WorldWideScience

Sample records for residential housing units

  1. High Performance Residential Housing Units at U.S. Coast Guard Base Kodiak: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, R.; Hickey, J.

    2013-10-01

    The United States Coast Guard (USCG) constructs residential housing throughout the country using a basic template that must meet the minimum Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design (LEED) Silver criteria or better for the units. In Kodiak, Alaska, USCG is procuring between 24 and 100 residential multi-family housing units. Priorities for the Kodiak project were to reduce overall energyconsumption by at least 20% over existing units, improve envelope construction, and evaluate space heating options. USCG is challenged with maintaining similar existing units that have complicated residential diesel boilers. Additionally, fuel and material costs are high in Kodiak. While USCG has worked to optimize the performance of the housing units with principles of improved buildingenvelope, the engineers realize there are still opportunities for improvement, especially within the heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) system and different envelope measures. USCG staff also desires to balance higher upfront project costs for significantly reduced life-cycle costs of the residential units that have an expected lifetime of 50 or more years. To answer thesequestions, this analysis used the residential modeling tool BEoptE+ to examine potential energy- saving opportunities for the climate. The results suggest criteria for achieving optimized housing performance at the lowest cost. USCG will integrate the criteria into their procurement process. To achieve greater than 50% energy savings, USCG will need to specify full 2x 6 wood stud R-21 insulationwith two 2 inches of exterior foam, R-38 ceiling insulation or even wall insulation in the crawl space, and R-49 fiberglass batts in a the vented attic. The air barrier should be improved to ensure a tight envelope with minimal infiltration to the goal of 2.0 ACH50. With the implementation of an air source heat pump for space heating requirements, the combination of HVAC and envelope savings inthe residential unit can save

  2. Overcrowding of Residential Houses in Ethiopia: A Study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Existing housing related evidences attest to the fact that many Ethiopians live in houses that are not conducive for healthy life. This article examines the nature of overcrowding of residential units in Ethiopia using the 2007 Population and Housing Census data supported by literature. Descriptive and multivariate statistical ...

  3. Contestation in the Use of Residential space: House Typologies and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need to accommodate the populace creates competition for space; the outcome of this competition has produced differently zoned areas such as residential areas, shopping centres, parks and office towers. Bulawayo's residential areas are dominated by one-household units or detached one-storey houses in the ...

  4. United States housing, 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delton Alderman

    2013-01-01

    Provides current and historical information on housing market in the United States. Information includes trends for housing permits and starts, housing completions for single and multifamily units, and sales and construction. This report will be updated annually.

  5. Energy efficient residential house wall system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldawi, Fayez; Date, Abhijit; Alam, Firoz; Khan, Iftekhar; Alghamdi, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    The energy consumption and greenhouse gas emission by the residential housing sector are considered to be one of the largest in economically developed countries. The larger energy consumption and greenhouse gas emission not only put additional pressure on finite fossil fuel resources but also cause global warming and climate change. Additionally, the residential housing sector will be consuming more energy as the house demand and average house floor area are progressively increasing. With currently used residential house wall systems, it is hard to reduce energy consumption for ongoing house space heating and cooling. A smart house wall envelope with optimal thermal masses and insulation materials is vital for reducing our increasing energy consumption. The major aim of this study is to investigate thermal performance and energy saving potential of a new house wall system for variable climate conditions. The thermal performance modelling was carried out using commercially developed software AccuRate ® . The findings indicate that a notable energy savings can be accomplished if a smart house wall system is used. -- Highlights: • Smart house wall system. • Thermal performance modelling and star energy rating. • Energy savings and greenhouse gas reduction

  6. 24 CFR 245.417 - Initial submission of materials to HUD: Conversion of residential units to a nonresidential use...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... HUD: Conversion of residential units to a nonresidential use, or to cooperative housing or... Covered Action § 245.417 Initial submission of materials to HUD: Conversion of residential units to a nonresidential use, or to cooperative housing or condominiums. In the case of a conversion of residential units...

  7. PROCIV, Protection Coefficient from Fallout in Residential Area Housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warme-Janville, B.

    1983-01-01

    Description of problem or function: PROCIV calculates the protection coefficients against radioactive fallout for collective housing in a residential area. Each house is simulated by a cylindrical tower. The material thickness traversed by the photons is converted to an equivalent layer of air. The masking by neighbouring houses is taken into account

  8. Patterns of residential crowding among Hispanics in later life: immigration, assimilation, and housing market factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burr, Jeffrey A; Mutchler, Jan E; Gerst, Kerstin

    2010-11-01

    We describe patterns of residential crowding among older Hispanics and non-Hispanic Whites. We also examine hypotheses about the relationship of residential crowding with assimilation (language and duration of residence) and housing market characteristics. We employ a multilevel research design, using data from the 2000 U.S. Census of Population. Hierarchical linear models are utilized to estimate the association between residential crowding and both individual and housing market factors. Approximately one third of older Hispanics in metropolitan areas live in crowded housing compared with only one tenth of older non-Hispanic Whites. Foreign-born older persons report higher levels of crowding than U.S.-born older persons. Residential crowding differences between older Hispanics and non-Hispanics are not eliminated after controls are included. Older Hispanics who report better English language skills and a longer duration of residence in the United States live in less crowded housing. We do not find evidence for a relationship between crowding and residential segregation, but we find consistent evidence for an association between residential crowding and relative size of the Hispanic population. The forces that shape household composition and access to housing among older Hispanics appear to result in higher levels of residential crowding for this population.

  9. Housing equity, residential mobility and commuting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloze, Gintautas; Skak, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Highly productive economies require a flexible labor force with workers that move in accordance with the changing demand for goods and services. In times with falling housing prices, the mobility of home owning workers may be hampered by a lock-in effect of low or even negative housing equity. Th...

  10. Determinants Of Housing Satisfaction In Residential Localities ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Six major dimensions or factors were produced as determinants of housing satisfaction in Uyo. These factors are social infrastructure, housing facilities, consumers goods availability, health and leisure water supply and security service factors. These six factors accounted for 80% of the variation within the data set. These six ...

  11. housing tenure, residential moves and children's educational

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    CHILDREN'S EDUCATIONAL PERFORMANCE IN ACCRA,. GHANA ... Given equal family income and other back- ground opportunities, children ... between housing environment experienced dur- ing childhood and .... pils by evaluating parent and student responses. ..... mental health and behaviour: Structural equation ...

  12. Financial analysis on the proposed renewable heat incentive for residential houses in the United Kingdom: A case study on the solar thermal system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abu-Bakar, Siti Hawa; Muhammad-Sukki, Firdaus; Ramirez-Iniguez, Roberto; Munir, Abu Bakar; Mohd Yasin, Siti Hajar; Mallick, Tapas Kumar; McLennan, Campbell; Abdul Rahim, Ruzairi

    2014-01-01

    This short communication paper focuses on the renewable heat incentive (RHI) scheme in the United Kingdom (UK); and in particular, on its implication on domestic installations of solar thermal systems (STSs). First, a short review on the STS in the UK is provided. Then, a detailed description of the RHI is discussed. A financial analysis is presented afterwards, analysing the impact of the RHI scheme on the applicants, in terms of the net present value and the internal rate of return. From the financial analysis it has been found that the RHI scheme for domestic installations is only attractive if a longer period of RHI payment, i.e. 17 years, or a higher RHI rate i.e. £0.32 per kW h is implemented. The current proposal from the UK government is not financially viable, and as a result, it may hinder the penetration of domestic solar thermal systems in the residential sector in the UK. - Highlights: • A short review on solar thermal system (STS) is presented. • The renewable heat incentive (RHI) scheme is discussed. • A financial analysis is evaluated under the RHI scheme in the UK. • The analysis indicates the current proposal is not desirable to consumers

  13. Thermal Insulation for Naturally Ventilated Residential Houses in Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimann, Gregers Peter; Jensen, Kasper Lynge; Nielsen, Tryggvi

    Temperature logging for three Malaysian residential houses is used to validate the Malaysian weather data year (hourly values) and to validate the simulation software Bsim for use in Malaysia. The fit between simulated and measured data is satisfactory, as only a maximum difference of 0.5°C...

  14. 120 Years of U.S. Residential Housing Stock and Floor Space

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pinto de Moura, Maria C.; Smith, Steven J.; Belzer, David B.

    2015-08-11

    Energy consumption in the residential sector accounts for one-fifth of total U.S. energy consumption and energy-related CO2 emissions. Floor space is a major driver of building energy demand. This paper develops a historical time series of total residential floor space for 1891-2010 and examines the role of socio-economic drivers GDP, population and household size on floor space. Using primarily data from the U.S. Census Bureau, we develop new construction and vintage-disaggregated housing stock for three building types, and address various data inconsistency issues. An examination of the long-term relationship of GDP and total residential floor space shows a remarkably constant trend over the period. While population increases five times over the period, a 50% decrease in household size contributes towards a tenfold increase in the number of housing units and floor space, while average floor space per unit remains surprisingly constant, as a result of housing retirement dynamics. In the last 30 years, however, these trends appear to be changing, as household size shows signs of leveling off, or even increasing again, while average floor space per unit has been increasing. Total residential sector primary energy consumption and floor space show a similar growth trend over the last 60 years.

  15. Shielding of gamma field in residential houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smejkal, Z; Pavlata, M [Univ. Pardubice, (Czech Republic); Pokorna, I; Urban, M [Institute of CO CR, 53341 Lazne Bohdanec (Czech Republic)

    1996-12-31

    In the past some flats were built from defective materials contained uranium-238, which radiate dangerous gamma radiation. The object of this work consisted in searching mechanical barriers, which would decrease penetrating of this radiation into a flat. The measurement was realized in system made of connecting of Ge/Li detector with multichannel analyser MCA JAK 202 and IBM PC. Plenty of building parts such as bricks, plaster slabs with/without lead dust, wasted plaster from Pocerady Electric Power Station (EPS), etc., were measured to get and compare shading abilities. Maximal intensity of gamma radiation (47.1%) is visible for energy E=609 keV radium-226, therefore the measurement was only carried out for this energy. The measurement performed in defective houses start during years 1988-1991 demonstrated that excepting higher activity radon-222 and its daughter products forms uneligible gamma field, as well. This is limited by values of rate dose equivalent. The problem was successfully solved by lead slabs fixed to wood construction that is covered by applications. The manipulation with materials and construction was difficult, therefore another materials and segments were tested, for more easy fix to defective walls. In 1995 the experiment was realised in the cooperation with the chemical department of Pocerady EPS, the plaster is outlet product from the removing sulphur process. There were made an experimental slabs, sizes 18 x 18 x 2 cm. The barrier effect of slabs were compared with other building material and parts. So that the elimination of radiation would be effective is necessary reduce the level of radiation penetrating to the smallest level. However, the the thickness of shading material is limited by economical reasons, prices of material, square weighting and reducing of living room. (Abstract Truncated)

  16. Shielding of gamma field in residential houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smejkal, Z.; Pavlata, M.; Pokorna, I.; Urban, M.

    1995-01-01

    In the past some flats were built from defective materials contained uranium-238, which radiate dangerous gamma radiation. The object of this work consisted in searching mechanical barriers, which would decrease penetrating of this radiation into a flat. The measurement was realized in system made of connecting of Ge/Li detector with multichannel analyser MCA JAK 202 and IBM PC. Plenty of building parts such as bricks, plaster slabs with/without lead dust, wasted plaster from Pocerady Electric Power Station (EPS), etc., were measured to get and compare shading abilities. Maximal intensity of gamma radiation (47.1%) is visible for energy E=609 keV radium-226, therefore the measurement was only carried out for this energy. The measurement performed in defective houses start during years 1988-1991 demonstrated that excepting higher activity radon-222 and its daughter products forms uneligible gamma field, as well. This is limited by values of rate dose equivalent. The problem was successfully solved by lead slabs fixed to wood construction that is covered by applications. The manipulation with materials and construction was difficult, therefore another materials and segments were tested, for more easy fix to defective walls. In 1995 the experiment was realised in the cooperation with the chemical department of Pocerady EPS, the plaster is outlet product from the removing sulphur process. There were made an experimental slabs, sizes 18 x 18 x 2 cm. The barrier effect of slabs were compared with other building material and parts. So that the elimination of radiation would be effective is necessary reduce the level of radiation penetrating to the smallest level. However, the the thickness of shading material is limited by economical reasons, prices of material, square weighting and reducing of living room. The results of measuring is this one: the plaster slabs with lead dust made in EPS Pocerady are suitable to reduce gamma ray, the values of reducing coefficient are

  17. The impact of weather variation on energy consumption in residential houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fikru, Mahelet G.; Gautier, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • There is evidence for significant intraday variation of energy use. • The sensitivity of energy use to weather variation falls via efficiency features. • The sensitivity of energy use to weather depends on the specific time of day/night. • High frequency data helps to accurately model the energy use-weather relationship. - Abstract: This paper studies the impact of weather variation on energy use by using 5-minutes interval weather–energy data obtained from two residential houses: house 1 is a conventional house with advanced efficiency features and house 2 is a net-zero solar house with relatively more advanced efficiency features. Our result suggests that energy consumption in house 2 is not as sensitive to changes in weather variables as the conventional house. On average, we find that a one unit increase in heating and cooling degree minutes increases energy use by about 9% and 5% respectively for house 1 and 5% and 4% respectively for house 2. In addition, our findings suggest that non-temperature variables such as solar radiation and humidity affect energy use where the sensitivity rates for house 2 are consistently lower than that of house 1. Furthermore our result suggests that the sensitivity of energy use to weather depends on the season and specific time of the day/night

  18. Condition assessment and strengthening of residential units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatheer Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available About 40, ground plus one (G+1 residential units were designed using a hybrid structural framing system (RC frame and load bearing walls. A few months after the completion of the ground floor of the residential units, cracks appeared at several locations in the structure. Field and Laboratory testing was conducted to ascertain the in situ strength of concrete and steel reinforcement. The results of the experimental work were used in the analytical ETABS model for the structural stability calculations. The results indicated that residential units were marginally safe in the existing condition (completed ground floor, but the anticipated construction of the floor above the ground floor (G+1 could not be carried out as the strength of the structural system was inadequate. To increase the safety of existing ground floor and to provide the option of the construction of one floor above, rehabilitation and strengthening design was performed. The proposed strengthening design made use of welded wire fabric (WWF and carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP laminates/sheets for the strengthening of walls, columns and slabs. The residential units will be strengthened in the near future.

  19. 120 Years of U.S. Residential Housing Stock and Floor Space.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Cecilia P Moura

    Full Text Available Residential buildings are a key driver of energy consumption and also impact transportation and land-use. Energy consumption in the residential sector accounts for one-fifth of total U.S. energy consumption and energy-related CO2 emissions, with floor space a major driver of building energy demands. In this work a consistent, vintage-disaggregated, annual long-term series of U.S. housing stock and residential floor space for 1891-2010 is presented. An attempt was made to minimize the effects of the incompleteness and inconsistencies present in the national housing survey data. Over the 1891-2010 period, floor space increased almost tenfold, from approximately 24,700 to 235,150 million square feet, corresponding to a doubling of floor space per capita from approximately 400 to 800 square feet. While population increased five times over the period, a 50% decrease in household size contributed towards a tenfold increase in the number of housing units and floor space, while average floor space per unit remains surprisingly constant, as a result of housing retirement dynamics. In the last 30 years, however, these trends appear to be changing, as household size shows signs of leveling off, or even increasing again, while average floor space per unit has been increasing. GDP and total floor space show a remarkably constant growth trend over the period and total residential sector primary energy consumption and floor space show a similar growth trend over the last 60 years, decoupling only within the last decade.

  20. Wood Products Other Building Materials Used in New Residential Construction in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    David B. McKeever; Joe Elling

    2015-01-01

    On average, new residential construction accounts for about one-third of all wood products consumed in the United States annually. During periods of robust housing activity, 45% or more of all wood products consumed are for new single-family and multifamily housing. This can fall to as low as 20% or less during times of economic recession. Unfortunately, 2012 was not...

  1. Energy efficiency in U.S. residential rental housing: Adoption rates and impact on rent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Im, Jongho; Seo, Youngme; Cetin, Kristen S.; Singh, Jasmeet

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Rental units listings collected and analyzed for 10 U.S. cities. •Energy efficient features included in 5.3–21.6% of rental units in each city. •The most common efficient features are lighting and appliance upgrades. •Propensity score matching and conditional mean comparison methods used. •Generally, energy efficient features increases the units’ rent, overall from 6% to 14%. -- Abstract: For 118 million residential housing units in the U.S., there is currently a gap between the potential energy savings that can be achieved through the use of existing energy efficiency technologies, and the actual level of energy savings realized, particularly for the 37% of housing units that are considered residential rental properties. Additional quantifiable benefits are needed beyond energy savings to help further motivate residential property owners to invest in energy efficiency upgrades. This research focuses on assessing the adoption of energy efficient upgrades in U.S. residential housing and the impact on rental prices. Ten U.S. cities are chosen for analysis; these cities vary in size across multiple climate zones, and represent a diverse set of housing market conditions. Data was collected for over 159,000 rental property listings, their characteristics, and their energy efficiency measures listed in rental housing postings across each city. Following an extensive data quality control process, over thirty different types energy efficient features were identified. The level of adoption was determined for each city, ranging from 5.3% to 21.6%. Efficient lighting and appliances were among the most common, with many features doubling as energy efficient and other desirable aesthetic or comfort improvements. Then using propensity score matching and conditional mean comparison methods, the relative impact on rent charged in each city was calculated, which ranged from a 6% to 14.1% increase in rent for properties with energy efficient features

  2. Cheap type solar bioclimatic individual houses for residential areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailescu Teofil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Romanian architectural practice for individual houses in residential areas, designing the architectural object in order to function together with the nature is neglected in the majority of the situations. This happens despite of a great variety of the solar bioclimatic solutions materialized in the traditional houses of all the Romanian geographical regions in a history of over 2000 years of traditional architecture. Unfortunately, in the local real estate realities, other choices are preferred in instead those of the solar bioclimatic architecture. The approach starts with a historical approach, analyzing several examples of traditional houses from all the regions of Romania, in order to identify the traditional bioclimatic solutions used to better adapt to the environment. This constitutes the source of inspiration for the modern cheap type solar bioclimatic houses presented. But a way of thinking should be changed for it, with the help of the Romanian state transformed in financial and legislative realities. These cheap type solar bioclimatic individual houses are destined for the middle class families and involve minimum costs for building and living, creating the best premises to efficiently use one or all of the complementary systems for producing, storage and/or transforming the energy from the environment (using solar, wind, water and/or earth energy.

  3. Advanced Controls for Residential Whole-House Ventilation Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, William [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Sherman, Max [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-08-01

    Whole-house ventilation systems are becoming commonplace in new construction, remodeling/renovation, and weatherization projects, driven by combinations of specific requirements for indoor air quality (IAQ), health and compliance with standards, such as ASHRAE 62.2. Ventilation systems incur an energy penalty on the home via fan power used to drive the airflow, and the additional space-conditioning load associated with heating or cooling the ventilation air. Finding a balance between IAQ and energy use is important if homes are to be adequately ventilated while not increasing the energy burden. This study used computer simulations to examine RIVEC the Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller - a prototype ventilation controller that aims to deliver whole-house ventilation rates that comply with ventilation standards, for the minimum use of energy. Four different whole-house ventilation systems were simulated, both with and without RIVEC, so that the energy and IAQ results could be compared. Simulations were conducted for 13 US climate zones, three house designs, and three envelope leakage values. The results showed that the RIVEC controller could typically return ventilation energy savings greater than 40percent without compromising long-term chronic or short-term acute exposures to relevant indoor contaminants. Critical and average peak power loads were also reduced as a consequence of using RIVEC.

  4. United States housing, first quarter 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delton Alderman

    2014-01-01

    Provides current and historical information on housing market in the United States. Information includes trends for housing permits and starts, housing under construction, and housing completions for single and multifamily units, and sales and construction. This report will be updated regularly.

  5. Classification of High-Rise Residential Building Facilities: A Descriptive Survey on 170 Housing Scheme in Klang Valley

    OpenAIRE

    Abd Wahab Siti Rashidah Hanum; Che Ani Adi Irfan; Sairi Ahmad; Mohd Tawil Norngainy; Abd Razak Mohd Zulhanif

    2016-01-01

    High-rise residential building is a type of housing that has multi-dwelling units built on the same land. This type of housing has become popular each year in urban area due to the increasing cost of land. There are several common facilities provided in high-rise residential building. For example playground, swimming pool, gymnasium, 24 hours security system such as CCTV, access card and so on. Thus, maintenance works of the common facilities must be well organised. The purpose of this paper ...

  6. Forecasting HotWater Consumption in Residential Houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linas Gelažanskas

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available An increased number of intermittent renewables poses a threat to the system balance. As a result, new tools and concepts, like advanced demand-side management and smart grid technologies, are required for the demand to meet supply. There is a need for higher consumer awareness and automatic response to a shortage or surplus of electricity. The distributed water heater can be considered as one of the most energy-intensive devices, where its energy demand is shiftable in time without influencing the comfort level. Tailored hot water usage predictions and advanced control techniques could enable these devices to supply ancillary energy balancing services. The paper analyses a set of hot water consumption data from residential dwellings. This work is an important foundation for the development of a demand-side management strategy based on hot water consumption forecasting at the level of individual residential houses. Various forecasting models, such as exponential smoothing, seasonal autoregressive integrated moving average, seasonal decomposition and a combination of them, are fitted to test different prediction techniques. These models outperform the chosen benchmark models (mean, naive and seasonal naive and show better performance measure values. The results suggest that seasonal decomposition of the time series plays the most significant part in the accuracy of forecasting.

  7. Contemporary moment of residential architecture at the global level: HOUSING 15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Vladana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available 'That architectonic exhibitions are an indispensable and significant part of the history of architecture has been proven by numerous exhibitions dating back from the first decades of the 20th century, the Paris exhibitions (Salon d'Automne, where three manifest exhibition designs by Le Corbusier were presented, promoting a new system of values of the forthcoming modernist movement, then the Berlin exhibitions in the second half of the 20th century (Interbau 1957, IBA 1987 where the Postmodern was promoted, up to the second decade of the 21st century and the Biennial in Venice (La Biennale di Venezia, 2014, whose uniting topic was One Hundred Years of ,Modernity' (prof arch Darko Marušić, quote from the catalogue of the HOUSING 15. HOUSING 15 is an exhibition that was created on the initiative of the Department of Residential Building, Faculty of Civil Engineering and Architecture, University of Nis, in order to present the modern housing architecture at the global level. The exhibition was shown at the BINA 2016 and was followed by a round table discussion upon the topic Contemporary moment of residential architecture at the global level. The idea of the round table was to compare domestic and international experience in this field and draw attention toward the attitude on the present, electronic time considering the development of the residential architecture. The specificity of this exhibition, compared to the other events of a similar nature, is that in addition to architectural design the scientific expert reviews for the selected works are also presented, given by the international scientific and artistic committee of the exhibition. The paper is the summary of the discussion held at the round table, and it presents the potential problems, answers and conclusions relating to residential architecture today from the professional perspective.

  8. Human Thermal Comfort In Residential House Buildings Of Jimma Town Southwest Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chali Yadeta

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Indoor human thermal comfort is an important factor in indoor air quality assessment. Thermal comfort affects human health work efficiency and overall wellbeing. Thermal discomfort in indoors lowers the emotional and physical health of the occupants. This paper targets to explore human thermal comfort in residential house buildings of Jimma town and state some possible mechanisms to improve the existing thermal discomfort in large number the houses. For the study 303 structured questionnaires were distributed to the residential houses in thirteen places of the town based on predetermined criteria. The study reveals that human thermal discomfort in residential houses Jimma town are mainly from poor architectural design and improper use of heat generating appliances in indoors. The uses architectural design that suites the present climatic conditions and use of materials that facilitates ventilations will enhance the realization of the required human thermal comfort in residential houses of the study area.

  9. Classification of High-Rise Residential Building Facilities: A Descriptive Survey on 170 Housing Scheme in Klang Valley

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abd Wahab Siti Rashidah Hanum

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High-rise residential building is a type of housing that has multi-dwelling units built on the same land. This type of housing has become popular each year in urban area due to the increasing cost of land. There are several common facilities provided in high-rise residential building. For example playground, swimming pool, gymnasium, 24 hours security system such as CCTV, access card and so on. Thus, maintenance works of the common facilities must be well organised. The purpose of this paper is to identify the classification of facilities provided at high rise residential building. The survey was done on 170 high-rise residential schemes by using stratified random sampling technique. The scope of this research is within Klang Valley area. This area is rapidly developed with high-rise residential building. The objective of this survey is to list down all the facilities provided in each sample of the schemes. The result, there are nine classification of facilities provided for high-rise residential building.

  10. Projecting housing starts and softwood lumber consumption in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeffrey P. Prestemon; David N. Wear; Karen L. Abt; Robert C. Abt

    2018-01-01

    New residential construction is a primary user of wood products in the United States; therefore, wood products projections require understanding the determinants of housing starts. We model quarterly US total, single-family, and multifamily housing starts with several model specifications, using data from 1979 to 2008, and evaluate their...

  11. Residential mobility after Hukou reform : Housing strategies of rural-urban migrants in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, X.

    2015-01-01

    This thesis explores rural-urban migrants’ residential mobility in China, particularly their housing strategies and related outcomes. One way for migrants to obtain formal residential registration status (hukou in Chinese) is to purchase an apartment in the city. Moving voluntarily through

  12. Design and Evaluation of a Net Zero Energy Low-Income Residential Housing Development in Lafayette, Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, J.; VanGeet, O.; Simkus, S.; Eastment, M.

    2012-03-01

    This report outlines the lessons learned and sub-metered energy performance of an ultra low energy single family ranch home and duplex unit, called the Paradigm Pilot Project and presents the final design recommendations for a 153-unit net zero energy residential development called the Josephine Commons Project. Affordable housing development authorities throughout the United States continually struggle to find the most cost-effective pathway to provide quality, durable, and sustainable housing. The challenge for these authorities is to achieve the mission of delivering affordable housing at the lowest cost per square foot in environments that may be rural, urban, suburban, or within a designated redevelopment district. With the challenges the U.S. faces regarding energy, the environmental impacts of consumer use of fossil fuels and the increased focus on reducing greenhouse gas emissions, housing authorities are pursuing the goal of constructing affordable, energy efficient and sustainable housing at the lowest life-cycle cost of ownership. This report outlines the lessons learned and sub-metered energy performance of an ultra-low-energy single family ranch home and duplex unit, called the Paradigm Pilot Project and presents the final design recommendations for a 153-unit net zero energy residential development called the Josephine Commons Project. In addition to describing the results of the performance monitoring from the pilot project, this paper describes the recommended design process of (1) setting performance goals for energy efficiency and renewable energy on a life-cycle cost basis, (2) using an integrated, whole building design approach, and (3) incorporating systems-built housing, a green jobs training program, and renewable energy technologies into a replicable high performance, low-income housing project development model.

  13. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Building Industry Research Alliance (BIRA); Building Science Consortium (BSC); Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB); Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC); IBACOS; National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    2006-08-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in Cold Climates on a cost-neutral basis.

  14. Mortality at older ages and moves in residential and sheltered housing: evidence from the UK

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robards, James; Evandrou, Maria; Falkingham, Jane; Vlachantoni, Athina

    2014-01-01

    Background The study examines the relationship between transitions to residential and sheltered housing and mortality. Past research has focused on housing moves over extended time periods and subsequent mortality. In this paper, annual housing transitions allow the identification of the patterning of housing moves, the duration of stay in each sector and the assessment of the relationship of preceding moves to a heightened risk of dying. Methods The study uses longitudinal data constructed from pooled observations from the British Household Panel Survey (waves 1993–2008). Records were pooled for all cases where the survey member is 65 years or over and living in private housing at baseline and observed at three consecutive time points, including baseline (N=23 727). Binary logistic regression (death as outcome three waves after baseline) explored the relative strength of different housing transitions, controlling for sociodemographic predictors. Results (1) Transition to residential housing within the previous 12 months was associated with the highest mortality risk. (2) Results support existing findings showing an interaction between marital status and mortality, whereby unmarried persons were more likely to die. (3) Higher male mortality was observed across all housing transitions. Conclusions An older person's move to residential housing is associated with a higher risk of mortality within 12 months of the move. Survivors living in residential housing for more than a year, show a similar probability of dying to those living in sheltered housing. Results highlight that it is the type of accommodation that affects an older person's mortality risk, and the length of time they spend there. PMID:24638058

  15. Double benefit. Passive houses in the stock: Residential and office house; Doppelter Nutzen. Passivhaus im Bestand: Wohn- und Geschaeftshaus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siegele, Klaus

    2012-06-15

    When searching for a new home for family and office, the Passive House Planner Roland Matzig (Mannheim, Federal Republic of Germany) encounter a dilapidated semi-detached house in Almendorf, a suburb of Mannheim (Federal Republic of Germany). The enhanced final energy demand by more than 320 kWh/(a m{sup 2}) encouraged him, to retrofit the post-war building energetically to the level of a passive houses. The residential and office building also benefits architecturally from the alterations and extensions - a perfect example of how to make of buildings sustainable and to receive their value.

  16. The study of height variation on outdoor ventilation for Singapore's high-rise residential housing estates

    OpenAIRE

    Rou Xuan Lee; Steve Kardinal Jusuf; Nyuk Hien Wong

    2015-01-01

    This article is concerned with external ventilation levels within a multi-story Housing and Development Board (HDB) residential estate, focusing toward a deeper understanding of wind flow with respect to different levels of height variation (HV). This study analyzed through parametric study, using numerical simulations with the realizable k – ε turbulence model, the various scenarios of HV within a typical residential HDB estate or precinct. It is found that external wind flow within the prec...

  17. Center for Real Life Kitchen Design open house to showcase latest in residential kitchens

    OpenAIRE

    Elliott, Jean

    2007-01-01

    Virginia Tech will unveil its newly refurbished Center for Real Life Kitchen Design at an open house set for Monday, April 2. The 1,500-square foot center, located in 247 Wallace Hall, features six fully functional residential kitchen designs that reflect a variety of price levels, lifestyles, and use of space for today's homeowner.

  18. Residential firewood use in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipfert, F W; Dungan, J L

    1983-03-25

    An empirical relation between residential firewood use and population density was developed from survey data for 64 counties in New England and was corroborated by data from other states. The results indicate that usage is concentrated in urbanized areas of the Northeast and north central states and that about 9.0 to 11.0 percent of U.S. space heating input is from firewood. No constraints due to the supply of wood were apparent in 1978-1979. These findings have implications for effects on air quality.

  19. provision of residential housing and environmental development in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DJFLEX

    at the issue of slum development in cities as it relates to social and environmental decay in. Nigeria's context, using Calabar as a case study. ... I. A. Animashaun, Department of Geography and Regional Planning University .... though unplanned, also has a network of streets ..... Corporation to the most recent State Housing.

  20. Does energy labelling on residential housing cause energy savings?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjaerbye, V.H.

    2009-07-01

    Danish households use more than 30% of the total amount of energy being used in Denmark. More than 80% of this energy is dedicated to space heating. The same relation is seen in many OECD countries. The corresponding energy savings potential was recently estimated at 30% of the energy used in buildings. Energy labelling is seen as an important instrument to target these potential energy savings. This paper evaluates the effects of the Danish Energy Labelling Scheme on energy consumption in existing single-family houses with propensity score matching using real metered natural gas consumption and a very wide range of register data describing the houses and households. The study did not find significant energy savings due to the Danish Energy Labelling Scheme, but more research would be needed to complement this conclusion

  1. The study of residential life support environment system to initiate policy on sustainable simple housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siahaan, N. M.; Harahap, A. S.; Nababan, E.; Siahaan, E.

    2018-02-01

    This study aims to initiate sustainable simple housing system based on low CO2 emissions at Griya Martubung I Housing Medan, Indonesia. Since it was built in 1995, between 2007 until 2016 approximately 89 percent of houses have been doing various home renewal such as restoration, renovation, or reconstruction. Qualitative research conducted in order to obtain insights into the behavior of complex relationship between various components of residential life support environment that relates to CO2 emissions. Each component is studied by conducting in-depth interviews, observation of the 128 residents. The study used Likert Scale to measure residents’ perception about components. The study concludes with a synthesis describing principles for a sustainable simple housing standard that recognizes the whole characteristics of components. This study offers a means for initiating the practice of sustainable simple housing developments and efforts to manage growth and preserve the environment without violating social, economics, and ecology.

  2. Residential landscapes and house societies of the late prehistoric Society Islands

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kahn, J.G.; Kirch, P.V.

    2013-01-01

    We extend the 'house society' perspective to one of the most complex Eastern Polynesian chiefdoms, the Society Islands. Employing a landscape approach, we argue that competing elites used the flexibility of the 'house society' structure and its landed estates to promulgate and manipulate status differences. Our study documents how the social hierarchy and its ideological underpinnings were materialised in archaeologically visible ways, including investments in residential landscapes, site proxemics, and construction sequences. While communal investments in the landed material estate were staged over a few centuries, investments in the house's ideology and corporate identity were established early on. Differences in house rank afforded some houses greater access to essential resources and facilitated their abilities to maintain and extend their corporate group, while affording them greater access to labor and continued wealth production over time. Our case study exemplifies the significant role that small-scale relations - quotidian interactions within neighborhoods - played as sources of social power. (author). 105 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Radon concentrations in residential housing in hiroshima and nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoyama, Takashi; Radford, E.P.; Yonehara, Hidenori; Kato, Hiroo; Sakanoue, Masanobu.

    1993-05-01

    A survey of indoor radon ( 222 Rn) concentrations in Hiroshima and Nagasaki was carried out to assess the range of exposures expected among atomic-bomb survivors. Two hundred dwellings (100 from each city), chiefly of members of the Radiation Effects Research Foundation Life Span Study, were selected for this survey. We used two types of etched-track alpha-particle detectors: a Terradex detector (type SF) and an improved bare-track detector. Comparative measurements showed that although there was an adequate correlation between the values obtained using the two detectors, the geometric mean value for the bare-track detector was 45% lower than that for the Terradex detector. This difference was considered to be due to differences in the calibration methods and in the sensitivities of the detectors to thoron ( 220 Rn). The geometric mean values of the radon concentrations for 193 locations in Hiroshima and 192 locations in Nagasaki measured by Terradex SF detectors were 51.8 Bq/m 3 and 26.5 Bq/m 3 , respectively. The large difference is attributable to the different geological environments of the two cities. Factors correlating with the indoor radon concentrations were also studied. The geometric mean concentration was significantly higher in wooden houses with clay walls than in other types of house. This tendency was especially strong in Hiroshima. The difference between the estimated dose equivalents for exposure to radon decay products in dwellings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki during the last 30 years might amount to 0.8 Sv; however, no statistically significant difference was observed in lung-cancer mortality in the low-dose range in either city. Nevertheless, the indoor radon concentrations estimated in this survey could have a significant influence on the dose-response relationship for atomic-bomb exposure. (author)

  4. Radiation shielding provided by residential houses in Japan in reactor accidents accompanied with atmospheric release

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Yasuhiro; Minami, Kentaro

    1991-01-01

    The present report describes the radiation shielding effect of houses in Japan against the radioactive cloud resulting from a major reactor accident accompanied with atmospheric release. The shielding factor of houses, the ratio of indoor exposure rate to outdoor one, has been studied for the semi-infinite and finite clouds which contain γ-emitting radionuclides released from a reactor facility. The shielding factor of houses against γ-rays from the radioactive cloud decreases gradually with release delay time and keeps a minimum during the period from 50 to 1000 hours after reactor shutdown while 133 Xe predominates in the cloud. Radioiodines mixed in the cloud raise slightly the shielding factor, and the factor depends little on the shape of the cloud. A set of shielding factors for the use of emergency planning was consequently proposed as 0.4 for simple ferroconcrete residential house and 0.9 for other ordinary ones. (author)

  5. DYNAMIC PLANNING INDICATORS FOR OPTIMISING THE ENERGY MODERNISATION OF RESIDENTIAL HOUSING STOCK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Bayramukov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. In the article, the problem of the optimisation of the energy modernisation of residential housing is examined. Methods. A mathematical model for the optimisation of energy use is developed with the use of dynamic programming techniques. Results. The proposed method of assessing the effectiveness of comprehensive energy-saving measures can improve the quality of decision-making on housing recovery and increase its energy modernisation. The application of mathematical modeling allows for the distribution of funds to projects so that the implementation of organisational and technological solutions consistently implement measures that will lead to optimal social and economic effects. The developed mathematical model also allows the amount of quality housing to be maximised through the implementation of energy-saving and other measures when upgrading the housing stock. Problems concerning the renovation of housing stock are analysed. The concept of housing energy modernisation is introduced. The principal energysaving technologies in housing modernisation are distinguished. A schema for the optimal allocation of funds for energy-saving measures is described. It is assumed that the optimal solution is obtained independently of the number of steps and the initial supply of invested capital.Conclusion. The energy modernisation of the housing stock leads to a reduction in the expenditures of citizens on housing and utilities services, contributing to an increase in the integral index of comfort. A generalised method for optimal control of the housing stock is implemented on the basis of the provided schema for dynamic scheduling of the optimal distribution of funds for energy-saving measures. 

  6. Register of basic residential units and spatial units in the Slovak Republic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galdik, S.; Vavrinec, B.

    2005-01-01

    In this contribution authors deal with the register of basic residential units and spatial units in the Slovak Republic. Classification of statistical territorial units is presented. Map data and statistical data contain information about environmental impact of industrial and energetic mills

  7. CFD simulation of a fire in the living area of three storey residential house to evaluate life safety in houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bounagui, A.; Benichou, N.; Kashef, A.; McCartney, C.

    2004-01-01

    Over time there have been changes in construction practices, building designs and materials and construction technologies. The Institute for Research in Construction (IRC) at the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) is undertaking research project to determine the impact of innovative residential construction products and systems on the fire safety of houses. The research study includes two phases: experimental and numerical. A new three-level full-scale experimental facility, representing a typical single-family house, has been built to study the structural fire performance, smoke movement and tenability conditions in the event of a fire. In the event of a fire in the first storey of a house, fire and smoke can move up to the main and second floors either through an open door or any openings in the floor structure between the basement and the main floor rendering the upper floor untenable for the occupants. Using CFD simulations this paper investigates the effect of the state of a stairwell door (opened or closed) on the fire development as well as on the moving up of the toxic gases to the upper floors. Simulation results were then used to estimate the time when conditions would become untenable, based on criteria found in the literature. (author)

  8. Development of energy renovation packages for Danish residential single family houses - parcel houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew; Antonov, Yovko Ivanov; Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    Work presented in this technical report was developed as a port of Horizon 2020 EU project REFURB. The number of deep energy retrofits is falling behind the EU ambitious targets. The REFURB project aims at finding technical and nontechnical solutions that would match demand and supply side......-selected homeowner target groups was based on (I) selection of dwelling segment with high impact and energy saving potential. (II)Sequenced approach in creating package solutions. (III)Compelling offer to be proposed with specific timing. This report focuses mainly on the second listed component, namely, development...... of the residential building renovation market. Due to the multiple significant differences at the national level, compelling offers were developed specifically for each country participant. This report elaborates only on Danish approach, as stated in [1], the Danish approach to create compelling offers for pre...

  9. Contribution from indoor sources to particle number and mass concentrations in residential houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Congrong; Morawska, Lidia; Hitchins, Jane; Gilbert, Dale

    As part of a large study investigating indoor air in residential houses in Brisbane, Australia, the purpose of this work was to quantify emission characteristics of indoor particle sources in 15 houses. Submicrometer particle number and approximation of PM 2.5 concentrations were measured simultaneously for more than 48 h in the kitchen of all the houses by using a condensation particle counter (CPC) and a photometer (DustTrak), respectively. In addition, characterizations of particles resulting from cooking conducted in an identical way in all the houses were measured by using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), an aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) and a DustTrak. All the events of elevated particle concentrations were linked to indoor activities using house occupants diary entries, and catalogued into 21 different types of indoor activities. This enabled quantification of the effect of indoor sources on indoor particle concentrations as well as quantification of emission rates from the sources. For example, the study found that frying, grilling, stove use, toasting, cooking pizza, cooking, candle vaporizing eucalyptus oil and fan heater use, could elevate the indoor submicrometer particle number concentration levels by more than five times, while PM 2.5 concentrations could be up to 3, 30 and 90 times higher than the background levels during smoking, frying and grilling, respectively.

  10. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Marine Climates; January 2006 - December 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership (BAIHP); Building Industry Research Alliance (BIRA); Building Science Consortium (BSC); Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB); Davis Energy Group (DEG); IBACOS; National Association of Home Builders Research Center (NAHBRC); National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    2006-12-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Marine Climate Region on a cost neutral basis.

  11. Are Housing Markets Decoupled? A Case Study of Residential Real Estate Affordability in Austria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florian PHILIPP

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Real estate arguably forms the most important asset to most households and the basis for their wealth. Around this context a model has been set up testing the relative affordability of real estate for the median household in Austria and the consequences of lower borrowing costs between 2004 and 2013 by vintage year. In this paper the hypothesis that the significant decline in base interest rates is not sufficient to offset the relative affordability loss caused by declining net household incomes and the simultaneous increase of real estate prices. To test this hypothesis a model has been set up comparing two different Housing Affordability Indices – one including and one excluding financing effects, having been compared via a multi factor model. Based on this calculation the author finds decreased base interest rates to offset relative affordability losses by only approximately 50%, verifying the hypothesis. The paper therefore argues for a potential decoupling of the residential housing market in Austria.

  12. Energy efficiency campaign for residential housing at the Fort Lewis army installation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AH McMakin; RE Lundgren; EL Malone

    2000-02-23

    In FY1999, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory conducted an energy efficiency campaign for residential housing at the Fort Lewis Army Installation near Tacoma, Washington. Preliminary weather-corrected calculations show energy savings of 10{percent} from FY98 for energy use in family housing. This exceeded the project's goal of 3{percent}. The work was funded by the U.S. DOEs Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy. The project adapted FEMP's national ``You Have the Power Campaign'' at the local level, tailoring it to the military culture. The applied research project was designed to demonstrate the feasibility of tailored, research-based strategies to promote energy conservation in military family housing. In contrast to many energy efficiency efforts, the campaign focused entirely on actions residents could take in their own homes, as opposed to technology or housing upgrades. Behavioral change was targeted because residents do not pay their own utility bills; thus other motivations must drive personal energy conservation. This campaign augments ongoing energy savings from housing upgrades carried out by Fort Lewis. The campaign ran from September 1998 through August 1999. The campaign strategy was developed based on findings from previous research and on input from residents and officials at Fort Lewis. Energy use, corrected to account for weather differences, was compared with the previous year's use. Survey responses from 377 of Fort Lewis residents of occupied housing showed that the campaign was moderately effective in promoting behavior change. Of those who were aware of the campaign, almost all said they were now doing one or more energy-efficient things that they had not done before. Most people were motivated by the desire to do the right thing and to set a good example for their children. They were less motivated by other factors.

  13. Analyses on Cost Reduction and CO2 Mitigation by Penetration of Fuel Cells to Residential Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aki, Hirohisa; Yamamoto, Shigeo; Kondoh, Junji; Murata, Akinobu; Ishii, Itaru; Maeda, Tetsuhiko

    This paper presents analyses on the penetration of polymer electrolyte fuel cells (PEFC) into a group of 10 residential houses and its effects of CO2 emission mitigation and consumers’ cost reduction in next 30 years. The price is considered to be reduced as the penetration progress which is expected to begin in near future. An experimental curve is assumed to express the decrease of the price. Installation of energy interchange systems which involve electricity, gas and hydrogen between a house which has a FC and contiguous houses is assumed to utilize both electricity and heat more efficiently, and to avoid start-stop operation of fuel processor (reformer) as much as possible. A multi-objective model which considers CO2 mitigation and consumers’ cost reduction is constructed and provided a Pareto optimum solution. A solution which simultaneously realizes both CO2 mitigation and consumers’ cost reduction appeared in the Pareto optimum solution. Strategies to reduce CO2 emission and consumers’ cost are suggested from the results of the analyses. The analyses also revealed that the energy interchange systems are effective especially in the early stage of the penetration.

  14. Influence of residential habits on energy consumption in multi-story housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, O

    1984-01-01

    The report describes the results of an investigation of residential habits and their influence on energy consumption - particularly the cosumption of heating and hot water - in multi-story housing. There seems to be a considerable need for an information effort in this field, but not even very precise information for practical use is enough to make the residents change their consumption habits to any substantial extent. This can only be achieved through activating a conscious attitude among the residents. In reaching these aims, the housing estate, its administration and residents should play a large and active role. This is partly due to the fact that the preparation and settling of accounts are carried out with the participation of the residents themselves. Furthermore, the local estate is a natural frame for the residents daily life and social situation, as compared to national campaigns for energy-saving. Therefore, within the housing estate there are better possibilities - through discussions among the residents and through social interaction - of increasing the motivation of the individual resident for saving energy.

  15. Relation between residential radon concentrations and housing characteristics. The Cracow study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jedrychowski, W.; Flak, E.; Wesolowski, J.; Liu Kaishen

    1995-01-01

    The survey on indoor radon exposure was undertaken to explain whether the excess in lung cancer deaths in the Cracow city center may be attributed to this particular exposure. A total of 310 detectors was placed in households randomly chosen from three homogeneous strata of residential buildings. The first stratum included houses in the old city center constructed predominantly from stone bricks. The second stratum covered the city area with big apartment condominiums built from concrete blocks. The third stratum consisted of single family houses located in a suburban area. From each of these residency strata a random sample of an equal number of households was chosen, and the radon detectors were placed in households located at various levels of the buildings. The three-month radon sampling data were used to determine the distribution of various levels of radon in the households. In the measurement of radon exposure, Landauer α-track samplers were used. The data collected show that the type of building was the best single predictor of indoor radon concentrations. Other variables found to be associated significantly with indoor concentrations were the household level in the building and the house age. In general, residences with concrete slabs and dwellings with rarely-opened windows were found to have slightly higher radon concentrations. (author) 2 tabs., 15 refs

  16. Passive annual heat storage principles in earth sheltered housing, a supplementary energy saving system in residential housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anselm, Akubue Jideofor [Green Architecture Department, School of Architecture and Urban Planning, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China)

    2008-07-01

    This paper looks through the many benefits of earth not only as a building element in its natural form but as a building mass, energy pack and spatial enclosure which characterized by location, unique physical terrain and climatic factors can be utilized in developing housing units that will provide the needed benefits of comfort alongside the seasons. Firstly the study identifies existing sunken earth houses in the North-west of China together with identifying the characters that formed the ideas behind the choice of going below the ground. Secondly, the study examines the pattern of heat exchange, heat gains and losses as to identify the principles that makes building in earth significant as an energy conservation system. The objective of this, is to relate the ideas of sunken earth home design with such principles as the passive annual heat storage systems (PAHS) in producing houses that will serve as units used to collect free solar heat all summer and cools passively while heating the earth around it and also keeping warm in winter by retrieving heat from the soil while utilizing the free solar heat stored throughout the summer as a year-round natural thermal resource. (author)

  17. United States housing, second quarter 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delton Alderman

    2017-01-01

    The U.S. housing market’s quarter two results were disap¬pointing compared with the first quarter. Although overall expected gains did not materialize, certain sectors improved slightly. Housing under construction, completions, and new and existing home sales exhibited slight increases. Overall permit data declined, and the decrease in starts was due primarily to a...

  18. Combined heat and power and thermally insulating measures in residential housing stock; Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung und Daemmmassnahmen im Wohngebaeudebestand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buller, Michael [Gas- und Waerme-Institut Essen e.V., Essen (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    The author of the contribution under consideration reports on the economic, ecologic and primary energetic potential of micro-combined heat and power (micro-CHP) in the residential housing stock under consideration of possible correlations between CHP and thermally insulating measures.

  19. An evaluation of the installation of solar photovoltaic in residential houses in Malaysia: Past, present, and future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muhammad-Sukki, Firdaus; Ramirez-Iniguez, Roberto; Abu-Bakar, Siti Hawa; McMeekin, Scott G.; Stewart, Brian G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines solar energy development in Malaysia, particularly in relation to the installation of solar Photovoltaic (PV) in residential houses. It analyzes the past activities related to solar energy in Malaysia, in terms of research and developments (R and Ds), the implementations used as well as the national policies for the past 20 years which have pushed the installation of PV in the country. The Feed-In Tariff (FiT) scheme is discussed, showing comparative cost-benefit analysis between the PV installation in houses in the United Kingdom (UK) and Malaysia, and with other investment schemes available in Malaysia. To investigate the awareness of renewable energy policies and incentives, a preliminary survey of the public opinion in Malaysia has been carried out, and an evaluation of public willingness to invest in the FiT scheme by installing the PV on their houses is presented. The cost-benefit analysis shows that the proposed FiT programme is capable of generating good return on investment as compared to the one in the UK, but the return is lower than other investment tools. The survey suggests that most Malaysians are unaware of the government’s incentives and policies towards renewable energies, and are not willing to invest in the FiT scheme. - Highlights: ► Past activities related to solar energy is evaluated and FIT scheme is discussed. ► Financial analysis is presented; public perspective is evaluated. ► The FIT scheme generates higher return for PV installation in Malaysia than in the UK. ► The scheme, however, produces lower return than most investment schemes. ► Malaysians’ awareness levels are low and are not willing to invest in the FIT scheme.

  20. Energy performance of building fabric - Comparing two types of vernacular residential houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draganova, Vanya Y.; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Tsuzuki, Kazuyo

    2017-10-01

    Notwithstanding apparent differences, Japanese and Bulgarian traditional residential houses share a lot of common features - building materials, building techniques, even layout design. Despite the similarities, these two types of houses have not been compared so far. The study initiates such comparison. The focus is on houses in areas with similar climate in both countries. Current legislation requirements are compared, as well as the criteria for thermal comfort of people. Achieving high energy performance results from a dynamic system of 4 main key factors - thermal comfort range, heating/cooling source, building envelope and climatic conditions. A change in any single one of them can affect the final energy performance. However, it can be expected that a combination of changes in more than one factor usually occurs. The aim of this study is to evaluate the correlation between the thermal performance of building envelope designed under current regulations and a traditional one, having in mind the different thermal comfort range in the two countries. A sample building model is calculated in Scenario 1 - Japanese traditional building fabric, Scenario 2 - Bulgarian traditional building fabric and Scenario 3 - meeting the requirements of the more demanding current regulations. The energy modelling is conducted using EnergyPlus through OpenStudio cross-platform of software tools. The 3D geometry for the simulation is created using OpenStudio SketchUp Plug-in. Equal number of inhabitants, electricity consumption and natural ventilation is assumed. The results show that overall low energy consumption can be achieved using traditional building fabric as well, when paired with a wider thermal comfort range. Under these conditions traditional building design is still viable today. This knowledge can reestablish the use of traditional building fabric in contemporary design, stimulate preservation of local culture, building traditions and community identity.

  1. Are Gasoline Prices a Factor in Residential Relocation Decisions? Preliminary Findings from the American Housing Survey, 1996–2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Guangqing; Boydstun, Jamie

    2018-01-01

    Residential relocation choice is affected by numerous factors, but gasoline prices as a potential factor have not been investigated. This study examines gasoline price changes and residential relocation choice using 1996–2008 American Housing Survey data. We found higher gasoline prices are associated with a higher percentage of movers choosing locations closer to workplaces. The findings have implications for addressing the impacts of volatile gasoline prices on land use planning and policies; resilient “smart cities or communities” are one possible solution. PMID:29658959

  2. Military Family Housing in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    Deborah Clay- Mendez of CBO’s National Security Division and Lisa Siegel of CBO’s Budget Analysis Division prepared the study under the general...Aging of DoD’s Housing Beaufort Marine Corps Air Station in South Caro - Stock hna. (Photo courtesy of the General Accounting Office) DoD uses the

  3. Optimal Residential Load Scheduling Under Utility and Rooftop Photovoltaic Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Hafeez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid advancement in technology, electrical energy consumption is increasing rapidly. Especially, in the residential sector, more than 80% of electrical energy is being consumed because of consumer negligence. This brings the challenging task of maintaining the balance between the demand and supply of electric power. In this paper, we focus on the problem of load balancing via load scheduling under utility and rooftop photovoltaic (PV units to reduce electricity cost and peak to average ratio (PAR in demand-side management. For this purpose, we adopted genetic algorithm (GA, binary particle swarm optimization (BPSO, wind-driven optimization (WDO, and our proposed genetic WDO (GWDO algorithm, which is a hybrid of GA and WDO, to schedule the household load. For energy cost estimation, combined real-time pricing (RTP and inclined block rate (IBR were used. The proposed algorithm shifts load from peak consumption hours to off-peak hours based on combined pricing scheme and generation from rooftop PV units. Simulation results validate our proposed GWDO algorithm in terms of electricity cost and PAR reduction while considering all three scenarios which we have considered in this work: (1 load scheduling without renewable energy sources (RESs and energy storage system (ESS, (2 load scheduling with RESs, and (3 load scheduling with RESs and ESS. Furthermore, our proposed scheme reduced electricity cost and PAR by 22.5% and 29.1% in scenario 1, 47.7% and 30% in scenario 2, and 49.2% and 35.4% in scenario 3, respectively, as compared to unscheduled electricity consumption.

  4. The Consortium of Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) - A Building America Energy Efficient Housing Partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robb Aldrich; Lois Arena; Dianne Griffiths; Srikanth Puttagunta; David Springer

    2010-12-31

    This final report summarizes the work conducted by the Consortium of Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) (http://www.carb-swa.com/), one of the 'Building America Energy Efficient Housing Partnership' Industry Teams, for the period January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2010. The Building America Program (BAP) is part of the Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program (BTP). The long term goal of the BAP is to develop cost effective, production ready systems in five major climate zones that will result in zero energy homes (ZEH) that produce as much energy as they use on an annual basis by 2020. CARB is led by Steven Winter Associates, Inc. with Davis Energy Group, Inc. (DEG), MaGrann Associates, and Johnson Research, LLC as team members. In partnership with our numerous builders and industry partners, work was performed in three primary areas - advanced systems research, prototype home development, and technical support for communities of high performance homes. Our advanced systems research work focuses on developing a better understanding of the installed performance of advanced technology systems when integrated in a whole-house scenario. Technology systems researched included: - High-R Wall Assemblies - Non-Ducted Air-Source Heat Pumps - Low-Load HVAC Systems - Solar Thermal Water Heating - Ventilation Systems - Cold-Climate Ground and Air Source Heat Pumps - Hot/Dry Climate Air-to-Water Heat Pump - Condensing Boilers - Evaporative condensers - Water Heating CARB continued to support several prototype home projects in the design and specification phase. These projects are located in all five program climate regions and most are targeting greater than 50% source energy savings over the Building America Benchmark home. CARB provided technical support and developed builder project case studies to be included in near-term Joule Milestone reports for the following community scale projects: - SBER Overlook at

  5. Continental United States Military Housing Inspections Southeast

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-24

    that the HVAC system design used in the noncommissioned officer academy buildings at Fort Gordon was not appropriate or adequate for the climatic... HVAC ) system problems; mold; and moisture were not adequately addressed, resulting in poor indoor air quality and potential exposure of occupants to...Patrick AFB. 3 The number of military personnel occupying unaccompanied housing at NS Mayport fluctuates based on ship arrival and departure

  6. An application of the gas-fired chilling and heating units to domestic houses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J.H.; Yang, Y.M.; Chae, J.M.; Bang, H.S.; Kwon, O.B.; Yoo, S.I.; Kim, T.H. [R and D Center, Korea Gas Co. (Korea); Lee, T.W.; Kim, T.H.; Kim, B.H.; Hwang, I.J.; Kim, J.Y.; Kim, C.D.; Park, S.J. [Korea Institute of Construction Technology (Korea)

    1999-10-01

    Following researches and considerations were performed in this study for an efficient application of gas-fired chilling and heating units to the residential buildings. (1) Status of domestic cooling and heating for residential building. (2) Various introduction schemes of outdoor unit. (3) Design exclusive area for the gas appliance and installation of it. (4) Ventilation of exhaust gas and heat. (5) Prepare the installation specifications or standards for gas-fired chilling and heating units. (6) Design technique of plumbing for cooling and heating. (7) Evaluation of unit's capacity considering the thermal load of domestic buildings. (8) Cooling and heating system with the unit. (9) Fundamental test for evaluation of applicability. (10) Actual design and construction of experimental house for an application and a demonstration of the developed gas units. (11) Field test for cooling and heating. (12) Evaluation of economic efficiency. (13) Establish a business potential. (14) Establishment of legal and systematic support, energy rate. (15) Troubleshooting in the course of development and application of the new gas appliance. 41 refs., 214 figs., 52 tabs.

  7. Residents Living in Residential Care Facilities: United States, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... analyses, the 12% of residents chair-ridden or bedridden were defined as receiving assistance in the transferring ... MD: National Center for Health Statistics. 2011. Mollica R, Sims-Kastelein K, O'Keeffe J. Residential care ...

  8. Application of multicriteria decision making methods to air quality in the microenvironments of residential houses in Brisbane, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayoko, Godwin A; Morawska, Lidia; Kokot, Serge; Gilbert, Dale

    2004-05-01

    This paper reports the first application of the multicriteria decision making methods, PROMETHEE and GAIA, to indoor and outdoor air quality data. Fourteen residential houses in a suburb of Brisbane, Australia were investigated for 21 air quality-influencing criteria, which included the characteristics of the houses as well as the concentrations of volatile organic compounds, fungi, bacteria, submicrometer, and supermicrometer particles in their indoor and outdoor air samples. Ranking information necessary to select one house in preference to all others and to assess the parameters influencing the differentiation of the houses was found with the aid of PROMETHEE and GAIA. There was no correlation between the rank order of each house and the health complaints of its occupants. Patterns in GAIA plots show that indoor air quality in these houses is strongly dependent on the characteristics of the houses (construction material, distance of the house from a major road, and the presence of an in-built garage). Marked similarities were observed in the patterns obtained when GAIA and factor analysis were applied to the data. This underscores the potential of PROMETHEE and GAIA to provide information that can assist source apportionment and elucidation of effective remedial measures for indoor air pollution.

  9. Tracking the Sun VIII. The Installed Price of Residential and Non-Residential Photovoltaic Systems in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, Galen L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Darghouth, Naïm R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Spears, Mike [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wiser, Ryan H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Buckley, Michael [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Widiss, Rebecca [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Grue, Nick [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Now in its eighth edition, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)’s Tracking the Sun report series is dedicated to summarizing trends in the installed price of grid-connected solar photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States. The present report focuses on residential and nonresidential systems installed through year-end 2014, with preliminary trends for the first half of 2015. As noted in the text box below, this year’s report incorporates a number of important changes and enhancements. Among those changes, this year's report focuses solely on residential and nonresidential PV systems; data on utility-scale PV are reported in LBNL’s companion Utility-Scale Solar report series. Installed pricing trends presented within this report derive primarily from project-level data reported to state agencies and utilities that administer PV incentive programs, solar renewable energy credit (SREC) registration systems, or interconnection processes. In total, data were collected for roughly 400,000 individual PV systems, representing 81% of all U.S. residential and non-residential PV capacity installed through 2014 and 62% of capacity installed in 2014, though a smaller subset of this data were used in analysis.

  10. Tracking the Sun IX: The Installed Price of Residential and Non-Residential Photovoltaic Systems in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area; Darghouth, Naïm [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area; Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cates, Sarah [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); DiSanti, Nicholas [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Widiss, Rebecca [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States)

    2016-08-16

    Now in its ninth edition, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)’s Tracking the Sun report series is dedicated to summarizing trends in the installed price of grid-connected solar photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States. The present report focuses on residential and non-residential systems installed through year-end 2015, with preliminary trends for the first half of 2016. An accompanying LBNL report, Utility-Scale Solar, addresses trends in the utility-scale sector. This year’s report incorporates a number of important changes and enhancements from prior editions. Among those changes, LBNL has made available a public data file containing all non-confidential project-level data underlying the analysis in this report. Installed pricing trends presented within this report derive primarily from project-level data reported to state agencies and utilities that administer PV incentive programs, solar renewable energy credit (SREC) registration systems, or interconnection processes. Refer to the text box to the right for several key notes about these data. In total, data were collected and cleaned for more than 820,000 individual PV systems, representing 85% of U.S. residential and non-residential PV systems installed cumulatively through 2015 and 82% of systems installed in 2015. The analysis in this report is based on a subset of this sample, consisting of roughly 450,000 systems with available installed price data.

  11. The greenhouse gas and energy impacts of using wood instead of alternatives in residential construction in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upton, Brad; Miner, Reid; Spinney, Mike; Heath, Linda S.

    2008-01-01

    Data developed by the Consortium for Research on Renewable Industrial Materials were used to estimate savings of greenhouse gas emissions and energy consumption associated with use of wood-based building materials in residential construction in the United States. Results indicate that houses with wood-based wall systems require 15-16% less total energy for non-heating/cooling purposes than thermally comparable houses employing alternative steel- or concrete-based building systems. Results for non-renewable energy consumption are essentially the same as those for total energy, reflecting the fact that most of the displaced energy is in fossil fuels. Over a 100-year period, net greenhouse gas emissions associated with wood-based houses are 20-50% lower than emissions associated with thermally comparable houses employing steel- or concrete-based building systems. Assuming 1.5 million single-family housing starts per year, the difference between wood and non-wood building systems represents about 9.6 Mt of CO 2 equivalents per year. The corresponding energy benefit associated with wood-based building materials is approximately 132 PJ year -1 . These estimates represent about 22% of embodied energy and 27% of embodied greenhouse gas emissions in the residential sector of the US economy. The results of the analysis are very sensitive to assumptions and uncertainties regarding the fate of forestland that is taken out of wood production due to reduced demand for wood, the continued production of co-products where demand for wood products is reduced, and the rate at which carbon accumulates in forests

  12. Passive Residential Houses with the Accumulation Properties of Ground as a Heat Storage Medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochab, Piotr; Kokoszka, Wanda; Kogut, Janusz; Skrzypczak, Izabela; Szyszka, Jerzy; Starakiewicz, Aleksander

    2017-12-01

    Solar radiation is the primary source of life energy on Earth. The irradiance of the upper atmosphere is about 1360 W/m2, and it is estimated that about 1000 W/m2 reaches the ground. Long-term storage of heat energy is related to the use of a suitable thermal energy carrier. It may be either artificial or natural water tank, or artificial gravel-water tank, or aquifer or soil. It is justified to store the generated energy in large heating systems due to the nature of solar thermal energy. Typically, in such a solution storage space is a large solar collector farm. The reason for this is the proportionally small unit profits, which only in the case of large number of units provides sufficient energy that can be accumulated. It should be noted that Poland, a country located in a temperate and less harsh climate such as Scandinavia and Canada, has a relatively high potential for solar revenue. In the last decade, it has caused mainly small and individual heating installations. However, much of the municipal and industrial economy continues to rely on energy from non-renewable resources. This is due not only to the lack of a high-efficiency alternative to non-renewable energy resources, but also to the thermal state of buildings throughout the country, where old buildings require thermomodernization. This has the effect of both polluting the environment and the occurrence of smog, as well as pollutants in water and soil. This directly affects the occurrence of civilization diseases and other societal health problems. Therefore, the surplus of thermal clean energy that occurs during the spring and summer period should not only be used on a regular basis, but also stored for later winter use. The paper presents the concept of housing estate, which consists of 32 twin housing units. The solid character of buildings consistently refers to passive construction, and the materials meet the requirements for the passive buildings.

  13. Heating great residential units with combustion-motor heat pumps

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vossen, W

    1982-10-01

    Economic usage of combustion-motor heat pumps requires: reliable technology and delivery of the heat pump; design and operation. The heat pump must be integrated perfectly into the heating system. This contributions is based on a three-year operational experience with over 150 heat pumps used mainly in residential and administrative buildings (plus commercial buildings, swimming pools, sport centres etc.). These are heat pumps operating on the compression principle with natural gas, liquid gas, or fuel oil.

  14. Splitting Terraced Houses Into Single Units Using Oblique Aerial Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlke, D.

    2017-05-01

    This paper introduces a method to subdivide complex building structures like terraced houses into single house units comparable to units available in a cadastral map. 3D line segments are detected with sub-pixel accuracy in traditional vertical true orthomosaics as well as in innovative oblique true orthomosaics and their respective surface models. Hereby high gradient strengths on roofs as well as façades are taken into account. By investigating the coplanarity and frequencies within a set of 3D line segments, individual cut lines for a building complex are found. The resulting regions ideally describe single houses and thus the object complexity is reduced for subsequent topological, semantical or geometrical considerations. For the chosen study area with 70 buidling outlines a hit rate of 80% for cut lines is achieved.

  15. Emergy Evaluation of Dwelling Operation in Five Housing Units of Montreal Island, Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Enrique Vega-Azamar

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Sustainability of cities and the environmental implications of high resource utilization by the domestic sector are growing concerns related to urban regions. Well-informed urban planning decision-making is an essential tool to help in the task and, for that, an important point to consider is the influence of parameters like residential density and housing typology on the intensity of resource utilization. Emergy synthesis, a life-cycle energy analysis methodological approach that considers the interaction of natural and human-made flows, was used to evaluate the environmental support for dwelling operational stage in five typical present-day housing units on the island of Montreal. As expected, resource utilization, measured as total emergy used, was positively correlated to housing unit size both with respect to number of occupants and dwelling size. Results suggest that variables affecting notably the intensity of resource utilization are per household income and per dweller habitable space and, while a higher income increased per capita emergy in all cases, increasing space availability per resident did not result in a decrease of empower density after 50 m2/person. Future work should consider lower and higher densities and analyses at the scale of blocks, neighborhoods and urban planning zones.

  16. Health status, quality of life, residential stability, substance use, and health care utilization among adults applying to a supportive housing program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Stephen W; Gogosis, Evie; Chambers, Catharine; Dunn, James R; Hoch, Jeffrey S; Aubry, Tim

    2011-12-01

    Supportive housing, defined as subsidized housing in conjunction with site-based social services, may help improve the health and residential stability of highly disadvantaged individuals. This study examined changes in health status, quality of life, substance use, health care utilization, and residential stability among 112 homeless and vulnerably housed individuals who applied to a supportive housing program in Toronto, Canada, from December 2005 to June 2007. Follow-up interviews were conducted every 6 months for 18 months. Comparisons were made between individuals who were accepted into the program (intervention) and those who were wait-listed (usual care) using repeated-measures analyses. Individuals who were accepted into the housing program experienced significantly greater improvements in satisfaction with living situation compared with individuals in the usual care group (time, F(3,3,261) = 47.68, p life measures, health status, health care utilization, or substance use between the two groups over time. Significant improvement in residential stability occurred over time, independent of assigned housing group (time, F(3,3,261) = 9.96, p housing on homeless individuals was limited by the small number of participants who were literally homeless at baseline and by the large number of participants who gained stable housing during the study period regardless of their assigned housing status. Nonetheless, this study shows that highly disadvantaged individuals with a high prevalence of poor physical and mental health and substance use can achieve stable housing.

  17. Does energy labelling on residential housing cause energy savings? Working paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjaerbye, V.H.

    2008-12-15

    More than 80% of energy used in households is dedicated to space heating. Large potential energy savings have been identified in the existing housing stock. Energy labelling of single-family houses is seen as an important instrument to provide new house owners with information on efficient energy saving investments that can be made on the house. This paper evaluates the effects of the Danish Energy Labelling Scheme on energy consumption in existing single-family houses with propensity score matching using actual consumption of energy and register data describing the houses and households. We do not find significant energy savings due to the Danish Energy Labelling Scheme. (Author)

  18. An engineering economic assessment of whole-house residential wood heating in New York

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood devices are being selected increasingly for residential space heating by households in New York State. Motivations for their use include energy independence, mitigating climate change, stimulating local economic development, and reducing exposure to high and variable fuel c...

  19. Simulation and optimization study on a solar space heating system combined with a low temperature ASHP for single family rural residential houses in Beijing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deng, Jie; Tian, Zhiyong; Fan, Jianhua

    2016-01-01

    A pilot project of the solar water heating system combined with a low temperature air source heat pump (ASHP) unit was established in 2014 in a detached residential house in the rural region of Beijing, in order to investigate the system application prospect for single family houses via system...... optimization design and economic analysis. The established system was comprised of the glass heat-pipe based evacuated tube solar collectors with a gross area of 18.8 m2 and an ASHP with a stated heating power of 8 kW for the space heating of a single family rural house of 81.4 m2. The dynamic thermal...... with good building insulation were undertaken to figure out the system economical efficiency in the rural regions of Beijing. The results show that the payback periods of the solar space heating system combined with the ASHP with the collector areas 15.04-22.56 m2 are 17.3-22.4 years for the established...

  20. Analysis of the systems of ventilation of residential houses of Ukraine and Estonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savchenko, Olena; Zhelykh, Vasyl; Voll, Hendrik

    2017-12-01

    The most common ventilation system in residential buildings in Ukraine is natural ventilation. In recent years, due to increased tightness of structures, an increase in the content of synthetic finishing materials in them, the quality of microclimate parameters deteriorated. One of the measures to improve the parameters of indoor air in residential buildings is the use of mechanical inflow and exhaust ventilation system. In this article the regulatory documents concerning the design of ventilation systems in Ukraine and Estonia and the requirements for air exchange in residential buildings are considered. It is established that the existing normative documents in Ukraine are analogous to European norms, which allow design the system of ventilation of residential buildings according to European standards. However, the basis for the design of ventilation systems in Ukraine is the national standards, in which mechanical ventilation, unfortunately, is provided only for the design of high-rise buildings. To maintain acceptable microclimate parameters in residential buildings, it is advisable for designers to apply the requirements for designing ventilation systems in accordance with European standards.

  1. Analysis of the systems of ventilation of residential houses of Ukraine and Estonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savchenko Olena

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The most common ventilation system in residential buildings in Ukraine is natural ventilation. In recent years, due to increased tightness of structures, an increase in the content of synthetic finishing materials in them, the quality of microclimate parameters deteriorated. One of the measures to improve the parameters of indoor air in residential buildings is the use of mechanical inflow and exhaust ventilation system. In this article the regulatory documents concerning the design of ventilation systems in Ukraine and Estonia and the requirements for air exchange in residential buildings are considered. It is established that the existing normative documents in Ukraine are analogous to European norms, which allow design the system of ventilation of residential buildings according to European standards. However, the basis for the design of ventilation systems in Ukraine is the national standards, in which mechanical ventilation, unfortunately, is provided only for the design of high-rise buildings. To maintain acceptable microclimate parameters in residential buildings, it is advisable for designers to apply the requirements for designing ventilation systems in accordance with European standards.

  2. Heat Release Rate of an Open Kitchen Fire of Small Residential Units in Tall Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Chow, W.K.

    2014-01-01

    Many small units of area less than 30 m2 in residential buildings over 200 m tall are equipped with open kitchens in Asia, including Hong Kong. Fire safety provisions of these kitchens are determined by performance-based design (PBD). In most PBD projects, only the spread of smoke from the kitchen on fire to the outside was commonly studied. However, a fire load survey in Hong Kong indicated large quantities of combustibles are stored in residential units. Cooking oil was found to be ignited ...

  3. Residential green power demand in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dagher, Leila; Bird, Lori; Heeter, Jenny

    2017-12-01

    This paper investigates the demand determinants of green power in the U.S. residential sector. The data employed were collected by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and consist of a cross-section of seven utilities observed over 13 years. A series of tests are performed that resulted in estimating a demand equation using the one-way cross-section random effects model. As expected, we find that demand is highly price inelastic. More interestingly though, is that elasticity with respect to number of customers is 0.52 leading to the conclusion that new subscribers tend to purchase less green power on average than the existing customers. Another compelling finding is that obtaining accreditation will have a 28.5% positive impact on consumption. Knowing that gaining green accreditation is important to the success of programs, utilities may want to seek certification and highlight it in their advertising campaigns.

  4. A dataset of housing market and self-attitudes towards housing location choices in Alexandria, Egypt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibrahim, Mohamed R

    2017-04-01

    A survey, of sample size 224, is designed to include the different related-factors to housing location choice, such as; socioeconomic factors, housing characteristics, travel behavior, current self-selection factors, housing demand and future location preferences. It comprises 16 questions, categorized into three different sections; socioeconomic (5 Questions), current dwelling unit characteristics (7 Questions), and housing demand characteristics (4 Questions). The first part, socioeconomic, covers the basic information about the respondent, such as; age, gender, marital status, employment, and car ownership. While the second part, current dwelling unit characteristics, covers different aspect concerning the residential unit typology, financial aspects, and travel behavior of the respondent. It includes the tenure types of the residential unit, estimation of the unit price (in the case of ownership or renting), housing typologies, the main reason for choosing the unit, in case of working, the modes of travel to work, and time to reach it, residential mobility in the last decade, and the ownership of any other residential units. The last part, housing demand characteristics, covers the size of the demand for a residential unit, preference in living in a certain area and the reason to choose it, and the preference of residential unit׳s tenure. This survey is a representative sample for the population in Alexandria, Egypt. The data in this article is represented in: How do people select their residential locations in Egypt? The case of Alexandria; JCIT1757.

  5. A dataset of housing market and self-attitudes towards housing location choices in Alexandria, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed R. Ibrahim

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available A survey, of sample size 224, is designed to include the different related-factors to housing location choice, such as; socioeconomic factors, housing characteristics, travel behavior, current self-selection factors, housing demand and future location preferences. It comprises 16 questions, categorized into three different sections; socioeconomic (5 Questions, current dwelling unit characteristics (7 Questions, and housing demand characteristics (4 Questions. The first part, socioeconomic, covers the basic information about the respondent, such as; age, gender, marital status, employment, and car ownership. While the second part, current dwelling unit characteristics, covers different aspect concerning the residential unit typology, financial aspects, and travel behavior of the respondent. It includes the tenure types of the residential unit, estimation of the unit price (in the case of ownership or renting, housing typologies, the main reason for choosing the unit, in case of working, the modes of travel to work, and time to reach it, residential mobility in the last decade, and the ownership of any other residential units. The last part, housing demand characteristics, covers the size of the demand for a residential unit, preference in living in a certain area and the reason to choose it, and the preference of residential unit׳s tenure. This survey is a representative sample for the population in Alexandria, Egypt. The data in this article is represented in: How do people select their residential locations in Egypt? The case of Alexandria; JCIT1757.

  6. Socioeconomic residential segregation and public housing policies. An approach from the Program “Mi Casa, Mi Vida”. Case study in the city of Cordoba, Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Florencia Molinatti

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to analyze the possible effects of the housing program “Mi Casa, Mi Vida” in socioeconomic residential segregation in the city of Córdoba (Argentina. These effects are estimated from the study of the socioeconomic residential composition (before and after the implementation of the program, the mapping of residential movements generated by the program and the application of bivariate autocorrelation techniques. Among the key findings, most of the program beneficiaries are concentrated in poor areas surrounded by others in similar conditions. This fact favors the existence of a large cluster of poverty in the peripheries of the city and promotes marginalization and social exclusion.

  7. Understanding Residential Polarization in a Globalizing City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Rotimi Aliu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the spatial polarization that characterizes the dwellings in the African leading megacity of Lagos. Data were collected through an extensive housing survey carried out on 1,485 household residences in 56 wards within 12 administrative units in Lagos megacity. The spatial dimension of residential density in the city generates three unique residential patterns which are low residential density (LRD, medium residential density (MRD, and high residential density (HRD areas. Descriptive and multivariate inferential statistics were used to render explanations for the spatial variations in the residential quality variables in the study area. Findings indicated that a clear difference exists in the residential quality within the three residential density areas of Lagos. High correlations exist among the residential quality indicators and housing type. The principal component analysis shows that residential polarizations that occur in the LRD, MRD, and HRD are based on the location, dwelling facility, interior and exterior quality, neighborhood integrity, social bond, barrier to entry, and security. The practical implications of residential polarizations along the residential density areas are explicitly expressed.

  8. Tracking the Sun 10: The Installed Price of Residential and Non-Residential Photovoltaic Systems in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Darghouth, Naim R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); LaCommare, Kristina [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); DiSanti, Nicholas [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Widiss, Rebecca [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States)

    2017-09-21

    Berkeley Lab’s Tracking the Sun report series is dedicated to summarizing trends in the installed price of grid-connected, residential and non-residential systems solar photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States. The present report, the tenth edition in the series, focuses on systems installed through year-end 2016, with preliminary data for the first half of 2017. The report provides an overview of both long-term and more-recent trends, highlighting key drivers for installed price declines over different time horizons. The report also extensively characterizes the widespread variability in system pricing, comparing installed prices across states, market segments, installers, and various system and technology characteristics. The trends described in this report derive from project-level data collected by state agencies and utilities that administer PV incentive programs, solar renewable energy credit (SREC) registration systems, or interconnection processes. In total, data for this report were compiled and cleaned for more than 1.1 million individual PV systems, though the analysis in the report is based on a subset of that sample, consisting of roughly 630,000 systems with available installed price data. The full underlying dataset of project-level data (excluding any confidential information) is available in a public data file, for use by other researchers and analysts.

  9. 24 CFR 983.54 - Prohibition of assistance for units in subsidized housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT PROJECT-BASED VOUCHER (PBV) PROGRAM Selection of PBV Owner... PBV assistance to units in any of the following types of subsidized housing: (a) A public housing... operating costs of the housing; (e) A unit subsidized with Section 236 rental assistance payments (12 U.S.C...

  10. Optimized Energy Management of a Single-House Residential Micro-Grid With Automated Demand Response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anvari-Moghaddam, Amjad; Monsef, Hassan; Rahimi-Kian, Ashkan

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, an intelligent multi-objective energy management system (MOEMS) is proposed for applications in residential LVAC micro-grids where households are equipped with smart appliances, such as washing machine, dishwasher, tumble dryer and electric heating and they have the capability...

  11. 12 CFR 590.4 - Federally-related residential manufactured housing loans-consumer protection provisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... housing loans-consumer protection provisions. 590.4 Section 590.4 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT... manufactured housing loans—consumer protection provisions. (a) Definitions. As used in this section: (1... protection to consumers. Such determinations shall be published in the Federal Register and shall operate...

  12. The role of parents in their adult children’s housing and residential locations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, A.W.M.

    2010-01-01

    Are adult children more likely to become homeowners for the first time if their parents are homeowners? And, if so, did the influence of parental homeownership on that of the adult child change over time? Do adult children of parents with high-value housing have better chances to have higher housing

  13. Wood products used for residential repair and remodeling in the United States, 1991

    Science.gov (United States)

    D. B. McKeever; R. G. Anderson

    Large amounts of lumber and wood panel products are used annually for the repair and remodeling of residential structures and properties in the United States. In response to the need by government and industry for detailed information on this important market for timber products, a study was conducted by the Timber Demand and Technology...

  14. Efforts of the occupant to change physical quality of residential unit through the change of building material at low cost flats in Jakarta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nurdiani, N.

    2018-03-01

    Low cost flats in Jakarta – Indonesia is provided by the government for low-income people in urban areas, in line with the program to redevelop or renew slum areas. Low cost flat is built with the minimum standard of building materials. The purpose of this study is to know efforts of the occupants to change of building materials at residential unit of low cost flats. The research was conducted by descriptive method at four of low cost housing in Jakarta: Rusuna Bendungan Hilir 1, Rusuna Tambora IIIA, Rusuna Bidara Cina, and Rusuna Sukapura. The results showed that physical changes which happened in low cost flats are aesthetic (residence paint color change), or improvement of physical quality of residential unit (change of building material), become dominant aspects done by residents in four rusuna.

  15. Designing Sustainable Urban Social Housing in the United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaled Galal Ahmed

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The United Arab Emirates is experiencing a challenging turn towards sustainable social housing. Conventional neighborhood planning and design principles are being replaced by those leading to more sustainable urban forms. To trace this challenging move, the research has investigated the degree of consideration of sustainable urban design principles in two social housing neighborhoods in Al Ain City in Abu Dhabi Emirate, UAE. The first represents a conventional urban form based on the neighborhood theory; the other represents the new sustainable design. The ultimate aim is to define the obstacles hindering the full achievement of a sustainable urban form in this housing type. To undertake research investigations, a matrix of the design principles of sustainable urban forms has been initiated in order to facilitate the assessment of the urban forms of the two selected urban communities. Some qualitatively measurable design elements have been defined for each of these principles. The results of the analysis of the shift from ‘conventional’ to ‘sustainable’ case studies have revealed some aspects that would prevent the attainment of fully sustainable urban forms in newly designed social housing neighborhoods. Finally, the research concludes by recommending some fundamental actions to help meet these challenges in future design.

  16. Thermal Storage Systems Assessment for Energy Sustainability in Housing Units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania I. Lagunes Vega

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to achieve greater enhancements in energy sustainability for housing, the function and efficiency of two different passive cooling systems were studied: encapsulated water in recycled bottles of Polyethylene terephthalate (PET and polystyrene plates, in comparison with standard concrete slab systems, which are customarily used in housing. Experiments were placed over a tile surface, in which temperature changes were monitored for a period of 20 days from 08:00 to 20:00. The efficiency of passive thermal storage systems was endorsed through statistical analysis using the “SPSS” software. This resulted in a 17% energy saving, thus promoting energy sustainability in housing units, which reduces the use of electrical appliances required to stabilize conditions to achieve optimum thermal comfort for the human body inside a house, therefore, reducing electrical power consumption, CO2 emissions to the atmosphere and generating savings. Due to the complexity of a system with temperature changes, a fractal analysis was performed for each experimental system, using the “Benoit” software (V.1.3 with self-compatible tools of rescaled range (R/S and a wavelets method, showing that the thermal fluctuations on the tiles with the thermal storage system adapt to the rescaled range analysis and the regular tiles adapt to the wavelets method.

  17. Choosing The Right Technology - Optimized Design Of Renewable Supply Systems For Residential Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milan, Christian; Bojesen, Carsten; Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    2012-01-01

    The use of renewable energy sources (RES) has continuously increased throughout the last decade. In the residential building sector the trend goes towards energy supply systems based on multiple RES. This is mainly due to political requirements, governmental subsidies and fuel price development....... These systems not only require an optimal design with respect to the installed capacities but also the right choice in combining the available technologies assuring a cost-effective solution. The aim of this paper is to present an optimization methodology for residential on-site energy supply systems based...... on mixed integer linear programming. The methodology chooses the right combination of technologies and sizes the components based on on-site weather data and expected consumption profiles. Through this approach the fluctuations of RES as well as the user behavior are taken into account already during...

  18. Impacts of alternative residential energy standards - Rural Housing Amendments Study, Phase 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balistocky, S.; Bohn, A.A.; Heidell, J.A.; Hendrickson, P.L.; Lee, A.D.; Pratt, R.G.; Taylor, Z.T.

    1985-11-01

    This report has examined the role of manufactured housing in the housing market, the energy impacts of three manufactured housing standards and three site-built standards in 13 cities, and the economic impacts of those standards in 6 cities. The three standards applied to manufactured housing are the HUD Title VI standard (Manufactured Housing Construction and Safety Standards, or MHCSS), the Hud Title II-E standard, and the existing FmHA Title V standard. Those applied to site-built homes are the HUD Minimum Property Standards (MPS), the ASHRAE 90A-80 standard, and the FmHA Title V standard. Based on energy consumption alone, these analyses show that the FmHA Title V standard is the most stringent standard for both housing types (a single-section menufactured home and a single-story detached ''ranch house''). The HUD Title VI standard is the least stringent for manufactured homes, while the HUD Minimum Property Standards are the least stringent for site-built homes. Cost-effectiveness comparisons required by the Act were made for the two prototypical homes. Results of this preliminary economic analysis indicate that none of the site-built standards reflect minimum life-cycle cost as a basic criterion of their development. For manufactured homes, both the FmHA standard and the HUD Title II-E standard reduce life-cycle cost and effect positive first-year cash flows in all cities analyzed when electric resistance heating is assumed. When natural gas heating is used, both standards pass the life-cycle cost test in all cities, but the FmHA standard fails the cash flow test in all but one city. However, in the worst case, net monthly expenditures in the first year are increased by less than $9.

  19. Residential Stability Reduces Unmet Health Care Needs and Emergency Department Utilization among a Cohort of Homeless and Vulnerably Housed Persons in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworsky, Denise; Gadermann, Anne; Duhoux, Arnaud; Naismith, Trudy E; Norena, Monica; To, Matthew J; Hwang, Stephen W; Palepu, Anita

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the association of housing status over time with unmet physical health care needs and emergency department utilization among homeless and vulnerably housed persons in Canada. Homeless and vulnerably housed individuals completed interviewer-administered surveys on housing, unmet physical health care needs, health care utilization, sociodemographic characteristics, substance use, and health conditions at baseline and annually for 4 years. Generalized logistic mixed effects regression models examined the association of residential stability with unmet physical health care needs and emergency department utilization, adjusting for potential confounders. Participants were from Vancouver (n = 387), Toronto (n = 390), and Ottawa (n = 396). Residential stability was associated with lower odds of having unmet physical health needs (adjusted odds ratio (AOR), 0.82; 95 % confidence interval (CI), 0.67, 0.98) and emergency department utilization (AOR, 0.74; 95 % CI, 0.62, 0.88) over the 4-year follow-up period, after adjusting for potential confounders. Residential stability is associated with fewer unmet physical health care needs and lower emergency department utilization among homeless and vulnerably housed individuals. These findings highlight the need to address access to stable housing as a significant determinant of health disparities.

  20. Keys to the House: Unlocking Residential Savings With Program Models for Home Energy Upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grevatt, Jim [Energy Futures Group (United States); Hoffman, Ian [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Hoffmeyer, Dale [US Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    2017-07-05

    After more than 40 years of effort, energy efficiency program administrators and associated contractors still find it challenging to penetrate the home retrofit market, especially at levels commensurate with state and federal goals for energy savings and emissions reductions. Residential retrofit programs further have not coalesced around a reliably successful model. They still vary in design, implementation and performance, and they remain among the more difficult and costly options for acquiring savings in the residential sector. If programs are to contribute fully to meeting resource and policy objectives, administrators need to understand what program elements are key to acquiring residential savings as cost effectively as possible. To that end, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored a comprehensive review and analysis of home energy upgrade programs with proven track records, focusing on those with robustly verified savings and constituting good examples for replication. The study team reviewed evaluations for the period 2010 to 2014 for 134 programs that are funded by customers of investor-owned utilities. All are programs that promote multi-measure retrofits or major system upgrades. We paid particular attention to useful design and implementation features, costs, and savings for nearly 30 programs with rigorous evaluations of performance. This meta-analysis describes program models and implementation strategies for (1) direct install retrofits; (2) heating, ventilating and air-conditioning (HVAC) replacement and early retirement; and (3) comprehensive, whole-home retrofits. We analyze costs and impacts of these program models, in terms of both energy savings and emissions avoided. These program models can be useful guides as states consider expanding their strategies for acquiring energy savings as a resource and for emissions reductions. We also discuss the challenges of using evaluations to create program models that can be confidently applied in

  1. Pathology of mass housing projects in Iran (Mehr Housing Plan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Mass housing in construction industry is known as projects that mass production methods are used to construct residential units in it. Mass housing is a model of construction that has high economic, technical and managerial feasibility and should optimize three areas of quality, time and cost. But it should be noted that in ...

  2. Autoclaved aerated concrete : shaping the evolution of residential construction in the United States.

    OpenAIRE

    Bukoski, Steven C.

    1998-01-01

    CIVINS (Civilian Institutions) Thesis document Precast Autoclaved Aerated Concrete (AAC) is a proven construction material used in Europe for over 70 years. Introduced to the United States in 1990, construction thus far is limited to commercial and custom borne applications. Premium benefits include energy efficiency and resistance to natural disaster and pests. Despite being the leading residential construction material in Europe and Japan, lumber is the leading material of choice in the ...

  3. Evaluation of User Satisfaction in Public Residential Housing - A Case Study in the Outskirts of Naples, Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forte, Fabiana; Russo, Yvonne

    2017-10-01

    Nowadays the quality of homes and social life are two closely interacting categories which require a more careful interpretation of the users’ needs. Their opinions, expectations and “desires” have to be incorporated into both the design and evaluation processes. With specific reference to the experiences of public housing, the practice of “user satisfaction” should be increasingly incorporated during the ex-post (or monitoring) evaluation in order to verify the quality and validity of the service offered, thus activating a real co-participation of the user in the creation and improvement of the housing service. It is well-known that the principle of customer satisfaction derives from the field of marketing as a tool to evaluate how and how much the products/services offered meet the needs of the consumers. In the field of the construction industry, customer satisfaction has been incorporated into the “Post-Occupation Evaluation”, an evaluation tool of the performance of the building “in use” through the combination of objective and subjective variables expressed by the occupiers. Widely used since the 1970s in Anglo-Saxon countries, Italy is still struggling to find a systematic implementation. In this perspective, the article presents an application of the customer satisfaction method for the identification of some interventions aimed at improving the quality of a complex of public residential housing localized in Ponticelli, the second most populated district in the outskirts of the metropolitan city of Naples, in the Campania Region (Italy). Following a synthetic introduction of the theme and the explanation of the object of evaluation, the article discusses the methodology and the results, focalizing on some intervention hypotheses verified in terms of economic sustainability.

  4. The residential segregation of detailed Hispanic and Asian groups in the United States: 1980-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Iceland

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Racial and ethnic diversity continues to grow in communities across the United States,raising questions about the extent to which different ethnic groups will become residentially integrated. Objective: While a number of studies have examined the residential patterns of pan-ethnic groups, our goal is to examine the segregation of several Asian and Hispanic ethnic groups - Cubans, Dominicans, Mexicans, Puerto Ricans, Salvadorans, Asian Indians, Chinese, Filipinos, Japanese, Koreans, and Vietnamese. We gauge the segregation of each group from several alternative reference groups using two measures over the 1980 to 2010 period. Results: We find that the dissimilarity of Hispanics and Asians from other groups generally held steady or declined, though, because most Hispanic and Asian groups are growing, interaction with Whites also often declined. Our analyses also indicate that pan-ethnic segregation indexes do not always capture the experience of specific groups. Among Hispanics, Mexicans are typically less residentially segregated (as measured using the dissimilarity index from Whites, Blacks, Asians, and other Hispanics than are other Hispanic-origin groups. Among Asian ethnic groups, Japanese and Filipinos tend to have lower levels of dissimilarity from Whites, Blacks, and Hispanics than other Asian groups. Examining different dimensions of segregation also indicates that dissimilarity scores alone often do not capture to what extent various ethnic groups are actually sharing neighborhoods with each other. Finally, color lines vary across groups in some important ways, even as the dominant trend has been toward reduced racial and ethnic residential segregation over time. Conclusions: The overarching trend is that ethnic groups are becoming more residentially integrated,suggestive of assimilation, though there is significant variation across ethnic groups.

  5. Field survey of a sustainable sanitation system in a residential house.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Naoko; Otaki, Masahiro; Miura, Shinji; Hamasuna, Hironobu; Ishizaki, Katsuyoshi

    2006-01-01

    Sustainable sanitation is an approach for more ecological and sustainable water resources management. In this paper, we proposed one of the new integrated waste treatment systems: an "sustainable sanitation system" that includes separation of the black water from water system by a non-flushing toilet (bio-toilet), and a gray water treatment based on a biological and ecological concept. Sustainable sanitation system also converts the domestic waste to soil conditioners and fertilizers, for farmland use. As one of the case studies, Environmentally Symbiotic Housing in which people actually live using the bio-toilet for the black water treatment and the household wastewater treatment facility for the gray water was introduced. The availability of this system was investigated by analyzing the sawdust used in the bio-toilet and the quality of the effluent in the household wastewater treatment facility. As the result, the water content of the sawdust did not exceed 60% in any of the sampling points and the BOD and COD of the effluent of the household wastewater treatment facility were below 10 and 20 mg/L respectively, due to the low loading. Compared to the pollution load on the water environment created by the conventional system, it was found that the effluent of the house has a lower load than the tertiary treatment and the volume of the water consumption is 75% of the conventional system.

  6. Thermal characteristics of a residential house in a new township in Johor Bahru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Y. Y.; Lee, Y. H.; Mohammad, S.; Shek, P. N.; Ma, C. K.

    2017-11-01

    As one of the densest population occurred in Johor Bahru, development of a new township become necessary in order to cater this growth. Rapid urbanization is a factor of degradation of environmental quality which may increase surrounded temperature through urban heat island (UHI) phenomena. Therefore, this paper is investigating thermal comfort for a new township, Bandar Dato Onn in Johor Bahru, in order to understand the thermal characteristics of a new township and for further mitigation of UHI phenomena. Surface temperature, ambient temperature and relative humidity have been collected from a terrace house of Bandar Dato Onn. Thermal characteristics with the features of time lag and decrement factors were discussed based on the collected data. The time lag of 5 to 8 hours and the decrement factors of 0.02 to 0.06 were recorded during a five-day measurement. It was concluded that human thermal comfort may not be achieved as the heating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) system needed for bedroom and living room. Passive energy design is suggested to be included in the house in order to have human thermal comfort while reducing the electricity consumption towards sustainable future.

  7. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in the Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Building Industry Research Alliance (BIRA); Building Science Consortium (BSC); Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB); Davis Energy Group (DEG); Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC); IBACOS; National Association of Home Builders Research Center (NAHBRC); National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    2006-01-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Hot-Dry/Mixed-Dry Climate Region on a cost neutral basis.

  8. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Mixed-Humid Climates; January 2006 - December 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership (BAIHP); Building Industry Research Alliance (BIRA); Building Science Consortium (BSC); Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB); Davis Energy Group (DEG); IBACOS; National Association of Home Builders Research Center (NAHBRC); National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    2006-12-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Mixed-Humid Climate Region on a cost-neutral basis.

  9. Electricity, water, and natural gas consumption of a residential house in Canada from 2012 to 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makonin, Stephen; Ellert, Bradley; Bajić, Ivan V.; Popowich, Fred

    2016-06-01

    With the cost of consuming resources increasing (both economically and ecologically), homeowners need to find ways to curb consumption. The Almanac of Minutely Power dataset Version 2 (AMPds2) has been released to help computational sustainability researchers, power and energy engineers, building scientists and technologists, utility companies, and eco-feedback researchers test their models, systems, algorithms, or prototypes on real house data. In the vast majority of cases, real-world datasets lead to more accurate models and algorithms. AMPds2 is the first dataset to capture all three main types of consumption (electricity, water, and natural gas) over a long period of time (2 years) and provide 11 measurement characteristics for electricity. No other such datasets from Canada exist. Each meter has 730 days of captured data. We also include environmental and utility billing data for cost analysis. AMPds2 data has been pre-cleaned to provide for consistent and comparable accuracy results amongst different researchers and machine learning algorithms.

  10. An analysis of residential PV system price differences between the United States and Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seel, Joachim; Barbose, Galen L.; Wiser, Ryan H.

    2014-01-01

    Residential photovoltaic (PV) systems were twice as expensive in the United States as in Germany (median of $5.29/W vs. $2.59/W) in 2012. This price discrepancy stems primarily from differences in non-hardware or “soft” costs between the two countries, which can only in part be explained by differences in cumulative market size and associated learning. A survey of German PV installers was deployed to collect granular data on PV soft costs in Germany, and the results are compared to those of a similar survey of U.S. PV installers. Non-module hardware costs and all analyzed soft costs are lower in Germany, especially for customer acquisition, installation labor, and profit/overhead costs, but also for expenses related to permitting, interconnection, and inspection procedures. Additional costs occur in the United States due to state and local sales taxes, smaller average system sizes, and longer project-development times. To reduce the identified additional costs of residential PV systems, the United States could introduce policies that enable a robust and lasting market while minimizing market fragmentation. Regularly declining incentives offering a transparent and certain value proposition—combined with simple interconnection, permitting, and inspection requirements—might help accelerate PV cost reductions in the United States. - Highlights: • Residential PV system prices are twice as high in the USA than in Germany in 2012. • Different cumulative national PV market sizes explain only 35% of price gap. • Installer surveys show that price differences stem from non-module and soft costs. • Largest cost differences stem from customer acquisition and installation labor. • Incentives in the US are less effective in driving and following cost reductions

  11. A support strategy for the promotion of photovoltaic uses for residential houses in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Si-Doek; Lee, Yeji; Yoo, Yungpil; Kim, Jinoh; Kim, Suyong; Song, Seung Jin; Kwak, Ho-Young

    2013-01-01

    Various policies such as feed-in tariffs, quota obligations and capital subsides were enacted to expand the uses of renewable energy (RE) in many countries. This study examined whether capital subsidies are cost effective in relation to the installation of solar photovoltaic (PV) facility. To do this, the capacity factor, which is one of the crucial factors for determining the unit cost of electricity from a solar PV system, was estimated from the monthly average clearness index data collected at various cities in Korea. Thermoeconomic analysis was applied to calculate the unit cost of electricity based on the calculated capacity factor of the solar PV system. Instead of subsidizing the same percent of the capital cost of each PV system installation, it is reasonable for the government to adopt a measure to match the subsidy paid to the payback period of the initial investment for all 5 million potential solar PV users in Korea. - Highlights: ► The unit cost of electricity from solar PV depends crucially on its capacity factor. ► We calculated the capacity factor of solar PV at various cities from the clearness index. ► We estimated the unit cost of electricity from solar PV using thermoeconomic analysis. ► We examined whether the capital subsidy program in Korea to solar PV is cost effective. ► This study determined that a measure based on the same payback period is better policy.

  12. Shelter from the Storm: Roles, responsibilities, and challenges in United States housing policy governance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willison, Charley

    2017-11-01

    Housing is a critical social determinant of health. Housing policy not only affects health by improving housing quality, affordability, and insecurity; housing policy affects health upstream through the politics that shape housing policy design, implementation, and management. These politics, or governance strategies, determine the successes or failures of housing policy programs. This paper is an overview of challenges in housing policy governance in the United States. I examine the important relationship between housing and health, and emphasize why studying housing policy governance matters. I then present three cases of housing governance challenges in the United States, from each pathway by which housing affects health - housing quality, affordability, and insecurity. Each case corresponds to an arm of the TAPIC framework for evaluating governance (Krieger and Higgins) [1], to assess mechanisms of housing governance in each case. While housing governance has come a long way over the past century, political decentralization and the expansion of the submerged state have increased the number of political actors and policy conflict in many areas. This creates inherent challenges for improving accountability, transparency, and policy capacity. In many instances, too, reduced government accountability and transparency increases the risk of harm to the public and lessens governmental integrity. Copyright © 2017 The Author. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. In-core monitor housing replacement at Fukushima Daiichi Unit No.4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arai, Tomoyuki

    1999-01-01

    The in-core monitor (ICM) housing replacement of a Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) has been completed at Fukushima-Daiichi Unit No. 4 (1F4) of the Tokyo Electric Power Company (TEPCO) in Japan. Since cracking of the inside surface of an ICM housing was found in this unit, the ICM housing was replaced with one made of low-carbon stainless steel (SS) to improve Intergranular Stress Corrosion Cracking (IGSCC) resistance. This project is the first application of the replacement procedure for the ICM housing and employs various advanced technologies. The outline of the ICM housing replacement project and applied technologies are discussed in this paper. (author)

  14. A Room to Grow: The Residential Density-dependence of Childbearing in Europe and the United States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathanael Lauster

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available I argue that cultural processes linked to the demographic transition produce new density-dependent fertility dynamics. In particular, childbearing becomes dependent upon residential roominess. This relationship is culturally specific, and I argue that the cultural nature of this relationship means that professional and managerial classes are likely to be particularly influenced by residential roominess, while immigrants are less likely to be influenced. I test hypotheses linking residential roominess to the presence of an “own infant” in the household using census data from the Austria, Greece, Portugal, Spain, and the United States. Roominess predicts fertility in all countries, but to differing degrees.

  15. Enabling Housing Cooperatives: policy lessons from Sweden, India and the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganapati, Sukumar

    2010-01-01

    Housing cooperatives became active in urban areas in Sweden, India and the United States during the interwar period. Yet, after the second world war, while housing cooperatives grew phenomenally nationwide in Sweden and India, they did not do so in the United States. This article makes a comparative institutional analysis of the evolution of housing cooperatives in these three countries. The analysis reveals that housing cooperatives' relationship with the state and the consequent support structures explain the divergent evolution. Although the relationships between cooperatives and the state evolved over time, they can be characterized as embedded autonomy, overembeddedness and disembeddedness in Sweden, India and the United States respectively. Whereas the consequent support structures for housing cooperatives became well developed in Sweden and India, such structures have been weak in the United States. The article highlights the need for embedded autonomy and the need for supportive structures to enable the growth of housing cooperatives.

  16. Organisational and environmental characteristics of residential aged care units providing highly person-centred care: a cross sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sjögren, Karin; Lindkvist, Marie; Sandman, Per-Olof; Zingmark, Karin; Edvardsson, David

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have empirically investigated factors that define residential aged care units that are perceived as being highly person-centred. The purpose of this study was to explore factors characterising residential aged care units perceived as being highly person-centred, with a focus on organisational and environmental variables, as well as residents' and staff' characteristics. A cross-sectional design was used. Residents ( n  = 1460) and staff ( n  = 1213) data from 151 residential care units were collected, as well as data relating to characteristics of the organisation and environment, and data measuring degree of person-centred care. Participating staff provided self-reported data and conducted proxy ratings on residents . Descriptive and comparative statistics, independent samples t-test, Chi 2 test, Eta Squared and Phi coefficient were used to analyse data. Highly person-centred residential aged care units were characterized by having a shared philosophy of care, a satisfactory leadership, interdisciplinary collaboration and social support from colleagues and leaders, a dementia-friendly physical environment, staff having time to spend with residents, and a smaller unit size. Residential aged care units with higher levels of person-centred care had a higher proportion of staff with continuing education in dementia care, and a higher proportion of staff receiving regular supervision, compared to units with lower levels of person-centred care. It is important to target organisational and environmental factors, such as a shared philosophy of care, staff use of time, the physical environment, interdisciplinary support, and support from leaders and colleagues, to improve person-centred care in residential care units. Managers and leaders seeking to facilitate person-centred care in daily practice need to consider their own role in supporting, encouraging, and supervising staff.

  17. DC Linked Hybrid Generation System with an Energy Storage Device including a Photo-Voltaic Generation and a Gas Engine Cogeneration for Residential Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lung, Chienru; Miyake, Shota; Kakigano, Hiroaki; Miura, Yushi; Ise, Toshifumi; Momose, Toshinari; Hayakawa, Hideki

    For the past few years, a hybrid generation system including solar panel and gas cogeneration is being used for residential houses. Solar panels can generate electronic power at daytime; meanwhile, it cannot generate electronic power at night time. But the power consumption of residential houses usually peaks in the evening. The gas engine cogeneration system can generate electronic power without such a restriction, and it also can generate heat power to warm up house or to produce hot water. In this paper, we propose the solar panel and gas engine co-generation hybrid system with an energy storage device that is combined by dc bus. If a black out occurs, the system still can supply electronic power for special house loads. We propose the control scheme for the system which are related with the charging level of the energy storage device, the voltage of the utility grid which can be applied both grid connected and stand alone operation. Finally, we carried out some experiments to demonstrate the system operation and calculation for loss estimation.

  18. DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: United Way of Long Island, United Veterans Beacon House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2017-09-01

    United Way of Long Island’s Housing Development Corporation built this 3,719-ft2 two–story, 5-bedroom home in Huntington Station, New York, to the rigorous performance requirements of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Zero Energy Ready Home Program. The home is packed with high-performance features like LED lighting and ENERGY STAR appliances. The asymmetrical, optimally angled roof provides plenty of space for roof-mounted solar panels for electric generation and hot water.

  19. Market Potential for Residential Biomass Heating Equipment: Stochastic and Econometric Assessments

    OpenAIRE

    Adee Athiyaman

    2015-01-01

    This paper provides estimates of market potential for biomass-residential-heating equipment in the US: that is, the greatest amount of biomass-residential-heating equipment that can be sold by the industry. The author's analysis is limited to biomass equipment used most to heat the housing unit. Assuming that households equipped with 10+ year old primary heating devices will replace rather than repair the devices he predicts that approximately 1.4 million units of residential home heating equ...

  20. Design of laboratory and animal housing unit for radionuclide studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1975-01-01

    The design of a combined analytical laboratory and animal housing facility is discussed. By having sample processing facilities in close proximity to the experimental animals, the necessity for transporting biological specimens long distances has been curtailed. In addition, complete radionuclide counting equipment has been installed so that samples need not leave the animal housing site for analysis, a feature based on radiological health requirements. (U.S.)

  1. Why is housing tenure associated with a lower risk of admission to a nursing or residential home? Wealth, health and the incentive to keep 'my home'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCann, Mark; Grundy, Emily; O'Reilly, Dermot

    2012-02-01

    Previous research has shown that home ownership is associated with a reduced risk of admission to institutional care. The extent to which this reflects associations between wealth and health, between wealth and ability to buy in care or increased motivation to avoid admission related to policies on charging is unclear. Taking account of the value of the home, as well as housing tenure, may provide some clarification as to the relative importance of these factors. To analyse the probability of admission to residential and nursing home care according to housing tenure and house value. Cox regression was used to examine the association between home ownership, house value and risk of care home admissions over 6 years of follow-up among a cohort of 51 619 people aged 65 years or older drawn from the Northern Ireland Longitudinal Study, a representative sample of ≈28% of the population of Northern Ireland. Results 4% of the cohort (2138) was admitted during follow-up. Homeowners were less likely than those who rented to be admitted to care homes (HR 0.77, 95% CI 0.70 to 0.85, after adjusting for age, sex, health, living arrangement and urban/rural differences). There was a strong association between house value/tenure and health with those in the highest valued houses having the lowest odds of less than good health or limiting long-term illness. However, there was no difference in probability of admission according to house value; HRs of 0.78 (95% CI 0.67 to 0.90) and 0.81 (95% CI 0.70 to 0.95), respectively, for the lowest and highest value houses compared with renters. The requirement for people in the UK with capital resources to contribute to their care is a significant disincentive to institutional admission. This may place an additional burden on carers.

  2. Energy Savings and Breakeven Costs for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Burch, Jay [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Merrigan, Tim [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ong, Sean [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently re-emerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, NREL performed simulations of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern United States. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern United States, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  3. Chemical behavior of residential lead in urban yards in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elless, M P; Bray, C A; Blaylock, M J

    2007-07-01

    Long after federal regulations banned the use of lead-based paints and leaded gasoline, residential lead remains a persistent challenge. Soil lead is a significant contributor to this hazard and an improved understanding of physicochemical properties is likely to be useful for in situ abatement techniques such as phytoremediation and chemical stabilization. A laboratory characterization of high-lead soils collected from across the United States shows that the lead contaminants were concentrating in the silt and clay fractions, in the form of discrete particles of lead, as observed by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Soil lead varied widely in its solubility behavior as assessed by sequential and chelate extractions. Because site-specific factors (e.g., soil pH, texture, etc.) are believed to govern the solubility of the lead, understanding the variability in these characteristics at each site is necessary to optimize in situ remediation or abatement of these soils.

  4. Economics of residential gas furnaces and water heaters in United States new construction market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lekov, Alex B.; Franco, Victor H.; Wong-Parodi, Gabrielle; McMahon, James E.; Chan, Peter

    2009-05-06

    New single-family home construction represents a significant and important market for the introduction of energy-efficient gas-fired space heating and water-heating equipment. In the new construction market, the choice of furnace and water-heater type is primarily driven by first cost considerations and the availability of power vent and condensing water heaters. Few analysis have been performed to assess the economic impacts of the different combinations of space and water-heating equipment. Thus, equipment is often installed without taking into consideration the potential economic and energy savings of installing space and water-heating equipment combinations. In this study, we use a life-cycle cost analysis that accounts for uncertainty and variability of the analysis inputs to assess the economic benefits of gas furnace and water-heater design combinations. This study accounts not only for the equipment cost but also for the cost of installing, maintaining, repairing, and operating the equipment over its lifetime. Overall, this study, which is focused on US single-family new construction households that install gas furnaces and storage water heaters, finds that installing a condensing or power-vent water heater together with condensing furnace is the most cost-effective option for the majority of these houses. Furthermore, the findings suggest that the new construction residential market could be a target market for the large-scale introduction of a combination of condensing or power-vent water heaters with condensing furnaces.

  5. Dementia Special Care Units in Residential Care Communities: United States, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on Vital and Health Statistics Annual Reports Health Survey Research Methods Conference Reports from the National Medical Care Utilization ... dementia special care units, or in a more traditional setting where these residents are integrated with residents ...

  6. Continental United States Military Housing Inspection National Capital Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-13

    mechanical rooms, electrical rooms, laundry rooms, lounges, and common kitchen areas. We interviewed residents, maintenance personnel, housing...standards, the National Electrical Code (NEC), U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) standards, and international building codes. Findings We found...that could affect the health, safety, and well-being of warfighters and their families: 168 electrical system, 131 fire protection system, and 17

  7. 44 CFR 206.118 - Disposal of housing units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY DISASTER ASSISTANCE FEDERAL DISASTER ASSISTANCE Federal Assistance to..., has a site that complies with local codes and ordinances and part 9 of this Title. (ii) Adjustment to... providing temporary housing to disaster victims in major disasters and emergencies. As a condition of the...

  8. House price responsiveness of housing investments across major European economies

    OpenAIRE

    Gattini, Luca; Ganoulis, Ioannis

    2012-01-01

    In comparison with the large literature on house prices, housing investments have been studied far less. This paper investigates the behaviour of private residential investments for the six largest European economies, namely: Germany, France, Italy, Spain, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom. It employs a common modelling structure based on an error correction approach and country specific models. First, co-integration among the parsimoniously specified set of fundamental variables is dete...

  9. Comparison of Advanced Residential Water Heating Technologies in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, Jeff [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Fang, Xia [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Wilson, Eric [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-05-01

    In this study, gas storage, gas tankless, condensing, electric storage, heat pump, and solar water heaters were simulated in several different climates across the United States, installed in both conditioned and unconditioned space and subjected to several different draw profiles. While many pre-existing models were used, new models of condensing and heat pump water heaters were created specifically for this work. In each case modeled, the whole house was simulated along with the water heater to capture any interactions between the water heater and the space conditioning equipment.

  10. Simulation and optimisation of a ground source heat pump with different ground heat exchanger configurations for a single-family residential house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pavlov, Georgi Krasimiroy; Olesen, Bjarne W.

    2012-01-01

    In the future there will be an increased demand for energy efficient cooling of residential buildings. Therefore it is essential to develop cooling concepts that are passive and/or using very little primary energy. A possible solution is a ground source heat pump combined with a low-temperature h....... For the studied geographical location, passive cooling by bypassing the heat pump and using only the ground heat exchanger can provide acceptable room temperatures.......In the future there will be an increased demand for energy efficient cooling of residential buildings. Therefore it is essential to develop cooling concepts that are passive and/or using very little primary energy. A possible solution is a ground source heat pump combined with a low......-temperature heating and high-temperature cooling system. The present work evaluates the performance in relation to thermal comfort and energy consumption of a GSHP with different GHE concepts. The different configurations are analyzed being part of the energy supply system of a low-energy residential house...

  11. This is my neighborhood: comparing United States and Australian Oxford House Neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Joseph R; Jason, Leonard A; Blake, Ron; Davis, Margaret I; Olson, Bradley D

    2006-01-01

    The number of Oxford Houses, communal-living, mutual help settings for persons in recovery of alcohol and substance abuse, has spread across the United States and recently in and around Melbourne, Australia. In this study 55 US and 6 AU Houses were compared descriptively for their neighborhood characteristics. Across settings, there were greater similarities than significant differences in the locations. Results imply that Australian Oxford Houses are "safe and sober" settings for persons in recovery consistent with the original United States model in physical dwelling settings.

  12. Occupational safety issues in residential construction surveyed in Wisconsin, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang D; Carlson, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Residential construction is a high-risk industry in the U.S. due to the exposure to work-related safety hazards and fall injuries. This study aimed to examine the safety training and safe work practices of construction workers within the small residential construction industry. In order to achieve the study objectives, a survey was designed and sent to approximately 200 Wisconsin based residential construction contractors. About one third of the respondents stated that they did not have any form of safety programs. The study indicated that the most common types of work-related injuries in residential construction were slips/trips/falls and cuts/lacerations. The survey findings also suggested that the residential construction contractors needed to increase the utilization of fall protection safety equipment. Further education and subject matter expert training could provide benefits to improve occupational safety and health of the small business workforce in the residential construction industry.

  13. LESS SPACE, MORE SPATIALITY FOR LOW-INCOME HOUSING UNITS IN EGYPT: IDEAS FROM JAPAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nermine Abdel Gelil

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available In 1996, the Egyptian government launched a national housing project for low-income families. To minimize cost, it has progressively reduced units’ sizes. Numerous surveys indicate that unit specifications were based on political and economic criteria, rather than on users’ needs, which resulted in the recurrence of the persistent phenomenon of individual modifications. A number of scholars and architects concerned with this phenomenon are advocating the revival of the social design principles of traditional Cairene houses (16th –19th century after adapting them to contemporary needs. However, they provide no concrete solutions as to how to achieve this in small-scale units located in multi-storey buildings. During my research in Japan, I was introduced to traditional middle class urban houses. Their practical designs used to resolve issues of privacy, internal flexibility, storage, and family growth can be beneficially applied to housing units in Egypt. This paper first explains why relying solely on traditional housing designs to resolve social issues associated with low-income units in Egypt is both fanciful and incomplete, then discusses why ideas from Japanese homes can be beneficially applied to low-income housing units in Egypt. Third, this paper examines issues in these units and the resultant modifications by Egyptian households. Next, it analyzes concepts of spatial organization, modular systems, partitioning, and storage in traditional middle class urban houses in Japan. Finally, this paper formulates proposals for fulfilling the social needs of occupants in Egypt by integrating these ideas into low-income housing units.

  14. Shift report: a ritual play on a residential adolescent psychiatric unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonge, O

    2008-01-01

    The author conducted an ethnographic study of an adolescent residential psychiatric unit which revealed a category of behaviour--the shift report. A questionnaire was administered to staff to reveal further meanings. Reporting was found to schematize knowledge according to common referents, promote and validate insider roles through language, offer a means of personal reintegration and catharsis, and provide a forum for the symbolic enactment of democratic values which permeated every aspect of culture on the unit. Staff members were categorically in favour of their verbal and private shift report. There was little partitioning of informal and formal aspects of report in the interest of saving time. Instead, socializing and 'catching up' were important aspects of shift report and constituted a large part of team building. The informal nature of report, particularly in the use of language allowed staff to come to terms with frustrations rather than constituting patient stereotyping. As a ritual, the shift report fostered behavioural synchrony, individual empowerment and a democratic 'all-channel network' of communication. It is hoped that this account will encourage more practising nurses and managers to view their shift report as something more than a simple 'handover'; that is, a ritual play of core values, roles and relationships.

  15. Energy Savings and Breakeven Cost for Residential Heat Pump Water Heaters in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maguire, J.; Burch, J.; Merrigan, T.; Ong, S.

    2013-07-01

    Heat pump water heaters (HPWHs) have recently reemerged in the U.S. residential water heating market and have the potential to provide homeowners with significant energy savings. However, there are questions as to the actual performance and energy savings potential of these units, in particular in regards to the heat pump's performance in unconditioned space and the impact of the heat pump on space heating and cooling loads when it is located in conditioned space. To help answer these questions, simulations were performed of a HPWH in both conditioned and unconditioned space at over 900 locations across the continental United States and Hawaii. Simulations included a Building America benchmark home so that any interaction between the HPWH and the home's HVAC equipment could be captured. Comparisons were performed to typical gas and electric water heaters to determine the energy savings potential and cost effectiveness of a HPWH relative to these technologies. HPWHs were found to have a significant source energy savings potential when replacing typical electric water heaters, but only saved source energy relative to gas water heater in the most favorable installation locations in the southern US. When replacing an electric water heater, the HPWH is likely to break even in California, the southern US, and parts of the northeast in most situations. However, the HPWH will only break even when replacing a gas water heater in a few southern states.

  16. Regional characteristics of individual housing units in Serbia from the aspect of applied building technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović-Popović Milica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Individual housing units in Serbia have been studied from the aspect of applied technical solutions. Analyzed data have been collected during a field research in accordance with the current administrative regional division, and they represent a basis for definition of regional typology of individual housing units. Characteristic types of objects of each region’s typology have been further analyzed. Upon these analyses regional characteristics of individual housing units regarding applied construction types, building technologies and materials have been defined and presented. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 36034: Investigation and Systematization of Serbian Housing in Context of Globalization and European Integration in the Framework of Quality and Living-Standard Improvement

  17. An intervention strategy for improving residential environment and positive mental health among public housing tenants: rationale, design and methods of Flash on my neighborhood!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Janie; Coulombe, Simon; Radziszewski, Stephanie; Leloup, Xavier; Saïas, Thomas; Torres, Juan; Morin, Paul

    2017-09-25

    In Canada, public housing programs are an important part of governmental strategies to fight poverty and public exclusion. The Flash on my neighborhood! project is a four-year multiphase community-based participatory action research strategy currently implemented in six public housing developments (n = 1009 households) across the province of Québec, Canada. The goal is to reduce the mental health disparities faced by these public housing tenants compared to the general population, while identifying which environmental and policy changes are needed to turn public housing settings into healthier environments. The protocol involves three successive, interconnected phases: 1) Strengths and needs assessment, including community outreach and recruitment of tenants to collaborate as peer researchers, an exploratory qualitative component (photovoice), a systematic neighborhood observation, and a household survey; 2) Action plan development, including a community forum and interactive capacity-building and discussion sessions; 3) Action plan implementation and monitoring. The entire intervention is evaluated using a mixed-method design, framed within a multiple case study perspective. Throughout the project and particularly in the evaluation phase, data will be collected to record a) contextual factors (tenants' previous experience of participation, history of public housing development, etc.); b) activities that took place and elements from the action plan that were implemented; and c) short- and medium-term outcomes (objective and perceived improvements in the quality of the residential setting, both physically and in terms of mental health and social capital). The study will provide unprecedented evidence-based information on the key ingredients of a collective intervention process associated with the increased collective empowerment and positive mental health of public housing tenants.

  18. An intervention strategy for improving residential environment and positive mental health among public housing tenants: rationale, design and methods of Flash on my neighborhood!

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janie Houle

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Canada, public housing programs are an important part of governmental strategies to fight poverty and public exclusion. The Flash on my neighborhood! project is a four-year multiphase community-based participatory action research strategy currently implemented in six public housing developments (n = 1009 households across the province of Québec, Canada. The goal is to reduce the mental health disparities faced by these public housing tenants compared to the general population, while identifying which environmental and policy changes are needed to turn public housing settings into healthier environments. Methods The protocol involves three successive, interconnected phases: 1 Strengths and needs assessment, including community outreach and recruitment of tenants to collaborate as peer researchers, an exploratory qualitative component (photovoice, a systematic neighborhood observation, and a household survey; 2 Action plan development, including a community forum and interactive capacity-building and discussion sessions; 3 Action plan implementation and monitoring. The entire intervention is evaluated using a mixed-method design, framed within a multiple case study perspective. Throughout the project and particularly in the evaluation phase, data will be collected to record a contextual factors (tenants’ previous experience of participation, history of public housing development, etc.; b activities that took place and elements from the action plan that were implemented; and c short- and medium-term outcomes (objective and perceived improvements in the quality of the residential setting, both physically and in terms of mental health and social capital. Discussion The study will provide unprecedented evidence-based information on the key ingredients of a collective intervention process associated with the increased collective empowerment and positive mental health of public housing tenants.

  19. Nation-wide development of sustainable production patterns. The case of 16 years of sustainability in Dutch residential house building

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossink, B.A.G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper integrates the interorganisational innovation process and national innovation system-approach into a new model. A case study research project that covers a 16-year period of sustainable innovations in the Dutch residential building industry applies the model. The research outcomes

  20. RESIDENTIAL MORTGAGE IN MODERN RUSSIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dementiev N. P.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a comparative analysis of residential mortgages in Russia and the United States. The primary ways of mortgage refinancing are outlined. Predominance of the elements of two-level refinancing system of residential mortgage in Russia and the United States is shown. The activity of the Agency for Housing Mortgage Lending (AHML, the basic tool of the Russian government’s mortgage policy, is described in detail. In its objectives and functions the AHML is similar to the American mortgage agencies Ginnie Mae, Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac. Similarities were identified in the Russian and US residential mortgages in the pre-crisis period (high rates of mortgage growth, favourable economic conjuncture, low interest rates, large increase in house prices, speculative housing demand. During the mortgage crisis, the policies of the Russian and US governments and monetary authorities had also much in common (monetary policy easing, cheap central banks loans, extended facilities of mortgage refinancing on the part of state agencies, mortgage rescue scheme, social mortgage programs. But the scope of mortgage in Russia is enormously narrow as compared to the US mortgage. The most important reason for that - low incomes of the Russian population.

  1. Simulation study on reduction of peak power demand and energy consumption in residential houses with solar thermal and PV systems; Taiyo energy riyo jutaku no fuka heijunka oyobi energy sakugen koka no simulation ni yoru kento

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Endo, T. [Yokohama City Office, Yokohama (Japan); Udagawa, M. [Kogakuin Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1995-11-20

    In this study, taking the all factors involved in the energy consumption in residential houses as subjects, the effectiveness of the solar PV system and solar thermal utilizing system in residential houses has been studied by simulating a model residential house considering the improvement of the residual environment in the future. Therefore, a model residual house is assumed, 18 kinds of combinations of construction style, cooling and heating type and solar energy utilizing form are assumed and year round simulation is carried out. The conclusions obtained by the simulation are as follows. The energy consumption in residential houses may decrease greatly by using a solar hot water supplying system. If combined with a solar PV system, the energy consumption in one year is about 8.7 to 9.7 MWh. The combined use of a solar thermal utilizing system and a PV system is more effective to reduce the second-time energy in comparison with the PV system only. 36% of the space heating energy consumption may be decreased by using the solar space heating system, but the decrease effect of the energy consumption of the solar space heating system is smaller than the solar hot water supplying system. 12 refs., 26 figs., 3 tabs.

  2. Housing growth in and near United States protected areas limits their conservation value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radeloff, Volker C; Stewart, Susan I; Hawbaker, Todd J; Gimmi, Urs; Pidgeon, Anna M; Flather, Curtis H; Hammer, Roger B; Helmers, David P

    2010-01-12

    Protected areas are crucial for biodiversity conservation because they provide safe havens for species threatened by land-use change and resulting habitat loss. However, protected areas are only effective when they stop habitat loss within their boundaries, and are connected via corridors to other wild areas. The effectiveness of protected areas is threatened by development; however, the extent of this threat is unknown. We compiled spatially-detailed housing growth data from 1940 to 2030, and quantified growth for each wilderness area, national park, and national forest in the conterminous United States. Our findings show that housing development in the United States may severely limit the ability of protected areas to function as a modern "Noah's Ark." Between 1940 and 2000, 28 million housing units were built within 50 km of protected areas, and 940,000 were built within national forests. Housing growth rates during the 1990s within 1 km of protected areas (20% per decade) outpaced the national average (13%). If long-term trends continue, another 17 million housing units will be built within 50 km of protected areas by 2030 (1 million within 1 km), greatly diminishing their conservation value. US protected areas are increasingly isolated, housing development in their surroundings is decreasing their effective size, and national forests are even threatened by habitat loss within their administrative boundaries. Protected areas in the United States are thus threatened similarly to those in developing countries. However, housing growth poses the main threat to protected areas in the United States whereas deforestation is the main threat in developing countries.

  3. Impacts of global warming on residential heating and cooling degree-days in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, Yana; Caldeira, Ken

    2015-08-04

    Climate change is expected to decrease heating demand and increase cooling demand for buildings and affect outdoor thermal comfort. Here, we project changes in residential heating degree-days (HDD) and cooling degree-days (CDD) for the historical (1981-2010) and future (2080-2099) periods in the United States using median results from the Climate Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) simulations under the Representation Concentration Pathway 8.5 (RCP8.5) scenario. We project future HDD and CDD values by adding CMIP5 projected changes to values based on historical observations of US climate. The sum HDD + CDD is an indicator of locations that are thermally comfortable, with low heating and cooling demand. By the end of the century, station median HDD + CDD will be reduced in the contiguous US, decreasing in the North and increasing in the South. Under the unmitigated RCP8.5 scenario, by the end of this century, in terms of HDD and CDD values considered separately, future New York, NY, is anticipated to become more like present Oklahoma City, OK; Denver, CO, becomes more like Raleigh, NC, and Seattle, WA, becomes more like San Jose, CA. These results serve as an indicator of projected climate change and can help inform decision-making.

  4. Break-Even Cost for Residential Photovoltaics in the United States: Key Drivers and Sensitivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Denholm, P.; Margolis, R. M.; Ong, S.; Roberts, B.

    2009-12-01

    Grid parity--or break-even cost--for photovoltaic (PV) technology is defined as the point where the cost of PV-generated electricity equals the cost of electricity purchased from the grid. Break-even cost is expressed in $/W of an installed system. Achieving break-even cost is a function of many variables. Consequently, break-even costs vary by location and time for a country, such as the United States, with a diverse set of resources, electricity prices, and other variables. In this report, we analyze PV break-even costs for U.S. residential customers. We evaluate some key drivers of grid parity both regionally and over time. We also examine the impact of moving from flat to time-of-use (TOU) rates, and we evaluate individual components of the break-even cost, including effect of rate structure and various incentives. Finally, we examine how PV markets might evolve on a regional basis considering the sensitivity of the break-even cost to four major drivers: technical performance, financing parameters, electricity prices and rates, and policies. We find that local incentives rather than ?technical? parameters are in general the key drivers of the break-even cost of PV. Additionally, this analysis provides insight about the potential viability of PV markets.

  5. Chemical behavior of residential lead in urban yards in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elless, M.P.; Bray, C.A.; Blaylock, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    Long after federal regulations banned the use of lead-based paints and leaded gasoline, residential lead remains a persistent challenge. Soil lead is a significant contributor to this hazard and an improved understanding of physicochemical properties is likely to be useful for in situ abatement techniques such as phytoremediation and chemical stabilization. A laboratory characterization of high-lead soils collected from across the United States shows that the lead contaminants were concentrating in the silt and clay fractions, in the form of discrete particles of lead, as observed by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray analysis. Soil lead varied widely in its solubility behavior as assessed by sequential and chelate extractions. Because site-specific factors (e.g., soil pH, texture, etc.) are believed to govern the solubility of the lead, understanding the variability in these characteristics at each site is necessary to optimize in situ remediation or abatement of these soils. - Site-specific solubility behavior of lead in soils has important implications for the selection of remediation approaches

  6. Impacts of global warming on residential heating and cooling degree-days in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petri, Yana; Caldeira, Ken

    2015-01-01

    Climate change is expected to decrease heating demand and increase cooling demand for buildings and affect outdoor thermal comfort. Here, we project changes in residential heating degree-days (HDD) and cooling degree-days (CDD) for the historical (1981–2010) and future (2080–2099) periods in the United States using median results from the Climate Model Intercomparison Project phase 5 (CMIP5) simulations under the Representation Concentration Pathway 8.5 (RCP8.5) scenario. We project future HDD and CDD values by adding CMIP5 projected changes to values based on historical observations of US climate. The sum HDD + CDD is an indicator of locations that are thermally comfortable, with low heating and cooling demand. By the end of the century, station median HDD + CDD will be reduced in the contiguous US, decreasing in the North and increasing in the South. Under the unmitigated RCP8.5 scenario, by the end of this century, in terms of HDD and CDD values considered separately, future New York, NY, is anticipated to become more like present Oklahoma City, OK; Denver, CO, becomes more like Raleigh, NC, and Seattle, WA, becomes more like San Jose, CA. These results serve as an indicator of projected climate change and can help inform decision-making. PMID:26238673

  7. The “housing bubble” and financial factors: Insights from a structural model of the French and Spanish residential markets.

    OpenAIRE

    Antipa, P.; Lecat, R.

    2009-01-01

    Over the last decade, France and Spain have experienced property price and residential investment increases which were among the strongest and the lengthiest in the euro area. Although the quality of the underlying data limits the precision of the estimates, the present paper aims at analysing the fundamental factors behind these evolutions. The analysis presented here assesses whether the observed price dynamics may be attributed to a pure expectation bubble phenomenon or to the large change...

  8. Exploring the impact of permitting and local regulatory processes on residential solar prices in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burkhardt, Jesse; Wiser, Ryan; Darghouth, Naïm; Dong, C.G.; Huneycutt, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    This article statistically isolates the impacts of city-level permitting and other local regulatory processes on residential PV prices in the United States. We combine data from two “scoring” mechanisms that independently capture local regulatory process efficiency with the largest dataset of installed PV prices in the United States. We find that variations in local permitting procedures can lead to differences in average residential PV prices of approximately $0.18/W between the jurisdictions with the least-favorable and most-favorable permitting procedures. Between jurisdictions with scores across the middle 90% of the range (i.e., 5th percentile to 95th percentile), the difference is $0.14/W, equivalent to a $700 (2.2%) difference in system costs for a typical 5-kW residential PV installation. When considering variations not only in permitting practices, but also in other local regulatory procedures, price differences grow to $0.64–$0.93/W between the least-favorable and most-favorable jurisdictions. Between jurisdictions with scores across the middle 90% of the range, the difference is equivalent to a price impact of at least $2500 (8%) for a typical 5-kW residential PV installation. These results highlight the magnitude of cost reduction that might be expected from streamlining local regulatory regimes. - Highlights: • We show local regulatory processes meaningfully affect U.S. residential PV prices. • We use regression analysis and two mechanisms for “scoring” regulatory efficiency. • Local permitting procedure variations can produce PV price differences of $0.18/W. • Broader regulatory variations can produce PV price differences of $0.64–$0.93/W. • The results suggest the cost-reduction potential of streamlining local regulations

  9. Measure Guideline. Five Steps to Implement the Public Housing Authority Energy-Efficient Unit Turnover Checklist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liaukus, Christine [Building American Research Alliance, Kent, WA (United States)

    2015-07-09

    Five Steps to Implementing the PHA Energy Efficient Unit Turnover Package (ARIES, 2014) is a guide to prepare for the installation of energy efficient measures during a typical public housing authority unit turnover. While a PHA is cleaning, painting and readying a unit for a new resident, there is an opportunity to incorporate energy efficiency measures to further improve the unit's performance. The measures on the list are simple enough to be implemented by in-house maintenance personnel, inexpensive enough to be folded into operating expenses without needing capital budget, and fast enough to implement without substantially changing the number of days between occupancies, a critical factor for organizations where the demand for dwelling units far outweighs the supply. The following guide lays out a five step plan to implement the EE Unit Turnover Package in your PHA, from an initial Self-Assessment through to Package Implementation.

  10. Development of Residential SOFC Cogeneration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Takashi; Miyachi, Itaru; Suzuki, Minoru; Higaki, Katsuki

    2011-06-01

    Since 2001 Kyocera has been developing 1kW class Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) for power generation system. We have developed a cell, stack, module and system. Since 2004, Kyocera and Osaka Gas Co., Ltd. have been developed SOFC residential co-generation system. From 2007, we took part in the "Demonstrative Research on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells" Project conducted by New Energy Foundation (NEF). Total 57 units of 0.7kW class SOFC cogeneration systems had been installed at residential houses. In spite of residential small power demand, the actual electric efficiency was about 40%(netAC,LHV), and high CO2 reduction performance was achieved by these systems. Hereafter, new joint development, Osaka Gas, Toyota Motors, Kyocera and Aisin Seiki, aims early commercialization of residential SOFC CHP system.

  11. Development of Residential SOFC Cogeneration System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Takashi; Miyachi, Itaru; Suzuki, Minoru; Higaki, Katsuki

    2011-01-01

    Since 2001 Kyocera has been developing 1kW class Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) for power generation system. We have developed a cell, stack, module and system. Since 2004, Kyocera and Osaka Gas Co., Ltd. have been developed SOFC residential co-generation system. From 2007, we took part in the 'Demonstrative Research on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells' Project conducted by New Energy Foundation (NEF). Total 57 units of 0.7kW class SOFC cogeneration systems had been installed at residential houses. In spite of residential small power demand, the actual electric efficiency was about 40%(netAC,LHV), and high CO2 reduction performance was achieved by these systems. Hereafter, new joint development, Osaka Gas, Toyota Motors, Kyocera and Aisin Seiki, aims early commercialization of residential SOFC CHP system.

  12. EnviroAtlas - Residential vacancy rate by Census Tract for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset portrays the vacancy rate for residential addresses for each Census Tract for each year from 2010-2014. Vacant buildings are included if...

  13. Public Housing: A Tailored Approach to Energy Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dentz, J. [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative (ARIES), New York, NY (United States); Conlin, F. [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative (ARIES), New York, NY (United States); Podorson, D. [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative (ARIES), New York, NY (United States); Alaigh, K. [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative (ARIES), New York, NY (United States); Davis, T. [Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative (ARIES), New York, NY (United States)

    2016-02-23

    The Building America research team Advanced Residential Integrated Energy Solutions Collaborative (ARIES) worked with four public housing authorities (PHAs) to develop packages of energy-efficiency retrofit measures that the PHAs can cost-effectively implement with their own staffs during the normal course of housing operations when units are refurbished between occupancies.

  14. Methodological advances in unit cost calculation of psychiatric residential care in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno, Karen; Sanchez, Eduardo; Salvador-Carulla, Luis

    2008-06-01

    The care of the severe mentally ill who need intensive support for their daily living (dependent persons), accounts for an increasingly large proportion of public expenditure in many European countries. The main aim of this study was the design and implementation of solid methodology to calculate unit costs of different types of care. To date, methodologies used in Spain have produced inaccurate figures, suggesting few variations in patient consumption of the same service. An adaptation of the Activity-Based-Costing methodology was applied in Navarre, a region in the North of Spain, as a pilot project for the public mental health services. A unit cost per care process was obtained for all levels of care considered in each service during 2005. The European Service Mapping Schedule (ESMS) codes were used to classify the services for later comparisons. Finally, in order to avoid problems of asymmetric cost distribution, a simple Bayesian model was used. As an illustration, we report the results obtained for long-term residential care and note that there are important variations between unit costs when considering different levels of care. Considering three levels of care (Level 1-low, Level 2-medium and Level 3-intensive), the cost per bed in Level 3 was 10% higher than that of Level 2. The results obtained using the cost methodology described provide more useful information than those using conventional methods, although its implementation requires much time to compile the necessary information during the initial stages and the collaboration of staff and managers working in the services. However, in some services, if no important variations exist in patient care, another method would be advisable, although our system provides very useful information about patterns of care from a clinical point of view. Detailed work is required at the beginning of the implementation in order to avoid the calculation of distorted figures and to improve the levels of decision making

  15. Longrun supply and demand of new residential construction in the United States: 1986 to 2040.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claire A. Montgomery

    1989-01-01

    A model of U.S. housing demand and supply was developed that projects housing starts for use in long-term forest planning. Housing demand was shown to respond to the current sale price and the user capital cost of housing and to the size and age composition of the population. Current sale price is determined in the new construction market. Supply of new construction...

  16. A variation of the housing unit method for estimating the age and gender distribution of small, rural areas: A case study of the local expert procedure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlson, J.F.; Roe, L.K.; Williams, C.A.; Swanson, D.A.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the methodologies used in the development of a demographic data base established in support of the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project Radiological Monitoring Plan (RadMP). It also examines the suitability of a survey-based procedure for estimating population in small, rural areas. The procedure is a variation of the Housing Unit Method. It employs the use of local experts enlisted to provide information about the demographic characteristics of households randomly selected from residential units sample frames developed from utility records. The procedure is nonintrusive and less costly than traditional survey data collection efforts. Because the procedure is based on random sampling, confidence intervals can be constructed around the population estimated by the technique. The results of a case study are provided in which the total population, and age and gender of the population, is estimated for three unincorporated communities in rural, southern Nevada

  17. Housing as a way of life: towards an understanding of middle-class families' preferences for an urban residential location

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karsten, L.; Paddison, R.; Ostendorf, W.

    2010-01-01

    Housing studies show an overwhelming preference by middle-class families for suburban living locations. In this paper an atypical category, middle-class families living in the city, is addressed. The aim is to understand why these households disconnect the seemingly natural relationship between

  18. Searching for Housing as a Battered Woman: Does Discrimination Affect Reported Availability of a Rental Unit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barata, Paula C.; Stewart, Donna E.

    2010-01-01

    Individual battered women have reported experiencing housing discrimination, but the extent of this problem has not been examined. This research used two experiments and a survey to determine if landlord discrimination could keep women from accessing rental units. In Study 1, a confederate asked 181 landlords about the availability of a rental…

  19. Institutional investment in social rental housing : France, the Netherlands and the United Kingdom explored

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haffner, M.E.A.; Hoekstra, J.S.C.M.; Tang, C.; Oxley, M.

    2015-01-01

    In the United Kingdom, social landlords are facing decreasing governmental financial support for them to fulfil their role in the provision of social housing, which has led to increasing pressure on them to rely on private capital. Traditionally, bank loans were the main source of private capital,

  20. Residential segregation and birth weight among racial and ethnic minorities in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walton, Emily

    2009-12-01

    Racial and ethnic minorities are often residentially segregated from whites in urban settings, a fact which has important health consequences. Research on the relationship between residential segregation and health outcomes lacks national-level investigation of racial and ethnic minority groups other than African Americans. I use multilevel analyses to examine the associations of residential isolation and clustering with birth weight among Asian, black, and Latino Americans using data from the National Center for Health Statistics' Natality Files and the U.S. Census. Findings indicate that segregation has a negative effect on the likelihood of having a low birth weight baby among Asian Americans, suggesting a possible concentration of social and structural resources in highly-segregated communities. On the contrary, segregation marginally increases the odds of low birth weight among African Americans, but only in the presence of higher poverty rates. Segregation does not affect birth weight among Latino Americans.

  1. Unsightly urban menaces and the rescaling of residential segregation in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanlon, James

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author uses a slum clearance project in Lexington, Kentucky, as a lens through which to examine the spatial dynamics of racial residential segregation during the first half of the twentieth century. At the time, urban migration and upward socioeconomic mobility on the part of African Americans destabilized extant residential segregation patterns. Amid this instability, various spatial practices were employed in the interest of maintaining white social and economic supremacy. The author argues that such practices were indicative of a thoroughgoing reinvention of urban socio-spatial order that in turn precipitated the vastly expanded scale of residential segregation still found in U.S. cities today. Evidence of this reinvented ordering of urban space lies in the rendering of some long-standing African American neighborhoods as “out of place” within it and the use of slum clearance to remove the “menace” such neighborhoods posed to it.

  2. A framework for evaluating WTP for BIPV in residential housing design in developing countries: A case study of North Cyprus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radmehr, Mehrshad; Willis, Ken; Kenechi, Ugo Elinwa

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores people's preferences for a Built in Photovoltaic (BIPV) renewable energy system to be integrated into housing construction. A novel methodology was developed, to study the case of Northern Cyprus, for better understanding of possibilities that abound in BIPV integration. The methodology incorporates Building Information Modeling (BIM) as a real-time design and economic assessment tool for BIPV choices. This serves to benefit both the construction companies and potential house owners in their decision-making. In addition, it uses a Contingent Valuation (CV) method to assess the Willingness to Pay (WTP) and the Willingness to Accept (WTA) compensation. The results indicate that the capital cost of PV is not instrumental in choice, and a lower feed-in tariff could be acceptable

  3. Conflict Resolution, Restorative Justice Approaches and Bullying in Young People's Residential Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlechild, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Restorative justice has been an increasing feature in the discourses within adult and youth justice criminal justice systems in recent years. This article examines interpersonal conflicts arising from crime, bullying and antisocial behaviour in residential care, and the advantages and disadvantages of utilising such approaches in relation to these…

  4. Impact of Brexit on the United Kingdom’s Housing Market

    OpenAIRE

    Syromiatnikova, Sofia

    2017-01-01

    This thesis aims to analyse the changes in the real estate market in the United Kingdom and trace and identify the factors that would trigger a price change. The dissertation investigates the possible change in the value of housing caused by Brexit, which is a specific group of investment assets and a major component of household wealth for the UK. Understanding the nature and degree of change in housing prices will make market participants aware of the size of their risk exposure and can hel...

  5. Seismic response analysis and upgrading design of pump houses of Kozloduy NPP units 5 and 6

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jordanov, M.; Marinov, M.; Krutzik, N.

    2001-01-01

    The main objective of the presented project was to perform a feasibility study for seismic/structural evaluation of the safety related structures at Kozloduy NPP Units 5 and 6 for the new site seismicity and determine if they satisfy current international safety standards. The evaluation of the Pump House 3 (PH3) building is addressed in this paper, which was carried out by applying appropriate modeling techniques combined with failure mode and seismic margin analyses. The scope of the work defined was to present the required enhancement of the seismic capacity of the Pump House structures.(author)

  6. Life-Cycle Assessment of Prototype Unit of Emergency Housing. The search for the zero impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Ros García

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Prototype Unit of Emergency Housing (PUEH is the result of the Applied Research Project VEM (Military Emergency Housing developed in collaboration with Escuela Politécnica Superior (Universidad CEU and the company Air-bus Defense & Space. It is designed as a modular and industrialized unit of basic habitability, with programmed and expandable growth, designed to provide shelter and protection in environments of humanitarian crises or contingencies of social vulnerability in order to ensure sustainable habitat for emergencies.The influence of the construction processes and materials involved in the manufacture of this PUEH have on the environment, analyzed using the methodology of life-cycle assessment (LCA, considered especially critical recycling the mate-rials used. Thus, in order to reduce the environmental impact environmental, each of the component parts of the developed prototype unit are quantified, evaluating the benefits resulting from the methodology DfMA (Design for Manufacturing and Assembly.

  7. Residential metal contamination and potential health risks of exposure in adobe brick houses in Potosí, Bolivia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McEwen, Abigail R; Hsu-Kim, Heileen; Robins, Nicholas A; Hagan, Nicole A; Halabi, Susan; Barras, Olivo; Richter, Daniel deB; Vandenberg, John J

    2016-08-15

    Potosí, Bolivia, is the site of centuries of historic and present-day mining of the Cerro Rico, a mountain known for its rich polymetallic deposits, and was the site of large-scale Colonial era silver refining operations. In this study, the concentrations of several metal and metalloid elements were quantified in adobe brick, dirt floor, and surface dust samples from 49 houses in Potosí. Median concentrations of total mercury (Hg), lead (Pb), and arsenic (As) were significantly greater than concentrations measured in Sucre, Bolivia, a non-mining town, and exceeded US-based soil screening levels. Adobe brick samples were further analyzed for bioaccessible concentrations of trace elements using a simulated gastric fluid (GF) extraction. Median GF extractable concentrations of Hg, As, and Pb were 0.085, 13.9, and 32.2% of the total element concentration, respectively. Total and GF extractable concentrations of Hg, As, and Pb were used to estimate exposure and potential health risks to children following incidental ingestion of adobe brick particles. Risks were assessed using a range of potential ingestion rates (50-1000mg/day). Overall, the results of the risk assessment show that the majority of households sampled contained concentrations of bioaccessible Pb and As, but not Hg, that represent a potential health risk. Even at the lowest ingestion rate considered, the majority of households exceeded the risk threshold for Pb, indicating that the concentrations of this metal are of particular concern. To our knowledge, this is the first study to quantify key trace elements in building materials in adobe brick houses and the results indicate that these houses are a potential source of exposure to metals and metalloids in South American mining communities. Additional studies are needed to fully characterize personal exposure and to understand potential adverse health outcomes within the community. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Tipologías residenciales en comunidades chilenas en condiciones de precariedad habitacional Residential typologies in Chilean irregular settlements with precarious housing conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soledad Burgos

    2011-01-01

    settlements, and to construct typologies that will allow to develop profiles with those distinctive residential attributes. METHODS: The study examined the universe of irregular settlements (n = 122 in Chile's Metropolitan Region, based on the 2007 national inventory of irregular settlements conducted by the "Un Techo para Chile" foundation. Information about the communities and their locations was obtained from key informants, and these variables were modeled using factor analysis to identify residential parameters, which were then refined by k-means clustering. RESULTS: The factor analysis pointed to three underlying parameters: local social response, the environment beyond the community, and basic services. The key variables shaping these categories were the existence of housing projects, the urban area involved, and access to electricity. The cluster analysis generated four profiles that combined the three parameters: an urban profile with relatively reliable basic services (n = 30, an urban-rural profile with high potential for local social response (n = 32, an urban profile with a high level of environmental threat (n = 43, and a rural profile with low potential for local social response (n = 17. CONCLUSIONS: The residential parameters formed are consistent with the revised theoretical model and suggest relevant indicators for monitoring these communities. Definition of the profiles facilitates assessment of the heterogeneity of residential situations, which helps in the prioritization of areas with deficits or risks that may be present in each cluster. This, in turn, opens the door to further investigation and to exploring opportunities for action.

  9. Ground source thermo-pumps for individual residential houses; Les thermopompes a capteur enterres dans les residences individuelles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ossant, G. [Societe Syrec (France)

    1997-12-31

    The main principles, performances and constraints of the various types of ground source thermo-pumps for individual houses, i.e. ground/ground thermo-pumps, glycol water/water thermo-pumps and ground/water thermo-pumps are reviewed, and their energy consumptions are discussed. The design and operating conditions of a reverse ground source thermo-pump (Syrec) for space heating and air conditioning through a hot and cold floor system and a Syrec ground source thermo-pump for water heating, are presented

  10. Simulation of a passive house coupled with a heat pump/organic Rankine cycle reversible unit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dumont, Olivier; Carmo, Carolina; Randaxhe, François

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a dynamic model of a passive house located in Denmark with a large solar absorber, a horizontal ground heat exchanger coupled with a HP/ORC unit. The HP/ORC reversible unit is a module able to work as an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) or as a heat pump (HP). There are 3 possible ...... presents a higher global COP because the heat produced on the roof can heat the storage directly.......This paper presents a dynamic model of a passive house located in Denmark with a large solar absorber, a horizontal ground heat exchanger coupled with a HP/ORC unit. The HP/ORC reversible unit is a module able to work as an Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) or as a heat pump (HP). There are 3 possible...... modes that need to be chosen optimally depending on the weather conditions, the heat demand and the temperature level of the storage. The ORC mode is activated, as long as the heat demand of the house is covered by the storage to produce electricity based upon the heat generated by the solar roof...

  11. Estimating State-Specific Contributions to PM2.5- and O3-Related Health Burden from Residential Combustion and Electricity Generating Unit Emissions in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Stefani L; Arunachalam, Saravanan; Woody, Matthew; Heiger-Bernays, Wendy; Tripodis, Yorghos; Levy, Jonathan I

    2017-03-01

    Residential combustion (RC) and electricity generating unit (EGU) emissions adversely impact air quality and human health by increasing ambient concentrations of fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) and ozone (O 3 ). Studies to date have not isolated contributing emissions by state of origin (source-state), which is necessary for policy makers to determine efficient strategies to decrease health impacts. In this study, we aimed to estimate health impacts (premature mortalities) attributable to PM 2.5 and O 3 from RC and EGU emissions by precursor species, source sector, and source-state in the continental United States for 2005. We used the Community Multiscale Air Quality model employing the decoupled direct method to quantify changes in air quality and epidemiological evidence to determine concentration-response functions to calculate associated health impacts. We estimated 21,000 premature mortalities per year from EGU emissions, driven by sulfur dioxide emissions forming PM 2.5 . More than half of EGU health impacts are attributable to emissions from eight states with significant coal combustion and large downwind populations. We estimate 10,000 premature mortalities per year from RC emissions, driven by primary PM 2.5 emissions. States with large populations and significant residential wood combustion dominate RC health impacts. Annual mortality risk per thousand tons of precursor emissions (health damage functions) varied significantly across source-states for both source sectors and all precursor pollutants. Our findings reinforce the importance of pollutant-specific, location-specific, and source-specific models of health impacts in design of health-risk minimizing emissions control policies. Citation: Penn SL, Arunachalam S, Woody M, Heiger-Bernays W, Tripodis Y, Levy JI. 2017. Estimating state-specific contributions to PM 2.5 - and O 3 -related health burden from residential combustion and electricity generating unit emissions in the United States. Environ

  12. Housing development in the 1950s in Serbia-typical examples of residential blocks built in Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milašinović-Marić Dijana

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available To date, the Serbian architecture of the nineteen-fifties has not yet been more comprehensively studied albeit the fact that there are sufficient sources, data, literature, and structures built at that time. The reason for the lack of interest in architecture of that period may be found in the relationship between the non-understanding and insufficient valuation of architectural results of the modern architecture of the time, but also in the general opinion that the immediate postwar years were the time of a poor social housing development, which is also characterized by the lack of distinct architectural values. Furthermore, there has been an obvious unreadiness to analyze in more detail and in time distance the subject of the sociorealistic construction, which was also partially present in this period. After a short period of the so-called Socio-Realism 1945-1950, characterized by reconstruction of the war devastated country with extensive participation of youth brigades, the housing construction in particular got a big boost, considering the changes in population structure, as well as the fact that a significant portion of population moved from rural areas to towns. The subject decade of the newly established socialist society was, in every respect, marked with upward path of economic, political and social development, which was an important base for overall architectural and cultural construction. This was the time when Serbian architects of different generations created a great number of works, which were diverse in they contents. The architects of older generation often created their most important works, while young architects, looking into future, but also into own architectural heritage and accomplishments, achieved their first significant results, thus generating autochthonous architectural trend and expression which would soon be recognized as the Belgrade School of Architecture. In the conditions in which the Serbian architecture

  13. Residential greenhouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-02-01

    The following report examines the technical and economic viability of residential greenhouse additions in Whitehorse, Yukon. The greenhouse was constructed using the south facing wall of an existing residence as a common wall. Total construction costs were $18,000, including labour. Annual fuel demand for the residence has been reduced by about 10 per cent for an annual saving of $425. In addition, produce to the value of $1,000 is grown annually in the greenhouse for domestic consumption and commercial resale. Typically the greenhouse operates for nine months each year. There is a net thermal loss during the months of November, December and January as a result of the large area of glazing. As well as supplementing the heating supply solar greenhouses can provide additional cash crops which can be used to offset the cost of construction. Humidity problems are minimal and can be dealt with by exhausting high humidity air. One system which has been considered for the greenhouse is to use a standard residential heat pump to remove excess moisture and to pump heat into the house. This would have a secondary benefit of excluding the need to circulate greenhouse air through the house. Thus any allergenic reactions to the greenhouse air would be prevented. 8 refs., 3 figs, 2 tabs.

  14. Break-Even Cost for Residential Solar Water Heating in the United States: Key Drivers and Sensitivities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cassard, H.; Denholm, P.; Ong, S.

    2011-02-01

    This paper examines the break-even cost for residential rooftop solar water heating (SWH) technology, defined as the point where the cost of the energy saved with a SWH system equals the cost of a conventional heating fuel purchased from the grid (either electricity or natural gas). We examine the break-even cost for the largest 1,000 electric and natural gas utilities serving residential customers in the United States as of 2008. Currently, the break-even cost of SWH in the United States varies by more than a factor of five for both electricity and natural gas, despite a much smaller variation in the amount of energy saved by the systems (a factor of approximately one and a half). The break-even price for natural gas is lower than that for electricity due to a lower fuel cost. We also consider the relationship between SWH price and solar fraction and examine the key drivers behind break-even costs. Overall, the key drivers of the break-even cost of SWH are a combination of fuel price, local incentives, and technical factors including the solar resource location, system size, and hot water draw.

  15. Experimental analysis of an air-to-air heat recovery unit for balanced ventilation systems in residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fernandez-Seara, Jose; Diz, Ruben; Uhia, Francisco J.; Dopazo, Alberto; Ferro, Jose M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with the experimental analysis of an air-to-air heat recovery unit equipped with a sensible polymer plate heat exchanger (PHE) for balanced ventilation systems in residential buildings. The PHE is arranged in parallel triangular ducts. An experimental facility was designed to reproduce the typical outdoor and exhaust air conditions with regard to temperature and humidity. The unit was tested under balanced operation conditions, as commonly used in practice. A set of tests was conducted under the reference operating conditions to evaluate the PHE performance. Afterwards, an experimental parametric analysis was conducted to investigate the influence of changing the operating conditions on the PHE performance. Experiments were carried out varying the inlet fresh air temperature, the exhaust air relative humidity and the air flow rate. The experimental results are shown and discussed in this paper.

  16. Housing Search and Consumption Adjustment,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-04-01

    bility have appeared in the literature (Speare et al., 1975; Hanushek and Quigley, 1978; Brummell, 1979). Although differing on specifics, these...divide into two types: formal models of the decision to move (Speare et al., 1975; Hanushek and Quigley, 1978) that recognize housing search as a trans...effort expended in searching for a new unit (Abt, 1978; Hanushek and Quigley, 1978; Cronin, 1978). Geographers refer to residential stress and resistance

  17. Residential water usage: A case study of the major cities of the western region of Saudi Arabia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu Rizaiza, Omar S.

    1991-05-01

    Socioeconomic and climatological data of the major cities of the western region of Saudi Arabia have been used to develop several models to estimate the residential water usage for different kinds of houses. The developed models correlate the residential water usages with temperature, income, family size, price of water, and availability of a garden within the house. The study shows that the residential water uses in houses supplied by a public pipe network are 1.4-2 times greater than the residential water uses in houses supplied by tankers. It also shows that the price elasticities are very similar to those estimated in the United States. Income elasticities, on the other hand, are lower than those typically found in more industrialized countries.

  18. Final Technical Report. Sault Tribe Building Efficiency Audits of Tribally-Owned Governmental Buildings and Residential Tribal Housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, Jeffrey W. [Sault Sainte Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians, Marie, MI (United States)

    2015-03-27

    The Tribe is working to reduce energy consumption and expense in Tribally-owned governmental buildings and low income housing sites. In 2009, the Tribe applied to the U. S. Department of Energy for funding to conduct energy audits of Tribally-owned governmental buildings. Findings from the energy audits would define the extent and types of energy efficiency improvements needed, establish a basis for energy priorities, strategies and action plans, and provide a benchmark for measuring improvements from energy efficiency implementations. In 2010, the DOE awarded a grant in the amount of $95,238 to the Tribe to fund the energy audits of nine governmental buildings and to pay for travel expenses associated with attendance and participation at the DOE annual program reviews. In 2011, the Tribe applied for and was awarded a DOE grant in the amount of $75,509 to conduct energy audits of the remaining 30 Tribally-owned governmental buildings. Repeating mobilization steps performed during the first DOE energy audits grant, the Tribe initiated the second round of governmental building energy audits by completing energy auditor procurement. The selected energy auditor successfully passed DOE debarment and Sault Tribe background clearances. The energy audits contract was awarded to U. P. Engineers and Architects, Inc. of Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan. The Tribe continued mobilizing for the energy audits by providing the energy auditor with one year of electric, gas and water utility invoice copies per building, as well as supplemental building information, such as operating hours. The Tribe also contacted building occupants to coordinate scheduling for the on-site energy audit inspections and arranged for facilities management personnel to guide the energy auditor through the buildings and answer questions regarding building systems.

  19. Health care aides use of time in a residential long-term care unit: a time and motion study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallidou, Anastasia A; Cummings, Greta G; Schalm, Corinne; Estabrooks, Carole A

    2013-09-01

    Organizational resources such as caregiver time use with older adults in residential long-term care facilities (nursing homes) have not been extensively studied, while levels of nurse staffing and staffing-mix are the focus of many publications on all types of healthcare organizations. Evidence shows that front-line caregivers' sufficient working time with residents is associated with performance, excellence, comprehensive care, quality of outcomes (e.g., reductions in pressure ulcers, urinary tract infections, and falls), quality of life, cost savings, and may be affiliated with transformation of organizational culture. To explore organizational resources in a long-term care unit within a multilevel residential facility, to measure healthcare aides' use of time with residents, and to describe working environment and unit culture. An observational pilot study was conducted in a Canadian urban 52-bed long-term care unit within a faith-based residential multilevel care facility. A convenience sample of seven healthcare aides consented to participate. To collect the data, we used an observational sheet (to monitor caregiver time use on certain activities such as personal care, assisting with eating, socializing, helping residents to be involved in therapeutic activities, paperwork, networking, personal time, and others), semi-structured interview (to assess caregiver perceptions of their working environment), and field notes (to illustrate the unit culture). Three hundred and eighty seven hours of observation were completed. The findings indicate that healthcare aides spent most of their working time (on an eight-hour day-shift) in "personal care" (52%) and in "other" activities (23%). One-to-three minute activities consumed about 35% of the time spent in personal care and 20% of time spent in assisting with eating. Overall, caregivers' time spent socializing was less than 1%, about 6% in networking, and less than 4% in paperwork. Re-organizing healthcare aides

  20. Evaluating the energy and CO2 emissions impacts of shifts in residential water heating in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, Kelly T.; Webber, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Water heating represented nearly 13% of 2010 residential energy consumption making it an important target for energy conservation efforts. The objective of this work is to identify spatially-resolved strategies for energy conservation, since little analysis has been done to identify how regional characteristics affect the energy consumed for water heating. We present a first-order thermodynamic analysis, utilizing ab initio calculations and regression methods, to quantify primary energy consumption and CO 2 emissions with regional specificity by considering by considering local electricity mixes, heat rates, solar radiation profiles, heating degrees days, and water heating unit sales for 27 regions of the US. Results suggest that shifting from electric towards natural gas or solar water heating offered primary energy and CO 2 emission reductions in most US regions, but these reductions varied considerably according to regional electricity mix and solar resources. We find that regions that would benefit most from technology transitions, are often least likely to switch due to limited economic incentives. Our results suggest that federal energy factor metrics, which ignore upstream losses in power generation, are insufficient in informing consumers about the energy performance of residential end use appliances. - Highlights: • US energy factor ratings for water heaters ignore upstream losses. • Switching from electric storage water heating reduces CO 2 emissions in most US regions. • Regions with greatest potential for CO 2 avoidance are least likely to shift technologies. • Benefits vary significantly according to climate and regional electricity fuel mix

  1. Geography of opportunity and residential mortgage foreclosure: A spatial analysis of a U.S. housing market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanmei LI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available South Florida has been among the top foreclosure markets in the United States, but little research has explored whether this market presents different dynamics compared to other metropolitan areas. This research chooses Broward County to explore whether socioeconomic characteristics and certain public policy instruments relate to subprime lending and mortgage foreclosure patterns. Results indicate areas bounded by linear highways and railroads have a concentration of low-income black population and subprime loans. The spatial distribution of subprime loans is mostly explained by a higher percentage of minority and/or Hispanic population in a neighborhood. Yet, racial minorities, instead of Hispanic origin, contributes mostly to the concentration of subprime loans. The spatial pattern of foreclosures is more complex, determined not only by subprime loans but also possibly other factors associated with the mortgage crisis. This suggests that disadvantaged neighborhoods are disproportionally lacking favorable opportunities due to institutional and sub- cultural forces shaping the geography of subprime and foreclosure.

  2. Prospective Trial of House Staff Time to Response and Intervention in a Surgical Intensive Care Unit: Pager vs. Smartphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatum, James M; White, Terris; Kang, Christopher; Ley, Eric J; Melo, Nicolas; Bloom, Matthew; Alban, Rodrigo F

    The objective of the study was to characterize house staff time to response and intervention when notified of a patient care issue by pager vs. smartphone. We hypothesized that smartphones would reduce house staff time to response and intervention. Prospective study of all electronic communications was conducted between nurses and house staff between September 2015 and October 2015. The 4-week study period was randomly divided into two 2-week study periods where all electronic communications between intensive care unit nurses and intensive care unit house staff were exclusively by smartphone or by pager, respectively. Time of communication initiation, time of house staff response, and time from response to clinical intervention for each communication were recorded. Outcomes are time from nurse contact to house staff response and intervention. Single-center surgical intensive care unit of Cedars-Sinai Medical Center in Los Angeles, California, an academic tertiary care and level I trauma center. All electronic communications occurring between nurses and house staff in the study unit during the study period were considered. During the study period, 205 nurse-house staff electronic communications occurred, 100 in the phone group and 105 in the pager group. House staff response to communication time was significantly shorter in the phone group (0.5 [interquartile range = 1.7] vs. 2 [3]min, p house staff intervention after response was also significantly more rapid in the phone group (0.8 [1.7] vs. 1 [2]min, p = 0.003). Dedicated clinical smartphones significantly decrease time to house staff response after electronic nursing communications compared with pagers. Copyright © 2017 Association of Program Directors in Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Living in some of the first Danish Passive Houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brunsgaard, Camilla

    2012-01-01

    The pilot project, named Comfort Houses, aims to show the industry that it is possible to construct traditional Danish houses as passive houses and promote them as comfortable houses. For this to be a success in the future, it is necessary to fulfil the occupants’ wants and needs. This study aims...... to communicate how the occupants of the Comfort Houses experience living in a passive house and illustrate how their behaviour affect the performance of the house. This is done through qualitative interviews with the occupants compared with quantitative measurements of the performance of the Comfort Houses....... A total of 3 residential units have been examined and the results show that the occupants’ everyday lives have changed – some as a result of the architectural and structural solutions, others as a result of the technology integrated in the houses. The study determines the importance of considering...

  4. Ethnic Residential Segregation in the United Kingdom by Age Group: the Case of Bradford

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David McEvoy

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available There is a long running debate on the significance of ethnic residential segregation levels in Britain. These phenomena have been related to the extent of community cohesion in British cities, and particularly to the riots of 2001 in the north of England. Further light is cast on these issues by examining ethnic segregation by age in the case of Bradford, the location of the largest riot. Both the dissimilarity index and the exposure index are used to consider relations between the White British and the largest minorities at ward level and at census output area level. The level of segregation is shown to vary with age, usually in a consistent direction. The direction varies between ethnic groups however.

  5. Balancing housing growth and land conservation: Conservation development preserves private lands near protected areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda H. Mockrin; Sarah E. Reed; Liba Pejchar; Jessica Salo

    2017-01-01

    Housing development has emerged as a primary driver of land-use change around the world. In the United States, there is particular concern about low-density residential development on rural lands, which often occurs in places with abundant natural amenities. Conservation development (CD), housing development that incorporates protected open space, has emerged as a tool...

  6. Optimal Sizing of Decentralized Photovoltaic Generation and Energy Storage Units for Malaysia Residential Household Using Iterative Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Hasimah Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available World’s fuel sources are decreasing, and global warming phenomena cause the necessity of urgent search for alternative energy sources. Photovoltaic generating system has a high potential, since it is clean, environmental friendly and secure energy sources. This paper presents an optimal sizing of decentralized photovoltaic system and electrical energy storage for a residential household using iterative method. The cost of energy, payback period, degree of autonomy and degree of own-consumption are defined as optimization parameters. A case study is conducted by employing Kuala Lumpur meteorological data, typical load profile from rural area in Malaysia, decentralized photovoltaic generation unit and electrical storage and it is analyzed in hourly basis. An iterative method is used with photovoltaic array variable from 0.1kW to 4.0kW and storage system variable from 50Ah to 400Ah was performed to determine the optimal design for the proposed system.

  7. Affordable housing as a niche product: The case of the Danish “SocialHousing Plus”

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Ole; Stensgaard, Anne Gro

    Establishing affordable housing is a growing demand in many larger cities there is however a number of challenges related to establishing affordable housing, as well as many different approaches. This paper presents a case-study of an affordable housing concept in the Danish social housing sector......, the “SocialHousing Plus” (“AlmenBolig+”) which is based on lowering production costs as well as operation costs including residential self-management, large-scale production of pre-fab housing units, low-energy solutions and other innovative approaches. The concept was developed in 2007, and has so far...... resulted in the production of more than 1.500 dwellings. The paper will discuss the results of the concept, and the various challenges related to it. Based on the theory of Technological Transition (Geels, 2002) it will discuss the options and limitations of providing affordable housing through developing...

  8. A Formaldehyde Exposure Assessment Tool for Occupants of FEMA Temporary Housing Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parthasarathy, Srinandini; Spears, Michael; Maddalena, Randy L.; Russell, Marion L; Apte, Michael G.

    2010-10-01

    The report outlines the methodology used to develop a web-based tool to assess the formaldehyde exposure of the occupants of Federal Emergency Management Administration (FEMA) temporary housing units (THUs) after Hurricanes Katrina and Rita in 2005. Linear regression models were built using available data to retrospectively estimate the indoor temperature and relative humidity, formaldehyde emission factors and concentration, and hence the formaldehyde exposures. The interactive web-tool allows the user to define the inputs to the model to evaluate formaldehyde exposures for different scenarios.

  9. Identifying Housing and Meteorological Conditions Influencing Residential Air Exchange Rates in the DEARS and RIOPA Studies: Development of Distributions for Human Exposure Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appropriate prediction of residential air exchange rate (AER) is important for estimating human exposures in the residential microenvironment, as AER drives the infiltration of outdoor-generated air pollutants indoors. AER differences among homes may result from a number of fact...

  10. Smart house-based optimal operation of thermal unit commitment for a smart grid considering transmission constraints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howlader, Harun Or Rashid; Matayoshi, Hidehito; Noorzad, Ahmad Samim; Muarapaz, Cirio Celestino; Senjyu, Tomonobu

    2018-05-01

    This paper presents a smart house-based power system for thermal unit commitment programme. The proposed power system consists of smart houses, renewable energy plants and conventional thermal units. The transmission constraints are considered for the proposed system. The generated power of the large capacity renewable energy plant leads to the violated transmission constraints in the thermal unit commitment programme, therefore, the transmission constraint should be considered. This paper focuses on the optimal operation of the thermal units incorporated with controllable loads such as Electrical Vehicle and Heat Pump water heater of the smart houses. The proposed method is compared with the power flow in thermal units operation without controllable loads and the optimal operation without the transmission constraints. Simulation results show the validation of the proposed method.

  11. Race/Ethnicity, Socioeconomic Status, Residential Segregation, and Spatial Variation in Noise Exposure in the Contiguous United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Joan A; Morello-Frosch, Rachel; Mennitt, Daniel J; Fristrup, Kurt; Ogburn, Elizabeth L; James, Peter

    2017-07-25

    Prior research has reported disparities in environmental exposures in the United States, but, to our knowledge, no nationwide studies have assessed inequality in noise pollution. We aimed to a ) assess racial/ethnic and socioeconomic inequalities in noise pollution in the contiguous United States; and b ) consider the modifying role of metropolitan level racial residential segregation. We used a geospatial sound model to estimate census block group–level median (L 50 ) nighttime and daytime noise exposure and 90th percentile (L 10 ) daytime noise exposure. Block group variables from the 2006–2010 American Community Survey (ACS) included race/ethnicity, education, income, poverty, unemployment, homeownership, and linguistic isolation. We estimated associations using polynomial terms in spatial error models adjusted for total population and population density. We also evaluated the relationship between race/ethnicity and noise, stratified by levels of metropolitan area racial residential segregation, classified using a multigroup dissimilarity index. Generally, estimated nighttime and daytime noise levels were higher for census block groups with higher proportions of nonwhite and lower-socioeconomic status (SES) residents. For example, estimated nighttime noise levels in urban block groups with 75% vs. 0% black residents were 46.3 A-weighted decibels (dBA) [interquartile range (IQR): 44.3–47.8 dBA] and 42.3 dBA (IQR: 40.4–45.5 dBA), respectively. In urban block groups with 50% vs. 0% of residents living below poverty, estimated nighttime noise levels were 46.9 dBA (IQR: 44.7–48.5 dBA) and 44.0 dBA (IQR: 42.2–45.5 dBA), respectively. Block groups with the highest metropolitan area segregation had the highest estimated noise exposures, regardless of racial composition. Results were generally consistent between urban and suburban/rural census block groups, and for daytime and nighttime noise and robust to different spatial weight and neighbor

  12. Determinants of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans in house dust samples from four areas of the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deziel, N.C.; Nuckols, J.R.; Colt, J.S.; Roos, A.J. de; Pronk, A.; Gourley, C.; Severson, R.K.; Cozen, W.; Cerhan, J.R.; Hartge, P.; Ward, M.H.

    2012-01-01

    Determinants of levels of polychlorinated dibenzo- p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/F) in dust in U.S. homes are not well characterized. We conducted a pilot study to evaluate the relationship between concentrations of PCDD/F in house dust and residential proximity to known sources,

  13. Building and household X-factors and energy consumption at the residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estiri, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Energy use in residential buildings is one of the major sources of greenhouse gas emission production from cities. Using microdata from the 2009 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), this study applies structural equation modeling to analyze the direct, indirect, and total impacts of household and building characteristics on residential energy consumption. Results demonstrate that the direct impact of household characteristics on residential energy consumption is significantly smaller than the corresponding impact from the buildings. However, accounting for the indirect impact of household characteristics on energy consumption, through choice of the housing unit characteristics, the total impact of households on energy consumption is just slightly smaller than that of buildings. Outcomes of this paper call for smart policies to incorporate housing choice processes in managing residential energy consumption. - Highlights: • Households indirectly influence residential energy use through housing choice. • Households' total impact on energy use is comparable to that of buildings. • Understanding households' indirect impact will enhance residential energy policy. • Smart energy policies are needed to target both direct and indirect effects

  14. Impact of a mental health training course for correctional officers on a special housing unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, George F

    2009-05-01

    This study determined the impact of a ten-hour mental health training program developed by the Indiana chapter of the National Alliance on Mental Illness (NAMI-Indiana) for correctional officers on a prison special housing ("supermax") unit. The training was delivered to all of the correctional officers on the unit in five weekly sessions and was repeated 15 months later for new unit staff. The number of incidents reported by unit staff in standard monthly reports, consisting of use of force by the officers and battery by bodily waste on the officers by the offenders, was compared for the nine months before and after both training sessions. Attendance at the initial training ranged from 48 to 57 officers per session, and on the basis of Likert ratings, training was well received by the officers. The total number of incidents, the use of force by the officers, and battery by bodily waste all declined significantly after the first mental health training, and the total number of incidents and battery by bodily waste declined significantly after the second training. The provision of ten hours of mental health training to correctional officers was associated with a significant decline in use of force and battery by bodily waste.

  15. Comparing clinical and demographic characteristics of people with mental illness in hospital- and community-based residential rehabilitation units in Queensland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meehan, Tom; Stedman, Terry; Parker, Stephen; Curtis, Bretine; Jones, Donna

    2017-05-01

    Objective The aim of the present study was to examine care pathways and characteristics of mental health consumers participating in both hospital- and community-based residential rehabilitation programs. Methods An audit of consumers (n=240) in all publicly funded residential rehabilitation units in Queensland was performed on the same day in 2013. Data collection focused on demographic characteristics, clinical information and measures of consumer functioning. Results Significant differences emerged for consumers in community- and hospital-based services with regard to age, length of stay, functioning, Mental Health Act status, guardianship status, family contact and risk of violence. Consumers in hospital-based programs have more severe and complex problems. Conclusions Consumers in residential rehabilitation units have high levels of disability, poor physical health and high levels of vulnerability. Nonetheless, it is likely that a sizeable proportion of consumers occupying rehabilitation beds in Queensland could be discharged if more 'step-down' options to move patients on were available. What is known about the topic? A small subgroup of people with severe and complex mental health problems is likely to require time in a residential rehabilitation program. This group is characterised by failure to respond to treatment, severe negative symptoms and some degree of cognitive impairment. What does this paper add? Patients currently occupying residential rehabilitation beds in Queensland have high levels of disability, poor physical health and high levels of vulnerability. Patients in hospital-based programs are more severely disabled than those in community-based programs. What are the implications for practitioners? It is likely that a sizeable proportion of patients occupying rehabilitation beds in Queensland could be discharged if more 'step-down' options were available. Future planning initiatives need to focus on developing a greater array of community

  16. Low energy house in existing buildings; Niedrigenergiehaus im Bestand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahner, G. [BDA, Stuttgart/Augsburg (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    Presented is an energetic sanitation of residential units in the frame of a German pilot program (''low energy houses in the existing building sector'') initiated by the ministry of traffic, civil engineering and city development. (GL)

  17. Part-sales as an investment strategy : Analysis of part-selling of residential units in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hordijk, A.C.; Janssen, J.E.; Teuben, B.

    2006-01-01

    The ROZ/IPD Property index was established in 1994 to publicize an independent index on directly held real estate in the Netherlands. The real estate universe is split into the sectors: retail, offices, industrial, residential and mixed use/other. The residential sector consists of almost 50 % of

  18. A Study of Curriculum Development and Reform in Residential Schools for the Blind in the United States: Three Case Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holiday, Jeremiah

    2013-01-01

    This study was conducted to understand curriculum development in residential schools for the blind after the enactment of NCLB and was guided by the research question, "How do residential schools for the blind and visually impaired develop their curriculum to meet the unique needs of students who are blind and visually impaired?" In the…

  19. Cost effective multi-storey passive residential houses. Costs, technology, solutions, experiences of users; Kostenguenstige mehrgeschossige Passivwohnhaeuser. Kosten, Technik, Loesungen, Nutzererfahrungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoeberl, Helmut

    2013-08-01

    Energy-efficient buildings in the range of single-family houses are no longer a rarity. The passive house technology and the costs are the significant barriers in the field of multi-storey housings. For the first time, the author of the book under consideration summarizes the planning tools, building envelope, building services, construction costs and the introduction of users by means of several passive house projects. The demands, components and challenges of the passive house are presented. Even experienced planners and decision-makers with get many detailed solutions and an accurate arrangement of additional costs.

  20. Low income homebuyers, low housing infrastructure quality, and disaster threat (Case study: Landslide in Trangkil Sejahtera and Trangkil Baru Residential Area, Semarang)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrianingrum, Lulut; Andiyarto, Hanggoro Tri Cahyo

    2018-03-01

    The Housing of Trangkil Sejahtera and Trangkil Baru are two housing areas located in the Village of Sukorejo, Gunungpati District, Semarang Municipality. In 2014, these housing areas were experienced landslide triggered by heavy rains that continued to fall across Semarang for several days. Successive landslides occurred on January 23, 2014 early in the morning until 07.30 am. Seven houses in Trangkil Sejahtera Housing were damaged by landslide, while in Trangkil Baru Housing there were 32 homes that severely damaged. The housing was located in a zone with high degree of susceptibility to landslide and stated as landslide prone areas by the Directorate of Environmental Geology. The objective of this article is to analyze the facts that the low income homebuyers basically do not understand the importance of accessing the information of land, infrastructure quality and specifications of the house. The analysis is conducted by comparing the landslide background and the homebuyer's condition background at the time the housing was purchased. The results showed that people who occupied the housing were victims of evictions and in low-income condition. A low-income homeowner has a low bargaining position in obtaining adequate housing infrastructure quality. Developers did not prepare proper infrastructure system to anticipate landslides and fulfill legal aspects of the real estate development. Low income homeowners should be educated about legal aspect of land purchased as well as their rights when buying a home.

  1. Guidelines for residential commissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wray, Craig P.; Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.

    2003-01-31

    Currently, houses do not perform optimally or even as many codes and forecasts predict, largely because they are field assembled and there is no consistent process to identify problems or to correct them. Residential commissioning is a solution to this problem. This guide is the culmination of a 30-month project that began in September 1999. The ultimate objective of the project is to increase the number of houses that undergo commissioning, which will improve the quality, comfort, and safety of homes for California citizens. The project goal is to lay the groundwork for a residential commissioning industry in California focused on end-use energy and non-energy issues. As such, we intend this guide to be a beginning and not an end. Our intent is that the guide will lead to the programmatic integration of commissioning with other building industry processes, which in turn will provide more value to a single site visit for people such as home energy auditors and raters, home inspectors, and building performance contractors. Project work to support the development of this guide includes: a literature review and annotated bibliography, which facilitates access to 469 documents related to residential commissioning published over the past 20 years (Wray et al. 2000), an analysis of the potential benefits one can realistically expect from commissioning new and existing California houses (Matson et al. 2002), and an assessment of 107 diagnostic tools for evaluating residential commissioning metrics (Wray et al. 2002). In this guide, we describe the issues that non-experts should consider in developing a commissioning program to achieve the benefits we have identified. We do this by providing specific recommendations about: how to structure the commissioning process, which diagnostics to use, and how to use them to commission new and existing houses. Using examples, we also demonstrate the potential benefits of applying the recommended whole-house commissioning approach to

  2. A comprehensive dwelling unit choice model accommodating psychological constructs within a search strategy for consideration set formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-01

    This study adopts a dwelling unit level of analysis and considers a probabilistic choice set generation approach for residential choice modeling. In doing so, we accommodate the fact that housing choices involve both characteristics of the dwelling u...

  3. Optimal Housing, Consumption, and Investment Decisions over the Life Cycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kraft, Holger; Munk, Claus

    2011-01-01

    We derive explicit solutions to life-cycle utility maximization problems involving stock and bond investment, perishable consumption, and the rental and ownership of residential real estate. Prices of houses, stocks and bonds, and labor income are correlated. Because of a positive correlation...... between house prices and labor income, young individuals want little exposure to house price risk and tend to rent their home. Later in life the desired housing investment increases and will eventually reach and exceed the desired consumption, suggesting that the individual should buy his home—and either...... additional housing units (for renting out) or house price–linked financial assets. In the final years, preferences shift back to home rental. The derived strategies are still useful if housing positions are only reset infrequently. Our results suggest that markets for real estate investment trusts or other...

  4. Technical and Economic Evaluation of «Electric House» Project: Investigation of Possibility to Use Electric Power as Single Energy Carrier in Residential Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    M. M. Oleshkevich; Y. V. Makosko

    2011-01-01

    The paper considers special features of the «Electric House» project where the building is provided with electric power, cold water and sewerage system. The «Electric House» is characterized by ecological cleanness, high reliability in power supply and low capital costs. While running the «Electric House» an annual expenditure of equivalent fuel is increased due to low efficiency of electric power generation at power plants. The profit obtained due to «Electric House» construction is depleted...

  5. Residential Energy Consumption Survey: Quality Profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) is a periodic national survey that provides timely information about energy consumption and expenditures of U.S. households and about energy-related characteristics of housing units. The survey was first conducted in 1978 as the National Interim Energy Consumption Survey (NIECS), and the 1979 survey was called the Household Screener Survey. From 1980 through 1982 RECS was conducted annually. The next RECS was fielded in 1984, and since then, the survey has been undertaken at 3-year intervals. The most recent RECS was conducted in 1993.

  6. Architectural design of passive solar residential building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Jing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies thermal environment of closed balconies that commonly exist in residential buildings, and designs a passive solar residential building. The design optimizes the architectural details of the house and passive utilization of solar energy to provide auxiliary heating for house in winter and cooling in summer. This design might provide a more sufficient and reasonable modification for microclimate in the house.

  7. Field Derived Emission Factors For Formaldehyde and other Volatile Organic Compounds in FEMA Temporary Housing Units

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parthasarathy, Srinandini; Maddalena, Randy L.; Russell, Marion L.; Apte, Michael G.

    2010-10-01

    Sixteen previously occupied temporary housing units (THUs) were studied to assess emissions of volatile organic compounds. The whole trailer emission factors wereevaluated for 36 VOCs including formaldehyde. Indoor sampling was carried out in the THUs located in Purvis staging yard in Mississippi, USA. Indoor temperature andrelative humidity (RH) were also measured in all the trailers during sampling. Indoor temperatures were varied (increased or decreased) in a selection of THUs using theheating, ventilation and air conditioning (HVAC) systems. Indoor temperatures during sampling ranged from 14o C to 33o C, and relative humidity (RH) varied between 35percentand 74percent. Ventilation rates were increased in some trailers using bathroom fans and vents during some of the sampling events. Ventilation rates measured during some aselection of sampling events varied from 0.14 to 4.3 h-1. Steady state indoor formaldehyde concentrations ranged from 10 mu g-m-3 to 1000 mu g-m-3. The formaldehyde concentrations in the trailers were of toxicological significance. The effects of temperature, humidity and ventilation rates were also studied. A linearregression model was built using log of percentage relative humidity, inverse of temperature (in K-1), and inverse log ACH as continuous independent variables, trailermanufacturer as a categorical independent variable, and log of the chemical emission factors as the dependent variable. The coefficients of inverse temperature, log relativehumidity, log inverse ACH with log emission factor were found to be statistically significant for all the samples at the 95percent confidence level. The regression model wasfound to explain about 84percent of the variation in the dependent variable. Most VOC concentrations measured indoors in the Purvis THUs were mostly found to be belowvalues reported in earlier studies by Maddalena et al.,1,2 Hodgson et al.,3 and Hippelein4. Emissions of TMPB-DIB (a plasticizer found in vinyl products) were found

  8. Energy statistics for single-family houses, apartment buildings and non-residential premises in 2012; Energistatistik foer smaahus, flerbostadshus och lokaler 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    This report presents a summary of energy use and heating method in Swedish buildings (2012). The report covers basically three surveys - energy use in houses, in apartment buildings and premises. These three studies are first published separately. The results are then processed further, with the aim to provide a comprehensive picture of energy use in permanently occupied dwellings (houses and apartments) and commercial buildings (excluding industrial premises). This report presents the results of these operations.

  9. ALDEHYDE AND OTHER VOLATILE ORGANIC CHEMICAL EMISSIONS IN FOUR FEMA TEMPORARY HOUSING UNITS ? FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, Olivia; Maddalena, Randy L.; Russell, Marion; Sullivan, Douglas P.; Apte, Michael G.

    2008-05-04

    Four unoccupied FEMA temporary housing units (THUs) were studied to assess their indoor emissions of volatile organic compounds including formaldehyde. Measurement of whole-THU VOC and aldehyde emission factors (mu g h-1 per m2 of floor area) for each of the four THUs were made at FEMA's Purvis MS staging yard using a mass balance approach. Measurements were made in the morning, and again in the afternoon in each THU. Steady-state indoor formaldehyde concentrations ranged from 378 mu g m-3 (0.31ppm) to 632 mu g m-3 (0.52 ppm) in the AM, and from 433 mu g m-3 (0.35 ppm) to 926 mu g m-3 (0.78 ppm) in the PM. THU air exchange rates ranged from 0.15 h-1 to 0.39 h-1. A total of 45 small (approximately 0.025 m2) samples of surface material, 16 types, were collected directly from the four THUs and shipped to Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. The material samples were analyzed for VOC and aldehyde emissions in small stainless steel chambers using a standard, accurate mass balance method. Quantification of VOCs was done via gas chromatography -- mass spectrometry and low molecular weight aldehydes via high performance liquid chromatography. Material specific emission factors (mu g h-1 per m2 of material) were quantified. Approximately 80 unique VOCs were tentatively identified in the THU field samples, of which forty-five were quantified either because of their toxicological significance or because their concentrations were high. Whole-trailer and material specific emission factors were calculated for 33 compounds. The THU emission factors and those from their component materials were compared against those measured from other types of housing and the materials used in their construction. Whole THU emission factors for most VOCs were typically similar to those from comparative housing. The three exceptions were exceptionally large emissions of formaldehyde and TMPD-DIB (a common plasticizer in vinyl products), and somewhat elevated for phenol. Of these three compounds

  10. Design, evaluation and recommedation effort relating to the modification of a residential 3-ton absorption cycle cooling unit for operation with solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, R. H.; Anderson, P. P.

    1973-01-01

    The possible use of solar energy powered absorption units to provide cooling and heating of residential buildings is studied. Both, the ammonia-water and the water-lithium bromide cycles, are considered. It is shown that the air cooled ammonia water unit does not meet the criteria for COP and pump power on the cooling cycle and the heat obtained from it acting as a heat pump is at too low a temperature. If the ammonia machine is water cooled it will meet the design criteria for cooling but can not supply the heating needs. The water cooled lithium bromide unit meets the specified performance for cooling with appreciably lower generator temperatures and without a mechanical solution pump. It is recommeded that in the demonstration project a direct expansion lithium bromide unit be used for cooling and an auxiliary duct coil using the solar heated water be employed for heating.

  11. The analysis of fire losses and characteristics of residential fires based on investigation data in Selangor, 2012-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Yi Rong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a research in progress where authors seek to investigate the factors of residential fires. As part of the research, this paper aims to analyse the fire problems faced by the community of Malaysia. Data regarding residential fires between 2012 and 2014 was collected from fire investigation reports prepared by the Selangor Fire and Rescue Department. Descriptive analysis is conducted to summarize the data collected and describe the common phenomenon of residential fires. The distributions of the fire characteristics suggested that residential fires are commonly occurred during daytime, confined within the room of fire origin, caused by electrical failure and cooking negligence, started from kitchen, and occurred in multi-units housing. Further analysis will be conducted in order to investigate the relationships between the characteristics and residential fires.

  12. Housing price gradient and immigrant population: Data from the Italian real estate market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniucci, Valentina; Marella, Giuliano

    2018-02-01

    The database presented here was collected by Antoniucci and Marella to analyze the correlation between the housing price gradient and the immigrant population in Italy during 2016. It may also be useful in other statistical analyses, be they on the real estate market or in another branches of social science. The data sample relates to 112 Italian provincial capitals. It provides accurate information on urban structure, and specifically on urban density. The two most significant variables are original indicators constructed from official data sources: the housing price gradient, or the ratio between average prices in the center and suburbs by city; and building density, which is the average number of housing units per residential building. The housing price gradient is calculated for the two residential sub-markets, new-build and existing units, providing an original and detailed sample of the Italian residential market. Rather than average prices, the housing price gradient helps to identify potential divergences in residential market trends. As well as house prices, two other data clusters are considered: socio-economic variables, which provide a framework of each city, in terms of demographic and economic information; and various data on urban structure, which are rarely included in the same database.

  13. Housing Systems and Ethnic Spatial Segregation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter; Andersson, Roger; Wessel, Terje

    Residential spatial segregation is related to housing markets and housing policies. In this paper, ethnic segregation is compared across four Nordic capitals and explanations for the differences are examined by comparing the housing markets and housing policies of the countries. The housing markets...

  14. Learning from the implementation of residential optional time of use pricing in the United States electricity industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xibao

    Residential time-of-use (TOU) rates have been in practice in the U.S. since the 1970s. However, for institutional, political, and regulatory reasons, only a very small proportion of residential customers are actually on these schedules. In this thesis, I explore why this is the case by empirically investigating two groups of questions: (1) On the "supply" side: Do utilities choose to offer TOU rates in residential sectors on their own initiative if state commissions do not order them to do so? Since utilities have other options, what is the relationship between the TOU rate and other alternatives? To answer these questions, I survey residential tariffs offered by more than 100 major investor-owned utilities, study the impact of various factors on utilities' rate-making behavior, and examine utility revealed preferences among four rate options: seasonal rates, inverted block rates, demand charges, and TOU rates. Estimated results suggest that the scale of residential sectors and the revenue contribution from residential sectors are the only two significant factors that influence utility decisions on offering TOU rates. Technical and economic considerations are not significant statistically. This implies that the little acceptance of TOU rates is partly attributed to utilities' inadequate attention to TOU rate design. (2) On the "demand" side: For utilities offering TOU tariffs, why do only a very small proportion of residential customers choose these tariffs? What factors influence customer choices? Unlike previous studies that used individual-level experimental data, this research employs actual aggregated information from 29 utilities offering optional TOU rates. By incorporating neo-classical demand analysis into an aggregated random coefficient logit model, I investigate the impact of both price and non-price tariff characteristics and non-tariff factors on customer choice behavior. The analysis indicates that customer pure tariff preference (which captures the

  15. External built residential environment characteristics that affect mental health of adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ochodo, Charles; Ndetei, D M; Moturi, W N; Otieno, J O

    2014-10-01

    External built residential environment characteristics include aspects of building design such as types of walls, doors and windows, green spaces, density of houses per unit area, and waste disposal facilities. Neighborhoods that are characterized by poor quality external built environment can contribute to psychosocial stress and increase the likelihood of mental health disorders. This study investigated the relationship between characteristics of external built residential environment and mental health disorders in selected residences of Nakuru Municipality, Kenya. External built residential environment characteristics were investigated for 544 residents living in different residential areas that were categorized by their socioeconomic status. Medically validated interview schedules were used to determine mental health of residents in the respective neighborhoods. The relationship between characteristics of the external built residential environment and mental health of residents was determined by multivariable logistic regression analyses and chi-square tests. The results show that walling materials used on buildings, density of dwelling units, state of street lighting, types of doors, states of roofs, and states of windows are some built external residential environment characteristics that affect mental health of adult males and females. Urban residential areas that are characterized by poor quality external built environment substantially expose the population to daily stressors and inconveniences that increase the likelihood of developing mental health disorders.

  16. The Use of UAV in Housing Renovation Identification: A Case Study at Taman Manis 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustaffa, A. A.; Hasmori, M. F.; Sarif, A. S.; Ahmad, N. F.; Zainun, N. Y.

    2018-04-01

    Housing industry in Malaysia is growing rapidly due to the increase in population and the arising of economic level of Malaysian people. Most residential houses are built according to the standard residential design that may lead to house renovation by the buyers after purchasing the house. A method of using Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) monitoring was used to obtain information of the renovated houses directly on-site at Taman Manis 2, Parit Raja, Batu Pahat. Through comparison of image captured by the UAV with the original house plans, we found out that a total of 160 units out of 336 units of houses undergo a renovation process. Surprisingly, 41 units have been renovated illegally which has 40% to 96% of renovation rate. The acquired data were analyzed and can be concluded that the method of using UAVs to obtain information is highly recommended. The study is expected to help Municipal Council to detect improper & illegal renovation by the residents in a residential area.

  17. Social work and the house of Islam: orienting practitioners to the beliefs and values of Muslims in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodge, David R

    2005-04-01

    Despite the media attention focused on the Islamic community after the terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center on September 11, 2001, Muslims remain one of the most misunderstood populations in the United States. Few articles have appeared in the social work literature orienting practitioners to the Islamic community, and much of the mainstream media coverage misrepresents the population. This article reviews the basic beliefs, practices, and values that commonly characterize, or inform, the House of Islam in the United States. The organizations that embody and sustain the Muslim communities that constitute the House of Islam are profiled, and areas of possible value conflicts are examined. The article concludes by offering suggestions for integrating the article's themes into practice settings. Particular attention is given to enhancing cultural competence and to suggestions for spiritual assessment and interventions.

  18. American Housing Survey (AHS)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The AHS is the largest, regular national housing sample survey in the United States. The U.S. Census Bureau conducts the AHS to obtain up-to-date housing statistics...

  19. 7 CFR Exhibit B to Subpart A of... - Requirements for Modular/Panelized Housing Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... background information available through the Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) for analysis... systems, include supply and return duct layout and location of appropriate diffusers. 8. Electrical plan...

  20. Compensation of equipment housing elements of reactor units with heavy liquid metal coolant vessel temperature deformations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedevich, V.; Ahmetshin, M.; Mendes, D.; Kaveshnikov, S.; Vinogradov, A.

    2015-01-01

    In Russia a lot of different versions of fast reactors (FRs) are investigated and one of these is FR cooled by liquid lead and liquid lead-bismuth alloy. In this poster we are interested by FR with concrete vessel; its components are placed in cavities inside the vessel, and connected by a channel system. During the installation the equipment components are placed in several equipment housings. Between these housings there are cavities with coolant. The alignment of the housings should be provided. It can be broken by irregular concrete vessel heating during FR starting or other transition regimes. Our goal is to suggest a list of designing steps to compensate temperature deformations of equipment housing elements. A simplified model of equipment housing was suggested. It consists of two cylinders - tunnels in the concrete vessel, separated by a cavity filled by coolant and inert gas. The bottom part was considered as heated to 420 C. degrees while in the top part temperature decreased to 45 C. degrees (on the concrete surface). According to this data, results show that temperature gradient leads to a concrete layer dislocation of about 12.5 mm, which can lead to damage and breaking alignment. We propose the following solution to compensate for temperature deformation: -) to chisel out part of the upper top of the insulating concrete; -) to install an adequate misalignment of equipment housing elements preliminary; and -) to use a torsion system like a piston-type device for providing additional strength in order to compensate deformation and vibrations

  1. Experimental characterization, modeling and simulation of a wood pellet micro-combined heat and power unit used as a heat source for a residential building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thiers, Stephane; Aoun, Bernard; Peuportier, Bruno [MINES ParisTech, CEP - Centre Energetique et Procedes, 60 Boulevard St Michel, 75272 Paris Cedex 06 (France)

    2010-06-15

    Cogeneration provides heat and power in a more efficient way than separate production. Micro-cogeneration (micro-CHP) is an emerging solution for the improvement of energy and environmental assessments of residential buildings. A wood pellet Stirling engine micro-CHP unit has been studied in order to characterize its annual performance when integrated to a building. First, through a test bench experiment, both transient and steady state behaviors of the micro-CHP unit have been characterized and modeled. Then a more complete model representing a hot water and heating system including the micro-CHP unit and a stratified storage tank has been carried out. This model has been coupled to a building model. A sensitivity analysis by simulation shows that the dimensioning of different elements of the system strongly influences its global energy performance. (author)

  2. Residential energy demand in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arouca, M.; Gomes, F.M.; Rosa, L.P.

    1981-01-01

    The energy demand in Brazilian residential sector is studied, discussing the methodology for analyzing this demand from some ideas suggested, for developing an adequate method to brazilian characteristics. The residential energy consumption of several fuels in Brazil is also presented, including a comparative evaluation with the United States and France. (author)

  3. Development and assessment of a physics-based simulation model to investigate residential PM2.5 infiltration across the US housing stock

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory Population Impact Assessment Modeling Framework (PIAMF) was expanded to enable determination of indoor PM2.5 concentrations and exposures in a set of 50,000 homes representing the US housing stock. A mass-balance model is used to calculat...

  4. The 2001 Residential Finance Survey - Owners Property File

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The 2001 Residential Finance Survey (RFS) was sponsored by the Department of Housing and Urban Development and conducted by the Census Bureau. The RFS is a follow-on...

  5. The 2001 Residential Finance Survey - Rental Property File

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The 2001 Residential Finance Survey (RFS) was sponsored by the Department of Housing and Urban Development and conducted by the Census Bureau. The RFS is a follow-on...

  6. Assisted Housing - Multifamily Properties - Assisted

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD's Multifamily Housing property portfolio consist primarily of rental housing properties with five or more dwelling units such as apartments or town houses, but...

  7. Passive energy standard in building as a perspective of sustainable development - first passive houses in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miscevic, Lj.

    2005-01-01

    The paper presents the projects and implementation of the first passive family houses in Croatia. The Croatian Solar House (CSH) is a national technological-development project by a group of authors, which is based on passive house standard as an energy-terms point of departure. The House EV1 is a wood-made passive house under construction, while the House M4 is the first passive house in Croatia made in poro-concrete and reinforced concrete made ceiling slabs. Both houses comply with the heating energy consumption requirements under the passive house definition, i.e., the annual consumption does not exceed 15 kWh/m2. These houses are also referred to as 'houses without heating', 'houses with thermal comfort without heating' or 'one-liter houses' because their consumption is equivalent to one liter of fuel oil by one square meter a year. Assuming the high-value thermal protection, passive house is equipped with an installation system which houses a heat pump and ventilation system for continuous introduction of fresh air indoors. The use of renewable energy sources enabled the accomplishment by far the biggest energy savings in the construction industry, ensuring optimal conditions for healthy living without harmful gas emissions. Since 1990 there is an exponential growth of constructed passive houses in Europe. Germany is leading this trend with total of 150,000 free-standing houses, house raw units or residential units in small multi-apartment buildings. The research project-program of the European Union: Cost Efficiency Passive Houses as European Union Standard (CEPHEUS) has confirmed, by scientific monitoring during several years, the energy- and cost-efficiency of such architecture and construction model in more than 250 units in Germany, France, Austria and Switzerland. Therefore the passive house is proposed as a standard for residential architecture and construction, but also for general construction of all functional types of non-residential architecture

  8. Simple Stirling engine as cogeneration unit in residential areas; Einfacher Stirling-Motor fuer die Waerme-Kraft-Kopplung (WKK) in kleinen Wohngebaeuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budliger, J.P.

    2000-07-01

    Free-piston Stirling engines have been recognized for long as an ideally suited unit for combined heat and power (CHP) production in homes. The considerably improved use of fossil fuel as compared to their separate production, the clean, external combustion process and low noise are major assets, favouring the use of this technology in residential areas. However, up to present, the complexity and correspondingly high cost of these units hampered their practical application. A new, simple concept has recently been devised, which can easily be controlled and operated according to demand. Cost may be reduced substantially as compared to presently known concepts, giving promise for their widespread use in residential homes, as well as in a variety of other applications. (orig.) [German] Freikolben-Stirling-Motoren sind ideale Aggregate fuer die Waerme-Kraft-Kopplung (WKK oder KWK) in kleineren Wohnhaeusern. Der Brennstoff kann wesentlich besser genutzt werden als bei getrennter Bereitung der benoetigten Heizwaerme und der elektrischen Energie. Die saubere, kontinuierliche aeussere Verbrennung und der geringe abgegebene Laerm stellen wichtige Bedingungen fuer einen erfolgreichen Einsatz solcher Systeme im Wohnbereich dar. Bisher verhinderten aber die Komplexitaet der verfuegbaren Systeme den praktischen Einsatz dieser Einheiten. Im Folgenden wird ein neues, einfaches Konzept vorgestellt, welches zuverlaessig funktioniert und auch unter Teillast, dem benoetigten Waermebedarf genau angepasst, betrieben werden kann. Die Herstellungskosten sind wesentlich geringer als bei den bisher bekannten Systemen, was ideale Voraussetzungen fuer deren verbreitete Anwendung im Haushalt, wie in vielfaeltigen anderen Einsatzgebieten darstellt. (orig.)

  9. Field-Metered Data from Portable Unit Dehumidifiers in the U.S. Residential Sector: Initial Results of a Pilot Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Willem, Henry [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Beraki, Bereket [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Burke, Tom [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Melody, Moya [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Nagaraju, Mythri [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Ni, Chun Chun [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Pratt, Stacy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division; Dominique Yang, Hung-Chia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Environmental Energy Technologies Division

    2013-01-29

    The work described herein is intended to enrich the body of literature regarding dehumidifiers in residential settings—in particular the hours of use and energy consumption of various types of dehumidifiers. In the United States, portable unit dehumidifiers most commonly are used in basements during humid summer days in northern climates. Dehumidifier energy consumption differs among households depending on settings selected by the user, frequency of use, and conditions of operation. Although some estimates of dehumidifier use have been developed, and a few metering studies performed, there remains a paucity of metered data collected from individual households that use dehumidifiers. For this study we obtained field data on the energy consumption of dehumidifiers to supplement currently available analyses. Our goal was to obtain data from a pilot study that we could use to develop initial distributions describing the capacities and applications of dehumidifiers used in individual homes. More precisely characterizing the use of dehumidifiers in real-world applications will enable a more accurate estimate of the range of energy use in various operational modes. Our pilot field-metering exercise was aimed at compiling real-time data on the energy consumption of portable dehumidifiers in residential households in the New England and Mid-Atlantic areas. Our analysis furthers the process of developing a more precise estimate of dehumidifier energy use, which will support the evaluation of the potential energy savings and attendant costs associated with more energy efficient dehumidifiers.

  10. GREEN RETROFITTING RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    When compared with the rest of the world, the United States consumes a disproportionately large amount of energy and is a major source of greenhouse gases from fossil fuel combustion. As much as two thirds of U.S. electricity production is consumed by residential and commerci...

  11. Residential Mechanical Precooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, a. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This research conducted by the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team evaluated mechanical air conditioner pre-cooling strategies in homes throughout the United States. EnergyPlus modeling evaluated two homes with different performance characteristics in seven climates. Results are applicable to new construction homes and most existing homes built in the last 10 years, as well as fairly efficient retrofitted homes.

  12. Residential Preferences and Moving Behavior: A Family Life Cycle Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAuley, William J.; Nutty, Cheri L.

    The relationship of family life cycle changes to housing preferences and residential mobility is examined. Two residential decision-making issues are explored in detail--how family life cycle stages influence what people view as important to their choice of residential setting and what individuals at different family life cycle stages view as the…

  13. 7 CFR 1924.8 - Development work for modular/panelized housing units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (exhibit B, attachment 5 of this subpart), stating that the building has been built substantially in..., attachment 5 of this subpart). (d) Responsibility for field inspections will be in accordance with § 1924.9(a... borrower for the complete house in place on the site. Such contracts should provide that payments will be...

  14. Housing characteristics 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    This report, Housing Characteristics 1993, presents statistics about the energy-related characteristics of US households. These data were collected in the 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) -- the ninth in a series of nationwide energy consumption surveys conducted since 1978 by the Energy Information Administration of the US Department of Energy. Over 7 thousand households were surveyed, representing 97 million households nationwide. A second report, to be released in late 1995, will present statistics on residential energy consumption and expenditures.

  15. Residential Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids For Teens For Parents & Teachers Resolving Family Conflicts The Holidays and Alzheimer's Glossary Virtual Library Online ... longer an option Costs Choosing a care setting Types of residential care A good long-term care ...

  16. RETHINKING RESIDENTIAL MOBILITY: AN INTERDISCIPLINARY INTERPRETATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roderick J. Lawrence

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1950s academics and professionals have proposed a number of disciplinary and sector based interpretations of why, when and where households move or choose to stay in the same housing unit at different periods of the life cycle and especially the family cycle. This article challenges studies that only analyse one set of factors. The article stems from a synthesis of 20 years of research by the author who  has an interdisciplinary training in the broad field of people-environment relations. First, it reviews some key concepts related to human ecology, including housing, culture, identity and cultivation. Then it will consider how these concepts can be applied to interpret residential mobility using an interdisciplinary approach. An empirical case study of residential mobility in Geneva, Switzerland is presented in order to show how this approach can help improve our understanding of the motives people have regarding the wish to stay in their residence or to move elsewhere.

  17. Trends of Sustainable Residential Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Narvydas, A

    2014-01-01

    The article is based on Master’s research conducted during Scottish Housing Expo 2010. The aim of the research was to determine the prevailing trends in sustainable residential architecture. Each trend can be described by features detected during visual and technical observation of project data. Based on that architects may predict possible problems related to a specific trend.

  18. Reduce tax on residential mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ewijk, C.; van Leuvensteijn, M.

    2010-01-01

    How can Europe increase structural growth? This column argues that labour market flexibility is key. As a major barrier to labour movement is rigidity in the housing market, abolishing transfer taxes on residential property could result in gains of up to 0.4% of GDP.

  19. Study on reduction of consumption and peak demand of electric power used in residential houses with solar heating and PV systems; Solar house no fuka heijunka to energy sakugen koka ni kansuru kenkyu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Udagawa, M.; Endo, T. [Kogakuin University, Tokyo (Japan)

    1994-12-08

    A model house was simulated to reduce the consumption and peak demand for the photovoltaic power generation system, and solar heat air heating and hot water supply system in the solar house. As a type of construction, both wooden construction and reinforced concrete (RC) construction were selected with a total floor area of 125m{sup 2}. All the rooms were equipped with an air conditioner by heat pump from the air thermal source. A solar heat floor heater was simultaneously installed on the first floor. The hot water supply load was 4.8MWh per year. A commercial grid-connected on-site system was applied to the photovoltaic power generation with a 20m{sup 2} wide monocrystalline Si solar cell panel. As for the fluctuation in power load, the peak at the time of rising is more reduced in the RC house than in the wooden house, because the former is smaller in temperature fluctuation than the latter during the intermittence of air conditioning (as per the specified operational schedule). Therefore, the power is more leveled off in the former than in the latter. Between both, difference was hardly made in energy consumption per year. The ratio of dependency was 47% upon the photovoltaic power generation system, while it was 50% and 77%, under the air heating power load and hot water supply power load, respectively, upon the solar heat air heating and hot water supply system, so that both systems were considerably effective in saving the energy. 5 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  20. 75 FR 66087 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Residential Lead...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-27

    ...-bedroom dwellings, housing for the elderly, housing for the handicapped, or short term leases. The... housing market, namely a gradual reduction in the annual number of real estate sales and residential...

  1. DOE ZERH Case Study: United Way of Long Island Housing Development Corporation, Patchogue, NY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2015-09-01

    Case study of a DOE 2015 Housing Innovation Award winning affordable home in the mixed-humid climate that got HERS 40 without PV, -3 with PV, with 2x4 16: on center walls with R-13.5 dense packed cellulose and 1.5” polyiso rigid; basement with 2.5: polyiso on interior; unvented attic with R-48 ocsf under roof deck; ERV tied to wall hung boiler with hydro coil.

  2. Does place explain racial health disparities? Quantifying the contribution of residential context to the Black/white health gap in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, D Phuong; Finch, Brian Karl; Basurto-Davila, Ricardo; Bird, Chloe; Escarce, Jose; Lurie, Nicole

    2008-10-01

    The persistence of the black health disadvantage has been a puzzling component of health in the United States in spite of general declines in rates of morbidity and mortality over the past century. Studies that have focused on well-established individual-level determinants of health such as socio-economic status and health behaviors have been unable to fully explain these disparities. Recent research has begun to focus on other factors such as racism, discrimination, and segregation. Variation in neighborhood context-socio-demographic composition, social aspects, and built environment-has been postulated as an additional explanation for racial disparities, but few attempts have been made to quantify its overall contribution to the black/white health gap. This analysis is an attempt to generate an estimate of place effects on explaining health disparities by utilizing data from the U.S. National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) (1989-1994), combined with a methodology for identifying residents of the same blocks both within and across NHIS survey cross-sections. Our results indicate that controlling for a single point-in-time measure of residential context results in a roughly 15-76% reduction of the black/white disparities in self-rated health that were previously unaccounted for by individual-level controls. The contribution of residential context toward explaining the black/white self-rated health gap varies by both age and gender such that contextual explanations of disparities decline with age and appear to be smaller among females.

  3. Evolution of the size of public housing and its comparison with the rest of residential in Madrid between 1940-2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Moya González

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The qualitative value of most public housing (VP in Madrid has been highlighted in several studies, due to the limited resources during their construction. One idea is the VP’s lack of size, making it a small dwelling. The article analyzes if Madrid has maintained a particularly small VP between 1940 and 2010. With this information, we present the progression of size during this time period and conclude whether the VP is smaller compared to the rest, coeval or neighbor. We have validated our results by surveying the preserve VP in Madrid, while conforming to a detailed cadaster database. The lecture of results provides answers to the questions above, showing us a draw.

  4. Residential Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde; Matsufuji, Y.

    2011-01-01

    are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing residential waste is faced with the problem that many residences already divert some waste away from the official collection systems, for example performing home composting of vegetable waste and garden waste, having their bundled newspaper picked up by the scouts...... twice a year or bringing their used furniture to the flea markets organized by charity clubs. Thus, much of the data available on residential waste represents collected waste and not necessarily all generated waste. The latter can only be characterized by careful studies directly at the source......, but such studies are very expensive if fair representation of both spatial and temporal variations should be obtained. In addition, onsite studies may affect the waste generation in the residence because of the increased focus on the issue. Residential waste is defined in different ways in different countries...

  5. Consumer Decision Rules and Residential Finance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Jeanette A.; Jaffe, Austin J.

    1979-01-01

    As guidelines for residential financing, the authors compare different approaches to understanding and figuring the costs of home ownership: the relation of income to house price and housing costs, interest rate, and mortgage term. Instead of the traditional method, they recommend the time value of money approach. (MF)

  6. The StreamCat Dataset: Accumulated Attributes for NHDPlusV2 (Version 2.1) Catchments Riparian Buffer for the Conterminous United States: 2010 US Census Housing Unit and Population Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset represents the population and housing unit density within individual, local NHDPlusV2 catchments and upstream, contributing watersheds riparian buffers...

  7. The StreamCat Dataset: Accumulated Attributes for NHDPlusV2 (Version 2.1) Catchments for the Conterminous United States: 2010 US Census Housing Unit and Population Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This dataset represents the population and housing unit density within individual, local NHDPlusV2 catchments and upstream, contributing watersheds based on 2010 US...

  8. Low cost friction seismic base-isolation of residential new masonry buildings in developing countries: A small masonry house case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habieb, A. B.; Milani, G.; Tavio, T.; Milani, F.

    2017-07-01

    A Finite element model was established to examine performance of a low-cost friction base-isolation system in reducing seismic vulnerability of rural buildings. This study adopts an experimental investigation of the isolation system which was conducted in India. Four friction isolation interfaces, namely, marble-marble, marble-high-density polyethylene, marble-rubber sheet, and marble-geosynthetic were involved. Those interfaces differ in static and dynamic friction coefficient obtained through previous research. The FE model was performed based on a macroscopic approach and the masonry wall is assumed as an isotropic element. In order to observe structural response of the masonry house, elastic and plastic parameters of the brick wall were studied. Concrete damage plasticity (CDP) model was adopted to determine non-linear behavior of the brick wall. The results of FE model shows that involving these friction isolation systems could much decrease response acceleration at roof level. It was found that systems with marble-marble and marble-geosynthetic interfaces reduce the roof acceleration up to 50% comparing to the system without isolation. Another interesting result is there was no damage appearing in systems with friction isolation during the test. Meanwhile a severe failure was clearly visible for a system without isolation.

  9. Residential Energy Performance Metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Wright

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Techniques for residential energy monitoring are an emerging field that is currently drawing significant attention. This paper is a description of the current efforts to monitor and compare the performance of three solar powered homes built at Missouri University of Science and Technology. The homes are outfitted with an array of sensors and a data logger system to measure and record electricity production, system energy use, internal home temperature and humidity, hot water production, and exterior ambient conditions the houses are experiencing. Data is being collected to measure the performance of the houses, compare to energy modeling programs, design and develop cost effective sensor systems for energy monitoring, and produce a cost effective home control system.

  10. Housing Characteristics, 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    This report on energy consumption in the residential sector covers the following topics: housing trends 1980--1990, new housing trends, availability and usage of natural gas by households, changes in appliance usage (refrigerators, entertainment appliances, cooking appliances, convenience appliances), age of major household appliances and equipment, household energy conservation activities, demand-side management programs, and a portrait of households using solar or wood as a source of energy

  11. Urban housing quality and its health implications in Nigeria: an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Further analysis reveals that the quality of housing varies across the residential areas identified in the city. Similarly, environmental health challenges vary across the three residential areas in Lokoja. The study recommends that low cost housing scheme should be established in Lokoja as this may reduce housing problems ...

  12. Study of the efficiency of some water treatment unit that present in houses in Erbil city-Iraq

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toma, Janan. Jabbar.; Hanna, Aveen. Matti.

    2017-09-01

    Many people in Erbil city started more than two decade to put special treatment units in their houses to purified water to become safer for drinking uses. The aim of this study was determine the efficiency of six kind water treatment units which include (two replicate of Crystal Water Purifier, So-Safe Water Filter, R O Water Purifier, Kontec Water Purified and Al-Kawther Purified Water). Water samples were collected in two sites one before and other after treatment unit. Each sample was collect with three replication during May to October-2016. Analyzed for Major cations concentration (calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium), anions concentration (nitrate and chloride) and hydrogen ion concentration (pH), electrical conductivity (EC), total dissolved solids (TDS), alkalinity and total hardness by using standard methods. The water quality index values for all raw water sample befor and after treatment was good and excellent respectively for drinking purposes. Efficiency of So-Safe Water Filter was 66.32% it means was more efficiency than others special water treatment units while in RO Water Purifier was 27.14%, means less efficiency than other water purifier water under this study. Values for major cations, anions and others chemicals characteristics in the water samples after treatment became lower concentrations than befor treatment, likely an indication that these were removed by treatment. According to guideline of world health organization all of variables except total hardness befor treatment are safe and suitable for drinking purposes.

  13. Comparative economic analysis of supporting policies for residential solar PV in the United States: Solar Renewable Energy Credit (SREC) potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burns, John Edward; Kang, Jin-Su

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies and market reports suggest that the solar photovoltaic markets rely heavily, if not entirely, upon governmental support policies at present. Unlike in other countries where these policies are enacted at a national level, the 50 states in the US pursue different policies in an attempt to foster the growth of renewable energy, and specifically solar photovoltaics. This paper provides an economic and financial analysis of the US federal and state level policies in states with solar-targeted policies that have markets. After putting a value on SRECs, this study further compares solar carve-outs with other incentives including the federal tax credit, net metering, and state personal tax credits. Our findings show that SREC markets can certainly be strong, with New Jersey, Delaware, and Massachusetts having the most potential. Despite their strong potential as effective renewable policies, the lack of a guaranteed minimum and the uncertainty attached are major drawbacks of SREC markets. However, the leveraging of this high value offers hope that the policies will indeed stimulate residential solar photovoltaic markets. - Highlights: ► We measure solar support incentives in eight US states with set-asides that include SREC policies. ► Compare each financial incentive using DCF, NPV, IRR, and Present Value/Watt-capacity. ► Most US SREC markets have strong potential to stimulate solar photovoltaics. ► SREC success requires price floors to alleviate uncertainty issues. ► Private financial entities can leverage SRECs to provide necessary price floors.

  14. 24 CFR 92.258 - Elder cottage housing opportunity (ECHO) units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... designed to be installed adjacent to existing single-family dwellings. (b) Eligible owners. The owner of a HOME-assisted ECHO unit may be: (1) The owner-occupant of the single-family host property on which the... elderly or disabled family as defined in 24 CFR 5.403 and must also be a low-income family. (d) Applicable...

  15. 24 CFR 200.926a - Residential building code comparison items.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Residential building code comparison items. 200.926a Section 200.926a Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and... § 200.926a Residential building code comparison items. HUD will review each local and State code...

  16. Integration of fuel cells into residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, J.M.; Entchev, E.; Gusdorf, J.; Szadkowski, F.; Swinton, M.; Kalbfleisch, W.; Marchand, R.

    2004-01-01

    Integration of small combined heat and power systems (CHP) into residential buildings is challenging as the loads are small, the load diversity is limited and there are a number of unresolved issues concerning sizing, control, peak loads, emergency operation, grid connection and export, etc. Natural Resources Canada has undertaken an initiative to investigate and develop techniques for the integration of small CHP systems into residential buildings using a highly instrumented house modified to allow quick installation and thorough monitoring of CHP integration techniques as well determining the performance of the CHP systems themselves when operating in a house. The first CHP system installed was a Stirling engine residential CHP system. It was used to examine the completeness of the CHP modifications to the house, to evaluate various building integration techniques and to measure the performance of the CHP system itself. The testing demonstrated the modified house to be an excellent facility for the development of CHP building integration techniques and the testing of residential CHP systems. The Stirling engine CHP system was found to operate well and produce meaningful input to the house. A second system (residential fuel cell) is presently being installed and building integration techniques and the performance of the fuel cell will be tested over the coming year. (author)

  17. The Impact of Wind Power Projects on Residential Property Values in the United States: A Multi-Site Hedonic Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoen, Ben; Wiser, Ryan; Cappers, Peter; Thayer, Mark; Sethi, Gautam

    2009-12-02

    With wind energy expanding rapidly in the U.S. and abroad, and with an increasing number of communities considering wind power development nearby, there is an urgent need to empirically investigate common community concerns about wind project development. The concern that property values will be adversely affected by wind energy facilities is commonly put forth by stakeholders. Although this concern is not unreasonable, given property value impacts that have been found near high voltage transmission lines and other electric generation facilities, the impacts of wind energy facilities on residential property values had not previously been investigated thoroughly. The present research collected data on almost 7,500 sales of singlefamily homes situated within 10 miles of 24 existing wind facilities in nine different U.S. states. The conclusions of the study are drawn from eight different hedonic pricing models, as well as both repeat sales and sales volume models. The various analyses are strongly consistent in that none of the models uncovers conclusive evidence of the existence of any widespread property value impacts that might be present in communities surrounding wind energy facilities. Specifically, neither the view of the wind facilities nor the distance of the home to those facilities is found to have any consistent, measurable, and statistically significant effect on home sales prices. Although the analysis cannot dismiss the possibility that individual homes or small numbers of homes have been or could be negatively impacted, it finds that if these impacts do exist, they are either too small and/or too infrequent to result in any widespread, statistically observable impact.

  18. American Housing Survey (AHS) 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The AHS is the largest, regular national housing sample survey in the United States. The U.S. Census Bureau conducts the AHS to obtain up-to-date housing statistics...

  19. ASHRAE and residential ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max H.

    2003-10-01

    In the last quarter of a century, the western world has become increasingly aware of environmental threats to health and safety. During this period, people psychologically retreated away from outdoors hazards such as pesticides, smog, lead, oil spills, and dioxin to the seeming security of their homes. However, the indoor environment may not be healthier than the outdoor environment, as has become more apparent over the past few years with issues such as mold, formaldehyde, and sick-building syndrome. While the built human environment has changed substantially over the past 10,000 years, human biology has not; poor indoor air quality creates health risks and can be uncomfortable. The human race has found, over time, that it is essential to manage the indoor environments of their homes. ASHRAE has long been in the business of ventilation, but most of the focus of that effort has been in the area of commercial and institutional buildings. Residential ventilation was traditionally not a major concern because it was felt that, between operable windows and envelope leakage, people were getting enough outside air in their homes. In the quarter of a century since the first oil shock, houses have gotten much more energy efficient. At the same time, the kinds of materials and functions in houses changed in character in response to people's needs. People became more environmentally conscious and aware not only about the resources they were consuming but about the environment in which they lived. All of these factors contributed to an increasing level of public concern about residential indoor air quality and ventilation. Where once there was an easy feeling about the residential indoor environment, there is now a desire to define levels of acceptability and performance. Many institutions--both public and private--have interests in Indoor Air Quality (IAQ), but ASHRAE, as the professional society that has had ventilation as part of its mission for over 100 years, is the

  20. Policy making opportunities in the United States Senate and House of Representatives: an examination of seniority and gridlock

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCurdy, K. M.

    2017-12-01

    A policy arc is traced by a series of election outcomes, and it is the remaining representatives from past elections with their ideological stances and their parliamentary experiences that is predictive of whether public policy positions are sustained, modulated, or abandoned by the legislature. Two unusual legislative elections, the 1974 and 1994 races for the United States House of Representatives, can provide additional understanding and evidence for the necessary and sufficient conditions for policy innovation. Contrasting the magnitude of the House and Senate majorities along with their respective seniority patterns in the subsequent twenty years from these transformative elections shows the differing conditions that produces policy innovation or gridlock. Legislative actions clearly operate on two temporal planes, with consequences for the election that is coming months hence as well as for governance that occurs over years or multiple decades. Elections have policy consequences that are moderated by formal institutional rules and informal norms of behavior. Members of a class of legislators plus their nearest election class neighbors can influence the shape and content of legislation for twenty years. These effects can be reinforced or mitigated by the results from several election outcomes. But the effects of the initial election, Et0 remain noticeable decades later. This pattern is particularly persistent when freshmen in the House of Representatives hold more than 20 percent of seats in the chamber. These traces of seniority are easily disrupted so their persistence is a signal that should not be ignored for policy entrepreneurs and those wishing to influence public policy. Gridlock should thus be seen as indicative of a facies change in public policy that reflects the changes in society being represented in the legislature, not as an end game in the shorter run election cycle. Legislative gridlock is a state in the public policy process that is ridiculed

  1. Dom-kommuna: Housing experiment of Russian constructivism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bajić Tanja

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Dom-kommuna is original historic concept of collective social housing for whose formation is responsible comprehensive architectural research of Soviet constructivists during the 1920s and 1930s. This housing model did not only emerge as a necessary response to the great housing crisis, but as a 'new social condenser' of the era, which was supposed to contribute to the accelerated social progress of Soviet Union on the basis of Marxist ideology, according to the deep conviction of their authors. Housing commune was created as a specific spatial framework for the abolition of class antagonisms and different life forms of the bourgeoisie and the proletariat, for the encouragement of collectivization, women's emancipation and reduction of the impact of nuclear family. In this paper some of the basic elements of the creative research of Russian constructivists, with aim to establish a new housing prototype, are analyzed and abstracted. The interpretation of the creative process through simulation of its main creative phase focuses on the process of socialist transformation of the idea of living based on the vision of 'reconstruction' and the principles of functionalism. This paper is intended to indicate the rationality and the complexity of the architectural considerations of the minimum living space in constructivism, whose results, such as the F-type residential unit, can be considered as universal contribution to residential architecture and a model which deserves contemporary architectural interpretation, despite being initiated by ideological demands.

  2. Contaminant deposition building shielding factors for US residential structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, E D; Hamby, D M; Eckerman, K F

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents validated building shielding factors designed for contemporary US housing-stock under an idealized, yet realistic, exposure scenario from contaminant deposition on the roof and surrounding surfaces. The building shielding factors are intended for use in emergency planning and level three probabilistic risk assessments for a variety of postulated radiological events in which a realistic assessment is necessary to better understand the potential risks for accident mitigation and emergency response planning. Factors are calculated from detailed computational housing-units models using the general-purpose Monte Carlo N-Particle computational code, MCNP5, and are benchmarked from a series of narrow- and broad-beam measurements analyzing the shielding effectiveness of ten common general-purpose construction materials and ten shielding models representing the primary weather barriers (walls and roofs) of likely US housing-stock. Each model was designed to scale based on common residential construction practices and include, to the extent practical, all structurally significant components important for shielding against ionizing radiation. Calculations were performed for floor-specific locations from contaminant deposition on the roof and surrounding ground as well as for computing a weighted-average representative building shielding factor for single- and multi-story detached homes, both with and without basement as well for single-wide manufactured housing-unit. (paper)

  3. Cloud immersion building shielding factors for US residential structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, E D; Hamby, D M

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents validated building shielding factors designed for contemporary US housing-stock under an idealized, yet realistic, exposure scenario within a semi-infinite cloud of radioactive material. The building shielding factors are intended for use in emergency planning and level three probabilistic risk assessments for a variety of postulated radiological events in which a realistic assessment is necessary to better understand the potential risks for accident mitigation and emergency response planning. Factors are calculated from detailed computational housing-units models using the general-purpose Monte Carlo N-Particle computational code, MCNP5, and are benchmarked from a series of narrow- and broad-beam measurements analyzing the shielding effectiveness of ten common general-purpose construction materials and ten shielding models representing the primary weather barriers (walls and roofs) of likely US housing-stock. Each model was designed to scale based on common residential construction practices and include, to the extent practical, all structurally significant components important for shielding against ionizing radiation. Calculations were performed for floor-specific locations as well as for computing a weighted-average representative building shielding factor for single- and multi-story detached homes, both with and without basement, as well for single-wide manufactured housing-units. (paper)

  4. Contaminant deposition building shielding factors for US residential structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Elijah; Hamby, David; Eckerman, Keith

    2017-10-10

    This paper presents validated building shielding factors designed for contemporary US housing-stock under an idealized, yet realistic, exposure scenario from contaminant deposition on the roof and surrounding surfaces. The building shielding factors are intended for use in emergency planning and level three probabilistic risk assessments for a variety of postulated radiological events in which a realistic assessment is necessary to better understand the potential risks for accident mitigation and emergency response planning. Factors are calculated from detailed computational housing-units models using the general-purpose Monte Carlo N-Particle computational code, MCNP5, and are benchmarked from a series of narrow- and broad-beam measurements analyzing the shielding effectiveness of ten common general-purpose construction materials and ten shielding models representing the primary weather barriers (walls and roofs) of likely US housing-stock. Each model was designed to scale based on common residential construction practices and include, to the extent practical, all structurally significant components important for shielding against ionizing radiation. Calculations were performed for floor-specific locations from contaminant deposition on the roof and surrounding ground as well as for computing a weighted-average representative building shielding factor for single- and multi-story detached homes, both with and without basement as well for single-wide manufactured housing-unit. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  5. A Study Identifying and Validating Competencies Needed for Mid-Managers That Work in Housing and Residence Life at Colleges and Universities in the United States of America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, Hassel Andre

    2016-01-01

    The researcher identified a gap in the knowledge of competencies needed for midmanagers that work in housing and residence life at the southeast colleges and universities in the United States. The purpose of this study was to identify and develop a consensus on competencies needed by mid-managers. The review of the literature describes and…

  6. Domestic Consequences of United States Population Change. Report Prepared by the Select Committee on Population, U.S. House of Representatives, Ninety-Fifth Congress, Second Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Population.

    The report, prepared by the Select Committee on Population of the United States House of Representatives, discusses the consequences of the changing age composition and geographical distribution of the population. The committee recommends that the government needs to anticipate these changes in order to develop a policy in response to the problems…

  7. KITCHEN ISLAND FURNITURE DESIGN FOR RESIDENTIAL HOUSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Braileanu Patricia Isabela

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In terms of spatial configuration, kitchens design is related to the number of work fronts, shapes and their arrangement in the assembly, storage and distribution areas, as well as the location of the dining place. This paper focuses upon designing a prototype by taking into account the kitchen geometry, as well as different materials and their properties, thus providing an optimum combination of materials likely to ensure a long lifespan of the product at a minimum cost.

  8. Qualitative overview of living conditions and health status of seasonal (mobile/temporary agricultural workers in two housing units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Kaya

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this research we aimed to determine the status of seasonal agricultural workers located in two housing units in terms of living, working and health conditions.  Methods: This is a descriptive study using qualitative methods: in-depth interviews and in situ observations. It took place in provinces of Adana and Mersin located in the Çukurova region and the Şanlıurfa province. A common feature of these provinces is their high density of seasonal agricultural workers. Our field work was performed by going to places where seasonal agricultural workers live and work. The research was conducted during the dates of March 2014 and August 2014. Snowball sampling methods was used in this research. Data were collected by interviews with 26 seasonal agricultural workers who were older than 15. Results: Seasonal agricultural workers were working without social insurance, safe transportation facilities, or guarantee of employment and without any worker’s health and safety precautions being taken by the employees. Accommodation units lacked fundamental structural and safety features. Seasonal agricultural workers were faced with social alienation and could not access the basic health services such as vaccination, antenatal follow-up, reproductive health or outpatient services. Also, their diet was unbalanced and insufficient. Children could not take the benefit sufficiently from education and were employed in agricultural work. In addition to their agricultural work, women also were exploited in their domestic life. Conclusion: Seasonal agricultural workers were in an aggrieved position concerning topics such as transportation, accommodation, wages and social insurance. To eliminate these conditions, the opinion of agricultural middlemen, seasonal agricultural workers and employees should be taken into account with the financial support of local authorities under the scope of the law. 

  9. Factors Influencing Water Consumption in Multifamily Housing in Tempe Arizona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wentz, E. A.

    2012-12-01

    Central to the "Smart Growth" movement is that compact development reduces vehicle miles traveled, carbon emissions, and water use. Empirical efforts to evaluate compact development have examined residential densities, but have not distinguished decreasing lot sizes from multifamily apartments as mechanisms for compact development. Efforts to link design features to water use have emphasized single-family at the expense of multifamily housing. This study isolates the determinants of water use in large (>50) unit apartment complexes in the city of Tempe, Arizona. In July 2007, per-bedroom water use increased with pool area, dishwashers, in-unit laundry facilities, and irrigated landscaping. We explain nearly 50% of the variation in water use with these variables. These results inform public policy for reducing water use in multifamily housing structures, suggesting strategies to construct and market "green" apartment units.

  10. THE PULL FACTORS OF INTRA-URBAN RESIDENTIAL MOBILITY ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    that the housing environment in most of the residential neighbourhoods is poor ... The colonial administration came to superimpose Western type of architecture in the ... middle and upper classes, mostly immigrants and these groups of ...

  11. 190 THE PUSH FACTORS OF INTRA-URBAN RESIDENTIAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Households move in search of residential satisfaction (Michelson, 1977). .... a move becomes a matter of action and not a reaction followed by an action. ... For example, man may first and foremost, look for safety and security in his housing.

  12. Radical programmes for developing the EU residential building sector

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oostra, Mieke; Huovinen, Pekka

    2016-01-01

    The economic recession has hit especially hard the residential building sector in the EU region, e.g., the number of the housing completions has decreased -49% and the total residential output has been squeezed down by -24% between 2007 and 2014 (Euroconstruct, 2015). In turn, the aim of our paper

  13. Engineering economic assessment of residential wood heating in NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    We provide insight into the recent resurgence in residential wood heating in New York by: (i) examining the lifetime costs of outdoor wood hydronic heaters (OWHHs) and other whole-house residential wood heat devices,(ii) comparing these lifetime costs with those of competing tech...

  14. Allegheny County Housing and Community Environment Inspections

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — Residential housing inspections and inspections in response to complaints for community environment problems, such as open vacant structures, vacant lots with...

  15. Housing as Social Right or Means to Wealth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jens Ladefoged; Seabrooke, Lenoard

    2008-01-01

    changes to taxation and housing finance regimes in a liberal market for residential property, Australia, and a corporatist market, Denmark. During the last decade, government regulatory changes to taxation and housing finance systems in Australia and Denmark facilitated residential property booms...... on future developments....

  16. Residentialization of Public Spaces: Bratislava Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacová, Andrea; Puškár, Branislav; Vráblová, Edita

    2017-10-01

    The housing estates in Bratislava saturated the housing needs of a large number of inhabitants who come after World War II to the city. Design of public spaces often did not have priority in the process of designing. The solutions for mentioned exterior spaces had been planned after blocks of flat realization, but many of them are not realized to this day. The article analyzes the example of the unrealized public spaces in existing housing estates Devinska Nova Ves and Petržalka (city districts of Bratislava) and offer practical solutions in relation to residencialization method. Residencialization of missing public places is an effective method of adding identities to settlements. It improves the quality of residential environment and public spaces. The main aim is to create better conditions for social activities in public areas, which are missing on the present. The research will be focused on the examination of the urban, cultural and construction potential of the existing residential enviroment in Bratislava. The main aim of residentialization is not only to enhance the quality of spatial and building structures in the selected residential area and maintain long-term sustainability in the pertinent programme area, but mainly to improve the quality of living for the residents. The outputs of the project are proposals and practical procedures developed with regard to planning documents for local municipal authorities and regional organizations. The solutions will have a positive impact on the enhancement of the quality of public spaces, attractive social activities and of a conceptual link - residentialization.

  17. A before and after study of medical students' and house staff members' knowledge of ACOVE quality of pharmacologic care standards on an acute care for elders unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jellinek, Samantha P; Cohen, Victor; Nelson, Marcia; Likourezos, Antonios; Goldman, William; Paris, Barbara

    2008-06-01

    The Assessing Care of Vulnerable Elders (ACOVE) comprehensive set of quality assessment tools for ill older persons is a standard designed to measure overall care delivered to vulnerable elders (ie, those aged > or =65 years) at the level of a health care system or plan. The goal of this research was to quantify the pretest and posttest results of medical students and house staff participating in a pharmacotherapist-led educational intervention that focused on the ACOVE quality of pharmacologic care standards. This was a before and after study assessing the knowledge ofACOVE standards following exposure to an educational intervention led by a pharmacotherapist. It was conducted at the 29-bed Acute Care for Elders (ACE) unit of Maimonides Medical Center, a 705-bed, independent teaching hospital located in Brooklyn, New York. Participants included all medical students and house staff completing a rotation on the ACE unit from August 2004 through May 2005 who completed both the pre-and posttests. A pharmacotherapist provided a 1-hour active learning session reviewing the evidence supporting the quality indicators and reviewed case-based questions with the medical students and house staff. Educational interventions also occurred daily through pharmacotherapeutic consultations and during work rounds. Medical students and house staff were administered the same 15-question, patient-specific, case-based, multiple-choice pre-and posttest to assess knowledge of the standards before and after receiving the intervention. A total of 54 medical students and house staff (median age, 28.58 years; 40 men, 14 women) completed the study. Significantly higher median scores were achieved on the multiple-choice test after the intervention than before (median scores, 14/15 [93.3%] vs 12/15 [80.0%], respectively; P = 0.001). A pharmacotherapist-led educational intervention improved the scores of medical students and house staff on a test evaluating knowledge of evidence

  18. Technical Problems of Residential Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowogońska, Beata; Cibis, Jerzy

    2017-10-01

    Beauty, utility, durability - these are the features of good architecture and should also be the distinguishing qualities of every residential building. But do beauty and utility remain along with the passing of time? Performance characteristics are an indicator of both, the technical as well as aesthetic state of buildings. Aesthetic needs are in disagreement with the merciless aging process. The beauty of a city is formed not only by the original forms of new residential buildings, but also by existing tenement housing; thus preserving their aesthetics becomes a necessity. Time is continuously passing and along with it, aging intensifies. The aging process is a natural phenomenon for every material. The life expectancy of building materials is also limited. Along with the passing of time, the technical state of residential buildings continuously deteriorates. With the passing of time, the aesthetic values and preferences of users of flats change and the usability of the building decreases. The permanence of buildings, including residential buildings, is shaped not only by the forces of nature but also by activities of humans. A long lifespan is ensured by carrying out ongoing, systematic renovation-repair works. It is thanks to them that buildings derived from past centuries are still being used, and their market attractiveness is not decreasing.

  19. 24 CFR 100.110 - Discriminatory practices in residential real estate-related transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... residential real estate-related transactions. 100.110 Section 100.110 Housing and Urban Development... Discrimination in Residential Real Estate-Related Transactions § 100.110 Discriminatory practices in residential real estate-related transactions. (a) This subpart provides the Department's interpretation of the...

  20. 24 CFR 982.606 - Congregate housing: Who may reside in congregate housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Special Housing Types Congregate Housing § 982.606 Congregate housing: Who may reside in congregate housing. (a) An elderly person or a person with disabilities may reside in a congregate housing unit. (b... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Congregate housing: Who may reside...

  1. Energy data sourcebook for the US residential sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wenzel, T.P.; Koomey, J.G.; Sanchez, M. [and others

    1997-09-01

    Analysts assessing policies and programs to improve energy efficiency in the residential sector require disparate input data from a variety of sources. This sourcebook, which updates a previous report, compiles these input data into a single location. The data provided include information on end-use unit energy consumption (UEC) values of appliances and equipment efficiency; historical and current appliance and equipment market shares; appliances and equipment efficiency and sales trends; appliance and equipment efficiency standards; cost vs. efficiency data for appliances and equipment; product lifetime estimates; thermal shell characteristics of buildings; heating and cooling loads; shell measure cost data for new and retrofit buildings; baseline housing stocks; forecasts of housing starts; and forecasts of energy prices and other economic drivers. This report is the essential sourcebook for policy analysts interested in residential sector energy use. The report can be downloaded from the Web at http://enduse.lbl. gov/Projects/RED.html. Future updates to the report, errata, and related links, will also be posted at this address.

  2. Plasma Processing of Model Residential Solid Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messerle, V. E.; Mossé, A. L.; Nikonchuk, A. N.; Ustimenko, A. B.; Baimuldin, R. V.

    2017-09-01

    The authors have tested the technology of processing of model residential solid waste. They have developed and created a pilot plasma unit based on a plasma chamber incinerator. The waste processing technology has been tested and prepared for commercialization.

  3. Energy house - dream house

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-07-01

    An energy house a prefabricated house with an extensive minimization of heat losses, is air-conditioned by means of a combined heating system consisting of hot water cycle and recirculating heating. The energy system is trivalent: wind power, solar energy with heat pumps and normal oil heating.

  4. Comparison between In-house developed and Diamond commercial software for patient specific independent monitor unit calculation and verification with heterogeneity corrections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppusamy, Vijayalakshmi; Nagarajan, Vivekanandan; Jeevanandam, Prakash; Murugan, Lavanya

    2016-02-01

    The study was aimed to compare two different monitor unit (MU) or dose verification software in volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) using modified Clarkson's integration technique for 6 MV photons beams. In-house Excel Spreadsheet based monitor unit verification calculation (MUVC) program and PTW's DIAMOND secondary check software (SCS), version-6 were used as a secondary check to verify the monitor unit (MU) or dose calculated by treatment planning system (TPS). In this study 180 patients were grouped into 61 head and neck, 39 thorax and 80 pelvic sites. Verification plans are created using PTW OCTAVIUS-4D phantom and also measured using 729 detector chamber and array with isocentre as the suitable point of measurement for each field. In the analysis of 154 clinically approved VMAT plans with isocentre at a region above -350 HU, using heterogeneity corrections, In-house Spreadsheet based MUVC program and Diamond SCS showed good agreement TPS. The overall percentage average deviations for all sites were (-0.93% + 1.59%) and (1.37% + 2.72%) for In-house Excel Spreadsheet based MUVC program and Diamond SCS respectively. For 26 clinically approved VMAT plans with isocentre at a region below -350 HU showed higher variations for both In-house Spreadsheet based MUVC program and Diamond SCS. It can be concluded that for patient specific quality assurance (QA), the In-house Excel Spreadsheet based MUVC program and Diamond SCS can be used as a simple and fast accompanying to measurement based verification for plans with isocentre at a region above -350 HU. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Governance, technology, and equity: An integrated policy framework for energy efficient housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golubchikov, Oleg; Deda, Paola

    2012-01-01

    Transforming the housing stock to a low energy performance is a key priority in the context of sustainable development and a post-carbon transition. However, in terms of its practical implementation it, firstly, faces a number of complex institutional barriers, while, secondly, involves a risk of being dominated by a narrow technocratic agenda for energy/carbon reduction that may overtake the socially progressive pursuits of housing policy. Energy efficiency strategies for the residential sector must, therefore, be multidimensional, fully synergised with housing policy, and incorporating the principles of equity, access and a balanced geographical development. This paper discusses a strategic policy framework, which was designed by the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) to address those important needs in international policy. The document – Action Plan for Energy-efficient Housing in the UNECE Region – outlines a number of goals, targets and actions structured at three dimensions: (i) governance and finance, (ii) technological advancement, and (iii) access and affordability. The Action Plan provides a comprehensive and integrated framework, based on which governments can shape their own pathways towards a sustainable low-energy residential sector. - Highlights: ► Residential sector has a large potential for energy and carbon reduction. ► Energy efficiency for housing must be reconciled with socially oriented housing policy. ► Action Plan for Energy-efficient Housing in the UNECE region is presented. ► The Plan offers an integrated framework for sustainable transition to low-energy housing. ► Governance, technology, and equitable access are three key elements of the framework.

  6. Residential Mechanical Precooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, Alea [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States). Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI); Hoeschele, Marc [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States). Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI)

    2014-12-01

    Residential air conditioning (AC) represents a challenging load for many electric utilities with poor load factors. Mechanical precooling improves the load factor by shifting cooling operation from on-peak to off-peak hours. This provides benefits to utilities and the electricity grid, as well as to occupants who can take advantage of time-of-use (TOU) electricity rates. Performance benefits stem from reduced compressor cycling, and shifting condensing unit operation to earlier periods of the day when outdoor temperatures are more favorable to operational efficiency. Finding solutions that save energy and reduce demand on the electricity grid is an important national objective and supports key Building America goals. The Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team evaluated mechanical AC precooling strategies in homes throughout the United States. EnergyPlus modeling was used to evaluate two homes with different performance characteristics in seven climates. Results are applicable to new construction homes and most existing homes built in the last 10 years, as well as fairly efficient retrofitted homes. A successful off-peak AC strategy offers the potential for increased efficiency and improved occupant comfort, and promotes a more reliable and robust electricity grid. Demand response capabilities and further integration with photovoltaic TOU generation patterns provide additional opportunities to flatten loads and optimize grid impacts.

  7. Enact legislation supporting residential property assessed clean energy financing (PACE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Devashree

    2012-11-15

    Congress should enact legislation that supports residential property assessed clean energy (PACE) programs in the nation’s states and metropolitan areas. Such legislation should require the Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) to allow Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac to purchase residential mortgages with PACE assessments while at the same time providing responsible underwriting standards and a set of benchmarks for residential PACE assessments in order to minimize financial risks to mortgage holders. Congressional support of residential PACE financing will improve energy efficiency, encourage job creation, and foster economic growth in the nation’s state and metropolitan areas.

  8. HIA 2016 DOE Zero Energy Ready Home Case Study: United Way of Long Island, United Veterans, Beacon House, Deer Park, NY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory

    2016-09-01

    Case study of a DOE 2016 Housing Innovation Award winning affordable home in the mixed-humid climate that met the DOE Zero Energy Ready Home criteria and achieved a HERS 32 without PV or HERS 9 with PV.

  9. Satisfaction with housing and housing support for people with psychiatric disabilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brolin, Rosita; Rask, Mikael; Syrén, Susanne; Baigi, Amir; Brunt, David Arthur

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the degree of satisfaction with housing and housing support for people with psychiatric disabilities in Sweden. A total of 370 residents, in supported housing and in ordinary housing with housing support, completed a new questionnaire and reported a high degree of overall satisfaction, but many of them wanted to move somewhere else. Differences were found between the two different types of housing concerning satisfaction with housing support, social life and available choices. Security and privacy, as well as other's influence on the choice of residential area and dwelling proved to be important predictors for satisfaction.

  10. Mental health and housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kari-Koskinen, O; Karvonen, P

    1976-01-01

    With the present trend away from the designing of individual buildings and towards the systematic planning of whole residential communities, it should be possible to take mental health requirements into account at the planning stage. At present, sociologists are all too seldom consulted on matters of residential planning. When discussing the relationship between housing and mental health one cannot restrict oneself only to the external aspects of the house, but rather one must also consider the opportunities available for the members of the family to satisfy their own needs, both within the home and in its immediate surroundings. Factors which may affect residential requirements include geographical location, type and standard of dwelling and time and continuity of occupation. A move between two districts or groups representing different housing norms and values may lead to withdrawal symptoms in the individual. This may arise equally well from the remoteness of the country districts as from the conflicting pressures brought on by the abundance of contacts available in the large towns. Town life tends to heighten susceptibility to neuroses and personality conflicts. The character of a residential area may affect the mental health of its occupants. Faris & Dunham (4), in studying the incidence of various types of mental illness with an urban population, observed that schizophrenia was most common among people who were in some way isolated from social involvement. The striving for spaciousness in residential areas and the creation of a "summer city" or "garden city" image or a "family-centred way of life" may lead to unexpected problems and have a variety of social consequences. Mental health difficulties have been noted, for example, among housewives in "dormitory" towns or suburbs (11). The institutions required by a community may be grouped into four categories, representing the basic needs of its members. These are (1) economic institutions, (2) social and

  11. Autonomous houses. Autonomous house

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, S. (Tokai University, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Engineering)

    1991-09-30

    Self-sufficiency type houses are outlined. On condition that people gain a certain amount of income in relation with the society, they self-suffice under the given environment, allowing themselves to accept a minimum of industrial products with small environmental load. Ordinary supply from outside of fossil energy and materials which depend on it is minimized. Types are classified into three: energy, energy materials and perfect self-sufficiency. A study project for environment symbiotic houses is progressing which is planned by the Ministry of Construction and Institute of Building Energy Conservation and is invested by a private company. Its target is making a house for halving an environmental load by CO{sub 2}, for the purpose of creating the environment symbiotic house which is nice to and in harmony with the global environment and human beings. As a part of the studies on energy-saving and resource conservation on houses, introduced is a plan of an autonomous house at Izu-Atagawa. The passive method and high thermal-insulation are used for air conditioning, and hot spring water for hot water supply. Electric power is generated by hydroelectric power generation using mountain streams and by solar cells. Staple food is purchased, while subsidiary food is sufficed. 17 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  12. The impact of diminished housing wealth on health in the United States: evidence from the Great Recession.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmazer, Tansel; Babiarz, Patryk; Liu, Fen

    2015-04-01

    The sharp decline in home values in many industrialized and developing countries was one of the most evident facets of the global economic recession of 2008. Using data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics (PSID) for 2007-2011, this study examines how the decline in housing wealth affected the psychological and physical health and health-related behaviors of 4007 U.S. households who were homeowners in 2007. We focus on two mechanisms that could account for how the drop in housing wealth affects health: increase in stress and negative changes in health-related behaviors. Controlling for the changes in non-housing wealth and employment status during the recession, the decline in housing wealth is associated with a small but statistically significant increase in psychological distress. Psychological health deteriorates more as the housing wealth relative to total wealth decreases. Finally, homeowners who have difficulties with mortgage payments report substantial increases in psychological distress and have higher rates of depression. These findings, combined with limited evidence of the change in health-related behaviors, suggest that the increase in stress is the main cause of the adverse health outcomes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Urban Floods and Residential Rental Values Nexus in Kumasi, Ghana

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study adopted multiple research approaches in selecting zones with both flood ... highlight the increasing evidence of negativity on houses and their values in terms of ... The potential for floods to wipeout housing wealth accumulated over ... In addition, locations do influence residential rental values through tangible or.

  14. The Danish Social Housing Sector

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rikke Skovgaard; Haagerup, Christian Deichmann

    2017-01-01

    With Denmark faring reasonably well through the global financial crisis, the policy changes to the social housing sector caused by the crisis have been limited. Nevertheless, changes have taken place nonetheless both in terms of policy and in the residential composition of the sector which polici...

  15. Unit costs for house spraying and bednet impregnation with residual insecticides in Colombia: a management tool for the control of vector-borne disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeger, A; Ayala, C; Medina Lara, A

    2002-06-01

    A study of unit costs and cost components of two malaria-control strategies (house spraying and bednet impregnation with residual insecticides) was undertaken in 11 malaria-endemic states (departamentos) of Colombia, using data provided by control staff on self-administered questionnaires. The accuracy of the data was verified by personal visits, telephone conversations and complementary information from 10 other states. Allthe financial-cost components of the malaria-control operations carried out in the previous 6 months and the results of the control operations themselves (including the numbers of houses sprayed and numbers of bednets impregnated/day) were recorded. The information was stratified according to whether the target communities were 'near' or 'far away' from an operational base, the far-away communities being those that needed overnight stays by the control staff. The main variables analysed were unit costs/house treated, and annual cost/person protected. The results show that house spraying was generally more expensive for the health services than bednet impregnation. This is particularly the case in 'nearby' communities, where most of those at-risk live. In such communities, spraying one house was 7.2 times more expensive than impregnating one bednet. Even if only those sleeping under an impregnated net were assumed to be protected, the unit costs/person protected in a 'nearby' community were twice as high for house spraying than for bednet impregnation. In 'nearby' communities, where technicians could return to the operational base each evening, insecticides made up 80% of the total spraying costs and 42% of the costs of bednet impregnation. In 'far-away' communities, however, salaries and 'per diems' were the most important cost components, representing, respectively, 23% and 22% of the costs of spraying, and 34% plus 27% of the costs of impregnation. Insecticide wastage and non-use of discounts on insecticide prices (available through the

  16. Sustainability in Housing and Dining Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pursehouse, Clive

    2012-01-01

    Residential life, housing, and dining operations have the potential to touch all students by integrating sustainability issues into all operations. There are numerous ways that sustainable practices are enacted in campus housing and dining. Although faculty and staff in academic affairs may look strategically at how sustainability can be…

  17. Residential radon survey in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvela, H.; Maekelaeinen, I.; Castren, O.

    1993-02-01

    The study measured the indoor radon concentration in the dwellings of 3074 persons, selected randomly from the central population register of Finland. Alpha track detectors and two consecutive half year measuring periods were used. The national mean of indoor radon concentration for persons living in low-rise residential buildings as well as blocks of flats was 145 and 82 Bq/m 3 , respectively. The mean for the total population was 123 Bq/m 3 . Based on the decision of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health in 1992, the indoor radon concentration should not exceed 400 Bq/m 3 in already existing houses, the target for new construction being less than 200 Bq/m 3 . According to the study, the percentage of the Finnish population living in houses with an indoor radon concentration exceeding 200, 400 and 800 Bq/m 3 was 12.3 %, 3.6 % and 1.0 %

  18. A measure to manage approach to characterizing the energy impact of residential building stocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afamia Elnakat

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The city of San Antonio is the seventh largest in the United States by population and the second in the state of Texas, with a population of over 1.3 million people. As one of the fastest growing cities, the San Antonio residential real estate market has expanded to meet the demands of the growing population. Managing the energy footprint of single-family houses can be enhanced by big data analysis of combined metered energy consumption and building infrastructure characteristics. This study analyzes the energy intensity of 389,160 single family detached homes and identifies energy utilization trends across various residential building stock size and vintage categories. Supported by the “measure to manage” premise, this study highlights the value of this characterization as a forecasting and planning tool for sustainable growth and a more engaged consumer.

  19. Public Housing Agency (PHA) Inventory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The dataset contains current data on low rent and Section 8 units in PHA's administered by HUD. The Section 8 Rental Voucher Program increases affordable housing...

  20. Civil rights as determinants of public health and racial and ethnic health equity: Health care, education, employment, and housing in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, R A; Truman, B I; Williams, D R

    2018-04-01

    This essay examines how civil rights and their implementation have affected and continue to affect the health of racial and ethnic minority populations in the United States. Civil rights are characterized as social determinants of health. A brief review of US history indicates that, particularly for Blacks, Hispanics, and American Indians, the longstanding lack of civil rights is linked with persistent health inequities. Civil rights history since 1950 is explored in four domains-health care, education, employment, and housing. The first three domains show substantial benefits when civil rights are enforced. Discrimination and segregation in housing persist because anti-discrimination civil rights laws have not been well enforced. Enforcement is an essential component for the success of civil rights law. Civil rights and their enforcement may be considered a powerful arena for public health theorizing, research, policy, and action.

  1. Convergence of metropolitan house prices in South Africa: a re-examination using efficient unit root tests

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Das, Sonali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes whether the Law of One Price (LOOP) holds in the housing market of five metropolitan areas of South Africa, namely Cape Town, Durban, Greater Johannesburg, Port Elizabeth/Uitenhage and Pretoria. The authors test the existence...

  2. Views of United States Physicians and Members of the American Medical Association House of Delegates on Physician-assisted Suicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, Simon N.; Brown, Byron W.; Brody, Howard; Alcser, Kirsten H.; Bachman, Jerald G.; Greely, Henry T.

    2001-01-01

    Ascertained the views of physicians and physician leaders toward legalization of physician-assisted suicide. Results indicated members of AMA House of Delegates strongly oppose physician-assisted suicide, but rank-and-file physicians show no consensus either for or against its legalization. Although the debate is adversarial, most physicians are…

  3. Modelling process integration and its management – case of a public housing delivery organization in United Arab Emirates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venkatachalam Senthilkumar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Huge volume of project information are generated during the life cycle of an AEC projects. These project information are categorized in to technical and administrative information and managed through appropriate processes. There are many tools such as Document Management Systems, Building Information Modeling (BIM available to manage and integrate the technical information. However, the administrative information and its related processes such as the payment, status, authorization, approval etc. are not effectively managed. The current study aims to explore the administrative information management process of a local housing delivery public agency. This agency manages more than 2000 housing projects at any time of a year. The administrative processesare characterized withdelivery inconsistencies among various project participants. Though there are many commercially available process management systems, there exist limitations on the customization of the modules/ systems. Hence there is a need to develop an information management system which can integrates and manage these housing projects processes effectively. This requires the modeling of administrative processes and its interfaces among the various stakeholder processes. Hence this study aims to model the administrative processes and its related information during the life cycle of the project using IDEF0 and IDEF1X modeling. The captured processes and information interfaces are analyzed and appropriate process integration is suggested to avoid the delay in their project delivery processes. Further, the resultant model can be used for effectively managing the housing delivery projects.

  4. Residential mobility and childhood leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoon, A T; Oksuzyan, S; Crespi, C M; Arah, O A; Cockburn, M; Vergara, X; Kheifets, L

    2018-07-01

    Studies of environmental exposures and childhood leukemia studies do not usually account for residential mobility. Yet, in addition to being a potential risk factor, mobility can induce selection bias, confounding, or measurement error in such studies. Using data collected for California Powerline Study (CAPS), we attempt to disentangle the effect of mobility. We analyzed data from a population-based case-control study of childhood leukemia using cases who were born in California and diagnosed between 1988 and 2008 and birth certificate controls. We used stratified logistic regression, case-only analysis, and propensity-score adjustments to assess predictors of residential mobility between birth and diagnosis, and account for potential confounding due to residential mobility. Children who moved tended to be older, lived in housing other than single-family homes, had younger mothers and fewer siblings, and were of lower socioeconomic status. Odds ratios for leukemia among non-movers living mobility, including dwelling type, increased odds ratios for leukemia to 2.61 (95% CI: 1.76-3.86) for living mobility of childhood leukemia cases varied by several sociodemographic characteristics, but not by the distance to the nearest power line or calculated magnetic fields. Mobility appears to be an unlikely explanation for the associations observed between power lines exposure and childhood leukemia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Perceptions of 24/7 In-house Attending Coverage on Fellow Education and Autonomy in a Pediatric Cardiothoracic Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Sonal T; Owens, Gabe E; Rajput, Shaili H; Charpie, John R; Kidwell, Kelley M; Mullan, Patricia B

    2015-01-01

    The 24/7 in-house attending coverage is emerging as the standard of care in intensive care units. Implementation costs, workforce feasibility, and patient outcomes resulting from changes in physician staffing are widely debated topics. Understanding the impact of staffing models on the learning environment for medical trainees and faculty is equally warranted, particularly with respect to trainee education and autonomy. This study aims to elicit the perceptions of pediatric cardiology fellows and attendings toward 24/7 in-house attending coverage and its effect on fellow education and autonomy. We surveyed pediatric cardiology fellows and attendings practicing in the pediatric cardiothoracic intensive care unit (PCTU) of a large, university-affiliated medical center, using structured Likert response items and open-ended questions, prior to and following the transition to 24/7 in-house attending coverage. All (100%) trainees and faculty completed all surveys. Both prior to and following transition to 24/7 in-house attending coverage, all fellows, and the majority of attendings agreed that the overnight call experience benefited fellow education. At baseline, trainees identified limited circumstances in which on-site attending coverage would be critical. Preimplementation concerns that 24/7 in-house attending coverage would negatively affect the education of fellows were not reflected following actual implementation of the new staffing policy. However, based upon open-ended questions, fellow autonomy was affected by the new paradigm, with fellows and attendings reporting decreased "appropriateness" of autonomy after implementation. Our prospective study, showing initial concerns about limiting the learning environment in transitioning to 24/7 in-house attending coverage did not result in diminished perceptions of the educational experience for our fellows but revealed an expected decrease in fellow autonomy. The study indirectly facilitated open discussions about

  6. Impact of window selection on the energy performance of residential buildings in South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihm, Pyeongchan; Park, Lyool; Krarti, Moncef; Seo, Donghyun

    2012-01-01

    With rapidly increasing energy consumption attributed to residential buildings in South Korea, there is a need to update requirements of the building energy code in order to improve the energy performance of buildings. This paper provides some guidelines to improve the building energy code to better select glazing types that minimize total energy use of residential buildings in Korea. In particular, detailed energy simulation analyses coupled with economical and environmental assessments are carried out to assess the thermal, economical, and environmental impacts of glazing thermal characteristics as well as window sizes associated with housing units in various representative climates within South Korea. The results of the analyses have clearly indicated that selecting glazing with low solar heat gain coefficient is highly beneficial especially for large windows and for mild climates. In particular, it is found that using any double-pane low-e glazing would provide better performance for windows in residential buildings than the clear double-pane glazing, currently required by the Korean building energy code. - Highlights: ► Results show that windows can be energy neutral for residential buildings. ► In Korea, double-pane low-e glazing would provide better energy performance. ► Double low-e clear filled with argon gas glazing is the most cost-effective.

  7. Action dependent heuristic dynamic programming based residential energy scheduling with home energy inter-exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Yancai; Liu, Derong; Wei, Qinglai

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The algorithm is developed in the two-household energy management environment. • We develop the absent energy penalty cost for the first time. • The algorithm has ability to keep adapting in real-time operations. • Its application can lower total costs and achieve better load balancing. - Abstract: Residential energy scheduling is a hot topic nowadays in the background of energy saving and environmental protection worldwide. To achieve this objective, a new residential energy scheduling algorithm is developed for energy management, based on action dependent heuristic dynamic programming. The algorithm works under the circumstance of residential real-time pricing and two adjacent housing units with energy inter-exchange, which can reduce the overall cost and enhance renewable energy efficiency after long-term operation. It is designed to obtain the optimal control policy to manage the directions and amounts of electricity energy flux. The algorithm’s architecture is mainly constructed based on neural networks, denoting the learned characteristics in the linkage of layers. To get close to real situations, many constraints such as maximum charging/discharging power of batteries are taken into account. The absent energy penalty cost is developed for the first time as a part of the performance index function. When the environment changes, the residential energy scheduling algorithm gains new features and keeps adapting in real-time operations. Simulation results show that the developed algorithm is beneficial to energy conversation

  8. Hazardous waste sites and housing appreciation rates

    OpenAIRE

    McCluskey, Jill Jennifer; Rausser, Gordon C

    2000-01-01

    The dynamic effect of a hazardous waste site is analyzed by investigating the causal relationship between housing appreciation rates and house location in relation to a hazardous waste site using resale data from individual sales transactions in Dallas County, Texas. The results indicate that in the period in which the hazardous waste site was identified and cleanup occurred, residential property owners in close proximity to the hazardous waste site experienced lower housing appreciation rate...

  9. Gentrification and Residential Mobility in Philadelphia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Lei; Hwang, Jackelyn; Divringi, Eileen

    2016-11-01

    Gentrification has provoked considerable controversy surrounding its effects on residential displacement. Using a unique individual-level, longitudinal data set, this study examines mobility rates and residential destinations of residents in gentrifying neighborhoods during the recent housing boom and bust in Philadelphia for various strata of residents and different types of gentrification. We find that vulnerable residents, those with low credit scores and without mortgages, are generally no more likely to move from gentrifying neighborhoods compared with their counterparts in nongentrifying neighborhoods. When they do move, however, they are more likely to move to lower-income neighborhoods. Residents in gentrifying neighborhoods at the aggregate level have slightly higher mobility rates, but these rates are largely driven by more advantaged residents. These findings shed new light on the heterogeneity in mobility patterns across residents in gentrifying neighborhoods and suggest that researchers should focus more attention on the quality of residential moves and nonmoves for less advantaged residents, rather than mobility rates alone.

  10. Housing culture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roesdahl, Else; Scholkmann, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    On houses and their furniture and fittings, and on the study of this - with a comparison of rural, urban, monastic and aristocratic housing, and a special section on heating technologies.......On houses and their furniture and fittings, and on the study of this - with a comparison of rural, urban, monastic and aristocratic housing, and a special section on heating technologies....

  11. 76 FR 22409 - Notice of Submission of Proposed Information Collection to OMB 2012 Rental Housing Finance Survey...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ...The proposed information collection requirement described below has been submitted to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review, as required by the Paperwork Reduction Act. The Department is soliciting public comments on the subject proposal. Estimates derived from the RHFS sample will help public and private stakeholders better understand the financing, operating costs, and property characteristics of the multifamily rental housing stock in the United States. Many of the questions are similar to those found on the 1995 Property Owners and Managers Survey and the rental housing portion of the 2001 Residential Finance Survey.

  12. Long-term energy storage tanks for dwellings and solar house architecture. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-12-01

    The design and installation of hot water storage tanks as accumulators of solar energy is presented. Solar house architecture which maximizes roof, solar collector energy absorption potential is then considered. Proposals for residential areas which include solar houses are made.

  13. 24 CFR 100.135 - Unlawful practices in the selling, brokering, or appraising of residential real property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Unlawful practices in the selling, brokering, or appraising of residential real property. 100.135 Section 100.135 Housing and Urban Development... residential real property in connection with the sale, rental, or financing of any dwelling where the person...

  14. Investigating the factors affecting the investment decision in residential development.

    OpenAIRE

    Narang, Somil

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to provide a rare insight into the motivation behind residential property investors when looking to purchase an apartment. The factors driving demand preferences for housing are constantly changing, difficult to measure, and often deemed to be a complex bundle of attributes. The project attempts to answer the following questions: What are the factors affecting the investment decision in a Residential Development? To identify the significance and weight of su...

  15. Canadian energy standards : residential energy code requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, K. [SAR Engineering Ltd., Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2006-09-15

    A survey of residential energy code requirements was discussed. New housing is approximately 13 per cent more efficient than housing built 15 years ago, and more stringent energy efficiency requirements in building codes have contributed to decreased energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, a survey of residential energy codes across Canada has determined that explicit demands for energy efficiency are currently only present in British Columbia (BC), Manitoba, Ontario and Quebec. The survey evaluated more than 4300 single-detached homes built between 2000 and 2005 using data from the EnerGuide for Houses (EGH) database. House area, volume, airtightness and construction characteristics were reviewed to create archetypes for 8 geographic areas. The survey indicated that in Quebec and the Maritimes, 90 per cent of houses comply with ventilation system requirements of the National Building Code, while compliance in the rest of Canada is much lower. Heat recovery ventilation use is predominant in the Atlantic provinces. Direct-vent or condensing furnaces constitute the majority of installed systems in provinces where natural gas is the primary space heating fuel. Details of Insulation levels for walls, double-glazed windows, and building code insulation standards were also reviewed. It was concluded that if R-2000 levels of energy efficiency were applied, total average energy consumption would be reduced by 36 per cent in Canada. 2 tabs.

  16. Change in consumer sensitivity to electricity prices in response to retail deregulation: A panel empirical analysis of the residential demand for electricity in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, Tadahiro; Hamori, Shigeyuki

    2010-01-01

    About ten years have passed since the deregulation of the U.S. retail electricity market, and it is now generally accepted that the available data is adequate to quantitatively assess and compare conditions before and after deregulation. This study, therefore, estimates the changes in price elasticity in the residential electricity market to examine the changes, if any, in household sensitivity (as a result of retail electricity market deregulation policies) to residential electricity rates. Specifically, six types of panel data are prepared, based on three cross-sections-all states (except for Alaska and Hawaii) and the District of Columbia, deregulated states, and non-deregulated states-and two time series-the period before deregulation and the period after deregulation. The panel empirical analysis techniques are used to determine whether or not the variables are stationary, and to estimate price elasticity. We find that there is no substantial difference in the price elasticity between deregulated and non-deregulated states for both periods-before deregulation and after deregulation. Thus, it can be said that the deregulation of the retail electricity market has not made consumers more sensitive to electricity rates and that retail deregulation policies are not the cause of price elasticity differences between deregulated and non-deregulated states.

  17. Change in consumer sensitivity to electricity prices in response to retail deregulation. A panel empirical analysis of the residential demand for electricity in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakajima, Tadahiro [The Kansai Electric Power Company, Incorporated, 6-16, Nakanoshima 3-chome, Kita-Ku, Osaka 530-8270 (Japan); Hamori, Shigeyuki [Faculty of Economics, Kobe University 2-1, Rokkodai, Nada-Ku, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan)

    2010-05-15

    About ten years have passed since the deregulation of the U.S. retail electricity market, and it is now generally accepted that the available data is adequate to quantitatively assess and compare conditions before and after deregulation. This study, therefore, estimates the changes in price elasticity in the residential electricity market to examine the changes, if any, in household sensitivity (as a result of retail electricity market deregulation policies) to residential electricity rates. Specifically, six types of panel data are prepared, based on three cross-sections - all states (except for Alaska and Hawaii) and the District of Columbia, deregulated states, and non-deregulated states - and two time series - the period before deregulation and the period after deregulation. The panel empirical analysis techniques are used to determine whether or not the variables are stationary, and to estimate price elasticity. We find that there is no substantial difference in the price elasticity between deregulated and non-deregulated states for both periods - before deregulation and after deregulation. Thus, it can be said that the deregulation of the retail electricity market has not made consumers more sensitive to electricity rates and that retail deregulation policies are not the cause of price elasticity differences between deregulated and non-deregulated states. (author)

  18. SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS IN ACCORDANCE WITH OPERATING CONDITIONS OF THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Rutkowski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar systems are actively applied for heat supply of buildings in Europe. Usage of solar energy for heat supply of residential buildings is considered as rather efficient for the Republic of Belarus because total amount of direct and scattered solar radiation entering horizontal surface is equivalent to an average European index for the climate of Belarus. The paper analyzes an existing dependence on determination of solar system efficiency and proposes an amended formula for calculations while designing solar consumption systems and its legitimacy has been experimentally proved. A scheme of an experimental unit with explanations and a brief description for execution of experiments and main results of the completed investigations have been presented in the paper. Experiments have been carried out for solar systems with natural and forced coolant circulation. Attention has been paid to obtaining maximum possible temperature potential of the coolant during operation of the solar system within periods of high and low solar radiation intensity. Recommendations on practical application of solar systems for multi-storey residential buildings houses and mansion-type houses have been given in the paper. The paper presents technological principles of constructing “passive” solar heating devices. A comparison of traditionally applied and proposed alternative solar systems has been made for operational conditions in Belarus. The paper proposes a solar system for hot water supply of multi-storey buildings. The proposed system has found its first realization in the Republic while designing and constructing an energy-efficient demonstration 10-storey residential building in Mogilev within the framework of the UN Development Program project and Global Environment Fund “Improvement of energy efficiency for residential buildings in the Republic of Belarus”

  19. Factors contributing to the fluctuations in residential construction in Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Gholipour Fereidouni

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Residential construction is one of the most important pillars of Iran’s economy. Although this sector had an increasing trend over the past two decades, however, the growth rate of residential construction was very volatile. The purpose of this paper is to empirically investigate those factors contributing to this fluctuation over the 1991:Q2-2008:Q4. By applying cointegration approach, the empirical results show that housing prices, construction costs, GDP and gold prices are important factors to explain swings in residential construction in Iran.

  20. Assisted Housing - Low Income Housing Tax Credit Properties - National Geospatial Data Asset (NGDA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) is the primary Federal program for creating affordable housing in the United States. The LIHTC database, created by HUD and...

  1. Impacts of Street-Visible Greenery on Housing Prices: Evidence from a Hedonic Price Model and a Massive Street View Image Dataset in Beijing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonglin Zhang

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Street greenery is a component of urban green infrastructure. By forming foundational green corridors in urban ecological systems, street greenery provides vital ecological, social, and cultural functions, and benefits the wellbeing of citizens. However, because of the difficulty of quantifying people’s visual perceptions, the impact of street-visible greenery on housing prices has not been fully studied. Using Beijing, which has a mature real estate market, as an example, this study evaluated 22,331 transactions in 2014 in 2370 private housing estates. We selected 25 variables that were classified into three categories—location, housing, and neighbourhood characteristics—and introduced an index called the horizontal green view index (HGVI into a hedonic pricing model to measure the value of the visual perception of street greenery in neighbouring residential developments. The results show that (1 Beijing’s homebuyers would like to reside in residential units with a higher HGVI; (2 Beijing’s homebuyers favour larger lakes; and (3 Beijing’s housing prices were impacted by the spatial development patterns of the city centre and multiple business centres. We used computer vision to quantify the street-visible greenery and estimated the economic benefits that the neighbouring visible greenery would have on residential developments in Beijing. This study provides a scientific basis and reference for policy makers and city planners in road greening, and a tool for formulating street greening policy, studying housing price characteristics, and evaluating real estate values.

  2. The contribution of housing renovation to children’s blood lead levels: a cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Routine renovation of older housing is a risk factor for childhood lead poisoning, but the contribution to children’s blood lead levels is poorly defined for children with lower exposure levels. Methods We examined a prospective cohort of 276 children followed from 6 to 24 months of age. We conducted surveys of renovation activities and residential lead hazards and obtained blood lead level (B-Pb) every six months. We analyzed B-Pb in a repeated measures design using a mixed effects linear model. Results Parent reported interior renovation ranged from 11 to 25% of housing units at the four, 6-month periods. In multivariable analysis, children whose housing underwent interior renovation had a 12% higher mean B-Pb by two years of age compared with children whose housing units were not renovated (p children in non-renovated housing, children whose housing units underwent renovation in the prior month had a 17% higher mean B-Pb at two years of age, whereas children whose housing renovation occurred in the prior 2–6 months had an 8% higher mean B-Pb. We also found an association between higher paint lead loading, measured using an X-ray fluorescence (XRF) based paint lead index, and child B-Pb (p = 0.02); for every 10 mg/cm2 increase in paint lead loading index there was a 7.5% higher mean childhood B-Pb. Conclusions In an analysis of data collected before the recent changes to Environmental Protection Agency’s Lead, Renovation, Repair and Painting Rule, routine interior housing renovation was associated with a modest increase in children’s B-Pb. These results are important for the provision of clinical advice, for housing and public health professionals, and for policymakers. PMID:23981571

  3. Job-housing imbalance and commuting of coastal industrial town in Liaoning province, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Lu, Wei; Cai, Jun; Yang, Qiyao

    2017-11-01

    During the Twelve Five period, China promulgated industrial policies promote the energy-intensive industries relocate to coastal areas in order to utilize marine shipping resources. Consequently, some major state-owned steel and petrochemical enterprises have relocated and resulted in a large scale coastal area development. Restricted by the port construction, most of the coastal industrial areas are located in the outer suburbs. To balance between employment and housing, new industrial coastal towns were constructed. In this paper, we adopt a case-study approach to analysis some typical industrial coastal towns of Liaoning Province situated in the Bohai Bay, which is currently under rapid economic growth. Our investigations reflect the common phenomenon of long distance commuting and massive amount of vacant residences. More specifically, large plant relocation caused hundreds of kilometers of daily commute and enterprises had to provide housing subsidies and education incentives to motivate employees to relocate to coastal areas. Nonetheless, many employees still refuse to relocate due to job stability, diverse needs of family members and access to convenient services. These employees averaged 4 hours of commute daily and some who lived further had to reside in temporary industrial housing units and subject to long-term family separation. As a result, only a small portion of employees purchase new coastal residences but mostly for investment and retirement purposes, leading to massive vacancy and ghost-town phenomenon. In contrast to the low demand, coastal areas tend to develop large amount of residences prior to industrial relocation, which may be directly related to local government finances. Some local governments have sold residential land to developers to general revenue to support the subsequent industrial development. Subject to the strong preference of ocean- view, residential housing developers tend to select coast-line land to construct new residential

  4. Integrating Photovoltaic Systems into Low-Income Housing Developments: A Case Study on the Creation of a New Residential Financing Model and Low-Income Resident Job Training Program, September 2011 (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dean, J.; Smith-Dreier, C.; Mekonnen, G.; Hawthorne, W.

    2011-09-01

    This case study covers the process of successfully integrating photovoltaic (PV) systems into a low-income housing development in northeast Denver, Colorado, focusing specifically on a new financing model and job training. The Northeast Denver Housing Center (NDHC), working in cooperation with Del Norte Neighborhood Development Corporation, Groundwork Denver, and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), was able to finance the PV system installations by blending private equity funding with utility rebates, federal tax credits, and public sector funding. A grant provided by the Governor's Energy Office allowed for the creation of the new financing model. In addition, the program incorporated an innovative low-income job training program and an energy conservation incentive program.

  5. A Hierarchical Transactive Energy Management System for Energy Sharing in Residential Microgrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Most Nahida Akter

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an analytical framework to develop a hierarchical energy management system (EMS for energy sharing among neighbouring households in residential microgrids. The houses in residential microgrids are categorized into three different types, traditional, proactive and enthusiastic, based on the inclusion of solar photovoltaic (PV systems and battery energy storage systems (BESSs. Each of these three houses has an individual EMS, which is defined as the primary EMS. Two other EMSs (secondary and tertiary are also considered in the proposed hierarchical energy management framework for the purpose of effective energy sharing. The intelligences of each EMS are presented in this paper for the purpose of energy sharing in a residential microgrid along with the priorities. The effectiveness of the proposed hierarchical framework is evaluated on a residential microgrid in Australia. The analytical results clearly reflect that the proposed scheme effectively and efficiently shares the energy among neighbouring houses in a residential microgrid.

  6. Hood River Passive House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hales, David [BA-PIRC, Spokane, WA (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Hood River Passive Project was developed by Root Design Build of Hood River Oregon using the Passive House Planning Package (PHPP) to meet all of the requirements for certification under the European Passive House standards. The Passive House design approach has been gaining momentum among residential designers for custom homes and BEopt modeling indicates that these designs may actually exceed the goal of the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Building America program to "reduce home energy use by 30%-50% (compared to 2009 energy codes for new homes). This report documents the short term test results of the Shift House and compares the results of PHPP and BEopt modeling of the project. The design includes high R-Value assemblies, extremely tight construction, high performance doors and windows, solar thermal DHW, heat recovery ventilation, moveable external shutters and a high performance ductless mini-split heat pump. Cost analysis indicates that many of the measures implemented in this project did not meet the BA standard for cost neutrality. The ductless mini-split heat pump, lighting and advanced air leakage control were the most cost effective measures. The future challenge will be to value engineer the performance levels indicated here in modeling using production based practices at a significantly lower cost.

  7. Simulating Residential Demand in Singapore through Five Decades of Demographic Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, N. R.; Fernández, J.

    2011-12-01

    Singapore's rapid and well-documented development over the last half-century provides an ideal case for studying urban metabolism. Extensive data [1, 2] facilitate the modeling of historical dynamics of population and resource consumption. This paper presents an agent-based population model that simulates key demographic factors - number, size, and relative income of households - through fifty years of development in Singapore. This is the first step in a broader study linking demographic factors to residential demand for urban land, materials, water, and energy. Previous studies of the resource demands of housing stock have accounted for demographics by modifying the important population driver with a single, aggregated "lifestyle" term [3, 4]. However, demographic changes that result from development can influence the nature of the residential sector, and warrant a closer look. Increasing levels of education and affluence coupled with decreasing birth rates have yielded an aging population and changing family structures in Singapore [5]. These factors all contribute to an increasingly resource-intense residential sector. Singaporeans' elevated per capita income and life expectancy have created demand for larger household area, which means a growing percentage of available land must be dedicated to residential use [6]. While the majority of Singapore's housing is public - a strategy designed to maximize land use efficiency - residents are increasingly seeking private alternatives [7]. In the private sector, lower density housing puts even greater pressure on the finite supply of undeveloped land. Agent-based modeling is used to study the selected aspects of demography. The population is disaggregated into historical time-series distributions of age, family size, education, and income. We propose a simplified methodology correlating average education level with birth rate, and income to categorize households and establish housing unit demand. Aggregated lifestyle

  8. 77 FR 28519 - Test Procedure Guidance for Room Air Conditioners, Residential Dishwashers, and Residential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... Guidance for Room Air Conditioners, Residential Dishwashers, and Residential Clothes Washers: Public... procedures for room air conditioners, residential dishwashers, and residential clothes washers. DATES: DOE...'s existing test procedures for residential room air conditioners, residential dishwashers, and...

  9. Potential energy savings by using direct current for residential applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diaz, Enrique Rodriguez; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2017-01-01

    improvement in the power converter units. However, for residential applications, the efficiency is not always improved. A grid connected residential microgrid, with renewable energy sources (RES), energy storage systems (ESS) and local loads, is presented in this work. The microgrid has been modelled...

  10. 77 FR 51569 - Large Residential Washers From Korea and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ...)] Large Residential Washers From Korea and Mexico Scheduling of the final phase of countervailing duty and... and Mexico of large residential washers, provided for in subheading 8450.20.00 of the Harmonized... and Mexico are being sold in the United States at less than fair value within the meaning of section...

  11. 78 FR 10636 - Large Residential Washers From Korea and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... Residential Washers From Korea and Mexico Determinations On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the... determines that an industry in the United States is materially injured by reason of imports from Mexico of... of large residential washers from Korea and Mexico were sold at LTFV within the meaning of 733(b) of...

  12. A Direct Heat Exchanger Unit used for Domestic Hot Water Supply in a Single-family House Supplied by Low Energy District Heating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brand, Marek; Thorsen, Jan Eric; Svendsen, Svend

    2010-01-01

    The increasing number of new and renovated buildings with reduced heating requirements will soon make traditional District Heating (DH) systems uneconomic. To keep DH competitive in the future, the heat loss in DH networks needs to be reduced. One option is to reduce the supply temperature of DH...... as much as possible. This requires a review of the behaviour of the whole domestic hot water (DHW) supply system with focus on the user comfort and overall costs. This paper describes some practical approaches to the implementation of this Low Energy District Heating (LEDH) concept. It reports...... on the testing of the dynamic behaviour of an Instantaneous Heat Exchanger Unit(IHEU) designed for DHW heating and space heating in detached family houses supplied by LEDH ensuring an entry-to-substation temperature of 51 °C. We measured the time it takes for the IHEU to produce DHW with a temperature of 42 °C...

  13. A cluster randomised controlled trial of a staff-training intervention in residential units for people with long-term mental illness in Portugal: the PromQual trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, Graça; Papoila, Ana; Tomé, Gina; Killaspy, Helen; King, Michael; Caldas-de-Almeida, José Miguel

    2017-11-01

    This study aimed to assess the efficacy of a staff-training intervention to improve service users' engagement in activities and quality of care, by means of a cluster randomised controlled trial. All residential units with at least 12-h a day staff support (n = 23) were invited to participate. Quality of care was assessed with the Quality Indicator for Rehabilitative Care (QuIRC) filled online by the unit's manager. Half the units (n = 12) were randomly assigned to continue providing treatment as usual, and half (n = 11) received a staff-training intervention that focused on skills for engaging service users in activities, with trainers working alongside staff to embed this learning in the service. The primary outcome was service users' level of activity (measured with the Time Use Diary), reassessed at 4 and 8 months. Secondary outcomes were the quality of care provided (QuIRC), and service users' quality of life (Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life) reassessed at 8 months. Generalized linear mixed effect models were used to assess the difference in outcomes between units in the two trial arms. The trial was registered with Current Controlled Trials (Ref NCT02366117). Knowledge acquired by the staff during the initial workshops increased significantly (p ≤ 0.01). However, the intervention and comparison units did not differ significantly in primary and secondary outcomes at either follow-up. The intervention increased the level of knowledge of staff without leading to an improvement in service users' engagement in activities, quality of life, or quality of care in the units.

  14. Techno-economic analysis of the viability of residential photovoltaic systems using lithium-ion batteries for energy storage in the United Kingdom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uddin, Kotub; Gough, Rebecca; Radcliffe, Jonathan; Marco, James; Jennings, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: •Commercially available PV-battery system is installed in mid-sized UK home. •PV generation and household electricity demand recorded for one year. •More than fifty long-term ageing experiments on commercial batteries undertaken. •Comprehensive battery degradation model based on long-term ageing data validated. •PV-Battery system is shown not be economically viable. -- Abstract: Rooftop photovoltaic systems integrated with lithium-ion battery storage are a promising route for the decarbonisation of the UK’s power sector. From a consumer perspective, the financial benefits of lower utility costs and the potential of a financial return through providing grid services is a strong incentive to invest in PV-battery systems. Although battery storage is generally considered an effective means for reducing the energy mismatch between photovoltaic supply and building demand, it remains unclear when and under which conditions battery storage can be profitably operated within residential photovoltaic systems. This fact is particularly pertinent when battery degradation is considered within the decision framework. In this work, a commercially available coupled photovoltaic lithium-ion battery system is installed within a mid-sized UK family home. Photovoltaic energy generation and household electricity demand is recorded for more than one year. A comprehensive battery degradation model based on long-term ageing data collected from more than fifty long-term degradation experiments on commercial Lithium-ion batteries is developed. The comprehensive model accounts for all established modes of degradation including calendar ageing, capacity throughput, ambient temperature, state of charge, depth of discharge and current rate. The model is validated using cycling data and exhibited an average maximum transient error of 7.4% in capacity loss estimates and 7.3% in resistance rise estimates for over a year of cycling. The battery ageing model is used to

  15. Indoor air quality in green buildings: A case-study in a residential high-rise building in the northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Youyou; Krogmann, Uta; Mainelis, Gediminas; Rodenburg, Lisa A; Andrews, Clinton J

    2015-01-01

    Improved indoor air quality (IAQ) is one of the critical components of green building design. Green building tax credit (e.g., New York State Green Building Tax Credit (GBTC)) and certification programs (e.g., Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design (LEED)) require indoor air quality measures and compliance with allowable maximum concentrations of common indoor air pollutants. It is not yet entirely clear whether compliance with these programs results in improved IAQ and ultimately human health. As a case in point, annual indoor air quality measurements were conducted in a residential green high-rise building for five consecutive years by an industrial hygiene contractor to comply with the building's GBTC requirements. The implementation of green design measures resulted in better IAQ compared to data in references of conventional homes for some parameters, but could not be confirmed for others. Relative humidity and carbon dioxide were satisfactory according to existing standards. Formaldehyde levels during four out of five years were below the most recent proposed exposure limits found in the literature. To some degree, particulate matter (PM) levels were lower than that in studies from conventional residential buildings. Concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) with known permissible exposure limits were below levels known to cause chronic health effects, but their concentrations were inconclusive regarding cancer health effects due to relatively high detection limits. Although measured indoor air parameters met all IAQ maximum allowable concentrations in GBTC and applicable LEED requirements at the time of sampling, we argue that these measurements were not sufficient to assess IAQ comprehensively because more sensitive sampling/analytical methods for PM and VOCs are needed; in addition, there is a need for a formal process to ensure rigor and adequacy of sampling and analysis methods. Also, we suggest that a comprehensive IAQ assessment should

  16. Characteristics and service needs of women and babies admitted to residential parenting units in New South Wales: a mixed methods study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priddis, Holly; Thornton, Charlene; Fowler, Cathrine; Schmied, Virginia; Tooher, Jane; Dickinson, Marie; Dahlen, Hannah Grace

    2018-04-27

    This study aims to examine the characteristics and service needs of women and babies admitted to Residential Parenting Services (RPS) in the first year following birth in New South Wales (NSW), Australia. In Australia there is a tiered system to support maternal, child and family health, which includes residential parenting services (RPS). Sequential explanatory mixed methods design. Individual patient data were obtained from a random review of 10% of all medical records (n = 300 of 3011 admissions) of women with an infant of less than 12 months of age who were admitted to RPS in 2013. Following review of the medical records, qualitative data were collected via interviews with eight women who accessed RPS. Chi square analysis and student t-testing were used to analyse quantitative data. Qualitative data were analysed using a descriptive interpretive approach. An integrative approach was taken in reporting the findings RESULTS: Women admitted to the RPS were on average 32 years of age, were Australian born (72%), had a university qualification (40%) and most were employed. The majority of women were primiparous (60%), and had a vaginal birth (61%). Women with male infants were much more likely to be admitted to the RPS (58%) compared to the NSW male to female ratio (51.3% versus 48.7%). Over 50% of women reported mental health issues with 27% having an Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score ≥13 on admission. The primary reason women sought parenting support were for sleep and settling (83%). During their stay, services used by women included social workers (44%), psychologists (52%) and psychiatrists (4.5%). Women who access RPS report psychosocial and mental health issues. Services provided by RPS support women during this challenging early parenting period by providing multidisciplinary, holistic and peer support. A high prevalence of mental health issues identified in this study indicated a need for ongoing training and support for RPS staff. Ensuring

  17. A Smart Power Electronic Multiconverter for the Residential Sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Martinez, Miguel Angel; Milanes-Montero, Maria Isabel; Barrero-Gonzalez, Fermin; Miñambres-Marcos, Victor Manuel; Romero-Cadaval, Enrique; Gonzalez-Romera, Eva

    2017-05-26

    The future of the grid includes distributed generation and smart grid technologies. Demand Side Management (DSM) systems will also be essential to achieve a high level of reliability and robustness in power systems. To do that, expanding the Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) and Energy Management Systems (EMS) are necessary. The trend direction is towards the creation of energy resource hubs, such as the smart community concept. This paper presents a smart multiconverter system for residential/housing sector with a Hybrid Energy Storage System (HESS) consisting of supercapacitor and battery, and with local photovoltaic (PV) energy source integration. The device works as a distributed energy unit located in each house of the community, receiving active power set-points provided by a smart community EMS. This central EMS is responsible for managing the active energy flows between the electricity grid, renewable energy sources, storage equipment and loads existing in the community. The proposed multiconverter is responsible for complying with the reference active power set-points with proper power quality; guaranteeing that the local PV modules operate with a Maximum Power Point Tracking (MPPT) algorithm; and extending the lifetime of the battery thanks to a cooperative operation of the HESS. A simulation model has been developed in order to show the detailed operation of the system. Finally, a prototype of the multiconverter platform has been implemented and some experimental tests have been carried out to validate it.

  18. Mixed logit model of intended residential mobility in renovated historical blocks in China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, W.; Timmermans, H.J.P.; Li, H.; Feng, T.

    2016-01-01

    Using data from 8 historical blocks in China, the influence of socialdemographic characteristics and residential satisfaction on intended residentialmobility is analysed. The results of a mixed logit model indicate that higher residential satisfaction will lead to a lower intention to move house,

  19. Regionalised tertiary psychiatric residential facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesage, Alain; Groden, David; Goldner, Elliot M; Gelinas, Daniel; Arnold, Leslie M

    2008-01-01

    Psychiatric hospitals remain the main venue for long-term mental health care and, despite widespread closures and downsizing, no country that built asylums in the last century has done away with them entirely--with the recent exception of Italy. Differentiated community-based residential alternatives have been developed over the past decades, with staffing levels that range from full-time professional, to daytime only, to part-time/on-call. This paper reviews the characteristics of community-based psychiatric residential care facilities as an alternative to long-term care in psychiatric hospitals. It describes five factors decision makers should consider: 1. number of residential places needed; 2. staffing levels; 3. physical setting; 4. programming; and 5. governance and financing. In Italy, facilities with full-time professional staff have been developed since the mid-1990s to accommodate the last cohorts of patients discharged from psychiatric hospitals. In the United Kingdom, experiments with hostel wards since the 1980s have shown that home-like, small-scale facilities with intensive treatment and rehabilitation programming can be effective for the most difficult-to-place patients. More recently in Australia, Community Care Units (CCUs) have been applying this concept. In the Canadian province of British Columbia (BC), Tertiary Psychiatric Residential Facilities (TPRFs) have been developed as part of an effort to regionalise health and social services and downsize and ultimately close its only psychiatric hospital. This type of service must be further developed in addition to the need for forensic, acute-care and intermediate-level beds, as well as for community-based care such as assertive community treatment and intensive case management. All these types of services, together with long-term community-based residential care, constitute the elements of a balanced mental health care system. As part of a region's balanced mental health care plan, these Tertiary

  20. Clients' Role in Attainment of Sustainability in Housing: The Case of Singapore and Lessons For Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoge Ofori

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The adverse effect of the construction of houses and other buildings and infrastructure on the earth’s environment has been highlighted in the literature. Proposals on how the planning, designing, constructing and maintaining of residential units can be undertaken under the framework of “sustainable development” (or “sustainable housing” have also been made. Housing units built in this way would have less environmental impact. Housing is a basic human need, and most governments are committed to ensuring that all their citizens have decent standards of housing. There are currently gaps between needs and provisions in almost all countries. Large volumes of resources will be required if these gaps are to be dilled. There will also be other environment impacts from such levels of activity. This paper discusses recent developments in sustainable housing. It focuses on the role of the client. It reviews the current situation with respect to sustainable housing in Singapore, putting it in the context of the national policies and programs for sustainable development. It discusses the practices of the larger clients of housing developments in Singapore. Possible lessons for other countries are inferred. It is suggested that further education of the client is necessary. Moreover, there is the potential for and purchasers to be similarly educated in order to form them as a market force for changes.

  1. Effects on annual cost of solar/air-heat utilization system of carbon tax and interest rate for a residential house; Jutakuyo taiyo/taikinetsu riyo system no nenkan keihi ni oyobosu tansozei kinri no eikyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Q; Kenmoku, Y; Sakakibara, T [Toyohashi University of Technology, Aichi (Japan); Nakagawa, S [Maizuru National College of Technology, Kyoto (Japan); Kawamoto, T [Shizuoka University, Shizuoka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering

    1996-10-27

    In recent years, a system has been proposed that utilizes river heat, air-heat, exhaust heat from a cooler, etc., in addition to natural energy for the heat pump. With the introduction of such system, the amount of energy used and that of CO2 exhaust will be greatly reduced, but annual expenses will be increased as it stands. In order to improve the cost efficiency of the system, a proposal has been made for the introduction of an economic policy such as the carbon tax and a low interest financing system. With these matters in the background, the subject study predicts the production of solar cells in the future and, on the basis of this production, determines the price, conversion efficiency and equipment energy of solar cells in the future. Using these values and taking into consideration the introduction of the carbon tax and the low interest financing system, the optimum area was determined for solar cells and heat concentrators in a future residential solar/air-heat energy system. The carbon tax, being imposed on all CO2 discharges, had a large effect. Moreover, as the tax increased, annual expenses decreased for the solar/air-heat system. 3 refs., 6 figs.

  2. Hybrid model predictive control of a residential HVAC system with on-site thermal energy generation and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiorentini, Massimo; Wall, Josh; Ma, Zhenjun; Braslavsky, Julio H.; Cooper, Paul

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A comprehensive approach to managing thermal energy in residential buildings. • Solar-assisted HVAC system with on-site energy generation and storage. • Mixed logic-dynamical building model identified using experimental data. • Design and implementation of a logic-dynamical model predictive control strategy. • MPC applied to the Net-Zero Energy house winner of the Solar Decathlon China 2013. - Abstract: This paper describes the development, implementation and experimental investigation of a Hybrid Model Predictive Control (HMPC) strategy to control solar-assisted heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) systems with on-site thermal energy generation and storage. A comprehensive approach to the thermal energy management of a residential building is presented to optimise the scheduling of the available thermal energy resources to meet a comfort objective. The system has a hybrid nature with both continuous variables and discrete, logic-driven operating modes. The proposed control strategy is organized in two hierarchical levels. At the high-level, an HMPC controller with a 24-h prediction horizon and a 1-h control step is used to select the operating mode of the HVAC system. At the low-level, each operating mode is optimised using a 1-h rolling prediction horizon with a 5-min control step. The proposed control strategy has been practically implemented on the Building Management and Control System (BMCS) of a Net Zero-Energy Solar Decathlon house. This house features a sophisticated HVAC system comprising of an air-based photovoltaic thermal (PVT) collector and a phase change material (PCM) thermal storage integrated with the air-handling unit (AHU) of a ducted reverse-cycle heat pump system. The simulation and experimental results demonstrated the high performance achievable using an HMPC approach to optimising complex multimode HVAC systems in residential buildings, illustrating efficient selection of the appropriate operating modes

  3. Agricultural and residential pesticides in wipe samples from farmworker family residences in North Carolina and Virginia.

    OpenAIRE

    Quandt, Sara A; Arcury, Thomas A; Rao, Pamela; Snively, Beverly M; Camann, David E; Doran, Alicia M; Yau, Alice Y; Hoppin, Jane A; Jackson, David S

    2004-01-01

    Children of farmworkers can be exposed to pesticides through multiple pathways, including agricultural take-home and drift as well as residential applications. Because farmworker families often live in poor-quality housing, the exposure from residential pesticide use may be substantial. We measured eight locally reported agricultural pesticides and 13 pesticides commonly found in U.S. houses in residences of 41 farmworker families with at least one child < 7 years of age in western North Caro...

  4. Passive houses in Sweden. Experiences from design and construction phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jansson, Ulla

    2008-07-01

    The sector of residential buildings and service organizations uses 36% of the total energy in Sweden. In June 2006, it was decided by the Swedish parliament that the energy use in residential buildings and premises should decrease by 20% per heated unit area before 2020. To reach this goal, more energy efficient buildings must be produced as well as energy efficient improvements must be performed on the existing building stock. One way to reduce the energy use in buildings is to build passive houses. A passive house is a mechanically ventilated building that with a highly insulated and air tight building envelope uses a minimum of energy for heating. The method used in this research is to practically participate in four passive house demonstration projects. The results expected are to find guiding principles and tools needed for passive house planning and make the system solutions usable for planning in more general terms. Joining as a part of the planning group; advice and help is given to architects, consultants and to the client. The demonstration projects studied are located in the south-west of Sweden. Three of the projects are new constructions and one is a renovation project. In the centre of Vanirom 40 rental apartments were built in 2005/2006 according to the passive house standard. Solar collectors on the roof contribute to the domestic hot water production. Every apartment has its own mechanical ventilation system with efficient heat recovery. Auxiliary heating is supplied by electricity. The load bearing structure were made of concrete and cast at site. The exterior walls and roof were made of wooden frame construction and mounted at site. The tenants moved in during summer 2006. The passive house project in Failure's consists of three houses with 12 rental apartments. The air is supplied by mechanical ventilation with an air to air heat exchanger, one in each apartment. The domestic hot water is prepared by solar collectors and auxiliary heating

  5. 7 CFR 3560.104 - Fair housing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Borrower Management and Operations Responsibilities § 3560... Housing Marketing Plan. (1) Borrowers with housing projects that have four or more rental units must prepare and maintain an Affirmative Fair Housing Marketing Plan (AFHMP) as defined in 24 CFR part 200...

  6. Residential and Light Commercial HVAC. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, David; Fulkerson, Dan, Ed.

    This curriculum guide contains 18 units of instruction for a competency-based course in residential and light commercial heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC). Introductory materials include a competency profile and an instructional/task analysis that correlates job training with related information for this course. Each instructional…

  7. Some features of a typical house as perceived by native speakers of English and of Serbian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilparić Branislava M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reports findings from one of the two differently-designed surveys conducted among groups of both native speakers of English and native speakers of Serbian with a common general objective to obtain a picture of better candidates for a role of the whole (to be analyzed into its constituent elements in the contrastive study on the lexical field a house and its parts in English and Serbian. The specific objective of the survey presented here, however, was to build up the target picture with some of the features of the ideal example of the house category, such as the shape of the house, the key materials its principal structural elements (foundations, walls, a roof are made of, the number of residential units in the house and the type of the household that occupies it, the number of the house levels, the minimum of its interior spatial components and their functions, the types of systemic parts in the house, the status and position of the house relative to surround­ing buildings, etc. Also, taking into consideration that the demographic profiles of the survey participants reflected various cultural backgrounds (which significantly influence the formation of mental images of a typical sample of the category, the survey aimed to compare the similarities and differences between the 'English' and the 'Serbian' typical house, that is the features assigned to a typical house by most of the surveyed representa­tives of Anglo-American and by those of Serbian culture. Judging exclusively by the features observed and the results obtained, the study concludes that the 'English' and the 'Serbian' typical house look very similar in many aspect and that the two different cultures are not as distant as they may seem.

  8. Housing is positively associated with invasive exotic plant species richness in New England, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavier-Pizarro, Gregorio I; Radeloff, Volker C; Stewart, Susan I; Huebner, Cynthia D; Keuler, Nicholas S

    2010-10-01

    Understanding the factors related to invasive exotic species distributions at broad spatial scales has important theoretical and management implications, because biological invasions are detrimental to many ecosystem functions and processes. Housing development facilitates invasions by disturbing land cover, introducing nonnative landscaping plants, and facilitating dispersal of propagules along roads. To evaluate relationships between housing and the distribution of invasive exotic plants, we asked (1) how strongly is housing associated with the spatial distribution of invasive exotic plants compared to other anthropogenic and environmental factors; (2) what type of housing pattern is related to the richness of invasive exotic plants; and (3) do invasive plants represent ecological traits associated with specific housing patterns? Using two types of regression analysis (best subset analysis and hierarchical partitioning analysis), we found that invasive exotic plant richness was equally or more strongly related to housing variables than to other human (e.g., mean income and roads) and environmental (e.g., topography and forest cover) variables at the county level across New England. Richness of invasive exotic plants was positively related to area of wildland-urban interface (WUI), low-density residential areas, change in number of housing units between 1940 and 2000, mean income, plant productivity (NDVI), and altitudinal range and rainfall; it was negatively related to forest area and connectivity. Plant life history traits were not strongly related to housing patterns. We expect the number of invasive exotic plants to increase as a result of future housing growth and suggest that housing development be considered a primary factor in plans to manage and monitor invasive exotic plant species.

  9. How can a successful multi-family residential recycling programme be initiated within Baltimore City, Maryland?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwebel, Michael B

    2012-07-01

    Baltimore City formally began recycling in 1989 with all neighbourhoods having residential collection by 1992. Although the city of 637 000 has recycled for approximately 20 years, almost all residents in multi-family residential (MFR) housing have been and are still barred from participating at their residences. Discussions with City officials and residents have verified this antiquated policy of exclusion within MFR housing. Yet, the policy is still observed by the Department of Public Works even though the updated single-stream Code states that the 'Director of Public Works must collect all. . .recyclable materials. . .from all dwellings, including multiple-family dwellings'. The purpose of this study's is to provide policies, regulations, and recommendations for implementing requisite MFR recycling within Baltimore City. The study's methodology follows a case study approach by examining three cities in the United States that currently mandate MFR recycling: Chicago, Illinois; Boston, Massachusetts; and Arlington, Virginia. Post-analysis suggests that while some cities' MFR programmes perform poorly, each city's strengths aid in creating specific proposals that can produce a successful MFR recycling program in Baltimore City. These tenets of a future MFR recycling program form the basis of a successful MFR recycling program that will allow all city residents to participate via initiatives in the categories of both programme, accessibility, and informing and self-review.

  10. Retrofitting of Energy Habitability in Social Housing: A Case Study in a Mediterranean Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Fernández-Agüera

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Much of the residential sector in Spain is obsolete, with inadequate conditions of comfort and high energy consumption. For this reason most of the potential for improving energy efficiency lies in the existing residential sector, which requires upgrading to meet the quantitative and qualitative changes required at present. This study of specific cases aimed at establishing general criteria for action has been prompted by the difficulty in proposing general intervention strategies. This paper presents a case study for the energy retrofit of 68 social housing units in Cordoba (Spain evaluating their energy consumption, with a view to improving the building’s energy balance and indoor thermal comfort, on which user comfort depends.

  11. Determinants of Residential Property Value in Nigeria – A Neural ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    impact on market values (prices) and to that extent influence the sales and purchase decisions of sellers and buyers in Nigeria. The results of the study should enable Real Estate Professionals to make fair estimates of the market values of residential real estate properties given the features/characteristics of such housing ...

  12. Integrated Strip Foundation Systems for Small Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2010-01-01

    A prefabricated lightweight element was designed for a strip foundation that was used on site as the bases of two small residential buildings, in this case single-family houses; one was built with a double-brick exterior wall separated by mineral fiber insulation and the other was built with a wood...

  13. A combined analysis of North American case-control studies of residential radon and lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krewski, Daniel; Lubin, Jay H; Zielinski, Jan M; Alavanja, Michael; Catalan, Vanessa S; Field, R William; Klotz, Judith B; Létourneau, Ernest G; Lynch, Charles F; Lyon, Joseph L; Sandler, Dale P; Schoenberg, Janet B; Steck, Daniel J; Stolwijk, Jan A; Weinberg, Clarice; Wilcox, Homer B

    2006-04-01

    Cohort studies have consistently shown underground miners exposed to high levels of radon to be at excess risk of lung cancer, and extrapolations based on those results indicate that residential radon may be responsible for nearly 10-15% of all lung cancer deaths per year in the United States. However, case-control studies of residential radon and lung cancer have provided ambiguous evidence of radon lung cancer risks. Regardless, alpha-particle emissions from the short-lived radioactive radon decay products can damage cellular DNA. The possibility that a demonstrated lung carcinogen may be present in large numbers of homes raises a serious public health concern. Thus, a systematic analysis of pooled data from all North American residential radon studies was undertaken to provide a more direct characterization of the public health risk posed by prolonged radon exposure. To evaluate the risk associated with prolonged residential radon exposure, a combined analysis of the primary data from seven large scale case-control studies of residential radon and lung cancer risk was conducted. The combined data set included a total of 4081 cases and 5281 controls, representing the largest aggregation of data on residential radon and lung cancer conducted to date. Residential radon concentrations were determined primarily by a-track detectors placed in the living areas of homes of the study subjects in order to obtain an integrated 1-yr average radon concentration in indoor air. Conditional likelihood regression was used to estimate the excess risk of lung cancer due to residential radon exposure, with adjustment for attained age, sex, study, smoking factors, residential mobility, and completeness of radon measurements. Although the main analyses were based on the combined data set as a whole, we also considered subsets of the data considered to have more accurate radon dosimetry. This included a subset of the data involving 3662 cases and 4966 controls with a-track radon

  14. Understanding Social Sustainability in Housing Form the Case Study "Wohnen Mit Uns" in Vienna and Adaptibility to Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hatice Kalfaoglu Hatipoglu

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research paper is to contribute to the design of socially sustainable housing by discussing the significance of social sustainability and assessing this quality according to the determined criterias of social sustainability. There is a massive construction industry in Turkey, most of which is in the housing sector. These residential areas generally have been built as chaotic mass productions and lack a vision related to social quality.  Today, there are significant problems confronting the building sector, such as globalisation, industrialisation, the imbalance between nature and humanity. These problems determine the quality of life we will have in the future. The intention of this paper is to demonstrate more socially orientated housing design, especially in countries such as Turkey in which this aspect is not a real concern in the housing practice according to the perception of author, especially in comparison to Europe. İn order to achieve this goal, this paper first points out the importance of social sustainability in housing within architectural quality. The description and necessity of social sustainability in multi-unit housing have been discussed and the criteria have been determined to evaluate the quality of social sustainability. An award-winning project in Austria has been chosen as a case study to analyse and perceive social sustainability in residential areas, according to the described criteria. These criteria for assessment and the concrete case study including the emerging phase of the project background provide a guideline for developing housing projects towards social quality in Turkey. In conclusion a general evaluation of the success of the case study with its background and applicability of this concept to Turkish housing which is used by middle-class has been discussed.

  15. VT Data - Housing 2016, Chittenden County

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — 2016 spatial representation of residential structures and number of dwelling units (see use limitations) in Chittenden County. This is an updated version of the 2015...

  16. Chances and barriers for passive house renovations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mlecnik, E.; Opstelten, I.; Rovers, R.; Verdeyen, N.; Wagenaar, A.

    2016-01-01

    There is significant potential for carbon reduction and energy saving in residential buildings. Various market actors are looking for ways to increase the uptake of passive house renovation and its certification.
    This study aimed specifically to draw lessons from research projects towards the

  17. 12 CFR 950.17 - Advances to housing associates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... that such collateral comprises mortgage loans on one-to-four family or multifamily residential property... located in the Bank's district. (b) Collateral requirements—(1) Advances to housing associates. A Bank may make an advance to any housing associate upon the security of the following collateral: (i) Mortgage...

  18. Housing as Social Right or Means to Wealth?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Jens Ladefoged; Seabrooke, Leonard

    2009-01-01

    This book demonstrates how housing systems are built from political struggles over the distribution of welfare and wealth. The contributors analyze varieties of residential capitalism through a range of international case studies, as well as investigating the links between housing finance...

  19. Estimation of energy efficiency of residential buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glushkov Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing energy performance of the residential buildings by means of reducing heat consumption on the heating and ventilation is the last segment in the system of energy resources saving. The first segments in the energy saving process are heat producing and transportation over the main lines and outside distribution networks. In the period from 2006 to 2013. by means of the heat-supply schemes optimization and modernization of the heating systems. using expensive (200–300 $US per 1 m though hugely effective preliminary coated pipes. the economy reached 2.7 mln tons of fuel equivalent. Considering the multi-stage and multifactorial nature (electricity. heat and water supply of the residential sector energy saving. the reasonable estimate of the efficiency of the saving of residential buildings energy should be performed in tons of fuel equivalent per unit of time.

  20. Development Of Economic Techniques For Residential Thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Lee R.; Allen, Sharon

    1983-03-01

    Infrared thermography has proven to be a valuable tool in the detection of heat loss in both commercial and residential buildings. The field of residential thermography has needed a simple method with which to report the deficiencies found during an infrared scan. Two major obstacles hindering the cost effectiveness of residential thermography have been 1) the ability to quickly transport some high resolution imaging system equipment from job site to job site without having to totally dismount the instruments at each area, and 2) the lack of a standard form with which to report the findings of the survey to the customer. Since the industry has yet to provide us with either, we believed it necessary to develop our own. Through trial and error, we have come up with a system that makes interior residential thermography a profitable venture at a price the homeowner can afford. Insulation voids, or defects can be instantly spotted with the use of a thermal imaging system under the proper conditions. A special hand-held device was developed that enables the thermographer to carry the equipment from house to house without the need to dismantle and set up at each stop. All the necessary components are attached for a total weight of about 40 pounds. The findings are then conveyed to a form we have developed. The form is simple enough that the client without special training in thermography can understand. The client is then able to locate the problems and take corrective measures or give it to a con-tractor to do the work.

  1. The energy-related services are the major sales promotion. Customized electricity and district heat supply technology and services for the newly developed residential area Boerkhauser Feld at Solingen-Aufderhoehe; Die Dienstleistung bringt den (Verkaufs-)Erfolg. Strom- und Waermeversorgung fuer Wohngebiet Boerkhauser Feld in Solingen-Aufderhoehe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2001-06-01

    The firm COMUNA-metall, Herford, is the contractor and service provider for installation and operation of the electricity and district heat supply systems based on a modular cogeneration plant (CHP system). The residential area will eventually encompass about 450 residential units, all buildings are low-energy houses. The article explains the systems and gives an initial performance report covering 100 existing residential units. (orig./CB) [German] Die Firma COMUNA-metall, Herford, hat als Dienstleister die Erstellung und den Betrieb einer Strom- und Nahwaermeversorgung mit Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung fuer das Wohngebiet uebernommen, das nach Fertigstellung ca. 450 Wohneinheiten in Niedrigenergiebauweise umfassen wird. Der Beitrag schildert die technischen Einrichtungen und eine erste Leistungsbilanz im Bauabschnitt mit 100 Wohneinheiten. (orig./CB)

  2. House of Generations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geert Jensen, Birgitte

    2017-01-01

    only the benefits of living close to the family. The Aarhus Municipality project "House of Generations" is a vision for creating a framework for relationships across all generations, for meaningful encounters and for rewarding neighbourliness. Three of Aarhus Municipality's magistrate departments...... participate in the project: Health and Care, Children and Youth, and Social Conditions and Employment. A public housing association that provides student dorms also participates in the project. The physical framework will be a building with a total area of approx. 25,000 m², located at Pier 4, at Aarhus......' harbour areas. The building will be a multi-generational house comprising a mixture of flexible public housing units for students, the elderly and residents who require care (elderly disabled people and people with acquired brain injuries). The building will be connected with common areas located in close...

  3. Clay Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedro, Cathy

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a project designed for fourth-graders that involves making clay relief sculptures of houses. Knowing the clay houses will become a family heirloom makes this lesson even more worth the time. It takes three classes to plan and form the clay, and another two to underglaze and glaze the final products.

  4. From Council Housing to Social Housing. The successes and misfortunes of Social Housing policies in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferdinando Terranova

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The issues dealt with are three: the need for medium – and large – scale territorial planning; the quality of housing; the solutions to guarantee secure flows of financing to launch programmes of public residential housing (ERP. A premise of any ERP programme is the planning and construction of a fast rail network to guarantee mass mobility. Once this premise has been satisfied, it is possible to identify agricultural areas to be expropriated for ERP interventions. This programme is characterised by operating above the municipal level, and it requires a structure that has the administrative powers of an agency. As regards the quality of housing, the following equation has to be dispensed with: public residential housing = ugly building characterised by alienation and anomy. Planners from this century have been called on to rise the challenge. To be certain of obtaining finance for ERP programmes, the old road of contributions at source from workers should be pursued as well as the establishment of a single fund that gathers together all the financing foreseen by laws made over the years and not spent, set aside for ERP.

  5. The Architectural and Environmental Refurbishment of Industrialised Residential Construction. The example of the Selva Cafaro Quarter in Naples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massimo Perriccioli

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This essay presents the experimental research conducted over the past years by the CHED (Concept House and Environmental Design Research Unit at the “Eduardo Vittoria” School of Architecture and Design in Ascoli Piceno, focused on the theme of Social Housing. The CHED is a temporary research team that proposes a union between diverse know-how, cultures, skills and specialisations, working towards a method of theoretical and conceptual investigation and design and building experiments in the field of innovative construction for sustainable dwelling. In particular, the experience outlined in this text relates to a design experiment completed between 2010 and 2011 and outside the borders of the Marche region, in agreement with the City of Naples' Assessorato all’Edilizia e al Centro Storico (Department of Building and the Historical Centre and focused on the architectural and environmental refurbishment of the residential quarter of Selva Cafaro in San Pietro a Patierno (Naples.

  6. Minimum housing spaces, flexibility and sustainability: a reflection on the basis of ergonomics intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Rayssa Cristiane; Elali, Gleice Azambuja

    2012-01-01

    This article discusses the quality of internal life space in apartments of residential buildings in the northeast region of Brazil, especially the possibility to adapt environments with small areas (according to local building codes) to the needs of different arrangements of families (considering 4 members per family). The research had a gradual approach and used multimethod strategy: (a) studying the universe of residential buildings whose apartment's inner area is between 50 and 60 m2 and were constructed in Natal-RN between 1998 and 2008, as well as not linked to social housing programs and occupied for more than one year; (b) selecting a building to do a Post Occupation Evaluation (POE), using walkthrough, technical observation and questionnaires; (c) choosing of two housing units to do an ergonomic intervention (based in interviews and detailed measurements). The results show the technical possibility to modify the units, but these modifications have a high (social, economic and environmental) price, because in general the space of units projected is not flexible. So, the paper concludes that this type of enterprise needs to be rethought, since part of them is (social and ecologically) unsustainable.

  7. Environmental Health Disparities in Housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The physical infrastructure and housing make human interaction possible and provide shelter. How well that infrastructure performs and which groups it serves have important implications for social equity and health. Populations in inadequate housing are more likely to have environmental diseases and injuries. Substantial disparities in housing have remained largely unchanged. Approximately 2.6 million (7.5%) non-Hispanic Blacks and 5.9 million Whites (2.8%) live in substandard housing. Segregation, lack of housing mobility, and homelessness are all associated with adverse health outcomes. Yet the experience with childhood lead poisoning in the United States has shown that housing-related disparities can be reduced. Effective interventions should be implemented to reduce environmental health disparities related to housing. PMID:21551378

  8. Prediction of residential building energy consumption: A neural network approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, M.A. Rafe; Robinson, Melvin D.; Fumo, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Some of the challenges to predict energy utilization has gained recognition in the residential sector due to the significant energy consumption in recent decades. However, the modeling of residential building energy consumption is still underdeveloped for optimal and robust solutions while this research area has become of greater relevance with significant advances in computation and simulation. Such advances include the advent of artificial intelligence research in statistical model development. Artificial neural network has emerged as a key method to address the issue of nonlinearity of building energy data and the robust calculation of large and dynamic data. The development and validation of such models on one of the TxAIRE Research houses has been demonstrated in this paper. The TxAIRE houses have been designed to serve as realistic test facilities for demonstrating new technologies. The input variables used from the house data include number of days, outdoor temperature and solar radiation while the output variables are house and heat pump energy consumption. The models based on Levenberg-Marquardt and OWO-Newton algorithms had promising results of coefficients of determination within 0.87–0.91, which is comparable to prior literature. Further work will be explored to develop a robust model for residential building application. - Highlights: • A TxAIRE research house energy consumption data was collected in model development. • Neural network models developed using Levenberg–Marquardt or OWO-Newton algorithms. • Model results match well with data and statistically consistent with literature.

  9. Fungal levels in houses in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant evacuation zone after the Great East Japan Earthquake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinohara, Naohide; Tokumura, Masahiro; Hashimoto, Kazuhiro; Asano, Katsuyoshi; Kawakami, Yuji

    2017-10-01

    Residences located within 20 km of the damaged Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant were evacuated shortly after the Great East Japan Earthquake. The levels of airborne and surface fungi were measured in six houses in the evacuation zone in August 2012 and February 2013. Airborne fungal levels in all of the houses in the summer were higher than the environmental standard levels for residential houses published in Architectural Institute of Japan (>1000 colony-forming units [CFU]/m 3 ). In two houses whose residents rarely returned to visit, fungal levels were extremely high (>52,000 CFU/m 3 ). Although fungal levels in the winter were much lower than those in the summer, they were still higher than environmental standard levels in several houses. Indoor fungal levels were significantly inversely related to the frequency with which residents returned, but they were not correlated with the air exchange rates, temperature, humidity, or radiation levels. Cladosporium spp. and Penicillium spp. were detected in every house. Aspergillus section Circumdati (Aspergillus ochraceus group) was also detected in several houses. These fungi produced ochratoxin A and ochratoxin B, which have nephrotoxic and carcinogenic potential. The present study suggests that further monitoring of fungal levels is necessary in houses in the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant evacuation zone, and that some houses may require fungal disinfection. The results suggest that residents' health could be at risk owing to the high levels of airborne fungi and toxic fungi Aspergillus section Circumdati. Therefore, monitoring and decontamination/disinfection of fungi are strongly recommended before residents are allowed to return permanently to their homes. In addition, returning to home with a certain frequency and adequate ventilation are necessary during similar situations, e.g., when residents cannot stay in their homes for a long period, because fungal levels in houses in the Fukushima Daiichi

  10. Tech House

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The members of the Swain family- Dr. Charles "Bill" Swain, wife Elaine, daughter Carol, 17, son "Chuck", 12, and dog Susie have an interesting assignment. They are active participants in an important NASA research program involving the application of space-age technology to home construction. b' Transplanted Floridians, the Swains now reside in NASA's Tech House, loatedat Langley Research Center, Hampton, Virginia. Their job is to use and help evaluate the variety of advanced technology systems in Tech House. A contemporary three-bedroom home, Tech House incorporates NASA technology, the latest commercial building techniques and other innovations, all designed to reduce energy and water consumption and to provide new levels of comfort, convenience, security and fire safety. Tech House equipment performed well in initial tests, but a house is not a home until it has people. That's where the Swains come in. NASA wants to see how the various systems work under actual living conditions, to confirm the effectiveness of the innovations or to determine necessary modifications for improvement. The Swains are occupying the house for a year, during which NASA engineers are computer monitoring the equipment and assembling a record of day-to-day performance. . Tech House is a laboratory rather than a mass production prototype, but its many benefits may influence home design and construction. In a period of sharply rising utility costs, widespread adoption of Tech House features could provide large-scale savings to homeowners and potentially enormous national benefit in resources conservation. Most innovations are aerospace spinoffs: Some of the equipment is now commercially available; other systems are expected to be in production within a few years. Around 1980, a Tech House-type of home could be built for $45-50,000 (1 976 dollars). It is estimated that the homeowner would save well over $20,000 (again 1976 dollars) in utility costs over the average mortgage span of 20 years.

  11. Spatial assimilation? The development in immigrants’ residential career with duration of stay in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Hans Skifter

    2016-01-01

    of housing and neighbourhoods. In this paper, the residential careers of immigrants in the first years after their arrival is examined and compared with Danes. The hypothesis tested is that over time the housing situation of immigrants gets closer to the comparable one for Danes. It is a longitudinal study...

  12. Energy flexibility of residential buildings using short term heat storage in the thermal mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreau, Jerome Le; Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    2016-01-01

    Highlights •Two residential buildings (80's and passive house) with two emitters (radiator, UH). •Different modulations of the set-point (upward/downward, duration, starting time). •Large differences between the 80s and the passive house, influence of the emitter. •Evaluation of the flexibility...

  13. CDBG Housing Activity

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — CDBG activity related to housing, including multifamily rehab, housing services, code enforcement, operation and repair of foreclosed property and public housing...

  14. White House

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... content Jump to navigation the WHITE HOUSE President Donald J. Trump Get in Touch Home Briefing Room From the ... For All Americans The Administration The Administration President Donald J. Trump Vice President Mike Pence First Lady Melania Trump ...

  15. Conformal house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryttov, Thomas Aaby; Sannino, Francesco

    2010-01-01

    fixed point. As a consistency check we recover the previously investigated bounds of the conformal windows when restricting to a single matter representation. The earlier conformal windows can be imagined to be part now of the new conformal house. We predict the nonperturbative anomalous dimensions...... at the infrared fixed points. We further investigate the effects of adding mass terms to the condensates on the conformal house chiral dynamics and construct the simplest instanton induced effective Lagrangian terms...

  16. Housing and child health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weitzman, Michael; Baten, Ahmareen; Rosenthal, David G; Hoshino, Risa; Tohn, Ellen; Jacobs, David E

    2013-09-01

    The connection between housing and health is well established. Physical, chemical, and biological aspects of the child's home, such as cleanliness, moisture, pests, noise, accessibility, injury risks, and other forms of housing environmental quality, all have the potential to influence multiple aspects of the health and development of children. Basic sanitation, reduced household crowding, other improvements in housing and expanded, and improved housing regulations have led to advances in children's health. For example, lead poisoning prevention policies have profoundly reduced childhood lead exposure in the United States. This and many other successes highlight the health benefits for families, particularly children, by targeting interventions that reduce or eliminate harmful exposures in the home. Additionally, parental mental health problems, food insecurity, domestic violence, and the presence of guns in children's homes all are largely experienced by children in their homes, which are not as yet considered part of the Healthy Homes agenda. There is a large movement and now a regulatory structure being put in place for healthy housing, which is becoming closely wedded with environmental health, public health, and the practice of pediatrics. The importance of homes in children's lives, history of healthy homes, asthma, and exposures to lead, carbon monoxide, secondhand/thirdhand smoke, radon, allergy triggers is discussed, as well as how changes in ambient temperature, increased humidity, poor ventilation, water quality, infectious diseases, housing structure, guns, electronic media, family structure, and domestic violence all affect children's health. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Optimal Life Cycle Portfolio Choice with Housing Market Cycles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fischer, Marcel; Stamos, Michael Z.

    2013-01-01

    income, and pre-existing housing wealth but also the state of the housing market significantly affect household decisions. Consistently with the data, the model predicts that in good states of housing market cycles (1) homeownership rates increase, (2) households buying homes invest a larger share......In recent decades U.S. households have experienced residential house prices moving persistently, that is, returns being positively serially correlated. We set up a realistically calibrated life cycle model with slow-moving time variation in expected housing returns, showing that not only age, labor...

  18. Population and Housing Unit Estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Employment and Payroll Survey of Business Owners Work from Home Our statistics highlight trends in household statistics from multiple surveys. Data Tools & Apps Main American FactFinder Census Business Builder My Classification Codes (i.e., NAICS) Economic Census Economic Indicators Economic Studies Industry Statistics

  19. Residential mobility and migration of the separated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten van Ham

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Separation is known to have a disruptive effect on the housing careers of those involved, mainly because a decrease in resources causes (temporary downward moves on the housing ladder. Little is known about the geographies of the residential mobility behaviour of the separated. Applying a hazard analysis to retrospective life-course data for the Netherlands, we investigate three hypotheses: individuals who experienced separation move more often than do steady singles and people in intact couple relationships, they are less likely to move over long distances, and they move more often to cities than people in intact couple relationships. The results show that separation leads to an increase in mobility, to moves over short distance for men with children, and to a prevalence of the city as a destination of moves.

  20. Residential, Commercial, and Utility-Scale Photovoltaic (PV) System Prices in the United States: Current Drivers and Cost-Reduction Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodrich, A.; James, T.; Woodhouse, M.

    2012-02-01

    The price of photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States (i.e., the cost to the system owner) has dropped precipitously in recent years, led by substantial reductions in global PV module prices. However, system cost reductions are not necessarily realized or realized in a timely manner by many customers. Many reasons exist for the apparent disconnects between installation costs, component prices, and system prices; most notable is the impact of fair market value considerations on system prices. To guide policy and research and development strategy decisions, it is necessary to develop a granular perspective on the factors that underlie PV system prices and to eliminate subjective pricing parameters. This report's analysis of the overnight capital costs (cash purchase) paid for PV systems attempts to establish an objective methodology that most closely approximates the book value of PV system assets.

  1. Family ties and residential locations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, C.H.; Cooke, T.J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, and in the Special Issue it introduces, the focus is on the role of family ties in residential location choice and, conversely, the role of residential locations in maintaining family ties. Not only do events in the nuclear family trigger residential relocations, but nearby family

  2. Allegheny County Poor Housing Conditions

    Data.gov (United States)

    Allegheny County / City of Pittsburgh / Western PA Regional Data Center — This estimate of the percent of distressed housing units in each Census Tract was prepared using data from the American Community Survey and the Allegheny County...

  3. The residential context of health in Australia: No longer the lucky country?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kendall, Elizabeth; Baum, Scott

    2016-01-01

    This paper introduces the special issue focused on the relationship between residence and health in Australia. We present six papers conducted in different Australian states that demonstrate different elements of the complex impact of residential context on health. Through this series of papers, we demonstrate the impact of housing quality and safety on vulnerable populations, but also the way in which processes around housing (e.g., data collection, renewal, allocation) can have either negative or positive outcomes. The broader residential context (i.e., neighborhood, community, geographic location) also must be considered in housing decisions, along with variables that closely track housing (e.g., stigma, poverty). Australia is in the middle of a housing crisis that can still be resolved in positive ways if adequate attention is given to the nuances and complexities of housing decisions.

  4. Field performance of energy-efficient residential building envelope systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prowskiw, G.

    1992-05-01

    The air tightness of 24 new houses was measured on a regular basis over periods up to three years to evaluate the structures' air barrier systems and to study the possibility of air barrier degradation, as would be indicated by an increase in the measured leakage rate. Ten of the houses were built with the polyethylene air barrier system and 14 using an early version of the Airtight Drywall Approach (ADA). The 24 project houses were architecturally similar and of approximately equal size and general layout. The airtightness of the polyethylene air barrier houses was found to remain stable over their respective monitoring periods. It was concluded that no evidence could be found to indicate polyethylene is unsuited for use as an air barrier material in residential construction. Although 2 of the 10 houses demonstrated possible, albeit slight, evidence of airtightness degradation, the magnitude of these changes was small and judged not to be of practical significance. All but one of the polyethylene houses met the airtightness requirements of the R-2000 program at the end of their monitoring periods. The project houses with the lowest measured leakage rates were those built with the double wall system and polyethylene barriers. The study also found that the airtightness of the 14 ADA houses remained stable during the monitoring period and it was concluded that no evidence could be found to indicate that the ADA system is unsuited for use in residential construction. Although 6 of the 15 houses displayed possible, but also slight, evidence of airtightness degradation, the magnitude of the changes was small and not of practical significance. All 14 houses met the airtightness requirements of the R-2000 program at the end of their respective monitoring periods. 19 refs., 191 figs., 39 tabs.

  5. Residential Mobility Across Early Childhood and Children's Kindergarten Readiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollborn, Stefanie; Lawrence, Elizabeth; Root, Elisabeth Dowling

    2018-04-01

    Understanding residential mobility in early childhood is important for contextualizing family, school, and neighborhood influences on child well-being. We examined the consequences of residential mobility for socioemotional and cognitive kindergarten readiness using the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort, a nationally representative longitudinal survey that followed U.S. children born in 2001 from infancy to kindergarten. We described individual, household, and neighborhood characteristics associated with residential mobility for children aged 0-5. Our residential mobility indicators examined frequency of moves, nonlinearities in move frequency, quality of moves, comparisons between moving houses and moving neighborhoods, and heterogeneity in the consequences of residential mobility. Nearly three-quarters of children moved by kindergarten start. Mobility did not predict cognitive scores. More moves, particularly at relatively high frequencies, predicted lower kindergarten behavior scores. Moves from socioeconomically advantaged to disadvantaged neighborhoods were especially problematic, whereas moves within a ZIP code were not. The implications of moves were similar across socioeconomic status. The behavior findings largely support an instability perspective that highlights potential disruptions from frequent or problematic moves. Our study contributes to literature emphasizing the importance of contextualizing residential mobility. The high prevalence and distinct implications of early childhood moves support the need for further research.

  6. Adventure of Architecture Example of Housing and Housing Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Asasoğlu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Housing and the concept of space associated with this requirement are among the initial attitudes towards the human reign over the nature. The dawn of the structured environment found life with this approach within the nature. Both, housing and the housing design process overlap with the historical development of modern man, and is covered within the concept of architecture today. The contribution made by culture within this period is yet another undeniable fact. While the interaction between architecture and culture are moving forward thereby leaving traces in every era throughout the history, the culture of housing and housing design exhibits a parallel attitude which is a subsidiary, yet a highly title with a close human relationship. Culture and architecture are two closely interacting aspects which are drawing the borders of each other from time to time, hinting at quality and quantity, and evaluating such. Quite naturally, the structure which is in a deep relationship with mankind is in an exchange with all physical, social and economic qualities of the human. These qualities are fundamental determinants of the concept of culture as a human trait. The process of architecture which is usually defined as a sequence of eras that involve social movements, impulses and trends, sometimes kept moving ahead in the pursuit of individual leadership and styles. The concerns regarding the solution of space problems, setting up /designing venues and arranging the environment in line with the requirements brought up increasingly complex issues and stacks of solutions which follow such problems. It is this dynamic structure which forms the basis of the architectural problem to date. Starting with the housing and residential concepts, this study brings a critical view on the application samples and methods of the relationship between architecture and culture in terms of our country in particular while putting emphasis on the architectural venture of the

  7. Malaysian Affordability Housing Policies Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Diwa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Housing has always been a significant aspiration of family expression and distinctly priciest investment by household. It plays a momentous role in the country’s economy and so central to the societal well-being that is emplaced in the United Nation Universal declaration of Human rights. Yet in developed and developing world alike, cities struggle to provide decent housing for lower and middle income population. The provision of affordable housing is a major policy concern around the world with Malaysia being no exception; rising income hardly keep pace with price hike of housing unit and housing interventions has majorly concentrated on demand side leading to a non-responsive supply sector. Therefore, this paper highlights affordable housing issues pertaining Malaysia. It formulates Malaysian Map of affordability and conducts an evaluation of global housing schemes to better identify policy priorities for Malaysia. It’s significant to harmonize supply and demand side factors in the housing market to ensure that housing supply fits the needs of citizens based on the location, price and target group. In case of Malaysia supply oriented initiative are of urgency in short and medium run. This must be supported by long term demand side schemes in parallel. Convergence of these two factors is essential for a balanced equilibrium and obtaining affordability.

  8. 24/7 in-house intensivist coverage and fellowship education: a cross-sectional survey of academic medical centers in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diaz-Guzman, Enrique; Colbert, Colleen Y; Mannino, David M; Davenport, Daniel L; Arroliga, Alejandro C

    2012-04-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the current staffing models of practice and the frequency of 24/7 coverage in academic medical centers in the United States and to assess the perceptions of critical care trainees and program directors toward these models. A cross-sectional national survey was conducted using an Internet-based survey platform. The survey was distributed to fellows and program directors of 374 critical care training programs in US academic medical centers. We received 518 responses: 138 from program directors (PDs) (37% of 374 programs) and 380 fellow responses. Coverage by a board-certified or board-eligible intensivist physician 24/7 was reported by 33% of PD respondents and was more common among pediatric and surgical critical care programs. Mandatory in-house call for critical care trainees was reported by 48% of the PDs. Mandatory call was also more common among pediatric-critical care programs compared with the rest (P 24/7 coverage would be associated with better patient care in the ICU and improved education for the fellows, although 65% of them believed this model would have a negative impact on trainees' autonomy. Intensivist coverage 24/7 was not commonly used in US academic centers responding to our survey. Significant differences in coverage models among critical care medicine specialties appear to exist. Program director and trainee respondents believed that 24/7 coverage was associated with better outcomes and education but also expressed concerns about the impact of this model on fellows' autonomy.

  9. FEMAN: Fuzzy-Based Energy Management System for Green Houses Using Hybrid Grid Solar Power

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdellah Chehri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The United Nations has designated the year 2012 as the international year of sustainable energy. Today, we are seeing a rise in global awareness of energy consumption and environmental problems. Many nations have launched different programs to reduce the energy consumption in residential and commercial buildings to seek lower-carbon energy solutions. We are talking about the future green and smart houses. The subject of smart/green houses is not one of “why,” but rather “how,” specifically: “how making the future house more energy efficient.” The use of the renewable energy, the technology and the services could help us to answer this question. Intelligent home energy management is an approach to build centralized systems that deliver application functionality as services to end-consumer applications. The objective of this work is to develop a smart and robust controller for house energy consumption with maximizing the use of solar energy and reducing the impact on the power grid while satisfying the energy demand of house appliances. We proposed a fuzzy-based energy management controller in order to reduce the consumed energy of the building while respecting a fixed comfort.

  10. Final report on implementation of energy conservation practices training in selected public housing developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    This report on the implementation of energy conservation practices training in selected public housing developments represents an initiative of the Research and Education Division, Office of Minority Economic Impact, US Department of Energy. The Office of Minority Economic Impact (MI) was created by Congress in 1979, within the US Department of Energy, to afford the Secretary advice on the effect policies, regulations and other actions of DOE respecting minority participation in energy programs. The Director of MI is responsible for the conduct of ongoing research into the effects, including socio-economic and environmental, of national energy programs, policies, and regulations of the Department of minorities. Public housing in the United States is dominated by minorities, public housing is a large consumer of residential energy. Consequently, this project is a logical merging of these two factors and an attempt to somehow influence energy savings through improving public housing residents` energy-consumption practices. This final report attempts to capture the results of this current demonstration, and incorporate the historical basis for today`s results by renewing the efforts that preceded the implementation of energy conservation practices training in selected public housing developments.

  11. Final report on implementation of energy conservation practices training in selected public housing developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-10-01

    This report on the implementation of energy conservation practices training in selected public housing developments represents an initiative of the Research and Education Division, Office of Minority Economic Impact, US Department of Energy. The Office of Minority Economic Impact (MI) was created by Congress in 1979, within the US Department of Energy, to afford the Secretary advice on the effect policies, regulations and other actions of DOE respecting minority participation in energy programs. The Director of MI is responsible for the conduct of ongoing research into the effects, including socio-economic and environmental, of national energy programs, policies, and regulations of the Department of minorities. Public housing in the United States is dominated by minorities, public housing is a large consumer of residential energy. Consequently, this project is a logical merging of these two factors and an attempt to somehow influence energy savings through improving public housing residents' energy-consumption practices. This final report attempts to capture the results of this current demonstration, and incorporate the historical basis for today's results by renewing the efforts that preceded the implementation of energy conservation practices training in selected public housing developments.

  12. Developing and Evaluating a Virtual Reality-Based Navigation System for Pre-Sale Housing Sales

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Kai Juan

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Virtual reality (VR technologies have advanced rapidly in the past few years, and many industries have adopted these cutting-edge technologies for diverse applications to improve their industrial competitiveness. VR has also received considerable recognition in the architecture, engineering, and construction industries, because it can potentially reduce project costs, delivery time, and quality risks, by allowing users to experience unbuilt spaces before breaking ground, resolving construction conflicts virtually, and reviewing complex details in immersive environments. In the real estate market, VR can also play an important role in affecting buyers’ housing purchasing decisions, especially for housing markets in Asia, where the pre-sale system is extremely common. Applying VR to the pre-sale housing system is promising, because the concept of pre-sale refers to a strategy adopted by developers that sell housing through agreements on residential units that have not been constructed yet, and VR at this stage could be a useful tool for visual communication in a true-to-scale environment. However, does VR really benefit sales in the housing market? Can clients accept using VR, instead of using traditional materials (i.e., paper-based images and physical models, to navigate and experience housing projects? The objective of this study is to develop a VR-based navigation system for a pre-sale housing project in Taiwan. We invited 30 potential clients to test the system and explore the implications of using it for project navigation. The results reveal that VR enhances the understandings of a project (perceived usefulness and increases clients’ intention to purchase, while the operation of VR (perceived ease-of-use is still the major challenge to affect clients’ satisfaction and the developer’s acceptance with respect to applying it to future housing sales.

  13. Overview of Existing and Future Residential Use Cases for Connected Thermostats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotondo, Julia [Energetics Inc., Washington, DC (United States); Johnson, Robert [Energetics Inc., Washington, DC (United States); Gonzalez, Nancy [Energetics Inc., Washington, DC (United States); Waranowski, Alexandra [Energetics Inc., Washington, DC (United States); Badger, Chris [Vermont Energy Investment Corporation, Burlington, VT (United States); Lange, Nick [Vermont Energy Investment Corporation, Burlington, VT (United States); Goldman, Ethan [Vermont Energy Investment Corporation, Burlington, VT (United States); Foster, Rebecca [Vermont Energy Investment Corporation, Burlington, VT (United States)

    2017-03-01

    This paper is intended to help inform future technology deployment opportunities for connected thermostats (CTs), based on investigation and review of the U.S. residential housing and CT markets, as well as existing, emerging, and future use cases for CT hardware and CT-generated data. The CT market has experienced tremendous growth over the last 5 years—both in terms of the number of units sold and the number of firms offering competing products—and can be characterized by its rapid pace of technological innovation. Despite many assuming CTs would become powerful tools for increasing comfort while saving energy, there remains a great deal of uncertainty about the actual energy and cost savings that are likely to be realized from deployment of CTs, particularly under different conditions.

  14. Overview of Existing and Future Residential Use Cases for Connected Thermostats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rotondo, Julia [Energetics Inc., Washington, DC (United States); Johnson, Robert [Energetics Inc., Washington, DC (United States); Gonzales, Nancy [Energetics Inc., Washington, DC (United States); Waranowski, Alexandra [Energetics Inc., Washington, DC (United States); Badger, Chris [Vermont Energy Investment Corp., Burlington, VT (United States); Lange, Nack [Vermont Energy Investment Corp., Burlington, VT (United States); Goldman, Ethan [Vermont Energy Investment Corp., Burlington, VT (United States); Foster, Rebecca [Vermont Energy Investment Corp., Burlington, VT (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This paper is intended to help inform future technology deployment opportunities for connected thermostats (CTs), based on investigation and review of the U.S. residential housing and CT markets, as well as existing, emerging, and future use cases for CT hardware and CT-generated data. The CT market has experienced tremendous growth over the last five years — both in terms of the number of units sold and the number of firms offering competing products — and can be characterized by its rapid pace of technological innovation. Despite many assuming CTs would become powerful tools for increasing comfort while saving energy, there remains a great deal of uncertainty about the actual energy and cost savings that are likely to be realized from deployment of CTs, particularly under different conditions.

  15. Assessing the engineering performance of affordable net-zero energy housing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallpe, Jordan P.

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate affordable technologies that are capable of providing attractive, cost-effective energy savings to the housing industry. The research did so by investigating the 2011 Solar Decathlon competition, with additional insight from the Purdue INhome. Insight from the Purdue INhome verified the importance of using a three step design process to design a net-zero energy building. In addition, energy consumption values of the INhome were used to compare and contrast different systems used in other houses. Evaluation of unbiased competition contests gave a better understanding of how a house can realistically reach net-zero. Upon comparison, off-the-shelf engineering systems such as super-efficient HVAC units, heat pump hot water heaters, and properly designed photovoltaic arrays can affordably enable a house to become net-zero. These important and applicable technologies realized from the Solar Decathlon will reduce the 22 percent of all energy consumed through the residential sector in the United States. In conclusion, affordable net-zero energy buildings can be built today with commitment from design professionals, manufacturers, and home owners.

  16. White House Office of the Vice President Announces New Memorandum of Understanding in Clinical Proteogenomics Between the United States and Australia | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The White House Office of the Vice President has announced the signing of three Memoranda of Understanding (MOUs) that will make available an unprecedented international dataset to advance cancer research and care.

  17. Procedures for Calculating Residential Dehumidification Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, Jon [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Booten, Chuck [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Residential building codes and voluntary labeling programs are continually increasing the energy efficiency requirements of residential buildings. Improving a building's thermal enclosure and installing energy-efficient appliances and lighting can result in significant reductions in sensible cooling loads leading to smaller air conditioners and shorter cooling seasons. However due to fresh air ventilation requirements and internal gains, latent cooling loads are not reduced by the same proportion. Thus, it's becoming more challenging for conventional cooling equipment to control indoor humidity at part-load cooling conditions and using conventional cooling equipment in a non-conventional building poses the potential risk of high indoor humidity. The objective of this project was to investigate the impact the chosen design condition has on the calculated part-load cooling moisture load, and compare calculated moisture loads and the required dehumidification capacity to whole-building simulations. Procedures for sizing whole-house supplemental dehumidification equipment have yet to be formalized; however minor modifications to current Air-Conditioner Contractors of America (ACCA) Manual J load calculation procedures are appropriate for calculating residential part-load cooling moisture loads. Though ASHRAE 1% DP design conditions are commonly used to determine the dehumidification requirements for commercial buildings, an appropriate DP design condition for residential buildings has not been investigated. Two methods for sizing supplemental dehumidification equipment were developed and tested. The first method closely followed Manual J cooling load calculations; whereas the second method made more conservative assumptions impacting both sensible and latent loads.

  18. Future economics of the fuel cell housing market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erdmann, G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper examines how a market of small-scale stationary fuel cells of up to 20 kW could look like, if costs of stationary fuel cell systems allow market entry. This paper analyses what the market potential for this technology would be, what types of residential buildings might be most attractive, and what would be the quantitative changes in the fuel and the power market. Finally, does the perspective of stationary fuel cells offer a business opportunity for power and gas distribution companies? The methodology of this paper differs from that of other studies in that we model the operation of stationary fuel cells on the basis of 15 min power load profiles of individual buildings. From these we draw synthetic functions describing the fuel cell power output/natural gas input, as a function of a number of specific properties of individual buildings. We then develop a statistical distribution of these properties of the residential building stock in Germany (15 million units), finally using a Monte Carlo simulation the relevant market shares are calculated. The methodology that is developed here has an advantage in that it is flexible and can be applied for different population of buildings. We know, for example, that the results would differ between rural and urban areas. The model may reflect these differences thus allowing deeper insights into future fuel cell housing markets. (author)

  19. Passive houses in Austria: the role of intermediary organisations for the successful transformation of a socio-technical system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ornetzeder, Michael (Inst. of Technology Assessment of the Austrian Academy of Sciences (Austria)); Rohracher, Harald (IFZ - Inter-Univ. Research Centre for Technology, Work and Culture (Austria))

    2009-07-01

    In Austria, the first passive house was built in 1996. Since then the market for passive houses has rapidly increased. Statistics show that there were more than 4000 residential units with about 10,000 passive house residents at the end of 2006 - more per capita than in any other country of the world. Sustainability requirements, however, have led to profound shifts in the need for collaboration between the actors involved in planning, constructing and using buildings. This paper draws on a qualitative case study to analyse the development and dissemination of passive houses in Austria by focussing on the role of intermediate organisations. Empirically, the paper is based on qualitative interviews with representatives of relevant organisations as well as the analysis of various documentary sources. The case study shows that new types of buildings, such as 'passive houses', have given rise to new actors and organisations to organise integrative planning processes, to set standards and market the passive house concept, to certify components, to transfer knowledge to professionals, to assist consumers in choosing architects, installers and technologies or to organise participation processes. New interest organisations mediate between producers and the policy level, energy agencies act as system builders to transfer these new technologies and practices into the mainstream building sectors, etc. Intermediation processes fulfilled by a broad range of organisations turned out to be of crucial importance for the coordination and shaping of the socio-technical system.

  20. Active house

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Kurt Emil; Olesen, Gitte Gylling Hammershøj

    Formålet med dette abstrakt er at illustrere, at huse kan være konstrueret til at basere sig udelukkende på vedvarende energikilder og samtidig være CO2-neutrale og producere mere energi end de forbruger. Active House Visionen undersøger disse muligheder i otte demonstration huse i fem forskellige...

  1. Residential energy use in one-family households with natural gas provision in a city of the Patagonian Andean region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, A.D.; Carlsson-Kanyama, A.; Crivelli, E.S.; Gortari, S.

    2007-01-01

    Residential energy use was studied in one-family houses in the city of Bariloche, in the Patagonian Andean region of Argentina. A survey was conducted of households connected to the natural gas network to correlate use of gas, living area and number of inhabitants per house. The annual average consumption of gas was found to be 169 GJ, and consumption of electricity 8 GJ. This total energy use per household per year is almost double the average value reported for Stockholm, Sweden, although both locations have similar heating requirements. The difference was mainly due to heating energy consumption per unit living space, which in Bariloche was 1530 MJ/m 2 per year, while in Stockholm the average is around 570 MJ/m 2 per year. The high energy consumption in Bariloche is explained primarily by the construction characteristics of the buildings, and secondarily by the efficiency of the heating devices used. We were able to conclude that subsidies on natural gas tariffs given to the residential sector do not promote a rational use of the resource. Furthermore, almost 40% of the population (mostly households in poverty) are not connected to the subsidised gas resource, but pay prices for alternative fuels that are between 10- and 15 times higher. Policies to improve buildings and appliances would reduce emissions and make access to energy more equitable

  2. GENDER ROLE DISTRIBUTION IN RESIDENTIAL REAL ESTATE FAMILY DECISION MAKING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina R. KANCHEVA

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Purchase and consumption behavioral patterns of various family formations in different social and cultural contexts have been subject to intensive investigation over the recent years. Residential real estate as a product category represents one of the most complex household purchases incorporating a wide diversity of attributes to be considered in order to match family members’ needs within available resources. The purpose of this paper is to add some insights into spousal perceptions of gender role specialization throughout a residential real estate purchase family decision-making process. The distribution of influence between husbands and wives across three decision-making stages, three sub-decisions and twelve housing attribute choices and the relative importance of twelve residential real estate characteristics are examined using a convenience sample of both spouses in 127 Bulgarian heterosexual married and cohabiting couples.

  3. Residential radon and lung cancer incidence in a Danish cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Andersen, Claus Erik; Sørensen, Mette

    2012-01-01

    High-level occupational radon exposure is an established risk factor for lung cancer. We assessed the long-term association between residential radon and lung cancer risk using a prospective Danish cohort using 57,053 persons recruited during 1993–1997. We followed each cohort member for cancer...... occurrence until 27 June 2006, identifying 589 lung cancer cases. We traced residential addresses from 1 January 1971 until 27 June 2006 and calculated radon at each of these addresses using information from central databases regarding geology and house construction. Cox proportional hazards models were used...... to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for lung cancer risk associated with residential radon exposure with and without adjustment for sex, smoking variables, education, socio-economic status, occupation, body mass index, air pollution and consumption of fruit and alcohol...

  4. Life cycle assessment of energy and CO2 emissions for residential buildings in Jakarta, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surahman, U.; Kubota, T.; Wijaya, A.

    2016-04-01

    In order to develop low energy and low carbon residential buildings, it is important to understand their detailed energy profiles. This study provides the results of life cycle assessment of energy and CO2 emissions for residential buildings in Jakarta, Indonesia. A survey was conducted in the city in 2012 to obtain both material inventory and household energy consumption data within the selected residential buildings (n=300), which are classified into three categories, namely simple, medium and luxurious houses. The results showed that the average embodied energy of simple, medium and luxurious houses was 58.5, 201.0, and 559.5 GJ, respectively. It was found that total embodied energy of each house can be explained by its total floor area alone with high accuracy in respective house categories. Meanwhile, it was seen that operational energy usage patterns varied largely among house categories as well as households especially in the simple and medium houses. The energy consumption for cooling was found to be the most significant factor of the increase in operational energy from simple to luxurious houses. Further, in the life cycle energy, the operational energy accounted for much larger proportions of about 86-92% than embodied energy regardless of the house categories. The life cycle CO2 emissions for medium and luxurious houses were larger than that of simple houses by 2 and 6 times on average. In the simple houses, cooking was the largest contributor to the CO2 emissions (25%), while the emissions caused by cooling increased largely with the house category and became the largest contributors in the medium (26%) and luxurious houses (41%).

  5. Radon concentrations in residential housing in Hiroshima and Nagasaki

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yonehara, Hidenori; Aoyama, Takashi; Radford, E.P.; Kato, Hiroo; Sakanoue, Masanobu.

    1992-01-01

    A measurement of indoor radon ( 222 Rn) concentrations in Hiroshima and Nagasaki was carried out to examine an effect of the exposure on atomic bomb (A-bomb) survivors. Two hundred dwellings (100 from each city), chiefly of members of the Life Span Study population which is a fixed cohort studied by Radiation Effects Research Foundation (RERF), were selected for this survey. We used two types of alpha-track detector: a Terradex detector type SF and a bare-track detector improved by Yonehara et al. Comparative measurements showed that although there was an adequate correlation between the values obtained using the two detectors, the geometric mean value for the bare-track detector was 45% of that for the Terradex detector. This difference was considered to be due to differences in the calibration methods and sensitivities of the detectors to thoron ( 220 Rn). The arithmetic mean values of the radon concentrations for 193 locations in Hiroshima and 192 locations in Nagasaki measured by Terradex SF detector were 103 Bq m -3 and 40.6 Bq m -3 , respectively. The values at 100 locations in Hiroshima and at 93 locations in Nagasaki measured by the bare detector were 43.1. Bq m -3 and 13.6 Bq m -3 , respectively. The significant difference between the geometric mean values of the concentration in Hiroshima and Nagasaki measured by both methods was observed. The difference might be attributable to the different geological environments of the two cities. The difference between the estimated dose equivalents for exposure to radon daughters in dwellings in Hiroshima and Nagasaki over the last 30 years might amount to 0.4 or 0.8 Sv; however, no statistically significant difference was observed in lung cancer mortality in the low-dose range in either city. Nevertheless, the indoor-radon concentrations estimated in this survey could significantly influence the dose-response relationships for A-bomb exposure. (author)

  6. Methods of Improving Water Treatment Systems for Individual Residential Houses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlov Sergey

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available One of hot topics for ecological management is sewage treatment today in places where there is no sewerage. The volume of country construction in territories, which are not connected to the public sewage system increasing nowadays. Therefore, problem of wastewater treatment take place. Currently, there are a lot of different designs of local waste treatment plants is offered to consumers. However, a large number of negative reviews indicate serious shortcomings in most of the local plants offered in the market. The purpose of this paper is the proposal of improvement of the most common local treatment plants in Russia.

  7. Economic analysis of second use electric vehicle batteries for residential energy storage and load-levelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heymans, Catherine; Walker, Sean B.; Young, Steven B.; Fowler, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The reuse of Li-ion EV batteries for energy storage systems (ESS) in stationary settings is a promising technology to support improved management of demand and supply of electricity. In this paper, MatLAB simulation of a residential energy profile and regulated cost structure is used to analyze the feasibility of and cost savings from repurposing an EV battery unit for peak-shifting. in situ residential energy storage can contribute to the implementation of a smart grid by supporting the reduction of demand during typical peak use periods. Use of an ESS increases household energy use but potentially improves economic effectiveness and reduces greenhouse gas emissions. The research supports the use of financial incentives for Li-ion battery reuse in ESS, including lower energy rates and reduced auxiliary fees. - Highlights: • EV Li-ion batteries can be reused in stationary energy storage systems (ESS). • A single ESS can shift 2 to 3 h of electricity used in a house. • While energy use increases, potential economic and environmental effectiveness improve. • ESS supports smart grid objectives. • Incentives like reduced fees are needed to encourage implementation of Li-ion battery ESS

  8. The 1992 Pacific Northwest Residential Energy Survey: Phase 1 : Book 1 : Getting Started.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Applied Management & Planning Group (firm); United States. Bonneville Power Administration. End-Use Research Section.

    1993-08-01

    This Executive Summary outlines the general processes employed in and the major findings from the conduct of Phase I of the Pacific Northwest Residential Energy Survey (PNWRES92-I) during the last quarter of 1992. This study was Bonneville`s third comprehensive residential survey of the region, conducted to provide data on energy usage, conservation awareness and behaviors, and associated consumer characteristics for use in forecasting and planning. The summary is divided into four sections: Background sets the stage with respect to the need for the survey, relates it to previous work, outlines the implementation processes, and summarizes the data products. Profiling the respondents summarizes the survey results under these six categories: Demographics; Housing Units; Room Inventory; Appliance Inventory; Air-Conditioning/Heating; Water-Heating; and Opinion. Reports and cross-tabulations describes the various individual documents. Bonneville Power Plus provides a short description of an Excel-spreadsheet-based software program that contains all of the tabulated material in a format that encourages browsing among the tables and charts, with special feature that they can be copied directly into other Windows-based documents.

  9. Residential-energy-demand modeling and the NIECS data base: an evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cowing, T.G.; Dubin, J.A.; McFadden, D.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to evaluate the 1978-1979 National Interim Energy Consumption Survey (NIECS) data base in terms of its usefulness for estimating residential energy demand models based on household appliance choice and utilization decisions. The NIECS contains detailed energy usage information at the household level for 4081 households during the April 1978 to March 1979 period. Among the data included are information on the structural and thermal characteristics of the housing unit, demographic characteristics of the household, fuel usage, appliance characteristics, and actual energy consumption. The survey covers the four primary residential fuels-electricity, natural gas, fuel oil, and liquefied petroleum gas - and includes detailed information on recent household conservation and retrofit activities. Section II contains brief descriptions of the major components of the NIECS data set. Discussions are included on the sample frame and the imputation procedures used in NIECS. There are also two extensive tables, giving detailed statistical and other information on most of the non-vehicle NIECS variables. Section III contains an assessment of the NIECS data, focusing on four areas: measurement error, sample design, imputation problems, and additional data needed to estimate appliance choice/use models. Section IV summarizes and concludes the report.

  10. Residential radon in Finland: sources, variation, modelling and dose comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvela, H

    1995-09-01

    The study deals with sources of indoor radon in Finland, seasonal variations in radon concentration, the effect of house construction and ventilation and also with the radiation dose from indoor radon and terrestrial gamma radiation. The results are based on radon measurements in approximately 4000 dwellings and on air exchange measurements in 250 dwellings as well as on model calculations. The results confirm that convective soil air flow is by far the most important source of indoor radon in Finnish low-rise residential housing. (97 refs., 61 figs., 30 tabs.).

  11. Residential radon in Finland: sources, variation, modelling and dose comparisons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvela, H.

    1995-09-01

    The study deals with sources of indoor radon in Finland, seasonal variations in radon concentration, the effect of house construction and ventilation and also with the radiation dose from indoor radon and terrestrial gamma radiation. The results are based on radon measurements in approximately 4000 dwellings and on air exchange measurements in 250 dwellings as well as on model calculations. The results confirm that convective soil air flow is by far the most important source of indoor radon in Finnish low-rise residential housing. (97 refs., 61 figs., 30 tabs.)

  12. Capitalization of Charter Schools into Residential Property Values

    OpenAIRE

    Scott A. Imberman; Michael Naretta; Margaret O’Rourke

    2015-01-01

    While prior research has found clear impacts of schools and school quality on property values, little is known about whether charter schools have similar effects. Using sale price data for residential properties in Los Angeles County from 2008 to 2011 we estimate the neighborhood level impact of charter schools on housing prices. Using an identification strategy that relies on census block fixed-effects and variation in charter penetration over time, we find little evidence that the availabil...

  13. Smart Houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-01-01

    GWS takes plans for a new home and subjects them to intensive computerized analysis that does 10,000 calculations relative to expected heat loss and heat gain, then provides specifications designed specifically for each structure as to heating, cooling, ventilation and insulation. As construction progresses, GWS inspects the work of the electrical, plumbing and insulation contractors and installs its own Smart House Radiant Barrier. On completion of the home, GWS technicians use a machine that creates a vacuum in the house and enables computer calculation of the air exchanged, a measure of energy efficiency. Key factor is the radiant barrier, borrowed from the Apollo program. This is an adaptation of a highly effective aluminized heat shield as a radiation barrier holding in or keeping out heat, cold air and water vapor.

  14. Structural analysis of an off-grid tiny house

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calluari, Karina Arias; Alonso-Marroquín, Fernando

    2017-06-01

    The off-grid technologies and tiny house movement have experimented an unprecedented growth in recent years. Putting both sides together, we are trying to achieve an economic and environmental friendly solution to the higher cost of residential properties. This solution is the construction of off-grid tiny houses. This article presents a design for a small modular off-grid house made by pine timber. A numerical analysis of the proposed tiny house was performed to ensure its structural stability. The results were compared with the suggested serviceability limit state criteria, which are contended in the Australia Guidelines Standards making this design reliable for construction.

  15. Retrofitting the Southeast. The Cool Energy House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoeller, W. [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States); Shapiro, C. [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States); Vijayakumar, G. [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States); Puttagunta, S. [Steven Winter Associates, Inc., Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2013-02-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings research team has provided the technical engineering and building science support for a highly visible demonstration home that was unveiled at the National Association of Home Builders' International Builders Show on Feb. 9, 2012, in Orlando, FL. The two previous projects, the Las Vegas net-zero ReVISION House and the 2011 VISION and ReVISION Houses in Orlando, met goals for energy efficiency, cost effectiveness, and information dissemination through multiple web-based venues. This report describes the deep energy retrofit of the Cool Energy House (CEH), which began as a mid-1990s two-story traditional specification house of about 4,000 ft2 in the upscale Orlando suburb of Windermere.

  16. Retrofitting the Southeast: The Cool Energy House

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoeller, W.; Shapiro, C.; Vijayakumar, G.; Puttagunta, S.

    2013-02-01

    The Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings has provided the technical engineering and building science support for a highly visible demonstration home in connection with the National Association of Home Builders' International Builders Show. The two previous projects, the Las Vegas net-zero ReVISION House and the 2011 VISION and ReVISION Houses in Orlando, met goals for energy efficiency, cost effectiveness, and information dissemination through multiple web-based venues. This project, which was unveiled at the 2012 International Builders Show in Orlando on February 9, is the deep energy retrofit Cool Energy House (CEH). The CEH began as a mid-1990s two-story traditional specification house of about 4,000 ft2 in the upscale Orlando suburb of Windermere.

  17. Interface unit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keyson, D.V.; Freudenthal, A.; De Hoogh, M.P.A.; Dekoven, E.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    The invention relates to an interface unit comprising at least a display unit for communication with a user, which is designed for being coupled with a control unit for at least one or more parameters in a living or working environment, such as the temperature setting in a house, which control unit

  18. Re-thinking residential mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ham, Maarten; Findlay, Allan M.

    2015-01-01

    While researchers are increasingly re-conceptualizing international migration, far less attention has been devoted to re-thinking short-distance residential mobility and immobility. In this paper we harness the life course approach to propose a new conceptual framework for residential mobility research. We contend that residential mobility and immobility should be re-conceptualized as relational practices that link lives through time and space while connecting people to structural conditions. Re-thinking and re-assessing residential mobility by exploiting new developments in longitudinal analysis will allow geographers to understand, critique and address pressing societal challenges. PMID:27330243

  19. Large-Scale Residential Demolition

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA provides resources for handling residential demolitions or renovations. This includes planning, handling harmful materials, recycling, funding, compliance assistance, good practices and regulations.

  20. Post-Retrofit Residential Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lancaster, Ross; lutzenhiser, Loren; Moezzi, Mithra; Widder, Sarah H.; Chandra, Subrato; Baechler, Michael C.

    2012-04-30

    This study examined a range of factors influencing energy consumption in households that had participated in residential energy-efficiency upgrades. The study was funded by a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and was conducted by faculty and staff of Portland State University Center for Urban Studies and Department of Economics. This work was made possible through the assistance and support of the Energy Trust of Oregon (ETO), whose residential energy-efficiency programs provided the population from which the sample cases were drawn. All households in the study had participated in the ETO Home Performance with Energy Star (HPwES) program. A number of these had concurrently pursued measures through other ETO programs. Post-retrofit energy outcomes are rarely investigated on a house-by-house basis. Rather, aggregate changes are ordinarily the focus of program impact evaluations, with deviation from aggregate expectations chalked up to measurement error, the vagaries of weather and idiosyncrasies of occupants. However, understanding how homes perform post-retrofit on an individual basis can give important insights to increase energy savings at the participant and the programmatic level. Taking a more disaggregated approach, this study analyzed energy consumption data from before and after the retrofit activity and made comparisons with engineering estimates for the upgrades, to identify households that performed differently from what may have been expected based on the estimates. A statistical analysis using hierarchal linear models, which accounted for weather variations, was performed looking separately at gas and electrical use during the periods before and after upgrades took place. A more straightforward comparison of billing data for 12-month periods before and after the intervention was also performed, yielding the majority of the cases examined. The later approach allowed total energy use and costs to be

  1. Radon concentration in a house of Calvados

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leleyter, L.; Riffault, B.; Mazenc, B.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies indicate a link between the risk of lung cancer and residential radon exposure. However, in France, awareness of this problem was made relatively late. Accordingly this study examines the radon concentration in a private home in Calvados (Normandy region). Findings show that the presence of a fireplace in a house can accelerate radon convective transfer, and that simple adjustments to interior and exterior accommodation can significantly reduce radon concentrations in the home. (authors)

  2. Factorial Analysis of Albanian Housing Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Kabello Koprencka

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Housing market and housing price dynamics are very important to the economy. About 65% of households in the western world and 85% of Albania's own private apartment. The market of residential estates is very complex and influenced by many factors, some of which are hard to be measured. Such factors include handling of taxes and remittances. The analysis of such factors becomes more complicated by the interference of temporary trends during the period that some explanatory variables have at their disposal. This generates an important identification problem, which prevents the accurate evaluation of long-term changes in the housing prices. The data used in this study are extracted from reports of Bank of Albania, INSTAT, IMF and newspaper “Celes” as well as from surveys to individual purchasers, investors and developers. Through the model it is analyzed the development of residential estates‟ market compared to the historical trend of housing prices and to the theoretical determinant. The econometric model used is a generalized multiple regression equation. The model allows us to see the dynamic interaction between the housing prices and the variables selected according to hypotheses on the very complex economic structure associated with this market.

  3. RECENT TRENDS IN CONSTRUCTION AND RESIDENTIAL REAL ESTATE MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheremisina T. P.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The composition of the residential real estate and the structure of Russian housing market do not match: primary and secondary markets are supplemented by a considerable in size non-market sector of residential real estate - the stock of dilapidated housing and buildings in a state of emergency that is filling up the secondary market with rapidly growing volume of worn out properties. While the developmental model of entrepreneurship is gradually settling in the primary housing market, and in general the “soviet” model of management (management companies are not that different from the soviet property management agencies is remaining in the secondary market, the non-market sector requires a formulation of an adequate management model that would allow the private and public management of residential real estate at the same time. Mega-project of renovation of the 5-storey buildings in Moscow will support the formation of such a model and the legal grounds for its existence.

  4. Air tightness of new houses in the U.S.: A preliminary report; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sherman, Max H.; Matson, Nance E.

    2002-01-01

    Most dwellings in the United States are ventilated primarily through leaks in the building shell (i.e., infiltration) rather than by whole-house mechanical ventilation systems. Consequently, quantification of envelope air-tightness is critical to determining how much energy is being lost through infiltration and how much infiltration is contributing toward ventilation requirements. Envelope air tightness and air leakage can be determined from fan pressurization measurements with a blower door. Tens of thousands of unique fan pressurization measurements have been made of U.S. dwellings over the past decades. LBNL has collected the available data on residential infiltration into its Residential Diagnostics Database, with support from the U.S. Department of Energy. This report documents the envelope air leakage section of the LBNL database, with particular emphasis on new construction. The work reported here is an update of similar efforts carried out a decade ago, which used available data largely focused on the housing stock, rather than on new construction. The current effort emphasizes shell tightness measurements made on houses soon after they are built. These newer data come from over two dozen datasets, including over 73,000 measurements spread throughout a majority of the U.S. Roughly one-third of the measurements are for houses identified as energy-efficient through participation in a government or utility program. As a result, the characteristics reported here provide a quantitative estimate of the impact that energy-efficiency programs have on envelope tightness in the US, as well as on trends in construction

  5. Elder Abuse; Joint Hearing Before the Special Committee on Aging, United States Senate and the Select Committee on Aging, House of Representatives, Ninety-Sixth Congress, Second Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. Senate Special Committee on Aging.

    This report of a joint hearing before the Senate and House Committees on Aging examines elder abuse as a growing problem in America. The testimony considers the benefits of community-based services for the elderly living with relatives, explores other forms of long-term care, and investigates ways to aid victims of elder abuse. An overview of the…

  6. Public housing renewal and social determinants of health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arthurson, Kathy; Levin, Iris; Ziersch, Anna

    2016-01-01

    This article draws on the concept of residential context of housing and its relationship to health. It considers a bundle of changes through implementation of a housing renewal initiative as part of the Carlton Housing Estate Upgrading Project in Melbourne, Australia. Beyond the quality and appropriateness of the housing, pertinent factors explored include social networks, safety and security, and green open space. Data collection for the research project included in-depth interviews with public housing tenants, private residents, and service providers who live on and service the estate, as well as neighborhood observations and participation in on-site events. A key finding was that the relational processes of how tenants were related to by others-specifically, the way housing was reallocated during the processes of renewal-affected social housing tenants' self-perceived health and well-being.

  7. Monitoring a Pre-Normative Multi-Family Housing Case-Study in a Mediterranean Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Blázquez

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In Spain, a significant percentage of the residential building stock presents deficient indoor conditions regarding current energy standards, due to having been constructed before the Norma Básica de la Edificación in 1979 (NBE CT 79 regarding thermal conditions in buildings. Current environmental policies pursue a cut in energy consumption and seek improvements in indoor conditions by refurbishing current stock, mainly that constructed between 1950 and 1980. Before any retrofitting action, housing monitoring has become essential for a better understanding of real and passive environmental behavior. This paper aims to present the monitoring in hourly intervals, real-time and post-occupancy conditions of a residential building in Seville, built in the 1950s and belonging to national heritage. The results obtained show major discrepancies between thermal indoor data collected and comfort conditions, both in summer and winter, which are solved by the sporadic use of cooling and heating devices present in the dwellings, thus leading to less energy consumption than expected. This is a common occurrence in multi-family housing units from the Mediterranean arc: there are many periods of the year in which a vast number of the population lives in poor energy conditions.

  8. Housing Status, Medical Care, and Health Outcomes Among People Living With HIV/AIDS: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aidala, Angela A; Wilson, Michael G; Shubert, Virginia; Gogolishvili, David; Globerman, Jason; Rueda, Sergio; Bozack, Anne K; Caban, Maria; Rourke, Sean B

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests responses to HIV that combine individual-level interventions with those that address structural or contextual factors that influence risks and health outcomes of infection. Housing is such a factor. Housing occupies a strategic position as an intermediate structural factor, linking "upstream" economic, social, and cultural determinants to the more immediate physical and social environments in which everyday life is lived. The importance of housing status for HIV prevention and care has been recognized, but much of this attention has focused on homeless individuals as a special risk group. Analyses have less often addressed community housing availability and conditions as factors influencing population health or unstable, inadequate, or unaffordable housing as a situation or temporary state. A focus on individual-level characteristics associated with literal homelessness glosses over social, economic, and policy drivers operating largely outside any specific individual's control that affect housing and residential environments and the health resources or risk exposures such contexts provide. We examined the available empirical evidence on the association between housing status (broadly defined), medical care, and health outcomes among people with HIV and analyzed results to inform future research, program development, and policy implementation. We searched 8 electronic health and social science databases from January 1, 1996, through March 31, 2014, using search terms related to housing, dwelling, and living arrangements and HIV and AIDS. We contacted experts for additional literature. We selected articles if they were quantitative analyses published in English, French, or Spanish that included at least 1 measure of housing status as an independent variable and at least 1 health status, health care, treatment adherence, or risk behavior outcome among people with HIV in high-income countries. We defined housing status to include

  9. Housing Status, Medical Care, and Health Outcomes Among People Living With HIV/AIDS: A Systematic Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Michael G.; Shubert, Virginia; Gogolishvili, David; Globerman, Jason; Rueda, Sergio; Bozack, Anne K.; Caban, Maria; Rourke, Sean B.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Accumulating evidence suggests responses to HIV that combine individual-level interventions with those that address structural or contextual factors that influence risks and health outcomes of infection. Housing is such a factor. Housing occupies a strategic position as an intermediate structural factor, linking “upstream” economic, social, and cultural determinants to the more immediate physical and social environments in which everyday life is lived. The importance of housing status for HIV prevention and care has been recognized, but much of this attention has focused on homeless individuals as a special risk group. Analyses have less often addressed community housing availability and conditions as factors influencing population health or unstable, inadequate, or unaffordable housing as a situation or temporary state. A focus on individual-level characteristics associated with literal homelessness glosses over social, economic, and policy drivers operating largely outside any specific individual’s control that affect housing and residential environments and the health resources or risk exposures such contexts provide. Objectives. We examined the available empirical evidence on the association between housing status (broadly defined), medical care, and health outcomes among people with HIV and analyzed results to inform future research, program development, and policy implementation. Search methods. We searched 8 electronic health and social science databases from January 1, 1996, through March 31, 2014, using search terms related to housing, dwelling, and living arrangements and HIV and AIDS. We contacted experts for additional literature. Selection criteria. We selected articles if they were quantitative analyses published in English, French, or Spanish that included at least 1 measure of housing status as an independent variable and at least 1 health status, health care, treatment adherence, or risk behavior outcome among people with HIV in

  10. Measuring radon source magnitude in residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazaroff, W.W.; Boegel, M.L.; Nero, A.V.

    1981-08-01

    A description is given of procedures used in residences for rapid grab-sample and time-dependent measurements of the air-exchange rate and radon concentration. The radon source magnitude is calculated from the results of simultaneous measurements of these parameters. Grab-sample measurements in three survey groups comprising 101 US houses showed the radon source magnitude to vary approximately log-normally with a geometric mean of 0.37 and a range of 0.01 to 6.0 pCi 1 -1 h -1 . Successive measurements in six houses in the northeastern United States showed considerable variability in source magnitude within a given house. In two of these houses the source magnitude showed a strong correlation with the air-exchange rate, suggesting that soil gas influx can be an important transport process for indoor radon

  11. HOOPER BAY HOUSING ANALYSIS AND ENERGY FEASIBILITY REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SEA LION CORPORATION; COLD CLIMATE HOUSING RESEARCH CENTER; SOLUTIONS FOR HEALTHY BREATHING; WHITNEY CONSTRUCTION

    2012-12-30

    Sea Lion applied for and received a grant from the Department of Energy (DOE) towards this end titled Energy Efficiency Development and Deployment in Indian Country. The initial objectives of the Hooper Bay Energy Efficiency Feasibility Study were to demonstrate a 30% reduction in residential/commercial energy usage and identify the economic benefits of implementing energy efficiency measures to the Tribe through: (1) partnering with Whitney Construction and Solutions for Healthy Breathing in the training and hire of 2 local energy assessors to conduct energy audits of 9 representative housing models and 2 commercial units in the community. These homes are representative of 52 homes constructed across different eras. (2) partnering with Cold Climate Housing Research Center to document current electrical and heating energy consumption and analyze data for a final feasibility report (3) assessing the economics of electricity & heating fuel usage; (4) projecting energy savings or fossil fuel reduction by modeling of improvement scenarios and cost feasibility The following two objectives will be completed after the publication of this report: (5) the development of materials lists for energy efficiency improvements (6) identifying financing options for the follow-up energy efficiency implementation phase.

  12. Sydney Opera House Rise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    Sydney Opera House Exhibition (2013) A CITA research and exhibition project, for Sydney Opera House exhibition "Danish Design at the House".......Sydney Opera House Exhibition (2013) A CITA research and exhibition project, for Sydney Opera House exhibition "Danish Design at the House"....

  13. Fertility expectations and residential mobility in Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ermisch

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is plausible that people take into account anticipated changes in family size in choosing where to live. But estimation of the impact of anticipated events on current transitions in an event history framework is challenging because expectations must be measured in some way and, like indicators of past childbearing, expected future childbearing may be endogenous with respect to housing decisions. Objective: The objective of the study is to estimate how expected changes in family size affect residential movement in Great Britain in a way which addresses these challenges. Methods: We use longitudinal data from a mature 18-wave panel survey, the British Household Panel Survey, which incorporates a direct measure of fertility expectations. The statistical methods allow for the potential endogeneity of expectations in our estimation and testing framework. Results: We produce evidence consistent with the idea that past childbearing mainly affects residential mobility through expectations of future childbearing, not directly through the number of children in the household. But there is heterogeneity in response. In particular, fertility expectations have a much greater effect on mobility among women who face lower costs of mobility, such as private tenants. Conclusions: Our estimates indicate that expecting to have a(nother child in the future increases the probability of moving by about 0.036 on average, relative to an average mobility rate of 0.14 per annum in our sample. Contribution: Our contribution is to incorporate anticipation of future events into an empirical model of residential mobility. We also shed light on how childbearing affects mobility.

  14. 24 CFR 982.615 - Shared housing: Occupancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... DEVELOPMENT SECTION 8 TENANT BASED ASSISTANCE: HOUSING CHOICE VOUCHER PROGRAM Special Housing Types Shared Housing § 982.615 Shared housing: Occupancy. (a) Sharing a unit. An assisted family may reside in shared...? (1) If approved by the HA, a live-in aide may reside with the family to care for a person with...

  15. 24 CFR 1006.101 - Housing plan requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... assistance provided by the United States, including loans, grants, and mortgage insurance; (iv) A description... State of Hawaii, including the availability of housing from other public sources and private market... period covered by the plan, including transitional housing; homeless housing; college housing; and...

  16. 24 CFR 200.929a - Fair Housing Accessibility Guidelines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Guidelines. 200.929a Section 200.929a Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... Fair Housing Accessibility Guidelines. Builders and developers may use the Department's Fair Housing Accessibility Guideline when designing or constructing covered multifamily dwelling units in order to comply...

  17. Stirling micro cogeneration unit for single-family houses. Compact and assembly-friendly; Stirling-Mikro-BHKW fuer den Einsatz im Einfamilienhaus. Kompakt und montagefreundlich

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gimsa, Andreas [Enerlyt Technik GmbH, Potsdam (Germany)

    2010-07-01

    Enerlyt of Potsdam is a manufacturer working on a micro cogeneration unit based on a Stirling engine whose thermodynamic cycle has lower losses, e.g. by making the expansion pistons bigger than the compression pistons. The unit can be operated with various fuels. The author describes the function and state of development of the unit. (orig.)

  18. Micro-CHP systems for residential applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paepe, Michel de; D'Herdt, Peter; Mertens, David

    2006-01-01

    Micro-CHP systems are now emerging on the market. In this paper, a thorough analysis is made of the operational parameters of 3 types of micro-CHP systems for residential use. Two types of houses (detached and terraced) are compared with a two storey apartment. For each building type, the energy demands for electricity and heat are dynamically determined. Using these load profiles, several CHP systems are designed for each building type. Data were obtained for two commercially available gas engines, two Stirling engines and a fuel cell. Using a dynamic simulation, including start up times, these five system types are compared to the separate energy system of a natural gas boiler and buying electricity from the grid. All CHP systems, if well sized, result in a reduction of primary energy use, though different technologies have very different impacts. Gas engines seem to have the best performance. The economic analysis shows that fuel cells are still too expensive and that even the gas engines only have a small internal rate of return (<5%), and this only occurs in favourable economic circumstances. It can, therefore, be concluded that although the different technologies are technically mature, installation costs should at least be reduced by 50% before CHP systems become interesting for residential use. Condensing gas boilers, now very popular in new homes, prove to be economically more interesting and also have a modest effect on primary energy consumption

  19. A One Year Study of Mode Deactivation Therapy: Adolescent Residential Patients with Conduct and Personality Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Christopher J.; Siv, Alexander M.

    2011-01-01

    This case study is to evaluate the effectiveness of Mode Deactivation Therapy (MDT) implementation in a child and adolescent residential treatment unit and provide preliminary effectiveness data on MDT versus treatment as usual (TAU). This case study compared the efficacy of two treatment methodologies for adolescent males in residential treatment…

  20. 28 CFR 550.53 - Residential Drug Abuse Treatment Program (RDAP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Residential Drug Abuse Treatment Program... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.53 Residential Drug Abuse Treatment... components: (1) Unit-based component. Inmates must complete a course of activities provided by drug abuse...

  1. Community Design Parameters and the Performance of Residential Cogeneration Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazem Rashed-Ali

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The integration of cogeneration systems in residential and mixed-use communities has the potential of reducing their energy demand and harmful emissions and can thus play asignificant role in increasing their environmental sustainability. This study investigated the impact of selected planning and architectural design parameters on the environmental and economic performances of centralized cogeneration systems integrated into residential communities in U.S.cold climates. Parameters investigated include: 1 density, 2 use mix, 3 street configuration, 4 housing typology, 5 envelope and building systems’ efficiencies, and 6 passive solar energyutilization. The study integrated several simulation tools into a procedure to assess the impact of each design parameter on the cogeneration system performance. This assessment procedure included: developing a base-line model representing typical design characteristics of U.S. residential communities; assessing the cogeneration system’s performance within this model using three performance indicators: percentage of reduction in primary energy use, percentage of reduction in CO2 emissions; and internal rate of return; assessing the impact of each parameter on the system performance through developing 46 design variations of the base-line model representing potential changes in each parameter and calculating the three indicators for each variation; and finally, using a multi-attribute decision analysis methodology to evaluate the relative impact of each parameter on the cogeneration system performance. The study results show that planning parameters had a higher impact on the cogeneration system performance than architectural ones. Also, a significant correlation was found between design characteristics identified as favorable for the cogeneration system performance and those of sustainable residential communities. These include high densities, high use mix, interconnected street networks, and mixing of

  2. The project finance model in the supply of residential and commercial premises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damir Juričić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A supply of dwellings greater than the demand, a reduction in the availability of housing loans and increased credit risk, caused, inter alia, by the financial crisis: these are the basic features of today’s residential property and commercial premises markets in Croatia today. Built but unsold housing units have exposed private investors, who have organised the supply of units within the balance sheet of their firms, to significant risk of underinvestment. The materialisation of this risk is most manifested in the impossibility of funding the core business because of loans that they have agreed on for the construction of dwelling units meant for sale on the market. The paper then proposes a model that, if it were applied, could insure investors to a greater extent against the risk of underinvestment. The supply of dwelling units with protected rentals by the local public sector organised in the traditional manner, i.e. according to a model in which the local public sector figures in the role of investor, distributes the burden of development costs onto the future generations as well. However, practice has shown that traditional models inequitably expose future generations to the risk of a reduction in the quality of this kind of public service. From this point of view the proposed model transfers to the future generation not only the costs but also the obligations to secure equal qualities of public service in such a way that the private investor long-term assumes the risk of the availability of public building.The problem in this kind of organisation of the supply of a public service is double taxation via VAT, changes in the law concerning which are accordingly proposed.

  3. Housing markets and housing policies in India

    OpenAIRE

    Tiwari, Piyush; Rao, Jyoti

    2016-01-01

    Issues of housing in India are synonymous with ignorance of housing in active government involvement at the policy and program formulation levels. They are also due to the problems that unplanned urbanization, income disparity, poverty, illiteracy, and unemployment brought. These issues extenuated the housing problem, causing a housing shortage of 51 million in 2011. Though India has a long history of establishing policies, programs, and institutions to cater to housing, without allocating ad...

  4. Dynamic management of integrated residential energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Matteo

    This study combines principles of energy systems engineering and statistics to develop integrated models of residential energy use in the United States, to include residential recharging of electric vehicles. These models can be used by government, policymakers, and the utility industry to provide answers and guidance regarding the future of the U.S. energy system. Currently, electric power generation must match the total demand at each instant, following seasonal patterns and instantaneous fluctuations. Thus, one of the biggest drivers of costs and capacity requirement is the electricity demand that occurs during peak periods. These peak periods require utility companies to maintain operational capacity that often is underutilized, outdated, expensive, and inefficient. In light of this, flattening the demand curve has long been recognized as an effective way of cutting the cost of producing electricity and increasing overall efficiency. The problem is exacerbated by expected widespread adoption of non-dispatchable renewable power generation. The intermittent nature of renewable resources and their non-dispatchability substantially limit the ability of electric power generation of adapting to the fluctuating demand. Smart grid technologies and demand response programs are proposed as a technical solution to make the electric power demand more flexible and able to adapt to power generation. Residential demand response programs offer different incentives and benefits to consumers in response to their flexibility in the timing of their electricity consumption. Understanding interactions between new and existing energy technologies, and policy impacts therein, is key to driving sustainable energy use and economic growth. Comprehensive and accurate models of the next-generation power system allow for understanding the effects of new energy technologies on the power system infrastructure, and can be used to guide policy, technology, and economic decisions. This

  5. A prediction model for assessing residential radon concentration in Switzerland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hauri, Dimitri D.; Huss, Anke; Zimmermann, Frank; Kuehni, Claudia E.; Röösli, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Indoor radon is regularly measured in Switzerland. However, a nationwide model to predict residential radon levels has not been developed. The aim of this study was to develop a prediction model to assess indoor radon concentrations in Switzerland. The model was based on 44,631 measurements from the nationwide Swiss radon database collected between 1994 and 2004. Of these, 80% randomly selected measurements were used for model development and the remaining 20% for an independent model validation. A multivariable log-linear regression model was fitted and relevant predictors selected according to evidence from the literature, the adjusted R², the Akaike's information criterion (AIC), and the Bayesian information criterion (BIC). The prediction model was evaluated by calculating Spearman rank correlation between measured and predicted values. Additionally, the predicted values were categorised into three categories (50th, 50th–90th and 90th percentile) and compared with measured categories using a weighted Kappa statistic. The most relevant predictors for indoor radon levels were tectonic units and year of construction of the building, followed by soil texture, degree of urbanisation, floor of the building where the measurement was taken and housing type (P-values <0.001 for all). Mean predicted radon values (geometric mean) were 66 Bq/m³ (interquartile range 40–111 Bq/m³) in the lowest exposure category, 126 Bq/m³ (69–215 Bq/m³) in the medium category, and 219 Bq/m³ (108–427 Bq/m³) in the highest category. Spearman correlation between predictions and measurements was 0.45 (95%-CI: 0.44; 0.46) for the development dataset and 0.44 (95%-CI: 0.42; 0.46) for the validation dataset. Kappa coefficients were 0.31 for the development and 0.30 for the validation dataset, respectively. The model explained 20% overall variability (adjusted R²). In conclusion, this residential radon prediction model, based on a large number of measurements, was demonstrated to be

  6. Developing a Comprehensive Housing Strategy: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsters, Tim; Bliss, Kelly

    2007-01-01

    In the current highly competitive higher education market in North America, many colleges have identified the importance of upgrading their existing residential housing facilities as part of their strategy to attract and retain students. The case study discussed in this article describes the successful planning process used by Perkins+Will and…

  7. The social interest housing decrees and the loosening of land use standards in the city of São Paulo from 1992 to 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catharina Christina Teixeira

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The creation of legislation for Social Interest Housing (HIS development in Sao Paulo came from the need to foster a legal framework for the city's housing policy in 1992. There were three main decrees from 1992 to 2016: decrees no. 31.601/1992, no. 44.667/2004 and no. 56.759/2016 along with debates about Municipal Master Plans. The latest two of them have also been influenced by the Statute of the City. The first two acts represented significant advancements regarding the configuration of housing clusters, by reducing large-scale residential development in favor of housing in central areas and the possibility of further development of precarious settlements. However, with each update, there has been a crescent loosening on regulation favoring the private sector, under allegations of a housing deficit and the need for provision of new units, in place of public action aimed at re-urbanization and at regulating land use, which meant a shift from the original intentions of the deed and the purposes of the city's housing policies.

  8. Housing Programs for Homeless Individuals With Mental Illness: Effects on Housing and Mental Health Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benston, Elizabeth A

    2015-08-01

    This systematic review analyzed the best available research in the United States on permanent supportive housing programs for homeless individuals with mental illness and the effect of these programs on housing status and mental health. It updates older and broader reviews that included weaker studies or those that did not analyze permanent housing as an input and housing and mental health as primary outcomes. The literature search (1980-2013) yielded 14 studies (randomized controlled trials and quasi-experimental studies). The studies found that a majority of participants placed in experimental housing programs with case management support remained in housing for at least one year or experienced more days housed than homeless relative to a comparison group. Although this finding is in line with previous literature reviews on permanent supportive housing, this analysis found limitations in each of the 14 reviewed studies, such as attrition, selection and response bias, imprecise definitions and implementation of housing programs, and a lack of appropriate controls. Only three of the reviewed studies reported using a housing fidelity assessment tool to test whether the housing intervention was faithful to theoretical standards, and conceptions and implementation of housing varied widely across studies, threatening internal and external validity. Pitfalls in the best available studies on permanent supportive housing programs in the United States limit the ability of research to inform the policy goal of ending chronic homelessness and demonstrate a need for further experimental research upon which to make funding and policy decisions, especially in light of prioritized federal funds.

  9. Computer program for sizing residential energy recovery ventilator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koontz, M.D.; Lee, S.M.; Spears, J.W.; Kesselring, J.P.

    1991-01-01

    Energy recovery ventilators offer the prospect of tighter control over residential ventilation rates than manual methods, such as opening windows, with a lesser energy penalty. However, the appropriate size of such a ventilator is not readily apparent in most situations. Sizing of energy recovery ventilation software was developed to calculate the size of ventilator necessary to satisfy ASHRAE Standard 62-1989, Ventilation for Acceptable Air Quality, or a user-specified air exchange rate. Inputs to the software include house location, structural characteristics, house operations and energy costs, ventilation characteristics, and HVAC system COP/efficiency. Based on these inputs, the program estimates the existing air exchange rate for the house, the ventilation rate required to meet the ASHRAE standard or user-specified air exchange rate, the size of the ventilator needed to meet the requirement, and the expected changes in indoor air quality and energy consumption. In this paper an illustrative application of the software is provided

  10. The positioning of sustainability within residential property marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriese, Ulrich; Scholz, Roland W

    2011-01-01

    This article investigates the evolution of sustainability positioning in residential property marketing to shed light on the specific role and responsibility of housebuilders and housing investors in urban development. To this end, an analysis is made of housing advertisements published in Basel, Switzerland, over a period of more than 100 years. The paper demonstrates how to draw successfully on advertisements to discern sustainability patterns in housing, using criteria situated along the dimensions building, location and people. Cluster analysis allows five clusters of sustainability positioning to be described—namely, good location, green building, comfort living, pre-sustainability and sustainability. Investor and builder types are differently located in these clusters. Location emerges as an issue which, to a large extent, is advertised independently from other sustainability issues.

  11. The importance of social housing in sustainable development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzanna Rataj

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The term sustainable development has been recently substantially expanded. It originally referred to natural environment, yet currently it covers more and more areas, including economic and social layers. The aim of this paper is to discuss the role of social housing in sustainable development. The issue of affordable housing within this context has been rarely addressed (e.g. Zaniewska, Thiel, IRM reports and is thus an interesting field of research. Based on the available literature and statistical data, the authors show the importance of social housing for sustainable development. It is crucial to provide equal access to housing, counteract social exclusion and curb energy consumption by improving thermal efficiency and renovating residential buildings. Some information contained in this paper was obtained while conducting the research project ‘Social housing and its role in satisfying the housing needs of indigent households in Poland’ financed by the National Science Centre (2014/13/N/HS4/02100.

  12. 12 CFR 960.3 - Standby letters of credit on behalf of housing associates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... associates with asset/liability management; or (4) To provide housing associates with liquidity or other... associates. 960.3 Section 960.3 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK ASSETS... facilitating residential or commercial mortgage lending that benefits individuals or families meeting the...

  13. A Data Analysis Technique to Estimate the Thermal Characteristics of a House

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tabatabaei, S.; van der Ham, Wim; Klein, Michel C. A.; Treur, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Almost one third of the energy is used in the residential sector, and space heating is the largest part of energy consumption in our houses. Knowledge about the thermal characteristics of a house can increase the awareness of homeowners about the options to save energy, for example by showing that

  14. Best practices guide for residential HVAC Retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain S.

    2003-08-11

    This best practices guide for residential HVAC system retrofits is aimed at contractors who want guidance on delivering energy efficient, cost effective and innovative products. It has been developed around the idea of having packages of changes to the building HVAC system and building envelope that are climate and house construction dependent. These packages include materials, procedures and equipment and are designed to remove some of the guesswork from a builder, contractor, installer or homeowner decisions about how best to carry out HVAC changes. The packages are not meant to be taken as rigid requirements--instead they are systems engineered guidelines that form the basis for energy efficient retrofits. Similar approaches have been taken previously for new construction to develop extremely energy efficient homes that are comfortable safe and durable, and often cost less than standard construction. This is best epitomized by the Building America program whose partners have built thousands of residences throughout the U.S. using these principles. The differences between retrofitting and new construction tend to limit the changes one can make to a building, so these packages rely on relatively simple and non-intrusive technologies and techniques. The retrofits also focus on changes to a building that will give many years of service to the occupants. Another key aspect of these best practices is that we need to know how a house is working so that we know what parts have the potential for improvement. To do this we have put together a set of diagnostic tools that combine physical measurements and checklists/questionnaires. The measured test results, observations and homeowner answers to questions are used to direct us towards the best retrofits applicable to each individual house. The retrofits will depend on the current condition of the building envelope and HVAC system, the local climate, the construction methods used for the house, and the presence of various

  15. Multifamily Housing Rehabilitation Process Improvements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sweet, Marshall L. [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Francisco, Abby [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Roberts, Sydney G. [Partnership for Home Innovation, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States)

    2016-03-01

    Rea Ventures Group, LLC (Rea Ventures) partnered with Southface Energy Institute (Southface)—a member of the U.S. Department of Energy’s Partnership for Home Innovation Building America research team—to rehabilitate 418 low-income multifamily rental apartments located at 14 properties in Georgia (International Energy Conservation Code Climate Zones 2–4). These 22-year-old units with individual utility meters were arranged in row house or townhouse style. Rehabilitation plans were developed using a process prescribed by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Rural Development program, which partially funded the building upgrades. The USDA is responsible for building, upgrading, and subsidizing housing in rural areas nationwide; this housing includes more than 14,000 existing multifamily housing developments. In 2012, more than $100 million in grants and loans were allocated for that purpose.

  16. Youth residential situation in the transition to adulthood: The case of Serbia (an exploratory approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milić Jelena

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Research undertaken on housing and youth to date primarily focus on those at the very bottom of the social ladder. Nonetheless, a large percentage of youth population around the world is facing a crisis in terms of achieving residential autonomy. This paper attempts to illustrate the possibilities and obstacles that prevent youth from achieving residential independence in Serbia. The data collected in this exploratory study conducted in 2014, on a sample of 312 respondents, is used to analyze some of the most important structural factors (job market, education, financial situation and access to the housing market in order to assess both current situation and the possible prospects of the youth housing issue in the country. Serbia, as most Southern European countries, has a 'Mediterranean' model of transition to adulthood, which is characterized by great reliance on the family of origin. It has been observed by respondents to this study that the most represented living arrangement was living with parents and that even older cohorts (30 to 35 years old in most cases continued living with their family of origin to date. As our findings indicate, youth from the sample perceived this residential arrangement more as a consequence of poor financial situation and lack of cheap housing, rather than a desirable choice. It is difficult to predict if there will be significant improvements in the housing affordability or job market situation for youth, therefore the prospect of achieving residential independency for generations to come will remain tremendously challenging. Investigating existing and defining new strategies, in both the family and broader society contexts, is an important task for future research on accessibility of housing and youth residential situation advancement given the importance of this factor in the transition to adulthood.

  17. Oxford House Recovery Homes: Characteristics and Effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason, Leonard A.; Ferrari, Joseph R.

    2010-01-01

    One of the largest examples of a community-based, mutual-help residential community for high risk substance abuse individuals is Oxford House. In the U.S., over 9,800 people live in these self-run dwellings where they obtain jobs, pay utility bills, and learn to be responsible citizens. Beginning with one single rented residence in the mid 1970s, Oxford Houses now number over 1,300. These rented homes are helping to deal with drug addiction and community re-entry by providing stable housing without any limits on length of stay, a network of job opportunities, and support for abstinence. An exploration of the research on these unique settings highlights the strengths of such a community-based approach to addressing addiction. New roles for psychologists in working with these types of support systems are identified. PMID:20577571

  18. Rethinking Affordable Housing Delivery: An Analytical Insight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olanrewaju Abdullateef

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia currently has a housing shortage of 12 million units. Towards the year 2020, this would require an annual supply of a minimum of 2 million homes. With the current production rate, the deficits will remain over the next 100 years. The crisis will lead to poor standards of living, un-affordable rental price, high mortgage payment, abandonment, and dilapidation of the existing housing stock. Lack of affordable housing is already a source of concern among many Malaysians. The middle and lower income earners spend more than 30% of their income on rent or for mortgage payment. Housing rent or mortgage is a basic need like foods, education, clothing and health. The government has introduced various measures to address the housing deficit. Despite these measures, the housing supply and distribution gaps continue to grow. To better understand the issues, there is a need to examine how the procurement planning in the affordable housing delivery supply chain and market is formulated, explore how cost of affordable housing would be reduced, identify the user value systems in affordable housing, and identify the criteria in the current regulatory framework? For these purposes, this paper reviews the relevant literature to reach preliminary findings on the stated issues. Among the factors found accounting for housing shortages, the overwhelming factors were that of poor policies, strategies, practice, management, and finance. The findings are meaningful in framing an affordable housing delivery model. It could also be useful to stakeholders involved in affordable housing delivery in Malaysia and elsewhere.

  19. Residential Wiring. Teacher Edition [and] Student Edition. Third Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Mark; Batson, Larry; Carroll, Charles; Ipock, Dan; Leak, Lester; Onstott, Todd

    This revised curriculum guide for teachers and students is designed to help prepare students for entry-level employment in the residential wiring trade. The curriculum guide contains six units that cover the following topics: (1) blueprint reading and load calculations; (2) service; (3) rough-in; (4) trim out and troubleshooting; (5) low voltage…

  20. Modular Energy Management System Applicable to Residential Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernández, Adriana Carolina Luna; Aldana, Nelson Leonardo Diaz; Graells, Moises

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an energy management system is defined as a flexible architecture. This proposal can be applied to home and residential areas when they include generation units. The system has been integrated and tested in a grid-connected microgrid prototype, where optimal power generation profiles...

  1. New trajectories of post-socialist residential mobility in Bucharest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Suditu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the post-socialist period, residential mobility processes were very intense and took place on large areas. Flow intensity led to the emergence of new spatial and functional realities and created new relationships within the affected areas. During all this period, Bucharest’s metropolitan area was shaped by the spatial mobility of the city dwellers, as well as by the change of their social and residential aspirations. The majority of those who were registered as movers in Bucharest were actually residents of Bucharest (they only changed their domicile and the share of people coming to the city from elsewhere has increased constantly over the last decade. Except for the early 1990s, a period when residential legal status was pending clarification, migrations from peri-urban area, especially from Ilfov County, to Bucharest had a low intensity. Situation is quite different in terms of moving out of Bucharest, to the communes and towns of Ilfov County, located in close proximity, which have been continuously increasing values. The correlation between housing stock features (real estate supply and the demand of new dwellings (emphasized by the residential trajectories prove both that current mobility flows taking place at this time in Bucharest are segmented based on economic-spatial criteria and that Markov chains are functional.

  2. ENERGY STAR Certified Residential Dishwashers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 6.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Residential Dishwashers that are effective as of...

  3. ENERGY STAR Certified Residential Freezers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 5.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Residential Refrigerators and Freezers that are...

  4. ENERGY STAR Certified Residential Refrigerators

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 5.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Residential Refrigerators and Freezers that are...

  5. The diversity and distribution of fungi on residential surfaces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel I Adams

    Full Text Available The predominant hypothesis regarding the composition of microbial assemblages in indoor environments is that fungal assemblages are structured by outdoor air with a moderate contribution by surface growth, whereas indoor bacterial assemblages represent a mixture of bacteria entered from outdoor air, shed by building inhabitants, and grown on surfaces. To test the fungal aspect of this hypothesis, we sampled fungi from three surface types likely to support growth and therefore possible contributors of fungi to indoor air: drains in kitchens and bathrooms, sills beneath condensation-prone windows, and skin of human inhabitants. Sampling was done in replicated units of a university-housing complex without reported mold problems, and sequences were analyzed using both QIIME and the new UPARSE approach to OTU-binning, to the same result. Surfaces demonstrated a mycological profile similar to that of outdoor air from the same locality, and assemblages clustered by surface type. "Weedy" genera typical of indoor air, such as Cladosporium and Cryptococcus, were abundant on sills, as were a diverse set of fungi of likely outdoor origin. Drains supported more depauperate assemblages than the other surfaces and contained thermotolerant genera such as Exophiala, Candida, and Fusarium. Most surprising was the composition detected on residents' foreheads. In addition to harboring Malassezia, a known human commensal, skin also possessed a surprising richness of non-resident fungi, including plant pathogens such as ergot (Claviceps purperea. Overall, fungal richness across indoor surfaces was high, but based on known autecologies, most of these fungi were unlikely to be growing on surfaces. We conclude that while some endogenous fungal growth on typical household surfaces does occur, particularly on drains and skin, all residential surfaces appear - to varying degrees - to be passive collectors of airborne fungi of putative outdoor origin, a view of the origins

  6. Prediction of greenhouse gas reduction potential in Japanese residential sector by residential energy end-use model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimoda, Yoshiyuki; Yamaguchi, Yukio; Okamura, Tomo; Taniguchi, Ayako; Yamaguchi, Yohei

    2010-01-01

    A model is developed that simulates nationwide energy consumption of the residential sector by considering the diversity of household and building types. Since this model can simulate the energy consumption for each household and building category by dynamic energy use based on the schedule of the occupants' activities and a heating and cooling load calculation model, various kinds of energy-saving policies can be evaluated with considerable accuracy. In addition, the average energy efficiency of major electric appliances used in the residential sector and the percentages of housing insulation levels of existing houses is predicted by the 'stock transition model.' In this paper, energy consumption and CO 2 emissions in the Japanese residential sector until 2025 are predicted. For example, as a business - as-usual (BAU) case, CO 2 emissions will be reduced by 7% from the 1990 level. Also evaluated are mitigation measures such as the energy efficiency standard for home electric appliances, thermal insulation code, reduction of standby power, high-efficiency water heaters, energy-efficient behavior of occupants, and dissemination of photovoltaic panels.

  7. ON REASONABLE ESTIMATE OF ENERGY PERFORMANCE OF THE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS SUSTENANCE WITH CENTRALIZED HEAT-SUPPLY SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Osipov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available As consisted with Directive No 3 of President of the Republic of Belarus of June, 14th 2007 ‘Economy and Husbandry – the Major Factors of Economic Security of the Republic of Belarus’, saving fuel-and-energy resources over the republic in 2010–2015 should amount to 7,1–8,9 MIO tons of fuel equivalent including 1,00–1,25 MIO tons of fuel equivalent at the expense of heat-supply optimization and 0,25–0,40 MIO tons of fuel equivalent at the expense of increasing enclosing structures heat resistance of the buildings, facilities and housing stock. It means, where it is expected to obtain around 18 % of general thermal resources economy in the process of heat-supply optimization, then by means of enhancing the cladding structure heat resistance of the buildings and constructions of various applications – only about 3–5 % and even a bit less so of the housing stock. Till 1994, in residential sector of the Republic of Belarus, the annual heat consumption of the heating and ventilation averaged more than 130 kW×h/(m2×year (~56 %, of the hot-water supply – around 100 kW×h/(m2×year (~44 %. In residential houses, built from 1994 to 2009, heat consumption of the heating and ventilation is already 90 kW×h/(m2×year, of the hot-water supply – around 70 kW×h/(m2×year. In buildings of modern mainstream construction, they expend 60 kW×h/(m2×year (~46 % on heating and ventilation and 70 kW×h/(m2×year (~54 % on hot-water supply. In some modern residential buildings with the exhausted warm air secondary energy resource utilization, the heating and ventilation takes around 30–40 kW×h/(m2×year of heat. Raising energy performance of the residential buildings by means of reducing heat expenses on the heating and ventilation is the last segment in the system of energy resources saving. The first segments in the energy performance process are producing heat and transporting it over the main lines and outside distribution networks. In

  8. Population and housing: A two-sided relationship

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara H. Mulder

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I explore the relationship between population and housing. I argue that this relationship is two-sided. On the one hand, the size of a population, and particularly the number of households, determines the demand for housing. On the other hand, the availability of suitable and affordable housing may attract certain categories of migrants. It also influences young people's opportunities to leave the parental home, marry or cohabit, and have children. Furthermore, home-ownership hampers residential mobility and migration by binding people to a place.

  9. Smart density: A more accurate method of measuring rural residential density for health-related research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Peter M; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Gibson, Lucinda; Beach, Michael L; Beauregard, Sandy; Dalton, Madeline A

    2010-02-12

    Studies involving the built environment have typically relied on US Census data to measure residential density. However, census geographic units are often unsuited to health-related research, especially in rural areas where development is clustered and discontinuous. We evaluated the accuracy of both standard census methods and alternative GIS-based methods to measure rural density. We compared residential density (units/acre) in 335 Vermont school neighborhoods using conventional census geographic units (tract, block group and block) with two GIS buffer measures: a 1-kilometer (km) circle around the school and a 1-km circle intersected with a 100-meter (m) road-network buffer. The accuracy of each method was validated against the actual residential density for each neighborhood based on the Vermont e911 database, which provides an exact geo-location for all residential structures in the state. Standard census measures underestimate residential density in rural areas. In addition, the degree of error is inconsistent so even the relative rank of neighborhood densities varies across census measures. Census measures explain only 61% to 66% of the variation in actual residential density. In contrast, GIS buffer measures explain approximately 90% of the variation. Combining a 1-km circle with a road-network buffer provides the closest approximation of actual residential density. Residential density based on census units can mask clusters of development in rural areas and distort associations between residential density and health-related behaviors and outcomes. GIS-defined buffers, including a 1-km circle and a road-network buffer, can be used in conjunction with census data to obtain a more accurate measure of residential density.

  10. Smart density: a more accurate method of measuring rural residential density for health-related research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibson Lucinda

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies involving the built environment have typically relied on US Census data to measure residential density. However, census geographic units are often unsuited to health-related research, especially in rural areas where development is clustered and discontinuous. Objective We evaluated the accuracy of both standard census methods and alternative GIS-based methods to measure rural density. Methods We compared residential density (units/acre in 335 Vermont school neighborhoods using conventional census geographic units (tract, block group and block with two GIS buffer measures: a 1-kilometer (km circle around the school and a 1-km circle intersected with a 100-meter (m road-network buffer. The accuracy of each method was validated against the actual residential density for each neighborhood based on the Vermont e911 database, which provides an exact geo-location for all residential structures in the state. Results Standard census measures underestimate residential density in rural areas. In addition, the degree of error is inconsistent so even the relative rank of neighborhood densities varies across census measures. Census measures explain only 61% to 66% of the variation in actual residential density. In contrast, GIS buffer measures explain approximately 90% of the variation. Combining a 1-km circle with a road-network buffer provides the closest approximation of actual residential density. Conclusion Residential density based on census units can mask clusters of development in rural areas and distort associations between residential density and health-related behaviors and outcomes. GIS-defined buffers, including a 1-km circle and a road-network buffer, can be used in conjunction with census data to obtain a more accurate measure of residential density.

  11. GridLAB-D Technical Support Document: Residential End-Use Module Version 1.0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, Zachary T.; Gowri, Krishnan; Katipamula, Srinivas

    2008-07-31

    1.0 Introduction The residential module implements the following end uses and characteristics to simulate the power demand in a single family home: • Water heater • Lights • Dishwasher • Range • Microwave • Refrigerator • Internal gains (plug loads) • House (heating/cooling loads) The house model considers the following four major heat gains/losses that contribute to the building heating/cooling load: 1. Conduction through exterior walls, roof and fenestration (based on envelope UA) 2. Air infiltration (based on specified air change rate) 3. Solar radiation (based on CLTD model and using tmy data) 4. Internal gains from lighting, people, equipment and other end use objects. The Equivalent Thermal Parameter (ETP) approach is used to model the residential loads and energy consumption. The following sections describe the modeling assumptions for each of the above end uses and the details of power demand calculations in the residential module.

  12. 24 CFR 570.511 - Use of escrow accounts for rehabilitation of privately owned residential property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY... neighborhood-scale non-residential space within the same structure, if any, e.g., a store front below a... rehabilitation services costs under § 570.202(b)(9), are not permissible uses of escrowed funds. Such other...

  13. 24 CFR 1003.511 - Use of escrow accounts for rehabilitation of privately owned residential property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND... neighborhood-scale non-residential space within the same structure, if any, e.g., a store front below a... loan or grant, e.g., the grantee's administrative costs under § 1003.206 or rehabilitation services...

  14. The influence of opening windows and doors on the natural ventilation rate of a residential building

    Science.gov (United States)

    An analysis of air exchange rates due to intentional window and door openings in a research test house located in a residential environment is presented. These data inform the development of ventilation rate control strategies as building envelopes are tightened to improve the e...

  15. Influence of Life Cycle Stage on Family Social Climate and Attitudes Toward the Residential Environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inman, Marjorie

    The existing physical forms of housing are not always compatible with prevalent social patterns. To investigate the relationship between family system characteristics and attitudes about residential space, 64 Indiana families in 4 stages of the family life cycle (early years with no children, crowded years with at least one preschool child, peak…

  16. Assessing the potential of residential HVAC systems for demand-side management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Klauw, Thijs; Hoogsteen, Gerwin; Gerards, Marco Egbertus Theodorus; Hurink, Johann L.; Feng, Xianyong; Hebner, Robert E.

    This paper investigates the potential of residential heating, ventilation and air conditioning systems to contribute to dynamic demand-side management. Thermal models for seven houses in Austin, Texas are developed with the goal of using them in a planning based demand-side management methodology.

  17. Residential location choice of knowledge-workers: The role of amenities, workplace and lifestyle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frenkel, Amnon; Bendit, Edward; Kaplan, Sigal

    2013-01-01

    and cultural amenities in addition to classic location factors. Hence, the model bridges the gap between the recent lifestyle-oriented and the classical utility-oriented conceptualizations of the residential choice of knowledge-workers. The most important factors are municipal socioeconomic level, housing...

  18. Does the Perceived Neighborhood Reputation Contribute to Neighborhood Differences in Social Trust and Residential Wellbeing?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullberg, Agneta; Timpka, Toomas; Svensson, Tommy; Karlsson, Nadine; Lindqvist, Kent

    2010-01-01

    The authors used a mixed methods approach to examine if the reputation of a housing area has bearing on residential wellbeing and social trust in three pairs of socioeconomically contrasting neighborhoods in a Swedish urban municipality. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were performed to examine associations between area reputation and…

  19. Instability versus Quality: Residential Mobility, Neighborhood Poverty, and Children's Self-Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Amanda L.; McCoy, Dana Charles; Raver, C. Cybele

    2014-01-01

    Prior research has found that higher residential mobility is associated with increased risk for children's academic and behavioral difficulty. In contrast, evaluations of experimental housing mobility interventions have shown moving from high poverty to low poverty neighborhoods to be beneficial for children's outcomes. This study merges these…

  20. The influence of opening windows and doors on the natural ventilation rate of a residential building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Increased building energy efficiency is important in reducing national energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. An analysis of air change rates due to door and window openings in a research test house located in a residential environment are presented. These data inform developme...

  1. TARP Monthly Housing Scorecard

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of the Treasury — Treasury and the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD) jointly produce a Monthly Housing Scorecard on the health of the nation’s housing market. The...

  2. EnviroAtlas - Housing in the Conterminous U.S. Web Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas web service includes maps that illustrate the number and density of housing units. Housing density and the proximity of housing to employment can...

  3. 24 CFR 791.402 - Determination of low-income housing needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS AND PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING PROGRAMS) ALLOCATIONS OF HOUSING ASSISTANCE FUNDS... housing units that would be required to maintain vacancies at levels typical of balanced market conditions...

  4. Albania Residential Prices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Koprencka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The real estate market is complex and influenced by too many factors. Real Estate market in Albania has experienced a boom after the 1990. We have inherited from the communist system a very poor market of housing. The number of dwellings in 1990 in Albania was 219 dwellings per 1000 inhabitants and the useful floor space was 5 m² per person, but in Bulgaria number of dwellings per 1,000 people varies 465 and in Romania average useful floor space per person was 37 sq. The data used in this study are derived from the database of the World Bank, the Institute of Statistics, reports of Bank of Albania also from information provided individually on the ground and different sources. In this study is analyzed the relationship that exists between economic growth, remittances and the price of dwellings in Albania. The dependent variable is the average price of housing in major cities of Albania. Independent variables in the model are GDP per capita and the remittances. The Econometric model is a Linear Regress equation and the period are the years from 1998 to 2013. The model used is the statistical program EViews 6.0. Unfortunately the information let the desired, so we do not have an official detailed information on prices of Albanian real estate market. In Albania few researchers have been studying real estate market in Albania.

  5. Development of energy renovation packages for Danish residential single family houses - parcel houses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pomianowski, Michal Zbigniew; Antonov, Yovko Ivanov; Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    Work presented in this technical report was developed as a port of Horizon 2020 EU project REFURB. The number of deep energy retrofits is falling behind the EU ambitious targets. The REFURB project aims at finding technical and nontechnical solutions that would match demand and supply side of the...

  6. Housing First or no housing? Housing and homelessness at the end of alcohol and drug treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dyb, Evelyn

    2016-10-01

    The rate of alcohol and drug dependency is high among homeless persons in Norway as well as in other Western societies. National homeless surveys also show a certain correlation between discharge from institutions and homelessness. However, the rate of homelessness versus the rate with fixed abode at the end of specialised alcohol and drug treatment has not been examined using quantitative methods. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in alcohol and drug treatment units in the national health services and private clinics. The survey investigates the housing outcome at the end of treatment compared to the situation at the start of treatment using an individual questionnaire for patients ending treatment in a specific time window. Housing outcome is measured by the odds ratio of having a fixed abode at the end of treatment in relation to main intoxicating substance, type of treatment (in- and outpatient), completing versus cutting short the treatment, housing situation at the start of treatment, socioeconomic capital, mental health problems, individual plan, medical assisted treatment, and a set of background variables. The housing versus homeless situation hardly changes during the treatment period. In both a bivariate analysis and a simple multivariate model, principal intoxicating substance is the strongest predictor of having a fixed abode both before and after treatment. However, a more sophisticated analysis indicates that socioeconomic resources and social capital play along with the preferred intoxicating substance as predictors of having permanent housing. After more than a decade of a housing-led national homeless policy, and wide embracement of Housing First approaches in the European Union, homeless persons entering specialised alcohol and drug treatment are likely to return to the streets and hostels at the end of treatment. Access to housing after treatment is very limited for those lacking resources to solve their housing problem without assistance

  7. Risks from Radon: Reconciling Miner and Residential Epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, Douglas B.; Harley, Naomi H.

    2008-01-01

    Everyone is exposed to radon, an inert radioactive gas that occurs naturally and is present everywhere in the atmosphere. The annual dose from radon and its (short-lived) decay products is typically about one-half of the dose received by members of the public from all natural sources of ionizing radiation. Data on exposures and consequent effects have recently been reviewed by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). Studies of underground miners provides a well-established basis for estimating risks from occupational exposures to radon and for studying factors that may affect the dose response relationship such as the reduction of risk (coefficients) with increasing time since exposure. Miners' studies previously formed the basis for estimating risks to people exposed to radon at home, with downward extrapolation from exposures in mines to residential levels of radon. Presently, the risk estimates from residential studies are adequate to estimate radon risks in homes. Although there are major uncertainties in extrapolating the risks of exposure to radon from the miner studies to assessing risks in the home, there is remarkably good agreement between the average of risk factors derived from miner studies and those from pooled residential case-control studies. There are now over 20 analytical studies of residential radon and lung cancer. These studies typically assess the relative risk from exposure to radon based on estimates of residential exposure over a period of 25 to 30 years prior to diagnosis of lung cancer. Recent pooled analyses of residential case-control studies support a small but detectable lung cancer risk from residential exposure, and this risk increases with increasing concentrations. The excess relative risk of lung cancer from long-term residential exposure is about the same for both smokers and non-smokers; however, because the

  8. Financing Non-Residential Photovoltaic Projects: Options and Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark

    2009-01-09

    Installations of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States have increased dramatically in recent years, growing from less than 20 MW in 2000 to nearly 500 MW at the end of 2007, a compound average annual growth rate of 59%. Of particular note is the increasing contribution of 'non-residential' grid-connected PV systems--defined here as those systems installed on the customer (rather than utility) side of the meter at commercial, institutional, non-profit, or governmental properties--to the overall growth trend. Although there is some uncertainty in the numbers, non-residential PV capacity grew from less than half of aggregate annual capacity installations in 2000-2002 to nearly two-thirds in 2007. This relative growth trend is expected to have continued through 2008. The non-residential sector's commanding lead in terms of installed capacity in recent years primarily reflects two important differences between the non-residential and residential markets: (1) the greater federal 'Tax Benefits'--including the 30% investment tax credit (ITC) and accelerated tax depreciation--provided to commercial (relative to residential) PV systems, at least historically (this relative tax advantage has largely disappeared starting in 2009) and (2) larger non-residential project size. These two attributes have attracted to the market a number of institutional investors (referred to in this report as 'Tax Investors') seeking to invest in PV projects primarily to capture their Tax Benefits. The presence of these Tax Investors, in turn, has fostered a variety of innovative approaches to financing non-residential PV systems. This financial innovation--which is the topic of this report--has helped to overcome some of the largest barriers to the adoption of non-residential PV, and is therefore partly responsible (along with the policy changes that have driven this innovation) for the rapid growth in the market seen in recent years

  9. Solar Energy Systems for Ohioan Residential Homeowners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckett, Rickey D.

    Dwindling nonrenewable energy resources and rising energy costs have forced the United States to develop alternative renewable energy sources. The United States' solar energy industry has seen an upsurge in recent years, and photovoltaic holds considerable promise as a renewable energy technology. The purpose of this case study was to explore homeowner's awareness of the benefits of solar energy. Disruptive-innovation theory was used to explore marketing strategies for conveying information to homeowners about access to new solar energy products and services. Twenty residential homeowners were interviewed face-to-face to explore (a) perceived benefits of solar energy in their county in Ohio, and (b) perceptions on the rationale behind the marketing strategy of solar energy systems sold for residential use. The study findings used inductive analyses and coding interpretation to explore the participants' responses that revealed 3 themes: the existence of environmental benefits for using solar energy systems, the expensive cost of equipment associated with government incentives, and the lack of marketing information that is available for consumer use. The implications for positive social change include the potential to enable corporate leaders, small business owners, and entrepreneurs to develop marketing strategies for renewable energy systems. These strategies may promote use of solar energy systems as a clean, renewable, and affordable alternative electricity energy source for the 21st century.

  10. 24 CFR 970.31 - Replacement units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Replacement units. 970.31 Section... PUBLIC HOUSING PROGRAM-DEMOLITION OR DISPOSITION OF PUBLIC HOUSING PROJECTS § 970.31 Replacement units. Notwithstanding any other provision of law, replacement public housing units may be built on the original public...

  11. A livability rating system of a high-rise housing and its computer simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhengrui

    2017-09-01

    Aiming at the problems in housing choosing and purchasing in the high-rise residential buildings, this paper considers the factors that affect various livable degrees and analyzes the important degrees of the factors through the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP), quantifying the various factors by 10 point scoring system. Accordingly, this paper puts forward a habitable housing index, validating the correctness of the indicators by simulating the process of housing choosing through computer program.

  12. HOUSING UNITS Units in Structure for Occupied Units NMSD 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  13. HOUSING UNITS Units in Structure for Occupied Units NMHD 2000

    Data.gov (United States)

    Earth Data Analysis Center, University of New Mexico — The 2006 Second Edition TIGER/Line files are an extract of selected geographic and cartographic information from the Census TIGER database. The geographic coverage...

  14. White House Communications Agency

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gimble, Thomas

    1995-01-01

    The Chairman, House Committee on Government Reform and Oversight; the Chairman, House Subcommittee on National Security, International Affairs, and Criminal Justice, Committee on Government Reform and Oversight...

  15. Energy impacts of recycling disassembly material in residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Weijun; Ariyama, Takahiro; Ojima, Toshio; Meier, Alan

    2000-01-01

    In order to stop the global warmth due to the CO2 concentration, the energy use should be decreased. The investment of building construction industry in Japan is about 20 percent of GDP. This fraction is much higher than in most developed countries. That results the Japanese building construction industry including residential use consumes about one third of all energy and resources of the entire industrial sectors. In order to save energy as well as resource, the recycle of the building materials should be urgent to be carried out. In this paper, we focus on the potential energy savings with a simple calculated method when the building materials or products are manufactured from recycled materials. We examined three kinds of residential buildings with different construction techniques and estimated the decreased amount of energy consumption and resources resulting from use of recycled materials. The results have shown for most building materials, the energy consumption needed to remake housing materials from recycled materials is lower than that to make new housing materials. The energy consumption of building materials in all case-study housing can be saved by at least 10 percent. At the same time, the resource, measured by mass of building materials (kg) can be decreased by over 50 percent

  16. The value of residential photovoltaic systems: A comprehensive assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, C. S.

    1983-01-01

    Utility-interactive photovoltaic (PV) arrays on residential rooftops appear to be a potentially attractive, large-scale application of PV technology. Results of a comprehensive assessment of the value (i.e., break-even cost) of utility-grid connected residential photovoltaic power systems under a variety of technological and economic assumptions are presented. A wide range of allowable PV system costs are calculated for small (4.34 kW (p) sub ac) residential PV systems in various locales across the United States. Primary factor in this variation are differences in local weather conditions, utility-specific electric generation capacity, fuel types, and customer-load profiles that effect purchase and sell-back rates, and non-uniform state tax considerations. Additional results from this analysis are: locations having the highest insolation values are not necessary the most economically attractive sites; residential PV systems connected in parallel to the utility demonstrate high percentages of energy sold back to the grid, and owner financial and tax assumptions cause large variations in break-even costs. Significant cost reduction and aggressive resolution of potential institutional impediments (e.g., liability, standards, metering, and technical integration) are required for a residential PV marker to become a major electric-grid-connected energy-generation source.

  17. A Neo-Rawlsian Approach to Residential Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin J. Brown

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 40 years, the United States has engaged in various policies to integrate otherwise segregated black and white households within a shared space. However, little work has been done to fully articulate a moral argument for residential integration among black and white households. This paper offers what I refer to as the normative argument, which possesses two morally-impelled arguments for residential integration. Since the ethical appeal to integrate is often couched in the language of justice, I begin with a framework—based upon the work of the late philosopher John Rawls—for considering the moral aspects of residential integration. However, I go on to point out intractable problems related to the Rawlsian framework that would fail to flesh out all ethical considerations of the normative argument. From here, I provide a revised, or neo-Rawlsian, framework for understanding residential integration which addresses the aforementioned problems. This exercise is both important and necessary for the future of residential mixing, as better understanding the moral and ethical attributes of this discussion is, perhaps, the best means to lubricate the fundamental shift from 'spatial' to 'social' integration.

  18. Summary of detailed energy audit and building simulation on archetype sustainable house, Woodbridge ON

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fung, A. [Ryerson Polytechnic Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering; Dembo, A.; Zhou, J. [Ryerson Polytechnic Univ., Toronto, ON (Canada). Dept. of Architectural Science

    2009-07-01

    This paper described energy and audit and building simulations conducted on an archetype sustainable house located in Woodbridge, Ontario. The house formed part of a project to construct low energy, sustainable house designs for mass production. The 2 houses formed a duplex. House A was designed using current best design practices, while house B was equipped with advanced and innovative technologies not commonly used in residential constructions. Natural Resources Canada's (NRCan) HOT2000 residential building simulation program was used to evaluate the performance of both houses in the duplex. The simulation program demonstrated that house B performed more efficiently than house A. However, neither houses met their designed values. Significantly larger space heating and cooling loads were identified. The program showed that additional weather-stripping around doors, and caulking around windows will help to reduce the amount of draft in the houses. Assessments are also needed to measure heat losses from the common wall in the basement. It was concluded that the energy performance of the house can be optimized by using the appropriate sealing techniques throughout the building envelope. 2 refs., 1 tab.

  19. Criteria of Architectural Composition Design in Residential Courtyards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziemeļniece, Aija; Īle, Una

    2017-10-01

    The totalitarian times of the 50s-80s of the 20th century have brought the building of high-rise residential blocks in Latvian cities, characterized by an uninteresting solution of standard buildings and the alien scale which does not meet the regional features. During the above period, areas of the residential courtyards have not been addressed. The conclusion of the research is that today the courtyards of the high-rise residential houses have become a stagnant, functionally irrelevant area that forms a depressing nature of the outdoor living space. The uncharted area of courtyards is not being used fully which highlights a wide range of issues that applies to car parks, recreation areas, and the green areas. With the development of the urban infrastructure, the creation of high-rise parking facilities and separate car parks are insufficiently addressed. Consequently, the implementation of improvements in courtyards of high-rise residential houses is not possible if the above issue on the removal of the car load from courtyards is not solved. Many building districts are characterized by the same compositional, architectural-spatial structure which even more influences and causes discomfort in these areas to stay. In recent years, the solution to the above issue is sought by the municipal authorities of Latvia to create a new courtyard zoning. It applies to the project development and construction works. In the research, courtyards of the city of Jelgava are analysed and evaluated which from the qualitative point of view demonstrates and is a vivid example where the issues of the research are readable. The city of Jelgava, located 45 km away from Riga, is an expressed satellite city and serves for the agglomeration of Riga as a huge high-rise residential district. Consequently, the research includes separate courtyards of high-rise residential buildings of the city of Jelgava and their study is carried out from the point of view of the architectural composition

  20. 24 CFR 982.616 - Shared housing: Lease and HAP contract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shared housing: Lease and HAP... Types Shared Housing § 982.616 Shared housing: Lease and HAP contract. For assistance in a shared housing unit, there is a separate HAP contract and lease for each assisted family. ...