES) program. A number of these had concurrently pursued measures through other ETO programs. Post-retrofit energy outcomes are rarely investigated on a house-by-house basis. Rather, aggregate changes are ordinarily the focus of program impact evaluations, with deviation from aggregate expectations chalked up to measurement error, the vagaries of weather and idiosyncrasies of occupants. However, understanding how homes perform post-retrofit on an individual basis can give important insights to increase energy savings at the participant and the programmatic level. Taking a more disaggregated approach, this study analyzed energy consumption data from before and after the retrofit activity and made comparisons with engineering estimates for the upgrades, to identify households that performed differently from what may have been expected based on the estimates. A statistical analysis using hierarchal linear models, which accounted for weather variations, was performed looking separately at gas and electrical use during the periods before and after upgrades took place. A more straightforward comparison of billing data for 12-month periods before and after the intervention was also performed, yielding the majority of the cases examined. The later approach allowed total energy use and costs to be

  10. Site Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset consists of various site features from multiple Superfund sites in U.S. EPA Region 8. These data were acquired from multiple sources at different times...

  11. Feature Extraction

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Feature selection and reduction are key to robust multivariate analyses. In this talk I will focus on pros and cons of various variable selection methods and focus on those that are most relevant in the context of HEP.

  12. Solar Features

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of solar feature datasets contributed by a number of national and private solar observatories located worldwide.

  13. A Curious Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This 'postcard' from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows the view of the martian landscape southwest of the rover. The image was taken in the late martian afternoon at Meridiani Planum on Mars, where Opportunity landed at approximately 9:05 p.m. PST on Saturday, Jan. 24.

  14. Qualifying Urban Landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juel Clemmensen, Thomas; Daugaard, Morten; Nielsen, Tom

    This paper is based on a research project aimed at contributing to the qualification of the aesthetical value of the contemporary urban landscape. We see our work as part of a tradition within the architectural profession of making explorative projects, which combines analysis of the contemporary...

  15. Landscape Planning of Schoolyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopeva, A.; Khrapko, O.; Ivanova, O.

    2017-11-01

    The optimal landscape architecture planning of schoolyards allows for creation of favorable conditions for children personal development and physical fitness. The key principles of schoolyard landscape planning, same as for other areas intended for children, are as follows: establishment of a favorable microclimate, safety, aesthetic and educational environment. Green spaces play an essential role in this respect as they are essential to sanitary, hygienic, structural, and spatial planning performing decorative, artistic, cognitive, and educational functions in these areas. Various types of landscape plantings are used in school areas: borders, lawns, beds, vines, ornamental arrangements, and various potted plants. Children’s safety is the key principle when selecting a landscape design type and the plants’ range. Any allergenic, poisonous, thorny, strong-smelling or life-threatening plants are excluded. Plants on school grounds can serve as visual aids for studies. Drought-resistant, attractive, colorful, abundantly blooming plants with variable leaf texture are preferred. Ornamental trees and shrubs as well as perennials and annuals provide a broad plant range for school grounds.

  16. Landscapes. Artists' Workshop Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Penny; Roundhill, Clare

    This instructional resource, designed to be used by and with elementary level students, provides inspiration for landscape painting by presenting the work of six different artists. These include: "Fuji in Clear Weather" (Katsushika Hokusai, 1823-29); "The Tree of Life" (Gustav Klimt, c. 1905-1909); "The Waterlily…

  17. The Anti-Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    There have always been some uninhabitable places, but in the last century human beings have produced many more of them. These anti-landscapes have proliferated to include the sandy wastes of what was once the Aral Sea, severely polluted irrigated lands, open pit mines, blighted nuclear zones, coa...

  18. Firewise Landscaping for Woodland Homes

    OpenAIRE

    Close, David

    2015-01-01

    A home in a woodland setting is surrounded by flammable vegetation. Firewise landscaping can help you create a defensible space or buffer zone around your home. This publication details landscaping zones which should be used when planning for fire protections and rates common landscaping plants by flammability.

  19. Dynamic Changes of Landscape Pattern and Vulnerability Analysis in Qingyi River Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ziwei; Xie, Chaoying; He, Xiaohui; Guo, Hengliang; Wang, Li

    2017-11-01

    Environmental vulnerability research is one of the core areas of global environmental change research. Over the past 10 years, ecologically fragile zones or transition zones had been significantly affected by environmental degradation and climate change and human activities. In this paper, we analyzed the spatial and temporal changes of landscape pattern and landscape vulnerability degree in Qingyi River Basin by calculating the landscape sensitivity index and landscape restoration degree index based on Landsat images of 2005, 2010 and 2015. The results showed that: (1) The top conversion area was farmland, woodland and grassland area decreased, city land and rural residential land increased fastest. (2) The fragility of the landscape pattern along the Qingyi River gradually increased between 2005 and 2015, the downstream area was influenced by the influence of human activities. (3) Landscape pattern changes and fragility are mainly affected by urbanization. These findings are helpful for understanding the evolution of landscape pattern as well as urban ecology, which both have significant implications for urban planning and minimize the potential environmental impacts of urbanization in Qingyi River Basin.

  20. Residentialization of Public Spaces: Bratislava Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacová, Andrea; Puškár, Branislav; Vráblová, Edita

    2017-10-01

    The housing estates in Bratislava saturated the housing needs of a large number of inhabitants who come after World War II to the city. Design of public spaces often did not have priority in the process of designing. The solutions for mentioned exterior spaces had been planned after blocks of flat realization, but many of them are not realized to this day. The article analyzes the example of the unrealized public spaces in existing housing estates Devinska Nova Ves and Petržalka (city districts of Bratislava) and offer practical solutions in relation to residencialization method. Residencialization of missing public places is an effective method of adding identities to settlements. It improves the quality of residential environment and public spaces. The main aim is to create better conditions for social activities in public areas, which are missing on the present. The research will be focused on the examination of the urban, cultural and construction potential of the existing residential enviroment in Bratislava. The main aim of residentialization is not only to enhance the quality of spatial and building structures in the selected residential area and maintain long-term sustainability in the pertinent programme area, but mainly to improve the quality of living for the residents. The outputs of the project are proposals and practical procedures developed with regard to planning documents for local municipal authorities and regional organizations. The solutions will have a positive impact on the enhancement of the quality of public spaces, attractive social activities and of a conceptual link - residentialization.

  1. Integrated Management of Residential Energy Resources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antunes C. H.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The increasing deployment of distributed generation systems based on renewables in the residential sector, the development of information and communication technologies and the expected evolution of traditional power systems towards smart grids are inducing changes in the passive role of end-users, namely with stimuli to change residential demand patterns. The residential user should be able to make decisions and efficiently manage his energy resources by taking advantages from his flexibility in load usage with the aim to minimize the electricity bill without depreciating the quality of energy services provided. The aim of this paper is characterizing electricity consumption in the residential sector and categorizing the different loads according to their typical usage, working cycles, technical constraints and possible degree of control. This categorization of end-use loads contributes to ascertain the availability of controllable loads to be managed as well as the different direct management actions that can be implemented. The ability to implement different management actions over diverse end-use load will increase the responsiveness of demand and potentially raises the willingness of end-users to accept such activities. The impacts on the aggregated national demand of large-scale dissemination of management systems that would help the end-user to make decisions regarding electricity consumption are predicted using a simulator that generates the aggregated residential sector electricity consumption under variable prices.

  2. Circuit theory and model-based inference for landscape connectivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, Ephraim M.; Hooten, Mevin B.

    2013-01-01

    Circuit theory has seen extensive recent use in the field of ecology, where it is often applied to study functional connectivity. The landscape is typically represented by a network of nodes and resistors, with the resistance between nodes a function of landscape characteristics. The effective distance between two locations on a landscape is represented by the resistance distance between the nodes in the network. Circuit theory has been applied to many other scientific fields for exploratory analyses, but parametric models for circuits are not common in the scientific literature. To model circuits explicitly, we demonstrate a link between Gaussian Markov random fields and contemporary circuit theory using a covariance structure that induces the necessary resistance distance. This provides a parametric model for second-order observations from such a system. In the landscape ecology setting, the proposed model provides a simple framework where inference can be obtained for effects that landscape features have on functional connectivity. We illustrate the approach through a landscape genetics study linking gene flow in alpine chamois (Rupicapra rupicapra) to the underlying landscape.

  3. Market influence on the low carbon energy refurbishment of existing multi-residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, Jonathan G.B.; Jackson, Tim; Mullings-Smith, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between the energy market; the political and regulatory context; and energy design decisions for existing multi-residential buildings, to determine what form the energy market landscape would take if tailored to encourage low carbon solutions. The links between market dynamics, Government strategies, and building designs are mapped to understand the steps that achieve carbon reduction from building operation. This is achieved using a model that takes financial and energy components with market and design variables to provide net present cost and annual carbon outputs. The financial component applies discounted cash flow analysis over the building lifespan, with discount rates reflecting contractual characteristics; the carbon component uses Standard Assessment Procedure (SAP) 2005. A scenario approach is adopted to test alternative strategies selected to encourage low carbon solutions in two residential and two office designs. The results show that the forward assumption of energy price escalation is the most influential factor on energy investment, together with the expected differentiation between the escalation of gas and electricity prices. Using this, and other influencing factors, the research reveals trends and strategies that will achieve mainstream application of energy efficiency and microgeneration technologies, and reduce carbon emissions in the existing multi-residential sector.

  4. [Effects of green space vegetation canopy pattern on the microclimate in residential quarters of Shenzhen City].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying-Han; Wang, Jun-Jian; Chen, Xue; Sun, Jian-Lin; Zeng, Hui

    2011-02-01

    Based on field survey and landscape pattern analysis, this paper studied the effects of green space vegetation canopy on the microclimate in three typical residential quarters in Shenzhen City. In each of the residential quarters, 22-26 points were chosen for meteorological observation; and around each of the observation points, a 20 m x 20 m quadrat was installed, with each quadrat divided into two different patches, one covered by vegetation canopy and the another no-covered. The patch density index (D(p)) and contagion index (CONTAG) in each quadrat were calculated to analyze the relationships between vegetation canopy pattern index and microclimate in each point. The results showed that the green space vegetation canopy pattern in Shenzhen had significant regulation effect on temperature and humidity. The cooling effect was mainly from the shading effect of vegetation, and also, correlated with vegetation quantity. The increase in the CONTAG of bare surface had obvious negative effects on the regulation effect of vegetation on microclimate. The regulation capability of green space vegetation on the temperature and humidity in residential quarters mainly came from tall arbor species.

  5. Manufactured Residential Utility Wall System (ResCore),

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, Robert [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Lundell, Clark; Lau, Tin Man [Auburn Univ., AL (United States)

    1997-12-31

    This paper describes the design and development of a manufactured residential utility wall system referred to as ResCore. ResCore is a self contained, manufactured, residential utility wall that provides complete rough-in of utilities (power, gas, water, and phone) and other functions (exhaust, combustion make-up air, refrigerant lines, etc.) to serve the kitchen, bath, utility, and laundry rooms. Auburn University, Department of Industrial Design faculty, students, supported by a team of graduate student researchers and the project`s advisory team, developed the ResCore. The project was accomplished through a research subcontract from the U.S. Department of Energy administered by the Oak Ridge National Laboratory. The ResCore wall system features a layered manufacturing technique that allows each major component group: structural, cold water, hot water, drain, gas, electric, etc. to be built as a separate subassembly and easily brought together for final assembly. The two structural layers are reinforced with bridging that adds strength and also permits firm attachment of plumbing pipes and other systems to the wall frame.

  6. Landscape evaluation in industrial areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luud, A.; Liblik, V.; Sepp, M.

    2003-01-01

    In the North-East of Estonia, the landscape is contrasting: different natural and man-made landforms exist together. In this area, oil shale mining and processing have essentially changed the landscape, and as a result, different man-made industrial landscape forms have come into being. The attitude of local inhabitants towards the heritage of oil shale industry has been traditionally negative. Nevertheless, the artificial 'mountainous' and 'hilly' relief offers also a positive effect, having some expressive image in the background of the natural plain landscape forms. For protection of cultural landscapes from damages, 32 landscapes that are more valuable were selected, whereat the historical, cultural, natural, recreational, aesthetic, scientific, etc. factors were taken into account. In the future the status of industrial landscapes needs a more exact defining,and special means must be worked out to protect and manage those valuable cultural areas. (author)

  7. Continental-scale quantification of landscape values using social media data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zanten, Boris T; Van Berkel, Derek B; Meentemeyer, Ross K; Smith, Jordan W; Tieskens, Koen F; Verburg, Peter H

    2016-11-15

    Individuals, communities, and societies ascribe a diverse array of values to landscapes. These values are shaped by the aesthetic, cultural, and recreational benefits and services provided by those landscapes. However, across the globe, processes such as urbanization, agricultural intensification, and abandonment are threatening landscape integrity, altering the personally meaningful connections people have toward specific places. Existing methods used to study landscape values, such as social surveys, are poorly suited to capture dynamic landscape-scale processes across large geographic extents. Social media data, by comparison, can be used to indirectly measure and identify valuable features of landscapes at a regional, continental, and perhaps even worldwide scale. We evaluate the usefulness of different social media platforms-Panoramio, Flickr, and Instagram-and quantify landscape values at a continental scale. We find Panoramio, Flickr, and Instagram data can be used to quantify landscape values, with features of Instagram being especially suitable due to its relatively large population of users and its functional ability of allowing users to attach personally meaningful comments and hashtags to their uploaded images. Although Panoramio, Flickr, and Instagram have different user profiles, our analysis revealed similar patterns of landscape values across Europe across the three platforms. We also found variables describing accessibility, population density, income, mountainous terrain, or proximity to water explained a significant portion of observed variation across data from the different platforms. Social media data can be used to extend our understanding of how and where individuals ascribe value to landscapes across diverse social, political, and ecological boundaries.

  8. Landscape determinants of fine-scale genetic structure of a small rodent in a heterogeneous landscape (Hluhluwe-iMfolozi Park, South Africa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Isa-Rita M; Sole, Catherine L; Barbato, Mario; von Bramann, Ullrich; Bruford, Michael W

    2016-07-13

    Small mammals provide ecosystem services, acting, for example, as pollinators and seed dispersers. In addition, they are also disease reservoirs that can be detrimental to human health and they can also act as crop pests. Knowledge of their dispersal preferences is therefore useful for population management and landscape planning. Genetic data were used alongside landscape data to examine the influence of the landscape on the demographic connectedness of the Natal multimammate mouse (Mastomys natalensis) and to identify landscape characteristics that influence the genetic structure of this species across a spatially and temporally varying environment. The most significant landscape features shaping gene flow were aspect, vegetation cover, topographic complexity (TC) and rivers, with western facing slopes, topographic complexity and rivers restricting gene flow. In general, thicket vegetation was correlated with increased gene flow. Identifying features of the landscape that facilitate movement/dispersal in M. natalensis potentially has application for other small mammals in similar ecosystems. As the primary reservoir host of the zoonotic Lassa virus, a landscape genetics approach may have applications in determining areas of high disease risk to humans. Identifying these landscape features may also be important in crop management due to damage by rodent pests.

  9. Estimation of energy efficiency of residential buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glushkov Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing energy performance of the residential buildings by means of reducing heat consumption on the heating and ventilation is the last segment in the system of energy resources saving. The first segments in the energy saving process are heat producing and transportation over the main lines and outside distribution networks. In the period from 2006 to 2013. by means of the heat-supply schemes optimization and modernization of the heating systems. using expensive (200–300 $US per 1 m though hugely effective preliminary coated pipes. the economy reached 2.7 mln tons of fuel equivalent. Considering the multi-stage and multifactorial nature (electricity. heat and water supply of the residential sector energy saving. the reasonable estimate of the efficiency of the saving of residential buildings energy should be performed in tons of fuel equivalent per unit of time.

  10. Gentrification and Residential Mobility in Philadelphia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lei; Hwang, Jackelyn; Divringi, Eileen

    2016-11-01

    Gentrification has provoked considerable controversy surrounding its effects on residential displacement. Using a unique individual-level, longitudinal data set, this study examines mobility rates and residential destinations of residents in gentrifying neighborhoods during the recent housing boom and bust in Philadelphia for various strata of residents and different types of gentrification. We find that vulnerable residents, those with low credit scores and without mortgages, are generally no more likely to move from gentrifying neighborhoods compared with their counterparts in nongentrifying neighborhoods. When they do move, however, they are more likely to move to lower-income neighborhoods. Residents in gentrifying neighborhoods at the aggregate level have slightly higher mobility rates, but these rates are largely driven by more advantaged residents. These findings shed new light on the heterogeneity in mobility patterns across residents in gentrifying neighborhoods and suggest that researchers should focus more attention on the quality of residential moves and nonmoves for less advantaged residents, rather than mobility rates alone.

  11. Therapeutic Residential Care for Children and Youth:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whittaker, James K.; Holmes, Lisa; del Valle, Jorge F.

    2016-01-01

    for Child and Family Research, Loughborough University in the U.K. for a Summit meeting on therapeutic residential care for children and youth funded by the Sir Halley Stewart Trust (UK). The focus centered on what is known about therapeutic residential care and what key questions should inform a priority......In many developed countries around the world, ‘group care’ interventions for children and adolescents have come under increasing scrutiny from central government, private philanthropic and child advocacy agencies desirous of (1) achieving better outcomes for vulnerable children and youth; (2) doing...... alternatives to serve high-resource needing youth has had unintended and negative consequences. It is within this context that a working group international experts representing research, policy, service delivery and families (International Work Group for Therapeutic Residential Care) convened at the Centre...

  12. Solar Photovoltaic Financing: Residential Sector Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, J.; Cory, K.

    2009-03-01

    This report presents the information that homeowners and policy makers need to facilitate PV financing at the residential level. The full range of cash payments, bill savings, and tax incentives is covered, as well as potentially available solar attribute payments. Traditional financing is also compared to innovative solutions, many of which are borrowed from the commercial sector. Together, these mechanisms are critical for making the economic case for a residential PV installation, given its high upfront costs. Unfortunately, these programs are presently limited to select locations around the country. By calling attention to these innovative initiatives, this report aims to help policy makers consider greater adoption of these models to benefit homeowners interested installing a residential PV system.

  13. Energy savings in Danish residential building stock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    2006-01-01

    a short account of the technical energy-saving possibilities that are present in existing dwellings and presents a financial methodology used for assessing energy-saving measures. In order to estimate the total savings potential detailed calculations have been performed in a case with two typical...... buildings representing the residential building stock and based on these calculations an assessment of the energy-saving potential is performed. A profitable savings potential of energy used for space heating of about 80% is identified over 45 years (until 2050) within the residential building stock......A large potential for energy savings exists in the Danish residential building stock due to the fact that 75% of the buildings were constructed before 1979 when the first important demands for energy performance of building were introduced. It is also a fact that many buildings in Denmark face...

  14. The influence of landscape variation on landform categorization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia Williams

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper compares the landform vocabularies of residents from two regions in Portugal. Participants described both their own and the other, less familiar landscapes in response to video footage of the regions. The results indicate that participants used more detailed vocabularies to describe the known landscape compared to the less familiar study site, with detail triggered by individual place recognition. A relationship between landform lexica content and landscape type was observed in the relative placement of detail within each vocabulary. The observed drivers of categorization were the salient features of the landscape (elevation and land cover and utilitarian motivations (land use, context, and familiarity. The results offer support to the notion of non-universality in geographic object categorization.

  15. Modelling and forecasting Turkish residential electricity demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dilaver, Zafer; Hunt, Lester C

    2011-01-01

    This research investigates the relationship between Turkish residential electricity consumption, household total final consumption expenditure and residential electricity prices by applying the structural time series model to annual data over the period from 1960 to 2008. Household total final consumption expenditure, real energy prices and an underlying energy demand trend are found to be important drivers of Turkish residential electricity demand with the estimated short run and the long run total final consumption expenditure elasticities being 0.38 and 1.57, respectively, and the estimated short run and long run price elasticities being -0.09 and -0.38, respectively. Moreover, the estimated underlying energy demand trend, (which, as far as is known, has not been investigated before for the Turkish residential sector) should be of some benefit to Turkish decision makers in terms of energy planning. It provides information about the impact of past policies, the influence of technical progress, the impacts of changes in consumer behaviour and the effects of changes in economic structure. Furthermore, based on the estimated equation, and different forecast assumptions, it is predicted that Turkish residential electricity demand will be somewhere between 48 and 80 TWh by 2020 compared to 40 TWh in 2008. - Research highlights: → Estimated short run and long run expenditure elasticities of 0.38 and 1.57, respectively. → Estimated short run and long run price elasticities of -0.09 and -0.38, respectively. → Estimated UEDT has increasing (i.e. energy using) and decreasing (i.e. energy saving) periods. → Predicted Turkish residential electricity demand between 48 and 80 TWh in 2020.

  16. Unidirectionality Between Borderline Personality Disorder Traits and Psychopathology in a Residential Addictions Sample: A Short-Term Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webber, Troy A; Kiselica, Andrew M; Arango, Alejandra; Rojas, Elizabeth; Neale, Michael C; Bornovalova, Marina A

    2015-12-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a barrier to treatment, yet the relationship between BPD features and other psychopathology symptoms in residential addictions treatment samples is understudied. Using a sample of adults enrolled in a residential drug treatment facility measured at baseline and 2-3 month follow-up, the authors examined the prospective relationship between BPD features and five indices of psychopathology: depression, anxiety, interpersonal sensitivity, hostility, and psychoticism, as well as psychopathology global severity. There was no effect of time on any of the forms of psychopathology, but females reported higher levels of BPD features, anxiety symptoms, and interpersonal sensitivity than males. A series of latent change score models indicated that BPD features predicted increases in all psychopathology scales at follow-up, while the reverse was not true. These results suggest that targeting BPD features in residents of drug treatment facilities may reduce the emergence of new psychopathology in the short term.

  17. Ecological Functions of Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiryushin, V. I.

    2018-01-01

    Ecological functions of landscapes are considered a system of processes ensuring the development, preservation, and evolution of ecosystems and the biosphere as a whole. The concept of biogeocenosis can be considered a model that integrates biotic and environmental functions. The most general biogeocenotic functions specify the biodiversity, biotic links, self-organization, and evolution of ecosystems. Close interaction between biocenosis and the biotope (ecotope) is ensured by the continuous exchange of matter, energy, and information. Ecotope determines the biocenosis. The group of ecotopic functions includes atmospheric (gas exchange, heat exchange, hydroatmospheric, climate-forming), lithospheric (geodynamic, geophysical, and geochemical), hydrologic and hydrogeologic functions of landscape and ecotopic functions of soils. Bioecological functions emerge as a result of the biotope and ecotope interaction; these are the bioproductive, destructive, organoaccumulative, biochemical (gas, concentration, redox, biochemical, biopedological), pedogenetic, and energy functions

  18. Landscapes of the Anthropocene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pawson, Eric; Christensen, Andreas Aagaard

    2014-01-01

    ‘gargantuan agency’ and ‘almost unbearable level of responsibility’ in the Anthropocene (2009, 321)? It concludes with a discussion of the concept of ‘middle landscapes’ as one means by which the planetary dominion of humanity might be tempered with a realization of its dependence on terrestrial ecosystems......The purpose of this chapter is to explore the dramatic increase in the power of human agency over the environment through an analysis of landscape change. It discusses the processes that have shaped new landscapes in the capitalist world before focusing on one place that is characteristic...... of the shifting balance of ecological agency in favour of humans during the Anthropocene. Banks Peninsula on the east coast of New Zealand’s South Island was first settled by Polynesian peoples within the last few hundred years. The nature of their footprint contrasts with the dramatic change wrought by Europeans...

  19. Landscape as World Picture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wamberg, Jacob

    This book presents a new and comprehensive theory concerning the manner in which landscapes in Western pictorial art may be interpreted in relation to the cultures that created them. Its point of departure is a hitherto unexplored developmental pattern that characterises landscape representation...... from Palaeolithic cave paintings through to 19th-century modernity. A structuralist comparison between this pattern and three additional fields of analysis - self-consciousness, socially-determined perception of nature, and world picture - reveals a fascinating insight into culture's macrohistorical...... organisation. Controversially, this book argues that culture at a certain level of observation is marked by a directional evolution. In Volume I the author traces the pictorial depth of field from its Palaeolithic beginnings, in which only separate bodies are portrayed, and on to antiquity and the Middle Ages...

  20. Landscape & Imagination: riflettere insieme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariella Zoppi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In Paris, at La Villette University, was four-days of debate on 2-4 Mai 2013, in which faculty members of all the world discussed on methods and experiences in teaching landscape. The conference was organized in multiple sessions: history, theories, representation, process, science and governance. All the fields discussed were related to the main problem of the identity of territories in the landscape project -from the theories to the practices- and applied in a very large range of different situations: from the rural world between conservation and transformations to the coastal areas under the pressure of tourism, from the ecology in the city life renovation to the land use control and project by community and the emergency management in natural catastrophes.

  1. Use of Electronic Health Records in Residential Care Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the National Technical Information Service NCHS Use of Electronic Health Records in Residential Care Communities Recommend on ... Facilities Most residential care communities did not use electronic health records in 2010, and use varied by ...

  2. PRN 2011-1: Residential Exposure Joint Venture

    Science.gov (United States)

    This PR Notice is to advise registrants of an industry-wide joint venture, titled the Residential Exposure Joint Venture (REJV), which has developed a national survey regarding residential consumer use/usage data for pesticides.

  3. Associations of grassland birds with landscape factors in southern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribic, C.A.; Sample, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    We investigated the association of grassland birds with field- and landscape-level habitat variables in south-central Wisconsin during 1985-1987. Landscape-level variables were measured and digitized at 200, 400 and 800 m from the perimeter of 38 200 m ?? 100 m strip transects. A mixture of field and landscape variables was associated with the density of savannah sparrow (Passerculus sandwichensis) and grasshopper sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum). Only landscape variables were associated with the density of bobolink (Dolichonyx oryzivorus), eastern meadowlark (Sturnella magna) and all birds that were grassland species of management concern. Field size was not an important predictor of bird density. Cover-type diversity of the surrounding area was commonly selected in the models for three species and all birds that were grassland species of management concern. Higher bird densities in the transects were associated with landscapes where the cover types were less diverse. Landscapes with low cover type diversity were dominated by grassland, pasture and hay. Field habitat, mean patch size of cover types and distance to woody vegetation were the next most common predictors of avian density. The density of some grassland birds increased as nonlinear woody features such as woodlots and shrub carrs decreased in patch size, decreased in total amount in the landscape and increased in distance from a transect. However, density of other species was positively associated with linear woody features such as the total amount and nearness of hedgerows. The composition of the surrounding landscape, at least out to 800 m, is important in grassland bird management.

  4. The Availability of Residential Real Estate Increasing by Means of State Compensation of Prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitaly Viktorovich Ivanitskiy

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The article analyzes the influence of natural monopolies on the value of residential property, discusses the basic energy resources affecting it. Oil is defined as the main energy resource, its main brands, and their features are considered. The different authors’ perspectives of the impact of oil prices on the real estate prices are considered (“no effect”, “direct effect” and “indirect effect”. Schemes (models, clearly demonstrating the cause-and-effect relations of the impact of prices of the main energy resources on each other and on the value of residential property, are provided. The stability of relations between the prices of the major energy recourses (between each other as well as between each resource and real estate prices and residential property prices in the primary market are analyzed. The interval of “crisis” and “crisis-free” time is defined. The impact of the energy in “crisis” and “crisis-free” time is analyzed. The impact of oil prices on the residential property prices is proved through the cement as the main price-determining element in the construction. The introduction of the state target compensation allowing to increase the availability of residential property is proposed as one of the elements of a comprehensive solution of the “housing question”. The size of the state target compensation in absolute (in rubles and relative (% prices for residential real estate values is determined, taking into account the sufficient reproduction of the population, and restrictions on the right to use it are introduced. The total value of the state target compensation per total number of homebuyers is calculated, and its share in the expenditures of the consolidated budget and budgets of state extra-budgetary funds is determined. The realization of the state target compensation based on an average annual growth among the major countries of the world is grounded.

  5. Data anonymization patent landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Mirjana Pejić Bach; Jasmina Pivar; Ksenija Dumičić

    2017-01-01

    The omnipresent, unstoppable increase in digital data has led to a greater understanding of the importance of data privacy. Different approaches are used to implement data privacy. The goal of this paper is to develop a data anonymization patent landscape, by determining the following: (i) the trend in data anonymization patenting, (ii) the type of technical content protected in data anonymization, (iii) the organizations and countries most active in patenting data anonymization know-how; and...

  6. Patent Landscape for Nanotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Alexey Streletskiy; Vladimir Zabavnikov; Emil Aslanov; Dmitriy Kotlov

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the methodological aspects of nanotechnology patent landscaping. The authors suggest that nanotechnologies take precedence over other technological trends, an assertion that is confirmed by current assessments and forecasts regarding the size of the nanotechnology product market. In this paper the authors analyse patent activity within the Russian Federation and globally by building a patent map of nanotechnology and the associated field of metallurgy. Using this as a ...

  7. The European University Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Daraio, Cinzia; Bonaccorsi, Andrea; Geuna, Aldo

    2011-01-01

    This paper provides a new and systematic characterization of 488 universities, from 11 European countries: Finland, France, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Netherlands, Norway, Portugal, Spain, Switzerland and UK. Using micro indicators built on the integrated Aquameth database, we characterize the Euro...... the European university landscape according to the following dimensions: history/foundation of university, dynamics of growth, specialization pattern, subject mix, funding composition, offer profile and productivity....

  8. Fitness landscapes and evolution

    OpenAIRE

    Peliti, Luca

    1995-01-01

    The concept of fitness is introduced, and a simple derivation of the Fundamental Theorem of Natural Selection (which states that the average fitness of a population increases if its variance is nonzero) is given. After a short discussion of the adaptative walk model, a short review is given of the quasispecies approach to molecular evolution and to the error threshold. The relevance of flat fitness landscapes to molecular evolution is stressed. Finally a few examples which involve wider conce...

  9. Specific features of modern multifunctional high-rise building construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manukhina, Lyubov; Samosudova, Natal'ja

    2018-03-01

    The article analyzes the main reasons for the development of high-rise building construction the most important of which-is a limitation of the urban areas and, consequently, the high price of land reserved for construction. New engineering and compositional solutions for the creation of new types of buildings are considered - complex technical designs of a large number of storeys completely meet the new requirements for safety and comfort. Some peculiarities of designing high-rise buildings and searching for optimal architectural and planning solutions are revealed since, with external architectural simplicity, high-rise buildings have complex structural and technological and space-planning solutions. We consider the specific features of a high-rise housing in various countries around the world, including Russia, such as the layout of the multi-storey residential buildings, depending on the climatic characteristics of the regions, assessment of the geological risk of the construction site, the choice of parameters and functional purpose of the sections of the territory of high-rise construction, location of the town-planning object for substantiating the overall dimensions of the building, assessment of changes aeration and engineering and hydrological conditions of the site. A special place in the article on the problems of improvement of the territory, the device of courtyards, landscaping, the device of playing and sports grounds. The main conclusion in the article is the following problem - when developing high-rise housing construction, the development of high-rise housing, and an increase in the population density in the territory of large cities of Russia, necessary to create a comfortable and safe level of residents living and not a decrease, but an improvement in the quality of the urban environment.

  10. Analysis of Employment Flow of Landscape Architecture Graduates in Agricultural Universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Xia; He, Linchun

    2012-01-01

    A statistical analysis of employment flow of landscape architecture graduates was conducted on the employment data of graduates major in landscape architecture in 2008 to 2011. The employment flow of graduates was to be admitted to graduate students, industrial direction and regional distribution, etc. Then, the features of talent flow and factors…

  11. Why replication is important in landscape genetics: American black bear in the Rocky Mountains

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. A. Short Bull; Samuel Cushman; R. Mace; T. Chilton; K. C. Kendall; E. L. Landguth; Michael Schwartz; Kevin McKelvey; Fred W. Allendorf; G. Luikart

    2011-01-01

    We investigated how landscape features influence gene flow of black bears by testing the relative support for 36 alternative landscape resistance hypotheses, including isolation by distance (IBD) in each of 12 study areas in the north central U.S. Rocky Mountains. The study areas all contained the same basic elements, but differed in extent of forest fragmentation,...

  12. Integrating concepts of landscape ecology with the molecular biology of forest pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    John E. Lundquist; Ned B. Klopfenstein

    2001-01-01

    Increasingly more research has focused on characterizing diversity within forest pathogen populations using molecular markers but few studies have characterized features of the landscape that help create or maintain this diversity. Forest diseases commonly occur in patchy distributions across natural landscapes which can be reflected in the genetic composition of the...

  13. Recent developments in computer modeling add ecological realism to landscape genetics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background / Question / Methods A factor limiting the rate of progress in landscape genetics has been the shortage of spatial models capable of linking life history attributes such as dispersal behavior to complex dynamic landscape features. The recent development of new models...

  14. Pedo-environmental evolution and agricultural landscape transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Livia Vittori Antisari

    2009-10-01

    different ecosystems are now “imposed” through investments and the use of considerable energy resources, where little account is taken of the actual sustainability of soil use or the progressive loss of natural fertility; moreover, the rural landscape, by virtue of an increasingly intense and localised single-crop specialisation, has become organised into areas displaying a uniform, regular and often monotonous appearance. However, the greatest source of worry lies in the progressive consumption of soil, which particularly affects flatlands and low hills. This phenomenon is tied not only to the relentless expansion of developed areas, but also to an irrational distribution of residential, industrial and commercial property, resulting in the segmentation and fragmentation of farmland. An irreversible trend that risks destroying the already fragile identity of the rural landscape completely.

  15. Modeling Residential Electricity Consumption Function in Malaysia: Time Series Approach

    OpenAIRE

    L. L. Ivy-Yap; H. A. Bekhet

    2014-01-01

    As the Malaysian residential electricity consumption continued to increase rapidly, effective energy policies, which address factors affecting residential electricity consumption, is urgently needed. This study attempts to investigate the relationship between residential electricity consumption (EC), real disposable income (Y), price of electricity (Pe) and population (Po) in Malaysia for 1978-2011 period. Unlike previous studies on Malaysia, the current study focuses on the residential secto...

  16. Optimization of landscape services under uncoordinated management by multiple landowners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porto, Miguel; Correia, Otília; Beja, Pedro

    2014-01-01

    Landscapes are often patchworks of private properties, where composition and configuration patterns result from cumulative effects of the actions of multiple landowners. Securing the delivery of services in such multi-ownership landscapes is challenging, because it is difficult to assure tight compliance to spatially explicit management rules at the level of individual properties, which may hinder the conservation of critical landscape features. To deal with these constraints, a multi-objective simulation-optimization procedure was developed to select non-spatial management regimes that best meet landscape-level objectives, while accounting for uncoordinated and uncertain response of individual landowners to management rules. Optimization approximates the non-dominated Pareto frontier, combining a multi-objective genetic algorithm and a simulator that forecasts trends in landscape pattern as a function of management rules implemented annually by individual landowners. The procedure was demonstrated with a case study for the optimum scheduling of fuel treatments in cork oak forest landscapes, involving six objectives related to reducing management costs (1), reducing fire risk (3), and protecting biodiversity associated with mid- and late-successional understories (2). There was a trade-off between cost, fire risk and biodiversity objectives, that could be minimized by selecting management regimes involving ca. 60% of landowners clearing the understory at short intervals (around 5 years), and the remaining managing at long intervals (ca. 75 years) or not managing. The optimal management regimes produces a mosaic landscape dominated by stands with herbaceous and low shrub understories, but also with a satisfactory representation of old understories, that was favorable in terms of both fire risk and biodiversity. The simulation-optimization procedure presented can be extended to incorporate a wide range of landscape dynamic processes, management rules and quantifiable

  17. Optimization of landscape services under uncoordinated management by multiple landowners.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Porto

    Full Text Available Landscapes are often patchworks of private properties, where composition and configuration patterns result from cumulative effects of the actions of multiple landowners. Securing the delivery of services in such multi-ownership landscapes is challenging, because it is difficult to assure tight compliance to spatially explicit management rules at the level of individual properties, which may hinder the conservation of critical landscape features. To deal with these constraints, a multi-objective simulation-optimization procedure was developed to select non-spatial management regimes that best meet landscape-level objectives, while accounting for uncoordinated and uncertain response of individual landowners to management rules. Optimization approximates the non-dominated Pareto frontier, combining a multi-objective genetic algorithm and a simulator that forecasts trends in landscape pattern as a function of management rules implemented annually by individual landowners. The procedure was demonstrated with a case study for the optimum scheduling of fuel treatments in cork oak forest landscapes, involving six objectives related to reducing management costs (1, reducing fire risk (3, and protecting biodiversity associated with mid- and late-successional understories (2. There was a trade-off between cost, fire risk and biodiversity objectives, that could be minimized by selecting management regimes involving ca. 60% of landowners clearing the understory at short intervals (around 5 years, and the remaining managing at long intervals (ca. 75 years or not managing. The optimal management regimes produces a mosaic landscape dominated by stands with herbaceous and low shrub understories, but also with a satisfactory representation of old understories, that was favorable in terms of both fire risk and biodiversity. The simulation-optimization procedure presented can be extended to incorporate a wide range of landscape dynamic processes, management rules

  18. Landslides and Landscape Evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Densmore, A. L.; Hovius, N.

    2017-12-01

    Landslides have long been recognised as a major hazard, and are a common product of both large earthquakes and rainstorms. Our appreciation for landslides as agents of erosion and land surface evolution, however, is much more recent. Only in the last twenty years have we come to understand the critical role that landslides play at the landscape scale: in allowing hillslopes to keep pace with fluvial incision, in supplying sediment to channel networks and sedimentary basins, in divide migration, and in setting the basic structure of the landscape. This perspective has been made possible in part by repeat remote sensing and new ways of visualising the land surface, and by extending our understanding of failure processes to the landscape scale; but it is also true that the big jumps in our knowledge have been triggered by large events, such as the 1999 Chi-Chi and 2008 Wenchuan earthquakes. Thanks in part to a relative handful of such case studies, we now have a better idea of the spatial distribution of landslides that are triggered in large events, the volume of sediment that they mobilise, the time scales over which that sediment is mobilised and evacuated, and the overall volume balance between erosion and tectonic processes in the growth of mountainous topography. There remain, however, some major challenges that must still be overcome. Estimates of landslide volume remain highly uncertain, as does our ability to predict the evolution of hillslope propensity to failure after a major triggering event, the movement of landslide sediment (especially the coarse fraction that is transported as bedload), and the impact of landslides on both long-term erosion rates and tectonic processes. The limited range of case studies also means that we struggle to predict outcomes for triggering events in different geological settings, such as loess landscapes or massive lithologies. And the perspective afforded by taking a landscape-scale view has yet to be fully reflected in our

  19. Incorporating Bioenergy in Sustainable Landscape Designs Workshop Two: Agricultural Landscapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    The Bioenergy Technologies Office hosted two workshops on Incorporating Bioenergy in Sustainable Landscape Designs with Oak Ridge and Argonne National Laboratories in 2014. The second workshop focused on agricultural landscapes and took place in Argonne, IL from June 24—26, 2014. The workshop brought together experts to discuss how landscape design can contribute to the deployment and assessment of sustainable bioenergy. This report summarizes the discussions that occurred at this particular workshop.

  20. Residential Group Care Quarterly. Volume 5, Number 3, Winter 2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Jennifer, Ed.

    2005-01-01

    This issue of "Residential Group Care Quarterly" contains the following articles: (1) "Promising Practices for Adequately Funding and Reimbursing Residential Services" (Lloyd Bullard); (2) "Closing the Gender Gap" (Erin Andersen); (3) "Residential Child Care: Guidelines for Physical Techniques, Crisis Prevention, and Management" (Kurk Lalemand);…

  1. Family events and the residential mobility of couples

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielin, F.; Mulder, C.H.

    2008-01-01

    Using data from retrospective surveys carried out in the Netherlands during the early 1990s, we describe how the residential mobility of couples—that is, short-distance moves—is affected by family events and how fertility is affected by residential mobility. The results show that residential moves

  2. Understanding Patchy Landscape Dynamics: Towards a Landscape Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaucherel, Cédric; Boudon, Frédéric; Houet, Thomas; Castets, Mathieu; Godin, Christophe

    2012-01-01

    Patchy landscapes driven by human decisions and/or natural forces are still a challenge to be understood and modelled. No attempt has been made up to now to describe them by a coherent framework and to formalize landscape changing rules. Overcoming this lacuna was our first objective here, and this was largely based on the notion of Rewriting Systems, also called Formal Grammars. We used complicated scenarios of agricultural dynamics to model landscapes and to write their corresponding driving rule equations. Our second objective was to illustrate the relevance of this landscape language concept for landscape modelling through various grassland managements, with the final aim to assess their respective impacts on biological conservation. For this purpose, we made the assumptions that a higher grassland appearance frequency and higher land cover connectivity are favourable to species conservation. Ecological results revealed that dairy and beef livestock production systems are more favourable to wild species than is hog farming, although in different ways. Methodological results allowed us to efficiently model and formalize these landscape dynamics. This study demonstrates the applicability of the Rewriting System framework to the modelling of agricultural landscapes and, hopefully, to other patchy landscapes. The newly defined grammar is able to explain changes that are neither necessarily local nor Markovian, and opens a way to analytical modelling of landscape dynamics. PMID:23049935

  3. European landscape architecture and territorial strategies for water landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diedrich, Lisa Babette

    2010-01-01

    This article sums up the author’s lecture at the 2009 Sydney Resilient Water Landscapes Symposium and presents a series of realized or planned European landscape architectural and urbanistic projects on water landscapes taken from the recently published book On Site/ Landscape Architecture Europe...... (LAE). The author proposes them for scientific evaluation, recommends detecting research topics in the broad field of European practice and suggests to exploit the triennially published volumes of the LAE book series as a source that offers a representative selection of quality projects...

  4. Spatial heterogeneity in landscape structure influences dispersal and genetic structure: empirical evidence from a grasshopper in an agricultural landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauffre, Bertrand; Mallez, Sophie; Chapuis, Marie-Pierre; Leblois, Raphael; Litrico, Isabelle; Delaunay, Sabrina; Badenhausser, Isabelle

    2015-04-01

    Dispersal may be strongly influenced by landscape and habitat characteristics that could either enhance or restrict movements of organisms. Therefore, spatial heterogeneity in landscape structure could influence gene flow and the spatial structure of populations. In the past decades, agricultural intensification has led to the reduction in grassland surfaces, their fragmentation and intensification. As these changes are not homogeneously distributed in landscapes, they have resulted in spatial heterogeneity with generally less intensified hedged farmland areas remaining alongside streams and rivers. In this study, we assessed spatial pattern of abundance and population genetic structure of a flightless grasshopper species, Pezotettix giornae, based on the surveys of 363 grasslands in a 430-km² agricultural landscape of western France. Data were analysed using geostatistics and landscape genetics based on microsatellites markers and computer simulations. Results suggested that small-scale intense dispersal allows this species to survive in intensive agricultural landscapes. A complex spatial genetic structure related to landscape and habitat characteristics was also detected. Two P. giornae genetic clusters bisected by a linear hedged farmland were inferred from clustering analyses. This linear hedged farmland was characterized by high hedgerow and grassland density as well as higher grassland temporal stability that were suspected to slow down dispersal. Computer simulations demonstrated that a linear-shaped landscape feature limiting dispersal could be detected as a barrier to gene flow and generate the observed genetic pattern. This study illustrates the relevance of using computer simulations to test hypotheses in landscape genetics studies. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. Electricity: Residential Wiring. Secondary Schools. Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trust Territory of the Pacific Islands Dept. of Education, Saipan.

    This curriculum guide on residential wiring for secondary students is one of six developed for inservice teachers at Marianas High School in Saipan. The guide provides the rationale, description, goals, and objectives of the program; the program of studies and performance objectives by levels; samples of lesson plans for effective delivery of…

  6. Guidelines for Transferring Residential Courses into Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tüzün, Hakan; Çinar, Murat

    2016-01-01

    This study shared unique design experiences by examining the process of transferring residential courses to the Web, and proposed a design model for individuals who want to transfer their courses into this environment. The formative research method was used in the study, and two project teams' processes of putting courses, which were being taught…

  7. DETERMINANTS OF RESIDENTIAL PER CAPITA WATER ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This report presents the findings of the study on the determinants of residential per capita water demand of Makurdi metropolis in Benue State, Nigeria. Data for the study was obtained by the use of questionnaires, oral interviews and observations. The data was analyzed using SPSS. Twenty variables were considered in ...

  8. Development of a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staff Scientist; Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max; Dickerhoff, Darryl

    2011-12-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller (RIVEC) to reduce the energy impact of required mechanical ventilation by 20percent, maintain or improve indoor air quality and provide demand response benefits. This represents potential energy savings of about 140 GWh of electricity and 83 million therms of natural gas as well as proportional peak savings in California. The RIVEC controller is intended to meet the 2008 Title 24 requirements for residential ventilation as well as taking into account the issues of outdoor conditions, other ventilation devices (including economizers), peak demand concerns and occupant preferences. The controller is designed to manage all the residential ventilation systems that are currently available. A key innovation in this controller is the ability to implement the concept of efficacy and intermittent ventilation which allows time shifting of ventilation. Using this approach ventilation can be shifted away from times of high cost or high outdoor pollution towards times when it is cheaper and more effective. Simulations, based on the ones used to develop the new residential ventilation requirements for the California Buildings Energy code, were used to further define the specific criteria and strategies needed for the controller. These simulations provide estimates of the energy, peak power and contaminant improvement possible for different California climates for the various ventilation systems. Results from a field test of the prototype controller corroborate the predicted performance.

  9. Condition assessment and strengthening of residential units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatheer Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available About 40, ground plus one (G+1 residential units were designed using a hybrid structural framing system (RC frame and load bearing walls. A few months after the completion of the ground floor of the residential units, cracks appeared at several locations in the structure. Field and Laboratory testing was conducted to ascertain the in situ strength of concrete and steel reinforcement. The results of the experimental work were used in the analytical ETABS model for the structural stability calculations. The results indicated that residential units were marginally safe in the existing condition (completed ground floor, but the anticipated construction of the floor above the ground floor (G+1 could not be carried out as the strength of the structural system was inadequate. To increase the safety of existing ground floor and to provide the option of the construction of one floor above, rehabilitation and strengthening design was performed. The proposed strengthening design made use of welded wire fabric (WWF and carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP laminates/sheets for the strengthening of walls, columns and slabs. The residential units will be strengthened in the near future.

  10. Chapter 6: Residential Lighting Evaluation Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimetrosky, Scott [Apex Analytics LLC, Boulder, CO (United States); Parkinson, Katie [Apex Analytics LLC, Boulder, CO (United States); Lieb, Noah [Apex Analytics LLC, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, residential lighting has represented a significant share of ratepayer-funded energy-efficiency electricity savings. Utilities have achieved the majority of these savings by promoting the purchase and installation of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs), both standard 'twister' bulbs and specialty CFLs such as reflectors, A-Lamps, globes, and dimmable lights.

  11. housing tenure, residential moves and children's educational

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    ABSTRACT. Research has shown that non-conventional factors like housing and residential experiences dur- ing childhood have impacts on children's success. Given the critical importance of human capi- tal accumulation in Ghana, it is significant from policy standpoint to recognise factors and mechanisms that are ...

  12. Housing tenure, residential moves and children's educational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Research has shown that non-conventional factors like housing and residential experiences during childhood have impacts on children's success. Given the critical importance of human capital accumulation in Ghana, it is significant from policy standpoint to recognise factors and mechanisms that are relevant to the next ...

  13. Information Processing and Creative Thinking Abilities of Residential and Non-Residential School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atasi Mohanty

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to assess and compare the residential and non-residential schoolchildren in information-processing skills and creative thinking abilities. A sample of 80 children from Classes 5 and 7 were selected from two types of schools, residential/ashram (02 and non-residential/formal schools (02 in Bolpur subdivision of West Bengal in India where the medium of instruction is Bengali language/mother-tongue. All the children were individually administered the PASS (Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, Successive, Stroop, Matching Familiar Figure Test (MFFT-20, and creative thinking tasks. The residential school children were found to perform better both in information processing and creative thinking tasks. The developmental trend could not be clearly observed due to small sample size, but with increasing age, children were using better processing strategies. Due to ashram environment, creative pedagogy, and various co-curricular activities, the residential school children were found to be more creative than their formal school counterparts. Moreover, some significant positive correlations were found among information processing skills and creative thinking dimensions.

  14. Soil Moisture Experiments 2004 (SMEX04) Polarimetric Scanning Radiometer, AMSR-E and Heterogeneous Landscapes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jackson, T. J; Bindlish, R; Cosh, M; Gasiewski, A; Stankov, B; Klein, M; Weber, B; Zavorotny, V

    2005-01-01

    An unresolved issue in global soil moisture retrieval using passive microwave sensors is the spatial integration of heterogeneous landscape features to the nominal 50 km footprint observed by most satellite systems...

  15. Landscape Conservation of Aquatic Habitats Promotes Watershed-scale Biological, Biogeochemical, and Hydrological Functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wetlands are exceptionally productive landscape features that provide critical habitat for endemic species, threatened/endangered and migratory animals, store floodwaters and maintain baseflows in stream systems, recharge groundwaters, and biogeochemically and physically affect n...

  16. Persistence and vulnerability: retaining biodiversity in the landscape ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    An objective of biodiversity conservation activities is to minimize the exposure of biodiversity features to threatening processes and to ensure, as far as possible, that biodiversity persists in the landscape. We discuss how issues of vulnerability and persistence can and should be addressed at all stages of the conservation.

  17. A hierarchical spatial framework for forest landscape planning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pete Bettinger; Marie Lennette; K. Norman Johnson; Thomas A. Spies

    2005-01-01

    A hierarchical spatial framework for large-scale, long-term forest landscape planning is presented along with example policy analyses for a 560,000 ha area of the Oregon Coast Range. The modeling framework suggests utilizing the detail provided by satellite imagery to track forest vegetation condition and for representation of fine-scale features, such as riparian...

  18. The transformation of landscape and religious representations in Roman Gaul

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derks, Ton

    1997-01-01

    This essay starts from the presupposition that the landscape is more than the proverbial backcloth to human action. It is not just the natural feature of the environment putting important constraints on human behaviour nor is it simply a cultural construction of human conceptions about the world.

  19. 23 CFR 752.4 - Landscape development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Landscape development. 752.4 Section 752.4 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT LANDSCAPE AND ROADSIDE DEVELOPMENT § 752.4 Landscape development. (a) Landscape development, which includes landscaping...

  20. Ontology patterns for complex topographic feature yypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varanka, Dalia E.

    2011-01-01

    Complex feature types are defined as integrated relations between basic features for a shared meaning or concept. The shared semantic concept is difficult to define in commonly used geographic information systems (GIS) and remote sensing technologies. The role of spatial relations between complex feature parts was recognized in early GIS literature, but had limited representation in the feature or coverage data models of GIS. Spatial relations are more explicitly specified in semantic technology. In this paper, semantics for topographic feature ontology design patterns (ODP) are developed as data models for the representation of complex features. In the context of topographic processes, component assemblages are supported by resource systems and are found on local landscapes. The topographic ontology is organized across six thematic modules that can account for basic feature types, resource systems, and landscape types. Types of complex feature attributes include location, generative processes and physical description. Node/edge networks model standard spatial relations and relations specific to topographic science to represent complex features. To demonstrate these concepts, data from The National Map of the U. S. Geological Survey was converted and assembled into ODP.

  1. The concept of hydrologic landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, T.C.

    2001-01-01

    Hydrologic landscapes are multiples or variations of fundamental hydrologic landscape units. A fundamental hydrologic landscape unit is defined on the basis of land-surface form, geology, and climate. The basic land-surface form of a fundamental hydrologic landscape unit is an upland separated from a lowland by an intervening steeper slope. Fundamental hydrologic landscape units have a complete hydrologic system consisting of surface runoff, ground-water flow, and interaction with atmospheric water. By describing actual landscapes in terms of land-surface slope, hydraulic properties of soils and geologic framework, and the difference between precipitation and evapotranspiration, the hydrologic system of actual landscapes can be conceptualized in a uniform way. This conceptual framework can then be the foundation for design of studies and data networks, syntheses of information on local to national scales, and comparison of process research across small study units in a variety of settings. The Crow Wing River watershed in central Minnesota is used as an example of evaluating stream discharge in the context of hydrologic landscapes. Lake-research watersheds in Wisconsin, Minnesota, North Dakota, and Nebraska are used as an example of using the hydrologic-landscapes concept to evaluate the effect of ground water on the degree of mineralization and major-ion chemistry of lakes that lie within ground-water flow systems.

  2. Marc Treib: Representing Landscape Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Ellen Marie

    2008-01-01

    The editor of Representing Landscape Architecture, Marc Treib, argues that there is good reason to evaluate the standard practices of representation that landscape architects have been using for so long. In the rush to the promised land of computer design these practices are now in danger of being...... left by the wayside. The 14 often both fitting and well crafted contributions of this publication offer an approach to how landscape architecture has been and is currently represented; in the design study, in presentation, in criticism, and in the creation of landscape architecture....

  3. Energy landscape Allgaeu; Energielandschaft Allgaeu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-04-01

    In tandems with questions on the energy policy turnaround, the topics cultural landscape history, morphology, actual land use, tourism, settlement development or infrastructure are summarized in regional concepts and designs to a consistent landscape. Thus, a true integration of renewable energies in the landscape enhances existing or creates completely new landscape qualities. Energy supply shall be understood as a component of the every day life world. The energy supply shall not be hidden any more, but it rather should be communicated as the brand 'Allgaeu'.

  4. SE-590 Landscape Reflectances (OTTER)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Bidirectional spectal reflectance factors of landscape elements (litter, soil, bark, scrubs & grasses, leaves) measured by Spectron SE590 spectroradiometer

  5. Integrated landscape initiatives in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    García-Martín, María; Bieling, Claudia; Hart, Abigail

    2016-01-01

    is to provide a systematic analysis of the spectrum of these initiatives in Europe in terms of patterns of organisation, participants, resources, problems, and landscape values addressed. This review collects examples of integrated landscape initiatives from all over Europe through systematic internet key word...... (acting in multifunctional landscapes and combining different objectives), the involvement and coordination of different sectors and stakeholders at many levels, and the role as agents of awareness raising and learning hubs. Integrated landscape initiatives mainly depend on impulses of local civil society...

  6. Evolution of some Mediterranean landscapes of Central Italy from historical aerial photographs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Nicolina Ripa

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Aerial photos represent the main existent database providing evidence of landscape changes with high detail. The analysis of land cover changes plays a key role in understanding a great variety of phenomena in several research fields. Landscapes are made by society and reflect the changing society and attitude towards the environment. The reorientation of farming system, the practical results of planning processes, the rate and magnitude of the changes in the landscape are some of the most important factors relating to the evolution of our landscapes and are very helpful for the understanding of evolution processes and consequently for the design of landscape-orientated policies. Pressures upon the landscape and values of our landscapes can be defined according to their traditional characteristics; traditional landscapes can be defined as those landscapes having a distinct and recognizable structure, which reflect relations between the composing elements and have a significance for natural, cultural or aesthetical values. In most cases, such landscapes evolved slowly and took centuries to form their values. Sometimes land changes happen fast and spread in vast areas so that some agricultural or natural landscapes, widely perceived as traditional, have very recent origin. In this paper, some preliminary observation and case-studies performed on a set of historical photos are dealt with. In 1935, the Italian Land Register Department commissioned SARA company to survey Viterbo province between 1935-1938 through aerial photographs. During the survey, 5,000 photographs on glass plates were taken at a very low altitude, featuring a very high resolution. Thus, they represents a valuable source of information for documenting past and present land-use practices, local cultural heritage and changes in the landscape. Processing this set of historical photos has started, aimed to quantitatively and qualitatively analyse the 1935-1938 landscape patterns and

  7. Evaluating Today's Landscape Multifunctionality and Providing an Alternative Future: A Normative Scenario Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rainer Waldhardt

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Intensive agriculture has had multiple negative effects on the environment across large areas of Europe, including a decrease in the degree to which these landscapes serve multiple functions. A quantitative evaluation of the deficits in landscape multifunctionality is difficult, however, for a given landscape as long as "multifunctional reference landscapes" are lacking. We present an interdisciplinary normative scenario approach to overcome this obstacle. Given the example of the lower Wetter-catchment in the Wetterau region (Hesse, Germany, we compare the existing landscape with an expert-generated multifunctional landscape scenario that may also serve as an alternative future. This approach may inspire policy makers and land users by providing a methodology for the design of alternative multifunctional futures in five steps: (1 documentation of today's landscape structure and land use at the scale of uniformly managed land units; (2 detection of functional deficits of today's landscape considering environmental (soil contamination, groundwater production, water quality, biodiversity, economic (land rent, and societal (landscape perception by its population attributes; (3 compilation of a catalogue of alternative land uses (including linear landscape elements suitable to minimize the detected functional deficits; (4 rule-based modification of today's land-use pattern into a normative scenario; and (5 comparison of today's landscape and the normative scenario by applying the model network ITE²M. Results highlight a strongly unbalanced allocation of private and public goods in today's landscape with severe deficits in environmental and societal landscape features, but a significantly higher land rent. The designed multifunctional scenario, instead, may be preferred by the local population, and their willingness to pay for multifunctionality could potentially compensate calculated opportunity costs. Hence, the generated landscape scenario may be

  8. Optimization Models and Methods for Demand-Side Management of Residential Users: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antimo Barbato

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The residential sector is currently one of the major contributors to the global energy balance. However, the energy demand of residential users has been so far largely uncontrollable and inelastic with respect to the power grid conditions. With the massive introduction of renewable energy sources and the large variations in energy flows, also the residential sector is required to provide some flexibility in energy use so as to contribute to the stability and efficiency of the electric system. To address this issue, demand management mechanisms can be used to optimally manage the energy resources of customers and their energy demand profiles. A very promising technique is represented by demand-side management (DSM, which consists in a proactive method aimed at making users energy-efficient in the long term. In this paper, we survey the most relevant studies on optimization methods for DSM of residential consumers. Specifically, we review the related literature according to three axes defining contrasting characteristics of the schemes proposed: DSM for individual users versus DSM for cooperative consumers, deterministic DSM versus stochastic DSM and day-ahead DSM versus real-time DSM. Based on this classification, we provide a big picture of the key features of different approaches and techniques and discuss future research directions.

  9. Linking animals aloft with the terrestrial landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buler, Jeffrey J.; Barrow, Wylie; Boone, Matthew; Dawson, Deanna K.; Diehl, Robert H.; Moore, Frank R.; Randall, Lori A.; Schreckengost, Timothy; Smolinsky, Jaclyn A.

    2018-01-01

    Despite using the aerosphere for many facets of their life, most flying animals (i.e., birds, bats, some insects) are still bound to terrestrial habitats for resting, feeding, and reproduction. Comprehensive broad-scale observations by weather surveillance radars of animals as they leave terrestrial habitats for migration or feeding flights can be used to map their terrestrial distributions either as point locations (e.g., communal roosts) or as continuous surface layers (e.g., animal densities in habitats across a landscape). We discuss some of the technical challenges to reducing measurement biases related to how radars sample the aerosphere and the flight behavior of animals. We highlight a recently developed methodological approach that precisely and quantitatively links the horizontal spatial structure of birds aloft to their terrestrial distributions and provides novel insights into avian ecology and conservation across broad landscapes. Specifically, we present case studies that (1) elucidate how migrating birds contend with crossing ecological barriers and extreme weather events, (2) identify important stopover areas and habitat use patterns of birds along their migration routes, and (3) assess waterfowl response to wetland habitat management and restoration. These studies aid our understanding of how anthropogenic modification of the terrestrial landscape (e.g., urbanization, habitat management), natural geographic features, and weather (e.g., hurricanes) can affect the terrestrial distributions of flying animals.

  10. Nonlinear fitness landscape of a molecular pathway.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilia Perfeito

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Genes are regulated because their expression involves a fitness cost to the organism. The production of proteins by transcription and translation is a well-known cost factor, but the enzymatic activity of the proteins produced can also reduce fitness, depending on the internal state and the environment of the cell. Here, we map the fitness costs of a key metabolic network, the lactose utilization pathway in Escherichia coli. We measure the growth of several regulatory lac operon mutants in different environments inducing expression of the lac genes. We find a strikingly nonlinear fitness landscape, which depends on the production rate and on the activity rate of the lac proteins. A simple fitness model of the lac pathway, based on elementary biophysical processes, predicts the growth rate of all observed strains. The nonlinearity of fitness is explained by a feedback loop: production and activity of the lac proteins reduce growth, but growth also affects the density of these molecules. This nonlinearity has important consequences for molecular function and evolution. It generates a cliff in the fitness landscape, beyond which populations cannot maintain growth. In viable populations, there is an expression barrier of the lac genes, which cannot be exceeded in any stationary growth process. Furthermore, the nonlinearity determines how the fitness of operon mutants depends on the inducer environment. We argue that fitness nonlinearities, expression barriers, and gene-environment interactions are generic features of fitness landscapes for metabolic pathways, and we discuss their implications for the evolution of regulation.

  11. The Anti-Landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    There have always been some uninhabitable places, but in the last century human beings have produced many more of them. These anti-landscapes have proliferated to include the sandy wastes of what was once the Aral Sea, severely polluted irrigated lands, open pit mines, blighted nuclear zones...... that no longer sustain life. This history includes T. S. Eliot’s Wasteland and Cormac McCarthy’s The Road as well as air pollution, recycled railway lines, photography and landfills. It links theories of aesthetics, politics, tourism, history, geography, and literature into the new synthesis of the environmental...

  12. Mountains, valleys, and rivers: The transmission of raccoon rabies over a heterogeneous landscape

    OpenAIRE

    Wheeler, David C.; Waller, Lance A.

    2008-01-01

    Landscape features may serve as either barriers or gateways to the spread of certain infectious diseases, and understanding the way geographic structure impacts disease spread could lead to improved containment strategies. Here, we focus on modeling the space-time diffusion process of a raccoon rabies outbreak across several states in the Eastern United States. Specifically, we measure the impact that landscape features, such as mountains and rivers, have on the speed of infectious disease di...

  13. Integrating landscape analysis and planning: a multi-scale approach for oriented management of tourist recreation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aranzabal, Itziar; Schmitz, María F; Pineda, Francisco D

    2009-11-01

    Tourism and landscape are interdependent concepts. Nature- and culture-based tourism are now quite well developed activities and can constitute an excellent way of exploiting the natural resources of certain areas, and should therefore be considered as key objectives in landscape planning and management in a growing number of countries. All of this calls for careful evaluation of the effects of tourism on the territory. This article focuses on an integrated spatial method for landscape analysis aimed at quantifying the relationship between preferences of visitors and landscape features. The spatial expression of the model relating types of leisure and recreational preferences to the potential capacity of the landscape to meet them involves a set of maps showing degrees of potential visitor satisfaction. The method constitutes a useful tool for the design of tourism planning and management strategies, with landscape conservation as a reference.

  14. Integrating Landscape Analysis and Planning: A Multi-Scale Approach for Oriented Management of Tourist Recreation

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Aranzabal, Itziar; Schmitz, María F.; Pineda, Francisco D.

    2009-11-01

    Tourism and landscape are interdependent concepts. Nature- and culture-based tourism are now quite well developed activities and can constitute an excellent way of exploiting the natural resources of certain areas, and should therefore be considered as key objectives in landscape planning and management in a growing number of countries. All of this calls for careful evaluation of the effects of tourism on the territory. This article focuses on an integrated spatial method for landscape analysis aimed at quantifying the relationship between preferences of visitors and landscape features. The spatial expression of the model relating types of leisure and recreational preferences to the potential capacity of the landscape to meet them involves a set of maps showing degrees of potential visitor satisfaction. The method constitutes a useful tool for the design of tourism planning and management strategies, with landscape conservation as a reference.

  15. Watermill and Small-Scale Hydroelectric Power Plant Landscapes Assessed According to Ecological Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lilita Lazdāne

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Research of watermill and small-scale hydroelectric power plant (HPP landscapes in Latvia according to ecological aspects is a part of a more complex research. The aim of this research is to examine the existing situation of watermill and small-scale HPP landscapes in Latvia by applying the ecological assessment criteria, and then try to formulate a definition of common tendencies of the landscape character. This paper provides a landscape inventory matrix for research in the field stu­dies of landscape identification at the local planning level. The duration of the research was from 2010 to 2012. The research includes 42 territories starting with the three most densely developed areas in Latvia: in Latgale, Kurzeme and Vidzeme uplands distribution ranges. The research results reflect tendencies of the landscape features assessed according to the previously developed criteria of ecological aspects.

  16. The Missing Set: How Landscape Acts in The Cherry Orchard

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann Leone

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Why is the cherry orchard almost entirely absent from the stage? How does this absent landscape function dramatically? Chekhov's own garden expertise supports a study of the way that landscape in this play—its presence at once pervasive and virtual—both transcends and subverts the functions of setting. Such a reading of the function of landscape leads us to new ways of answering old questions about the play, as well: is the orchard more or other than a symbol? is the play a comedy? I examine the features and conventions of an orchard and garden landscape as they collide with characters' apprehension of the orchard as a repository of the past, and with Lopahin's plans—radical, practical and Romantic—for its future. The orchard's fate parallels the dispersal and re-definition of the family; that shared human and landscape drama can be read to show how landscape is constructed and how that construct depends upon, reflects, and may subvert human intentions.

  17. Landscape Painting in Evaluation of Changes in Landscape

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lacina, Jan; Halas, Petr

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. 2 (2015), s. 60-68 ISSN 1803-2427 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : landscape painting * landscape ecology * land-use changes * biodiversity Subject RIV: DE - Earth Magnetism, Geodesy, Geography http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/jlecol.2015.8.issue-2/jlecol-2015-0009/jlecol-2015-0009. xml

  18. An Online Landscape Object Library to Support Interactive Landscape Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pang Chan

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Using landscape objects with geo-visualisation tools to create 3D virtual environments is becoming one of the most prominent communication techniques to understand landscape form, function and processes. Geo-visualisation tools can also provide useful participatory planning support systems to explore current and future environmental issues such as biodiversity loss, crop failure, competing pressures on water availability and land degradation. These issues can be addressed by understanding them in the context of their locality. In this paper we discuss some of the technologies which facilitate our work on the issues of sustainability and productivity, and ultimately support for planning and decision-making. We demonstrate an online Landscape Object Library application with a suite of geo-visualisation tools to support landscape planning. This suite includes: a GIS based Landscape Constructor tool, a modified version of a 3D game engine SIEVE (Spatial Information Exploration and Visualisation Environment and an interactive touch table display. By integrating the Landscape Object Library with this suite of geo-visualisation tools, we believe we developed a tool that can support a diversity of landscape planning activities. This is illustrated by trial case studies in biolink design, whole farm planning and renewable energy planning. We conclude the paper with an evaluation of our Landscape Object Library and the suite of geographical tools, and outline some further research directions.

  19. Editorial: Mapping the Intellectual Landscape of Landscape and Urban Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul H. Gobster; Wei-Ning. Xiang

    2012-01-01

    Maps are central to our understanding of landscapes. When this Editorship began to revise the journal's Aims and Scope for presentation in a forthcoming editorial, we sought ways in which we could identify the core knowledge base and boundaries, however permeable, of what the journal community considers to be Landscape and Urban Planning (LAND). Strategically, we...

  20. Quantifying the lag time to detect barriers in landscape genetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landguth, E L; Cushman, S A; Schwartz, M K; McKelvey, K S; Murphy, M; Luikart, G

    2010-10-01

    Understanding how spatial genetic patterns respond to landscape change is crucial for advancing the emerging field of landscape genetics. We quantified the number of generations for new landscape barrier signatures to become detectable and for old signatures to disappear after barrier removal. We used spatially explicit, individual-based simulations to examine the ability of an individual-based statistic [Mantel's r using the proportion of shared alleles' statistic (Dps)] and population-based statistic (FST ) to detect barriers. We simulated a range of movement strategies including nearest neighbour dispersal, long-distance dispersal and panmixia. The lag time for the signal of a new barrier to become established is short using Mantel's r (1-15 generations). FST required approximately 200 generations to reach 50% of its equilibrium maximum, although G'ST performed much like Mantel's r. In strong contrast, FST and Mantel's r perform similarly following the removal of a barrier formerly dividing a population. Also, given neighbour mating and very short-distance dispersal strategies, historical discontinuities from more than 100 generations ago might still be detectable with either method. This suggests that historical events and landscapes could have long-term effects that confound inferences about the impacts of current landscape features on gene flow for species with very little long-distance dispersal. Nonetheless, populations of organisms with relatively large dispersal distances will lose the signal of a former barrier within less than 15 generations, suggesting that individual-based landscape genetic approaches can improve our ability to measure effects of existing landscape features on genetic structure and connectivity. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. Local and landscape drivers of predation services in urban gardens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philpott, Stacy M; Bichier, Peter

    2017-04-01

    In agroecosystems, local and landscape features, as well as natural enemy abundance and richness, are significant predictors of predation services that may result in biological control of pests. Despite the increasing importance of urban gardening for provisioning of food to urban populations, most urban gardeners suffer from high pest problems, and have little knowledge about how to manage their plots to increase biological control services. We examined the influence of local, garden scale (i.e., herbaceous and arboreal vegetation abundance and diversity, ground cover) and landscape (i.e., landscape diversity and surrounding land use types) characteristics on predation services provided by naturally occurring predators in 19 urban gardens in the California central coast. We introduced sentinel pests (moth eggs and larvae and pea aphids) onto greenhouse-raised plants taken to gardens and assigned to open or bagged (predator exclosure) treatments. We found high predation rates with between 40% and 90% of prey items removed in open treatments. Predation services varied with local and landscape factors, but significant predictors differed by prey species. Predation of eggs and aphids increased with vegetation complexity in gardens, but larvae predation declined with vegetation complexity. Smaller gardens experienced higher predation services, likely due to increases in predator abundance in smaller gardens. Several ground cover features influenced predation services. In contrast to patterns in rural agricultural landscapes, predation on aphids declined with increases in landscape diversity. In sum, we report the relationships between several local management factors, as well as landscape surroundings, and implications for garden management. © 2017 by the Ecological Society of America.

  2. European landscape architecture and territorial strategies for water landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diedrich, Lisa Babette

    2010-01-01

    and accompanying reflections. The hypothesis is that further scientific research can help defining weaknesses and strengths of the existing water landscape designs in terms of resilience, extract principles and tools, improve the weak ones and communicate the strong ones and develop general quality criteria......This article sums up the author’s lecture at the 2009 Sydney Resilient Water Landscapes Symposium and presents a series of realized or planned European landscape architectural and urbanistic projects on water landscapes taken from the recently published book On Site/ Landscape Architecture Europe...... (LAE). The author proposes them for scientific evaluation, recommends detecting research topics in the broad field of European practice and suggests to exploit the triennially published volumes of the LAE book series as a source that offers a representative selection of quality projects...

  3. THE ROMANIAN RURAL SPACE AND ITS LANDSCAPES: ATTRACTION AND MOTIVATION FOR RELOCATING TOWNSPEOPLE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IULIAN DINCĂ

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The Romanian Rural Space And Its Landscapes: Attraction And Motivation For Relocating Townspeople. It is an easily noticed fact that a new generation of residents has been establishing new habitation structures all over Romania. This also applies to the south-eastern Oradea Suburban Area, in north-western Romania. The analysed suburban landscapes bring out open attitudes in former city dwellers, strongly biased pro-landscape (78.52% of all interviewees. The landscape criterion ranks second in reasons for relocation, indicating that local nature meets the expectations of the new residents. Indubitable spiritual benefits are also involved, the new residents’ perception of local landscapes being dominated by responses like beauty, repose, naturalness. However, the new residents do not have a narrowed-down, specialised definition in their minds when expressing opinions on local landscape physiognomy in detail, and on outstanding features that render local landscapes attractive. Even the landscape management interventions of new residents and of local authorities revolve around land estate categories and tailored urbanistic requisitions. Consequently, the configuration of neo-landscapes with a distinct suburban identity emerges. The major directions of this case study may serve as groundwork for further studies on the issue of landscape as subject matter in attracting city dwellers to suburban locations.

  4. Contrasting landscape epidemiology of two sympatric rabies virus strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, Heather D; Gregory, Andrew J; Davis, Rolan; Hanlon, Cathleen A; Wisely, Samantha M

    2010-07-01

    Viral strain evolution and disease emergence are influenced by anthropogenic change to the environment. We investigated viral characteristics, host ecology, and landscape features in the rabies-striped skunk disease system of the central Great Plains to determine how these factors interact to influence disease emergence. We amplified portions of the N and G genes of rabies viral RNA from 269 samples extracted from striped skunk brains throughout the distribution of two different rabies strains for which striped skunks were the reservoir. Because the distribution of these two strains overlapped on the landscape and were present in the same host population, we could evaluate how viral properties influenced epidemiological patterns in the area of sympatry. We found that South Central Skunk rabies (SCSK) exhibited intense purifying selection and high infectivity, which are both characteristics of an epizootic virus. Conversely, North Central Skunk rabies (NCSK) exhibited relaxed purifying selection and comparatively lower infectivity, suggesting the presence of an enzootic virus. The host population in the area of sympatry was highly admixed, and skunks among allopatric and sympatric areas had similar effective population sizes. Spatial analysis indicated that landscape features had minimal influence on NCSK movement across the landscape, but those same features were partial barriers to the spread of SCSK. We conclude that NCSK and SCSK have different epidemiological properties that interact differently with both host and landscape features to influence rabies spread in the central Great Plains. We suggest a holistic approach for future studies of emerging infectious diseases that includes studies of viral properties, host characteristics, and spatial features.

  5. Do landscape factors affect brownfield carabid assemblages?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Small, Emma; Sadler, Jon P.; Telfer, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The carabid fauna of 28 derelict sites in the West Midlands (England) were sampled over the course of one growing season (April-October, 1999). The study aimed to investigate the relationship between carabid assemblages and five measures of landscape structure pertinent to derelict habitat. At each site measurements of landscape features pertinent to derelict habitat were made: (i) the proximity of habitat corridors; (ii) the density of surrounding derelict land; (iii) the distance between the site and the rural fringe; and (iv) the size of the site. Concurrent surveys of the soil characteristics, vegetation type, and land use history were conducted. The data were analysed using a combination of ordination (DCA, RDA), variance partitioning (using pRDA) and binary linear regression. The results suggest that:1.There is very little evidence that the carabid assemblages of derelict sites were affected by landscape structure, with assemblages instead being principally related to within-site habitat variables, such as site age (since last disturbance), substrate type and vegetation community. 2.No evidence was found to support the hypothesis that sites away from railway corridors are more impoverished in their carabid fauna than sites on corridors. 3.There are some suggestions from this study that rarer and non-flying specialist species may be affected by isolation, taking longer to reach sites. We infer from this that older sites with retarded succession, and sites in higher densities of surrounding derelict land may eventually become more species rich and that these sites may be important for maintaining populations of rarer and flightless species. 4.Conservation efforts to maintain populations of these species should focus principally on habitat quality issues, such as maintaining early successional habitats that have a diversity of seed producing annuals and perennial plants and enhancing substrate variability rather than landscape issues

  6. Urban landscape as palimpsest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel-Gabriel Vâlceanu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The current urban morphology and the identity building of the city construction can be designed as a palimpsest; the spatial development stages of urban systems represent the result of their evolution over time. The characteristics of urban palimpsest depend mainly on the emergent factors that influenced the territorial dynamics and the configuration of urban bodies. Urban life and its quality are directly influenced by spatial and temporal factors of the city evolution. For this reason the study aims to achieve a research to explain the concept of urban palimpsest and the current morphology of urban tissue because they are products of landscape transformations along the history. The current knowledge on urban palimpsest characteristics is very important and useful to plan the current and future evolution of urban systems. The case study presents a vast view on the history of spatial development and urban system as well as a dynamics of the landscape interconditioned by the elements of such development in the context of reference historical eras

  7. The Data Science Landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mentzel, C.

    2017-12-01

    Modern scientific data continue to increase in volume, variety, and velocity, and though the hype of big data has subsided, its usefulness for scientific discovery has only just begun. Harnessing these data for new insights, more efficient decision making, and other mission critical uses requires a combination of skills and expertise, often labeled data science. Data science can be thought of as a combination of statistics, computation and the domain from which the data relate, and so is a true interdisciplinary pursuit. Though it has reaped large benefits in companies able to afford the high cost of the severely limited talent pool, it suffers from lack of support in mission driven organizations. Not purely in any one historical field, data science is proving difficult to find a home in traditional university academic departments and other research organizations. The landscape of data science efforts, from academia, industry and government, can be characterized as nascent, enthusiastic, uneven, and highly competitive. Part of the challenge in documenting these trends is the lack of agreement about what data science is, and who is a data scientist. Defining these terms too closely and too early runs the risk of cutting off a tremendous amount of productive creativity, but waiting too long leaves many people without a sustainable career, and many organizations without the necessary skills to gain value from their data. This talk will explore the landscape of data science efforts in the US, including how organizations are building and sustaining data science teams.

  8. Featuring animacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Ritter

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Algonquian languages are famous for their animacy-based grammatical properties—an animacy based noun classification system and direct/inverse system which gives rise to animacy hierarchy effects in the determination of verb agreement. In this paper I provide new evidence for the proposal that the distinctive properties of these languages is due to the use of participant-based features, rather than spatio-temporal ones, for both nominal and verbal functional categories (Ritter & Wiltschko 2009, 2014. Building on Wiltschko (2012, I develop a formal treatment of the Blackfoot aspectual system that assumes a category Inner Aspect (cf. MacDonald 2008, Travis 1991, 2010. Focusing on lexical aspect in Blackfoot, I demonstrate that the classification of both nouns (Seinsarten and verbs (Aktionsarten is based on animacy, rather than boundedness, resulting in a strikingly different aspectual system for both categories. 

  9. Sustainability, Smart Growth, and Landscape Architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainability, Smart Growth, and Landscape Architecture is an overview course for landscape architecture students interested in sustainability in landscape architecture and how it might apply to smart growth principles in urban, suburban, and rural areas

  10. Dynamic management of integrated residential energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Matteo

    This study combines principles of energy systems engineering and statistics to develop integrated models of residential energy use in the United States, to include residential recharging of electric vehicles. These models can be used by government, policymakers, and the utility industry to provide answers and guidance regarding the future of the U.S. energy system. Currently, electric power generation must match the total demand at each instant, following seasonal patterns and instantaneous fluctuations. Thus, one of the biggest drivers of costs and capacity requirement is the electricity demand that occurs during peak periods. These peak periods require utility companies to maintain operational capacity that often is underutilized, outdated, expensive, and inefficient. In light of this, flattening the demand curve has long been recognized as an effective way of cutting the cost of producing electricity and increasing overall efficiency. The problem is exacerbated by expected widespread adoption of non-dispatchable renewable power generation. The intermittent nature of renewable resources and their non-dispatchability substantially limit the ability of electric power generation of adapting to the fluctuating demand. Smart grid technologies and demand response programs are proposed as a technical solution to make the electric power demand more flexible and able to adapt to power generation. Residential demand response programs offer different incentives and benefits to consumers in response to their flexibility in the timing of their electricity consumption. Understanding interactions between new and existing energy technologies, and policy impacts therein, is key to driving sustainable energy use and economic growth. Comprehensive and accurate models of the next-generation power system allow for understanding the effects of new energy technologies on the power system infrastructure, and can be used to guide policy, technology, and economic decisions. This

  11. Native species that can replace exotic species in landscaping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth Regina Tempel Stumpf

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Beyond aesthetics, the contemporary landscaping intends to provide other benefits for humans and environment, especially related to the environmental quality of urban spaces and conservation of the species. A trend in this direction is the reduction in the use of exotic plants in their designs, since, over time, they can become agents of replacement of native flora, as it has occurred in Rio Grande do Sul with many species introduced by settlers. However, the use of exotic species is unjustifiable, because the flora diversity of the Bioma Pampa offers many native species with appropriate features to the ornamental use. The commercial cultivation and the implantation of native species in landscaped areas constitute innovations for plant nurseries and landscapers and can provide a positive reduction in extractivism, contributing to dissemination, exploitation and preservation of native flora, and also decrease the impact of chemical products on environment. So, this work intends to identify native species of Bioma Pampa with features and uses similar to the most used exotic species at Brazilian landscaping. The species were selected from consulting books about native plants of Bioma Pampa and plants used at Brazilian landscaping, considering the similarity on habit and architecture, as well as characteristics of leafs, flowers and/or fruits and environmental conditions of occurrence and cultivation. There were identified 34 native species able to properly replace exotic species commonly used. The results show that many native species of Bioma Pampa have interesting ornamental features to landscape gardening, allowing them to replace exotic species that are traditionally cultivated.

  12. Maintenance Sourcebook: Landscaping and Grounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macht, Carol; Gomulka, Ken; Harper, Wayne; Conry, Terry

    2003-01-01

    Asserts that facility managers need continual education in many subjects to keep their campuses in excellent condition, highlighting four areas related to landscaping and maintenance: landscaping care; athletic field care; grounds care; and equipment care. Lists of relevant professional organizations are included. (SM)

  13. Landscaping With Maintenance in Mind.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorensen, Randy

    2000-01-01

    Examines school ground landscape design that enhances attractive of the school and provides for easier maintenance. Landscape design issues discussed include choice of grass, trees, and shrubs; irrigation; and safety and access. Other considerations for lessening maintenance problems for facility managers are also highlighted. (GR)

  14. Landscape ecology and forest management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas R. Crow

    1999-01-01

    Almost all forest management activities affect landscape pattern to some extent. Among the most obvious impacts are those associated with forest harvesting and road building. These activities profoundly affect the size, shape, and configuration of patches in the landscape matrix. Even-age management such as clearcutting has been applied in blocks of uniform size, shape...

  15. Caribbean landscapes and their biodiversity

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. E. Lugo; E. H. Helmer; E. Santiago Valentín

    2012-01-01

    Both the biodiversity and the landscapes of the Caribbean have been greatly modified as a consequence of human activity. In this essay we provide an overview of the natural landscapes and biodiversity of the Caribbean and discuss how human activity has affected both. Our Caribbean geographic focus is on the insular Caribbean and the biodiversity focus is on the flora,...

  16. Ervin Zube and landscape architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul H. Gobster

    2002-01-01

    As he grew in his knowledge about the landscape through his involvemment in it as a person, student, practitioner, teacher, program director, and researcher, Ervin Zube's ideas about what landscape architecture is and should be continually evolved. He was a prolific writer whose publications span a broad range of audiences, and his contributions to ...

  17. Contingent Diversity on Anthropic Landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    William Balée

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Behaviorally modern human beings have lived in Amazonia for thousands of years. Significant dynamics in species turnovers due to human-mediated disturbance were associated with the ultimate emergence and expansion of agrarian technologies in prehistory. Such disturbances initiated primary and secondary landscape transformations in various locales of the Amazon region. Diversity in these locales can be understood by accepting the initial premise of contingency, expressed as unprecedented human agency and human history. These effects can be accessed through the archaeological record and in the study of living languages. In addition, landscape transformation can be demonstrated in the study of traditional knowledge (TK. One way of elucidating TK distinctions between anthropic and nonanthropic landscapes concerns elicitation of differential labeling of these landscapes and more significantly, elicitation of the specific contents, such as trees, occurring in these landscapes. Freelisting is a method which can be used to distinguish the differential species compositions of landscapes resulting from human-mediated disturbance vs. those which do not evince records of human agency and history. The TK of the Ka’apor Indians of Amazonian Brazil as revealed in freelisting exercises shows differentiation of anthropogenic from high forests as well as a recognition of diversity in the anthropogenic forests. This suggests that the agents of human-mediated disturbance and landscape transformation in traditional Amazonia encode diversity and contingency into their TK, which encoding reflects past cultural influence on landscape and society over time.

  18. Landscape in a Lacquer Box

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savage, Martha

    2010-01-01

    A symbolic dry landscape garden of Eastern origin holds a special fascination for the author's middle-school students, which is why the author chose to create a project exploring this view of nature. A dry landscape garden, or "karesansui," is an arrangement of rocks, worn by nature and surrounded by a "sea" of sand, raked into patterns…

  19. Future landscapes: opportunities and challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    John Stanturf

    2015-01-01

    The global magnitude of degraded and deforested areas is best approached by restoring landscapes. Heightened international perception of the importance of forests and trees outside forests (e.g., woodlands, on farms) demands new approaches to future landscapes. The current need for forest restoration is two billion ha; most opportunities are mosaic restoration in the...

  20. Convergence of microclimate in residential landscapes across diverse cities in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharon J. Hall; J. Learned; B. Ruddell; K.L. Larson; J. Cavender-Bares; N. Bettez; P.M. Groffman; Morgan Grove; J.B. Heffernan; S.E. Hobbie; J.L. Morse; C. Neill; K.C. Nelson; Jarlath O' Neil-Dunne; L. Ogden; D.E. Pataki; W.D. Pearse; C. Polsky; R. Roy Chowdhury; M.K. Steele; T.L.E. Trammell

    2016-01-01

    The urban heat island (UHI) is a well-documented pattern of warming in cities relative to rural areas. Most UHI research utilizes remote sensing methods at large scales, or climate sensors in single cities surrounded by standardized land cover. Relatively few studies have explored continental-scale climatic patterns within common urban microenvironments such as...

  1. Does Immigrant Residential Crowding Reflect Hidden Homelessness?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Haan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared to the Canadian-born, immigrants are under-represented among Canada’s homeless population, when their decline in economic wellbeing is considered alongside their relative absence in homeless shelters. One way to explain this oddity, proposed in both academic and popular literature, is that immigrant communities employ unique avoidance strategies, such as within-group co-residence, to help keep co-ethnics off the streets and out of homeless shelters. In this paper I use the 2001 census of Canada to investigate the extent to which heightened levels of residential crowding might reflect “hidden homelessness”. I find mixed evidence to support this link, and, if anything, find some evidence to suggest that the link between residential crowding and hidden homelessness, if one exists, is strongest for the Canadian-born.

  2. FACTOR ANALYSIS OF MULTISTOREY RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Петр Матвеевич Мазуркин

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available According to the UN classification of 11 classes of soil cover, the first three are grass, trees and shrubs and forests. In the city they correspond to the three elements of vegetation: lawns, tree plantings (trees and shrubs. We have adopted zoning for city-building to identify statistical regularities. Map dimensions in GIS "Map 2011" Yoshkar-Ola was allocated to "residential zone" and "Area of construction of multi-storey residential buildings (cadastral 58 quart crystals". The parameters of the elements of the vegetation cover have been considered: the number of elements of different levels, area and perimeter, the absolute and relative form, and activity of vegetation. As the result, we have obtained equations of binomial rank distributions, conducted the ratings and selected the best of cadastral quarter on environmental conditions.

  3. Electricity demand for South Korean residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sa'ad, Suleiman

    2009-01-01

    This study estimates the electricity demand function for the residential sector of South Korea with the aim of examining the effects of improved energy efficiency, structural factors and household lifestyles on electricity consumption. In the study, time series data for the period from 1973 to 2007 is used in a structural time series model to estimate the long-term price and income elasticities and annual growth of underlying energy demand trend (UEDT) at the end of the estimation period. The result shows a long-term income elasticity of 1.33 and a long-term price elasticity of -0.27% with -0.93% as the percentage growth of UEDT at the end of the estimation period. This result suggests that, in order to encourage energy efficiency in the residential sector, the government should complement the market based pricing policies with non-market policies such as minimum energy efficiency standards and public enlightenment.

  4. Residential indoor air quality guideline : ozone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    Ozone (O 3 ) is a colourless gas that reacts rapidly on surfaces and with other constituents in the air. Sources of indoor O 3 include devices sold as home air cleaners, and some types of office equipment. Outdoor O 3 is also an important contributor to indoor levels of O 3 , depending on the air exchange rate with indoor environments. This residential indoor air quality guideline examined factors that affect the introduction, dispersion and removal of O 3 indoors. The health effects of prolonged exposure to O 3 were discussed, and studies conducted to evaluate the population health impacts of O 3 were reviewed. The studies demonstrated that there is a significant association between ambient O 3 and adverse health impacts. Exposure guidelines for residential indoor air quality were discussed. 14 refs.

  5. MICRO-CHP System for Residential Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Gerstmann

    2009-01-31

    This is the final report of progress under Phase I of a project to develop and commercialize a micro-CHP system for residential applications that provides electrical power, heating, and cooling for the home. This is the first phase of a three-phase effort in which the residential micro-CHP system will be designed (Phase I), developed and tested in the laboratory (Phase II); and further developed and field tested (Phase III). The project team consists of Advanced Mechanical Technology, Inc. (AMTI), responsible for system design and integration; Marathon Engine Systems, Inc. (MES), responsible for design of the engine-generator subsystem; AO Smith, responsible for design of the thermal storage and water heating subsystems; Trane, a business of American Standard Companies, responsible for design of the HVAC subsystem; and AirXchange, Inc., responsible for design of the mechanical ventilation and dehumidification subsystem.

  6. Appreciation, Use, and Management of Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services in California's Working Landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plieninger, Tobias; Ferranto, Shasta; Huntsinger, Lynn; Kelly, Maggi; Getz, Christy

    2012-09-01

    "Working landscapes" is the concept of fostering effective ecosystem stewardship and conservation through active human presence and management and integrating livestock, crop, and timber production with the provision of a broad range of ecosystem services at the landscape scale. Based on a statewide survey of private landowners of "working" forests and rangelands in California, we investigated whether owners who are engaged in commercial livestock or timber production appreciate and manage biodiversity and ecosystem services on their land in different ways than purely residential owners. Both specific uses and management practices, as well as underlying attitudes and motivations toward biodiversity and ecosystem services, were assessed. Correlation analysis showed one bundle of ecosystem goods and services (e.g., livestock, timber, crops, and housing) that is supported by some landowners at the community level. Another closely correlated bundle of biodiversity and ecosystem services includes recreation, hunting/fishing, wildlife habitat, and fire prevention. Producers were more likely to ally with the first bundle and residential owners with the second. The survey further confirmed that cultural ecosystem services and quality-of-life aspects are among the primary amenities that motivate forest and rangeland ownership regardless of ownership type. To live near natural beauty was the most important motive for both landowner groups. Producers were much more active in management for habitat improvement and other environmental goals than residential owners. As the number of production-oriented owners decreases, developing strategies for encouraging environment-positive management by all types of landowners is crucial.

  7. Evaluation principles in Landscape Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saverio Miccoli

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Landscape is a crucial component of the world heritage. Landscape projects play a vital role in the development of sustainable scenarios. The assessment of a project plays a dual role: it is a procedure to pass judgements on both “values” and “choices”. From a strictly economic perspective, the community’s appreciation of Landscape Projects may be ascertained through its “total economic value”. The value of a Landscape Project may be ascertained also through a multidimensional approach, based on the analysis of different project attributes whose outcome is calculated in non-monetary terms. This paper illustrates the cultural foundations and theoretical-methodological principles to assess Landscape Projects.

  8. Residential Group Composition Among the Alyawarra

    OpenAIRE

    Denham, woodrowW W

    2014-01-01

    This is the third of three papers I have written recently that challenge and seek to supplant the presumption of closure, rigidity and simplicity in anthropological analyses of Australian Aboriginal social organization. The first dealt with generational closure in canonical Kariera and Aranda kinship models; the second dealt with societal closure, endogamy and the small-world problem; this one examines closure, rigidity and simplicity in residential group compositions. I argue that these thre...

  9. INVESTIGATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS IN RESIDENTIAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan MEDVEĎ

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to investigation of impact of electromagnetic fields around the electrical equipment used in a residential area and their impact on the human body. This paper was based on sets of measurements of magnetic induction B with magnetometer and on computational simulations in ANSYS for particular appliances often used in household. The results from measurements and simulations led to setting out the recommendations for practical action in the form of elimination of harmful electromagnetic radiation.

  10. DESIGN ASPECTS OF A RESIDENTIAL WIND GENERATOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. BRAD

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we present some aspects about the design of a small permanent magnet wind generator with axial magnetic flux often used in residential wind turbine. There are summarised the main steps of the magnetic and electric calculations with applications to a particular case: 0.6 kVA wind generator. The axial flux wind generator design starts with the characteristics of the rare earths permanent magnet existing on the market.

  11. Transition issues in an unbundled residential market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brett, J.D.

    1996-01-01

    Aspects of an unbundled residential gas market were discussed, among them (1) the role of a local distribution company (LDC), (2) the context and the issues, (3) the customers'needs and desires, (4) long term planning responsibility, (5) consumer protection and dealing with abuses, (6) the obligation to serve, (7) the bad credit risk customer, (8) billing, credit and collection, and (9) metering and CIS

  12. Comprehensive areal model of residential heating demands

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tessmer, R.G. Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Data sources and methodology for modeling annual residential heating demands are described. A small areal basis is chosen, census tract or minor civil division, to permit estimation of demand densities and economic evaluation of community district heating systems. The demand model is specified for the entire nation in order to provide general applicability and to permit validation with other published fuel consumption estimates for 1970.

  13. Development Of Economic Techniques For Residential Thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Lee R.; Allen, Sharon

    1983-03-01

    Infrared thermography has proven to be a valuable tool in the detection of heat loss in both commercial and residential buildings. The field of residential thermography has needed a simple method with which to report the deficiencies found during an infrared scan. Two major obstacles hindering the cost effectiveness of residential thermography have been 1) the ability to quickly transport some high resolution imaging system equipment from job site to job site without having to totally dismount the instruments at each area, and 2) the lack of a standard form with which to report the findings of the survey to the customer. Since the industry has yet to provide us with either, we believed it necessary to develop our own. Through trial and error, we have come up with a system that makes interior residential thermography a profitable venture at a price the homeowner can afford. Insulation voids, or defects can be instantly spotted with the use of a thermal imaging system under the proper conditions. A special hand-held device was developed that enables the thermographer to carry the equipment from house to house without the need to dismantle and set up at each stop. All the necessary components are attached for a total weight of about 40 pounds. The findings are then conveyed to a form we have developed. The form is simple enough that the client without special training in thermography can understand. The client is then able to locate the problems and take corrective measures or give it to a con-tractor to do the work.

  14. Procedures for Calculating Residential Dehumidification Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, Jon [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Booten, Chuck [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Residential building codes and voluntary labeling programs are continually increasing the energy efficiency requirements of residential buildings. Improving a building's thermal enclosure and installing energy-efficient appliances and lighting can result in significant reductions in sensible cooling loads leading to smaller air conditioners and shorter cooling seasons. However due to fresh air ventilation requirements and internal gains, latent cooling loads are not reduced by the same proportion. Thus, it's becoming more challenging for conventional cooling equipment to control indoor humidity at part-load cooling conditions and using conventional cooling equipment in a non-conventional building poses the potential risk of high indoor humidity. The objective of this project was to investigate the impact the chosen design condition has on the calculated part-load cooling moisture load, and compare calculated moisture loads and the required dehumidification capacity to whole-building simulations. Procedures for sizing whole-house supplemental dehumidification equipment have yet to be formalized; however minor modifications to current Air-Conditioner Contractors of America (ACCA) Manual J load calculation procedures are appropriate for calculating residential part-load cooling moisture loads. Though ASHRAE 1% DP design conditions are commonly used to determine the dehumidification requirements for commercial buildings, an appropriate DP design condition for residential buildings has not been investigated. Two methods for sizing supplemental dehumidification equipment were developed and tested. The first method closely followed Manual J cooling load calculations; whereas the second method made more conservative assumptions impacting both sensible and latent loads.

  15. Perception of Landscape Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Coy

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Complex landscape management instruments based on a dynamic, innovative land-conservation paradigm and spatial zoning to provide for graded intensity of protection and human use are being implemented in the newer generation of biosphere reserves and biosphere parks. The multifunctionality of these exemplary landscapes with sustainable development is a great challenge; it also offers considerable potential for conflict. This paper intends to demonstrate the extent to which multifunctionality has been realised in the alpine Großes Walsertal Biosphere Park, and how the local population perceive the quality of their park five years after it was created. Landscape management efforts in the Großes Walsertal were monitored by accompanying regional-economic and perceptional studies, resulting in a discussion of required future actions.Des instruments complexes de gestion du paysage, fondés sur un paradigme dynamique et innovant de conservation ainsi que sur un zonage de l’espace visant à réguler la protection du territoire et son utilisation par l’homme, ont été mis en œuvre dans la dernière génération de réserves de biosphère et de parcs. La multifonctionnalité de ces paysages exemplaires du développement durable constitue un défi majeur, mais représente également une importante source de conflits. L’objectif de cet article est de démontrer dans quelle mesure la notion de multifonctionnalité a été appliquée à la réserve de biosphère alpine de Grosse Walsertal et d’évaluer comment la population locale perçoit la qualité de son parc, cinq ans après sa création. Les efforts de gestion du paysage dans la réserve de Grosse Walsertal ont été évalués par des études économiques régionales et par des enquêtes de perception, à l’origine d’un débat sur les actions futures à mettre en place.

  16. Understanding Protein-Protein Interactions Using Local Structural Features

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Planas-Iglesias, Joan; Bonet, Jaume; García-García, Javier

    2013-01-01

    of this classification suggests that the balance between favoring and disfavoring structural features determines if a pair of proteins interacts or not. Our results are in agreement with previous works and support the funnel-like intermolecular energy landscape theory that explains PPIs. We have used these features...

  17. Metal contamination in environmental media in residential ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hard-rock mining for metals, such as gold, silver, copper, zinc, iron and others, is recognized to have a significant impact on the environmental media, soil and water, in particular. Toxic contaminants released from mine waste to surface water and groundwater is the primary concern, but human exposure to soil contaminants either directly, via inhalation of airborne dust particles, or indirectly, via food chain (ingestion of animal products and/or vegetables grown in contaminated areas), is also, significant. In this research, we analyzed data collected in 2007, as part of a larger environmental study performed in the Rosia Montana area in Transylvania, to provide the Romanian governmental authorities with data on the levels of metal contamination in environmental media from this historical mining area. The data were also considered in policy decision to address mining-related environmental concerns in the area. We examined soil and water data collected from residential areas near the mining sites to determine relationships among metals analyzed in these different environmental media, using the correlation procedure in SAS statistical software. Results for residential soil and water analysis indicate that the average values for arsenic (As) (85 mg/kg), cadmium (Cd) (3.2 mg/kg), mercury (Hg) (2.3 mg/kg) and lead (Pb) (92 mg/kg) exceeded the Romanian regulatory exposure levels [the intervention thresholds for residential soil in case of As (25 mg/kg) and Hg

  18. Residential outage cost estimation: Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woo, C.K.; Ho, T.; Shiu, A.; Cheng, Y.S.; Horowitz, I.; Wang, J.

    2014-01-01

    Hong Kong has almost perfect electricity reliability, the result of substantial investments ultimately financed by electricity consumers who may be willing to accept lower reliability in exchange for lower bills. But consumers with high outage costs are likely to reject the reliability reduction. Our ordered-logit regression analysis of the responses by 1876 households to a telephone survey conducted in June 2013 indicates that Hong Kong residents exhibit a statistically-significant preference for their existing service reliability and rate. Moreover, the average residential cost estimate for a 1-h outage is US$45 (HK$350), topping the estimates reported in 10 of the 11 studies published in the last 10 years. The policy implication is that absent additional compelling evidence, Hong Kong should not reduce its service reliability. - Highlights: • Use a contingent valuation survey to obtain residential preferences for reliability. • Use an ordered logit analysis to estimate Hong Kong's residential outage costs. • Find high outage cost estimates that imply high reliability requirements. • Conclude that sans new evidence, Hong Kong should not reduce its reliability

  19. Sorption of organic gases in residential rooms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Brett C.; Hodgson, Alfred T.; Hotchi, Toshifumi; Ming, Katherine Y.; Sextro, Richard G.; Wood, Emily E.; Brown, Nancy J.

    Experiments were conducted to characterize organic gas sorption in residential rooms studied "as-is" with furnishings and material surfaces unaltered and in a furnished chamber designed to simulate a residential room. Results are presented for 10 rooms (five bedrooms, two bathrooms, a home office, and two multi-function spaces) and the chamber. Exposed materials were characterized and areas quantified. A mixture of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) was rapidly volatilized within each room as it was closed and sealed for a 5-h Adsorb phase; this was followed by 30-min Flush and 2-h closed-room Desorb phases. Included were alkane, aromatic, and oxygenated VOCs representing a range of ambient and indoor air pollutants. Three organophosphorus compounds served as surrogates for Sarin-like nerve agents. Measured gas-phase concentrations were fit to three variations of a mathematical model that considers sorption occurring at a surface sink and potentially a second, embedded sink. The 3-parameter sink-diffusion model provided acceptable fits for most compounds and the 4-parameter two-sink model provided acceptable fits for the others. Initial adsorption rates and sorptive partitioning increased with decreasing vapor pressure for the alkanes, aromatics and oxygenated VOCs. Best-fit sorption parameters obtained from experimental data from the chamber produced best-fit sorption parameters similar to those obtained from the residential rooms.

  20. The European nanometrology landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leach, Richard K; Boyd, Robert; Gee, Mark; Roy, Debdulal; Yacoot, Andrew [National Physical Laboratory (United Kingdom); Burke, Theresa [European Society for Precision Engineering and Nanotechnology (United Kingdom); Danzebrink, Hans-Ulrich; Dziomba, Thorsten; Koenders, Ludger [Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (Germany); Dirscherl, Kai [Danish Fundamental Metrology (Denmark); Morazzani, Valerie [Laboratoire National de Metrologie et d' Essais (France); Pidduck, Allan [QinetiQ (United Kingdom); Unger, Wolfgang E S, E-mail: richard.leach@npl.co.uk [Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (Germany)

    2011-02-11

    This review paper summarizes the European nanometrology landscape from a technical perspective. Dimensional and chemical nanometrology are discussed first as they underpin many of the developments in other areas of nanometrology. Applications for the measurement of thin film parameters are followed by two of the most widely relevant families of functional properties: measurement of mechanical and electrical properties at the nanoscale. Nanostructured materials and surfaces, which are seen as key materials areas having specific metrology challenges, are covered next. The final section describes biological nanometrology, which is perhaps the most interdisciplinary applications area, and presents unique challenges. Within each area, a review is provided of current status, the capabilities and limitations of current techniques and instruments, and future directions being driven by emerging industrial measurement requirements. Issues of traceability, standardization, national and international programmes, regulation and skills development will be discussed in a future paper. (topical review)

  1. Villages in landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    , and the physical appearance of many villages and detached farms can at best be characterized as shockingly inferior. It can be argued that the Danish society has grossly omitted to take care of the largest and most important part of its cultural heritage in the Danish landscape; 6-7,000 large and small villages......For more than 30 years the physical environment (buildings, gardens, roads and spaces, etc.) in Danish villages has undergone dramatic changes. Many villages close to the bigger towns have grown and are dominated by modern, architecturally maladapted buildings, and as one of the results other...... villages especially in the periphery are declining with physical impoverishment and decay. Mainly due to the structural rationalization processes in the agricultural sector throughout the last generation the physical rural structures are under pressure. The changes in the countryside are highly visible...

  2. Architectural style and green spaces predict older adults' evaluations of residential facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerina, Veronica; Fornara, Ferdinando; Manca, Sara

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse the effects of residential facilities' design features on older adults' psychosocial responses. Participants ( N  = 192) were over 65-year-old residents who were randomly exposed to different experimental scenarios concerning a hypothetical residential facility for older adults, using a 3 × 2 between-subjects design (i.e. home-like vs. hotel-like vs. usual-standard architectural style; presence vs. absence of green spaces). After the experimental session, participants were asked to fill in a questionnaire that measured their attitudes towards short- and long-term relocation, anticipated residential satisfaction with the facility, and feelings of broken home attachment. The results showed (1) more positive responses to "home-like" and "hotel-like" architectural styles than the usual-standard type and (2) the positive impact of green spaces on the assessment of the facilities. These design features should thus play a role in both reducing the stressful impact of leaving home and promoting beneficial patterns, hence fostering "successful ageing".

  3. Data anonymization patent landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Pejić Bach

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The omnipresent, unstoppable increase in digital data has led to a greater understanding of the importance of data privacy. Different approaches are used to implement data privacy. The goal of this paper is to develop a data anonymization patent landscape, by determining the following: (i the trend in data anonymization patenting, (ii the type of technical content protected in data anonymization, (iii the organizations and countries most active in patenting data anonymization know-how; and (iv the topics emerging most often in patent titles. Patents from the PatSeer database relating to data anonymization from 2001 to 2015 were analyzed. We used the longitudinal approach in combination with text mining techniques to develop a data anonymization patent landscape. The results indicated the following. The number of single patent families is growing with a high increase after 2010, thus indicating a positive trend in the area of patenting data anonymization solutions. The majority of patenting activities relate to the G Physics section. Organizations from the USA and Japan assigned the majority of patents related to data anonymization. The results of text mining indicate that the most often used word in titles of data anonymization patents are “anonym*, “method”, “data” and “system”. Several additional words that indicated the most frequent topics related to data anonymization were: “equipment”, “software”, “protection”, “identification”, or “encryption”, and specific topics such as “community”, “medical”, or “service”.

  4. Buildings Interoperability Landscape

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardin, Dave [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Stephan, Eric G. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Wang, Weimin [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Corbin, Charles D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Widergren, Steven E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-12-31

    Through its Building Technologies Office (BTO), the United States Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (DOE-EERE) is sponsoring an effort to advance interoperability for the integration of intelligent buildings equipment and automation systems, understanding the importance of integration frameworks and product ecosystems to this cause. This is important to BTO’s mission to enhance energy efficiency and save energy for economic and environmental purposes. For connected buildings ecosystems of products and services from various manufacturers to flourish, the ICT aspects of the equipment need to integrate and operate simply and reliably. Within the concepts of interoperability lie the specification, development, and certification of equipment with standards-based interfaces that connect and work. Beyond this, a healthy community of stakeholders that contribute to and use interoperability work products must be developed. On May 1, 2014, the DOE convened a technical meeting to take stock of the current state of interoperability of connected equipment and systems in buildings. Several insights from that meeting helped facilitate a draft description of the landscape of interoperability for connected buildings, which focuses mainly on small and medium commercial buildings. This document revises the February 2015 landscape document to address reviewer comments, incorporate important insights from the Buildings Interoperability Vision technical meeting, and capture thoughts from that meeting about the topics to be addressed in a buildings interoperability vision. In particular, greater attention is paid to the state of information modeling in buildings and the great potential for near-term benefits in this area from progress and community alignment.

  5. Landscape metrics and indices: an overview of their use in landscape research

    OpenAIRE

    Uuemaa, Evelin; Antrop, Marc; Roosaare, Jüri; Marja, Riho; Mander, Ülo

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this overview paper is to analyze the use of various landscape metrics and landscape indices for the characterization of landscape structure and various processes at both landscape and ecosystem level. We analyzed the appearance of the terms landscape metrics/indexes/indices in combination with seven main categories in the field of landscape ecology [1) use/selection and misuse of metrics, 2) biodiversity and habitat analysis; 3) water quality; 4) evaluation of the landscape patter...

  6. Impacts and consequences of residential segregation of Roma in urban spaces: Case studies from Hungary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jenö Zsolt Farkas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article explores residential segregation and its characteristics in medium-sized and small towns in the Southern Great Plain statistical region of Hungary. The study highlights the main features and driving forces of segregation connected to post-communist urban development. We are approaching this from the perspective of the following questions: How are segregation processes connected to ethnic issues and living conditions? What can the local government do to solve this problem? The article concludes that residential segregation is a frequent phenomenon in Hungarian agro-towns. These processes share some similarities but also differ to some degree from western European or US examples. The results emphasise the importance of complex thinking about social integration, local planning and more effective financial allocation.

  7. A hybrid society model for simulating residential electricity consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Minjie [School of Electrical Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing (China); State Power Economic Research Institute, Beijing (China); Hu, Zhaoguang [State Power Economic Research Institute, Beijing (China); Wu, Junyong; Zhou, Yuhui [School of Electrical Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing (China)

    2008-12-15

    In this paper, a hybrid social model of econometric model and social influence model is proposed for evaluating the influence of pricing policy and public education policy on residential habit of electricity using in power resources management. And, a hybrid society simulation platform based on the proposed model, called residential electricity consumption multi-agent systems (RECMAS), is designed for simulating residential electricity consumption by multi-agent system. RECMAS is composed of consumer agent, power supplier agent, and policy maker agent. It provides the policy makers with a useful tool to evaluate power price policies and public education campaigns in different scenarios. According to an influenced diffusion mechanism, RECMAS can simulate the residential electricity demand-supply chain and analyze impacts of the factors on residential electricity consumption. Finally, the proposed method is used to simulate urban residential electricity consumption in China. (author)

  8. A hybrid society model for simulating residential electricity consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Minjie; Hu, Zhaoguang; Wu, Junyong; Zhou, Yuhui

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a hybrid social model of econometric model and social influence model is proposed for evaluating the influence of pricing policy and public education policy on residential habit of electricity using in power resources management. And, a hybrid society simulation platform based on the proposed model, called residential electricity consumption multi-agent systems (RECMAS), is designed for simulating residential electricity consumption by multi-agent system. RECMAS is composed of consumer agent, power supplier agent, and policy maker agent. It provides the policy makers with a useful tool to evaluate power price policies and public education campaigns in different scenarios. According to an influenced diffusion mechanism, RECMAS can simulate the residential electricity demand-supply chain and analyze impacts of the factors on residential electricity consumption. Finally, the proposed method is used to simulate urban residential electricity consumption in China. (author)

  9. Landscape characterization and biodiversity research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dale, V.H. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Offerman, H. [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States). Geography Dept.; Frohn, R. [Univ. of California, Santa Barbara, CA (United States); Gardner, R.H. [Appalachian Environmental Lab., Frostburg, MD (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Rapid deforestation often produces landscape-level changes in forest characteristics and structure, including area, distribution, and forest habitat types. Changes in landscape pattern through fragmentation or aggregation of natural habitats can alter patterns of abundance for single species and entire communities. Examples of single-species effects include increased predation along the forest edge, the decline in the number of species with poor dispersal mechanisms, and the spread of exotic species that have deleterious effects (e.g., gypsy moth). A decrease in the size and number of natural habitat patches increases the probability of local extirpation and loss of diversity of native species, whereas a decline in connectivity between habitat patches can negatively affect species persistence. Thus, there is empirical justification for managing entire landscapes, not just individual habitat types, in order to insure that native plant and animal diversity is maintained. A landscape is defined as an area composed of a mosaic of interacting ecosystems, or patches, with the heterogeneity among the patches significantly affecting biotic and abiotic processes in the landscape. Patches comprising a landscape are usually composed of discrete areas of relatively homogeneous environmental conditions and must be defined in terms of the organisms of interest. A large body of theoretical work in landscape ecology has provided a wealth of methods for quantifying spatial characteristics of landscapes. Recent advances in remote sensing and geographic information systems allow these methods to be applied over large areas. The objectives of this paper are to present a brief overview of common measures of landscape characteristics, to explore the new technology available for their calculation, to provide examples of their application, and to call attention to the need for collection of spatially-explicit field data.

  10. Landscape services as boundary concept in landscape governance: Building social capital in collaboration and adapting the landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerink, Judith; Opdam, Paul; Rooij, Van Sabine; Steingröver, Eveliene

    2017-01-01

    The landscape services concept provides a lens to study relations within the social-ecological networks that landscapes are, and to identify stakeholders as either providers or beneficiaries. However, landscape services can also be used as a boundary concept in collaborative landscape governance. We

  11. Beyond Landscape MacArchitecture: new languages, new landscapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Rackham

    1996-03-01

    Full Text Available The sine qua non of landscape architecture is respect for the genius loci, but even in the landscape, as in architecture and society more generally, a process of cultural homogenisation has been taking place. Against this process, a resurgence of interest in minority languages in Europe can be seen as an assertion of pride, and a desire to preserve difference. In Scotland, landscape architects are attempting to reinterpret Scottish and northern European urban design influences and materials: in effect to develop a new regional dialect for the new landscapes. Rooted in sound design principles and materials which respond to and reflect the climate, way of life and traditions of the place, design languages can communicate effectively about cultural values and differences.

  12. Functional landscape heterogeneity and animal biodiversity in agricultural landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahrig, Lenore; Baudry, Jacques; Brotons, Lluís; Burel, Françoise G; Crist, Thomas O; Fuller, Robert J; Sirami, Clelia; Siriwardena, Gavin M; Martin, Jean-Louis

    2011-02-01

    Biodiversity in agricultural landscapes can be increased with conversion of some production lands into 'more-natural'- unmanaged or extensively managed - lands. However, it remains unknown to what extent biodiversity can be enhanced by altering landscape pattern without reducing agricultural production. We propose a framework for this problem, considering separately compositional heterogeneity (the number and proportions of different cover types) and configurational heterogeneity (the spatial arrangement of cover types). Cover type classification and mapping is based on species requirements, such as feeding and nesting, resulting in measures of 'functional landscape heterogeneity'. We then identify three important questions: does biodiversity increase with (1) increasing heterogeneity of the more-natural areas, (2) increasing compositional heterogeneity of production cover types and (3) increasing configurational heterogeneity of production cover types? We discuss approaches for addressing these questions. Such studies should have high priority because biodiversity protection globally depends increasingly on maintaining biodiversity in human-dominated landscapes. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  13. Landscape Painting in Evaluation of Changes in Landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lacina Jan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available One of common methods of determining landscape change usually is to compare maps and photographic images of the same places in different time horizons. Landscape painting, which has a long and rich tradition in the Czech Republic, can be used similarly. Landscape-ecological interpretation of selected works by painters of the 19th century - Julius Mařák, František Kaván and Antonín Slavíček was done in this paper. Some pictures of the Českomoravská vrchovina (Bohemian-Moravian highlands by Josef Jambor from the mid-20th century were used for detailed comparative analysis to the level of habitats. We compared 80 landscape paintings and found that most of the painted sceneries have changed for worse.

  14. Studying landscape architecture in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Ellen Marie; Hare, Richard Andrew

    2010-01-01

    s demanded large numbers of landscape architects. Today landscape architecture education addresses current challenges of climate change and the need for sustainable development where an understanding of natural systems is seen as essential for future urbanisation processes in evermore innovative......Landscape architecture is a well-established profession in Denmark. From the early 20th Century the profession developed steadily. However, it was 1960 before a separate education was established. This proved timely as the immense physical development of the Danish welfare state of the 1970s and 80...

  15. Studying landscape architecture in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braae, Ellen Marie; Hare, Richard Andrew

    2010-01-01

    Landscape architecture is a well-established profession in Denmark. From the early 20th Century the profession developed steadily. However, it was 1960 before a separate education was established. This proved timely as the immense physical development of the Danish welfare state of the 1970s and 80......s demanded large numbers of landscape architects. Today landscape architecture education addresses current challenges of climate change and the need for sustainable development where an understanding of natural systems is seen as essential for future urbanisation processes in evermore innovative...

  16. Decision Making on Fitness Landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arthur, Rudy; Sibani, Paolo

    2017-01-01

    We discuss fitness landscapes and how they can be modified to account for co-evolution. We are interested in using the landscape as a way to model rational decision making in a toy economic system. We develop a model very similar to the Tangled Nature Model of Christensen et. al. that we call...... the Tangled Decision Model. This is a natural setting for our discussion of co-evolutionary fitness landscapes. We use a Monte Carlo step to simulate decision making and investigate two different decision making procedures....

  17. Stability Landscape of Shell Buckling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virot, Emmanuel; Kreilos, Tobias; Schneider, Tobias M.; Rubinstein, Shmuel M.

    2017-12-01

    We measure the response of cylindrical shells to poking and identify a stability landscape, which fully characterizes the stability of perfect shells and imperfect ones in the case where a single defect dominates. We show that the landscape of stability is independent of the loading protocol and the poker geometry. Our results suggest that the complex stability of shells reduces to a low dimensional description. Tracking ridges and valleys of this landscape defines a natural phase-space coordinates for describing the stability of shells.

  18. Comparing Road-Kill Datasets from Hunters and Citizen Scientists in a Landscape Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian Heigl

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic has severe effects on animals, especially when road-kills are involved. In many countries, official road-kill data are provided by hunters or police; there are also road-kill observations reported by citizen scientists. The aim of the current study was to test whether road-kill reports by hunters stem from similar landscapes than those reported by citizen scientists. We analysed the surrounding landscapes of 712 road-kill reportings of European hares in the province of Lower Austria. Our data showed that road-killed hares reported both by hunters and citizens are predominantly surrounded by arable land. No difference of hedges and solitary trees could be found between the two datasets. However, significant differences in landcover classes and surrounding road networks indicate that hunters’ and citizen scientists’ data are different. Hunters reported hares from landscapes with significantly higher percentages of arable land, and greater lengths of secondary roads. In contrast, citizens reported hares from landscapes with significantly higher percentages of urban or industrial areas and greater lengths of motorways, primary roads, and residential roads. From this we argue that hunters tend to report data mainly from their hunting areas, whereas citizens report data during their daily routine on the way to/from work. We conclude that a citizen science approach is an important source for road-kill data when used in addition to official data with the aim of obtaining an overview of road-kill events on a landscape scale.

  19. How architectural design affords experiences of freedom in residential care for older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Steenwinkel, Iris; Dierckx de Casterlé, Bernadette; Heylighen, Ann

    2017-04-01

    Human values and social issues shape visions on dwelling and care for older people, a growing number of whom live in residential care facilities. These facilities' architectural design is considered to play an important role in realizing care visions. This role, however, has received little attention in research. This article presents a case study of a residential care facility for which the architects made considerable effort to match the design with the care vision. The study offers insights into residents' and caregivers' experiences of, respectively, living and working in this facility, and the role of architectural features therein. A single qualitative case study design was used to provide in-depth, contextual insights. The methods include semi-structured interviews with residents and caregivers, and participant observation. Data concerning design intentions, assumptions and strategies were obtained from design documents, through a semi-structured interview with the architects, and observations on site. Our analysis underlines the importance of freedom (and especially freedom of movement), and the balance between experiencing freedom and being bound to a social and physical framework. It shows the architecture features that can have a role therein: small-scaleness in terms of number of residents per dwelling unit, size and compactness; spatial generosity in terms of surface area, room to maneuver and variety of places; and physical accessibility. Our study challenges the idea of family-like group living. Since we found limited sense of group belonging amongst residents, our findings suggest to rethink residential care facilities in terms of private or collective living in order to address residents' social freedom of movement. Caregivers associated 'hominess' with freedom of movement, action and choice, with favorable social dynamics and with the building's residential character. Being perceived as homey, the facility's architectural design matches caregivers

  20. Impacts of urban landscape patterns on urban thermal variations in Guangzhou, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Youjun; Yu, Shixiao

    2017-02-01

    One of the key impacts of rapid urbanization on the environment is the effect of surface urban thermal variations (SUTV). Understanding the effects of urban landscape features on SUTV is crucial for improving the ecology and sustainability of cities. In this study, an investigation was conducted to detect urban landscape patterns and assess their impact on surface temperature. Landsat images: Thematic Mapper was used to calculate land surface temperature (LST) in Guangzhou, the capital city of Guangdong Province in southern China. SUTV zones, including surface urban heat islands (SUHI) and surface urban heat sinks (SUHS), were then empirically identified. The composition and configuration of landscape patterns were measured by a series of spatial metrics at the class and landscape levels in the SUHI and SUHS zones. How both landscape composition and configuration influence urban thermal characteristics was then analysed. It was found that landscape composition has the strongest effect on SUTV, but that urban landscape configuration also influences SUTV. These findings are helpful for achieving a comprehensive understanding of how urban landscape patterns impact SUTV and can help in the design of effective urban landscape patterns to minimize the effects of SUHI.

  1. Landscape genetics in a changing world: disentangling historical and contemporary influences and inferring change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epps, Clinton W; Keyghobadi, Nusha

    2015-12-01

    Landscape genetics seeks to determine the effect of landscape features on gene flow and genetic structure. Often, such analyses are intended to inform conservation and management. However, depending on the many factors that influence the time to reach equilibrium, genetic structure may more strongly represent past rather than contemporary landscapes. This well-known lag between current demographic processes and population genetic structure often makes it challenging to interpret how contemporary landscapes and anthropogenic activity shape gene flow. Here, we review the theoretical framework for factors that influence time lags, summarize approaches to address this temporal disconnect in landscape genetic studies, and evaluate ways to make inferences about landscape change and its effects on species using genetic data alone or in combination with other data. Those approaches include comparing correlation of genetic structure with historical versus contemporary landscapes, using molecular markers with different rates of evolution, contrasting metrics of genetic structure and gene flow that reflect population genetic processes operating at different temporal scales, comparing historical and contemporary samples, combining genetic data with contemporary estimates of species distribution or movement, and controlling for phylogeographic history. We recommend using simulated data sets to explore time lags in genetic structure, and argue that time lags should be explicitly considered both when designing and interpreting landscape genetic studies. We conclude that the time lag problem can be exploited to strengthen inferences about recent landscape changes and to establish conservation baselines, particularly when genetic data are combined with other data. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Possible pingos and a periglacial landscape in northwest Utopia Planitia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soare, R.J.; Burr, D.M.; Wan, Bun Tseung J.-M.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrostatic (closed-system) pingos are small, elongate to circular, ice-cored mounds that are perennial features of some periglacial landscapes. The growth and development of hydrostatic pingos is contingent upon the presence of surface water, freezing processes and of deep, continuous, ice-cemented permafrost. Other cold-climate landforms such as small-sized, polygonal patterned ground also may occur in the areas where pingos are found. On Mars, landscapes comprising small, elongate to circular mounds and other possible periglacial features have been identified in various areas, including Utopia Planitia, where water is thought to have played an important role in landscape evolution. Despite the importance of the martian mounds as possible markers of water, most accounts of them in the planetary science literature have been brief and/or based upon Viking imagery. We use a high-resolution Mars Orbiter Camera image (EO300299) and superposed Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter data tracks to describe and characterise a crater-floor landscape in northwest Utopia Planitia (64.8?? N/292.7?? W). The landscape comprises an assemblage of landforms that is consistent with the past presence of water and of periglacial processes. This geomorphological assemblage may have formed as recently as the last episode of high obliquity. A similar assemblage of landforms is found in the Tuktoyaktuk peninsula of northern Canada and other terrestrial cold-climate landscapes. We point to the similarity of the two assemblages and suggest that the small, roughly circular mounds on the floor of the impact crater in northwest Utopia Planitia are hydrostatic pingos. Like the hydrostatic pingos of the Tuktoyaktuk peninsula, the origin of the crater-floor mounds could be tied to the loss of ponded, local water, permafrost aggradation and the evolution of a sub-surface ice core. ?? 2004 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. LANDSCAPE PLANNING IN UKRAINE: THE FIRST LANDSCAPE-PLANNING PROGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonid Rudenko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of the first, in Ukraine; project on landscape planning widely accepted in European countries. Under the project implemented in 2010–2013, a landscape-planning program has been developed for the Cherkassy oblast. This is the first document of this kind in Ukraine. The program is mainly based on the experience of the German and Russian schools of landscape planning and on research and assessment conducted by the authors, which allowed identifying approaches to landscape planning, principles of the national policy, and characteristics and potential of environmentally friendly planning in Ukraine. The paper discusses the main phases of the work on the development of the landscape program for the oblast. It also identifies the main stages and key concepts and principles of landscape planning. The paper presents the results of integrated research on the identification and classification of conflicts in land use and the integral concept of the developmental goals for the oblast. The results can be the foundation for adopting management decisions and development of action plans for the lower hierarchal branches.

  4. Landscape in Cinema: Images to Think Time through Space

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipa Rosário

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This text is an introduction to the special issue on ‘Landscape and Cinema’ published by Aniki. Portuguese Journal of the Moving Image. It is composed of a brief state of the art, which anchors this work within the bibliography on the subject, and a synthetic description of the discourses developed by the six papers included in the issue: the first one addresses the historical and aesthetic evolution of the background in the Russian and Soviet cinema of the first decades of the twentieth century; the second discusses the representation of the Portuguese landscape in Manuel Guimarães’ films; the third identifies a few cinematic techniques that work as conventions of psychological landscape film, such as juxtaposition and superimposition; the fourth interprets the meaning of Brazilian urban landscapes showed in the feature film A Vida Provisória (Maurício Gomes Leite, 1968; the fifth deals with the corporeal and conceptual relations between body, memory and landscape through a sensory reading of the films Ten Skies (James Benning, 2004 and Sin Peso (Cao Guimarães, 2007; and finally, the sixth undertakes a comparative analysis of three South American non-fiction works that show several waterscapes as places of memory: El botón de nácar (Patricio Guzmán, 2015, Los durmientes (Enrique Ramírez, 2015 and Las aguas del olvido (Jonathan Perel, 2013. The aim of this preliminary text is therefore to introduce the main contents of the issue and some of its conclusions. In this sense, it is necessary to emphasise the open and polysemic nature of landscape, which works, inside and outside cinema, as a palimpsest in which multiple meanings come together. For this reason, those films that depict, create and intervene in landscape allow to perceive, among other things, the overlapping of historical and subjective times that takes place in certain spaces.

  5. Energy landscapes in a crowded world

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pasqualetti, Martin; Stremke, Sven

    2018-01-01

    One of the main drivers of landscape transformation has been our demand for energy. We refer to the results of such transformations as "energy landscapes". This paper examines the definition of energy landscapes within a conceptual framework, proposes a classification of energy landscapes, and

  6. Bipolarity and Ambivalence in Landscape Architecture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koh, J.

    2010-01-01

    Our discipline of landscape architecture contains bipolarity, not only in terms of landscape and architecture but also because the idea of landscape is both aesthetic and scientific. Furthermore, within landscape architecture there is a gap between design (as implied by architecture) and planning

  7. Perspectives on landscape identity, a conceptual challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stobbelaar, D.J.; Pedroli, B.

    2011-01-01

    The concept of landscape identity is often referred to in landscape policy and planning. A clear definition of the concept is lacking however. This is problematic because the term ‘landscape identity’ can have many different meanings and thus easily lead to confusion. We define landscape identity as

  8. Landscape genomics: A brief perspective [Chapter 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael K. Schwartz; Gordon Luikart; Kevin S. McKelvey; Samuel A. Cushman

    2010-01-01

    Landscape genetics is the amalgamation of population genetics and landscape ecology (see Manel et al. 2003; Storfer et al. 2007). In Chapter 17, we discuss landscape genetics and provide two examples of applications in the area of modeling population connectivity and inferring fragmentation. These examples, like virtually all extant landscape genetic analyses, were...

  9. Identification of scenically preferred forest landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberta C. Patey; Richard M. Evans

    1979-01-01

    This study identified manipulated forest landscapes with a low understory shrub density as being esthetic-ally preferred over non-manipulated, dense understory landscapes. This landscape pattern was identified both qualitatively, by preference ratings of respondents, and quantitatively, by measuring the physical components of each landscape. Forest sites were selected...

  10. Navigating the internet safely: recommendations for residential programs targeting at-risk adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pridgen, Bryan

    2010-01-01

    Adolescence is a period during human development characterized by a variety of biological, psychological, and social changes. Navigating these changes can be a stressful experience for both adolescents and their families. To complicate matters further, the Internet has altered the landscape of human interaction in a way that may accentuate deficits in the capacity for self-sustaining, reciprocal peer relationships. Adolescents suffering from emotional and behavioral disorders may be especially prone to this influence, as evidenced by our observation of the growing clinical trend of adolescents admitted to inpatient and residential psychiatric units who present with a history of risky cyber-behaviors. Within these settings, education for adolescents and their families around appropriate use of the Internet, as well as social training for the online management of the impulsivity and poor judgment that is so often characteristic of adolescence, is vital. Milieu models employed in the treatment of emotionally troubled adolescents must adapt so as to incorporate the identification of problematic attachment behaviors not only in real-time relationships, but also as those behaviors inevitably occur in more troubling and potentially destructive ways over the Internet. The article addresses this need by offering recommendations for the creation of a skills-based, Internet-focused curriculum for inpatient and residential programs targeting at-risk adolescents. Evaluating the association between online communication habits and the evolution of disturbances in attachment systems is an important future direction for research aimed at safeguarding the emotional and physical well-being of all adolescents.

  11. MEASURE OF LANDSCAPE HETEROGENEITY BY AGENT-BASED METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Wirth

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid increase of the world's population, the efficient food production is one of the key factors of the human survival. Since biodiversity and heterogeneity is the basis of the sustainable agriculture, the authors tried to measure the heterogeneity of a chosen landscape. The EU farming and subsidizing policies (EEA, 2014 support landscape heterogeneity and diversity, nevertheless exact measurements and calculations apart from statistical parameters (standard deviation, mean, do not really exist. In the present paper the authors’ goal is to find an objective, dynamic method that measures landscape heterogeneity. It is achieved with the so called agent-based modelling, where randomly dispatched dynamic scouts record the observed land cover parameters and sum up the features of a new type of land. During the simulation the agents collect a Monte Carlo integral as a diversity landscape potential which can be considered as the unit of the ‘greening’ measure. As a final product of the ABM method, a landscape potential map is obtained that can serve as a tool for objective decision making to support agricultural diversity.

  12. Measure of Landscape Heterogeneity by Agent-Based Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, E.; Szabó, Gy.; Czinkóczky, A.

    2016-06-01

    With the rapid increase of the world's population, the efficient food production is one of the key factors of the human survival. Since biodiversity and heterogeneity is the basis of the sustainable agriculture, the authors tried to measure the heterogeneity of a chosen landscape. The EU farming and subsidizing policies (EEA, 2014) support landscape heterogeneity and diversity, nevertheless exact measurements and calculations apart from statistical parameters (standard deviation, mean), do not really exist. In the present paper the authors' goal is to find an objective, dynamic method that measures landscape heterogeneity. It is achieved with the so called agent-based modelling, where randomly dispatched dynamic scouts record the observed land cover parameters and sum up the features of a new type of land. During the simulation the agents collect a Monte Carlo integral as a diversity landscape potential which can be considered as the unit of the `greening' measure. As a final product of the ABM method, a landscape potential map is obtained that can serve as a tool for objective decision making to support agricultural diversity.

  13. Humane design for hospital landscapes: a case study in landscape architecture of a healing garden for nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderi, Jody Rosenblatt; Shin, Woo-Hwa

    2008-01-01

    The overall goal of this study was to design a beautiful garden to provide a spatial experience of renewal for hospital nursing staff and for their ecologically- and culturally-specific healing. The first objective of this study was to identify the physical, social, and spiritual attributes of an existing courtyard to determine which features encouraged or discouraged use. A site-specific design concept and user-specific survey instrument were developed to gather data directly from the nursing staff on campus. There has been growing evidence that landscapes for renewal have measurable characteristics. Physical, social, and spiritual characteristics of the landscape interrelate to determine the appropriateness of a landscape for a particular health outcome. Increasingly, evidence demonstrates that contact with the living world around us is an important part of healing and recovery. This design project created a natural opportunity to research the effect of landscape improvements on renewal. The method combined standard landscape architecture ecological site design process with a qualitative empirical study of staff characteristics and landscape preferences. The transparency of the landscape design process provided the basis for a post-occupancy evaluation in the future. Sixty-one nurses participated in the qualitative phase of the design process. Preferences for contact with nature and privacy were significant among the staff. The spatial structure of the concepts was revised to include private table-and-chair places for one or two people and features that would encourage a contemplative pedestrian walk along existing shortcuts. To encourage the benefits of the typical staff's very short exposure to the garden, archetypal landscape features-thresholds, contemplative paths, garden benches, a symbolic creek, and sacred springs-were arranged to shift the spiritual dimension of the place from that of an exposed, dry gulley ravine to a green, fertile oasis. The courtyard

  14. Qualified Health Plan (QHP) Landscape

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — QHP Landscape Files present basic information about certified Qualified Health Plans and Stand-alone Dental Plans for individuals-families and small businesses...

  15. Flowscapes : Designing infrastructure as landscape

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nijhuis, S.; Jauslin, D.T.; Van der Hoeven, F.D.

    2015-01-01

    Social, cultural and technological developments of our society are demanding a fundamental review of the planning and design of its landscapes and infrastructures, in particular in relation to environmental issues and sustainability. Transportation, green and water infrastructures are important

  16. The evolving landscape of banking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, A.W.A.; Marinč, M.

    2008-01-01

    The structure of the financial services industry is in flux. Liberalization, deregulation, and advances in information technology have changed the financial landscape dramatically. Interbank competition has heated up and banks face increasing competition from nonbanking financial institutions and

  17. Greenhouse warming and landscape care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kevin T. Smith

    2009-01-01

    Climate change is one of the few truly planetary processes that influence the assessments and actions of governments and of everyday citizens. Principles and practices of ecological landscaping fit well with concern about hte effects of climate change.

  18. GDOT historic landscape mitigation evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-04-29

    Historic Landscapes are our nations finger prints of the past. They provide us a glimpse into the way people worked, lived, and admired : the land. As the earths population continues to grow, so does the need for infrastructure improvements suc...

  19. Changing wind-power landscapes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Möller, Bernd

    2006-01-01

    After more than 25 years of continuous development, Danish wind-energy landscapes are due for face changes. On-shore construction has ceased and necessary re-powering schemes have not been introduced as yet. Regional planning is discouraging, while conditions for erecting new turbines have become...... more stringent. One of the factors inhibiting development seems to be uncertainty in planning about the future impact on landscapes. Visual impact has rarely been an issue so far, but ever-increasing turbine size and less local involvement may change this. This paper presents a deterministic approach...... of determining the likely visual-impact on landscapes and population, taking into account that there is no clear threshold for perceived adverse visual-impact. A geographical information system (GIS) has been used to build a regional landscape model for Northern Jutland County, which is used to assess visibility...

  20. Studying Landforms through Landscape Painting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glenn, William H.

    1981-01-01

    Using three specific works of art, the author demonstrates how a study of selected landscape paintings can be integrated into units on landforms in secondary school earth science and general science courses. (Author/SJL)