WorldWideScience

Sample records for residential fire safety

  1. Statistical assessment of fire safety in multi-residential buildings in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domen Kušar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nearly a third of residential units in Slovenia are located in multi-residential buildings. The majority of such buildings were built after WW2, when the need for suitable accommodation buildings was at its peak. They were built using the construction possibilities and requirements of the time. Every year there are over 200 fires in these buildings, resulting in fatalities and vast material damage. Due to the great efforts over the past centuries, which were all mainly aimed at replacing combustible construction materials with non-combustible ones, and with advancements in fire service equipment and techniques, the number of fires and their scope has decreased significantly but they were not entirely put out. New and greater advances in the field of fire safety of multi-residential buildings became obvious within the last few years, when stricter regulations regarding the construction of such objects came into force. Developments in science and within the industry itself brought about several new solutions in improving the situation in this field, which has been confirmed by experiences from abroad. Unfortunately in Slovenia, the establishment of safety principles still depends mainly on an occupants’ perception, financial means, and at the same time, certain implementation procedures that are much more complicated due to new property ownership. With the aid of the statistical results from the 2002 Census and contemporary fire safety requirements, this article attempts to show the present-day situation of the problem at both the state and municipality level and will propose solutions to improve this situation. The authors established that not even one single older, multi-residential building meets complies with modern requirements. Fortunately, the situation is improved by the fact that most buildings in Slovenia are built from non-combustible materials (concrete, brick, which limit the spread of fire.

  2. Fires and Food Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices Careers ... JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Fires and Food Safety Fire! Few words can strike such terror. Residential ...

  3. Fire Situations and Prevention Measures of residential building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Baixia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The proportion of residential building is the largest in all buildings. With the development of urbanization, residential building fires are at high momentum. The paper lists the residential building fires and the number of casualties’ proportion to total fires from 2011 to 2014, analyzing the high incidence causes of the fires and casualties and putting forward suggestions and countermeasures including carrying out fire safety education to improve the fire safety awareness of residents, fulfilling responsibility to enhancing fire safety management capabilities, perfecting fire apparatus to develop fire safety environment and enhancing public awareness of fire safety, equipping evacuation equipments to promote response ability to deal with disasters etc.

  4. CFD simulation of a fire in the living area of three storey residential house to evaluate life safety in houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bounagui, A.; Benichou, N.; Kashef, A.; McCartney, C.

    2004-01-01

    Over time there have been changes in construction practices, building designs and materials and construction technologies. The Institute for Research in Construction (IRC) at the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) is undertaking research project to determine the impact of innovative residential construction products and systems on the fire safety of houses. The research study includes two phases: experimental and numerical. A new three-level full-scale experimental facility, representing a typical single-family house, has been built to study the structural fire performance, smoke movement and tenability conditions in the event of a fire. In the event of a fire in the first storey of a house, fire and smoke can move up to the main and second floors either through an open door or any openings in the floor structure between the basement and the main floor rendering the upper floor untenable for the occupants. Using CFD simulations this paper investigates the effect of the state of a stairwell door (opened or closed) on the fire development as well as on the moving up of the toxic gases to the upper floors. Simulation results were then used to estimate the time when conditions would become untenable, based on criteria found in the literature. (author)

  5. Fire safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keski-Rahkonen, O.; Bjoerkman, J.; Hostikka, S.; Mangs, J.; Huhtanen, R.; Palmen, H.; Salminen, A.; Turtola, A.

    1998-01-01

    According to experience and probabilistic risk assessments, fires present a significant hazard in a nuclear power plant. Fires may be initial events for accidents or affect safety systems planned to prevent accidents and to mitigate their consequences. The project consists of theoretical work, experiments and simulations aiming to increase the fire safety at nuclear power plants. The project has four target areas: (1) to produce validated models for numerical simulation programmes, (2) to produce new information on the behavior of equipment in case of fire, (3) to study applicability of new active fire protecting systems in nuclear power plants, and (4) to obtain quantitative knowledge of ignitions induced by important electric devices in nuclear power plants. These topics have been solved mainly experimentally, but modelling at different level is used to interpret experimental data, and to allow easy generalisation and engineering use of the obtained data. Numerical fire simulation has concentrated in comparison of CFD modelling of room fires, and fire spreading on cables on experimental data. So far the success has been good to fair. A simple analytical and numerical model has been developed for fire effluents spreading beyond the room of origin in mechanically strongly ventilated compartments. For behaviour of equipment in fire several full scale and scaled down calorimetric experiments were carried out on electronic cabinets, as well as on horizontal and vertical cable trays. These were carried out to supply material for CFD numerical simulation code validation. Several analytical models were developed and validated against obtained experimental results to allow quick calculations for PSA estimates as well as inter- and extrapolations to slightly different objects. Response times of different commercial fire detectors were determined for different types of smoke, especially emanating from smoldering and flaming cables to facilitate selection of proper detector

  6. Fire Safety (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Fire Safety KidsHealth / For Parents / Fire Safety What's in ... event of a fire emergency in your home. Fire Prevention Of course, the best way to practice ...

  7. Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration project is to develop and conduct large-scale fire safety experiments on an International Space Station...

  8. Fire, safety and ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hindle, D.

    1999-02-01

    Correct ventilation in tunnel environments is vital for the comfort and safety of the people passing through. This article gives details of products from several manufacturers of safety rescue and fire fighting equipment, fire and fume detection equipment, special fire resistant materials, fire resistant hydraulic oils and fire dampers, and ventilation systems. Company addresses and fax numbers are supplied. 4 refs., 5 tabs., 10 photos.

  9. Fire safety engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.N.

    1989-01-01

    The periodic occurrence of large-scale, potentially disastrous industrial accidents involving fire in hazardous environments such as oilwell blowouts, petrochemical explosions and nuclear installations highlights the need for an integrated approach to fire safety engineering. Risk reduction 'by design' and rapid response are of equal importance in the saving of life and property in such situations. This volume of papers covers the subject thoroughly, touching on such topics as hazard analysis, safety design and testing, fire detection and control, and includes studies of fire hazard in the context of environment protection. (author)

  10. Fire Safety Deficiencies

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — A list of all fire safety deficiencies currently listed on Nursing Home Compare, including the nursing home that received the deficiency, the associated inspection...

  11. Smoking and Home Fire Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Materials Working with the Media Fire Protection Technology Smoking fire safety outreach materials As a member of ... Not reported 7% In transport 1% 195 incidents Smoking fire safety messages to share It is important ...

  12. Fire safety of wood construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert H. White; Mark A. Dietenberger

    2010-01-01

    Fire safety is an important concern in all types of construction. The high level of national concern for fire safety is reflected in limitations and design requirements in building codes. These code requirements and related fire performance data are discussed in the context of fire safety design and evaluation in the initial section of this chapter. Because basic data...

  13. Development of a Smart Residential Fire Protection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juhwan Oh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Embedded system is applied for the development of smart residential fire detection and extinguishing system. Wireless communication capability is integrated into various fire sensors and alarm devices. The system activates the fire alarm to warn occupants, executes emergency and rescue calls to remote residents and fire-fighting facility in an intelligent way. The effective location of extra-sprinklers within the space of interest for the fire extinguishing system is also investigated. Actual fire test suggests that the developed wireless system for the smart residential fire protection system is reliable in terms of sensors and their communication linkage.

  14. Fast and Accurate Residential Fire Detection Using Wireless Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bahrepour, Majid; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Prompt and accurate residential fire detection is important for on-time fire extinguishing and consequently reducing damages and life losses. To detect fire sensors are needed to measure the environmental parameters and algorithms are required to decide about occurrence of fire. Recently, wireless

  15. Development of a Smart Residential Fire Protection System

    OpenAIRE

    Juhwan Oh; Zhongwei Jiang; Henry Panganiban

    2013-01-01

    Embedded system is applied for the development of smart residential fire detection and extinguishing system. Wireless communication capability is integrated into various fire sensors and alarm devices. The system activates the fire alarm to warn occupants, executes emergency and rescue calls to remote residents and fire-fighting facility in an intelligent way. The effective location of extra-sprinklers within the space of interest for the fire extinguishing system is also investigated. Actual...

  16. Heat Release Rate of an Open Kitchen Fire of Small Residential Units in Tall Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Chow, W.K.

    2014-01-01

    Many small units of area less than 30 m2 in residential buildings over 200 m tall are equipped with open kitchens in Asia, including Hong Kong. Fire safety provisions of these kitchens are determined by performance-based design (PBD). In most PBD projects, only the spread of smoke from the kitchen on fire to the outside was commonly studied. However, a fire load survey in Hong Kong indicated large quantities of combustibles are stored in residential units. Cooking oil was found to be ignited ...

  17. A fire risk assessment model for residential high-rises with a single stairwell

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, N. D.; Steffensen, F.B.; Valkvist, M.B.

    2018-01-01

    As few or none prescriptive guidelines for fire risk assessment of residential high-rise buildings exist, it has been unclear which fire safety design features constitute an acceptable (adequate) safety level. In order to fill this gap a simplified risk-based decision-support tool, the Fire Risk...... Model (FRM), was developed. The FRM evaluates both the risk level to the occupants and the property risk level as a function of the building characteristics, height and fire safety features for single stairwell residential high-rise buildings. The acceptability of a high-rise design is then defined......, and the associated performance of the FRM evaluated. It was found that compartmentation and the door configurations in the egress path play an important role, along with sprinklers, in order for the design to successfully keep the stairwell free from smoke. Specifically, modern curtain wall facades were found...

  18. Grassroots movement building and preemption in the campaign for residential fire sprinklers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pertschuk, Mark; Hobart, Robin; Paloma, Marjorie; Larkin, Michelle A; Balbach, Edith D

    2013-10-01

    Home fires account for 85% of fire deaths in the United States, the majority in 1- or 2-family homes lacking fire sprinklers. Since 1978, however, a grassroots movement has successfully promoted more than 360 local ordinances mandating sprinklers in all new residential construction, including 1- and 2-family homes. The homebuilding industry has responded by seeking state preemption of local authority, a strategy previously used by other industries concerned about protecting their profits. From 2009 through 2011, 13 states adopted laws eliminating or limiting local authority over residential fire sprinklers. This study of the residential sprinkler movement adds to our understanding of grassroots public health movements and provides additional evidence that preemption can have a negative impact on public health and safety.

  19. Identifying vulnerable populations to death and injuries from residential fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilbert, Stanley W; Butry, David T

    2017-08-03

    This study proposes and evaluates the theory that people who are susceptible to injury in residential fires are not susceptible to death in residential fires and vice versa. It is proposed that the population vulnerable to death in residential fires can be proxied by 'frailty', which is measured as age-gender adjusted fatality rates due to natural causes. This study uses an ecological approach and controls for exposure to estimate the vulnerability of different population groups to death and injury in residential fires. It allows fatalities and injuries to be estimated by different models. Frailty explains fire-related death in adults while not explaining injuries, which is consistent with the idea that deaths and injuries affect disjoint populations. Deaths and injuries in fire are drawn from different populations. People who are susceptible to dying in fires are unlikely to be injured in fires, and the people who are susceptible to injury are unlikely to die in fires. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  20. Fire safety at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... over the smoke alarm as needed. Using a fire extinguisher can put out a small fire to keep it from getting out of control. Tips for use include: Keep fire extinguishers in handy locations, at least one on ...

  1. Fire safety regulations and licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, H.P.

    1998-01-01

    Experience of the past tow decades of nuclear power plant operation and results obtained from modern analytical techniques confirm that fires may be a real threat to nuclear safety and should receive adequate attention from the design phase throughout the life of the plant. Fire events, in particular influence significantly plant safety due to the fact that fires have the potential to simultaneously damage components of redundant safety-related equipment. Hence, the importance of fire protection for the overall safety of a nuclear power plant has to be reflected by the fire safety regulations and to be checked during the licensing process of a plant as well as during the continuous supervision of the operating plant

  2. The analysis of fire losses and characteristics of residential fires based on investigation data in Selangor, 2012-2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Yi Rong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a research in progress where authors seek to investigate the factors of residential fires. As part of the research, this paper aims to analyse the fire problems faced by the community of Malaysia. Data regarding residential fires between 2012 and 2014 was collected from fire investigation reports prepared by the Selangor Fire and Rescue Department. Descriptive analysis is conducted to summarize the data collected and describe the common phenomenon of residential fires. The distributions of the fire characteristics suggested that residential fires are commonly occurred during daytime, confined within the room of fire origin, caused by electrical failure and cooking negligence, started from kitchen, and occurred in multi-units housing. Further analysis will be conducted in order to investigate the relationships between the characteristics and residential fires.

  3. Fire safety analysis: methodology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kazarians, M.

    1998-01-01

    From a review of the fires that have occurred in nuclear power plants and the results of fire risk studies that have been completed over the last 17 years, we can conclude that internal fires in nuclear power plants can be an important contributor to plant risk. Methods and data are available to quantify the fire risk. These methods and data have been subjected to a series of reviews and detailed scrutiny and have been applied to a large number of plants. There is no doubt that we do not know everything about fire and its impact on a nuclear power plants. However, this lack of knowledge or uncertainty can be quantified and can be used in the decision making process. In other words, the methods entail uncertainties and limitations that are not insurmountable and there is little or no basis for the results of a fire risk analysis fail to support a decision process

  4. Motorcoach Fire Safety Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    This purpose of this study was to collect and analyze information from Government, industry, and media sources on the causes, frequency, and severity of motorcoach fires in the U.S., and to identify potential risk reduction measures. The Volpe Center...

  5. 49 CFR 238.103 - Fire safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire safety. 238.103 Section 238.103..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PASSENGER EQUIPMENT SAFETY STANDARDS Safety Planning and General Requirements § 238.103 Fire safety. (a) Materials. (1) Materials used in constructing a passenger car or a cab of a...

  6. Fire Safety. Managing School Facilities, Guide 6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department for Education and Employment, London (England). Architects and Building Branch.

    This booklet discusses how United Kingdom schools can manage fire safety and minimize the risk of fire. The guide examines what legislation school buildings must comply with and covers the major risks. It also describes training and evacuation procedures and provides guidance on fire precautions, alarm systems, fire fighting equipment, and escape…

  7. The necessity of periodic fire safety review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mowrer, D.S.

    1998-01-01

    Effective fire safety requires the coordinated integration of many diverse elements. Clear fire safety objectives are defined by plant management and/or regulatory authorities. Extensive and time-consuming systematic analyses are performed. Fire safety features (both active and passive) are installed and maintained, and administrative programs are established and implemented to achieve the defined objectives. Personnel are rigorously trained. Given the time, effort and monetary resources expended to achieve a specific level of fire safety, conducting periodic assessments to verify that the specified level of fire safety has been achieved and is maintained is a matter of common sense. Periodic fire safety reviews and assessment play an essential role in assuring continual nuclear safety in the world's power plants

  8. 76 FR 10246 - Updating Fire Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... public noted the importance of requiring facilities to meet up-to-date safety standards. The third... Affairs (VA) regulations concerning community residential care facilities, contract facilities for certain outpatient and residential services, and State home facilities. The final rule will clarify current...

  9. Fire safety assessment of tunnel structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gkoumas, Konstantinos; Giuliani, Luisa; Petrini, Francesco

    2011-01-01

    .g. structural and non structural, organizational, human behavior). This is even more truth for the fire safety design of such structures. Fire safety in tunnels is challenging because of the particular environment, bearing in mind also that a fire can occur in different phases of the tunnel’s lifecycle. Plans...... for upgrading fire safety provisions and tunnel management are also important for existing tunnels. In this study, following a brief introduction of issues regarding the above mentioned aspects, the structural performance of a steel rib for a tunnel infrastructure subject to fire is assessed by means...

  10. Impact of fires on nuclear safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skvarka, P.; Zmajkovic, I.

    1990-01-01

    Factors which are relevant with respect to fire hazard are summarized based on Revision 1 of IAEA Safety Guide No. 50-SG-D2, ''Fire Protection in Nuclear Power Plants'', of 1990. They include data acquisition, quantification of fire risks, assessment of adequacy of fire protection measures, modification of the fire protection system proposed. According to the above document, fire hazard analysis should define and document those parts of the fire protection system that must be present in order to secure safe operation of the nuclear power plant. (Z.M.). 2 appendices, 4 refs

  11. Behavior based safety approach towards fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suresh Kumar, R.

    2009-01-01

    The behavior of the individual who notice fire first is very important because it affect the safety of all occupants of the area. Human behavior on fire depends on variables of the buildings in which fire occurs and by the appearance of the fire when it is detected. Altruistic behavior of human being will help to handle the critical conditions due to fire emergencies. NPCIL have developed a culture of systematic approach to safeguard men and materials from fire by training and awareness. In our Nuclear Power Plants, we have an effective plan and system to test the plans. In each emergency exercises, the behavior of individuals will be monitored and recorded

  12. Effectiveness of the cigarette ignition propensity standard in preventing unintentional residential fires in Massachusetts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpert, Hillel R; Christiani, David C; Orav, E John; Dockery, Douglas W; Connolly, Gregory N

    2014-04-01

    We evaluated the Massachusetts Fire Safe Cigarette Law's (FSCL's) effectiveness in preventing residential fires. We examined unintentional residential fires reported to the Massachusetts Fire Incident Reporting System from 2004 to 2010. We analyzed FSCL effect on the likelihood of cigarette- versus noncigarette-caused fires and effect modification by fire scenario factors by using an interrupted time series regression model. We analyzed the effect of FSCL on monthly fire rates with Poisson regression. Cigarettes caused 1629 unintentional residential fires during the study period. The FSCL was associated with a 28% (95% confidence interval = 12%, 41%) reduction in the odds of cigarette- versus noncigarette-caused fires, although not in analyses restricted to casualty fires, with smaller sample size. The largest reductions were among fires in which human factors were involved; that were first ignited on furniture, bedding, or soft goods; that occurred in living areas; or that occurred in the summer or winter. The FSCL appears to have decreased the likelihood of cigarette-caused residential fires, particularly in scenarios for which the ignition propensity standard was developed. Current standards should be adopted, and the need for strengthening should be considered.

  13. Fire Safety Trianing in Health Care Institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Hospital Association, Chicago, IL.

    The manual details the procedures to be followed in developing and implementing a fire safety plan. The three main steps are first, to organize; second, to set up a procedure and put it in writing; and third, to train and drill employees and staff. Step 1 involves organizing a safety committee, appointing a fire marshall, and seeking help from…

  14. Fire Safety Design of Wood Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2006-01-01

    Lecture Notes on Fire Safety Design of Wood Structures including charring of wood and load bearing capacity of beams, columns, and connections.......Lecture Notes on Fire Safety Design of Wood Structures including charring of wood and load bearing capacity of beams, columns, and connections....

  15. Evacuation routes performances and fire safety of buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laban Mirjana Đ.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Residential buildings, public and business facilities with large number of occupants are particularly exposed to the risk of event with catastrophic consequences, especially in case of fire. Evacuation routes must be separated fire compartments with surfaces made of non-combustible materials. Safe evacuation of building occupants in case of fire is a crucial requirement for the preservation of human life in building. In our engineering practice, calculation model is usually applied in order to determine the time required for evacuation (SRPS TP 21. However, evacuation simulation models are more present in research papers, contributing to better assessment of flow of evacuation in the real time. These models could provide an efficient way of testing the safety of a building in the face of fire and indicate critical points at the evacuation paths. Computer models enable the development and analysis of multiple various scenarios during a fire event, contributing to defining the measures for improving the safety of the building in case of fire. This paper analyses the fulfilment of technical requirements for the safe evacuation and proposes improvement measures based on a comparative analysis of the time required for occupants' evacuation from the building (Department of Civil Engineering and Geodesy in Novi Sad, obtained by calculation model and by using evacuation simulation software.

  16. Fire safety requirements for electrical cables towards nuclear reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raju, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Electrical power supply forms a very important part of any nuclear reactor. Power supplies have been categorized in to class I, II, III and IV from reliability point. The safety related equipment are provided with highly reliable power supply to achieve the safety of very high order. Vast network of cables in a nuclear reactor are grouped and segregated to ensure availability of power to at least one group under all anticipated occurrences. Since fire can result in failures leading to unavailability of power caused by common cause, both passive and active fire protection methods are adopted in addition to fire detection system. The paper describes the requirement for passive fire protection to electrical cables viz. fire barrier and fire breaks. The paper gives an account of the tests required to standardize the products. Fire safety implementation for cables in research reactors is described

  17. How EPA's Asbestos Regulations Apply to Residential Buildings Used for Fire Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Memos and guidance from the Office of Air Quality Planning and Standards that clarify how the Asbestos National Emissions Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants applies to residential buildings used for fire training, also known as acquired structures.

  18. 29 CFR 1915.502 - Fire safety plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... implement a written fire safety plan that covers all the actions that employers and employees must take to ensure employee safety in the event of a fire. (See Appendix A to this subpart for a Model Fire Safety... safety plan for their employees, and this plan must comply with the host employer's fire safety plan. ...

  19. The state of the residential fire fatality problem in Sweden: Epidemiology, risk factors, and event typologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonsson, Anders; Bonander, Carl; Nilson, Finn; Huss, Fredrik

    2017-09-01

    Residential fires represent the largest category of fatal fires in Sweden. The purpose of this study was to describe the epidemiology of fatal residential fires in Sweden and to identify clusters of events. Data was collected from a database that combines information on fatal fires with data from forensic examinations and the Swedish Cause of Death-register. Mortality rates were calculated for different strata using population statistics and rescue service turnout reports. Cluster analysis was performed using multiple correspondence analysis with agglomerative hierarchical clustering. Male sex, old age, smoking, and alcohol were identified as risk factors, and the most common primary injury diagnosis was exposure to toxic gases. Compared to non-fatal fires, fatal residential fires more often originated in the bedroom, were more often caused by smoking, and were more likely to occur at night. Six clusters were identified. The first two clusters were both smoking-related, but were separated into (1) fatalities that often involved elderly people, usually female, whose clothes were ignited (17% of the sample), (2) middle-aged (45-64years old), (often) intoxicated men, where the fire usually originated in furniture (30%). Other clusters that were identified in the analysis were related to (3) fires caused by technical fault, started in electrical installations in single houses (13%), (4) cooking appliances left on (8%), (5) events with unknown cause, room and object of origin (25%), and (6) deliberately set fires (7%). Fatal residential fires were unevenly distributed in the Swedish population. To further reduce the incidence of fire mortality, specialized prevention efforts that focus on the different needs of each cluster are required. Cooperation between various societal functions, e.g. rescue services, elderly care, psychiatric clinics and other social services, with an application of both human and technological interventions, should reduce residential fire

  20. How to increase fire safety in buildings: Fire safety engineering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Herpen, van R.A.P. (Ruud)

    2011-01-01

    Fire means beside direct (financial)damage often far more indirect costs caused by interruption of operations and loss in sales, market share, property and,in the worst case people can get injured or even get killed (on average around80 persons a year). Fire in buildings is clearly a disaster and

  1. Hotel and Motel Fire Safety Project - USFA

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Provides a listing of properties compliant with the requirements of the Hotel and Motel Fire Safety Act of 1990. Users may search for compliant properties and submit...

  2. Large Scale Experiments on Spacecraft Fire Safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Urban, David L.; Ruff, Gary A.; Minster, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    -based microgravity facilities or has been limited to very small fuel samples. Still, the work conducted to date has shown that fire behaviour in low-gravity is very different from that in normal-gravity, with differences observed for flammability limits, ignition delay, flame spread behaviour, flame colour and flame......Full scale fire testing complemented by computer modelling has provided significant knowhow about the risk, prevention and suppression of fire in terrestrial systems (cars, ships, planes, buildings, mines, and tunnels). In comparison, no such testing has been carried out for manned spacecraft due...... to the complexity, cost and risk associ-ated with operating a long duration fire safety experiment of a relevant size in microgravity. Therefore, there is currently a gap in knowledge of fire behaviour in spacecraft. The entire body of low-gravity fire research has either been conducted in short duration ground...

  3. Large Scale Experiments on Spacecraft Fire Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, David; Ruff, Gary A.; Minster, Olivier; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; Tien, James S.; Torero, Jose L.; Legros, Guillaume; Eigenbrod, Christian; Smirnov, Nickolay; Fujita, Osamu; hide

    2012-01-01

    Full scale fire testing complemented by computer modelling has provided significant knowhow about the risk, prevention and suppression of fire in terrestrial systems (cars, ships, planes, buildings, mines, and tunnels). In comparison, no such testing has been carried out for manned spacecraft due to the complexity, cost and risk associated with operating a long duration fire safety experiment of a relevant size in microgravity. Therefore, there is currently a gap in knowledge of fire behaviour in spacecraft. The entire body of low-gravity fire research has either been conducted in short duration ground-based microgravity facilities or has been limited to very small fuel samples. Still, the work conducted to date has shown that fire behaviour in low-gravity is very different from that in normal gravity, with differences observed for flammability limits, ignition delay, flame spread behaviour, flame colour and flame structure. As a result, the prediction of the behaviour of fires in reduced gravity is at present not validated. To address this gap in knowledge, a collaborative international project, Spacecraft Fire Safety, has been established with its cornerstone being the development of an experiment (Fire Safety 1) to be conducted on an ISS resupply vehicle, such as the Automated Transfer Vehicle (ATV) or Orbital Cygnus after it leaves the ISS and before it enters the atmosphere. A computer modelling effort will complement the experimental effort. Although the experiment will need to meet rigorous safety requirements to ensure the carrier vehicle does not sustain damage, the absence of a crew removes the need for strict containment of combustion products. This will facilitate the possibility of examining fire behaviour on a scale that is relevant to spacecraft fire safety and will provide unique data for fire model validation. This unprecedented opportunity will expand the understanding of the fundamentals of fire behaviour in spacecraft. The experiment is being

  4. Some aspects of traffic safety in residential areas.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraay, J.H. & Wegman, F.C.M.

    1977-01-01

    In the framework of international co-operation within OECD Research Group Traffic Safety in Residential areas the Netherlands have accepted the task of collecting Dutch data for a report. As far as Dutch research exists for the various chapters and sections of the complete report, this can be found

  5. 40 CFR 30.18 - Hotel and motel fire safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Hotel and motel fire safety. 30.18... EDUCATION, HOSPITALS, AND OTHER NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Pre-Award Requirements § 30.18 Hotel and motel fire safety. The Hotel and Motel Fire Safety Act of 1990 (Public Law 101-391) establishes a number of fire...

  6. 34 CFR 668.49 - Institutional fire safety policies and fire statistics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Institutional fire safety policies and fire statistics... fire statistics. (a) Additional definitions that apply to this section. Cause of fire: The factor or...; however, it does not include indirect loss, such as business interruption. (b) Annual fire safety report...

  7. Examination of alternatives to upgrade fire safety in operating NPPs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, J. H.; Jung, I. S.

    2003-01-01

    For the Kori unit 2,3,4, Younggwang 1,2 and Ulchin 1,2 fire protection vulnerabilities and further improvement items are investigated. The most major problem is that those plants do not have plant-specific Fire Hazard Analysis Report. To improve fire safety of those plants, their own Fire Hazard Analysis should be proceed at first. Then, according to results of Fire Hazard Analysis, fire protection improvement program should be implemented. For the assurance of long term fire safety, result of Fire Hazard Analysis should be incorporated in the FSAR and periodically reviewed the impact of design change to fire safety

  8. Large-Scale Spacecraft Fire Safety Tests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, David; Ruff, Gary A.; Ferkul, Paul V.; Olson, Sandra; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos; T'ien, James S.; Torero, Jose L.; Cowlard, Adam J.; Rouvreau, Sebastien; Minster, Olivier; hide

    2014-01-01

    An international collaborative program is underway to address open issues in spacecraft fire safety. Because of limited access to long-term low-gravity conditions and the small volume generally allotted for these experiments, there have been relatively few experiments that directly study spacecraft fire safety under low-gravity conditions. Furthermore, none of these experiments have studied sample sizes and environment conditions typical of those expected in a spacecraft fire. The major constraint has been the size of the sample, with prior experiments limited to samples of the order of 10 cm in length and width or smaller. This lack of experimental data forces spacecraft designers to base their designs and safety precautions on 1-g understanding of flame spread, fire detection, and suppression. However, low-gravity combustion research has demonstrated substantial differences in flame behavior in low-gravity. This, combined with the differences caused by the confined spacecraft environment, necessitates practical scale spacecraft fire safety research to mitigate risks for future space missions. To address this issue, a large-scale spacecraft fire experiment is under development by NASA and an international team of investigators. This poster presents the objectives, status, and concept of this collaborative international project (Saffire). The project plan is to conduct fire safety experiments on three sequential flights of an unmanned ISS re-supply spacecraft (the Orbital Cygnus vehicle) after they have completed their delivery of cargo to the ISS and have begun their return journeys to earth. On two flights (Saffire-1 and Saffire-3), the experiment will consist of a flame spread test involving a meter-scale sample ignited in the pressurized volume of the spacecraft and allowed to burn to completion while measurements are made. On one of the flights (Saffire-2), 9 smaller (5 x 30 cm) samples will be tested to evaluate NASAs material flammability screening tests

  9. Reduced frequency and severity of residential fires following delivery of fire prevention education by on-duty fire fighters: cluster randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clare, Joseph; Garis, Len; Plecas, Darryl; Jennings, Charles

    2012-04-01

    In 2008, Surrey Fire Services, British Columbia, commenced a firefighter-delivered, door-to-door fire-prevention education and smoke alarm examination/installation initiative with the intention of reducing the frequency and severity of residential structure fires in the City of Surrey. High-risk zones within the city were identified and 18,473 home visits were undertaken across seven temporal delivery cohorts (13.8% of non-apartment dwellings in the city). The frequency and severity of fires pre- and post- the home visit intervention was examined in comparison to randomized high-risk cluster controls. Overall, the frequency of fires was found to have reduced in the city overall, however, the reduction in the intervention cohorts was significantly larger than for controls. Furthermore, when fires did occur within the intervention cohorts, smoke detectors were activated more frequently and the fires were confined to the object of origin more often post-home visits. No equivalent pattern was observed for the cluster control. On-duty fire fighters can reduce the frequency and severity of residential fires through targeted, door-to-door distribution of fire prevention education in high-risk areas. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The influence of sodium fires on LMFBRs safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Justin, F [DSN/Centre de Fontenay-aux-Roses, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    1979-03-01

    In a sodium cooled reactor, sodium fires are accidental conditions to be taken into account in safety analysis. For the various sodium categories, fire conditions, associated risks, safety analysis objectives and detailed corresponding issues are indicated, An experimental research program can be deduced from these considerations. This report covers the following: safety analysis methodology; primary sodium fires; secondary sodium fires; auxiliary sodium fires, and related experimental research programs.

  11. The influence of sodium fires on LMFBRs safety analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Justin, F.

    1979-01-01

    In a sodium cooled reactor, sodium fires are accidental conditions to be taken into account in safety analysis. For the various sodium categories, fire conditions, associated risks, safety analysis objectives and detailed corresponding issues are indicated, An experimental research program can be deduced from these considerations. This report covers the following: safety analysis methodology; primary sodium fires; secondary sodium fires; auxiliary sodium fires, and related experimental research programs

  12. Different design approaches to structural fire safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giuliani, Luisa; Budny, I.

    2013-01-01

    -priori evaluate which design is the safest or the most economical one: a punctual analysis of the different aspects and a comparison of the resulting designs is therefore of interest and is presented in this paper with reference to the case study considered.The third approach refers instead to a performance......-based fire design of the structure(PBFD), where safety goals are explicitly defined and a deeper knowledge of the structural response to fire effects can be achieved, for example with the avail of finite element analyses (FEA). On the other hand, designers can’t follow established procedures when undertaking...... such advanced investigations, which are generally quite complex ones, due to the presence of material degradation and large displacements induced by fire, as well as the possible triggering of local mechanism in the system. An example of advanced investigations for fire design is given in the paper...

  13. Fire Safety During the Holiday Season | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter is here, and that means holiday decorations, a warm hearth, and (hopefully) plenty of homecooked meals. Unfortunately, winter also brings numerous fire hazards both at work and around the house. This year, as you shop, decorate, and celebrate, keep these safety tips in mind to ensure a safe and enjoyable holiday season.

  14. Nuclear power plants: a unique challenge to fire safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nowlen, S.P.

    1992-01-01

    The evaluation of fire safety in a nuclear power plant must include the consideration of the impact of a fire on the operability of plant safety equipment and systems. This issue is not typical of the life safety and property protection issues which dominate traditional fire safety concerns. This paper provides a general discussion of the issue of nuclear power plant fire safety as it currently exists in the USA. Included is a discussion of the past history of nuclear power plant fire events, the development of nuclear industry specific fire safety guidelines, the adverse experience associated with the inadvertent operation of fire suppression systems, and the anticipated direction of fire safety requirements for future reactor designs in the USA. (Author)

  15. Fire safety assessment for the fire areas of the nuclear power plant using fire model CFAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yoon Hwan; Yang, Joon Eon; Kim, Jong Hoon

    2005-03-01

    Now the deterministic analysis results for the cable integrity is not given in case of performing the fire PSA. So it is necessary to develop the assessment methodology for the fire growth and propagation. This document is intended to analyze the peak temperature of the upper gas layer using the fire modeling code, CFAST, to evaluate the integrity of the cable located on the dominant pump rooms, and to assess the CCDP(Conditional Core Damage Probability) using the results of the cable integrity. According to the analysis results, the cable integrity of the pump rooms is maintained and CCDP is reduced about two times than the old one. Accordingly, the fire safety assessment for the dominant fire areas using the fire modeling code will capable to reduce the uncertainty and to develop a more realistic model

  16. Topology optimization for simplified structural fire safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Søren; Lange, Nis P.; Giuliani, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Topology optimization is applied in an idealized structural fire safety model, where the minimum compliance problem is constrained by temperature-controlled structural degradation. The constraint ensures a certain structural stiffness after a prescribed time. As this time period is extended......, resulting optimized topologies tend to become thicker or introduce redundant members that can take over when structural parts near the origin of the fire lose their load carrying capability. Hence, the structural degradation model acts as an erosion operator on the topology and indirectly enforces a minimum...

  17. Lessons learned from IAEA fire safety missions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, S.P.

    1998-01-01

    The IAEA has conducted expert missions to evaluate fire safety at the following nuclear power plants: the Zaporozhe plant in the Ukraine, the Borselle plant in the Netherlands, the Medzamor plant in Armenia, the Karachi plant in Pakistan, the Temelin plant in the Czech Republic, and the Laguna Verde plant in Mexico. The scope of these missions varied in subject and depth. The teams sent from the IAEA consisted of external fire experts and IAEA staff. All the missions were of great use to the host countries. The participating experts also benefited significantly. A summary of the missions and their findings is given. (author)

  18. Evaluating a smartphone application to improve child passenger safety and fire safety knowledge and behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omaki, Elise; Shields, Wendy C; McDonald, Eileen; Aitken, Mary E; Bishai, David; Case, James; Gielen, Andrea

    2017-02-01

    Although proven measures for reducing injury due to motor vehicle collision and residential fires exist, the number of families properly and consistently using child passenger restraints and smoke alarms remains low. This paper describes the design of the Safety In Seconds (SIS) 2.0 study, which aims to evaluate the impact of a smartphone app on parents' use of child restraints and smoke alarms. SIS is a multisite randomised controlled trial. Participants are parents of children aged 4-7 years who are visiting the Pediatric Emergency Department or Pediatric Trauma Service. Parents are randomised to receive tailored education about child passenger safety or about fire safety via the SIS smartphone app. A baseline and two follow-up surveys at 3 months and 6 months are conducted. Primary outcomes are: (1) having the correct child restraint for the child's age and size; (2) restraining the child in the back seat of the car; (3) buckling the child up for every ride; (4) having the restraint inspected by a child passenger safety technician; (5) having a working smoke alarm on every level of the home; (6) having hard-wired or lithium battery smoke alarms; (7) having and (8) practising a fire escape plan. Finding ways to communicate with parents about child passenger and fire safety continues to be a research priority. This study will contribute to the evidence about how to promote benefits of proper and consistent child restraint and smoke alarm use. NCT02345941; Pre-results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  19. Investigation of Fire Safety Awareness and Management in Mall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rahim N.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In spite of having sufficient fire safety system installed in buildings, the incidence of fire hazard becomes the furthermost and supreme threat to health and safety, as well as property to any community. In order to make sure that the safety of the building and its users, the fundamental features depends on the fire precaution system and equipment which should be according to the standard requirements. Nevertheless, the awareness on fire safety could necessarily alleviate the damages or rate of fatality during the event of fire. This paper presents the results on the investigation of fire safety awareness and management, concentrating on shopping mall. The endeavour of this study is to explore the level of fire safety knowledge of the users in the mall, and to study the effectiveness level of fire safety management in a mall. From the study, public awareness is highly related to understanding human behaviour and their personal background. The respondents’ levels of awareness are rather low, which reflects on their poor action when facing emergency situation during fire. The most effective methods identified to improve the awareness and effectiveness of fire safety level is through involvement in related fire safety programmes, distribution of pamphlets or brochures on fire safety and appointing specific personnel for Emergency Response Team in the mall.

  20. Occupational safety beliefs among Latino residential roofing workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcury, Thomas A; Summers, Phillip; Carrillo, Lourdes; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Quandt, Sara A; Mills, Thomas H

    2014-06-01

    This analysis describes beliefs about work safety and personal protective equipment (PPE) among Latino roofing workers, it delineates their perceptions of work environment characteristics that affect work safety and PPE use, and it describes how they experience work injuries and the consequences of these injuries. In-depth interviews were completed with 10 current and former Latino residential roofers. Interview transcripts were subjected to systematic qualitative analysis. Participants' valued productivity over safety, and this had a negative influence on their safety behavior and reduced their PPE use. They understood that roofing was hazardous. They limited use of PPE when they felt it reduced productivity and when it was uncomfortable. Work environment characteristics that affected safety included company size, the physical demands of the job, lack of training, the need for work, general life stress, and distractions at work. An injury had to result in lost work time to be considered significant. Access to health care is limited by employers not providing Workers' compensation. Future research is needed to substantiate these descriptive results and to delineate factors that are associated with safety behavior and use of PPE. Interventions, based on a lay health educator model, are needed to improve safety in this population. Safety regulations need to be evaluated and their enforcement needs to be improved. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Development of a coal fired pulse combustor for residential space heating. Phase I, Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-04-01

    This report presents the results of the first phase of a program for the development of a coal-fired residential combustion system. This phase consisted of the design, fabrication, testing, and evaluation of an advanced pulse combustor sized for residential space heating requirements. The objective was to develop an advanced pulse coal combustor at the {approximately} 100,000 Btu/hr scale that can be integrated into a packaged space heating system for small residential applications. The strategy for the development effort included the scale down of the feasibility unit from 1-2 MMBtu/hr to 100,000 Btu/hr to establish a baseline for isolating the effect of scale-down and new chamber configurations separately. Initial focus at the residential scale was concentrated on methods of fuel injection and atomization in a bare metal unit. This was followed by incorporating changes to the advanced chamber designs and testing of refractory-lined units. Multi-fuel capability for firing oil or gas as a secondary fuel was also established. Upon completion of the configuration and component testing, an optimum configuration would be selected for integrated testing of the pulse combustor unit. The strategy also defined the use of Dry Ultrafine Coal (DUC) for Phases 1 and 2 of the development program with CWM firing to be a product improvement activity for a later phase of the program.

  2. Fire-safety engineering and performance-based codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt

    project administrators, etc. The book deals with the following topics: • Historical presentation on the subject of fire • Legislation and building project administration • European fire standardization • Passive and active fire protection • Performance-based Codes • Fire-safety Engineering • Fundamental......Fire-safety Engineering is written as a textbook for Engineering students at universities and other institutions of higher education that teach in the area of fire. The book can also be used as a work of reference for consulting engineers, Building product manufacturers, contractors, building...... thermodynamics • Heat exchange during the fire process • Skin burns • Burning rate, energy release rate and design fires • Proposal to Risk-based design fires • Proposal to a Fire scale • Material ignition and flame spread • Fire dynamics in buildings • Combustion products and toxic gases • Smoke inhalation...

  3. 46 CFR 62.35-15 - Fire safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire safety. 62.35-15 Section 62.35-15 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) MARINE ENGINEERING VITAL SYSTEM AUTOMATION Requirements for Specific Types of Automated Vital Systems § 62.35-15 Fire safety. (a) All required fire pump...

  4. Building safety and human behaviour in fire: A literature review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kobes, M.; Helsloot, I.; de Vries, B.; Post, J.

    2010-01-01

    The most crucial aspect of a building's safety in the face of fire is the possibility of safe escape. An important precondition is that its fire safety facilities enable independent and adequate fire response performances by the building's occupants. In practice, it appears that the measures

  5. Occupational safety issues in residential construction surveyed in Wisconsin, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang D; Carlson, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Residential construction is a high-risk industry in the U.S. due to the exposure to work-related safety hazards and fall injuries. This study aimed to examine the safety training and safe work practices of construction workers within the small residential construction industry. In order to achieve the study objectives, a survey was designed and sent to approximately 200 Wisconsin based residential construction contractors. About one third of the respondents stated that they did not have any form of safety programs. The study indicated that the most common types of work-related injuries in residential construction were slips/trips/falls and cuts/lacerations. The survey findings also suggested that the residential construction contractors needed to increase the utilization of fall protection safety equipment. Further education and subject matter expert training could provide benefits to improve occupational safety and health of the small business workforce in the residential construction industry.

  6. Transport fire safety engineering in the European Union - project TRANSFEU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jolanta Maria RADZISZEWSKA-WOLIŃSKA

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Article presents European Research project (of FP7-SST-2008-RTD-1 for Surface transportation TRANSFEU. Projects undertakes to deliver both a reliable toxicity measurement methodology and a holistic fire safety approach for all kind of surface transport. It bases on a harmonized Fire Safety Engineering methodology which link passive fire security with active fire security mode. This all embracing system is the key to attain optimum design solutions in respect to fire safety objectives as an alternative to the prescriptive approach. It will help in the development of innovative solutions (design and products used for the building of the surface transport which will better respect the environment.In order to reach these objectives new toxicity measurement methodology and related classification of materials, new numerical fire simulation tools, fire test methodology (laboratory and full scale and a decisive tool to optimize or explore new design in accordance to the fire safety requirements will be developed.

  7. Safety design guides for fire protection for CANDU 9

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Duk Su; Chang, Woo Hyun; Lee, Nam Young; A. C. D. Wright

    1996-03-01

    This safety design guide establishes design requirements to ensure the radiological risk to the public due to fire is acceptable and operating personnel are adequately protected from the hazards of fires. This safety design guide also specifies the safety criteria for fire protection to be applied to mitigate fires and recommends the fire protection program to be established to initiate, coordinate and document the design activities associated with fire protection. The requirements for fire protection outlined in this safety design guide shall be satisfied in the design stage and the change status of the regulatory requirements, code and standards should be traced and incorporated into this safety design guide accordingly. 1 fig., (Author) .new

  8. Investigating the effect of banning non-reduced ignition propensity cigarettes on fatal residential fires in Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonander, Carl M; Jonsson, Anders P; Nilson, Finn T

    2016-04-01

    Annually, 100 people die as a result of residential fires in Sweden and almost a third of the fatal fires are known to be caused by smoking. In an attempt to reduce the occurrence of these events, reduced ignition propensity (RIP) cigarettes have been developed. They are designed to reduce the risk of fire by preventing the cigarette from burning through the full length when left unattended. In November 2011, a ban was introduced, forbidding the production and sale of all non-RIP cigarettes in all member states of the European Union, including Sweden. Monthly data on all recorded residential fires and associated fatalities in Sweden from January 2000 to December 2013 were analyzed using an interrupted time series design. The effect of the intervention [in relative risk (RR)] was quantified using generalised additive models for location, shape and scale. There were no statistically significant intervention effects on residential fires (RR 0.95 [95% CI: 0.89-1.01]), fatal residential fires (RR 0.99 [95% CI: 0.80-1.23]), residential fires where smoking was a known cause (RR 1.10 [95% CI: 0.95-1.28]) or fatal residential fires where smoking was a known cause (RR 0.92 [95% CI: 0.63-1.35]). No evidence of an effect of the ban on all non-RIP cigarettes on the risk of residential fires in Sweden was found. The results may not be generalisable to other countries. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the European Public Health Association. All rights reserved.

  9. Safety assessment of outdoor live fire range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-05-01

    The following Safety Assessment (SA) pertains to the outdoor live fire range facility (LFR). The purpose of this facility is to supplement the indoor LFR. In particular it provides capacity for exercises that would be inappropriate on the indoor range. This SA examines the risks that are attendant to the training on the outdoor LFR. The outdoor LFR used by EG&G Mound is privately owned. It is identified as the Miami Valley Shooting Grounds. Mondays are leased for the exclusive use of EG&G Mound.

  10. Advanced analysis and design for fire safety of steel structures

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Guoqiang

    2013-01-01

    Advanced Analysis and Design for Fire Safety of Steel Structures systematically presents the latest findings on behaviours of steel structural components in a fire, such as the catenary actions of restrained steel beams, the design methods for restrained steel columns, and the membrane actions of concrete floor slabs with steel decks. Using a systematic description of structural fire safety engineering principles, the authors illustrate the important difference between behaviours of an isolated structural element and the restrained component in a complete structure under fire conditions. The book will be an essential resource for structural engineers who wish to improve their understanding of steel buildings exposed to fires. It is also an ideal textbook for introductory courses in fire safety for master’s degree programs in structural engineering, and is excellent reading material for final-year undergraduate students in civil engineering and fire safety engineering. Furthermore, it successfully bridges th...

  11. Safety guide on fire protection in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The purpose of the Safety Guide is to give specific design and operational guidance for protection from fire and explosion in nuclear power plants, based on the general guidance given in the relevant sections of the 'Safety Code of Practice - Design' and the 'Safety Code of Practice - Operation' of the International Atomic Energy Agency. The guide will confine itself to fire protection of safety systems and items important to safety, leaving the non-safety matters of fire protection in nuclear power plants to be decided upon the basis of the various available national and international practices and regulations. (HP) [de

  12. MITIGATION SCENARIOS FOR RESIDENTIAL FIRES IN DENSELY POPULATED URBAN SETTLEMENTS IN SUKAHAJI VILLAGE, BANDUNG CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saut Aritua Hasiholan Sagala

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Residential fires are a form of disaster that often occurs in urban areas especially in densely populated settlements. This study looks at possible mitigation scenarios for this kind of disaster. A case study was conducted in Babakan Ciparay Sub-District in Bandung City, among the densely populated settlements, and was focused especially on Sukahaji Village, a sub-unit of Babakan Ciparay, which is the most densely populated village in Bandung City with up to 234.14 people/ha. There have been six structural fires recorded from 2007 until 2010 occurring in Sukahaji. This study applied stratified random sampling as the preferred sampling technique and data collection method from a total population of 3,227 buildings. The data was then examined using risk analysis. The results have led to two intervention measures suggested as mitigation scenarios for residential fires that can be applied within the Sukahaji Village. The study concludes that mitigation measures through strengthening community capacity can be the principal option in reducing risk to fires in densely populated urban settlements.

  13. Fire safety in the atomic age

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whitman, L.E.

    1980-01-01

    This nontechnical review of radiation hazards acquaints those faced with radiation fire-safety problems (firemen, plant safety personnel, technicians, and others) with what the hazards are, where they may be found, and how to deal with them. It removes unnecessary fears and misconceptions by giving a picture of radiation as something that is neither to be feared nor ignored, but rather something that can be lived with safely. Since all radioactive materials emit energy that has the power to damage living tissue, those involved with fire protection who might come into contact with such materials must understand both the real dangers from a variety of radiation exposures, and the safest, most-effective ways to avert danger to themselves and others. Whitman discusses in detail the potential hazards, from contamination from radioactive waste to transportation of radioactive materials, from nuclear power plants to radiation machinery and nuclear weapons. He presents the basic facts and includes practical problems to be solved. 14 references, 65 figures

  14. National and international standards and recommendations on fire protection and fire safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, H.P.

    2007-01-01

    Experience feedback from events in nuclear facilities worldwide has shown that fire can represent a safety significant hazard. Thus, the primary objectives of fire protection programmes are to minimize both the probability of occurrence and the consequences of a fire. The regulator body expects that the licensees justify their arrangements for identifying how fires can occur and spread, assess the vulnerability of plant equipment and structures, determine how the safe operation of a plant is affected, and introduce measures to prevent a fire hazard from developing and propagating as well as to mitigate its effects in case the fire cannot be prevented. For that purpose usually a comprehensive regulatory framework for fire protection has been elaborated, based on national industrial regulations, nuclear specific regulations as well as international recommendations or requirements. Examples of such national and international standards and recommendations on fire protection and fire safety assessment as well as ongoing activities in this field are described. (orig.)

  15. Fire safety study of Dodewaard and Borssele nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    From the nuclear and conventional fire safety audits of both Dutch nuclear power plants performed under supervision of the Nuclear Safety Inspectorate and the Inspectorate for the Fire Services it turns out that the fire safety is sufficient however amenable for improvement. Besides a detailed description of the method of examination, the study 'Fire Safety' contains the results of the audit and 14 respectively 15 recommendations for improvement of the fire safety in Dodewaard and Borssele. The suggested recommendations which are applicable to both power plants are the following: fire fighting training for operators and guards, a complete emergency ventilation system of the control room, increase in the number of detectors and alarms, an increase in the quantity of water available for high-pressure fire fighting, improvement of fire barriers between several redundancies of nuclear safety systems, an investigation and possible improvement of the heat and radiation protection offered by presently used fire fighting suits. For Dodewaard a closed emergency staircase in the reactor building (secondary containment) is deemed necessary for personnel emergency escape routes and continued fire fighting if required

  16. Fire protection and safety in working with sodium. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Foerster, K.; Kremer, K.H.; Wolf, J.

    1978-01-01

    The use of sodium as a heat transfer medium in nuclear plant and the associated development of sodium technology caused the requirement for adapting fire and safety precautions to new conditions of dealing with this liquid. The comparison in the first part of this article of the properties of sodium with those of petrol clarified the different fire characteristics of sodium compared to many other combustible materials and the effects of fires which differ from conventional fires. Based on this, measures for fire precautions and for safety of personnel are introduced. (orig.) [de

  17. Safety tests carried out at Cadarache. Sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruchard, M.

    1976-01-01

    Safety test on sodium fires developed at the Cadarache Nuclear Centre by the Department of Nuclear Safety, section of safety experiments on radioactivity transfer are conducted in two main directions: analysis of the behavior and thermodynamic consequences of accidental fires, working on the basis of typical experimental results; research and development of methods and equipment to control and if possible extinguish these fires. The most important part of this programme is concerned with the sodium pool fires which would result from the failure of a secondary coolant circuit pipe [fr

  18. Appraisal of Fire Safety Management Systems at Educational Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadzim N.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Educational buildings are one type of government asset that should be protected, and they play an important role as temporary communal meeting places for children, teachers and communities. In terms of management, schools need to emphasize fire safety for their buildings. It is well known that fires are not only a threat to the building’s occupants, but also to the property and the school environment. A study on fire safety management has been carried out on schools that have recently experienced fires in Penang. From the study, it was found that the school buildings require further enhancement in terms of both active and passive fire protection systems. For instance, adequate fire extinguishers should be provided to the school and the management should inspect and maintain fire protection devices regularly. The most effective methods to increase the level of awareness on fire safety are by organizing related programs on the management of fire safety involving all staff, teachers and students, educational talks on the dangers of fire and important actions to take in the event of an emergency, and, lastly, to appoint particular staff to join the management safety team in schools.

  19. Evaluation of fire probabilistic safety assessment for a PWR plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, C.H.; Lin, T.J.; Kao, T.M.

    2001-01-01

    The internal fire analysis of the level 1 power operation probability safety assessment (PSA) for Maanshan (PWR) Nuclear Power Plant (MNPP) was updated. The fire analysis adopted a scenario-based PSA approach to systematically evaluate fire and smoke hazards and their associated risk impact to MNPP. The result shows that the core damage frequency (CDF) due to fire is about six times lower than the previous one analyzed by the Atomic Energy Council (AEC), Republic of China in 1987. The plant model was modified to reflect the impact of human events and recovery actions during fire. Many tabulated EXCEL spread-sheets were used for evaluation of the fire risk. The fire-induced CDF for MNPP is found to be 2.1 E-6 per year in this study. The relative results of the fire analysis will provide the bases for further risk-informed fire protection evaluation in the near future. (author)

  20. Human Factors in Fire Safety Management and Prevention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Othuman Mydin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fire protection is the study and practice of mitigating the unwanted effects of potentially destructive fires. It involves the study of the behavior, compartmentalization, and investigation of fire and its related emergencies, as well as the research and development, production, testing and application of mitigating systems. Problems still occurred despite of the adequate fire safety systems installed. For most people in high-risk buildings, not all accidents were caused by them. They were more likely to be the victims of a fire that occurred. Besides damaging their properties and belongings, some people were burned to death for not knowing what to do if fire happens in their place. This paper will present the human factors in fire safety management and prevention system.

  1. The Safety Analysis of Shipborne Ammunition in Fire Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Junpeng; Wang, Xudong; Yue, Pengfei

    2017-12-01

    The safety of Ammunition has always been the focus of national military science and technology issues. And fire is one of the major safety threats to the ship’s ammunition storage environment, In this paper, Mk-82 shipborne aviation bomb has been taken as the study object, simulated the whole process of fire by using the FDS (Fire Detection System) software. According to the simulation results of FDS, ANSYS software was used to simulate the temperature field of Mk-82 carrier-based aviation bomb under fire environment, and the safety of aviation bomb in fire environment was analyzed. The result shows that the aviation bombs under the fire environment can occur the combustion or explosion after 70s constant cook-off, and it was a huge threat to the ship security.

  2. A study on fire spreading model for the safety distance between the neighborhood occupancies and historical buildings in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, C. H.; Chien, S. W.; Ho, M. C.

    2015-08-01

    Cultural heritages and historical buildings are vulnerable against severe threats from fire. Since the 1970s, ten fire-spread events involving historic buildings have occurred in Taiwan, affecting a total of 132 nearby buildings. Developed under the influence of traditional Taiwanese culture, historic buildings in Taiwan are often built using non-fire resistant brick-wood structure and located in proximity to residential occupancies. Fire outbreak in these types of neighborhood will lead to severe damage of antiquities, leaving only unrecoverable historical imagery. This study is aimed to investigate the minimal safety distance required between a historical building and its surroundings in order to reduce the risk of external fire. This study is based on literature analysis and the fire spread model using a Fire Dynamics Simulator. The selected target is Jingmei Temple in Taipei City. This study explored local geography to identify patterns behind historical buildings distribution. In the past, risk reduction engineering for cultural heritages and historical buildings focused mainly on fire equipment and the available personnel with emergency response ability, and little attention was given to external fire risks and the affected damage. Through discussions on the required safety distance, this research provides guidelines for the following items: management of neighborhoods with historical buildings and consultation between the protection of cultural heritages and disaster prevention, reducing the frequency and extent of fire damages, and preserving cultural resource.

  3. Development of Large-Scale Spacecraft Fire Safety Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ruff, Gary A.; Urban, David L.; Fernandez-Pello, A. Carlos

    2013-01-01

    exploration missions outside of low-earth orbit and accordingly, more complex in terms of operations, logistics, and safety. This will increase the challenge of ensuring a fire-safe environment for the crew throughout the mission. Based on our fundamental uncertainty of the behavior of fires in low...... of the spacecraft fire safety risk. The activity of this project is supported by an international topical team of fire experts from other space agencies who conduct research that is integrated into the overall experiment design. The large-scale space flight experiment will be conducted in an Orbital Sciences...

  4. Industrial safety and fire protection during the construction phase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zimmer, K.

    1977-01-01

    The questions and problems of industrial safety and fire prevention have to be treated like the activities planning, developing, assembly, etc. This statement is illustrated by statistics of the fire insurance companies, from which it can be seen that the number of fire accidents has decreased but that the damage caused has greatly increased. The sooner the fire prevention and industrial safety measures are integrated in the planning phase, the better for the total costs. Preventive measures that possibly have to be introduced at a later stage are not only generally much more expensive but are also seldom as effective. (orig./HK) [de

  5. German data for risk based fire safety assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roewekamp, M.; Berg, H.P.

    1998-01-01

    Different types of data are necessary to perform risk based fire safety assessments and, in particular, to quantify the fire event tree considering the plant specific conditions. Data on fire barriers, fire detection and extinguishing, including also data on secondary effects of a fire, have to be used for quantifying the potential hazard and damage states. The existing German database on fires in nuclear power plants (NPPs) is very small. Therefore, in general generic data, mainly from US databases, are used for risk based safety assessments. Due to several differences in the plant design and conditions generic data can only be used as conservative assumptions. World-wide existing generic data on personnel failures in case of fire fighting have only to be adapted to the plant specific conditions inside the NPP to be investigated. In contrary, unavailabilities of fire barrier elements may differ strongly depending on different standards, testing requirements, etc. In addition, the operational behaviour of active fire protection equipment may vary depending on type and manufacturer. The necessity for more detailed and for additional plant specific data was the main reason for generating updated German data on the operational behaviour of active fire protection equipment/features in NPPs to support risk based fire safety analyses being recommended to be carried out as an additional tool to deterministic fire hazard analyses in the frame of safety reviews. The results of these investigations revealed a broader and more realistic database for technical reliability of active fire protection means, but improvements as well as collection of further data are still necessary. (author)

  6. Residential gas-fired sorption heat pumps. Test and technology evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naeslund, M.

    2008-12-15

    Heat pumps may be the next step in gas-fired residential space heating. Together with solar energy it is an option to combine natural gas and renewable energy. Heat pumps for residential space heating are likely to be based on the absorption or adsorption process, i.e. sorption heat pumps. Manufacturers claim that the efficiency could reach 140-160%. The annual efficiency will be lower but it is clear that gas-fired heat pumps can involve an efficiency and technology step equal to the transition from non-condensing gas boilers with atmospheric burners to condensing boilers. This report contains a review of the current sorption gas-fired heat pumps for residential space heating and also the visible development trends. A prototype heat pump has been laboratory tested. Field test results from Germany and the Netherlands are also used for a technology evaluation. The tested heat pump unit combines a small heat pump and a supplementary condensing gas boiler. Field tests show an average annual efficiency of 120% for this prototype design. The manufacturer abandoned the tested design during the project period and the current development concentrates on a heat pump design only comprising the heat pump, although larger. The heat pump development at three manufacturers in Germany indicates a commercial stage around 2010-2011. A fairly high electricity consumption compared to traditional condensing boilers was observed in the tested heat pump. Based on current prices for natural gas and electricity the cost savings were estimated to 12% and 27% for heat pumps with 120% and 150% annual efficiency respectively. There is currently no widespread performance testing procedure useful for annual efficiency calculations of gas-fired heat pumps. The situation seems to be clearer for electric compression heat pumps regarding proposed testing and calculation procedures. A German environmental label exists and gasfired sorption heat pumps are also slightly treated in the Eco-design work

  7. Safety study of fire protection for nuclear fuel cycle facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Insufficiencies in the fire protection system of the nuclear reactor facilities were pointed out when the fire occurred due to the Niigata prefecture-Chuetsu-oki Earthquake in July, 2007. This prompted the revision of the fire protection safety examination guideline for nuclear reactors as well as commercial guidelines. The commercial guidelines have been endorsed by the regulatory body. Now commercial fire protection standards for nuclear facilities such as the design guideline and the management guideline for protecting fire in the Light Water Reactors (LWRs) are available, however, those to apply to the nuclear fuel cycle facilities such as mixed oxide fuel fabrication facility (MFFF) have not been established. For the improvement of fire protection system of the nuclear fuel cycle facilities, the development of a standard for the fire protection, corresponding to the commercial standard for LWRs were required. Thus, Japan Nuclear Energy Safety Organization (JNES) formulated a fire protection guidelines for nuclear fuel cycle facilities as a standard relevant to the fire protection of the nuclear fuel cycle facilities considering functions specific to the nuclear fuel cycle facilities. In formulating the guidelines, investigation has been conduced on the commercial guidelines for nuclear reactors in Japan and the standards relevant to the fire protection of nuclear facilities in USA and other countries as well as non-nuclear industrial fire protection standards. The guideline consists of two parts; Equipments and Management, as the commercial guidances of the nuclear reactor. In addition, the acquisition of fire evaluation data for a components (an electric cabinet, cable, oil etc.) targeted for spread of fire and the evaluation model of fire source were continued for the fire hazard analysis (FHA). (author)

  8. IoT-Based Intelligent Modeling of Smart Home Environment for Fire Prevention and Safety

    OpenAIRE

    Faisal Saeed; Anand Paul; Abdul Rehman; Won Hwa Hong; Hyuncheol Seo

    2018-01-01

    Fires usually occur in homes because of carelessness and changes in environmental conditions. They cause threats to the residential community and may result in human death and property damage. Consequently, house fires must be detected early to prevent these types of threats. The immediate notification of a fire is the most critical issue in domestic fire detection systems. Fire detection systems using wireless sensor networks sometimes do not detect a fire as a consequence of sensor failure....

  9. Fire and blast safety manual for fuel element manufacture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensinger, U.; Koehler, B.; Mester, W.; Riotte, H.G.; Sehrbrock, H.W.

    1988-01-01

    The manual aims to enable people involved in the planning, operation, supervision, licensing or appraisal of fuel element factories to make a quick and accurate assessment of blast safety. In Part A, technical plant principles are shown, and a summary lists the flammable materials and ignition sources to be found in fuel element factories, together with theoretical details of what happens during a fire or a blast. Part B comprises a list of possible fires and explosions in fuel element factories and ways of preventing them. Typical fire and explosion scenarios are analysed more closely on the basis of experiments. Part B also contains a list and an assessment of actual fires and explosions which have occurred in fuel element factories. Part C contains safety measures to protect against fire and explosion, in-built fire safety, fire safety in plant design, explosion protection and measures to protect people from radiation and other hazards when fighting fires. A distinction is drawn between UO 2 , MOX and HTR fuel elements. (orig./DG) [de

  10. The aspects of fire safety at landfills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleshina Tat'yana Anatol'evna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Starting with 2008 and till 2013 there have been alarm messages about fires occurring at landfill places in Russia. Landfill fires are especially dangerous as they emit dangerous fumes from the combustion of the wide range of materials within the landfill. Subsurface landfill fires, unlike typical fires, cannot be put out with water. The article includes the analysis of the sources and causes of conflagrations at landfills. There maintains the necessity to eliminate the reasons, which cause the fires. There are quantification indices of environmental, social and economic effects of fires at landfills all over Russia. Surface fires generally burn at relatively low temperatures and are characterized by the emission of dense white smoke and the products of incomplete combustion. The smoke includes irritating agents, such as organic acids and other compounds. Higher temperature fires can cause the breakdown of volatile compounds, which emit dense black smoke. Surface fires are classified as either accidental or deliberate. For the ecologic security there is a need in the execution of proper hygienic requirements to the content of the places as well as international recommendations. In addition to the burning and explosion hazards posed by landfill fires, smoke and other by-products of landfill fires also present a health risk to firefighters and others exposed to them. Smoke from landfill fires generally contains particulate matter (the products of incomplete combustion of the fuel source, which can aggravate pre-existing pulmonary conditions or cause respiratory distress and damage ecosystem. The monitoring of conducting preventive inflamings and transition to alternative, environment friendly methods of waste disposal is needed.

  11. Influence of safeguards and fire protection on criticality safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Six, D.E.

    1980-01-01

    There are several positive influences of safeguards and fire protection on criticality safety. Experts in each discipline must be aware of regulations and requirements of the others and work together to ensure a fault-tree design. EG and G Idaho, Inc., routinely uses an Occupancy-Use Readiness Manual to consider all aspects of criticality safety, fire protection, and safeguards. The use of the analytical tree is described

  12. Upgrading of fire safety in nuclear power plants. Proceedings of an International Symposium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-01

    The document includes 40 papers presented at the International Symposium on Upgrading of Fire Safety in Nuclear Power Plants held in Vienna between 18-21 November 1997. The symposium presentations were grouped in 6 sessions: Fire safety reviews (5 papers), Fire safety analysis - Methodology (6 papers), Fire safety analysis - Applications (3 papers), Panel 1 - Identification of deficiencies in fire safety in nuclear power plants - Operational experience and data (7 papers), Panel 2 - Experience based data in fire safety assessment - Fire safety regulations and licensing (7 papers), Upgrading programmes (10 papers), and a closing session (2 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each paper Refs, figs, tabs

  13. Upgrading of fire safety in nuclear power plants. Proceedings of an International Symposium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-04-01

    The document includes 40 papers presented at the International Symposium on Upgrading of Fire Safety in Nuclear Power Plants held in Vienna between 18-21 November 1997. The symposium presentations were grouped in 6 sessions: Fire safety reviews (5 papers), Fire safety analysis - Methodology (6 papers), Fire safety analysis - Applications (3 papers), Panel 1 - Identification of deficiencies in fire safety in nuclear power plants - Operational experience and data (7 papers), Panel 2 - Experience based data in fire safety assessment - Fire safety regulations and licensing (7 papers), Upgrading programmes (10 papers), and a closing session (2 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each paper

  14. Instrumentation for mine safety: fire and smoke problems and solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevens, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    Underground fires continue to be one of the most serious hazards to life and property in the mining industry. Although underground mines are analogous to high-rise buildings where persons are isolated from immediate escape or rescue, application of technology to locate and control fire hazards while still in their controllable state is slow to be implemented in underground mines. This paper describes several USBM (Bureau of Mines) safety programs which included in-mine testing with mine fire and smoke sensors, telemetry and instrumentation to develop recommendations for improving mine fire safety. It is hoped that the technology developed during these programs can be added to other programs to provide the mining industry with the necessary fire safety facts. By recognizing fire potentials and being provided with cost-effective, proven components that will perform reliably under the poor environmental conditions of mining, mine operators can provide protection for their working life and property equal to that which they provide for themselves and their families at home. The basis of this report is two USBM programs for fire protection in metal and nonmetal mines and one coal program. The data was collected beginning in May 1974 and continuing through the present with underground tests of a South African fire system installed at Magma Mine in Superior, Arizona, and a computer-assisted, experimental system at Peabody Coal Mine in Pawnee, Illinois

  15. Temperature calculation in fire safety engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Wickström, Ulf

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a consistent scientific background to engineering calculation methods applicable to analyses of materials reaction-to-fire, as well as fire resistance of structures. Several new and unique formulas and diagrams which facilitate calculations are presented. It focuses on problems involving high temperature conditions and, in particular, defines boundary conditions in a suitable way for calculations. A large portion of the book is devoted to boundary conditions and measurements of thermal exposure by radiation and convection. The concepts and theories of adiabatic surface temperature and measurements of temperature with plate thermometers are thoroughly explained. Also presented is a renewed method for modeling compartment fires, with the resulting simple and accurate prediction tools for both pre- and post-flashover fires. The final chapters deal with temperature calculations in steel, concrete and timber structures exposed to standard time-temperature fire curves. Useful temperature calculat...

  16. Integrated approach to fire safety at the Krsko nuclear power plant - fire protection action plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambright, J.A.; Cerjak, J.; Spiler, J.; Ioannidi, J.

    1998-01-01

    Nuclear Power Plant Krsko (NPP Krsko) is a Westinghouse design, single-unit, 1882 Megawatt thermal (MWt), two-loop, pressurized water nuclear power plant. The fire protection program at NPP Krsko has been reviewed and reports issued recommending changes and modifications to the program, plant systems and structures. Three reports were issued, the NPP Krsko Fire Hazard Analysis (Safe Shout down Separation Analysis Report), the ICISA Analysis of Core Damage Frequency Due to Fire at the NPP Krsko and IPEEE (Individual Plant External Event Examination) related to fire risk. The Fire Hazard Analysis Report utilizes a compliance - based deterministic approach to identification of fire area hazards. This report focuses on strict compliance from the perspective of US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (USNRC), standards, guidelines and acceptance criteria and does not consider variations to comply with the intent of the regulations. The probabilistic analysis methide used in the ICISA and IPEEE report utilizes a risk based nad intent based approach in determining critical at-risk fire areas. NPP Krsko has already completed the following suggestions/recommendations from the above and OSART reports in order to comply with Appendix R: Installation of smoke detectors in the Control Room; Installation of Emergency Lighting in some plant areas and of Remote Shout down panels; Extension of Sound Power Communication System; Installation of Fire Annunciator Panel at the On-site Fire Brigade Station; Installation of Smoke Detection System in the (a) Main Control Room Panels, (b) Essential Service Water Building. (c) Component Cooling Building pump area, chiller area and HVAC area, (d) Auxiliary Building Safety pump rooms, (e) Fuel Handling room, (f) Intermediate Building AFFW area and compressor room, and (g) Tadwaste building; inclusion of Auxiliary operators in the Fire Brigade; training of Fire Brigade Members in Plant Operation (9 week course); Development of Fire Door Inspection and

  17. The Italian National Guidelines for the fire safety of facades

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamberto Mazziotti

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, the facades' design buildings where once only focused on architectural or aesthetic purposes (in addition, of course, of whether protective issues. Nowadays, thanks to the technological development of the construction works and the use of new types of materials, the facades' design should also address fire safety related aspects. In Europe and especially in Italy – where the types of building façades are built with windows of small surface and natural stone coverings – the green building/sustainability movement has resulted in the development of new concepts in facade or curtain wall design that intended to enhance the energy efficiency of building façades. These new building surfaces are covered by extensive panelling fitted with insulating materials or by wide glass surfaces, capable of carry out the most diverse purposes including, just to name a few: energy reduction, climate comfort, recovery of electricity through photovoltaic panels that convert sunlight into electricity, large space for advertising purpose. One of the main fire safety goal for a building design is to restrict the vertical fire spread so that the smoke and flames are limited to the fire origin floor. The new building façade and curtain wall topologies could overwhelms concerns for fire safety, therefore the Italian National fire service has released a Fire Code Guideline in order to address the fire safety design for an high rise building façade. This paper aims to show the guideline contents and the related fire safety façades concerns.

  18. Fire safety in atomic power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kench, R.L.; British Insurance

    1988-01-01

    The main reactor types are described briefly - Magnox, advanced gas cooled, pressurized water and fast reactors. Fire risks exist at fuel stores and spent fuel storage facilities. Simple fire prevention measures are suggested. Solid radioactive wastes can also be combustible. Various fire prevention measures for the different storage methods, eg compaction, are given. Gaseous and liquid wastes are also considered. The main types of reactor accident are described and the causes of four incidents - at Chernobyl, Windscale, Brownsferry and Three Mile Island, are examined. (U.K.)

  19. Thermal Radiation for Structural Fire Safety Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    2006-01-01

    The lecture notes give a short introduction of the theory of thermal radiation. The most elementary concepts and methods are presented in order to give a fundamental knowledge for calculation of the load bearing capacities of fire exposed building constructions....

  20. EFFICIENCY OF FIRE-FIGHTING PROTECTION OBJECTS IN PROVISION OF FIRE SAFETY AT INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Zhovna

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper gives an analysis of economic results pertaining to organization of a system for fire-fighting protection of industrial enterprises in theRepublicofBelarus. Statistical data on operational conditions of technical means of fire-fighting protection, particularly, automatic systems for detection and extinguishing of fires, systems of internal fire-fighting water-supply.  Requirements and provisions  of normative and technical documents are thoroughly studied. Observance of these documents is to ensure the required level of  fire safety. On the basis of the obtained results concerning  economic analysis of efficiency optimization directions are defined for selection of technical means of fire-fighting protection at objects of industrial purpose.

  1. 20 CFR 654.417 - Fire, safety, and first aid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Fire, safety, and first aid. 654.417 Section..., safety, and first aid. (a) All buildings in which people sleep or eat shall be constructed and maintained...-type water extinguisher. (g) First aid facilities shall be provided and readily accessible for use at...

  2. Development and Validation of a Gas-Fired Residential Heat Pump Water Heater - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Garrabrant; Roger Stout; Paul Glanville; Janice Fitzgerald; Chris Keinath

    2013-01-21

    For gas-fired residential water heating, the U.S. and Canada is predominantly supplied by minimum efficiency storage water heaters with Energy Factors (EF) in the range of 0.59 to 0.62. Higher efficiency and higher cost ($700 - $2,000) options serve about 15% of the market, but still have EFs below 1.0, ranging from 0.65 to 0.95. To develop a new class of water heating products that exceeds the traditional limit of thermal efficiency, the project team designed and demonstrated a packaged water heater driven by a gas-fired ammonia-water absorption heat pump. This gas-fired heat pump water heater can achieve EFs of 1.3 or higher, at a consumer cost of $2,000 or less. Led by Stone Mountain Technologies Inc. (SMTI), with support from A.O. Smith, the Gas Technology Institute (GTI), and Georgia Tech, the cross-functional team completed research and development tasks including cycle modeling, breadboard evaluation of two cycles and two heat exchanger classes, heat pump/storage tank integration, compact solution pump development, combustion system specification, and evaluation of packaged prototype GHPWHs. The heat pump system extracts low grade heat from the ambient air and produces high grade heat suitable for heating water in a storage tank for domestic use. Product features that include conventional installation practices, standard footprint and reasonable economic payback, position the technology to gain significant market penetration, resulting in a large reduction of energy use and greenhouse gas emissions from domestic hot water production.

  3. Fire safety in nuclear power stations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kench, R.L.

    1988-01-01

    This is the first of a three-part report on the fire hazards in nuclear power stations and some of the precautions necessary. This part lists the United Kingdom reactors, outlines how they work, the fuels used, the use of moderators and coolants and the control systems. Although the risk of fire is no higher than in fossil-fuel stations the consequences can be more serious. The radioactive materials used mean that there is biological shielding round the core, limitations on waste emissions allowed and limited access to some zones. Reliable shut-down systems are needed. Care in the use of water to fight fires must be exercised -it can act as a moderator and cause an otherwise safe core to go critical. The Wigner effect in graphite moderated reactors is explained. Fires in graphite can be extinguished by carbon dioxide. Argon, chlorine and sodium silicate can also be effective. In sodium cooled reactors fires can be allowed to burn themselves out, or TEC and argon could be used to extinguish the flame. (UK)

  4. Fire and explosion safety in the petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    The conference has 13 presentations in topics on LNG projects nationally and internationally, simulations of gas dispersion due to LNG discharges, transports of pressurized natural gas, technological aspects of fire protection and combat equipment, safety aspects of offshore installations and transportation systems, offshore platform and transportation systems design and various examples of safety design and management. Some experiences within safety engineering in the petroleum exploitation are included.

  5. Microgravity Flammability Experiments for Spacecraft Fire Safety

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Legros, Guillaume; Minster, Olivier; Tóth, Balazs

    2012-01-01

    As fire behaviour in manned spacecraft still remains poorly understood, an international topical team has been created to design a validation experiment that has an unprecedented large scale for a microgravity flammability experiment. While the validation experiment is being designed for a re-sup...

  6. Sodium fires and nuclear power station safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ivanenko, V.N.; Zubin, A.; Drobyshev, A.V.

    1986-01-01

    The danger of sodium aerosol release at a design basis accident (DBA) of a sodium-cooled fast reactor that involves coolant leakage and burning, is being analyzed. It has been shown that radioactive and toxic releases at DBA do not exceed permissible values. Some means of sodium fire fighting are described. (author)

  7. Archer Fire and Safety - reducing risk in the offshore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, K

    2000-06-01

    Protecting the lives and safety of offshore oil and gas workers is the business of Newfoundland-based Archer Fire and Safety. Originally established as a supplier of industrial materials focusing on the oil and gas industry, the company narrowed its focus in 1996 to fire and safety protection, introduced more specialized fire and safety equipment, and began to explore service opportunities to the industry in addition to the usual consumables. After some anxious few years, the company now operates two SCBA service centres in Newfoundland, in addition to sales and servicing a wide range of fire and safety equipment such as gas, flame and heat detection.The company is constantly on the lookout for new opportunities and has developed a computer-based pricing system which enables them to provide quick response to pricing inquiries, a big advantage in an industry with relatively unsophisticated business practices. The company's emphasis on research and quick response capability enabled the company to anticipate future requirements and to land major contracts first at Bull Arm, and later on the Terra Nova Project. Its reputation for best-in-class products, high quality service and a business-like approach helped to attract other clients such as Terra Nova Alliance, Canship and Schlumberger, and offshore drilling companies like Glomar International and TransOcean Sedco-Forex, with further opportunities in the offing with upcoming projects such as the White Rose and Hebron.Today about 60 per cent of the business is offshore related.

  8. Archer Fire and Safety - reducing risk in the offshore

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todd, K.

    2000-06-01

    Protecting the lives and safety of offshore oil and gas workers is the business of Newfoundland-based Archer Fire and Safety. Originally established as a supplier of industrial materials focusing on the oil and gas industry, the company narrowed its focus in 1996 to fire and safety protection, introduced more specialized fire and safety equipment, and began to explore service opportunities to the industry in addition to the usual consumables. After some anxious few years, the company now operates two SCBA service centres in Newfoundland, in addition to sales and servicing a wide range of fire and safety equipment such as gas, flame and heat detection.The company is constantly on the lookout for new opportunities and has developed a computer-based pricing system which enables them to provide quick response to pricing inquiries, a big advantage in an industry with relatively unsophisticated business practices. The company's emphasis on research and quick response capability enabled the company to anticipate future requirements and to land major contracts first at Bull Arm, and later on the Terra Nova Project. Its reputation for best-in-class products, high quality service and a business-like approach helped to attract other clients such as Terra Nova Alliance, Canship and Schlumberger, and offshore drilling companies like Glomar International and TransOcean Sedco-Forex, with further opportunities in the offing with upcoming projects such as the White Rose and Hebron.Today about 60 per cent of the business is offshore related.

  9. Operating room fire prevention: creating an electrosurgical unit fire safety device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culp, William C; Kimbrough, Bradly A; Luna, Sarah; Maguddayao, Aris J

    2014-08-01

    To reduce the incidence of surgical fires. Operating room fires represent a potentially life-threatening hazard and are triggered by the electrosurgical unit (ESU) pencil. Carbon dioxide is a fire suppressant and is a routinely used medical gas. We hypothesize that a shroud of protective carbon dioxide covering the tip of the ESU pencil displaces oxygen, thereby preventing fire ignition. Using 3-dimensional modeling techniques, a polymer sleeve was created and attached to an ESU pencil. This sleeve was connected to a carbon dioxide source and directed the gas through multiple precisely angled ports, generating a cone of fire-suppressive carbon dioxide surrounding the active pencil tip. This device was evaluated in a flammability test chamber containing 21%, 50%, and 100% oxygen with sustained ESU activation. The sleeve was tested with and without carbon dioxide (control) until a fuel was ignited or 30 seconds elapsed. Time to ignition was measured by high-speed videography. Fires were ignited with each control trial (15/15 trials). The control group median ± SD ignition time in 21% oxygen was 3.0 ± 2.4 seconds, in 50% oxygen was 0.1 ± 1.8 seconds, and in 100% oxygen was 0.03 ± 0.1 seconds. No fire was observed when the fire safety device was used in all concentrations of oxygen (0/15 trials; P fire ignition was 76% to 100%. A sleeve creating a cone of protective carbon dioxide gas enshrouding the sparks from an ESU pencil effectively prevents fire in a high-flammability model. Clinical application of this device may reduce the incidence of operating room fires.

  10. Upgrading of fire safety in Indian nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agarwal, N.K.

    1998-01-01

    Indian nuclear power programme started with the installation of 2 nos. of Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) at Tarapur (TAPS I and II) of 210 MWe each commissioned in the year 1996. The Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR) programme in the country started with the installation of 2x220 MWe stations at Rawatbhatta near Kota (RAPS I and II) in the State of Rajasthan in the sixties. At the present moment, the country has 10 stations in operation. Construction is going on for 4 more units of 220 MWe where as work on two more 500 MWe units is going to start soon. Fire safety systems for the earlier units were engineered as per the state-of-art knowledge available then. The need for review of fire protection systems in the Indian nuclear power plants has also been felt since long almost after Brown's Ferry fire in 1975 itself. Task forces consisting of fire experts, systems design engineers, O and M personnel as well as the Fire Protection engineers at the plant were constituted for each plant to review the existing fire safety provisions in details and highlight the upgradation needed for meeting the latest requirements as per the national as well as international practices. The recommendations made by three such task forces for the three plants are proposed to be reviewed in this paper. The paper also highlights the recommendations to be implemented immediately as well as on long-term basis over a period of time

  11. Development of IFC based fire safety assesment tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Taciuc, Anca; Karlshøj, Jan; Dederichs, Anne

    2016-01-01

    Due to the impact that the fire safety design has on the building's layout and on other complementary systems, as installations, it is important during the conceptual design stage to evaluate continuously the safety level in the building. In case that the task is carried out too late, additional...... changes need to be implemented, involving supplementary work and costs with negative impact on the client. The aim of this project is to create a set of automatic compliance checking rules for prescriptive design and to develop a web application tool for performance based design that retrieves data from...... Building Information Models (BIM) to evacuate the safety level in the building during the conceptual design stage. The findings show that the developed tools can be useful in AEC industry. Integrating BIM from conceptual design stage for analyzing the fire safety level can ensure precision in further...

  12. Parametric study for the fire safety design of steel structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aiuti, Riccardo; Giuliani, Luisa

    2013-01-01

    the considered time of fire exposure. A deeper knowledge on the failure mode of steel structure is however important in order to ensure the safety of the people and properties outside the building. Aim of this paper is to analyze the behaviour of single elements, sub-assemblies and frames exposed to fire...... or hindered thermal expansion induced on the element by the rest of the structure. Nevertheless, restrained thermal expansion is known to significantly affect the behaviour of steel structures in fire, and the compliance with a prescribed resistance class doesn’t ensure the integrity of the building after...... and find out the basic collapse mechanisms of structural elements in fire conditions, considering the rest of the construction with appropriate constraints. The analysis is carried out taking into account material and geometrical nonlinearities as well as the degradation of steel properties at high...

  13. Evaluation of fire safety measures at local universities in Kenya with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study establishes fire safety measures in place in local universities in Kenya, and ... fire suppression systems, fire detection and alarm systems and fire Hydrants. ... response backed by university management endorsement and support. The Directorate of occupational safety and health services should also make the ...

  14. Safety demonstration test on solvent fire in fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, Gunji; Hashimoto, Kazuichiro

    1989-03-01

    This report summarizes a fundamental of results obtained in the Reprocessing Plant Safety Demonstration Test Program which was performed under the contract between the Science and Technology Agency of Japan and the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. In this test program, a solvent fire was hypothesized, and such data were obtained as fire behavior, smoke behavior and integrity of exhaust filters in the ventilation system. Through the test results, it was confirmed that under the fire condition in hypothetical accident, the integrity of the cell and the cell ventilation system were maintained, and the safety function of the exhaust filters was maintained against the smoke loading. Analytical results by EVENT code agreed well with the present test data on the thermofluid flow in a cell ventilation system. (author)

  15. Organization and conduct of IAEA fire safety reviews at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    The importance of fire safety in the safe and productive operation of nuclear power plants is recognized worldwide. Lessons learned from experience in nuclear power plants indicate that fire poses a real threat to nuclear safety and that its significance extends far beyond the scope of a conventional fire hazard. With a growing understanding of the close correlation between the fire hazard in nuclear power plants and nuclear safety, backfitting for fire safety has become necessary for a number of operating plants. However, it has been recognized that the expertise necessary for a systematic independent assessment of fire safety of a NPP may not always be available to a number of Member States. In order to assist in enhancing fire safety, the IAEA has already started to offer various services to Member States in the area of fire safety. At the request of a Member State, the IAEA may provide a team of experts to conduct fire safety reviews of varying scope to evaluate the adequacy of fire safety at a specific nuclear power plant during various phases such as construction, operation and decommissioning. The IAEA nuclear safety publications related to fire protection and fire safety form a common basis for these reviews. This report provides guidance for the experts involved in the organization and conduct of fire safety review services to ensure consistency and comprehensiveness of the reviews

  16. Safety assessment of indoor live fire range, May 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-05-01

    The following Safety Assessment (SA) pertains to the indoor live fire range (LFR) at EG&G Mound Applied Technology plant. The purpose of the indoor LFR is to conduct training with live ammunition for all designated personnel. The SA examines the risks that are attendant to the operation of an indoor LFR for this purpose.

  17. Sanitation health risk and safety planning in urban residential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this review paper was to determine the best sanitation health risk and safety planning approach for sustainable management of urban environment. This was achieved by reviewing the concept of sanitation safety planning as a tool. The review adopted exploratory research approach and used secondary data ...

  18. Fall prevention and safety communication training for foremen: report of a pilot project designed to improve residential construction safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaskutas, Vicki; Dale, Ann Marie; Lipscomb, Hester; Evanoff, Brad

    2013-02-01

    Falls from heights account for 64% of residential construction worker fatalities and 20% of missed work days. We hypothesized that worker safety would improve with foremen training in fall prevention and safety communication. Training priorities identified through foreman and apprentice focus groups and surveys were integrated into an 8-hour training. We piloted the training with ten foremen employed by a residential builder. Carpenter trainers contrasted proper methods to protect workers from falls with methods observed at the foremen's worksites. Trainers presented methods to deliver toolbox talks and safety messages. Results from worksite observational audits (n=29) and foremen/crewmember surveys (n=97) administered before and after training were compared. We found that inexperienced workers are exposed to many fall hazards that they are often not prepared to negotiate. Fall protection is used inconsistently and worksite mentorship is often inadequate. Foremen feel pressured to meet productivity demands and some are unsure of the fall protection requirements. After the training, the frequency of daily mentoring and toolbox talks increased, and these talks became more interactive and focused on hazardous daily work tasks. Foremen observed their worksites for fall hazards more often. We observed increased compliance with fall protection and decreased unsafe behaviors during worksite audits. Designing the training to meet both foremen's and crewmembers' needs ensured the training was learner-centered and contextually-relevant. This pilot suggests that training residential foremen can increase use of fall protection, improve safety behaviors, and enhance on-the-job training and safety communication at their worksites. Construction workers' training should target safety communication and mentoring skills with workers who will lead work crews. Interventions at multiple levels are necessary to increase safety compliance in residential construction and decrease falls

  19. Fire safety case study of a railway tunnel: Smoke evacuation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Maele Karim

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available When a fire occurs in a tunnel, it is of great importance to assure the safety of the occupants of the tunnel. This is achieved by creating smoke-free spaces in the tunnel through control of the smoke gases. In this paper, results are presented of a study concerning the fire safety in a real scale railway tunnel test case. Numerical simulations are performed in order to examine the possibility of natural ventilation of smoke in inclined tunnels. Several aspects are taken into account: the length of the simulated tunnel section, the slope of the tunnel and the possible effects of external wind at one portal of the tunnel. The Fire Dynamics Simulator of the National Institute of Standards and Technology, USA, is applied to perform the simulations. The simulations show that for the local behavior of the smoke during the early stages of the fire, the slope of the tunnel is of little importance. Secondly, the results show that external wind and/or pressure conditions have a large effect on the smoke gases inside the tunnel. Finally, some idea for the value of the critical ventilation velocity is given. The study also shows that computational fluid dynamics calculations are a valuable tool for large scale, real life complex fire cases. .

  20. Effect of Thermal Storage on the Performance of a Wood Pellet-fired Residential Boiler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomas, Butcher [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Sustainable Energy Technologies Dept.

    2017-08-31

    Interest in the direct use of biomass for thermal applications as a renewable technology is increasing as is also focus on air pollutant emissions from these sources and methods to minimize the impact. This work has focused on wood pellet-fired residential boilers, which are the cleanest fuel in this category. In the residential application the load varies strongly over the course of a year and a high fraction of the load is typically under 15% of the maximum boiler capacity. Thermal storage can be used even with boilers which have modulation capacity typically to 30% of the boiler maximum. One common pellet boiler was tested at full load and also at the minimum load used in the U.S. certification testing (15%). In these tests the load was steady over the test period. Testing was also done with an emulated load profile for a home in Albany, N.Y. on a typical January, March, and April day. In this case the load imposed on the boiler varied hourly under computer control, based on the modeled load for the example case used. The boiler used has a nominal output of 25 kW and a common mixed hardwood/softwood commercial pellet was used. Moisture content was 3.77%. A dilution tunnel approach was used for the measurement of particulate emissions, in accordance with U.S. certification testing requirements. The test results showed that the use of storage strongly reduces cycling rates under part load conditions. The transients which occur as these boilers cycle contribute to increased particulate emissions and reduced efficiency. The time period of a full cycle at a given load condition can be increased by increasing the storage tank volume and/or increasing the control differential range. It was shown that increasing the period strongly increased the measured efficiency and reduced the particulate emission (relative to the no storage case). The impact was most significant at the low load levels. Storage tank heat loss is shown to be a significant factor in thermal efficiency

  1. 76 FR 70885 - Updating Fire Safety Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-16

    ... effect on the economy of $100 million or more or adversely affect in a material way the economy, a sector of the economy, productivity, competition, jobs, the environment, public health or safety, or State...; 64.018, Sharing Specialized Medical Resources; 64.019, Veterans Rehabilitation Alcohol and Drug...

  2. Methods for the sodium cooled fast reactor fire safety provisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gryaznov, B.V.; Dergachev, N.P.

    1983-01-01

    Problems of fire safety provision on NPPs with sodium cooled fast reactor are under discussion. Methods of sodium leak localization, measures eliminating sodium flaring up during leaks and main means of sodium fire extinguishing are considered. An extinguishing of sodium flaring up is performed by means of sodium temperatUre decrease and by limitation of hydrogen access to the flaring up surface. A conclusion is made that the most effective methods of extinguishing are the following: self-extinguishing (due to hydrogen burning out in a limiting volume); extinguishing by a gas mixture of nitrogen and carbonic acid (initial filling and blowing of rooms during sodium flaring up); extinguishing by special powders

  3. The practical implementation of integrated safety management for nuclear safety analysis and fire hazards analysis documentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    COLLOPY, M.T.

    1999-01-01

    In 1995 Mr. Joseph DiNunno of the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board issued an approach to describe the concept of an integrated safety management program which incorporates hazard and safety analysis to address a multitude of hazards affecting the public, worker, property, and the environment. Since then the U S . Department of Energy (DOE) has adopted a policy to systematically integrate safety into management and work practices at all levels so that missions can be completed while protecting the public, worker, and the environment. While the DOE and its contractors possessed a variety of processes for analyzing fire hazards at a facility, activity, and job; the outcome and assumptions of these processes have not always been consistent for similar types of hazards within the safety analysis and the fire hazard analysis. Although the safety analysis and the fire hazard analysis are driven by different DOE Orders and requirements, these analyses should not be entirely independent and their preparation should be integrated to ensure consistency of assumptions, consequences, design considerations, and other controls. Under the DOE policy to implement an integrated safety management system, identification of hazards must be evaluated and agreed upon to ensure that the public. the workers. and the environment are protected from adverse consequences. The DOE program and contractor management need a uniform, up-to-date reference with which to plan. budget, and manage nuclear programs. It is crucial that DOE understand the hazards and risks necessarily to authorize the work needed to be performed. If integrated safety management is not incorporated into the preparation of the safety analysis and the fire hazard analysis, inconsistencies between assumptions, consequences, design considerations, and controls may occur that affect safety. Furthermore, confusion created by inconsistencies may occur in the DOE process to grant authorization of the work. In accordance with

  4. Fire safety in dental clinics: Basics for dentists and dental students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalyana Chakravarthy Pentapati

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fire safety is essential component and requirement in health care sector. It includes components like emergency exits, manual call outs, different types of fire extinguishers, safe assembly area, fire hydrant system with water sprinkler systems etc. We attempt to provide some basics about fire and fire safety that are prerequisite for safe working environment in dental clinics along with some recommendations that can be incorporated in the curriculum.

  5. Particle Emission Characteristics of Modern and Old-Type Residential Boilers Fired with Wood Logs and Wood Pellets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, L.S.; Gustavsson, L.; Tullin, C.; Potter, A.; Leckner, B.

    2005-01-01

    Residential biofuel combustion for heating can be performed in two ways: in a stove heating the surrounding room, or in a boiler heating water to be circulated through a piping system to heat an entire house. In contrast to stoves, wood boilers can be connected to heat storage tanks, which is an advantage from an emission point of view. The present work focuses on comparing emissions from old-type and modern boilers by means of systematic variation of combustion device, fuel quality, firing behaviour, and the influence of heat storage tank. User habits are simulated in a schematic way. The purpose of the comparison is to determine the emission differences between old-type and modern residential biofuel boilers and to quantify emission characteristics of different kind of biofuel combustion

  6. EFFECTS OF FIRE FUMES ON ALMOND SAFETY AND QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amanda Ramírez-Gandolfo

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available A fire originated and burnt two cold chambers; the present study focused on almonds stored in adjacent chambers (4, 5, 6 and 13 and evaluated both their food safety and quality. Testing for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans was carried out in affected facilities, packaging and almonds. Experimental results proved that fire fumes did not reach chambers 4-6, but traces were found in bin packaging of chamber 13; thus, packaging from this chamber were changed. Concentrations of benzo(apyrene were low enough to prove that fire fumes did not get in contact with the stored almonds. Later, only volatile compounds typical of nuts were identified in both raw and toasted almonds. Finally, a trained panel concluded that no sensory signal of fumes reaching almonds was found. This manuscript could be taken as a model protocol to establish whether fire fumes have reached and affected the safety and/or quality of foods. This information will be especially useful for insurance companies.

  7. Fire Safety Aspects of Polymeric Materials. Volume 7. Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Custodial Buildings 136 4.5.5 Retail Stores, Malls, etc. 138 l’ 4.5.6 Restaurants and Nightclubs 4.5.7 Public Assembly Occupancies - Auditoria , Theaters... auditoria , theaters, exhibition halls, arenas, transportation terminals; educational buildings and indus- trial buildings. Many of the fire safety...usage are developed. 4.5.7 Public Assembly Occupancies - Auditoria , Theaters, Exhibition Halls, Arenas, Transportation Terminals, Etc. The factors

  8. Evaluation Of Fire Safety And Protection At PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor (RTP)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Nabil Ab Rahim; Alfred Sanggau Ligam; Nurhayati Ramli; Mohd Fazli Zakaria; Naim Syauqi Hamzah; Phongsakorn Prak; Mohammad Suhaimi Kassim; Zarina Masood

    2014-01-01

    Fire hazard is one of many risks that can affect the safety operation of PUSPATI TRIGA Reactor. Reactor building in Malaysian Nuclear Agency was built in 1980s and the fire system has been introduced since then. The evaluation of the fire safety system at this time is important to ensure the efficiency of fire prevention, fighting and mitigation task that probably occurs. This evaluation involves with the fire fighting system and equipment, integrity of the system from the perspective of management and equipment, fire fighting procedure and fire fighting response team. (author)

  9. A probabilistic method for optimization of fire safety in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosser, D.; Sprey, W.

    1986-01-01

    As part of a comprehensive fire safety study for German Nuclear Power Plants a probabilistic method for the analysis and optimization of fire safety has been developed. It follows the general line of the American fire hazard analysis, with more or less important modifications in detail. At first, fire event trees in selected critical plant areas are established taking into account active and passive fire protection measures and safety systems endangered by the fire. Failure models for fire protection measures and safety systems are formulated depending on common parameters like time after ignition and fire effects. These dependences are properly taken into account in the analysis of the fire event trees with the help of first-order system reliability theory. In addition to frequencies of fire-induced safety system failures relative weights of event paths, fire protection measures within these paths and parameters of the failure models are calculated as functions of time. Based on these information optimization of fire safety is achieved by modifying primarily event paths, fire protection measures and parameters with the greatest relative weights. This procedure is illustrated using as an example a German 1300 MW PWR reference plant. It is shown that the recommended modifications also reduce the risk to plant personnel and fire damage

  10. IRSN global process for leading a comprehensive fire safety analysis for nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ormieres, Yannick; Lacoue, Jocelyne

    2013-01-01

    A fire safety analysis (FSA) is requested to justify the adequacy of fire protection measures set by the operator. A recent document written by IRSN outlines a global process for such a comprehensive fire safety analysis. Thanks to the French nuclear fire safety regulation evolutions, from prescriptive requirements to objective requirements, the proposed fire safety justification process focuses on compliance with performance criteria for fire protection measures. These performance criteria are related to the vulnerability of targets to effects of fire, and not only based upon radiological consequences out side the installation caused by a fire. In his FSA, the operator has to define the safety functions that should continue to ensure its mission even in the case of fire in order to be in compliance with nuclear safety objectives. Then, in order to maintain these safety functions, the operator has to justify the adequacy of fire protection measures, defined according to defence in depth principles. To reach the objective, the analysis process is based on the identification of targets to be protected in order to maintain safety functions, taken into account facility characteristics. These targets include structures, systems, components and personal important to safety. Facility characteristics include, for all operating conditions, potential ignition sources and fire protections systems. One of the key points of the fire analysis is the assessment of possible fire scenarios in the facility. Given the large number of possible fire scenarios, it is then necessary to evaluate 'reference fires' which are the worst case scenarios of all possible fire scenarios and which are used by the operator for the design of fire protection measures. (authors)

  11. 78 FR 17140 - Upholstered Furniture Fire Safety Technology; Meeting and Request for Comments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... retardant (FR) chemicals, specialty fibers/fabrics without FR chemicals, inherently fire resistant materials... Furniture Fire Safety Technology; Meeting and Request for Comments AGENCY: Consumer Product Safety... Commission (CPSC, Commission, or we) is announcing its intent to hold a meeting on upholstered furniture fire...

  12. Use of operational experience in fire safety assessment of nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    Fire hazard has been identified as a major contributor to a plant's operational risk and the international nuclear power industry has been studying and developing tools for defending against this hazard. Considerable progress in design and regulatory requirements for fire safety, in fire protection technology and in related analytical techniques has been made in the past two decades. Substantial efforts have been undertaken worldwide to implement these advances in the interest of improving fire safety both at new and existing nuclear power plants. To assist in these efforts, the IAEA initiated a programme on fire safety that was intended to provide assistance to Member States in improving fire safety in nuclear power plants. In order to achieve this general objective, the IAEA programme aimed at the development of guidelines and good practices, the promotion of advanced fire safety assessment techniques, the exchange of state of the art information between practitioners and the provision of engineering safety advisory services and training in the implementation of internationally accepted practices. During the period 1993-1994, the IAEA activities related to fire safety concentrated on the development of guidelines and good practice documents related to fire safety and fire protection of operating plants. One of the first tasks was the development of a Safety Guide that formulates specific requirements with regard to the fire safety of operating nuclear power plants. Several documents, which provide advice on fire safety inspection, were developed to assist in its implementation. In the period 1995-1996, the programme focused on the preparation of guidelines for the systematic analysis of fire safety at nuclear power plants (NPPs). The IAEA programme on fire safety for 1997-1998 includes tasks aimed at promoting systematic assessment of fire safety related occurrences and dissemination of essential insights from this assessment. One of the topics addressed is the

  13. Fire safety of LPG in marine transportation. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinsen, W.E.; Johnson, D.W.; Welker, J.R.

    1980-06-01

    This report contains an analytical examination of cargo spill and fire hazard potential associated with the marine handling of liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) as cargo. Principal emphasis was on cargo transfer operations for ships unloading at receiving terminals, and barges loading or unloading at a terminal. Major safety systems, including emergency shutdown systems, hazard detection systems, and fire extinguishment and control systems were included in the analysis. Spill probabilities were obtained from fault tree analyses utilizing composite LPG tank ship and barge designs. Failure rates for hardware in the analyses were generally taken from historical data on similar generic classes of hardware, there being very little historical data on the specific items involved. Potential consequences of cargo spills of various sizes are discussed and compared to actual LPG vapor cloud incidents. The usefulness of hazard mitigation systems (particularly dry chemical fire extinguishers and water spray systems) in controlling the hazards posed by LPG spills and spill fires is also discussed. The analysis estimates the probability of fatality for a terminal operator is about 10/sup -6/ to 10/sup -5/ per cargo transfer operation. The probability of fatality for the general public is substantially less.

  14. Spacecraft Fire Safety 1956 to 1999: An Annotated Bibliography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Robert; Ruff, Gary A.

    2013-01-01

    Knowledge of fire safety in spacecraft has resulted from over 50 years of investigation and experience in space flight. Current practices and procedures for the operation of the Space Transportation System (STS) shuttle and the International Space Station (ISS) have been developed from this expertise, much of which has been documented in various reports. Extending manned space exploration from low Earth orbit to lunar or Martian habitats and beyond will require continued research in microgravity combustion and fire protection in low gravity. This descriptive bibliography has been produced to document and summarize significant work in the area of spacecraft fire safety that was published between 1956 and July 1999. Although some important work published in the late 1990s may be missing, these citations as well as work since 2000 can generally be found in Web-based resources that are easily accessed and searched. In addition to the citation, each reference includes a short description of the contents and conclusions of the article. The bibliography contains over 800 citations that are cross-referenced both by topic and the authors and editors. There is a DVD that accompanies this bibliography (available by request from the Center for Aerospace Information) containing the full-text articles of selected citations as well as an electronic version of this report that has these citations as active links to their corresponding full-text article.

  15. Safety analysis of the existing 850 Firing Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odell, B.N.

    1986-01-01

    A safety analysis was performed to determine if normal operations and/or potential accidents at the 850 Firing Facility at Site 300 could present undue hazards to the general public, personnel at Site 300, or have an adverse effect on the environment. The normal operations and credible accidents that might have an effect on these facilities or have off-site consequences were considered. It was determined by this analysis that all but one of the hazards were either low or of the type or magnitude routinely encountered and/or accepted by the public. The exception was explosives, which was classified as a moderate hazard per the requirements given in DOE Order 5481.1A. This safety analysis concluded that the operation at this facility will present no undue risk to the health and safety of LLNL employees or the public

  16. Safety analysis of the existing 851 Firing Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odell, B.N.

    1986-01-01

    A safety analysis was performed to determine if normal operations and/or potential accidents at the 851 Firing Facility at Site 300 could present undue hazards to the general public, personnel at Site 300, or have an adverse effect on the environment. The normal operations and credible accidents that might have an effect on these facilities or have off-site consequences were considered. It was determined by this analysis that all but two of the hazards were either low or of the type or magnitude routinely encountered and/or accepted by the public. The exceptions were the linear accelerator and explosives, which were classified as moderate hazards per the requirements given in DOE Order 5481.1A. This safety analysis concluded that the operation at this facility will present no undue risk to the health and safety of LLNL employees or the public

  17. Frequently Asked Questions in Fire Probabilistic Safety Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Dae Il; Kim, Kil Yoo; Park, Gee Yong

    2010-05-01

    The FAQs(Frequently Asked Questions) in the Fire Probabilistic Safety Assessment(FPSA) are the issues occurred during performing the engineering evaluation based on NFPA-805. In this report, the background and resolutions are reviewed and described for 17 FAQs related to FPSA among 57 FAQs. The current FAQs related to FPSA are the issues concerning to NUREG/CR-6850, and are almost resolved but for the some FAQ, the current resolutions would be changed depending on the results of the future or on-going research. Among FAQs related to FPSA, best estimate approaches are suggested concerning to the conservative method of NUREG/CR-6850. If these best estimate solutions are used in the FPSA of nuclear power plants, realistic evaluation results of fire risk would be obtained

  18. Focus on the studies in support of fire safety analysis. IRSN modelling approach for nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Espargilliere, Julien; Meyrand, Raphael; Vinot, Thierry [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2015-12-15

    For a fire safety analysis, in order to comply with nuclear safety goals, a nuclear fuel facility operator has to define the elements important for safety to be maintained, even in the case of a fire. One of the key points of this fire analysis is the assessment of possible fire scenarios in the facility. This paper presents the IRSN method applied to a case study to assess fire scenarios which have the most harmful effects on safety targets. The layout consists in a central room (fire cell) containing three glove boxes with radioactive material and three electrical cabinets. This room is linked to two connecting compartments (the fire cell and these two compartments define the containment cell) and then to two corridors. Each room is equipped with a mechanical ventilation system, and a pressure cascade is established from the corridors to the central room. A fire scenario was studied with fire ignition occurring in an electrical cabinet. This scenario has a set of safety goals (prevention of fire cell and containment device failure, propagation of the fire). This case study was conducted with the IRSN code SYLVIA based on two zones modelling. Safety goals were associated with key parameters and performance criteria to be fulfilled. Modelling assumptions were defined in order to maximize physical effects of the fire. Sensitivity studies were also conducted on key parameters such as oxygen limitation, equivalent-fuel definition. Eventually, a critical analysis of the code models was carried out.

  19. A computer code SPHINCS for sodium fire safety evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Akira

    2000-01-01

    A computer code SPHINCS solves coupled phenomena of thermal-hydraulics and sodium fire based on a multi-zone model. It deals with arbitrary number of rooms each of which is connected mutually by doorway and penetrations. With regard to the combustion phenomena, flame sheet model and liquid droplet combustion model are used for pool and spray fire, respectively, with the chemical equilibrium model using Gibbs free energy minimization method. The chemical reaction and mass and heat transfer are solved interactively. A specific feature of SPHINCS is detailed representation of thermal-hydraulics of a sodium pool and a steel liner, which is placed on the floor to prevent sodium-concrete contact. The author analyzed a series of pool combustion experiments, in which gas and liner temperatures are measured in detail. It has been found that good agreement is obtained and the SPHINCS has been validated with regard to the pool combustion phenomena. Further research needs are identified for the pool spreading modeling considering thermal deformation of liner and measurement of pool fluidity property of a mixture of liquid sodium and reaction products. SPHINCS code is to be used mainly in the safety evaluation of the consequence of sodium fire accident of liquid metal cooled fast reactor. (author)

  20. IoT-Based Intelligent Modeling of Smart Home Environment for Fire Prevention and Safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faisal Saeed

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fires usually occur in homes because of carelessness and changes in environmental conditions. They cause threats to the residential community and may result in human death and property damage. Consequently, house fires must be detected early to prevent these types of threats. The immediate notification of a fire is the most critical issue in domestic fire detection systems. Fire detection systems using wireless sensor networks sometimes do not detect a fire as a consequence of sensor failure. Wireless sensor networks (WSN consist of tiny, cheap, and low-power sensor devices that have the ability to sense the environment and can provide real-time fire detection with high accuracy. In this paper, we designed and evaluated a wireless sensor network using multiple sensors for early detection of house fires. In addition, we used the Global System for Mobile Communications (GSM to avoid false alarms. To test the results of our fire detection system, we simulated a fire in a smart home using the Fire Dynamics Simulator and a language program. The simulation results showed that our system is able to detect early fire, even when a sensor is not working, while keeping the energy consumption of the sensors at an acceptable level.

  1. Engineering judgement and bridging the fire safety gap in existing nuclear facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qamheiah, G.; Wu, Y., E-mail: gqamheiah@plcfire.com, E-mail: dwu@plcfire.com [PLC Fire Safety Solutions, Mississauga, ON (Canada)

    2014-07-01

    Canadian nuclear power plants were constructed in the 1960's through the 1980's. Fire safety considerations were largely based on guidance from general building and fire codes in effect at the time. Since then, nuclear specific fire safety standards have been developed and adopted by the Regulator, increasing the expected level of fire safety in the process. Application of the standards to existing plants was largely limited to operational requirements viewed as retroactive. However, as existing facilities undergo modifications or refurbishment for the purpose of life extension, the expectation is that the design requirements of these fire safety standards also be satisfied. This creates considerable challenges for existing nuclear power plants as fire safety requirements such as those intended to assure means for safe egress, prevention of fire spread and protection of redundancy rely upon fire protection features that are inherent in the physical infrastructural design. This paper focuses on the methodology for conducting fire safety gap analyses on existing plants, and the integral role that engineering judgement plays in the development of viable and cost effective solutions to achieve the objectives of the current fire safety standards. (author)

  2. Development and Pilot Testing of a Food Safety Curriculum for Managers and Staff of Residential Childcare Institutions (RCCIs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pivarnik, Lori F.; Patnoad, Martha S.; Nyachuba, David; McLandsborough, Lynne; Couto, Stephen; Hagan, Elsina E.; Breau, Marti

    2013-01-01

    Food safety training materials, targeted for residential childcare institution (RCCI) staff of facilities of 20 residents or less, were developed, piloted, and evaluated. The goal was to assist in the implementation of a Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP)-based food safety plan as required by Food and Nutrition Service/United States…

  3. Fire and evacuation drills make the CERN safety plans work

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2013-01-01

    Regular drills are a way of making sure that we are ready and able to react in the event of a fire or other adverse event. They are also a demanding test of all the technical and organisational measures in place to allow the quick and safe evacuation of buildings. Recently, large-scale drills took place in Building 40 and at Point 5 underground.   Group photo at Point 5, after the common evacuation drill. The ability to react to unexpected, adverse events relies in particular on training. This is why CERN’s safety teams organise regular drills. One of the most recent exercises took place on 26 March in Building 40. “Building 40 is a modern building fully equipped against fire, with two emergency exits in the central atrium. We also have 29 emergency guides distributed on each floor to guide people out of their offices,” says Kate Richardson, Territorial Safety Officer of the building. “The drills are very useful for testing the building's insta...

  4. Overview of IAEA guidelines for fire safety inspection and operation in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mowrer, D.S.

    1998-01-01

    In 1992, the International Atomic Energy Agency began an ambitious project on fire safety in nuclear power plants. The purpose of this ongoing project is to provide specific guidance on compliance with the requirements set forth through the IAEA Nuclear Safety Standards program established in 1974. The scope of the Fire Safety project encompasses several tasks, including the development of new standards and guidelines to assist Member States in assessing the level of fire safety in existing plants. Five new Safety Practices, one new Safety Guide and a Technical Document have been developed for use by the fire safety community. The primary intent of these new documents is to provide detailed guidance and a consistent format for the assessment of the overall level of fire safety being provided in existing nuclear power plants around the world and especially in developing countries. Sufficient detail is provided in the Safety Guide and Safety Practices to allow technically knowledgeable plant personnel, outside consultants or other technical experts to assess the adequacy of fire safety within the plant facilities. This paper describes topics addressed by each of the IAEA Fire Safety documents and discussed the relationship of each document to others in the series. (author)

  5. The assessment of fire safety of cast iron structures in historical buildings: Theory and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Twilt, L.; Hunen, M. van

    2000-01-01

    The assessment of structural fire safety of cast iron structures in historical buildings is difficult because the available information on the fire behaviour is limited, whilst the fire design assumptions (if any) often are not well docu-mented. A complicating factor with regard to protective

  6. Safety study of fire protection for nuclear fuel cycle facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-08-15

    Based on the investigation of fire protection standards for domestic and foreign nuclear facilities, the fire protection guideline for nuclear fuel cycle facility has been completed. In 2012, trial operation is started by private company using the guideline. In addition, the acquisition of fire evaluation data for a components (electric cable) targeted for spread of fire and the evaluation model of fire source were continued for the fire hazard analysis (FHA). (author)

  7. Safety study of fire protection for nuclear fuel cycle facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    Based on the investigation of fire protection standards for domestic and foreign nuclear facilities, the fire protection guideline for nuclear fuel cycle facility has been completed. In 2012, trial operation is started by private company using the guideline. In addition, the acquisition of fire evaluation data for a components (electric cable) targeted for spread of fire and the evaluation model of fire source were continued for the fire hazard analysis (FHA). (author)

  8. Advanced methods for a probabilistic safety analysis of fires. Development of advanced methods for performing as far as possible realistic plant specific fire risk analysis (fire PSA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofer, E.; Roewekamp, M.; Tuerschmann, M.

    2003-07-01

    In the frame of the research project RS 1112 'Development of Methods for a Recent Probabilistic Safety Analysis, Particularly Level 2' funded by the German Federal Ministry of Economics and Technology (BMWi), advanced methods, in particular for performing as far as possible realistic plant specific fire risk analyses (fire PSA), should be developed. The present Technical Report gives an overview on the methodologies developed in this context for assessing the fire hazard. In the context of developing advanced methodologies for fire PSA, a probabilistic dynamics analysis with a fire simulation code including an uncertainty and sensitivity study has been performed for an exemplary scenario of a cable fire induced by an electric cabinet inside the containment of a modern Konvoi type German nuclear power plant taking into consideration the effects of fire detection and fire extinguishing means. With the present study, it was possible for the first time to determine the probabilities of specified fire effects from a class of fire events by means of probabilistic dynamics supplemented by uncertainty and sensitivity analyses. The analysis applies a deterministic dynamics model, consisting of a dynamic fire simulation code and a model of countermeasures, considering effects of the stochastics (so-called aleatory uncertainties) as well as uncertainties in the state of knowledge (so-called epistemic uncertainties). By this means, probability assessments including uncertainties are provided to be used within the PSA. (orig.) [de

  9. FDS Modeling of the Sensitivity of the Smoke Potential Values used in Fire Safety Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corches, Andrei-Mircea; Ulriksen, Lene; Jomaas, Grunde

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the sensitivity of Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) with respect to the input parameters that are used to define the optical properties of the smoke, a parametric study was performed for relevant fire scenarios in an open plan office building. The parametric study mainly focuses on th...... to defining the design fires will reduce the sensitivity of the numerical fire simulation and further reduce the risk of overestimating the evacuation safety level (ESL) of the building....

  10. Volatile organic compounds in emissions from brown-coal-fired residential stoves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engewald, W.; Knobloch, T.; Efer, J.

    1993-01-01

    Volatile organic compounds were determined in stack-gas emissions from the residential burning of brown-coal briquets using adsorptive enrichment on hydrophobic adsorbents, thermal desorption and capillary-gas chromatographic analysis. 152 compounds were identified and quantified. Quantitative emission factors of the identified individual compounds were determined in relation to the amount of the fuel used. These factors permit assessment of the pollution of the city of Leipzig with volatile organic compounds resulting from the burning of indigenous lignite. (orig.) [de

  11. Using Modeling and Rehearsal to Teach Fire Safety to Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, David; Dukes, Charles; Brady, Michael P.; Scott, Jack; Wilson, Cynthia L.

    2016-01-01

    We evaluated the efficacy of an instructional procedure to teach young children with autism to evacuate settings and notify an adult during a fire alarm. A multiple baseline design across children showed that an intervention that included modeling, rehearsal, and praise was effective in teaching fire safety skills. Safety skills generalized to…

  12. Firefighters United for Safety, Ethics, and Ecology (FUSEE): Torchbearers for a new fire management paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timothy Ingalsbee; Joseph Fox; Patrick Withen

    2007-01-01

    Firefighters United for Safety, Ethics, and Ecology (FUSEE) is a nonprofit organization promoting safe, ethical, ecological wildland fire management. FUSEE believes firefighter and community safety are ultimately interdependent with ethical public service, wildlands protection, and ecological restoration of fire-adapted ecosystems. Our members include current, former,...

  13. 48 CFR 245.7311-2 - Safety, security, and fire regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Safety, security, and fire regulations. 245.7311-2 Section 245.7311-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION... Inventory 245.7311-2 Safety, security, and fire regulations. ...

  14. An assessment of the impact of home safety assessments on fires and fire-related injuries: a case study of Cheshire Fire and Rescue Service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arch, B N; Thurston, M N

    2013-06-01

    Deaths and injuries related to fires are largely preventable events. In the UK, a plethora of community-based fire safety initiatives have been introduced over the last 25 years, often led by fire and rescue services, to address this issue. This paper focuses on one such initiative--home safety assessments (HSAs). Cheshire Fire and Rescue Service (in England) implemented a uniquely large-scale HSA intervention. This paper assesses its effectiveness. The impact of HSAs was assessed in relation to three outcomes: accidental dwelling fires (ADFs), ADFs contained and injuries arising from ADFs. A two-period comparison in fire-related rates of incidences in Cheshire between 2002 and 2011 was implemented, using Poisson regression and adjusting for the national temporal trend using a control group comprising the 37 other English non-metropolitan fire-services. Significant reductions were observed in rates of ADFs [incidence rate ratios (IRR): 0.79, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.74-0.83, P fires contained to room of origin. There is strong evidence to suggest that the intervention was successful in reducing domestic fires and related injuries.

  15. Safety analysis of the existing 804 and 845 firing facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odell, B.N.

    1986-01-01

    A safety analysis was performed to determine if normal operations and/or potential accidents at the 804 and 845 Firing Facilities at Site 300 could present undue hazards to the general public, peronnel at Site 300, or have an adverse effect on the environment. The normal operation and credible accident that might have an effect on these facilities or have off-site consequence were considered. It was determined by this analysis that all but one of the hazards were either low or of the type or magnitude routinely encountered and/or accepted by the public. The exception was explosives. Since this hazard has the potential for causing significant on-site and minimum off-site consequences, Bunkers 804 and 845 have been classified as moderate hazard facilties per DOE Order 5481.1A. This safety analysis concluded that the operation at these facilities will present no undue risk to the health and safety of LLNL employees or the public

  16. Safety climate and workplace violence prevention in state-run residential addiction treatment centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipscomb, Jane A; London, M; Chen, Y M; Flannery, K; Watt, M; Geiger-Brown, J; Johnson, J V; McPhaul, K

    2012-01-01

    To examine the association between violence prevention safety climate measures and self reported violence toward staff in state-run residential addiction treatment centers. In mid-2006, 409 staff from an Eastern United States state agency that oversees a system of thirteen residential addiction treatment centers (ATCs) completed a self-administered survey as part of a comprehensive risk assessment. The survey was undertaken to identify and measure facility-level risk factors for violence, including staff perceptions of the quality of existing US Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) program elements, and ultimately to guide violence prevention programming. Key informant interviews and staff focus groups provided researchers with qualitative data with which to understand safety climate and violence prevention efforts within these work settings. The frequency with which staff reported experiencing violent behavior ranged from 37% for "clients raised their voices in a threatening way to you" to 1% for "clients pushed, hit, kicked, or struck you". Findings from the staff survey included the following significant predictors of violence: "client actively resisting program" (OR=2.34, 95% CI=1.35, 4.05), "working with clients for whom the history of violence is unknown" (OR=1.91, 95% CI=1.18, 3.09) and "management commitment to violence prevention" reported as "never/hardly ever" and "seldom or sometimes" (OR=4.30 and OR=2.31 respectively), while controlling for other covariates. We utilized a combination of qualitative and quantitative research methods to begin to describe the risk and potential for violence prevention in this setting. The prevalence of staff physical violence within the agency's treatment facilities was lower than would be predicted. Possible explanations include the voluntary nature of treatment programs; strong policies and consequences for resident behavior and ongoing quality improvement efforts. Quantitative data identified low

  17. Preliminary experimental investigation of a natural gas-fired ORC-based micro-CHP system for residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrokhi, M.; Noie, S.H.; Akbarzadeh, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    The continual increases in energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions, call for efficient use of energy resources. Decentralized combined heat and power (CHP) technology provides an alternative for the world to meet and solve energy-related problems including energy shortages, energy supply security, emission control and conservation of energy. This paper presents the preliminary results of an experimental investigation of a natural gas-fired micro-CHP system for residential buildings based on an organic Rankine cycle (ORC). Isopentane was used as the ORC working fluid in consideration of several criteria including its environmentally-friendly characteristics. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of the developed system at different heat source temperatures of nominally 85, 80, 75, 70, and 65 °C. The maximum electrical power output of 77.4 W was generated at heating water entry temperature of 84.1 °C, corresponding to net cycle electrical efficiency of 1.66%. Further work will be done with a view to increasing the cycle electrical efficiency by using more efficient components, in particular the expander and generator. - Highlights: •A natural gas-fired ORC-based micro-scale CHP system has been developed and tested. •The good agreement between the mechanical and gross power validates the assumptions. •A vane expander suits a micro-CHP system based on an organic Rankine cycle. •A vane expander does not suit power generation by a Trilateral Flash Cycle (TFC). •Domestic gas-fired ORC systems may reduce reliance on central power stations

  18. Duct System Flammability and Air Sealing Fire Separation Assemblies in the International Residential Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, A.; Prahl, D.

    2014-12-01

    IBACOS identified two barriers that limit the ability of builders to cost-effectively achieve higher energy efficiency levels in housing. These are (1) the use of duct system materials that inherently achieve airtightness and are appropriately sized for low-load houses and (2) the ability to air seal fire separation assemblies. The issues identified fall into a gray area of the codes.

  19. Fatal residential fire accidents in the municipality of Copenhagen, 1991-1996

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leth, Peter Mygind; Gregersen, Markil Ebbe Gregers; Sabroe, Svend

    1998-01-01

    of the theoretical model in which the variables were part of a causal network. RESULTS: The following five variables seemed to be of most importance: (1) localization of the victim close to the source of ignition (OR = 11), (2) physical handicaps (OR = 5), (3) chronic alcoholism (OR = 7), (4) clothing fires (OR = 24...

  20. A Social Work Perspective of Childhood Trauma after a Residential Fire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, Helaine S.; Keane, Anne

    1997-01-01

    Describes the posttraumatic stress, impact of the event, and behavioral responses of 56 schoolchildren, ages 6 to 17, following a fire in their homes. The children were tested two separate times: posttraumatic stress scores, impact of event scores, and problem behaviors decreased significantly from the first time to the second. Other results are…

  1. Duct System Flammability and Air Sealing Fire Separation Assemblies in the International Residential Code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudd, A. [ABT Systems, LLC, Annville, PA (United States); Prahl, D. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    IBACOS identified two barriers that limit the ability of builders to cost-effectively achieve higher energy efficiency levels in housing. These are the use of duct system materials that inherently achieve airtightness and are appropriately sized for low-load houses and the ability to air seal fire separation assemblies. The issues identified fall into a gray area of the codes.

  2. Building Fire Safety Audit at Faculty X, University of Indonesia, Year 2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Lestari

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Fire may cause loss of life, material and valuable assets. The objective of this study is to conduct audit for fire safety and emergency response in the building at Faculty X, University of Indonesia, Depok. The audit results on the building fire safety facilities including emergency response and preparedness are then compared to the Building Code Australia (BCA and Indonesian regulation on the building fire safety (Kep.MenPU.No 10 and 11/KPTS/2000. The building selected are Building A, B, C, D, F and G. Building classification for A, B, D, F and G are classified as Class 5, while Building C is classified as Class 9b. Variable which are evaluated including emergency exit, building structure, fire alarm and detector, communication and fire warning system, evacuation procedure, portable fire extinguishers, hydrant, sprinkler, and emergency response preparedness. Results suggested that emergency exit is locked, and this is not comply to the regulation. Building structure has been complied to the regulation since it was made of concrete. Fire detector and alarm only provided in Building G, while other building is not available. There is no evacuation procedure available. Portable fire extinguisher has been available in all the building. Hydrant an sprinkler only available in building G. There is no emergency response preparedness in this faculty. In conclusion, the fire safety facilities in this faculty need to be improved.

  3. Development and evaluation of a new depressurization spillage test for residential gas-fired combustion appliances : final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edwards, P.

    2005-07-01

    This paper presented a newly developed combustion depressurization spillage test for residential combustion appliances. The test uses carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) that is produced in the fuel combustion process as a tracer gas. The test accurately measures the amount of combustion spillage from residential combustion appliances and their venting systems when they operate at certain levels of depressurization. Seven commonly used gas-fired appliances were used to evaluate the new test as well as the appliances. These included 2 power-vented storage-tank water heaters, 1 mid-efficiency furnace, 2 high-efficiency condensing furnaces, and 2 direct-vent gas fireplaces. Tests were performed for each unit with the test room initially depressurized by 50 Pa compared with the pressure outside the room. If the combustion spillage exceeded 2 per cent, the test was repeated with the room depressurized by 20 Pa, and then by 5 Pa. Each appliance was operated for 5 minutes of burner operation during which time the burner fuel consumption, the concentration of CO 2 and the exhaust fan flow rate were monitored. Measurements were taken for 2 minutes following burner shut off. The amount of CO 2 that was released into the test room from the appliance and its venting system was determined from the measurements and then compared with the amount of CO 2 that would be produced by combustion of the fuel that was consumed during the test. The ratio of the 2 provided a direct measure of the combustion spillage of the appliance and its venting system. The study revealed that 3 products had undetectable levels of combustion spillage, 3 products had low, but measurable combustion spillage, and 1 product had significant combustion spillage. refs., tabs., figs

  4. Action taken by the french safety authorities for fire protection and fire fighting in basic nuclear plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Savornin, J.; Gibault, M.; Berger, R.; Kaluzny, Y.; Wallard, H.E.; Winter, D.

    1989-03-01

    The safety goal for nuclear installations is to prevent the dispersal of radioactive substances, both in the work area and outside the buildings into the environment. It is therefore at the design stage, then during construction and subsequent operation that it is necessary to take preventive measures against the outbreak of fire, and to take precautions to ensure that the consequences will always be limited. The paper describes the arrangements made by the French safety authorities to provide protection against fire in both nuclear plants and nuclear fuel cycle installations at all these stages

  5. Quantitative assessment of safety barrier performance in the prevention of domino scenarios triggered by fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landucci, Gabriele; Argenti, Francesca; Tugnoli, Alessandro; Cozzani, Valerio

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of domino scenarios triggered by fire critically depends on the presence and the performance of safety barriers that may have the potential to prevent escalation, delaying or avoiding the heat-up of secondary targets. The aim of the present study is the quantitative assessment of safety barrier performance in preventing the escalation of fired domino scenarios. A LOPA (layer of protection analysis) based methodology, aimed at the definition and quantification of safety barrier performance in the prevention of escalation was developed. Data on the more common types of safety barriers were obtained in order to characterize the effectiveness and probability of failure on demand of relevant safety barriers. The methodology was exemplified with a case study. The results obtained define a procedure for the estimation of safety barrier performance in the prevention of fire escalation in domino scenarios. - Highlights: • We developed a methodology for the quantitative assessment of safety barriers. • We focused on safety barriers aimed at preventing domino effect triggered by fire. • We obtained data on effectiveness and availability of the safety barriers. • The methodology was exemplified with a case study of industrial interest. • The results showed the role of safety barriers in preventing fired domino escalation

  6. EFFICIENCY OF FIRE-FIGHTING PROTECTION OBJECTS IN PROVISION OF FIRE SAFETY AT INDUSTRIAL ENTERPRISES

    OpenAIRE

    A. V. Zhovna

    2008-01-01

    The paper gives an analysis of economic results pertaining to organization of a system for fire-fighting protection of industrial enterprises in theRepublicofBelarus. Statistical data on operational conditions of technical means of fire-fighting protection, particularly, automatic systems for detection and extinguishing of fires, systems of internal fire-fighting water-supply.  Requirements and provisions  of normative and technical documents are thoroughly studied. Observance of these docume...

  7. Fire Safety Aspects of Polymeric Materials. Volume 2. Test Methods, Specifications and Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Chairman: Dr. Seymour L. Blum Vice President Northern Energy Corporation 70 Memorial Drive Cambridge, MA 02142 Dr. George S. Ansell Dean, School...limitations, is perhaps the most firmly grounded and thoroughly docu- mented of any in the fire safety field (Benjamin and Adams , 1976). Having established...of the largest fire experiments ever undertaken. Operation Euroka, a 50 acre wildland fuel fire in Australia ( Adams et al., 1973). Scaling and

  8. Fire safety requirements for electric cables and lines in deep coal mines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herms, C D

    1982-01-07

    In the case of a mine fire, an additional hazard from combustible cable material is likely to arise only in those few areas of the mine where special circumstances might help the fire to spread along the cables. It is more important to preserve the functional integrity of cables in the outbye roads which are affected by fire gases then at the actual seat of the fire. Mine cables with better fire-resistant properties should be made from materials which do not propagate fires, do not release burning drops, develop the lowest possible fume density and/or will permanently resist gas temperatures of 200 to 300/sup 0/C. Fire test specifications should be defined for such special cables, based on corresponding draft VDE directives. In proposing these measures the proviso is made then improvement in safety can be clearly demonstrated.

  9. Probabilistic safety analysis for fire events for the NPP Isar 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmaltz, H.; Hristodulidis, A.

    2007-01-01

    The 'Probabilistic Safety Analysis for Fire Events' (Fire-PSA KKI2) for the NPP Isar 2 was performed in addition to the PSA for full power operation and considers all possible events which can be initiated due to a fire. The aim of the plant specific Fire-PSA was to perform a quantitative assessment of fire events during full power operation, which is state of the art. Based on simplistic assumptions referring to the fire induced failures, the influence of system- and component-failures on the frequency of the core damage states was analysed. The Fire-PSA considers events, which will result due to fire-induced failures of equipment on the one hand in a SCRAM and on the other hand in events, which will not have direct operational effects but because of the fire-induced failure of safety related installations the plant will be shut down as a precautionary measure. These events are considered because they may have a not negligible influence on the frequency of core damage states in case of failures during the plant shut down because of the reduced redundancy of safety related systems. (orig.)

  10. Applying Fuzzy Logic and Data Mining Techniques in Wireless Sensor Network for Determination Residential Fire Confidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Maksimović

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of soft computing technologies (fuzzy logic, neural networks, fuzzy rule-based systems, data mining techniques… is to find and describe the structural patterns in the data in order to try to explain connections between data and on their basis create predictive or descriptive models. Integration of these technologies in sensor nodes seems to be a good idea because it can significantly lead to network performances improvements, above all to reduce the energy consumption and enhance the lifetime of the network. The purpose of this paper is to analyze different algorithms in the case of fire confidence determination in order to see which of the methods and parameter values work best for the given problem. Hence, an analysis between different classification algorithms in a case of nominal and numerical d

  11. Fire probability safety analysis in France for 900 MWe nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, R.; Bonneval, F.; Mattei, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the methodology implemented by the Institute for Nuclear Safety and Protection (IPSN) to carry out the Fire Probabilistic Safety Assessment (Fire PSA) for French 900 MWe pressurised water reactors. The initial results obtained are presented. Additional research and development activities are indicated which IPSN carried out or decided to perform in order to reduce the amount of uncertainty associated with the data or to confirm hypotheses that can impact significantly the study results. (orig.) [de

  12. Presentation of a Software Method for Use of Risk Assessment in Building Fire Safety Measure Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Koohpaei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: The property loss and physical injuries due to fire events in buildings demonstrate the necessity of implementation of efficient and performance based fire safety measures. Effective and high efficiency protection is possible when design and selection of protection measures are based on risk assessment. This study aims at presenting a software method to make possible selection and design of building fire safety measures based upon quantitative risk assessment and building characteristics. Methods: based on “Fire Risk Assessment Method for Engineer (FRAME” a program in MATLB software was written. The first section of this program, according to the FRAME method and based on the specification of a building, calculates the potential risk and acceptable risk level. In the second section, according to potential risk, acceptable risk level and the fire risk level that user want, program calculate concession of protective factor for that building.Results: The prepared software make it possible to assign the fire safety measure based on quantitative risk level and all building specifications. All calculations were performed with 0.001 of precision and the accuracy of this software was assessed with handmade calculations. During the use of the software if an error occurs in calculations, it can be distinguished in the output. Conclusion: Application of quantitative risk assessment is a suitable tool for increasing of efficiency in designing and execution of fire protection measure in building. With using this software the selected fire safety measure would be more efficient and suitable since the selection of fire safety measures performed on risk assessment and particular specification of a building. Moreover fire risk in the building can be managed easily and carefully.

  13. Medication incident reporting in residential aged care facilities: Limitations and risks to residents’ safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tariq Amina

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Medication incident reporting (MIR is a key safety critical care process in residential aged care facilities (RACFs. Retrospective studies of medication incident reports in aged care have identified the inability of existing MIR processes to generate information that can be used to enhance residents’ safety. However, there is little existing research that investigates the limitations of the existing information exchange process that underpins MIR, despite the considerable resources that RACFs’ devote to the MIR process. The aim of this study was to undertake an in-depth exploration of the information exchange process involved in MIR and identify factors that inhibit the collection of meaningful information in RACFs. Methods The study was undertaken in three RACFs (part of a large non-profit organisation in NSW, Australia. A total of 23 semi-structured interviews and 62 hours of observation sessions were conducted between May to July 2011. The qualitative data was iteratively analysed using a grounded theory approach. Results The findings highlight significant gaps in the design of the MIR artefacts as well as information exchange issues in MIR process execution. Study results emphasized the need to: a design MIR artefacts that facilitate identification of the root causes of medication incidents, b integrate the MIR process within existing information systems to overcome key gaps in information exchange execution, and c support exchange of information that can facilitate a multi-disciplinary approach to medication incident management in RACFs. Conclusions This study highlights the advantages of viewing MIR process holistically rather than as segregated tasks, as a means to identify gaps in information exchange that need to be addressed in practice to improve safety critical processes.

  14. Medication incident reporting in residential aged care facilities: Limitations and risks to residents’ safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Medication incident reporting (MIR) is a key safety critical care process in residential aged care facilities (RACFs). Retrospective studies of medication incident reports in aged care have identified the inability of existing MIR processes to generate information that can be used to enhance residents’ safety. However, there is little existing research that investigates the limitations of the existing information exchange process that underpins MIR, despite the considerable resources that RACFs’ devote to the MIR process. The aim of this study was to undertake an in-depth exploration of the information exchange process involved in MIR and identify factors that inhibit the collection of meaningful information in RACFs. Methods The study was undertaken in three RACFs (part of a large non-profit organisation) in NSW, Australia. A total of 23 semi-structured interviews and 62 hours of observation sessions were conducted between May to July 2011. The qualitative data was iteratively analysed using a grounded theory approach. Results The findings highlight significant gaps in the design of the MIR artefacts as well as information exchange issues in MIR process execution. Study results emphasized the need to: a) design MIR artefacts that facilitate identification of the root causes of medication incidents, b) integrate the MIR process within existing information systems to overcome key gaps in information exchange execution, and c) support exchange of information that can facilitate a multi-disciplinary approach to medication incident management in RACFs. Conclusions This study highlights the advantages of viewing MIR process holistically rather than as segregated tasks, as a means to identify gaps in information exchange that need to be addressed in practice to improve safety critical processes. PMID:23122411

  15. Establishing Fire Safety Skills Using Behavioral Skills Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houvouras, Andrew J., IV; Harvey, Mark T.

    2014-01-01

    The use of behavioral skills training (BST) to educate 3 adolescent boys on the risks of lighters and fire setting was evaluated using in situ assessment in a school setting. Two participants had a history of fire setting. After training, all participants adhered to established rules: (a) avoid a deactivated lighter, (b) leave the training area,…

  16. A study on fire design accidental loads for aluminum safety helidecks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Jin Kim

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The helideck structure must satisfy the safety requirements associated with various environmental and accidental loads. Especially, there have been a number of fire accidents offshore due to helicopter collision (take-off and/or landing in recent decades. To prevent further accidents, a substantial amount of effort has been directed toward the management of fire in the safety design of offshore helidecks. The aims of this study are to introduce and apply a procedure for quantitative risk assessment and management of fires by defining the fire loads with an applied example. The frequency of helicopter accidents are considered, and design accidental levels are applied. The proposed procedures for determining design fire loads can be efficiently applied in offshore helideck development projects.

  17. Spacecraft Fire Safety Research at NASA Glenn Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Marit

    2016-01-01

    Appropriate design of fire detection systems requires knowledge of both the expected fire signature and the background aerosol levels. Terrestrial fire detection systems have been developed based on extensive study of terrestrial fires. Unfortunately there is no corresponding data set for spacecraft fires and consequently the fire detectors in current spacecraft were developed based upon terrestrial designs. In low gravity, buoyant flow is negligible which causes particles to concentrate at the smoke source, increasing their residence time, and increasing the transport time to smoke detectors. Microgravity fires have significantly different structure than those in 1-g which can change the formation history of the smoke particles. Finally the materials used in spacecraft are different from typical terrestrial environments where smoke properties have been evaluated. It is critically important to detect a fire in its early phase before a flame is established, given the fixed volume of air on any spacecraft. Consequently, the primary target for spacecraft fire detection is pyrolysis products rather than soot. Experimental investigations have been performed at three different NASA facilities which characterize smoke aerosols from overheating common spacecraft materials. The earliest effort consists of aerosol measurements in low gravity, called the Smoke Aerosol Measurement Experiment (SAME), and subsequent ground-based testing of SAME smoke in 55-gallon drums with an aerosol reference instrument. Another set of experiments were performed at NASAs Johnson Space Center White Sands Test Facility (WSTF), with additional fuels and an alternate smoke production method. Measurements of these smoke products include mass and number concentration, and a thermal precipitator was designed for this investigation to capture particles for microscopic analysis. The final experiments presented are from NASAs Gases and Aerosols from Smoldering Polymers (GASP) Laboratory, with selected

  18. Assessment of the overall fire safety arrangements at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    The present publication has been developed with the help of experts from regulatory, operating and engineering organizations, all with practical experience in the field of fire safety of nuclear power plants. The publication comprises a detailed checklist of the specific elements to be addressed when assessing the adequacy and effectiveness of the overall fire safety arrangements of operating nuclear power plants. The publication will be useful not only to regulators and safety assessors but also to operators and designers. The book addresses a specialized topic outlined in Safety Guide No. 50-SG-D2 (Rev.1), Fire Protection in Nuclear Power Plants, and it is recommended that it be used in conjunction with this Safety Series publication

  19. An Assessment of the Fire Safety Hazard Associated with External Fire Spread in Tall Buildings with Combustible Façade Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavard Brogaard, Nicholas; Torero, Jose L.; Jomaas, Grunde

    2014-01-01

    in order to obtain a conclusive assessment of the fire safety hazards associated with combustible facades. Prescriptive fire safety codes are typically not allowing any type of combustible façade in buildings that are taller than 2-3 stories. However, a performance based approach does not contain height...

  20. Evaluation of the Cable Types for Safety Requirements during Fire Conditions in Nuclear Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-kattan, W.A.

    2015-01-01

    In Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs), the fire in cables causes many dangerous events in electrical or mechanical operations causing a nuclear reactor melt down. Main Control Room (MCR) in nuclear power plants have therefore, special concern in the fire protection systems. The Nuclear International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) has promoted the use of risk-informed and performance based methods for fire protection. These methods affirm the relevant needs to develop realistic methods to quantify the risk of fire to NPPs safety. The recent electrical cable testing has been carried out to provide empirical data on the failure modes and likelihood of fire-induced damage. In this thesis, will use fire modeling to develop fire probabilistic safety assessment to estimate the likelihood of fire induced cable damage given a specified fire profile. The objective of this work is to provide a comprehensive evaluation of the most recent fire-induced circuit failure due to different cables type that used inside the NPPs by simulation using fire modeling. One of this work scope is to suggest a suitable cable insulation material especially in case of the thermal failure thresholds, for developing the electrical cable thermal fragility distributions and evaluate parameters that influence fire-induced circuit failure modes. The main control room is implementing using the CFAST (fire simulation package). The simulation results represent the full development fire temperature and heat flux as well as the output gases. The results can be used as the basic parameters of the cables comparison and then evaluation.The importance of these results are not only for evaluating the cables but one can efficiently use them to improve the whole NPPs safety levels. The gases results of the fire simulation inside the room are oxygen, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and hydrogen chloride. These gases are being used lot achieving the healthy protection of NPPs. Finally, one can measure the healthy environment

  1. Evaluation of Generic Issue 57: Effects of fire protection system actuation on safety-related equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lambright, J.; Bohn, M.; Lynch, J.; Ross, S.; Brosseau, D.

    1992-12-01

    Nuclear power plants have experienced actuations of fire protection systems (FPSs) under conditions for which these systems were not intended to actuate and also have experienced advertent actuations with the presence of a fire. These actuations have often damaged safety-related equipment. A review of the impact of past occurrences of both types of such events and their impact on plant safety systems, an analysis of the risk impacts of such events on nuclear power plant safety, and a cost-benefit analysis of potential corrective measures have been performed. Thirteen different scenarios leading to actuation of fire protection systems due to a variety of causes were identified. These scenarios ranged from inadvertent actuation caused by human error to hardware failure, and include seismic root causes and seismic/fire interactions. A quantification of these thirteen root causes, where applicable, was performed on generically applicable scenarios. This document, Volume 4, contains appendices E and F of this report

  2. Bridging the divide between fire safety research and fighting fire safely: How do we convey research innovation to contribute more effectively to wildland firefighter safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theodore Ted Adams; Bret W. Butler; Sara Brown; Vita Wright; Anne Black

    2017-01-01

    Creating a safe workplace for wildland firefighters has long been at the centre of discussion for researchers and practitioners. The goal of wildland fire safety research has been to protect operational firefighters, yet its contributions often fall short of potential because much is getting lost in the translation of peer-reviewed results to potential and intended...

  3. 48 CFR 2052.235-71 - Safety, health, and fire protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... extension of time or for compensation or damages by reason of, or in connection with, this type of work... performance of the work under this contract to protect the health and safety of its employees and of members... hazards to life and property. The contractor shall comply with all applicable health, safety, and fire...

  4. Protection against internal fires and explosions in the design of nuclear power plants. Safety guide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    Experience of the past two decades in the operation of nuclear power plants and modern analysis techniques confirm that fire may be a real threat to nuclear safety and should receive adequate attention from the beginning of the design process throughout the life of the plant. Within the framework of the NUSS programme, a Safety Guide on fire protection had therefore been developed to enlarge on the general requirements given in the Code. Since its first publication in 1979, there has been considerable development in protection technology and analysis methods and after the Chernobyl accident it was decided to revise the existing Guide. This Safety Guide supplements the requirements established in Safety of Nuclear Power Plants: Design. It supersedes Safety Series No. 50-SG-D2 (Rev. 1), Fire Protection in Nuclear Power Plants: A Safety Guide, issued in 1992.The present Safety Guide is intended to advise designers, safety assessors and regulators on the concept of fire protection in the design of nuclear power plants and on recommended ways of implementing the concept in some detail in practice

  5. Construction products performances and basic requirements for fire safety of facades in energy rehabilitation of buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laban Mirjana Đ.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Construction product means any product or kit which is produced and placed on the market for incorporation in a permanent manner in construction works, or parts thereof, and the performance of which has an effect on the performance of the construction works with respect to the basic requirements for construction works. Safety in case of fire and Energy economy and heat retention represent two among seven basic requirements which building has to meet according to contemporary technical rules on planning and construction. Performances of external walls building materials (particularly reaction to fire could significantly affect to fire spread on the façade and other building parts. Therefore, façade shaping and materialization in building renewal process, has to meet the fire safety requirement, as well as the energy requirement. Brief survey of fire protection regulations development in Serbia is presented in the paper. Preventive measures for fire risk reduction in building façade energy renewal are proposed according to contemporary fire safety requirements.

  6. Evaluation of safety margin of packaging for radioactive materials transport during a severe fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gilles, P.; Ringot, C.; Warniez, P.; Grall, L.; Perrot, J.

    1986-06-01

    A high safety is obtained by International regulations on radioactive materials transport. It is obtained by packaging design adapted to the potential risk. An important accident to consider is fire for two reasons: the probability of fire occuring for time and temperature higher than conditions applied to type B packaging (800 deg C, 1/2 hr) is not negligible, particularly for air or maritime transport. Safety margins are studied by computation and experimental tests. This report presents results obtained for different types of packagings. Results show a large safety margin [fr

  7. Fire Safety Tests for Spherical Resorcinol Formaldehyde Resin: Data Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong-Sang; Peterson, Reid A.; Schweiger, Michael J.

    2012-07-30

    A draft safety evaluation of the scenario for spherical resorcinol-formaldehyde (SRF) resin fire inside the ion exchange column was performed by the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Fire Safety organization. The result of this draft evaluation suggested a potential change of the fire safety classification for the Cesium Ion Exchange Process System (CXP) emergency elution vessels, equipment, and piping, which may be overly bounding based on the fire performance data from the manufacturer of the ion exchange resin selected for use at the WTP. To resolve this question, the fire properties of the SRF resin were measured by Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), following the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standard procedures, through a subcontract managed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). For some tests, the ASTM standard procedures were not entirely appropriate or practical for the SRF resin material, so the procedures were modified and deviations from the ASTM standard procedures were noted. This report summarizes the results of fire safety tests performed and reported by SwRI. The efforts by PNNL were limited to summarizing the test results provided by SwRI into one consolidated data report. All as-received SwRI reports are attached to this report in the Appendix. Where applicable, the precision and bias of each test method, as given by each ASTM standard procedure, are included and compared with the SwRI test results of the SRF resin.

  8. The role of the residential neighborhood in linking youths' family poverty trajectory to decreased feelings of safety at school.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Côté-Lussier, Carolyn; Barnett, Tracie A; Kestens, Yan; Tu, Mai Thanh; Séguin, Louise

    2015-06-01

    Although disadvantaged youth are more likely to be victimized at school, victimization only partly explains their decreased feelings of safety at school. We applied a socioecological approach to test the hypotheses that the experience of poverty is associated with decreased feelings of safety at school, and that residential neighborhood features partly mediate the relationship between poverty and feeling less safe at school. This study draws on the Québec Longitudinal Study of Child Development (QLSCD) which began in 1998 with a representative population-based cohort of 2,120 5-month old infants (49.1% female) and their primary caregiver. The study also includes measures of ego-centred residential neighborhood exposures (based on a 500 m circular buffer zone surrounding the family's residential postal code) derived from a spatial data infrastructure. We used latent growth modeling to estimate youth's family poverty trajectory from age 5 months to 13 years, and structural equation modeling to test our hypotheses. The results suggest that youth experiencing chronic and later-childhood poverty felt less safe at school in part because they lived in neighborhoods that their parents described as being disorderly (e.g., demarked by the presence of garbage, drug use and groups of trouble-makers). These neighborhoods also tended to have less greenery (e.g., trees, parks) and more lone-parent households. Neighborhood features did not help explain the relationship between early-childhood poverty and feeling less safe at school. The findings suggest that targeting residential neighborhood features such as greenery and disorder could improve youth's felt safety at school, particularly for those experiencing chronic and later-childhood poverty.

  9. Evaluation of Fire Hazard and Safety Management of Heritage Buildings in Georgetown, Penang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othuman Mydin M.A.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fire is a subject that is always neglected and ignored as far as heritage buildings are concerned. Unlike newly-built buildings, which are required under UBBL to undergo certain fire protection system tests, people are less likely to carry out such tests and detailed assessments for heritage buildings. Thus, this research is significant as it is aimed at accomplishing several objectives including studying the current fire emergency plan, besides identifying and assessing the possible fire hazards in heritage buildings in Penang. Several case studies were carried out at a few premises such as the Khoo Kongsi, Cheah Kongsi, Hock Teik Chen Shin Temple and the Teochew Temple with the aid of the Fire Rescue Department Malaysia (FRDM. The results obtained from this study will be discussed according to several aspects focusing on general health and safety management at the site, the fire-fighting system, fire exit routes and signage at the temples, fire hazards, and fire detection and alarm.

  10. The impact of recent changes in smoke alarm legislation on residential fire injuries and smoke alarm ownership in New South Wales, Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harvey, Lara A; Poulos, Roslyn G; Sherker, Shauna

    2013-01-01

    In 2006, New South Wales (NSW) state legislation changed from requiring smoke alarms in new houses only to all houses. We evaluated the impact of this legislative change on residential fire injury and smoke alarm ownership characteristics. Residential fire injuries for 2002 to 2010 were identified from hospitalization data for all hospitals in NSW. Data relating to smoke alarm ownership and demographic factors were obtained from the NSW Population Health Survey. Negative binomial regression analysis was used to analyze trends over time. Prior to the introduction of universal legislation, hospitalization rates were increasing slightly; however, following the introduction of legislation, hospitalization rates decreased by an estimated 36.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 16.7-55.8) annually. Smoke alarm ownership increased from 73.3% (95% CI, 72.5-74.2) prelegislation to 93.6% (95% CI, 93.1-94.2) 18 months postlegislation. Thirty percent of households reported testing their alarms regularly. Speaking a language other than English (relative risks [RRs], 1.82; 95% CI, 1.44-2.99), allowing smoking in the home (RR, 1.73; 95% CI, 1.31-2.27), and being part of the most disadvantaged socioeconomic group (RR, 1.47; 95% CI, 1.14-1.91) remain major risk factors for nonownership. Broadening the scope of state legislation has had a positive impact on residential fire-related hospitalizations and smoke alarm ownership. However, it is of concern that the legislation has been the least effective in increasing smoke alarm ownership among non-English-speaking households, in households where smoking is allowed, in low socioeconomic households, and that a high proportion of householders do not test their smoke alarms regularly. Targeted campaigns are needed to reach these high-risk groups and to ensure that smoke alarms are functional.

  11. Application of fire and evacuation models in evaluation of fire safety in railway tunnels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cábová, Kamila; Apeltauer, Tomáš; Okřinová, Petra; Wald, František

    2017-09-01

    The paper describes an application of numerical simulation of fire dynamics and evacuation of people in a tunnel. The software tool Fire Dynamics Simulator is used to simulate temperature resolution and development of smoke in a railway tunnel. Comparing to temperature curves which are usually used in the design stage results of the model show that the numerical model gives lower temperature of hot smoke layer. Outputs of the numerical simulation of fire also enable to improve models of evacuation of people during fires in tunnels. In the presented study the calculated high of smoke layer in the tunnel is in 10 min after the fire ignition lower than the level of 2.2 m which is considered as the maximal limit for safe evacuation. Simulation of the evacuation process in bigger scale together with fire dynamics can provide very valuable information about important security conditions like Available Safe Evacuation Time (ASET) vs Required Safe Evacuation Time (RSET). On given example in software EXODUS the paper summarizes selected results of evacuation model which should be in mind of a designer when preparing an evacuation plan.

  12. Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    A brief account of activities carried out by the Nuclear power plants Jaslovske Bohunice in 1997 is presented. These activities are reported under the headings: (1) Nuclear safety; (2) Industrial and health safety; (3) Radiation safety; and Fire protection

  13. Work Health & Safety legislation; the fire engineer’s neglected duty?

    OpenAIRE

    P.A. (Tony) Enright

    2014-01-01

    Fire engineers are in general, aware of their duties under Building legislation. However, they are often unfamiliar of separate duties under Work Health and Safety legislation. This paper describes an Australian case-study, but one that is presented generally so as to have applicability in those other jurisdictions where similar Work Health and Safety obligations exist. As society becomes safer, Work Health and Safety has evolved from being solely about the employer–employee relationshi...

  14. Safety during sea transport of radioactive materials. Probabilistic safety analysis of package fro sea surface fire accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuoka, Takeshi; Obara, Isonori; Akutsu, Yukio; Aritomi, Masanori

    2000-01-01

    The ships carrying irradiated nuclear fuel, plutonium and high level radioactive wastes(INF materials) are designed to keep integrity of packaging based on the various safety and fireproof measures, even if the ship encounters a maritime fire accident. However, granted that the frequency is very low, realistic severe accidents should be evaluated. In this paper, probabilistic safety assessment method is applied to evaluate safety margin for severe sea fire accidents using event tree analysis. Based on our separate studies, the severest scenario was estimated as follows; an INF transport ship collides with oil tanker and induces a sea surface fire. Probability data such as ship's collision, oil leakage, ignition, escape from fire region, operations of cask cooling system and water flooding systems were also introduced from above mentioned studies. The results indicate that the probability of which packages cannot keep their integrity during the sea surface fire accident is very low and sea transport of INF materials is carried out very safely. (author)

  15. Utilization of the safety functional analysis techniques to optimize the separation requirements in case of fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, L.M.

    1983-01-01

    The present philosophy for the fire protection of the safe shutdown capability in nuclear power plants is based on the separation of the safety-related systems in different fire areas in such a way that the redundant systems are not subject to damage from a single fire risk. The purpose ofthis paper is to show the experience gained in the application of a symmetric method of analysis to minimize the number of fire barriers being compatible with the regulatory requirements and with capability of achieving and maintaining the safe plant shutdown in the event of a fire. As a conclusion of the analysis, the separation criteria for the divisions involved in the safe plant shutdown are obtained

  16. Forum for fire protection and safety in power plants[Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The conference contains 16 presentations on topics in the fields of fire protection and safety in plants in Western Norway, reorganization and reconstruction of power systems and plants in Norway, various aspects of risk and vulnerability analysis, technological aspects of plant management and construction and problems and risks with particularly transformers. Some views on challenges of the fire departments and the new Norwegian regulations for electrical power supply systems are included. One presentation deals with challenges for Icelandic power production plants.

  17. Sodium fire studies in France. Safety experiments applied to fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruchard, Y.; Colome, J.; Malet, J.C.; Berlin, M.; Duverger de Cuy, G.; Justin, J.; Duco, J.

    1976-01-01

    In fast reactors, the risk of sodium fires must be analyzed in detail and the consequences of an accidental fire must be known precisely. Beyond the search for prevention and detection means, techniques must be developed to set up a limit to damages created by an accidental fire: extinguishing, aerosol confinement, protection of the reactor structures. The program developed by the Nuclear Safety Department of the Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique to solve these various problems is described. The main results and their applications to the Super-Phenix reactor are presented [fr

  18. Sodium fire studies in France safety tests and applications on an LMFBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruchard, Y.; Colome, J.; Malet, J.C.; Berlin, M.; de Cuy, G.D.; Justin, J.; Duco, J.; Fourest, B.

    1976-01-01

    The risk of sodium fires in an LMFBR requires thorough analysis, and the possible consequences of an accidental fire must be accurately determined. Not only must means of prevention and detection be perfected, but techniques must be developed to limit the damage caused by a fire: extinguishment, aerosol containment, protection of reactor structures. The program currently undertaken by the CEA's Nuclear Safety Department covering these problems is described. The major results obtained as well as their application to the SUPER-PHENIX reactor are included

  19. Investigation of potential fire-related damage to safety-related equipment in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wanless, J.

    1985-11-01

    Based on a review of vendor information, fire damage reports, equipment qualification and hydrogen burn test results, and material properties, thirty-three types of equipment found in nuclear power plants were ranked in terms of their potential sensitivity to fire environments. The ranking considered both the functional requirements and damage proneness of each component. A further review of the seven top-ranked components was performed, considering the relative prevalence and potential safety significance of each. From this, relays and hand switches dominate as first choices for fire damage testing with logic equipment, power supplies, transmitters, and motor control centers as future candidates

  20. Gypsum plasterboards enhanced with phase change materials: A fire safety assessment using experimental and computational techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolaitis Dionysios I.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Phase Change Materials (PCM can be used for thermal energy storage, aiming to enhance building energy efficiency. Recently, gypsum plasterboards with incorporated paraffin-based PCM blends have become commercially available. In the high temperature environment developed during a fire, the paraffins, which exhibit relatively low boiling points, may evaporate and, escaping through the gypsum plasterboard's porous structure, emerge to the fire region, where they may ignite, thus adversely affecting the fire resistance characteristics of the building. Aiming to assess the fire safety behaviour of such building materials, an extensive experimental and computational analysis is performed. The fire behaviour and the main thermo-physical physical properties of PCM-enhanced gypsum plasterboards are investigated, using a variety of standard tests and devices (Scanning Electron Microscopy, Thermo Gravimetric Analysis, Cone Calorimeter. The obtained results are used to develop a dedicated numerical model, which is implemented in a CFD code. CFD simulations are validated using measurements obtained in a cone calorimeter. In addition, the CFD code is used to simulate an ISO 9705 room exposed to fire conditions, demonstrating that PCM addition may indeed adversely affect the fire safety of a gypsum plasterboard clad building.

  1. Reported fire safety and first-aid amenities in Airbnb venues in 16 American cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Hudson R; Jones, Vanya C; Gielen, Andrea

    2018-05-07

    Airbnb helps hosts rent all or part of their home to guests as an alternative to traditional hospitality settings. Airbnb venues are not uniformly regulated across the USA. This study quantified the reported prevalence of fire safety and first-aid amenities in Airbnb venues in the USA. The sample includes 120 691 venues in 16 US cities. Proportions of host-reported smoke and carbon monoxide (CO) detectors, fire extinguishers and first-aid kits were calculated. The proportion of venues that reportedly contained amenities are as follows: smoke detectors 80% (n=96 087), CO detectors 57.5% (n=69 346), fire extinguishers 42% (n=50 884) and first-aid kits 36% (n=43 497). Among this sample of Airbnb venues, safety deficiencies were noted. While most venues had smoke alarms, approximately 1/2 had CO alarms and less than 1/2 reported having a fire extinguishers or first-aid kits. Local and state governments or Airbnb must implement regulations compliant with current National Fire Protection Association fire safety standards. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  2. Large-Scale Spacecraft Fire Safety Experiments in ISS Resupply Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, Gary A.; Urban, David

    2013-01-01

    Our understanding of the fire safety risk in manned spacecraft has been limited by the small scale of the testing we have been able to conduct in low-gravity. Fire growth and spread cannot be expected to scale linearly with sample size so we cannot make accurate predictions of the behavior of realistic scale fires in spacecraft based on the limited low-g testing to date. As a result, spacecraft fire safety protocols are necessarily very conservative and costly. Future crewed missions are expected to be longer in duration than previous exploration missions outside of low-earth orbit and accordingly, more complex in terms of operations, logistics, and safety. This will increase the challenge of ensuring a fire-safe environment for the crew throughout the mission. Based on our fundamental uncertainty of the behavior of fires in low-gravity, the need for realistic scale testing at reduced gravity has been demonstrated. To address this concern, a spacecraft fire safety research project is underway to reduce the uncertainty and risk in the design of spacecraft fire safety systems by testing at nearly full scale in low-gravity. This project is supported by the NASA Advanced Exploration Systems Program Office in the Human Exploration and Operations Mission Directorate. The activity of this project is supported by an international topical team of fire experts from other space agencies to maximize the utility of the data and to ensure the widest possible scrutiny of the concept. The large-scale space flight experiment will be conducted on three missions; each in an Orbital Sciences Corporation Cygnus vehicle after it has deberthed from the ISS. Although the experiment will need to meet rigorous safety requirements to ensure the carrier vehicle does not sustain damage, the absence of a crew allows the fire products to be released into the cabin. The tests will be fully automated with the data downlinked at the conclusion of the test before the Cygnus vehicle reenters the

  3. Fire safety improvement of para-aramid fiber in thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Xilei; Wang, Wenduo; Li, Shaoxiang; Jiao, Chuanmei

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Fire safety of para-aramid fiber on TPU has been investigated. • Para-aramid fiber has excellent flame retardant abilities and smoke suppression properties on TPU. • A new technique to improve the fire safety polymer is provided in this article. - Abstract: This article mainly studied fire safety effects of para-aramid fiber (AF) in thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU). The TPU/AF composites were prepared by molten blending method, and then the fire safety effects of all TPU composites were tested using cone calorimeter test (CCT), microscale combustion colorimeter test (MCC), smoke density test (SDT), and thermogravimetric/fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TG-IR). The CCT test showed that AF could improve the fire safety of TPU. Remarkably, the peak value of heat release rate (pHRR) and the peak value of smoke production rate (pSPR) for the sample with 1.0 wt% content of AF were decreased by 52.0% and 40.5% compared with pure TPU, respectively. The MCC test showed that the HRR value of AF-2 decreased by 27.6% compared with pure TPU. TG test showed that AF promoted the char formation in the degradation process of TPU; as a result the residual carbon was increased. The TG-IR test revealed that AF had increased the thermal stability of TPU at the beginning and reduced the release of CO_2 with the decomposition going on. Through the analysis of the results of this experiment, it will make a great influence on the study of the para-aramid fiber in the aspect of fire safety of polymer.

  4. Fire safety improvement of para-aramid fiber in thermoplastic polyurethane elastomer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Xilei; Wang, Wenduo; Li, Shaoxiang; Jiao, Chuanmei, E-mail: jiaochm@qust.edu.cn

    2017-02-15

    Highlights: • Fire safety of para-aramid fiber on TPU has been investigated. • Para-aramid fiber has excellent flame retardant abilities and smoke suppression properties on TPU. • A new technique to improve the fire safety polymer is provided in this article. - Abstract: This article mainly studied fire safety effects of para-aramid fiber (AF) in thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU). The TPU/AF composites were prepared by molten blending method, and then the fire safety effects of all TPU composites were tested using cone calorimeter test (CCT), microscale combustion colorimeter test (MCC), smoke density test (SDT), and thermogravimetric/fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (TG-IR). The CCT test showed that AF could improve the fire safety of TPU. Remarkably, the peak value of heat release rate (pHRR) and the peak value of smoke production rate (pSPR) for the sample with 1.0 wt% content of AF were decreased by 52.0% and 40.5% compared with pure TPU, respectively. The MCC test showed that the HRR value of AF-2 decreased by 27.6% compared with pure TPU. TG test showed that AF promoted the char formation in the degradation process of TPU; as a result the residual carbon was increased. The TG-IR test revealed that AF had increased the thermal stability of TPU at the beginning and reduced the release of CO{sub 2} with the decomposition going on. Through the analysis of the results of this experiment, it will make a great influence on the study of the para-aramid fiber in the aspect of fire safety of polymer.

  5. FIRE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brtis, J.S.; Hausheer, T.G.

    1990-01-01

    FIRE, a microcomputer based program to assist engineers in reviewing and documenting the fire protection impact of design changes has been developed. Acting as an electronic consultant, FIRE is designed to work with an experienced nuclear system engineer, who may not have any detailed fire protection expertise. FIRE helps the engineer to decide if a modification might adversely affect the fire protection design of the station. Since its first development, FIRE has been customized to reflect the fire protection philosophy of the Commonwealth Edison Company. That program is in early production use. This paper discusses the FIRE program in light of its being a useful application of expert system technologies in the power industry

  6. Key Problems of Fire Safety Enforcement in Traffic and Communication Centers (TCC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medyanik, M.; Zosimova, O.

    2017-10-01

    A Traffic and Communication Center (TCC) means facilities designed and used to distribute and redirect flows of humans and motor vehicles while they get serviced and operate. This paper sets forth the basic problems of fire safety enforcement on the TCC, and the causes that slow down human and vehicle traffic speeds. It proposes ways to solve the problems of fire safety enforcement on the TCC, in the Russian Federation and elsewhere. Engineering solutions are proposed for TCC design, with key outlooks of TCC future development as an alternative way to organize access in transportation.

  7. Failure modes of safety-related components at fires on nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aaslund, A.

    2000-03-01

    Probabilistic assessment methods can be used to identify specific plant vulnerabilities. Application of such methods can also facilitate selection among system design alternatives available for safety enhancements. The quality of assessment results is however strongly dependent on realistic and accurate input data for modelling of system component behaviour and failure modes during conditions to be assessed. Use of conservative input data may not lead to results providing guidance on safety upgrades. Adequate input data for probabilistic assessments seems to be lacking for at least failure modes of some electrical components when exposed to a fire. This report presents an attempt to improve the situation with respect to such input data. In order to take advantage of information in existing documentation of fire incident occurrences some of the lessons learned from the fire at Browns Ferry Nuclear Power Plant on March 22, 1975 are discussed in this report. Also a summary of results from different fire tests of electrical cables presented in a fire risk analysis report is a part of the references. The failure modes used to describe fire-induced damage are 'open circuit' and 'hot short' which seems to be commonly accepted terms within the branch. Definitions of the terms are included in the report. Effects of the failure modes when occurring in some of the channels of the reactor protection system are discussed with respect to the existing design of the reactor protection system at Ringhals 2 nuclear power unit. Experiences from the Browns Ferry fire and results from fire tests of electrical cables indicate that the dominating failure mode for electrical cables is 'open circuit'. An 'open circuit' failure leads to circuit disjunction and loss of continuity. The circuit can no longer transmit its signal or power. When affecting channels of the reactor protection system an 'open circuit' failure can cause extensive inadvertent actions of safety related equipment

  8. Risk-Based Fire Safety Experiment Definition for Manned Spacecraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostolakis, G. E.; Ho, V. S.; Marcus, E.; Perry, A. T.; Thompson, S. L.

    1989-01-01

    Risk methodology is used to define experiments to be conducted in space which will help to construct and test the models required for accident sequence identification. The development of accident scenarios is based on the realization that whether damage occurs depends on the time competition of two processes: the ignition and creation of an adverse environment, and the detection and suppression activities. If the fire grows and causes damage faster than it is detected and suppressed, then an accident occurred. The proposed integrated experiments will provide information on individual models that apply to each of the above processes, as well as previously unidentified interactions and processes, if any. Initially, models that are used in terrestrial fire risk assessments are considered. These include heat and smoke release models, detection and suppression models, as well as damage models. In cases where the absence of gravity substantially invalidates a model, alternate models will be developed. Models that depend on buoyancy effects, such as the multizone compartment fire models, are included in these cases. The experiments will be performed in a variety of geometries simulating habitable areas, racks, and other spaces. These simulations will necessitate theoretical studies of scaling effects. Sensitivity studies will also be carried out including the effects of varying oxygen concentrations, pressures, fuel orientation and geometry, and air flow rates. The experimental apparatus described herein includes three major modules: the combustion, the fluids, and the command and power modules.

  9. Using GIS to evaluate a fire safety program in North Carolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudley, Thomas; Creppage, Kathleen; Shanahan, Meghan; Proescholdbell, Scott

    2013-10-01

    Evaluating program impact is a critical aspect of public health. Utilizing Geographic Information Systems (GIS) is a novel way to evaluate programs which try to reduce residential fire injuries and deaths. The purpose of this study is to demonstrate the application of GIS within the evaluation of a smoke alarm installation program in North Carolina. This approach incorporates national fire incident data which, when linked with program data, provides a clear depiction of the 10 years impact of the Get Alarmed, NC! program and estimates the number of potential lives saved. We overlapped Get Alarmed, NC! program installation data with national information on fires using GIS to identify homes that experienced a fire after an alarm was installed and calculated potential lives saved based on program documentation and average housing occupancy. We found that using GIS was an efficient and quick way to match addresses from two distinct sources. From this approach we estimated that between 221 and 384 residents were potentially saved due to alarms installed in their homes by Get Alarmed, NC!. Compared with other program evaluations that require intensive and costly participant telephone surveys and/or in-person interviews, the GIS approach is inexpensive, quick, and can easily analyze large disparate datasets. In addition, it can be used to help target the areas most at risk from the onset. These benefits suggest that by incorporating previously unutilized data, the GIS approach has the potential for broader applications within public health program evaluation.

  10. Development and perceived effects of an educational programme on quality and safety in medication handling in residential facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mygind, Anna; El-Souri, Mira; Rossing, Charlotte; Thomsen, Linda Aagaard

    2018-04-01

    To develop and test an educational programme on quality and safety in medication handling for staff in residential facilities for the disabled. The continuing pharmacy education instructional design model was used to develop the programme with 22 learning objectives on disease and medicines, quality and safety, communication and coordination. The programme was a flexible, modular seven + two days' course addressing quality and safety in medication handling, disease and medicines, and medication supervision and reconciliation. The programme was tested in five Danish municipalities. Municipalities were selected based on their application for participation; each independently selected a facility for residents with mental and intellectual disabilities, and a facility for residents with severe mental illnesses. Perceived effects were measured based on a questionnaire completed by participants before and after the programme. Effects on motivation and confidence as well as perceived effects on knowledge, skills and competences related to medication handling, patient empowerment, communication, role clarification and safety culture were analysed conducting bivariate, stratified analyses and test for independence. Of the 114 participants completing the programme, 75 participants returned both questionnaires (response rate = 66%). Motivation and confidence regarding quality and safety in medication handling significantly improved, as did perceived knowledge, skills and competences on 20 learning objectives on role clarification, safety culture, medication handling, patient empowerment and communication. The programme improved staffs' motivation and confidence and their perceived ability to handle residents' medication safely through improved role clarification, safety culture, medication handling and patient empowerment and communication skills. © 2017 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  11. 75 FR 44720 - Safety Zone; Live-Fire Gun Exercise, M/V Del Monte, James River, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Coast Guard 33 CFR Part 165 [Docket No. USCG-2010-0585] RIN 1625-AA00 Safety Zone; Live-Fire Gun Exercise, M/V Del Monte, James River, VA AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS... follows: Sec. 165.T05-0585 Safety Zone; Live-Fire Gun Exercise, M/V Del Monte, James River, VA (a...

  12. Contributions of microgravity test results to the design of spacecraft fire-safety systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Robert; Urban, David L.

    1993-01-01

    Experiments conducted in spacecraft and drop towers show that thin-sheet materials have reduced flammability ranges and flame-spread rates under quiescent low-gravity environments (microgravity) compared to normal gravity. Furthermore, low-gravity flames may be suppressed more easily by atmospheric dilution or decreasing atmospheric total pressure than their normal-gravity counterparts. The addition of a ventilating air flow to the low-gravity flame zone, however, can greatly enhance the flammability range and flame spread. These results, along with observations of flame and smoke characteristics useful for microgravity fire-detection 'signatures', promise to be of considerable value to spacecraft fire-safety designs. The paper summarizes the fire detection and suppression techniques proposed for the Space Station Freedom and discusses both the application of low-gravity combustion knowledge to improve fire protection and the critical needs for further research.

  13. Tech assist/fire safety assessment of 100K area facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, B.H.

    1994-01-01

    This Tech Assist/Fire Safety Assessment provides a comprehensive assessment of the 100K Area Facilities at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site for fire protection upgrades that may be needed given the limited remaining service life of these facilities. This assessment considers the relative nature of observed fire risks and whether the installed fire protection systems adequately control this risk. The analysis is based on compliance with DOE Orders, NFPA Codes and Standards, and recognized industry practice. Limited remaining service life (i.e., 6 to 12 years), current value of each facility, comparison to the best protected class of industrial risk, and the potential for exemptions from DOE requirements are key factors for recommendations presented in this report

  14. Contributions of Microgravity Test Results to the Design of Spacecraft Fire Safety Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedman, Robert; Urban, David L.

    1993-01-01

    Experiments conducted in spacecraft and drop towers show that thin-sheet materials have reduced flammability ranges and flame-spread rates under quiescent low-gravity environments (microgravity) as compared to normal gravity. Furthermore, low-gravity flames may be suppressed more easily by atmospheric dilution or decreasing atmospheric total pressure than their normal-gravity counterparts. The addition of a ventilating air flow to the low-gravity flame zone, however, can greatly enhance the flammability range and flame spread. These results, along with observations of flame and smoke characteristics useful for microgravity fire-detection 'signatures', promise to be of considerable value to spacecraft fire-safety designs. The paper summarizes the fire detection and suppression techniques proposed for the Space Station Freedom and discusses both the application of low-gravity combustion knowledge to improve fire protection and the critical needs for further research.

  15. Integrated system of occupational safety and health and fire protection of the fire rescue brigades members.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Božović, Marijola; Živković, Snežana; Mihajlović, Emina

    2018-06-01

    The objective of the conducted research is the identification and determination of requirements of members of fire rescue brigades during operations in the conditions of high risk in order to minimize the possibilities for injury incidence during the intervention. The research is focused on examination, determination and identification of factors affecting the increasing number of occupational injuries of members of fire rescue brigades during interventions. Hypothetical framework of the research problem consists of general hypothesis and six special hypotheses. Results suggest that almost all respondents believe that their skills and abilities are applicable in the intervention phase, but less than a half believe that their skills are applicable in prevention phase. Two-thirds of respondents stated that in their organization they have support for further education and upgrading while a half of respondents stated that they need education concerning identification, assessment and management of risks that can lead to emergency situations.

  16. An evaluation of The Great Escape: can an interactive computer game improve young children's fire safety knowledge and behaviors?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrongiello, Barbara A; Schwebel, David C; Bell, Melissa; Stewart, Julia; Davis, Aaron L

    2012-07-01

    Fire is a leading cause of unintentional injury and, although young children are at particularly increased risk, there are very few evidence-based resources available to teach them fire safety knowledge and behaviors. Using a pre-post randomized design, the current study evaluated the effectiveness of a computer game (The Great Escape) for teaching fire safety information to young children (3.5-6 years). Using behavioral enactment procedures, children's knowledge and behaviors related to fire safety were compared to a control group of children before and after receiving the intervention. The results indicated significant improvements in knowledge and fire safety behaviors in the intervention group but not the control. Using computer games can be an effective way to promote young children's understanding of safety and how to react in different hazardous situations.

  17. Advances in safety countermeasures at the Tomari NPP of Hokkaido Electric Power on the basis of Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident. Fire protection and other advances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shibata, Taku; Dasai, Katsumi

    2014-01-01

    Fire protections for the nuclear power plants have been based on the fire laws and the conventional guide. After Fukushima Daiichi NPP accident, many safety countermeasures - also about Fire Protection - have been discussed in the Japanese authorities. This paper shows our present activities in the Tomari NPP about the fire protections from the view points of Fire Prevention, Fire Detection/Suppression Systems and Fire Protection, and other advances. (author)

  18. Cooperation of the site and public fire and safety services in case of an incident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauch, M.

    1997-01-01

    This report describes the cooperation between the site and the public fire and safety services in case of an incident. As an example, the measures and facilities of the Hoechst site of the Hoechst AG and the organisational and technical background are presented. (orig.) [de

  19. Fire fighting. Measures to guarantee the safety of the radioactive installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orta Aguilera, R.

    1993-01-01

    The work relates the incidence of the aspects related to the fire prevention and fighting as well as the activities of rescue and saving in the radioactive facilities, with the objective of guaranteeing a strict safety regime of all installations along the country so as to reduce to the minimum the risk for the personnel, the population and the environment

  20. Safety considerations and countermeasures against fire and explosion at an HTGR-hydrogen production system. Proposal of safety design concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishihara, T.; Hada, K.; Shibata, T.; Shiozawa, S.

    1996-01-01

    Establishment of safety design concept and countermeasures against fire and explosion accidents is among key safety-related issues in an HTGR-hydrogen production system. We propose the different safety design concepts depending upon the origin of fire and explosion which may happen in the HTGR-hydrogen production plant. Against fire and explosion originated outside the reactor building (R/B), namely in the area of hydrogen production plant, the safety design concept is primarily to take a safe distance for preventing the damage on safety-related items or a proof wall if necessary. Because the hydrogen production plant is designed in the same safety level as a conventional chemical plant. The safe distance is proposed to limit an incident overpressure to 10 kPa so as not to suffer any damage on the items and to limit a wall-averaged temperature of concrete structures of the R/B to 175degC according to the current regulation. On the other hand, against a potential possibility of explosion originated inside the R/B, the safety design concept is to minimize the possibility of explosion low enough to assume no occurrence inside the R/B. That is, the measure is to exclude a simultaneous failure of a secondary helium piping and an endothermic chemical reactor. Furthermore, in severe accident condition in which the explosion may be postulated a priori, an incidental overpressure of explosion inside the reactor containment vessel (C/V) should be limited so as not to fail the C/V through restricting the amount of combustible gas ingress into the C/V by means of a combination of C/V isolation valve installed in the helium piping and emergency shut off valve in the process feed gas line. (author)

  1. A safety evaluation of fire and explosion in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, Gunji; Takada, Junichi; Tukamoto, Michio; Watanabe, Kouji; Miyata, Teijirou

    1996-01-01

    The demonstration test was performed in JAERI to prove the adequacy of a safety evaluation for an air-ventilation system in the case of solvent fire and red-oil explosion in a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. The test objectives were to obtain data of the safety evaluation on a thermofluid behavior and a confinement effect of radioactive materials during fire and explosion while the system is operating in a cell. The computer code was developed to evaluate the safety of associated network in the ventilation system and to estimate the confinement of radioactive materials in the system. The code was verified by comparison of code calculations with results of the demonstration test. (author)

  2. SYSTEMS SAFETY ANALYSIS FOR FIRE EVENTS ASSOCIATED WITH THE ECRB CROSS DRIFT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R. J. Garrett

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this analysis is to systematically identify and evaluate fire hazards related to the Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project (YMP) Enhanced Characterization of the Repository Block (ECRB) East-West Cross Drift (commonly referred to as the ECRB Cross-Drift). This analysis builds upon prior Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) System Safety Analyses and incorporates Topopah Springs (TS) Main Drift fire scenarios and ECRB Cross-Drift fire scenarios. Accident scenarios involving the fires in the Main Drift and the ECRB Cross-Drift were previously evaluated in ''Topopah Springs Main Drift System Safety Analysis'' (CRWMS M and O 1995) and the ''Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project East-West Drift System Safety Analysis'' (CRWMS M and O 1998). In addition to listing required mitigation/control features, this analysis identifies the potential need for procedures and training as part of defense-in-depth mitigation/control features. The inclusion of this information in the System Safety Analysis (SSA) is intended to assist the organization(s) (e.g., Construction, Environmental Safety and Health, Design) responsible for these aspects of the ECRB Cross-Drift in developing mitigation/control features for fire events, including Emergency Refuge Station(s). This SSA was prepared, in part, in response to Condition/Issue Identification and Reporting/Resolution System (CIRS) item 1966. The SSA is an integral part of the systems engineering process, whereby safety is considered during planning, design, testing, and construction. A largely qualitative approach is used which incorporates operating experiences and recommendations from vendors, the constructor and the operating contractor. The risk assessment in this analysis characterizes the scenarios associated with fires in terms of relative risk and includes recommendations for mitigating all identified hazards. The priority for recommending and implementing mitigation control features is: (1) Incorporate

  3. Safety evaluation of ventilation networks in case of fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perdriau, P.; Pourprix, M.; Raboin, S.; Rouyer, J.L.; Tarrago, X.

    1983-01-01

    Several teams from CEA have cooperated to produce a code for modeling ventilation networks under accidental conditions in nuclear facilities. The objective is to study responses to a network to perturbations which are either mechanical or thermal. Such a tool was necessary for safety and protection studies because ventilation network performances are difficult to evaluate when the network gets complex. There was no requirement for a very sophisticated code, considering the margin of error which generally characterizes the ventilation measurements, but this code should be well validated to become a reliable tool for pointing out safety problems at the design stage and during the operating life of the ventilation system. The code has been called PIAF. It solves a set of equations which simulate a ventilation network in a permanent regime

  4. Safety test of an improved multihundred watt FSA: launch abort, solid propellant fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seabourn, C.M.

    1978-07-01

    This safety test consisted of exposing a simulant-fueled Improved Multihundred Watt Fuel Sphere Assembly, containing a Pt-3008 sphere holding the fuel simulant, to a single proximity fire of UTP-3001 solid rocket propellant for 10.5 min. The graphite outside shell sustained only minor abrasion damage. It was covered on one side with a heavy deposit of alumina from the fire mixed with silica from the test bed. The Pt-3008 shell had small amounts of carbon, alumina, and silica deposited on its surface but sustained no other damage. The PT-3008 sphere was not breached, and therefore the fuel sphere assembly would not release fuel in a solid-propellant fire of a launch abort. 12 figures

  5. Validation study of computer code SPHINCS for sodium fire safety evaluation of fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Akira; Tajima, Yuji

    2003-01-01

    A computer code SPHINCS solves coupled phenomena of thermal hydraulics and sodium fire based on a multi-zone model. It deals with an arbitrary number of rooms, each of which is connected mutually by doorways and penetrations. With regard to the combustion phenomena, a flame sheet model and a liquid droplet combustion model are used for pool and spray fires, respectively, with the chemical equilibrium model based on the Gibbs free energy minimization method. The chemical reaction and mass and heat transfer are solved interactively. A specific feature of SPHINCS is detailed representation of thermalhydraulics of a sodium pool and a steel liner, which is placed on the floor to prevent sodium-concrete contact. The authors analyzed a series of pool combustion experiments, in which gas and liner temperatures are measured in detail. It has been found that good agreement is obtained and the SPHINCS code has been validated with regard to pool combustion phenomena. Further research needs are identified for pool spreading modeling considering thermal deformation of steel liner and measurement of pool fluidity property as a mixture of liquid sodium and reaction products. The SPHINCS code is to be used mainly in the safety evaluation of the consequence of a sodium fire accident in a liquid metal cooled fast reactor as well as fire safety analysis in general

  6. Safety test No. S-6, launch pad abort sequential test Phase II: solid propellant fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snow, E.C.

    1975-08-01

    In preparation for the Lincoln Laboratory's LES 8/9 space mission, a series of tests was performed to evaluate the nuclear safety capability of the Multi-Hundred Watt (MHW) Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG) to be used to supply power for the satellite. One such safety test is Test No. S-6, Launch Pad Abort Sequential Test. The objective of this test was to subject the RTG and its components to the sequential environments characteristic of a catastrophic launch pad accident to evaluate their capability to contain the 238 PuO 2 fuel. This sequence of environments was to have consisted of the blast overpressure and fragments, followed by the fireball, low velocity impact on the launch pad, and solid propellant fire. The blast overpressure and fragments were subsequently eliminated from this sequence. The procedures and results of Phase II of Test S-6, Solid Propellant Fire are presented. In this phase of the test, a simulant Fuel Sphere Assembly (FSA) and a mockup of a damaged Heat Source Assembly (HSA) were subjected to single proximity solid propellant fires of approximately 10-min duration. Steel was introduced into both tests to simulate the effects of launch pad debris and the solid rocket motor (SRM) casing that might be present in the fire zone. (TFD)

  7. Ongoing enhancements in the German nuclear regulatory framework with respect to fire safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elsche, Bjoern [e.on Kernkraft, Hannover (Germany); Roewekamp, Marina [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH, Koeln (Germany); Neugebauer, Wilfried [AREVA NP, Erlangen (Germany); Gersinska, Rainer [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz (BfS), Salzgitter (Germany). KTA-Geschaeftsstelle

    2015-12-15

    In the recent past, the regulatory framework for nuclear power plants (NPP) in Germany has been updated and enhanced comprising on the one hand comprehensive high level regulatory documents such as the 'Safety Requirements for Nuclear Power Plants' and, on the other hand, revised state-of-the-art nuclear safety standards and rules being incorporated in a corresponding legal structure. A major enhancement concerns the nuclear fire and explosion protection standards being already available as so-called green print for final comments which are expected to be officially published end of 2015. The update became necessary after approx. ten years for better addressing some lessons learnt form the operating experience, the consideration of post- Fukushima insights, such as more systematically addressing event combinations with fires and taking into account deviations from non-nuclear standards for escape and rescue routes. Moreover, fire protections remains an important issue for nuclear power plants in Germany during the longer term post-commercial safe shutdown period before decommissioning during which the spent fuel elements remain either in the containment or in the spent fuel pool for further years requiring suitable fire protection means being in place.

  8. Fire Safety Consideration in the Pre-conceptual Design State of Pyro-Facillity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeon, Hong Rae; Seo, Seok Jun; Lee, Hyo Jik [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    The government, in order to solve this problem, has organized a public engagement committee and is searching for a solution. To use sustainable nuclear energy, our country is also pursuing research and development of fast breeder reactor and pyroprocessing technology in accordance with the international movement of spent fuel recycling and efforts towards nuclear non-proliferation which is centered on the development and demonstration of recycling spent fuel and fast breeder reactors. Pyro-facility has different features with nuclear power plant. In the pyroprocess, chemical and electrochemical separation were took place in the hot cells and material at risk (MAR) is distributed in many working areas. In this paper, we conducted the fire modeling of hot cells to see the stability of pyrophoric materials which is considered as one of the potential hazardous materials in the main process cell. Based on modeling results, consideration of fire safety pyrofacility will be discussed. We performed preliminary hazard analysis for pyrofacility and summarized potential fire hazard. Pyrophoric material fire is the dominant hazard in the main process hot cell and fire modeling of cable tray in the cell was analyzed to see the stability of pyrophoric materials. Analysis results clearly shows that pyrophoric materials are prone to be affected.

  9. Can fire safety in hotels be improved? Results from the survey of a panel of experts in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio-Romero, Juan Carlos; Márquez-Sierra, Francisco; Suárez-Cebador, Manuel

    2016-06-08

    The hotel industry is an important driver of the European labour market with over 250,000 hotels employing some 2 million people. In Spain, 240 workers were injured by fires in hotels from 2004 to 2008. Fire is considered to be the most important risk in the hotel industry, but the lack of an EU-wide data recording system for hotels makes it difficult to give exact figures for fire events. We analysed the state of fire prevention systems in hotels in Spain with the aim of proposing strategies to improve fire safety. A 10-item questionnaire was administered from 2007 to 2009 to 15 Spanish experts in fire safety. The questions were measured using a Likert scale and classified into 4 sections: current state of installations, influence of establishment characteristics, application of regulations and priority ranking of actions. Descriptive statistics summarized the data and t-tests evaluated the agreement foreach statement in the questionnaire. The statistical analysis showed homogeneity in the responses by the experts in all four categories: current state of fire safety installations, influence of establishment characteristics, application of regulations, and priority of actions. There was consensus among the experts over the necessity to improve the enforcement of regulations and also regarding the existence of an association between the hotel category (in Spain they are ranked using a 1 to 5 "star" rating system) and the level of fire safety; hotels with a higher category had higher levels of safety. There is a need to identify ways to apply fire safety standards to older hotels so that they comply with new regulations, to standardize regulations for different regions and countries, to improve the maintenance of installations and equipment, to increase the effectiveness of inspections conducted by government bodies, and to raise the general awareness of stakeholders involved in hotel fire prevention.

  10. Happy 50th Birthday Smokey Bear! A Learning Kit about Forests and Fire Safety for Grades K-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Meryl

    For over 50 years, the primary goal of Smokey Bear has been to introduce the forest fire prevention message to young children. This learning kit provides the K-3 teacher with activities and resources to help students learn about Smokey Bear and fire safety, about forests as habitats, and about what they can do to protect forests. Students are…

  11. Gas induced fire and explosion frequencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutts, D.A.

    1997-01-01

    The use and handling of flammable gases poses a fire and explosion hazard to many DOE nuclear facilities. This hazard is not unique to DOE facilities. Each year over 2,900 non-residential structural fires occur in the U.S. where a gas is the first item ignited. Details from these events are collected by the National Fire Incident Reporting System (NFIRS) through an extensive reporting network. This extensive data set (800,000 fires in non-residential structures over a 5-year period) is an underutilized resource within the DOE community. Explosions in nuclear facilities can have very severe consequences. The explosion can both damage the facility containment and provide a mechanism for significant radiological dispersion. In addition, an explosion can have significant worker safety implications. Because of this a quantitative frequency estimate for explosions in an SRS laboratory facility has been prepared using the NFIRS data. 6 refs., 1 tab

  12. Combustion performance of pyrolysis oil/ethanol blends in a residential-scale oil-fired boiler

    Science.gov (United States)

    A 40 kWth oil-fired commercial boiler was fueled with blends of biomass pyrolysis oil (py-oil) and ethanol to determine the feasibility of using these blends as a replacement for fuel oil in home heating applications. An optimal set of test parameters was determined for the combustion of these blend...

  13. Fire safety of historical buildings traditional versus innovative “behavioural design” solutions by using wayfinding systems

    CERN Document Server

    Bernardini, Gabriele

    2017-01-01

    This book applies a behavioral point of view to individuals’ fire safety in historic buildings. It outlines theoretical and operative issues, based on recent studies and international guidelines. Firstly, critical issues for Building Heritage fire safety are widely discussed, by including the modelling of human factor and man-environment-fire interference in these architectural spaces. A significant part of the book includes a discussion on emergency modeling and simulation. A source code for representing the fire evacuation process (including man-evacuation facilities interactions) is offered to the reader. Methods for effectiveness assessment of risk-reducing solutions are provided and tested in a case-study. Being a structured approach to occupants-related problems during a fire in heritage buildings, it offers an innovative methodology and practical examples that researchers and designers can use as a guide when proposing and testing solutions. Evaluation indexes for effectiveness assessment (also usefu...

  14. Safe RESIDential Environments? A longitudinal analysis of the influence of crime-related safety on walking

    OpenAIRE

    Foster, Sarah; Hooper, Paula; Knuiman, Matthew; Christian, Hayley; Bull, Fiona; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2016-01-01

    Background Numerous cross-sectional studies have investigated the premise that the perception of crime will cause residents to constrain their walking; however the findings to date are inconclusive. In contrast, few longitudinal or prospective studies have examined the impact of crime-related safety on residents walking behaviours. This study used longitudinal data to test whether there is a causal relationship between crime-related safety and walking in the local neighbourhood. Methods Parti...

  15. A Survey of a System of Methods for Fire Safety Design of Traditional Concrete Constructions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian

    2000-01-01

    constructions DS411. And the bases for many of the methods have been distributed by CIB W14 reports. But a survey of all the methods in coherence has never been presented, and much of this documentation and the additional documentation produced for the work with the codes needs still to be printed in papers......During the years since 1978 the author has been developing a series of calculation methods and sup-porting test methods for the fire safety design of concrete constructions. The basic methods have been adopted in the fire chapters of the Eurocode ENV1992-1-2 and the Danish code for concrete.......It is the aim of this paper to give a coherent presentation of the design methods, their degree of documentation and the available references in order to facilitate the application of them....

  16. A consideration of hazards, earthquakes, aircraft crashes, explosions and fires in the safety of laboratories and plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doumenc, A.; Faure, J.; Mohammadioun, B.; Jacquet, P.

    1987-03-01

    Although laboratories and plants differ from nuclear reactors both in their characteristics and sitings, safety measures developed for the hazards of earthquakes, aircraft crashes, explosions and fires are very similar. These measures provide a satisfactory level of safety for these installations [fr

  17. Safety assessment of VHTR hydrogen production system against fire, explosion and acute toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, Tomoyuki; Nishihara, Tetsuo; Kunitomi, Kazuhiko

    2008-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency has been developing a nuclear hydrogen production system by using heat from the Very High Temperature Reactor (VHTR). This system will handle a large amount of combustible gas and toxic gas. The risk from fire, explosion and acute toxic exposure caused by an accident involving chemical material release in a hydrogen production system is assessed. It is important to ensure the safety of the nuclear plant, and the risks for public health should be sufficiently small. This report provides the basic policy for the safety evaluation in cases of accident involving fire, explosion and toxic material release in a hydrogen production system. Preliminary safety analysis of a commercial-sized VHTR hydrogen production system, GTHTR300C, is performed. This analysis provides us with useful information on the separation distance between a nuclear plant and a hydrogen production system and a prospect that an accident in a hydrogen production system does not significantly increase the risks of the public. (author)

  18. Size distribution and concentration of soot generated in oil and gas-fired residential boilers under different combustion conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez, Santiago; Barroso, Jorge; Pina, Antonio; Ballester, Javier

    2016-05-01

    In spite of the relevance of residential heating burners in the global emission of soot particles to the atmosphere, relatively little information on their properties (concentration, size distribution) is available in the literature, and even less regarding the dependence of those properties on the operating conditions. Instead, the usual procedure to characterize those emissions is to measure the smoke opacity by several methods, among which the blackening of a paper after filtering a fixed amount of gas (Bacharach test) is predominant. In this work, the size distributions of the particles generated in the combustion of a variety of gaseous and liquid fuels in a laboratory facility equipped with commercial burners have been measured with a size classifier coupled to a particle counter in a broad range of operating conditions (air excesses), with simultaneous determination of the Bacharach index. The shape and evolution of the distribution with progressively smaller oxygen concentrations depends essentially on the state of the fuel: whereas the combustion of the gases results in monomodal distributions that 'shift' towards larger diameters, in the case of the gas-oils an ultrafine mode is always observed, and a secondary mode of coarse particle grows in relevance. In both cases, there is a strong, exponential correlation between the total mass concentration and the Bacharach opacity index, quite similar for both groups of fuels. The empirical expressions proposed may allow other researchers to at least estimate the emissions of numerous combustion facilities routinely characterized by their smoke opacities.

  19. Application of the SEIPS Model to Analyze Medication Safety in a Crisis Residential Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, Maria L; Talley, Brenda; Frith, Karen H

    2018-02-01

    Medication safety and error reduction has been studied in acute and long-term care settings, but little research is found in the literature regarding mental health settings. Because mental health settings are complex, medication administration is vulnerable to a variety of errors from transcription to administration. The purpose of this study was to analyze critical factors related to a mental health work system structure and processes that threaten safe medication administration practices. The Systems Engineering Initiative for Patient Safety (SEIPS) model provides a framework to analyze factors affecting medication safety. The model approach analyzes the work system concepts of technology, tasks, persons, environment, and organization to guide the collection of data. In the study, the Lean methodology tools were used to identify vulnerabilities in the system that could be targeted later for improvement activities. The project director completed face-to-face interviews, asked nurses to record disruptions in a log, and administered a questionnaire to nursing staff. The project director also conducted medication chart reviews and recorded medication errors using a standardized taxonomy for errors that allowed categorization of the prevalent types of medication errors. Results of the study revealed disruptions during the medication process, pharmacology training needs, and documentation processes as the primary opportunities for improvement. The project engaged nurses to identify sustainable quality improvement strategies to improve patient safety. The mental health setting carries challenges for safe medication administration practices. Through analysis of the structure, process, and outcomes of medication administration, opportunities for quality improvement and sustainable interventions were identified, including minimizing the number of distractions during medication administration, training nurses on psychotropic medications, and improving the documentation

  20. 77 FR 32394 - Safety Zones: Catawba Island Club Fire Works, Catawba Island Club, Port Clinton, OH; Racing for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-01

    ...[deg]51'18.70'' W (NAD 83). This safety zone will be enforced from 9:15 p.m. until 9:45 p.m. on May 27...[deg]51[min]18.70[sec] W (NAD 83). (2) Enforcement period. This safety zone will be enforced between 9...-AA00 Safety Zones: Catawba Island Club Fire Works, Catawba Island Club, Port Clinton, OH; Racing for...

  1. Accord on “Fire and Building Safety in Bangladesh”: A Breakthrough Agreement?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zillur Rahman

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This discussion aims to review the emergence of the “Accord on Fire and Building Safety in Bangladesh” signed on May 13, 2013, and evaluate if it is an international agreement “breakthrough”. The Accord is signed not only by the global clothing brands and national garment unions but also by international trade union organizations, which is a new development. This raises a question: could this agreement set a new international negotiating precedence in industrial relations between transnational corporations and international trade union organizations? In Bangladesh, globalization has played an important role for booming garment industries. Yet, lack of workers’ rights, weak safety situations, and poor working conditions have continuously been reported. Local and international solidarity movements and garment workers’ welfare associations have been emphasizing workers’ rights and better and safer working environments in workplaces since the beginning of the 1990s. However, their voices were not highly considered even there were some initiatives. Following the ‘Rana Plaza’ garment factory building collapse in April 2013, one of the world’s worst industrial accidents, with more than 1,100 dead workers, some strong measures have been taken—one of these, signing the ‘Accord on Fire and Building Safety in Bangladesh’. This is a strong achievement of a long struggle to take collective action for improving the safety in garment factories in Bangladesh. Although the Accord is understood as a game changer or breakthrough in relation to national and international agreements, do we really know yet if it is a breakthrough or not when it comes to its implementation?

  2. Safety improvements made at the Loviisa nuclear power plant to reduce fire risks originating from the turbine generators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Virolainen, T.; Marttila, J.; Aulamo, H.

    1998-01-01

    Comprehensive upgrading measures have been completed for the Loviisa Nuclear Power Plant (modified VVER440/V213). These were carried out from the start of the design phase and during operation to ensure safe plant shutdown in the event of a large turbine generator oil fire. These modifications were made mainly on a deterministic basis according to specific risk studies and fire analyses. As part of the probabilistic safety assessment, a fire risk analysis was made that confirmed the importance of these upgrading measures. In fact, they should be considered as design basis modifications for all VVER440 plants. (author)

  3. Safety demonstration tests of postulated solvent fire accidents in extraction process of a fuel reprocessing plant, (2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tukamoto, Michio; Takada, Junichi; Koike, Tadao; Nishio, Gunji; Uno, Seiichiro; Kamoshida, Atsusi; Watanabe, Hironori; Hashimoto, Kazuichiro; Kitani, Susumu.

    1992-03-01

    Demonstration tests of hypothetical solvent fire in an extraction process of the reprocessing plant were carried out from 1984 to 1985 in JAERI, focusing on the confinement of radioactive materials during the fire by a large-scale fire facility (FFF) to evaluate the safety of air-ventilation system in the plant. Fire data from the demonstration test were obtained by focusing on fire behavior at cells and ducts in the ventilation system, smoke generation during the fire, transport and deposition of smoke containing simulated radioactive species in the ventilation system, confinement of radioactive materials, and integrity of HEPA filters by using the FFF simulating an air-ventilation system of the reference reprocessing plant in Japan. The present report is published in a series of the report Phase I (JAERI-M 91-145) of the demonstration test. Test results in the report will be used for the verification of a computer code FACE to evaluate the safety of postulated fire accidents in the reprocessing plant. (author)

  4. Evaluation of the Ventilation and Air Cleaning System Design Concepts for Safety Requirements during Fire Conditions in Nuclear Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashad, S.; El-Fawal, M.; Kandil, M.

    2013-01-01

    The ventilation and air cleaning system in the nuclear or radiological installations is one of the essential nuclear safety concerns. It is responsible for confining the radioactive materials involved behind suitable barriers during normal and abnormal conditions. It must be designed to prevent the release of harmful products (radioactive gases, or airborne radioactive materials) from the system or facility, impacting the public or workers, and doing environmental damage. There are two important safety functions common to all ventilation and air cleaning system in nuclear facilities. They are: a) the requirements to maintain the pressure of the ventilated volume below that of surrounding, relatively non-active areas, in order to inhibit the spread of contamination during normal and abnormal conditions, and b) the need to treat the ventilated gas so as to minimize the release of any radioactive or toxic materials. Keeping the two important safety functions is achieved by applying the fire protection for the ventilation system to achieve safety and adequate protection in nuclear applications facilities during fire and accidental criticality conditions.The main purpose of this research is to assist ventilation engineers and experts in nuclear installations for safe operation and maintaining ventilation and air cleaning system during fire accident in nuclear facilities. The research focuses on fire prevention and protection of the ventilation systems in nuclear facilities. High-Efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters are extremely susceptible to damage when exposed to the effects of fire, smoke, and water; it is the intent of this research to provide the designer with the experience gained over the years from hard lessons learned in protecting HEPA filters from fire. It describes briefly and evaluates the design safety features, constituents and working conditions of ventilation and air cleaning system in nuclear and radioactive industry.This paper provides and

  5. Young children's perceptions of fire-safety messages: do framing and parental mediation matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borzekowski, Dina; Clearfield, Elizabeth; Rimal, Rajiv; Gielen, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Media can deliver health and safety messages promoting child health and injury prevention. This study examined the effects of message framing and parental mediation on children's perceptions of fire-safety messages. Using a 2 × 3 randomized experimental design, this study considered both message framing (gain or loss) and parental mediation (no mediation/control, unscripted, or scripted) with 320 children who were 4 and 5 years of age. Children saw two messages (burn and smoke inhalation) embedded in a cartoon. Afterward, researchers assessed children's recall, understanding, and perceptions of self-efficacy and social norms. Children were more likely to recall the safety messages if they were older (burn: adjusted odds ration [AOR] = 2.74 and smoke: AOR = 2.58), and could recall the smoke inhalation message if they had unscripted mediation (AOR = 3.16). Message understanding was poor, with only about 50% of children choosing a correct behavior in a similar scenario. For the burn message, correct understanding was associated with gain-framing and scripted mediation (AOR = 3.22 and 5.77, respectively). Only the scripted mediation group was significantly associated with an increase in perceived social norms (burn: coefficient =.37 and smoke: coefficient =.55; P video-based messages to teach children safety behaviors needs to be enhanced.

  6. Management of fire and industrial safety - challenges during commissioning of a NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maiti, Subhaschandra; Mohan, Nalini; Ghadge, S.G.; Bajaj, S.S.

    2006-01-01

    Construction and commissioning period of NPP are reduced world over drastically by stringent schedule for financial and economic reasons. For meeting the schedule, commissioning of components and systems are started immediate after installation, while construction activities are continued in parallel at the same place. Parallel activities' and 'Time Constraint' have brought new challenges to 'Management of Fire and Industrial Safely' during commissioning. An innovative approach was used during such phase of commissioning of TAPP-3 and 4. This paper outlines challenges encountered during this phase and special approach and measures used to meet those challenges. This paper also outlines problems encountered during implementation of these measures and subsequent change in approach to ensure smooth and safe execution of activities. Primarily, challenges were conflicting requirements by various agencies to carryout commissioning in parallel with construction activities concurrently. Main challenges were related to fall hazard, chemical hazard, fire hazard, electrical safety, work in confined space, housekeeping problem. Moreover it was within exclusion zone of another operating plant, which added one more dimension to those challenges. Conventional Safely management approach was little short to resolve these challenges. Such challenges were envisaged; analyzed and innovative measures were arrived at. Along with conventional safely analysis like Job Safely or Hazard Analysis (JSA or JHA), Accident Analysis, Accident Trend Analysis, Fire Hazard Analysis (FHA), innovative method like 'Area-Job- Hazard Charting' and 'Ratio Analysis' were used to understand activity dependent time varying hazard scenarios. Based on this analysis, decision were taken to change various existing elements of safely management like safety organizations; standard operating procedures (SOP); emergency operating procedures (EOP); resource allocation, planning and scheduling; safely training; safely

  7. Assessment of Application Example for a Sodium Fire Extinguishing Facility using Safety Control of Dangerous Substances Act

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Minhwan; Jeong, Ji-Young; Kim, Jongman

    2014-01-01

    Sodium is under regulation of four kinds of laws including the Safety Control of Dangerous Substances Act and it is under categorized as Class 3(pyrophoric material, water-prohibiting substance). To obtain a license for a sodium experiment facility, the codes and regulations must be satisfied in the Safety Control of Dangerous Substance Act. However, there are some parts that need to be discussed in related regulations in the Safety Control of Dangerous Substance Act because there are differences with the actual features of sodium. To apply for an actual sodium facility, it is necessary to give a supplementary explanation regarding the regulations. The objective of this study is to assess the application example of a sodium experiment facility using the above mentioned laws and to propose the necessity of an amendment for conventional laws in regard to fire extinguishing systems and agents. In this work, an application example of a sodium experiment facility using the Safety Control of Dangerous Substances Act, and the necessity of amending the existing laws in regard to fire extinguishing systems including the agent used, was assessed. The safest standard was applied for cases in which the consideration of a sodium fire is not mentioned in conventional regulations. For the construction of the PGSFR (Prototype Gen-IV Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor), the described regulations in this work should be reviewed and improved carefully by the fire safety regulatory body

  8. 77 FR 4897 - Safety Zone; M/V Del Monte Live-Fire Gun Exercise, James River, Isle of Wight, VA

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; M/V Del Monte Live-Fire Gun Exercise, James River, Isle of Wight, VA AGENCY: Coast... provide for the safety of life on navigable waters during the live-fire gun exercises on the M/V Del Monte... associated with the live-fire gun exercise. DATES: This rule is effective in the CFR on February 1, 2012...

  9. 76 FR 31848 - Safety Zone; M/V Del Monte Live-Fire Gun Exercise, James River, Isle of Wight, Virginia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; M/V Del Monte Live-Fire Gun Exercise, James River, Isle of Wight, Virginia AGENCY... provide for the safety of life on navigable waters during the live-fire gun exercises on the M/V Del Monte... associated with the live-fire gun exercise. DATES: This rule will be effective from 11 a.m. June 6, 2011...

  10. Review and investigations of oscillatory flow behaviour of a horizontal ceiling opening for nuclear containment and fire safety analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, P.K.; Singh, R.K.; Ghosh, A.K. [Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (India). Reactor Safety Div.

    2011-05-15

    In the thermal hydraulics codes developed for fire safety analysis and for containment thermal hydraulic analysis, junctions in the multi-compartment geometries is often modeled as uni-directional junctions. However, ceiling junctions are known to depict unstable/oscillatory bi-directional flow behavior. Detailed investigations have been carried out to understand the unstable flow behaviour of a junction by analyzing an earlier reported experiment and its subsequent two dimensional numerical RANS based study of fire in an enclosure. The authors attempt more realistic and desired three dimensional and inherently transient large eddy simulations using a computer code Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS). The paper presents the details of the analysis, the results obtained and further studies required to be conducted so that the findings can be applied to the fire/containment thermal hydraulics analysis codes successfully. (orig.)

  11. Novel PEPA-functionalized graphene oxide for fire safety enhancement of polypropylene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Jia You; Liu, Jie; Li, Kai Dan; Miao, Lei; Tanemura, Sakae

    2015-01-01

    Polypropylene (PP) is a general-purpose plastic, but some applications are constrained by its high flammability. Thus, flame retardant PP is urgently demanded. In this article, intumescent flame retardant PP (IFRPP) composites with enhanced fire safety were prepared using 1-oxo-4-hydroxymethyl-2,6,7-trioxa-1-phosphabicyclo [2.2.2] octane (PEPA) functionalized graphene oxide (PGO) as synergist. The PGO was prepared through a mild chemical reaction by the covalent attachment of a caged-structure organic compound, PEPA, onto GO nanosheets using toluene diisocynate (TDI) as the intermediary agent. The novel PEPA-functionalized graphene oxide not only improves the heat resistance of GO but also converts GO and PEPA from hydrophobic to hydrophilic materials, which leads to even distribution in PP. In our case, 7 wt% addition of PGO as one of the fillers for IFRPP composites significantly reduces its inflammability and fire hazards when compared with PEPA, by the improvement of first release rate peak (PHRR), total heat release, first smoke release rate peak (PSRR) and total smoke release, suggesting its great potential as the IFR synergist in industry. The reason is mainly attributed to the barrier effect of the unburned graphene sheets, which protects by the decomposition products of PEPA and TDI, promotes the formation of graphitized carbon and inhibits the heat and gas release. (paper)

  12. Novel PEPA-functionalized graphene oxide for fire safety enhancement of polypropylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jia You; Liu, Jie; Li, Kai Dan; Tanemura, Sakae

    2015-01-01

    Polypropylene (PP) is a general-purpose plastic, but some applications are constrained by its high flammability. Thus, flame retardant PP is urgently demanded. In this article, intumescent flame retardant PP (IFRPP) composites with enhanced fire safety were prepared using 1-oxo-4-hydroxymethyl-2,6,7-trioxa-1-phosphabicyclo [2.2.2] octane (PEPA) functionalized graphene oxide (PGO) as synergist. The PGO was prepared through a mild chemical reaction by the covalent attachment of a caged-structure organic compound, PEPA, onto GO nanosheets using toluene diisocynate (TDI) as the intermediary agent. The novel PEPA-functionalized graphene oxide not only improves the heat resistance of GO but also converts GO and PEPA from hydrophobic to hydrophilic materials, which leads to even distribution in PP. In our case, 7 wt% addition of PGO as one of the fillers for IFRPP composites significantly reduces its inflammability and fire hazards when compared with PEPA, by the improvement of first release rate peak (PHRR), total heat release, first smoke release rate peak (PSRR) and total smoke release, suggesting its great potential as the IFR synergist in industry. The reason is mainly attributed to the barrier effect of the unburned graphene sheets, which protects by the decomposition products of PEPA and TDI, promotes the formation of graphitized carbon and inhibits the heat and gas release. PMID:27877775

  13. The Persuasive Power of Virtual Reality: Effects of Simulated Human Distress on Attitudes towards Fire Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chittaro, Luca; Zangrando, Nicola

    Although virtual reality (VR) is a powerful simulation tool that can allow users to experience the effects of their actions in vivid and memorable ways, explorations of VR as a persuasive technology are rare. In this paper, we focus on different ways of providing negative feedback for persuasive purposes through simulated experiences in VR. The persuasive goal we consider concerns awareness of personal fire safety issues and the experiment we describe focuses on attitudes towards smoke in evacuating buildings. We test two techniques: the first technique simulates the damaging effects of smoke on the user through a visualization that should not evoke strong emotions, while the second is aimed at partially reproducing the anxiety of an emergency situation. The results of the study show that the second technique is able to increase user's anxiety as well as producing better results in attitude change.

  14. Fire safety aspects in cultural heritage : a case study in historical Delft

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Öhlin Lostetter, S.M.; Breunese, A.J.

    2005-01-01

    Fire is an important threat to cultural heritage. Therefore 12 fire laboratories and consultants across the EU have joined together for the European Thematic-Network Fire Risk Evaluation to European Cultural Heritage (Fire-Tech). The final goal of this thematic network was to develop a decision

  15. Safety climate in the US federal wildland fire management community: influences of organizational, environmental, group, and individual characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anne E. Black; Brooke Baldauf McBride

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effects of organisational, environmental, group and individual characteristics on five components of safety climate (High Reliability Organising Practices, Leadership, Group Culture, Learning Orientation and Mission Clarity) in the US federal wildland fire management community. Of particular interest were differences between perceptions based on...

  16. Safety climate in the federal fire management community: Influences of organizational, environmental, group, and individual characteristics (Abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooke Baldauf McBride; Anne E. Black

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the effects of organizational, environmental, group and individual characteristics on five components of safety climate in the US federal fire management community (HRO Practices, Leadership, Group Culture, Learning Orientation and Mission Clarity). Multiple analyses of variance revealed that all types of characteristics had a significant effect on...

  17. A Fire Safety Certification System for Board and Care Operators and Staff. SBIR Phase II: Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Bonnie L.

    This report describes Phase II of a project which developed a system for delivering fire safety training to board and care providers who serve adults with developmental disabilities. Phase II focused on developing and pilot testing a "train the trainers" workshop for instructors and field testing the provider's workshop. Evaluation of…

  18. A Fire Safety Certification System for Board and Care Operators and Staff. SBIR Phase I: Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Bonnie L.

    This report describes the development and pilot testing of a fire safety certification system for board and care operators and staff who serve clients with developmental disabilities. During Phase 1, training materials were developed, including a trainer's manual, a participant's coursebook a videotape, an audiotape, and a pre-/post test which was…

  19. Parents' Depressive Symptoms and Gun, Fire, and Motor Vehicle Safety Practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrissey, Taryn W

    2016-04-01

    This study examined associations between mothers' and fathers' depressive symptoms and their parenting practices relating to gun, fire, and motor vehicle safety. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study-Birth Cohort (ECLS-B), a nationally representative sample of children birth to age five, linear probability models were used to examine associations between measures of parents' depressive symptoms and their use of firearms, smoke detectors, and motor vehicle restraints. Parents reported use of smoke detectors, motor vehicle restraints, and firearm ownership and storage. Results suggest mothers with moderate or severe depressive symptoms were 2 % points less likely to report that their child always sat in the back seat of the car, and 3 % points less likely to have at least one working smoke detector in the home. Fathers' depressive symptoms were associated with a lower likelihood of both owning a gun and of it being stored locked. Fathers' depressive symptoms amplified associations between mothers' depressive symptoms and owning a gun, such that having both parents exhibit depressive symptoms was associated with an increased likelihood of gun ownership of between 2 and 6 % points. Interventions that identify and treat parental depression early may be effective in promoting appropriate safety behaviors among families with young children.

  20. Improving freight fire safety : experiment testing and computer modeling to further development of mist-controlling additives for fire mitigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    With the purpose to minimize or prevent crash-induced fires in road and rail transportation, the : current interest in bio-derived and blended transportation fuels is increasing. Based on two years : of preliminary testing and analysis, it appears to...

  1. Operation of Browns Ferry, Units 1 and 2 following the March 22, 1975 fire. Safety evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-03-01

    The Safety Evaluation Report issued February 23, 1976, presents the NRC evaluation regarding the acceptability of the restoration and modifications at the Browns Ferry Plant Units 1 and 2, following the March 22, 1975 fire, to establish that the facility may be operated in the restored and modified condition without endangering the health and safety of the public. The modifications involved enhancing separation of redundant safeguards equipment by some rerouting of cable and by the application of a fire-retardant coating to the cable; enhancing fire extinguishing capability by the addition of fixed spray and sprinkler systems and expanded smoke and heat detection systems; and enhancing the overall fire protection program by changes in procedures, training, and organization. The NRC staff indicated some items that remained to be resolved prior to operation and concluded that subject to their satisfactory resolution the restoration of Browns Ferry Nuclear Plants Units 1 and 2 including the modifications is acceptable and that there is reasonable assurance that the health and safety of the public will not be endangered by operation of the facility as restored and modified

  2. The quality of life in residential areas : an introduction to a film made by the Foundation for Film and Science, in co-operation with the Institute for Road Safety Research SWOV, supported by the Royal Dutch Touring Club ANWB. Paper presented at the 13th AIT/FIA/PIARC International Study Week on Traffic Engineering and Safety, Montreux, 11-16 September 1978.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1978-01-01

    The films purpose is to review what is known about housing-quality social activities and road safety. These aspects constitute the so-called quality of life in residential areas. The possible influence is examined of several principles of urban planning on the quality of life in residential areas.

  3. Performance Assessment and analysis of national building codes with fire safety in all wards of a hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mahdinia

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and aimsAIDS as a re-emergent disease and Viral hepatitis (B and C as one of thBackground and objective: Fire safety is an important problem in hospitals. Movement less, lack of awareness and special situation of residents are the reasons of this subject. In more countries such as Iran, fire protection regulations have compiled within the framework of national building codes. Current building codes don't create sufficient safety for patient in the hospitals in different situations and more of the advanced countries in the world effort to establish building code, base  on performance. This study to be accomplished with this goal that determination of fire risk level in the wards of a hospital and survey the efficiency of the national building codes. Methodsfire risk assesses is done, using "engineering fire risk assessment method" with the checklist for Data gathering. In this manner, risk calculate in all compartments and in the next  stage for survey the effect of building codes, with this supposition that all compartment is  conforming to building code requirement, risk level calculate in two situation.Resultsthe results of present study reveals that, risk level in all wards is more than one and even though risk less than one is acceptable, consequently minimum of safely situations didn't  produce in most wards. The results show the national building code in the different conditions  don't have appropriate efficient for creation of suitable safety. Conclusionin order to access to a fire safety design with sufficient efficiency, suitable selection is use of risk assessment based on, design methods.

  4. Fire protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janetzky, E.

    1980-01-01

    Safety and fire prevention measurements have to be treated like the activities developing, planning, construction and erection. Therefore it is necessary that these measurements have to be integrated into the activities mentioned above at an early stage in order to guarantee their effectiveness. With regard to fire accidents the statistics of the insurance companies concerned show that the damage caused increased in the last years mainly due to high concentration of material. Organization of fire prevention and fire fighting, reasons of fire break out, characteristics and behaviour of fire, smoke and fire detection, smoke and heat venting, fire extinguishers (portable and stationary), construction material in presence of fire, respiratory protection etc. will be discussed. (orig./RW)

  5. Evaluation of Fire Hazard and Safety Management of Heritage Buildings in Georgetown, Penang

    OpenAIRE

    Othuman Mydin M.A.; Sani N. Md; Abas N.F.; Khaw Y.Y.

    2014-01-01

    Fire is a subject that is always neglected and ignored as far as heritage buildings are concerned. Unlike newly-built buildings, which are required under UBBL to undergo certain fire protection system tests, people are less likely to carry out such tests and detailed assessments for heritage buildings. Thus, this research is significant as it is aimed at accomplishing several objectives including studying the current fire emergency plan, besides identifying and assessing the possible fire haz...

  6. Propulsion and Energetics Panel Working Group 11 on Aircraft Fire Safety. Volume 2. Main Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-11-01

    which make burning metal particles a potent igni- tion source and extinguishment of bulk metal fires a difficult task. In the latter case, the difficulty...aircraft to fires induced by uncon- tained engine failures and internal engine metal fires . With respect to the uncontained engine failure current engine

  7. Filter safety tests under solvent fire in a cell of nuclear-fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, Gunji

    1988-01-01

    In a nuclear-fuel reprocessing plant, a solvent fire in an extraction process is postulated. Since 1983, large scale solvent fire tests were carried out by Fire/Filter Facility to demonstrate solvent burning behavior in the cell, HEPA filter integrity by the fire and radioactive confinement by air-ventilation of the plant under postulated fire conditions. From results of 30 % TBP-70 % n-dodecane fire, burning rate of solvent in the cell, smoke generation rate and smoke deposition onto duct surface were obtained by a relation between air-ventilation rate into the cell and burning surface area of the solvent. The endurance of HEPA filter due to smoke plugging was measured by a pressure drop across the filter during the fire. The confinement of radioactive materials from the burning solvent was determined by the measurement of airborne concentrations in the cell for stable nuclei simulated fission products, radioactive tracers and uranium nitrate. (author)

  8. Games that "work": using computer games to teach alcohol-affected children about fire and street safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Claire D; Strickland, Dorothy C; Padgett, Lynne; Bellmoff, Lynnae

    2007-01-01

    Unintentional injuries are a leading cause of death and disability for children. Those with developmental disabilities, including children affected by prenatal alcohol exposure, are at highest risk for injuries. Although teaching safety skills is recommended to prevent injury, cognitive limitations and behavioral problems characteristic of children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorder make teaching these skills challenging for parents and teachers. In the current study, 32 children, ages 4-10, diagnosed with fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS) and partial FAS, learned fire and street safety through computer games that employed "virtual worlds" to teach recommended safety skills. Children were pretested on verbal knowledge of four safety elements for both fire and street safety conditions and then randomly assigned to one condition. After playing the game until mastery, children were retested verbally and asked to "generalize" their newly acquired skills in a behavioral context. They were retested after 1 week follow-up. Children showed significantly better knowledge of the game to which they were exposed, immediately and at follow-up, and the majority (72%) was able to generalize all four steps within a behavioral setting. Results suggested that this is a highly effective method for teaching safety skills to high-risk children who have learning difficulties.

  9. [Protecting Safety During Dust Fires and Dust Explosions - The Example of the Formosa Fun Coast Water Park Accident].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Ming-Hong; Wu, Jia-Wun; Li, Ya-Cing; Tang, Jia-Suei; Hsieh, Chun-Chien

    2016-02-01

    This paper will explore the fire and explosion characteristics of cornstarch powder as well as strategies for protecting the safety of people who are involved a dust fire or dust explosion. We discuss the 5 elements of dust explosions and conduct tests to analyze the fire and explosion characteristics of differently colored powders (yellow, golden yellow, pink, purple, orange and green). The results show that, while all of the tested powders were difficult to ignite, low moisture content was associated with significantly greater risks of ignition and flame spread. We found the auto-ignition temperature (AIT) of air-borne cornstarch powder to be between 385°C and 405°C, with yellow-colored cornstarch powder showing the highest AIT and pink-colored cornstarch powder showing the lowest AIT. The volume resistivity of all powder samples was approximately 108 Ω.m, indicating that they were nonconductive. Lighters and cigarettes are effective ignition sources, as their lit temperatures are higher than the AIT of cornstarch powder. In order to better protect the safety of individuals at venues where cornstarch powder is released, explosion control measures such as explosion containment facilities, vents, and explosion suppression and isolation devices should be installed. Furthermore, employees that work at these venues should be better trained in explosion prevention and control measures. We hope this article is a reminder to the public to recognize the fire and explosion characteristics of flammable powders as well as the preventive and control measures for dust explosions.

  10. Irradiated ignition over solid materials in reduce pressure environment: Fire safety issue in man-made enclosure system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, N.; Aoki, A.

    Effects of ambient pressure and oxygen yield on irradiated ignition characteristics over solid combustibles have been studied experimentally Aim of the present study is to elucidate the flammability and chance of fire in depressurized enclosure system and give ideas for the fire safety and fire fighting strategies in such environment Thin cellulosic paper is considered as the solid combustible since cellulose is one of major organic compounds and flammables in the nature Applied atmosphere consists of inert gas either CO2 or N2 and oxygen and various mixture ratios are of concerned Total ambient pressure level is varied from 0 1MPa standard atmospheric pressure to 0 02MPa Ignition is initiated by external thermal flux exposed into the solid surface as a model of unexpected thermal input to initiate the localized fire Thermal degradation of the solid induces combustible gaseous products e g CO H2 or other low class of HCs and the gas mixes with ambient oxygen to form the combustible mixture over the solid Heat transfer from the hot irradiated surface into the mixture accelerates the local exothermic reaction in the gas phase and finally thermal runaway ignition is achieved Ignition event is recorded by high-speed digital video camera to analyze the ignition characteristics Flammable map in partial pressure of oxygen Pox and total ambient pressure Pt plane is made to reveal the fire hazard in depressurized environment Results show that wider flammable range is obtained depending on the imposed ambient

  11. Report of the international fire safety mission to Temelin, unit 1 nuclear power plant Czech Republic 4 to 14 February 1996

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1996-01-01

    This report presents the results of an IAEA Fire Safety Mission conducted within the scope of Technical Co-operation Project CZR/9/005 to assess the licensing process, design, analysis and operational management of the Temelin Nuclear Power Plant with regards to fire safety of the plant. The Temelin Nuclear Power Plant currently has two units under construction. Each unit is equipped with a pressurized water reactor of the WWER design with a net electrical output of about MWe. The plant has already made significant upgrading in fire protection from the original design. The Team's evaluation is based on the IAEA Safety Series No. 50-SG-D2 (Rev.1), Fire Protection in Nuclear Power Plants, and other fire protection guidelines currently produced by the IAEA. The evaluation, conclusions and recommendations presented in this report reflect the views of the Fire Safety Mission experts. The recommendations are provided for consideration by the responsible authorities in the Czech Republic towards enhancing fire safety at the Temelin plant

  12. Fire science at LLNL: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hasegawa, H.K. (ed.)

    1990-03-01

    This fire sciences report from LLNL includes topics on: fire spread in trailer complexes, properties of welding blankets, validation of sprinkler systems, fire and smoke detectors, fire modeling, and other fire engineering and safety issues. (JEF)

  13. Determination Of Measures That The Operating Nurses Take For The Fire Safety: Example Of Karabuk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isil Isik Andsoy

    2012-06-01

    Material and Methods: The research group consisted of 32 operating room nurses in Karabuk hospitals who accept volunteer to participate. The data were collected with face to face interviews. Questionnaire was prepared by the researcher with the accompaniment of literature. Evaluation of the data, number and percentage were used. Results: In this study, 96.9% of the nurses have indicated that precautionary measures are taken against fire, and 75% of them have reported to have fire extinguishers and alarm system, and also 93.8% of them have stated that maintenance of existing systems in the operating room is done at certain intervals. Furthermore, 87.6% of the nurses have noted to have a fire extinguisher instruction in the operating room, and 62.5% of them have remarked that there are fire exit signs. Conclusion: Finally all of the nurses have indicated that routine checks of the operating rooms' electirical system are done. It has been found out that most of the nurses are knowledgable but inadequate about precautions against fire. As a result, it has been recommended to do an emergency planning in case of fires in operating rooms; to teach this plan to nurses, anesthetists, surgeon and other surgical team by fire drills; to train surgical team about fire risks and measures and to repeat this training regularly. [J Contemp Med 2012; 2(2.000: 87-93

  14. Fire Safety Aspects of Polymeric Materials. Volume 3. Smoke and Toxicity (Combustion Toxicology of Polymers)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    complete combustion of these polymers and thus minimize cyanide formation (Ball and Boettner, 1973; Junod , 1976). This one example shows the critical...34Visibility Through Fire Smoke," II. Report of Fire Research Institute of Japan. No. 33. pp. 31-49, 1971. T. L. Junod , "Gaseous Emissions and Toxic Hazard

  15. A Comparative Study of the Behavioral, Personality, and Fire History Characteristics of Residential and Outpatient Adolescents (Ages 12-17) With Firesetting Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollinger, Joyce; Samuels, Laura; Stadolnik, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Juvenile firesetting behavior has received relatively little research attention and previous attempts to systematically classify this heterogeneous population of children has been only partially successful. Currently there is no literature available that defines treatment and intervention needs of adolescents in residential treatment with…

  16. Measures for ensuring hydrogen fire and explosion safety for VVER-440/230

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezlepkin, V.; Semashko, S.; Svetlov, S.; Sidorov, V.; Ivkov, I.; Krylov, Yu.; Kukhtevich, V.

    2004-01-01

    This paper deals with the findings of calculation analysis as regards the release of mass, energy and hydrogen during beyond-design-basis accident (BDBA) at Kola NPP equipped with VVER-440 reactor (B-230 design) and in respect of distribution of hydrogen throughout NPP tight compartments. The analysis figures out the number and locations of passive catalytic hydrogen recombiners and of the sensors of the hydrogen concentration monitoring system. In order to prove the hydrogen safety of the design, it has been necessary to review accidents accompanied by maximum emissions (both peak and integral ones) of hydrogen into the tight area. During design-basis accident (DBA), no steam/zirconium reactions occur in the reactor core. Out of BDBA, the severe accidents with damage to the core accompanied oxidative reactions between zirconium and steel with emission of hydrogen are regarded as the most dangerous ones. Assessment of additional hydrogen sources shows that the contribution of such sources to the total amount of hydrogen that may emit during a severe accident is insignificant. Calculations have been made for the following scenarios of severe accidents, which seem to be the most important in terms of hydrogen safety analysis: - 20 mm leak from the primary circuit in combination with a failure of the emergency makeup system; - 500 mm PCP rupture in the vicinity of reactor inlet branch with bi-lateral leakage of coolant. Releases of mass and energy during the aforesaid scenarios, changes of medium parameters within the tight compartments and analysis of possible fire conditions have been analyzed by means of Russian computer codes RATEG/SVECHA/HEFEST, KUPOL-M and LIMITS. The said analysis shows that the large break accident (500 mm), i.e. PCP rupture in the vicinity of the reactor branch with bi-lateral leakage of coolant is of the keen interest in terms of hydrogen safety. This accident typifies powerful short-term release of hydrogen at a significantly lesser

  17. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    M. Plagge, C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

    Fire Safety – Essential for a particle detector The CMS detector is a marvel of high technology, one of the most precise particle measurement devices we have built until now. Of course it has to be protected from external and internal incidents like the ones that can occur from fires. Due to the fire load, the permanent availability of oxygen and the presence of various ignition sources mostly based on electricity this has to be addressed. Starting from the beam pipe towards the magnet coil, the detector is protected by flooding it with pure gaseous nitrogen during operation. The outer shell of CMS, namely the yoke and the muon chambers are then covered by an emergency inertion system also based on nitrogen. To ensure maximum fire safety, all materials used comply with the CERN regulations IS 23 and IS 41 with only a few exceptions. Every piece of the 30-tonne polyethylene shielding is high-density material, borated, boxed within steel and coated with intumescent (a paint that creates a thick co...

  18. Pressure surge free fire water systems increase safety on offshore oil- and gas drilling platforms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlsen, Randi

    2001-01-01

    The article describes a new fire water system for use on the oil- and gas drilling platforms that is characterized by improved start-up time and reduced energy consumption. Deluge valves are commonly used in fast large-flow fire water systems all over the world. During the test of a new fire water system on a platform a few years ago, a pipe near the living quarter suddenly ruptured due to an unexpected pressure surge thought to be impossible. It was caused by a weakness of the deluge valve. A better valve was needed and the 'UniqValve' was designed and manufactured. The UniqValve operates in cooperation with the fire pumps during start-up as it 'reads' the pressure variations of the water flow and corrects the water flow to the fire areas in less than a tenth of a second. The valve is now integrated in a modular system. The fire water unit is mounted in a container, which reduces cost and simplifies the placement of the fire water installation

  19. Adsorber fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, W.

    1987-01-01

    The following conclusions are offered with respect to activated charcoal filter systems in nuclear power plants: (1) The use of activated charcoal in nuclear facilities presents a potential for deep-seated fires. (2) The defense-in-depth approach to nuclear fire safety requires that if an ignition should occur, fires must be detected quickly and subsequently suppressed. (3) Deep-seated fires in charcoal beds are difficult to extinguish. (4) Automatic water sprays can be used to extinguish fires rapidly and reliably when properly introduced into the burning medium. The second part of the conclusions offered are more like challenges: (1) The problem associated with inadvertent actuations of fire protection systems is not a major one, and it can be reduced further by proper design review, installation, testing, and maintenance. Eliminating automatic fire extinguishing systems for the protection of charcoal adsorbers is not justified. (2) Removal of automatic fire protection systems due to fear of inadvertent fire protection system operation is a case of treating the effect rather than the cause. On the other hand, properly maintaining automatic fire protection systems will preserve the risk of fire loss at acceptable levels while at the same time reducing the risk of damage presented by inadvertent operation of fire protection systems

  20. The Nuclear Safety Council's Instruction IS-30 on program requirements of fire protection at nuclear power plants; La instruccion IS-30 del consejo de Seguridad Nuclear sobre requisitos del programa de proteccion contraincendios en centrales nucleares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peco, J.

    2015-07-01

    The Nuclear Safety Councils Instrumentation IS-30 is the standard that establishes the fire protection program requirements for the Spanish nuclear power plants with operating license in order to satisfy the two fire protection objectives, which are the adoption of the defense-in-depth principle for fire protection and, by fire area confinement, to ensure that one train of components needed to achieve and maintain the safe shutdown conditions is free of fire damage, and that radioactive liberation is minimized. (Author)

  1. Performance and results of a fire probability safety analysis for the Grafenrheinfeld nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hristodulidis, A.; Meyer, A.W.

    2000-01-01

    The Full-Power PSA for the Grafenrheinfeld 1300 MWe pressurized water reactor covering the recommended initiating events of the German PSA Procedure Guide published in October 1990 was followed up by a Fire PSA meeting the requirements of the December 1996 edition of the PSA Procedure Guide. In the meantime the Fire PSA has been reviewed by the Authorized Expert, TUeV Bayern. The experts agreed with the methods used and the results obtained; they also suggested some improvements to be made in case of a revision, but these do not affect the overall results of the study. Comparing the core damage frequency caused by the initiating events of the Full-Power PSA (approx. 2.5 E-6/a) with the results of the Fire PSA (approx. 3.5 E-7/a), fire contributes approx. 12% to the overall core damage frequency. (orig.) [de

  2. Residential Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids For Teens For Parents & Teachers Resolving Family Conflicts The Holidays and Alzheimer's Glossary Virtual Library Online ... longer an option Costs Choosing a care setting Types of residential care A good long-term care ...

  3. Preparedness of fire safety in underground train station: Comparison between train operators in Malaysia with other operators from the developed countries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajedi, Noor Aqilah A.; Sukor, Nur Sabahiah A.; Ismail, Mohd Ashraf M.; Shamsudin, Shahrul A.

    2017-10-01

    The purpose of this paper is to compare the fire evacuation plan and preparation at the underground train stations in the different countries. The methodology for this study was using the extended questionnaire survey to investigate the Rapid Rail Sdn Bhd, Malaysia's fire safety plan and preparation at the underground train stations. There were four sections in the questionnaire which included (i) background of the respondents, (ii) the details on the train stations, safety instruction and fire evacuation exercises (iii) technical systems, installation and equipment at the underground stations and (iv) procedures and technical changes related to fire safety that had been applied by the operators. Previously, the respondents from the different train operator services in the developed countries had completed the questionnaires. This paper extends the response from the Rapid Rail Sdn Bhd to compare the emergency procedures and preparation for fire event with the developed countries. As a result, this study found that the equipment and facilities that provided at the underground train stations that operated by Rapid Rail are relevant for fire safety procedures and needs. The main advantage for Rapid Rail is the underground stations were designed with two or more entrances/exits that may perform better evacuation compare to one main entrance/exit train stations in the other developed countries.

  4. Proposal of safety design methodologies for an HTGR-hydrogen production system. Mainly on countermeasures against fire and explosion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishihara, Tetsuo; Hada, Kazuhiko; Shiozawa, Syusaku

    1996-03-01

    Among key issues of the safety design for an HTGR-hydrogen production system is to ensure the safety of the nuclear reactor against fire and explosion accidents in the hydrogen production plant. The fire and explosion accidents in the hydrogen production plant are categorized into the following two cases; Accidents inside the reactor building (R/B) and accidents outside the R/B. Against accidents inside the R/B, the proposed safety design concept is to prevent the occurrence of the accidents based on the defence in depth concept. The piping system and/or heat transfer tubes which have the potential possibility of combustible materials ingress into the R/B due to the failure are designed at the highest aseismic level to prevent the failure against severe earthquake. Even if the failure occurs, the piping trench and related compartments are fulfilled with nitrogen so as to prevent the occurrence of accidents. The proposed safety design concept for the accidents outside the R/B is the mitigation of effects of accidents. Proposed countermeasures is to take the safe distance between the hydrogen production plant and the items important to safety in the nuclear plant. We showed that the anticipated accidents to estimate the safe distance are large scale pool burning, fireball, pressure vessel burst and vapor cloud explosion. Especially, new estimating concept to establish the safe distance is proposed for the vapor cloud explosion. To reduce the safe distance, we proposed the underground non-pressurized storage tank and ventilation system for the storage of large amount of combustible liquid. (author). 61 refs

  5. Thin-layer boilover in diesel-oil fires: Determining the increase of thermal hazards and safety distances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferrero, Fabio; Munoz, Miguel; Arnaldos, Josep

    2007-01-01

    A study of the effects of thin-layer boilover on large hydrocarbon fires was carried out. In the experiments, diesel-oil was burned in pools with diameters ranging from 1.5 to 6 m. Previous models used to predict emissive power during the stationary state were analysed and successively modified in order to accurately predict thermal hazard during the water ebullition phase. It was discovered that the increase in emissive power during thin-layer boilover is greater when the pool diameter is smaller. Furthermore, the required increases in safety distances in the case of accidents involving this dangerous phenomenon are provided

  6. Research on consequence analysis method for probabilistic safety assessment of nuclear fuel facilities (4). Investigation of safety evaluation method for fire and explosion incidents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abe, Hitoshi; Tashiro, Shinsuke; Ueda, Yoshinori

    2010-01-01

    A special committee on 'Research on the analysis methods for accident consequence of nuclear fuel facilities (NFFs)' was organized by the Atomic Energy Society of Japan (AESJ) under the entrustment of Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA). The committee aims to research on the state-of-the-art consequence analysis method for Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) of NFFs, such as fuel reprocessing and fuel fabrication facilities. The objective of this research is to obtain the useful information related to the establishment of quantitative performance objectives and to risk-informed regulation through qualifying issues needed to be resolved for applying PSA to NFFs. The research activities of the committee were mainly focused on the analysis method of consequences for postulated accidents with potentially large consequences in NFFs, e.g., events of criticality, spill of molten glass, hydrogen explosion, boiling of radioactive solution, and fire (including rapid decomposition of TBP complexes), resulting in the release of radio active materials into the environment. The results of the research were summarized in a series of six reports, which consist of a review report and five technical ones. In this technical report, the research results about basic experimental data and the method for safety evaluation of fire and explosion incidents were summarized. (author)

  7. Specification of materials Data for Fire Safety Calculations based on ENV 1992-1-2

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl

    1997-01-01

    of constructions of any concrete exposed to any time of any fire exposure can be calculated.Chapter 4.4 provides information on what should be observed if more general calculation methods are used.Annex A provides some additional information on materials data. This chapter is not a part of the code......The part 1-2 of the Eurocode on Concrete deals with Structural Fire Design.In chapter 3, which is partly written by the author of this paper, some data are given for the development of a few material parameters at high temperatures. These data are intended to represent the worst possible concrete...... to experience form tests on structural specimens based on German siliceous concrete subjected to Standard fire exposure until the time of maximum gas temperature.Chapter 4.3, which is written by the author of this paper, provides a simplified calculation method by means of which the load bearing capacity...

  8. SMiRT 23. 14{sup th} international seminar on fire safety in nuclear power plants and installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roewekamp, Marina (ed.) [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH, Koeln (Germany); Berg, Heinz-Peter [Bundesamt fuer Strahlenschutz, Salzgitter (Germany)

    2015-12-15

    In the frame of the project 3614R01575 funded by the German Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation, Building and Nuclear Safety (Bundesministerium fuer Umwelt, Naturschutz, Bau und Reaktorsicherheit, BMUB) the meanwhile fourteenth international seminar on ''Fire Safety in Nuclear Power Plants and Installations'' has been conducted as P ost-Conference Seminar of the 23{sup rd} International Conference on Structural Mechanics In Reactor Technology (SMiRT 23) in Salford, United Kingdom in August 2015. The following seminar proceedings contain the entire twenty-one technical contributions to the two day s seminar with in total fifty-five participants from ten countries in Asia, Europe and America.

  9. Jefferson Proving Ground, South of the Firing Line Health and Safety Plan, Volume 4

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1992-01-01

    .... The purpose of this Site Health and Safety Plan (SHSP) is to assign SECD personnel health and safety responsibilities, to prescribe mandatory operating procedures, and to establish personal-protective-equipment (PPE...

  10. Analyzing the Risk of Fire in a Hospital Complex by “Fire Risk Assessment Method for Engineering”(FRAME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarsangi V.* MSc,

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Aims The occurrence of fire in residential buildings, commercial complexes and large and small industries cause physical, environmental and financial damages to many different communities. Fire safety in hospitals is sensitive and it is believed that the society takes the responsibility to care sick people. The goal of this study was to use Fire Risk Assessment Method for Engineering (FRAME in a hospital complex environment and assess the level of fire risks. Materials & Methods This descriptive study was conducted in Kashan Shahid Beheshti hospital in 2013. The FRAME is designed based on the empirical and scientific knowledge and experiment and have acceptable reliability for assessing the building fire risk. Excel software was used to calculate the risk level and finally fire risk (R was calculated separately for different units. Findings Calculated Rs were less than 1for health, autoclave, office of nursing and infection control units. R1s were greater than 1 for all units. R2s were less than 1 for office of nursing and infection control units. Conclusion FRAME is an acceptable tool for assessing the risk of fire in buildings and the fire risk is high in Shahid Beheshti Hospital Complex of Kashan and damages can be intolerable in the case of fire.

  11. Chemical research projects office functions accomplishments programs. [applied research in the fields of polymer chemistry and polymeric composites with emphasis on fire safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heimbuch, A. H.; Parker, J. A.

    1975-01-01

    Basic and applied research in the fields of polymer chemistry, polymeric composites, chemical engineering, and biophysical chemistry is summarized. Emphasis is placed on fire safety and human survivability as they relate to commercial and military aircraft, high-rise buildings, mines and rapid transit transportation. Materials systems and other fire control systems developed for aerospace applications and applied to national domestic needs are described along with bench-scale and full-scale tests conducted to demonstrate the improvements in performance obtained through the utilization of these materials and fire control measures.

  12. Regulatory analysis for the resolution of generic issue 57: Effects of Fire Protection System Actuation on Safety-Related Equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woods, H.W.

    1993-10-01

    Actuation of Fire Protection Systems (FPS) in Nuclear Power Plants have resulted in adverse interactions with equipment important to safety. Precursor operational experience has shown that 37% of all FPS actuations damaged some equipment, and 20% of all FPS actuations have resulted in a plant transient and reactor trip. On an average 0.17 FPS actuations per reactor year have been experienced in nuclear power plants in this country. This report presents the regulatory analysis for GI-57, ''Effects of Fire Protection System Actuation on Safety-Related Equipment''. The risk reduction estimates, cost/benefit analyses, and other insights gained during this effort have shown that implementation of the recommendations contained in this report can significantly reduce risk, and that these improvements can be warranted in accordance with the backfit rule, 10 CFR 50.109(a)(3). However, plant specific analyses are required in order to identify such improvements. Generic analyses can not serve to identify improvements that could be warranted for individual, specific plants. Plant specific analyses of the type needed for this purpose are underway as part of the Individual Plant Examination of External Events (IPEEE) program

  13. Residential Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde; Matsufuji, Y.

    2011-01-01

    are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing residential waste is faced with the problem that many residences already divert some waste away from the official collection systems, for example performing home composting of vegetable waste and garden waste, having their bundled newspaper picked up by the scouts...... twice a year or bringing their used furniture to the flea markets organized by charity clubs. Thus, much of the data available on residential waste represents collected waste and not necessarily all generated waste. The latter can only be characterized by careful studies directly at the source......, but such studies are very expensive if fair representation of both spatial and temporal variations should be obtained. In addition, onsite studies may affect the waste generation in the residence because of the increased focus on the issue. Residential waste is defined in different ways in different countries...

  14. “Use of fire extinguishers” course: A hot tip for your safety!

    CERN Multimedia

    The Safety Training Team

    2013-01-01

    The “Use of fire extinguishers – live exercises” course was introduced in conjunction with the Fire and Rescue Service and the HSE Unit at the start of 2012. Since then, more than 800 people have been trained in the use of fire extinguishers.   Photo: Vanessa Bandier. This course is aimed at all members of the CERN personnel. It takes place at the Prévessin training centre, lasts an hour and a half and consists of a theoretical part and a practical part with a role-play exercise in the simulator. The course can be taken in French or English. Here are some examples of comments received from people who have taken the course: “Excellent training session, very useful, especially the practical part. I’m no longer afraid to use a fire extinguisher.” “I was impressed with the quality of the installations used for the training. I didn’t expect every participant to be able to practise dealing with an emergency...

  15. Safety - Multiple Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... bosanski (Bosnian) PDF Fire Safety at Home - English MP3 Fire Safety at Home - bosanski (Bosnian) MP3 Fire Safety at Home - English MP4 Fire Safety ... Burmese) PDF Home Safety Checklist - myanma bhasa (Burmese) MP3 Minnesota Department of Health Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect) ( ...

  16. Normalization of water flow rate for external fire fighting of the buildings in settlements with zone water supply

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deryushev Leonid Georgievich

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the article the requirements for fire safety assurance are justified for the objects, in which water is supplied with account for serial and parallel area zoning. In the process of zoning the district is segregated into such parts, for which head rate in any point of selection of water from network will not exceed 6 bar. In the current regulatory rules the requirements for the calculation of the costs of water points are stated, as well as in case of extinguishing fires at the sites with water-supply systems zones. It is recommended to analyze each zone of the system of water-supply separately, without interrelation with the common water feeders, water consumers and services of fire extinguishing. Such an approach to assign water discharge for fire extinguishing results in the decrease of fire safety of an object, deforms calculation technique of outside systems of water-supply of the similar-type objects located in different parts of the terrain. Taking the number of fires and water consumption for fire suppression by the number of residents in each zone, we thus underestimate the capacity of the pipeline system. It is offered to make changes in Norms and Standards in force on fire safety of settlements. The recommendations on regulation of the number of fires and water flow for fire fighting in residential objects with zoned systems of water-supply are formulated.

  17. Tunnel fire dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ingason, Haukur; Lönnermark, Anders

    2015-01-01

    This book covers a wide range of issues in fire safety engineering in tunnels, describes the phenomena related to tunnel fire dynamics, presents state-of-the-art research, and gives detailed solutions to these major issues. Examples for calculations are provided. The aim is to significantly improve the understanding of fire safety engineering in tunnels. Chapters on fuel and ventilation control, combustion products, gas temperatures, heat fluxes, smoke stratification, visibility, tenability, design fire curves, heat release, fire suppression and detection, CFD modeling, and scaling techniques all equip readers to create their own fire safety plans for tunnels. This book should be purchased by any engineer or public official with responsibility for tunnels. It would also be of interest to many fire protection engineers as an application of evolving technical principles of fire safety.

  18. Buildings exposed to fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1987-01-01

    The 24 lectures presented to the colloquium cover the following subject fields: (1) Behaviour of structural components exposed to fire; (2) Behaviour of building materials exposed to fire; (3) Thermal processes; (4) Safety related, theoretical studies. (PW) [de

  19. Evaluation of the influence of a postulated lubrication oil fire on safety related cables in the top shield platform of PFBR RCB by using FDS Code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangarjuna Rao, P.; Jayasuriya, C.; Nashine, B.K.; Chellapandi, P.; Velusamy, K.

    2010-01-01

    Top deck of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) primary system houses redundant safety related systems like Control and Safety Rod Drive Mechanisms (CSRDM), Diverse Safety Rod Drive Mechanism (DSRDM), subassembly outlet sodium temperature measurement system and central canal plug. These systems protrude out from the reactor through the Control Plug (CP), which is supported on the Top Shield (TS) of PFBR. Control and instrumentation signal cables and power cables of these safety related systems that are coming out from the CP are routed through Top Shield Platform (TSP, which is concentric with Reactor Vault (RV) at EL 34.1 m above the TS) to the peripheral local instrumentation control centers via the cable junction boxes supported on TS. Influence approach fire hazard analysis (FHA) has been carried out to evaluate the condition of redundant safety related cables under the scenario of a postulated oil fire in the TSP using Fire Dynamics Simulator code (FDS, Version 5). FDS is a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based fire analysis code and it is developed by National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), USA. In this paper the details of the model developed and the results of the analysis carried out are discussed. In TSP, a postulated oil fire scenario with complete inventory of a primary sodium pump (PSP) lubrication oil leak (200 lt) has been considered at 30 m elevation on the TS. Computational model with the geometry of TSP and with other important structural components on TS like PSPs, intermediate heat exchangers (IHXs), large rotating plug (LRP), small rotating plug (SRP), CP and etc. has been developed along with a fire of 1800 kW/m 2 heat release rate in the vicinity of the PSP1. Numerical simulation has been carried out to evaluate this oil fire influence on the typical safety related cables routed at 34 m elevation. It has been found that the surface temperature of the cables that are routed directly above the fire only crosses the ignition

  20. The Development, Diffusion and Evaluation of a Fall Hazard Safety Training Program for Residential Construction Workers Utilizing Instructor Led and New Media Delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullen, Mark D.

    2009-01-01

    The numbers of workers in the residential construction industry are on the rise. Falls have continually been the largest contributor to residential construction worker deaths and injuries. These workers are largely self-employed or working for small companies. These individuals are difficult to reach through traditional methods. This research…

  1. Fire safety of ETICS with wood fibreboards for multi-storey buildings – first research and development results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Küppers Judith

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wood fibreboards can serve as alternative sustainable insulation material for external thermal insulation component systems (ETICS. In Germany, the application of ETICS with wood fibreboards is restricted to low buildings. The restrictions are mainly caused by the smouldering tendency of the wood fibreboards. Thus, the development of an ETICS with wood fibreboards for multi-storey buildings complying with the requirements would provide a new scope of application for this sustainable insulation material. This paper presents first results of standardised and innovative investigation methods as basis for the development. These investigations and analyses concern the fire behaviour, especially smouldering processes, the plaster system, other constructive protection measures as well as risk and safety analyses.

  2. Safety analysis report for packaging: the ORNL gas-cylinder fire and impact shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.H.; Levine, D.L.; Eversole, R.E.

    1977-10-01

    The ORNL radioactive gas-cylinder fire and impact shield was designed and fabricated at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant for the transport of cylinders filled with radioactive gases. The shield was evaluated analytically and experimentally to determine its compliance with the applicable regulations governing containers in which radioactive and fissile materials are transported. Computational and test procedures were used to determine the structural integrity and thermal behavior of the cask relative to the general standards for normal conditions of transport and the standards for hypothetical accident conditions. Results of the evaluation demonstrate that the container is in compliance with the applicable regulations

  3. Safety analysis report for packaging: the ORNL gas-cylinder fire and impact shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.H.; Levine, D.L.; Eversole, R.E.; Mouring, R.W.

    1983-04-01

    The ORNL gas-cylinder fire and impact shield was designed and fabricated at the Oak Ridge Gaseous Diffusion Plant for the transport of cylinders filled with radioactive gases. The shield was evaluated analytically and experimentally to determine its compliance with the applicable regulations governing containers in which radioactive and fissile materials are transported, and the results are reported herein. Computational and test procedures were used to determine the structural integrity and thermal behavior of the cask relative to the general standards for normal conditions of transport and the standards for hypothetical accident conditions. Results of the evaluation demonstrate that the container is in compliance with the applicable regulations

  4. Safety and dose management during decommissioning of a fire damaged nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pomfret, D.G.

    2000-01-01

    Windscale Piles 1 and 2 in Cumbria in the UK were constructed in the early 1950s. They were not intended to produce electricity but were for military purposes only. They were graphite-moderated, air-cooled reactors with horizontal fuel channels fuelled with uranium rods clad in finned aluminium. In October 1957, Windscale Pile 1 suffered a core fire during a planned release of Wigner energy and both Piles were subsequently closed down. Following the fire, Pile 2 was defuelled entirely and as much fuel as was possible was removed from Pile 1. However, it is estimated that up to 15 Te of fuel remains in the core, a large proportion of which is located in the central Fire Affected Zone (FAZ). The condition of the fuel and graphite moderator in the FAZ is not known. It is possible that the moderator could contain voidage, greatly reduced density graphite and fused materials in a disordered matrix. It is probable that there is residual Wigner energy in the graphite. Use of water as part of the attempt to extinguish the fire, together with the possibility that the solidification of molten materials or other local sealing mechanisms could have excluded air mean that uranium hydrides, carbides and other pyrophorics may be present within the core. Pile 1 is now being decommissioned and a considerable amount of preparatory work has already been carried out during Phase 1. Phase 2 decommissioning, which will remove the residual fuel, the moderator and associated steelwork, condition the wastes and place them in a purpose built store is now underway. This work will be carried out for the site licensee, the United Kingdom Energy Authority, by a consortium of British Nuclear Fuels plc, Rolls Royce and NUKEM. This paper will describe the methods to be used to decommission Pile 1 and the systems and procedures which will be used to ensure that it is done safely and with the lowest reasonably practicable environmental impact. It will also describe the methods which will be used to

  5. Fire safety regulations for nuclear power plants in Germany and the various dimensions of German KTA standardization activities. Is there a benefit today?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wittmann, R.

    1998-01-01

    In Germany the mandate for preparing nuclear safety standards is given to the KTA (Nuclear Safety Standards Commission) which has restrictive procedures to definitely ensure consensus principle. The KTA was up to now not in a position to approve comprehensive fire safety relevant standards, although its corresponding program is now 22 years old. KTA 2101.1 ''Basic Principles of Fire Protection in NPPs'' (12/85) is the only one published as valid safety standard. Drafts for 3 additional standards referring fire protection of structural elements, electrical and mechanical components as well as for rescue routes have been agreed upon in working groups, supervised and accepted by the responsible KTA subcommittee, but have not been approved by the full committee of the KTA up to now. Some of these drafts are already more than 5 years old. From the today's point of view the earliest possibility to have a comprehensive and actual set of fire relevant KTA standards will be in the second half of the year 1999. This would then be 24 years after the first KTA decision to start such a program. (author)

  6. FIRE SAFETY IN NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS: A RISK-INFORMED AND PERFORMANCE-BASED APPROACH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AZARM,M.A.; TRAVIS,R.J.

    1999-11-14

    The consideration of risk in regulatory decision-making has long been a part of NRC's policy and practice. Initially, these considerations were qualitative and were based on risk insights. The early regulations relied on good practices, past insights, and accepted standards. As a result, most NRC regulations were prescriptive and were applied uniformly to all areas within the regulatory scope. Risk technology is changing regulations by prioritizing the areas within regulatory scope based on risk, thereby focusing on the risk-important areas. Performance technology, on the other hand, is changing the regulations by allowing requirements to be adjusted based on the specific performance expected and manifested, rather than a prior prescriptive requirement. Consistent with the objectives of risk-informed and performance-based regulatory requirements, BNL evaluated the feasibility of applying risk- and performance-technologies to modifying NRC's current regulations on fire protection for nuclear power plants. This feasibility study entailed several case studies (trial applications). This paper describes the results of two of them. Besides the case studies, the paper discusses an overall evaluation of methodologies for fire-risk analysis to support the risk-informed regulation. It identifies some current shortcomings and proposes some near-term solutions.

  7. FIRE SAFETY IN NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS: A RISK-INFORMED AND PERFORMANCE-BASED APPROACH

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    AZARM, M.A.; TRAVIS, R.J.

    1999-01-01

    The consideration of risk in regulatory decision-making has long been a part of NRC's policy and practice. Initially, these considerations were qualitative and were based on risk insights. The early regulations relied on good practices, past insights, and accepted standards. As a result, most NRC regulations were prescriptive and were applied uniformly to all areas within the regulatory scope. Risk technology is changing regulations by prioritizing the areas within regulatory scope based on risk, thereby focusing on the risk-important areas. Performance technology, on the other hand, is changing the regulations by allowing requirements to be adjusted based on the specific performance expected and manifested, rather than a prior prescriptive requirement. Consistent with the objectives of risk-informed and performance-based regulatory requirements, BNL evaluated the feasibility of applying risk- and performance-technologies to modifying NRC's current regulations on fire protection for nuclear power plants. This feasibility study entailed several case studies (trial applications). This paper describes the results of two of them. Besides the case studies, the paper discusses an overall evaluation of methodologies for fire-risk analysis to support the risk-informed regulation. It identifies some current shortcomings and proposes some near-term solutions

  8. Qualitative Analysis Results for Applications of a New Fire Probabilistic Safety Assessment Method to Ulchin Unit 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Daeil; Kim, Kilyoo; Jang, Seungcheol

    2013-01-01

    The fire PRA Implementation Guide has been used for performing a fire PSA for NPPs in Korea. Recently, US NRC and EPRI developed a new fire PSA method, NUREG/CR-6850, to provide state-of-the-art methods, tools, and data for the conduct of a fire PSA for a commercial nuclear power plant (NPP). Due to the limited budget and man powers for the development of KSRP, hybrid PSA approaches, using NUREG/CR-6850 and Fire PRA Implementation Guide, will be employed for conducting a fire PSA of Ulchin Unit 3. In this paper, the qualitative analysis results for applications of a new fire PSA method to Ulchin Unit 3 are presented. This paper introduces the qualitative analysis results for applications of a new fire PSA method to Ulchin Unit 3. Compared with the previous industry, the number of fire areas for quantification identified and the number of equipment selected has increased

  9. High-fire-risk behavior in critical fire areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    William S. Folkman

    1977-01-01

    Observations of fire-related behavior of wildland visitors were made in three types of areas-wilderness, established campground, and built-up commercial and residential areas-within the San Bernardino National Forest, California. Interviews were conducted with all persons so observed. Types of fire-related behavior differed markedly from one area to another, as did the...

  10. The management of building fire safety towards the sustainability of Malaysian public universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebenehi, I. Y.; Mohamed, S.; Sarpin, N.; Masrom, M. A. N.; Zainal, R.; Azmi, M. A. Mohd

    2017-11-01

    Recently, there had been reduction in annual budgetary allocations to public universities in Malaysia due to some economic tensions. This situation had left many institutions in question with the options of scaling down their expenses as well as sourcing for other means of meeting up with the shortfalls in allocated funds. Hence, it affects the sustainability of the building itself. This paper is an attempt to look at the possibility of reducing incidents that could lead to expending unbudgeted fund to rehabilitating property unfortunately destroyed by fire on campus, in addition to limiting risk to life and interruption of academic and business activities. Several research had been conducted on FSM, nevertheless very few consider Higher Education Institutions (HEI)s holistically. Hence this research intends to fill that gap.

  11. Safety analysis report for packaging: the ORNL lithium hydroxide fire and impact shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.H.; Eversole, R.E.; Just, R.A.; Schaich, R.W.

    1984-07-01

    The ORNL Lithium Hydroxide Fire and Impact Shield and its packaging were designed and fabricated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to permit the transport of Type B quantities of radioactive material and limited quantities of fissionable material. The shield and its packaging were evaluated analytically and experimentally to determine its compliance with the applicable regulations governing containers in which radioactive and fissile materials are transported, and that evaluation is the subject of this report. Computational and test procedures were used to determine the structural integrity and thermal behavior of the shield relative to the general standards for normal conditions of transport and the standards for the hypothetical accident conditions. The results of the evaluation demonstrate that the shield and its packaging are in compliance with the applicable regulations. 16 references, 8 figures, 5 tables

  12. Safety analysis report for packaging: the ORNL lithium hydroxide fire and impact shield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, J.H.; Eversole, R.E.; Just, R.A.

    1977-11-01

    The ORNL lithium hydroxide fire and impact shield was designed and fabricated at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to permit the transport of Type B and large quantities of radioactive material and limited quantities of fissionable material. The shield was evaluated analytically and experimentally to determine its compliance with the applicable regulations governing containers in which radioactive and fissile materials are transported, and that evaluation is the subject of this report. Computational and test procedures were used to determine the structural integrity and thermal behavior of the shield relative to the general standards for normal conditions of transport and the standards for the hypothetical accident conditions. The results of the evaluation demonstrate that the shield is in compliance with the applicable regulations

  13. Development of safety evaluation technology for fire and explosion in reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, Akihiko

    2005-01-01

    Based on some lessons learned from the accidents in the reprocessing plant all over the world, Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) has researched and developed the safety technologies for the reprocessing plants and its related facilities. This paper describes some accidental information around the reprocessing plants and its related research activities in JNC. (author)

  14. Studies about pressure variations and their effects during a fire in a confined and forced ventilated enclosure: safety consequences in the case of a nuclear facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hugues Pretrel; Laurent Bouilloux; Jerome Richard

    2005-01-01

    Full text of publication follows: In a nuclear facility, the cells are confined and forced ventilated and some of them are equipped with isolation devices designed to close in case of a fire. So, if a fire occurred, the pressure variations in the cell could be important. This contribution presents the safety concerns related to pressure variation effects (propagation of smokes and/or flames through the fire barriers, propagation of radioactive material) and the research works carried out by the french 'Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire' (IRSN) on this topic. These research works are composed of two different studies. The first study permits to quantify the overpressure and depression levels and to reveal the influence of the fire heat release rate (HRR), of the characteristics of the cell, of the ventilation layout (especially the airflow resistances of the ventilation branches) and of the control of the fire dampers. This study is based on three sets of experimental tests performed in three large-scale facilities of various dimensions (3600 m3, 400 m3 and 120 m3 in volume) and with several settings of the ventilation network. The analysis focuses on the conditions that lead to significant overpressure and depression peaks and identifies the level of fire HRR and airflow resistances for which pressure peaks may become a safety concern. The second study allows to characterise the behaviour of sectorisation and containment equipments subject to pressure stresses. The mechanical resistance of some equipments (doors, fire dampers) subject to pressure stresses as well as the aeraulic behaviour of this equipment (gas leak rates) are determined in order to assess the potential transfer of contamination in the ventilation networks. (authors)

  15. Zones 30 : urban residential areas.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2006-01-01

    Sustainable Safety uses a road categorization in which through traffic is concentrated on motorways and other main roads. In residential areas, which have a living, shopping, or work function, through traffic is discouraged by setting a speed limit of 30 km/h, and by speed reducing measures such as

  16. An experimental study on the thermal characteristics and heating effect of arc-fault from Cu core in residential electrical wiring fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jian-Hua; Tu, Ran; Zeng, Yi; Pan, Leng; Zhang, Ren-Cheng

    2017-01-01

    The characteristics of a series direct current (DC) arc-fault including both electrical and thermal parameters were investigated based on an arc-fault simulator to provide references for multi-parameter electrical fire detection method. Tests on arc fault behavior with three different initial circuit voltages, resistances and arc gaps were conducted, respectively. The influences of circuit conditions on arc dynamic image, voltage, current or power were interpreted. Also, the temperature rises of electrode surface and ambient air were studied. The results showed that, first, significant variations of arc structure and light emitting were observed under different conditions. A thin outer burning layer of vapor generated from electrodes with orange light was found due to the extremely high arc temperature. Second, with the increasing electrode gap in discharging, the arc power was shown to have a non monotonic relationship with arc length for constant initial circuit voltage and resistance. Finally, the temperature rises of electrode surface caused by heat transfer from arc were found to be not sensitive with increasing arc length due to special heat transfer mechanism. In addition, temperature of ambient air showed a large gradient in radial direction of arc.

  17. An experimental study on the thermal characteristics and heating effect of arc-fault from Cu core in residential electrical wiring fires.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Hua Du

    Full Text Available The characteristics of a series direct current (DC arc-fault including both electrical and thermal parameters were investigated based on an arc-fault simulator to provide references for multi-parameter electrical fire detection method. Tests on arc fault behavior with three different initial circuit voltages, resistances and arc gaps were conducted, respectively. The influences of circuit conditions on arc dynamic image, voltage, current or power were interpreted. Also, the temperature rises of electrode surface and ambient air were studied. The results showed that, first, significant variations of arc structure and light emitting were observed under different conditions. A thin outer burning layer of vapor generated from electrodes with orange light was found due to the extremely high arc temperature. Second, with the increasing electrode gap in discharging, the arc power was shown to have a non monotonic relationship with arc length for constant initial circuit voltage and resistance. Finally, the temperature rises of electrode surface caused by heat transfer from arc were found to be not sensitive with increasing arc length due to special heat transfer mechanism. In addition, temperature of ambient air showed a large gradient in radial direction of arc.

  18. Solving the Problem of Multiple-Criteria Building Design Decisions with respect to the Fire Safety of Occupants: An Approach Based on Probabilistic Modelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Egidijus Rytas Vaidogas

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The design of buildings may include a comparison of alternative architectural and structural solutions. They can be developed at different levels of design process. The alternative design solutions are compared and ranked by applying methods of multiple-criteria decision-making (MCDM. Each design is characterised by a number of criteria used in a MCDM problem. The paper discusses how to choose MCDM criteria expressing fire safety related to alternative designs. Probability of a successful evacuation of occupants from a building fire and difference between evacuation time and time to untenable conditions are suggested as the most important criteria related to fire safety. These two criteria are treated as uncertain quantities expressed by probability distributions. Monte Carlo simulation of fire and evacuation processes is natural means for an estimation of these distributions. The presence of uncertain criteria requires applying stochastic MCDM methods for ranking alternative designs. An application of the safety-related criteria is illustrated by an example which analyses three alternative architectural floor plans prepared for a reconstruction of a medical building. A MCDM method based on stochastic simulation is used to solve the example problem.

  19. Fire Risk Assessment in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, H. P.

    2000-01-01

    Quantitative fire risk assessment can serve as an additional tool to assess the safety level of a nuclear power plant (NPP) and to set priorities for fire protection improvement measures. The recommended approach to be applied within periodic safety reviews of NPPs in Germany starts with a screening process providing critical fire zones in which a fully developed fire has the potential to both cause an initiating event and impair the function of at least one component or system critical to safety. The second step is to perform a quantitative analysis using a standard event tree has been developed with elements for fire initiation, ventilation of the room, fire detection, fire suppression, and fire propagation. In a final step, the fire induced frequency of initiating events, the main contributors and the calculated hazard state frequency for the fire event are determined. Results of the first quantitative fire risk studies performed in Germany are reported. (author)

  20. Guidelines for residential commissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wray, Craig P.; Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.

    2003-01-31

    Currently, houses do not perform optimally or even as many codes and forecasts predict, largely because they are field assembled and there is no consistent process to identify problems or to correct them. Residential commissioning is a solution to this problem. This guide is the culmination of a 30-month project that began in September 1999. The ultimate objective of the project is to increase the number of houses that undergo commissioning, which will improve the quality, comfort, and safety of homes for California citizens. The project goal is to lay the groundwork for a residential commissioning industry in California focused on end-use energy and non-energy issues. As such, we intend this guide to be a beginning and not an end. Our intent is that the guide will lead to the programmatic integration of commissioning with other building industry processes, which in turn will provide more value to a single site visit for people such as home energy auditors and raters, home inspectors, and building performance contractors. Project work to support the development of this guide includes: a literature review and annotated bibliography, which facilitates access to 469 documents related to residential commissioning published over the past 20 years (Wray et al. 2000), an analysis of the potential benefits one can realistically expect from commissioning new and existing California houses (Matson et al. 2002), and an assessment of 107 diagnostic tools for evaluating residential commissioning metrics (Wray et al. 2002). In this guide, we describe the issues that non-experts should consider in developing a commissioning program to achieve the benefits we have identified. We do this by providing specific recommendations about: how to structure the commissioning process, which diagnostics to use, and how to use them to commission new and existing houses. Using examples, we also demonstrate the potential benefits of applying the recommended whole-house commissioning approach to

  1. Residential greenhouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-02-01

    The following report examines the technical and economic viability of residential greenhouse additions in Whitehorse, Yukon. The greenhouse was constructed using the south facing wall of an existing residence as a common wall. Total construction costs were $18,000, including labour. Annual fuel demand for the residence has been reduced by about 10 per cent for an annual saving of $425. In addition, produce to the value of $1,000 is grown annually in the greenhouse for domestic consumption and commercial resale. Typically the greenhouse operates for nine months each year. There is a net thermal loss during the months of November, December and January as a result of the large area of glazing. As well as supplementing the heating supply solar greenhouses can provide additional cash crops which can be used to offset the cost of construction. Humidity problems are minimal and can be dealt with by exhausting high humidity air. One system which has been considered for the greenhouse is to use a standard residential heat pump to remove excess moisture and to pump heat into the house. This would have a secondary benefit of excluding the need to circulate greenhouse air through the house. Thus any allergenic reactions to the greenhouse air would be prevented. 8 refs., 3 figs, 2 tabs.

  2. Fire protection in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The Safety Guide gives design and some operational guidance for protection from fire and fire-related explosions in nuclear power plants (NPP). It confines itself to fire protection of items important to safety, leaving the aspects of fire protection not related to safety in NPP to be decided upon the basis of the national practices and regulations

  3. Burns and fires in South Africa's informal settlements: Have approved kerosene stoves improved safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimemia, David; van Niekerk, Ashley; Govender, Rajen; Seedat, Mohamed

    2018-06-01

    This study is a follow-on to an intervention project that implemented South African Bureau of Standards approved kerosene stoves and safety education in 150 households of a Johannesburg informal settlement. An investigation conducted 12 months later established that 43 stoves had operational defects, yet 23 households continued using the faulty appliances. This study focuses on (1) the psychological and behavioural factors associated with continued use of faulty stoves by the 23 households, and (2), the specific technical failures of these stoves. The study involved one-on-one recall interviews with the households using defective stoves (N=21) and laboratory-based stove tests for seven of the affected appliances. The results indicate that the stoves had defects in critical safety features such as flame control and the self-extinguishing mechanism. Four stove malfunctions of minor burn affect were reported in the study. Continued use of the damaged stoves was significantly associated with the time from receipt of the stove to detection of first failure: stoves that failed later on were more significantly likely to remain in use as compared to those that failed sooner. The findings point to the need for strengthening enforcement of appliance standards, public education on kerosene stove use, and structural change for the energy-poor. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  4. CFD studies of soot production in a coflow laminar diffusion flame under conditions of micro-gravity in fire safety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Mbainguebem

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This work which is in the fire safety framework is focused on a numerical study of the production of soot in a laminar diffusion flame, under different conditions of micro-gravity in unsteady regime. It is intended to evaluate the temperature and rate at which the production of soot is predominant, to quantify their concentrations and volume fraction in dispersion. It has been accomplished by modification of the ReactingFOAM application source code of the OpenFOAM-2.3.0 by introducing for the first time, the equations of concentration transport and of volume fractions of soot. The results of the different values of gravity obtained are compared with the normal value of gravity and we ascertain that the results obtained were satisfactory and show the ability of the code to predict the speed and temperature of the formation of soot, their concentrations and their volume fractions. The maximum peak of the volume fraction varies from 7 × 10−8 to 4.5 × 10−6. The maximum temperature, which was 2423 K before changing the code, is about 2410 K after implementation of our modifications due to the taking into account of the numerical model.

  5. The economics of fire protection

    CERN Document Server

    Ramachandran, Ganapathy

    2003-01-01

    This important new book, the first of its kind in the fire safety field, discusses the economic problems faced by decision-makers in the areas of fire safety and fire precautions. The author considers the theoretical aspects of cost-benefit analysis and other relevant economic problems with practical applications to fire protection systems. Clear examples are included to illustrate these techniques in action. The work covers: * the performance and effectiveness of passive fire protection measures such as structural fire resistance and means of escape facilities, and active systems such as sprinklers and detectors * the importance of educating for better understanding and implementation of fire prevention through publicity campaigns and fire brigade operations * cost-benefit analysis of fire protection measures and their combinations, taking into account trade-offs between these measures. The book is essential reading for consultants and academics in construction management, economics and fire safety, as well ...

  6. FIRE HAZARDS ANALYSIS - BUSTED BUTTE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longwell, R.; Keifer, J.; Goodin, S.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this fire hazards analysis (FHA) is to assess the risk from fire within individual fire areas at the Busted Butte Test Facility and to ascertain whether the DOE fire safety objectives are met. The objective, identified in DOE Order 420.1, Section 4.2, is to establish requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for facilities sufficient to minimize the potential for: (1) The occurrence of a fire related event. (2) A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees. (3) Vital DOE programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards. (4) Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE. Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events

  7. Health and safety plan for the removal action at the former YS-860 Firing Ranges, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-03-24

    This health and safety plan sets forth the requirements and procedures to protect the personnel involved in the removal action project at the former YS-860 Firing Ranges. This project will be conducted in a manner that ensures the protection of the safety and health of workers, the public, and the environment. The purpose of this removal action is to address lead-contaminated soil and reduce a potential risk to human health and the environment. This site is an operable unit within the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek watershed. The removal action will contribute to early source actions within the watershed. The project will accomplish this through the removal of lead-contaminated soil in the target areas of the two small arms firing ranges. The primary hazards include temperature extremes, equipment operation, noise, potential lead exposure, uneven and slippery working surfaces, and insects.

  8. Health and safety plan for the removal action at the former YS-860 Firing Ranges, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This health and safety plan sets forth the requirements and procedures to protect the personnel involved in the removal action project at the former YS-860 Firing Ranges. This project will be conducted in a manner that ensures the protection of the safety and health of workers, the public, and the environment. The purpose of this removal action is to address lead-contaminated soil and reduce a potential risk to human health and the environment. This site is an operable unit within the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek watershed. The removal action will contribute to early source actions within the watershed. The project will accomplish this through the removal of lead-contaminated soil in the target areas of the two small arms firing ranges. The primary hazards include temperature extremes, equipment operation, noise, potential lead exposure, uneven and slippery working surfaces, and insects

  9. Specialists' meeting on sodium fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlov, F A; Kuznetsova, R I [eds.

    1989-07-01

    The four sessions of the meeting covered the following topics: 1. general approach to fast reactor safety, standards of fire safety, maximum design basis accidents for sodium leaks and fires, status of sodium fires in different countries; 2. physical and chemical processes during combustion of sodium and its interaction with structural and technological materials and methods for structural protection; 3. methods of sodium fires extinguishing and measures for localizing aerosol combustion products, organization of fire fighting procedures, instruction and training of fire personnel; 4. elimination of the consequences of sodium fires.

  10. Specialists' meeting on sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozlov, F.A.; Kuznetsova, R.I.

    1989-01-01

    The four sessions of the meeting covered the following topics: 1. general approach to fast reactor safety, standards of fire safety, maximum design basis accidents for sodium leaks and fires, status of sodium fires in different countries; 2. physical and chemical processes during combustion of sodium and its interaction with structural and technological materials and methods for structural protection; 3. methods of sodium fires extinguishing and measures for localizing aerosol combustion products, organization of fire fighting procedures, instruction and training of fire personnel; 4. elimination of the consequences of sodium fires

  11. Fire tests and their relevance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malhotra, H.L.

    1984-01-01

    Background information is provided about the nature of fire tests in general, not specifically designed for testing nuclear flasks. Headings are: brief history (including various temperature/time fire curves); the current position; types of tests; validation of fire tests; fire safety system. (U.K.)

  12. Education of mining engineers with the specialization in Rescue, fire and safety technique at the BERG Faculty of the Technical University of Košice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedlatý Václav

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available After the separation of Czechoslovakia, in 1993, the Mining Faculty (now BERG Faculty of the Technical University of Košice started a teaching program with the specialization in mining rescue, fire guard and safety technique at the Detachment in Prievidza, because of all the needs and conditions related to the education of engineers in the mentioned areas. During the last 10 years, the Detachment in Prievidza has been growing in terms of number of students. From the beginning of this period to present days 75 students graduated. The full-time studies last five years and the academic years are divided into two semesters of 15 weeks each. The semesters are finished by examination sessions. The first 2 years, in principle, include basic studies in mathematics, scientific subjects and some subjects related to earth sciences. The third and fourth year are generally devoted to basic technical subjects of mining and underground works, and then to rescue, fire and safety subjects. A practical work experience has to be gained by students in a mine or fire and safety stations. The practical training term is scheduled after the third academic year. During the last two semesters the students are preparing their Master’s degree thesis using a stay in the mine company or other firms to receive the necessary information and data.

  13. Improving Freight Fire Safety: Analysis and Testing of Real Engine Conditions to Progress Development of Mist-controlling Additives for Fire Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-12-01

    The formation of a fuel mist resulting from high shear stresses acting on the fuel during violent sloshing and tank rupture under the energy of a crash severely increases the occurrence and intensity of fires in transportation related accidents. In o...

  14. Literature Survey of Crude Oil Properties Relevant to Handling and Fire Safety in Transport.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lord, David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Luketa, Anay [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Wocken, Chad [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Schlasner, Steve [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Aulich, Ted [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Allen, Ray [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rudeen, David Keith [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Several fiery rail accidents in 2013-2015 in the U.S. and Canada carrying crude oil produced from the Bakken region of North Dakota have raised questions at many levels on the safety of transporting this, and other types of crude oil, by rail. Sandia National Laboratories was commissioned by the U.S. Department of Energy to investigate the material properties of crude oils, and in particular the so-called "tight oils" like Bakken that comprise the majority of crude oil rail shipments in the U.S. at the current time. The current report is a literature survey of public sources of information on crude oil properties that have some bearing on the likelihood or severity of combustion events that may occur around spills associated with rail transport. The report also contains background information including a review of the notional "tight oil" field operating environment, as well a basic description of crude oils and potential combustion events in rail transport. This page intentionally blank

  15. Increase of Ecological Safety, Reliability and Efficiency of Coal-Fired Boilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Volkov E.P.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The changes of environmental legislation of the Russian Federation will lead to a drastic increase of the ecological payments for environmental pollution in excess of technological standards. Significant excess in relative emissions of nitrogen oxides take place in burning solid fuel with liquid slag-tap removal. The purpose of this article was to develop technical solutions for low-cost reconstruction of the boilers to ensure efficient combustion of the fuel and technological standards of emissions of nitrogen oxides. As shown the use of straight-flow burners with compulsory optimization of the aerodynamics of the furnace and the organization of staged combustion of fuel will provide low nitrogen oxide emissions and efficient fuel combustion. Research on physical models has demonstrated the feasibility of increasing the angle of the pulverized coal burners down to 65-70o, and also achieved a more uniform distribution and increase the speed of the jets coming from upper and lower tertiary air vertical compartments of nozzles through the installation of the vertical extra sheets, which guide the flow in a space between jets. The results obtained allow the transfer of existing boilers with slag-tag removal to a solid with the installation of direct-flow burners and optimization of the aerodynamics of the furnace, which provides regulations for energy efficiency and ecological safety corresponding to the best, achieved technologies, and dramatically reduces environmental payments. The proposed technology in boiler BKZ-210-140F allowed reducing emissions of nitrogen oxides by more than 2 times when burning highly reactive Kuznetsk coal, as shown as an example.

  16. Effectiveness and safety of a high-dose weekly vitamin D (20,000 IU) protocol in older adults living in residential care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Fabio; Moore, Crystal; da Silva, Liz; Gaspard, Gina; Gustafson, Larry; Singh, Sonia; Barr, Susan I; Kitts, David D; Li, Wangyang; Weiler, Hope A; Green, Timothy J

    2014-08-01

    To report 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) concentrations, an indicator of vitamin D status, in older adults living in residential care 1 year after a protocol of weekly 20,000 IU of vitamin D was started. Cross-sectional. Five residential care facilities in British Columbia, Canada. Residents aged 65 and older from five facilities (N=236). Participants provided a blood sample. Demographic and health information was obtained from the medical record. Mean 25OHD was 102 nmol/L (95% confidence interval (CI)=98-106 nmol/L). Three percent of residents had a 25OHD concentration of less than 40 nmol/L, 6% 2.6 mmol/L), a potential consequence of too much vitamin D, was present in 14%, although 25OHD levels did not differ in those with and without hypercalcemia (108 vs 101 nmol/L; P=.17). Twelve months after implementation of a 20,000-IU/wk vitamin D protocol for older adults in residential care, mean 25OHD concentrations were high, and there was no evidence of poor vitamin D status. Given the absence of demonstrated benefit of high 25OHD concentrations to the residential care population, dosages less than 20,000 IU/wk of vitamin D are recommended. © 2014, Copyright the Authors Journal compilation © 2014, The American Geriatrics Society.

  17. Optimizing prescribed fire allocation for managing fire risk in central Catalonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcasena, Fermín J; Ager, Alan A; Salis, Michele; Day, Michelle A; Vega-Garcia, Cristina

    2018-04-15

    We used spatial optimization to allocate and prioritize prescribed fire treatments in the fire-prone Bages County, central Catalonia (northeastern Spain). The goal of this study was to identify suitable strategic locations on forest lands for fuel treatments in order to: 1) disrupt major fire movements, 2) reduce ember emissions, and 3) reduce the likelihood of large fires burning into residential communities. We first modeled fire spread, hazard and exposure metrics under historical extreme fire weather conditions, including node influence grid for surface fire pathways, crown fraction burned and fire transmission to residential structures. Then, we performed an optimization analysis on individual planning areas to identify production possibility frontiers for addressing fire exposure and explore alternative prescribed fire treatment configurations. The results revealed strong trade-offs among different fire exposure metrics, showed treatment mosaics that optimize the allocation of prescribed fire, and identified specific opportunities to achieve multiple objectives. Our methods can contribute to improving the efficiency of prescribed fire treatment investments and wildfire management programs aimed at creating fire resilient ecosystems, facilitating safe and efficient fire suppression, and safeguarding rural communities from catastrophic wildfires. The analysis framework can be used to optimally allocate prescribed fire in other fire-prone areas within the Mediterranean region and elsewhere. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. ASHRAE and residential ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max H.

    2003-10-01

    In the last quarter of a century, the western world has become increasingly aware of environmental threats to health and safety. During this period, people psychologically retreated away from outdoors hazards such as pesticides, smog, lead, oil spills, and dioxin to the seeming security of their homes. However, the indoor environment may not be healthier than the outdoor environment, as has become more apparent over the past few years with issues such as mold, formaldehyde, and sick-building syndrome. While the built human environment has changed substantially over the past 10,000 years, human biology has not; poor indoor air quality creates health risks and can be uncomfortable. The human race has found, over time, that it is essential to manage the indoor environments of their homes. ASHRAE has long been in the business of ventilation, but most of the focus of that effort has been in the area of commercial and institutional buildings. Residential ventilation was traditionally not a major concern because it was felt that, between operable windows and envelope leakage, people were getting enough outside air in their homes. In the quarter of a century since the first oil shock, houses have gotten much more energy efficient. At the same time, the kinds of materials and functions in houses changed in character in response to people's needs. People became more environmentally conscious and aware not only about the resources they were consuming but about the environment in which they lived. All of these factors contributed to an increasing level of public concern about residential indoor air quality and ventilation. Where once there was an easy feeling about the residential indoor environment, there is now a desire to define levels of acceptability and performance. Many institutions--both public and private--have interests in Indoor Air Quality (IAQ), but ASHRAE, as the professional society that has had ventilation as part of its mission for over 100 years, is the

  19. Health and safety plan for the removal action at the former YS-860 Firing Ranges, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1998-04-28

    This health and safety plan sets forth the requirements and procedures to protect the personnel involved in the Lead Source Removal Project at the Former YS-86O Firing Ranges. This project will be conducted in a manner that ensures the protection of the safety and health of workers, the public, and the environment. The purpose of this removal action is to address lead contaminated soil and reduce a potential risk to human health and the environment. This site is an operable unit within the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek watershed. The removal action will contribute to early source actions within the watershed. The project will accomplish this through the removal of lead-contaminated soil in the target areas of the two small arms firing ranges. This plan covers the removal actions at the Former YS-86O Firing Ranges. These actions involve the excavation of lead-contaminated soils, the removal of the concrete trench and macadam (asphalt) paths, verification/confirmation sampling, grading and revegetation. The primary hazards include temperature extremes, equipment operation, noise, potential lead exposure, uneven and slippery working surfaces, and insects.

  20. Health and safety plan for the removal action at the former YS-860 Firing Ranges, Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    This health and safety plan sets forth the requirements and procedures to protect the personnel involved in the Lead Source Removal Project at the Former YS-86O Firing Ranges. This project will be conducted in a manner that ensures the protection of the safety and health of workers, the public, and the environment. The purpose of this removal action is to address lead contaminated soil and reduce a potential risk to human health and the environment. This site is an operable unit within the Upper East Fork Poplar Creek watershed. The removal action will contribute to early source actions within the watershed. The project will accomplish this through the removal of lead-contaminated soil in the target areas of the two small arms firing ranges. This plan covers the removal actions at the Former YS-86O Firing Ranges. These actions involve the excavation of lead-contaminated soils, the removal of the concrete trench and macadam (asphalt) paths, verification/confirmation sampling, grading and revegetation. The primary hazards include temperature extremes, equipment operation, noise, potential lead exposure, uneven and slippery working surfaces, and insects

  1. The OECD FIRE database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Angner, A.; Berg, H.P.; Roewekamp, M.; Werner, W.; Gauvain, J.

    2007-01-01

    Realistic modelling of fire scenarios is still difficult due to the scarcity of reliable data needed for deterministic and probabilistic fire safety analysis. Therefore, it has been recognized as highly important to establish a fire event database on an international level. In consequence, several member countries of the Nuclear Energy Agency of the OECD have decided in 2000 to establish the International Fire Data Exchange Project (OECD FIRE) to encourage multilateral co-operation in the collection and analysis of data related to fire events at nuclear power plants. This paper presents the OECD FIRE project objectives, work scope and current status of the OECD FIRE database after 3 years of operation as well as first preliminary statistical insights gained from the collected data. (orig.)

  2. Fire Protection Program Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharry, J A

    2012-05-18

    This manual documents the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Fire Protection Program. Department of Energy (DOE) Orders 420.1B, Facility Safety, requires LLNL to have a comprehensive and effective fire protection program that protects LLNL personnel and property, the public and the environment. The manual provides LLNL and its facilities with general information and guidance for meeting DOE 420.1B requirements. The recommended readers for this manual are: fire protection officers, fire protection engineers, fire fighters, facility managers, directorage assurance managers, facility coordinators, and ES and H team members.

  3. Airborne concentrations of Polybrominated diethyl etherin residential homes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rahimzadeh

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims   Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDE have been widely applied to different home and offices' appliances as flame retardant additives to inhibit ignition and enhance  the fire safety. Their toxicity, health effects, and resistance to environmental degradation are  matters of great interested among scientists. Airborne concentrations of PBDE in residential  homes were determined in this study.   Methods   In a cross sectional study, 33 residential homes were selected and airborne concentrations of PBDEs were investigated using PUF disk passive air samplers. Also in two building the concentraction of PBDEs were monitored in two rooms of a department in each building for 12 months.   Results   Average airborne concentration of ?PBDE (sum of congener #s 17, 28, 47, 49, 66, 85, 99, 100, 153, and 154 for all locations monitored was 52 (4-245 pgm -3 . While in one of the buildings the contaminant level of bedroom was significantly higher than the living room, PBDE   concentrations remained relatively constant for whole monitoring period.   Conclusion   The range of concentrations results to a wide variation between inhalation intakes of dwellers of the lowest and the highest contaminated homes (~50 folds.  

  4. The designing of launch vehicles with liquid propulsion engines ensuring fire, explosion and environmental safety requirements of worked-off stages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trushlyakov, V.; Shatrov, Ya.; Sujmenbaev, B.; Baranov, D.

    2017-02-01

    The paper addresses the problem of the launch vehicles (LV) with main liquid propulsion engines launch technogenic impact in different environment areas. Therefore, as the study subjects were chosen the worked-off stages (WS) with unused propellant residues in tanks, the cosmodrome ecological monitoring system, the worked-off stage design and construction solutions development system and the unified system with the "WS+the cosmodrome ecological monitoring system+design and construction solutions development system" feedback allowing to form the optimal ways of the WS design and construction parameters variations for its fire and explosion hazard management in different areas of the environment. It is demonstrated that the fire hazard effects of propellant residues in WS tanks increase the ecosystem disorder level for the Vostochny cosmodrome impact area ecosystem. Applying the system analysis, the proposals on the selection of technologies, schematic and WS design and construction solutions aimed to the fire and explosion safety improvement during the LV worked-off stages with the main liquid propulsion engines operation were formulated. Among them are the following: firstly, the unused propellant residues in tanks convective gasification based on the hot gas (heat carrier) supply in WS tanks after main liquid propulsion engines cutoff is proposed as the basic technology; secondly, the obtained unused propellant residues in WS tanks gasification products (evaporated propellant residues + pressurizing agent + heat carrier) are used for WS stabilization and orientation while descending trajectory moving. The applying of the proposed technologies allows providing fire and explosion safety requirements of LV with main liquid propulsion engines practically.

  5. Spacecraft Fire Safety Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, David L.; Ruff, Gary A.

    2016-01-01

    A presentation of the Saffire Experiment goals and scientific objectives for the Joint CSA/ESA/JAXA/NASA Increments 47 and 48 Science Symposium. The purpose of the presentation is to inform the ISS Cadre and the other investigators of the Saffire goals and objectives to enable them to best support a successful Saffire outcome.

  6. Fire safety in space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jomaas, Grunde; Torero, Jose L.; Eigenbrod, Christian

    2015-01-01

    experiments has been based on existing knowledge of scenarios that are relevant, yet challenging, for a spacecraft environment. Given that there is always airflow in the space station, all the experiments are conducted with flame spread in either concurrent or opposed flow, though with the flow being stopped...... undocked from the International Space Station (ISS). The tests will be fully automated with the data downlinked at the conclusion of the test before the Cygnus vehicle re-enters the atmosphere. The unmanned, pressurized environment in the Saffire experiments allows for the largest sample sizes ever...

  7. Aircraft Fire Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-05-01

    fabrics of seats, carpets, drapes , lap robes, and sound deadening insulation. Also of concern are the polymeric based plastics used in interior walls...anti-petalling or backing boards,are used to seal up perforations caused by a wide -ange of combat threats, including ball and armour piercing...safe areas. Vital iarts of the engine/fuel system may be protected by armour . On the question of combustor chamber flame break out endeavours are

  8. Subsurface Fire Hazards Technical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, R.C.

    1999-01-01

    The results from this report are preliminary and cannot be used as input into documents supporting procurement, fabrication, or construction. This technical report identifies fire hazards and proposes their mitigation for the subsurface repository fire protection system. The proposed mitigation establishes the minimum level of fire protection to meet NRC regulations, DOE fire protection orders, that ensure fire containment, adequate life safety provisions, and minimize property loss. Equipment requiring automatic fire suppression systems is identified. The subsurface fire hazards that are identified can be adequately mitigated

  9. The French fire protection concept. Vulnerability analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaercher, M.

    1998-01-01

    The French fire protection concept is based on a principle of three levels of defence in depth: fire prevention, fire containing and fire controlling. Fire prevention is based on arrangements which prevent the fire from starting or which make difficult for the fire to start. Fire containing is based on design measures so that the fire will have no impact on the safety of the installation. For fire controlling, equipment nad personnel are on duty in order to detect, to fight and to gain control over the fire as early as possible. The French fire protection concept gives priority to fire containing based on passive structural measures. All buildings containing safety equipment are divided into fire compartments (or fire areas) and fire cells (or fire zones). Basically, a compartment houses safety equipment belonging to one division (or train) so that the other division is always available to reach the plant safe shut down or to mitigate an accident. Because there is a large number of fire compartments and fire cells, deviations from the general principle can be observed. To this reason the RCC-I (Design and Construction Rules applicable for fire protection) requires to implement an assessment of the principle of division. This assessment is called vulnerability analysis. The vulnerability analysis is usually performed at the end of the project, before erection. It is also possible to perform a vulnerability analysis in an operating nuclear power plant in the scope of a fire safety upgrading programme. In the vulnerability analysis, the functional failure of all the equipment (except for those protected by a qualified fire barrier, designed or able to withstand the fire consequences) within the fire compartment or cell, where the fire breaks out, is postulated. The potential consequences for the plant safety are analysed

  10. Angora Fire, Lake Tahoe

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    On the weekend of June 23, 2007, a wildfire broke out south of Lake Tahoe, which stretches across the California-Nevada border. By June 28, the Angora Fire had burned more than 200 homes and forced some 2,000 residents to evacuate, according to The Seattle Times and the Central Valley Business Times. On June 27, the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) on NASA's Terra satellite captured this image of the burn scar left by the Angora fire. The burn scar is dark gray, or charcoal. Water bodies, including the southern tip of Lake Tahoe and Fallen Leaf Lake, are pale silvery blue, the silver color a result of sunlight reflecting off the surface of the water. Vegetation ranges in color from dark to bright green. Streets are light gray, and the customary pattern of meandering residential streets and cul-de-sacs appears throughout the image, including the area that burned. The burn scar shows where the fire obliterated some of the residential areas just east of Fallen Leaf Lake. According to news reports, the U.S. Forest Service had expressed optimism about containing the fire within a week of the outbreak, but a few days after the fire started, it jumped a defense, forcing the evacuation of hundreds more residents. Strong winds that had been forecast for June 27, however, did not materialize, allowing firefighters to regain ground in controlling the blaze. On June 27, authorities hoped that the fire would be completely contained by July 3. According to estimates provided in the daily report from the National Interagency Fire Center, the fire had burned 3,100 acres (about 12.5 square kilometers) and was about 55 percent contained as of June 28. Some mandatory evacuations remained in effect. NASA image by Jesse Allen, using data provided courtesy of the NASA/GSFC/MITI/ERSDAC/JAROS, and U.S./Japan ASTER Science Team.

  11. Fire protection and fire fighting in nuclear installations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Fires are a threat to all technical installations. While fire protection has long been a well established conventional discipline, its application to nuclear facilities requires special considerations. Nevertheless, for a long time fire engineering has been somewhat neglected in the design and operation of nuclear installations. In the nuclear industry, the Browns Ferry fire in 1975 brought about an essential change in the attention paid to fire problems. Designers and plant operators, as well as insurance companies and regulators, increased their efforts to develop concepts and methods for reducing fire risks, not only to protect the capital investment in nuclear plants but also to consider the potential secondary effects which could lead to nuclear accidents. Although the number of fires in nuclear installations is still relatively large, their overall importance to the safety of nuclear power plants was not considered to be very high. Only more recently have probabilistic analyses changed this picture. The results may well have to be taken into account more carefully. Various aspects of fire fighting and fire protection were discussed during the Symposium, the first of its kind to be organized by the IAEA. It was convened in co-operation with several organizations working in the nuclear or fire protection fields. The intention was to gather experts from nuclear engineering areas and the conventional fire protection field at one meeting with a view to enhancing the exchange of information and experience and to presenting current knowledge on the various disciplines involved. The presentations at the meeting were subdivided into eight sessions: standards and licensing (6 papers); national fire safety practices (7 papers); fire safety by design (11 papers); fire fighting (2 papers); computer fire modeling (7 papers); fire safety in fuel center facilities (7 papers); fire testing of materials (3 papers); fire risk assessment (5 papers). A separate abstract was

  12. Wildland Fire Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwager, K. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2017-09-30

    The Wildland Fire Management Plan (FMP) for Brookhaven National Lab (BNL) is written to comply with Department of Energy (DOE) Integrated Safety Management Policy; Federal Wildland Fire Management Policy and Program Review; and Wildland and Prescribed Fire Management Policy and Implementation Procedures Reference Guide. This current plan incorporates changes resulting from new policies on the national level as well as significant changes to available resources and other emerging issues, and replaces BNL's Wildland FMP dated 2014.

  13. Case study of the effects of public safety regulation on the construction costs of coal-fired and nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morris, C.D.

    1987-01-01

    Regulations intended to reduce the number of accidents at nuclear plants and the discharge of sulfur and particulate wastes at coal-fired power plants have become an important cause of construction cost escalation. Measuring the costs of these regulatory interventions is a difficult research task. The three-unit Bruce Mansfield coal-fired plant and the two-unit Beaver Valley nuclear power station located in Shippingport, Pennsylvania, provide a unique opportunity for a case study of the costs of regulation in the construction of both kinds of plants. The units of each plant were built sequentially over a period of intensifying regulation. The method used to measure the costs of public safety regulation in the construction of each kind of plant is to determine the connections between the issuances of the regulatory agencies (EPA and NRC) and cost escalations of succeeding units. The small cost escalations of the Mansfield 3 unit, in comparison to the massive costs of the Beaver Valley 2 unit, suggest that the design and construction of new coal-fired plants are not disrupted by regulatory interventions nearly as extensively as are nuclear units. Certain technical features of Beaver Valley 2, especially its small size and a design that is identical to the first unit's, further contribute to its cost escalations

  14. FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEMS AND TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aristov Denis Ivanovich

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The All-Russian Congress “Fire Stop Moscow” was de-voted to the analysis of the four segments of the industry of fire protection systems and technologies: the design of fire protec-tion systems, the latest developments and technologies of active and passive fire protection of buildings, the state and the devel-opment of the legal framework, the practice of fire protection of buildings and structures. The forum brought together the repre-sentatives of the industry of fire protection systems, scientists, leading experts, specialists in fire protection and representatives of construction companies from different regions of Russia. In parallel with the Congress Industrial Exhibition of fire protection systems, materials and technology was held, where manufacturers presented their products. The urgency of the “Fire Stop Moscow” Congress in 2015 organized by the Congress Bureau ODF Events lies primarily in the fact that it considered the full range of issues related to the fire protection of building and construction projects; studied the state of the regulatory framework for fire safety and efficiency of public services, research centers, private companies and busi-nesses in the area of fire safety. The main practical significance of the event which was widely covered in the media space, was the opportunity to share the views and information between management, science, and practice of business on implementing fire protection systems in the conditions of modern economic relations and market realities. : congress, fire protection, systems, technologies, fire protection systems, exhibition

  15. Cable fire tests in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaercher, M.

    2000-01-01

    Modifications are being carried out in all French nuclear power plants to improve fire safety. These modifications are based on a three level defense in depth concept: fire preventing, fire containing and fire controlling. Fire containing requires many modifications such as protection of cable races and assessment of fire propagation which both need R and D development. On one hand, cable wraps made with mineral wool were tested in all configurations including effect of aging, overheating and fire and qualified for the use as protection from common failure modes. On the other hand, cables races in scale one were subject to gas burner or solvent pool fire to simulate ignition and fire propagation between trays and flash over situations. These tests have been performed under several typical lay out conditions. The results of the tests can be used as input data in computer modelling for validation of fire protection measures. (orig.) [de

  16. DOPO-Modified Two-Dimensional Co-Based Metal-Organic Framework: Preparation and Application for Enhancing Fire Safety of Poly(lactic acid).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yanbei; Liu, Longxiang; Qiu, Shuilai; Zhou, Xia; Gui, Zhou; Hu, Yuan

    2018-03-07

    Co-based metal-organic framework (Co-MOF) nanosheets were successfully synthesized by the organic ligands with Schiff base structure. The laminated structure gives Co-MOF nanosheets a great advantage in the application in the flame retardant field. Meanwhile, -C═N- from Schiff base potentially provides active sites for further modification. In this work, 9,10-dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide (DOPO) was used to modify Co-MOF (DOPO@Co-MOF) to further enhance its flame retardant efficiency. It is attractive that DOPO has a synergistic effect with Co-MOF on improving fire safety of poly(lactic acid) (PLA). The obvious decrease in the values of peak heat release (27%), peak smoke production (56%), and total CO yield (20%) confirmed the enhanced fire safety of PLA composites. The possible flame retardant mechanism was proposed based on characterization results. Moreover, the addition of DOPO@Co-MOF had a positive influence on the mechanical performance, including tensile properties and impact resistance. This work designed and synthesized two-dimensional MOFs with active groups. As-prepared Co-MOF with expected structure shows a novel direction of preparing MOFs for flame retardant application.

  17. Happy 50th, Smokey Bear! A Learning Kit about Forests and Fire Safety for Grades K-3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Meryl

    In 1994, Smokey Bear turns 50! For a half century, Smokey has been helping children and adults protect forests and wildlands from careless fire. With this kit students can celebrate Smokey's message using a variety of activities that include dramatic play, stories, games, and things to make and do. Through these activities, students learn about…

  18. Fire Perimeters

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Fire Perimeters data consists of CDF fires 300 acres and greater in size and USFS fires 10 acres and greater throughout California from 1950 to 2003. Some fires...

  19. Fire History

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Natural Resource Agency — The Fire Perimeters data consists of CDF fires 300 acres and greater in size and USFS fires 10 acres and greater throughout California from 1950 to 2002. Some fires...

  20. PCMs for Residential Building Applications: A Short Review Focused on Disadvantages and Proposals for Future Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Bland

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Phase change materials (PCMs offer great potential as a latent heat energy storage technique to provide energy efficient systems in new and existing residential buildings. Due to their unique characteristic of high storage densities and latent heat properties, PCMs provide opportunities for greater energy storage in many applications for residential buildings. These applications include, but are not limited to, solar water heating, space heating/cooling, and waste heat recovery. This study reviews PCM systems in residential building applications, with a focus on their major disadvantages and concludes with proposals for future development. Several disadvantages of PCM use in the given application have been identified and include; super cooling, low thermal conductivity, phase segregation, fire safety, and cost. The issues caused by super cooling and phase segregation lead to thermal cycling degradation, limiting the useful lifecycle of the material. These issues could limit their potential in building applications, which require systems of a long lifespan. Low thermal conductivities can slow down the rate at which heat is distributed or absorbed from the building, which affect the occupants comfort and as well as the efficiency of the system. Ideas based on the current research on ways to limit these disadvantages are included in the study. This study also identifies that further research is required on novel maintenance ways for the PCM systems after they have been installed.

  1. Study of parameters for safety assessment of sub-surface disposal. Tunnel-excavating speed and thickness of additional soil in residential land development by filling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishitoya, Kimihide; Sugaya, Toshikatsu; Funabashi, Hideyuki

    2012-02-01

    Japan Atomic Energy Agency (JAEA) is making preparations for the sub-surface disposal of own low level radioactive wastes. In order to carry out the disposal, it is necessary to confirm the safety of the disposal. Nuclear Safety Commission of Japan (NSC) issued 'Policy of the Safety Assessment of Sub-surface Disposal after the Period for Active Control' (April 1, 2010). Then, we investigated the parameters for dose assessment in tunnel excavation scenario and large-scale land use scenario which were described in the 'Policy of the Safety Assessment', in order to perform the assessment based on actual conditions. To be concrete, we investigated the tunnel excavating speeds in Japan for the former scenario, and investigated technical standards of the filling for the latter scenario. We studied the realistic parameters for the dose assessment with the results of those investigations. (author)

  2. Modeling of compartment fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathiah, P.; Siccama, A.; Visser, D.; Komen, E.

    2011-01-01

    Fire accident in a containment is a serious threat to nuclear reactors. Fire can cause substantial loss to life and property. The risk posed by fire can also exceed the risk from internal events within a nuclear reactor. Numerous research efforts have been performed to understand and analyze the phenomenon of fire in nuclear reactor and its consequences. Modeling of fire is an important subject in the field of fire safety engineering. Two approaches which are commonly used in fire modeling are zonal modeling and field modeling. The objective of this work is to compare zonal and field modeling approach against a pool fired experiment performed in a well-confined compartment. Numerical simulations were performed against experiments, which were conducted within PRISME program under the framework of OECD. In these experiments, effects of ventilation flow rate on heat release rate in a confined and mechanically ventilated compartment is investigated. Time dependent changes in gas temperature and oxygen mass fraction were measured. The trends obtained by numerical simulation performed using zonal model and field model compares well with experiments. Further validation is needed before this code can be used for fire safety analyses. (author)

  3. 190 THE PUSH FACTORS OF INTRA-URBAN RESIDENTIAL ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Households move in search of residential satisfaction (Michelson, 1977). .... a move becomes a matter of action and not a reaction followed by an action. ... For example, man may first and foremost, look for safety and security in his housing.

  4. Discover the benefits of residential wood heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2003-01-01

    This publication described how residential wood-heating systems are being used to reduce energy costs and increase home comfort. Biomass energy refers to all forms are renewable energy that is derived from plant materials. The source of fuel may include sawmills, woodworking shops, forest operations and farms. The combustion of biomass is also considered to be carbon dioxide neutral, and is not considered to be a major producer of greenhouse gases (GHG) linked to global climate change. Wood burning does, however, release air pollutants, particularly if they are incompletely burned. Incomplete combustion of wood results in dense smoke consisting of toxic gases. Natural Resources Canada helped create new safety standards and the development of the Wood Energy Technical Training Program to ensure that all types of wood-burning appliances are installed correctly and safely to reduce the risk of fire and for effective wood heating. In Canada, more than 3 million families heat with wood as a primary or secondary heating source in homes and cottages. Wood heating offers security from energy price fluctuations and electrical power failures. This paper described the benefits of fireplace inserts that can transform old fireplaces into modern heating systems. It also demonstrated how an add-on wood furnace can be installed next to oil furnaces to convert an oil-only heating system to a wood-oil combination system, thereby saving thousands of dollars in heating costs. Wood pellet stoves are another wood burning option. The fuel for the stoves is produced from dried, finely ground wood waste that is compressed into hard pellets that are loaded into a hopper. The stove can run automatically for up to 24 hours. New high-efficiency advanced fireplaces also offer an alternative heating system that can reduce heating costs while preserving Canada's limited supply of fossil fuels such as oil and gas. 13 figs

  5. Sodium fires and its extinguishment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhedov, V.G.

    1979-01-01

    The fire safety problems of NPP with sodium coolants in USSR are presented. The design of sodium reactors is made with premises with sodium coolants being hermetic and filled with nitrogen. Some engineering solutions of fire safety including design, elaboration and choice of construction and protection materials are presented. Some theoretical aspects of sodium burning are presented as well as methods of sodium fire extinguishing methods including the use of powder

  6. Cinema Fire Modelling by FDS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Glasa, J; Valasek, L; Weisenpacher, P; Halada, L

    2013-01-01

    Recent advances in computer fluid dynamics (CFD) and rapid increase of computational power of current computers have led to the development of CFD models capable to describe fire in complex geometries incorporating a wide variety of physical phenomena related to fire. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) for cinema fire modelling. FDS is an advanced CFD system intended for simulation of the fire and smoke spread and prediction of thermal flows, toxic substances concentrations and other relevant parameters of fire. The course of fire in a cinema hall is described focusing on related safety risks. Fire properties of flammable materials used in the simulation were determined by laboratory measurements and validated by fire tests and computer simulations

  7. Cinema Fire Modelling by FDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasa, J.; Valasek, L.; Weisenpacher, P.; Halada, L.

    2013-02-01

    Recent advances in computer fluid dynamics (CFD) and rapid increase of computational power of current computers have led to the development of CFD models capable to describe fire in complex geometries incorporating a wide variety of physical phenomena related to fire. In this paper, we demonstrate the use of Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS) for cinema fire modelling. FDS is an advanced CFD system intended for simulation of the fire and smoke spread and prediction of thermal flows, toxic substances concentrations and other relevant parameters of fire. The course of fire in a cinema hall is described focusing on related safety risks. Fire properties of flammable materials used in the simulation were determined by laboratory measurements and validated by fire tests and computer simulations

  8. Review of vortices in wildland fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jason M. Forthofer; Scott L. Goodrick

    2011-01-01

    Vortices are almost always present in the wildland fire environment and can sometimes interact with the fire in unpredictable ways, causing extreme fire behavior and safety concerns. In this paper, the current state of knowledge of the interaction of wildland fire and vortices is examined and reviewed. A basic introduction to vorticity is given, and the two common...

  9. 29 CFR 1926.150 - Fire protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire protection. 1926.150 Section 1926.150 Labor... (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND HEALTH REGULATIONS FOR CONSTRUCTION Fire Protection and Prevention § 1926.150 Fire protection. (a) General requirements. (1) The employer shall be responsible for the development of a fire...

  10. 49 CFR 193.2801 - Fire protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire protection. 193.2801 Section 193.2801...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Fire Protection § 193.2801 Fire protection. Each operator must provide and maintain fire protection at LNG plants according to sections 9.1 through 9.7 and section 9.9 of NFPA 59A...

  11. 29 CFR 1917.21 - Open fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 7 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Open fires. 1917.21 Section 1917.21 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) OCCUPATIONAL SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR (CONTINUED) MARINE TERMINALS Marine Terminal Operations § 1917.21 Open fires. Open fires and fires in drums or...

  12. All fired up

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Bulletin

    2013-01-01

    Members of the Directorate and their support staff took part in a fire-fighting course organised by the CERN Fire Brigade just before the end-of-year break.  The Bulletin takes a look at the fire-fighting training on offer at CERN.   At CERN the risk of fire can never be under-estimated. In order to train personnel in the use of fire extinguishers, CERN's fire training centre in Prévessin acquired a fire-simulation platform in 2012. On the morning of 17 December 2012, ten members of the CERN directorate and their support staff tried out the platform, following in the footsteps of 400 other members of the CERN community who had already attended the course. The participants were welcomed to the training centre by Gilles Colin, a fire-fighter and instructor, who gave them a 30-minute introduction to general safety and the different types of fire and fire extinguishers, followed by an hour of practical instruction in the simulation facility. There they were able to pract...

  13. 49 CFR 193.2611 - Fire protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire protection. 193.2611 Section 193.2611 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY...: FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Maintenance § 193.2611 Fire protection. (a) Maintenance activities on fire...

  14. 30 CFR 77.306 - Fire protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire protection. 77.306 Section 77.306 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH MANDATORY....306 Fire protection. Based on the need for fire protection measures in connection with the particular...

  15. 77 FR 28519 - Test Procedure Guidance for Room Air Conditioners, Residential Dishwashers, and Residential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... Guidance for Room Air Conditioners, Residential Dishwashers, and Residential Clothes Washers: Public... procedures for room air conditioners, residential dishwashers, and residential clothes washers. DATES: DOE...'s existing test procedures for residential room air conditioners, residential dishwashers, and...

  16. The fire brigade renovates

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The new fire engine at CERN's Fire Station. A shiny brand-new fire engine is now attracting all the attention of the members of CERN's fire brigade. Since the beginning of last week this engine has taken over from an 18-year-old one, which has now been 'retired' from service. This modern vehicle, built in Brescia, Italy, is much lighter and more powerful than the old one and is equipped to allow the fire service to tackle most call-outs without the support of at least one other vehicle, as is currently necessary. The new fire engine is designed to transport six fire-fighters, 2000 litres of water, and is equipped not only for fire fighting actions but also to respond initially to any other kind of call-out, such as traffic accidents, chemical incidents, pollution, lightning, etc. It goes almost without saying that it is provided with the most modern safety measures, a low centre of gravity, as well as a special chassis and a combination pump (low and high pressure), which improve the safety and performance ...

  17. An Earth-Based Equivalent Low Stretch Apparatus to Assess Material Flammability for Microgravity and Extraterrestrial Fire-Safety Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, S. L.; Beeson, H.; Haas, J. P.

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this project is to modify the standard oxygen consumption (cone) calorimeter (described in ASTM E 1354 and NASA STD 6001 Test 2) to provide a reproducible bench-scale test environment that simulates the buoyant or ventilation flow that would be generated by or around a burning surface in a spacecraft or extraterrestrial gravity level. This apparatus will allow us to conduct normal gravity experiments that accurately and quantitatively evaluate a material's flammability characteristics in the real-use environment of spacecraft or extra-terrestrial gravitational acceleration. The Equivalent Low Stretch Apparatus (ELSA) uses an inverted cone geometry with the sample burning in a ceiling fire configuration that provides a reproducible bench-scale test environment that simulates the buoyant or ventilation flow that would be generated by a flame in a spacecraft or extraterrestrial gravity level. Prototype unit testing results are presented in this paper. Ignition delay times and regression rates for PMMA are presented over a range of radiant heat flux levels and equivalent stretch rates which demonstrate the ability of ELSA to simulate key features of microgravity and extraterrestrial fire behavior.

  18. Fire and the Design of Educational Buildings. Building Bulletin 7. Sixth Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Education and Science, London (England).

    This bulletin offers guidance on English school premises regulations applying to safety protection against fires in the following general areas: means of escape in case of fire; precautionary measures to prevent fire; fire warning systems and fire fighting; fire spreading speed; structures and materials resistant to fires; and damage control. It…

  19. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    Niels Dupont

    2013-01-01

    CERN Safety rules and Radiation Protection at CMS The CERN Safety rules are defined by the Occupational Health & Safety and Environmental Protection Unit (HSE Unit), CERN’s institutional authority and central Safety organ attached to the Director General. In particular the Radiation Protection group (DGS-RP1) ensures that personnel on the CERN sites and the public are protected from potentially harmful effects of ionising radiation linked to CERN activities. The RP Group fulfils its mandate in collaboration with the CERN departments owning or operating sources of ionising radiation and having the responsibility for Radiation Safety of these sources. The specific responsibilities concerning "Radiation Safety" and "Radiation Protection" are delegated as follows: Radiation Safety is the responsibility of every CERN Department owning radiation sources or using radiation sources put at its disposition. These Departments are in charge of implementing the requi...

  20. The importance of fire simulation in fire prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jevtić Radoje B.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The appearance of fire in objects with lot of humans inside represents very possible real situation that could be very danger and could cause destructive consequences on human lives and material properties. Very important influence in fire prediction, fire protection, human and material properties safety could be a fire simulation in object. This simulation could give many useful information of possible fire propagation; possible and existed evacuation routes; possible and exited placing of fire, smoke, temperature conditions in object and many other information of crucial importance for human lives and material properties, such as the best places for sensors position, optimal number of sensors, projection of possible evacuation routes etc. There are many different programs for fire simulation. This paper presents complete fire simulation in Electrotechnical school Nikola Tesla in Niš in FDS.

  1. Fire Resistant Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Fire hazard is greater in atmospheres containing a high percentage of oxygen under pressure. NASA intensified its fire safety research after a 1967 Apollo fire. A chemically treated fabric called Durette developed by Monsanto Company, which will not burn or produce noxious fumes, was selected as a material for Apollo astronaut garments. Monsanto sold production rights for this material to Fire Safe Products (FSP). Durette is now used for a wide range of applications such as: sheets, attendants' uniforms in hyperbaric chambers; crew's clothing, furniture and interior walls of diving chambers operated by the U.S. Navy and other oceanographic companies and research organizations. Pyrotect Safety Equipment, Minneapolis, MN produces Durette suits for auto racers, refuelers and crew chiefs from material supplied by FSP. FSP also manufactures Durette bags for filtering gases and dust from boilers, electric generators and similar systems. Durette bags are an alternative to other felted fiber capable of operating at high temperature that cost twice as much.

  2. Electric shock and electrical fire specialty

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2011-02-01

    This book deals with electric shock and electrical fire, which is made up seven chapters. It describes of special measurement for electric shock and electrical fire. It mentions concretely about electrical fire analysis and precautionary measurement, electrical shock analysis cases, occurrence of static electricity and measurement, gas accident, analysis of equipment accident and precautionary measurement. The book is published to educate the measurement on electric shock and electrical fire by electrical safety technology education center in Korea Electrical Safety Corporation.

  3. Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This annual report of the Senior Inspector for the Nuclear Safety, analyses the nuclear safety at EDF for the year 1999 and proposes twelve subjects of consideration to progress. Five technical documents are also provided and discussed concerning the nuclear power plants maintenance and safety (thermal fatigue, vibration fatigue, assisted control and instrumentation of the N4 bearing, 1300 MW reactors containment and time of life of power plants). (A.L.B.)

  4. Designing fire safe interiors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belles, D W

    1992-01-01

    Any product that causes a fire to grow large is deficient in fire safety performance. A large fire in any building represents a serious hazard. Multiple-death fires almost always are linked to fires that grow quickly to a large size. Interior finishes have large, continuous surfaces over which fire can spread. They are regulated to slow initial fire growth, and must be qualified for use on the basis of fire tests. To obtain meaningful results, specimens must be representative of actual installation. Variables--such as the substrate, the adhesive, and product thickness and density--can affect product performance. The tunnel test may not adequately evaluate some products, such as foam plastics or textile wall coverings, thermoplastic materials, or materials of minimal mass. Where questions exist, products should be evaluated on a full-scale basis. Curtains and draperies are examples of products that ignite easily and spread flames readily. The present method for testing curtains and draperies evaluates one fabric at a time. Although a fabric tested alone may perform well, fabrics that meet test standards individually sometimes perform poorly when tested in combination. Contents and furnishings constitute the major fuels in many fires. Contents may involve paper products and other lightweight materials that are easily ignited and capable of fast fire growth. Similarly, a small source may ignite many items of furniture that are capable of sustained fire growth. Upholstered furniture can reach peak burning rates in less than 5 minutes. Furnishings have been associated with many multiple-death fires.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Fire Technology Abstracts, volume 4, issue 1, August, 1981

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holtschlag, L. J.; Kuvshinoff, B. W.; Jernigan, J. B.

    This bibliography contains over 400 citations with abstracts addressing various aspects of fire technology. Subjects cover the dynamics of fire, behavior and properties of materials, fire modeling and test burns, fire protection, fire safety, fire service organization, apparatus and equipment, fire prevention, suppression, planning, human behavior, medical problems, codes and standards, hazard identification, safe handling of materials, insurance, economics of loss and prevention, and more.

  6. Games that ''Work'': Using Computer Games to Teach Alcohol-Affected Children about Fire and Street Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles, Claire D.; Strickland, Dorothy C.; Padgett, Lynne; Bellmoff, Lynnae

    2007-01-01

    Unintentional injuries are a leading cause of death and disability for children. Those with developmental disabilities, including children affected by prenatal alcohol exposure, are at highest risk for injuries. Although teaching safety skills is recommended to prevent injury, cognitive limitations and behavioral problems characteristic of…

  7. 30 CFR 56.4202 - Fire hydrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire hydrants. 56.4202 Section 56.4202 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-SURFACE METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control...

  8. 30 CFR 57.4202 - Fire hydrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire hydrants. 57.4202 Section 57.4202 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention and Control...

  9. An Earth-Based Equivalent Low Stretch Apparatus to Assess Material Flammability for Microgravity & Extraterrestrial Fire-Safety Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, S. L.; Beeson, H.; Haas, J.

    2001-01-01

    One of the performance goals for NASA's enterprise of Human Exploration and Development of Space (HEDS) is to develop methods, data bases, and validating tests for material flammability characterization, hazard reduction, and fire detection/suppression strategies for spacecraft and extraterrestrial habitats. This work addresses these needs by applying the fundamental knowledge gained from low stretch experiments to the development of a normal gravity low stretch material flammability test method. The concept of the apparatus being developed uses the low stretch geometry to simulate the conditions of the extraterrestrial environment through proper scaling of the sample dimensions to reduce the buoyant stretch in normal gravity. The apparatus uses controlled forced-air flow to augment the low stretch to levels which simulate Lunar or Martian gravity levels. In addition, the effect of imposed radiant heat flux on material flammability can be studied with the cone heater. After breadboard testing, the apparatus will be integrated into NASA's White Sands Test Facility's Atmosphere-Controlled Cone Calorimeter for evaluation as a new materials screening test method.

  10. 10 CFR 70.62 - Safety program and integrated safety analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...; (iv) Potential accident sequences caused by process deviations or other events internal to the... have experience in nuclear criticality safety, radiation safety, fire safety, and chemical process... this safety program; namely, process safety information, integrated safety analysis, and management...

  11. Comparison of the characteristics of fire and non-fire households in the 2004-2005 survey of fire department-attended and unattended fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Michael A

    2012-06-01

    Comparison of characteristics of fire with non-fire households to determine factors differentially associated with fire households (fire risk factors). National household telephone survey in 2004-2005 by the US Consumer Product Safety Commission with 916 fire households and a comparison sample of 2161 non-fire households. There were an estimated 7.4 million fires (96.6% not reported to fire departments) with 130,000 injuries. Bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression analyses to assess differences in household characteristics. Significant factors associated with fire households were renting vs. owning (OR 1.988 pfire households with non-cooking fires (OR 1.383 p=0.0011). Single family houses were associated with non-fire households in the bivariate analysis but not in the multivariate analyses. Renting, household members under 18 years old and smokers are risk factors for unattended fires, similar to the literature for fatal and injury fires. Differences included household members over 65 years old (associated with non-fire households), college/postgraduate education (associated with fire households) and lack of significance of income. Preventing cooking fires (64% of survey incidents), smoking prevention efforts and fire prevention education for families with young children have the potential for reducing unattended fires and injuries.

  12. Getting fire risk assessment right.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charters, David

    2012-06-01

    The NHS has one of the world's largest and most varied estates, which at any time accommodates many of the most dependent people in society. With around 6,000 fires occurring in NHS premises each year, its duty of care--and that of other healthcare providers--demands very close attention to fire safety. Here Dr David Charters BSc, PhD, CEng, FIFireE, MIMechE, MSFPE, director of Fire Engineering at BRE Global, an independent third party approvals body offering certification of fire, security, and sustainability products and services, examines the critical role of fire risk assessment, and explains why the process should provide the 'foundation' for effective fire safety measures.

  13. Measuring fire size in tunnels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo, Xiaoping; Zhang, Qihui

    2013-01-01

    A new measure of fire size Q′ has been introduced in longitudinally ventilated tunnel as the ratio of flame height to the height of tunnel. The analysis in this article has shown that Q′ controls both the critical velocity and the maximum ceiling temperature in the tunnel. Before the fire flame reaches tunnel ceiling (Q′ 1.0), Fr approaches a constant value. This is also a well-known phenomenon in large tunnel fires. Tunnel ceiling temperature shows the opposite trend. Before the fire flame reaches the ceiling, it increases very slowly with the fire size. Once the flame has hit the ceiling of tunnel, temperature rises rapidly with Q′. The good agreement between the current prediction and three different sets of experimental data has demonstrated that the theory has correctly modelled the relation among the heat release rate of fire, ventilation flow and the height of tunnel. From design point of view, the theoretical maximum of critical velocity for a given tunnel can help to prevent oversized ventilation system. -- Highlights: • Fire sizing is an important safety measure in tunnel design. • New measure of fire size a function of HRR of fire, tunnel height and ventilation. • The measure can identify large and small fires. • The characteristics of different fire are consistent with observation in real fires

  14. Fire as a galvanizing and fragmenting influence on communities: the case of the Rodeo-Chediski fire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthew S. Carroll; Patricia J. Cohn; David N. Seesholtz; Lorie L. Higgins

    2005-01-01

    Large wildfires that burn through the "forest-residential intermix" are complex events with a variety of social impacts. This study looks at three northern Arizona community clusters directly affected by the 2002 Rodeo-Chediski fire. Our analysis suggests that the fire event led to both the emergence of cohesion and conflict in the study area. Community...

  15. Analysis of the prevailing standard and technical documents for their applicability under conditions of the 'Ukrytie' operation and technical proposals relating to the elaboration of new ones concerning fire safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazarenko, B.S.; Emets, V.G.

    1998-01-01

    An analysis of the prevailing laws and standards and technical documents (STD) to ensure safe operation of nuclear power installations, with requirements of nuclear, radiation and fire safety taken into account, has been performed. Proposals on application of some items of prevailing STD under conditions of the 'Ukrytie' operation are presented. Also given are technical proposals on correction of the prevailing operational standard documents and elaboration of special STD

  16. The state of art of internal fire PSA in nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Xinli; Zhao Bo; Zheng Xiangyang

    2010-01-01

    The operational experiences of nuclear power plants (NPPs) show that the internal fires challenge effectively the nuclear safety of NPPs. Thus, the authorities having jurisdiction in the world have enhanced the supervision on fire safety in NPPs, asking the licensees to perform fire hazard analysis and evaluate the fire risk. This article mainly describes the state of art of internal fire probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) in the world, and compares the main methods and standards for internal fire PSA. (authors)

  17. 33 CFR 183.590 - Fire test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire test. 183.590 Section 183... SAFETY BOATS AND ASSOCIATED EQUIPMENT Fuel Systems Tests § 183.590 Fire test. (a) A piece of equipment is... A2” hoses and hose clamps are tested in a fire chamber. (2) Fuel filters, strainers, and pumps are...

  18. 76 FR 63801 - Fire Prevention Week, 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-13

    ... Proclamation Fires, whether caused by people or nature, can have devastating effects. Hundreds of thousands of... practice fire safety throughout the year. This year's Fire Prevention Week theme, ``Protect Your Family... mowing dry grasses to two inches or less, and by clearing brush, leaves, green grass, and lumber from...

  19. 29 CFR 1915.505 - Fire response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... accomplished; (3) Set up an incident management system to coordinate and direct fire response functions...-2000 Standard on Protective Ensemble for Structural Fire Fighting (incorporated by reference, see... for Proximity Fire Fighting (incorporated by reference, see § 1915.5). (6) Personal Alert Safety...

  20. Can Fire and Rescue Services and the National Health Service work together to improve the safety and wellbeing of vulnerable older people? Design of a proof of concept study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Whiting David G

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Older adults are at increased risk both of falling and of experiencing accidental domestic fire. In addition to advanced age, these adverse events share the risk factors of balance or mobility problems, cognitive impairment and socioeconomic deprivation. For both events, the consequences include significant injury and death, and considerable socioeconomic costs for the individual and informal carers, as well as for emergency services, health and social care agencies. Secondary prevention services for older people who have fallen or who are identifiable as being at high risk of falling include NHS Falls clinics, where a multidisciplinary team offers an individualised multifactorial targeted intervention including strength and balance exercise programmes, medication changes and home hazard modification. A similar preventative approach is employed by most Fire and Rescue Services who conduct Home Fire Safety Visits to assess and, if necessary, remedy domestic fire risk, fit free smoke alarms with instruction for use and maintenance, and plan an escape route. We propose that the similarity of population at risk, location, specific risk factors and the commonality of preventative approaches employed could offer net gains in terms of feasibility, effectiveness and acceptability if activities within these two preventative approaches were to be combined. Methods/Design This prospective proof of concept study, currently being conducted in two London boroughs, (Southwark and Lambeth aims to reduce the incidence of both fires and falls in community-dwelling older adults. It comprises two concurrent 12-month interventions: the integration of 1 fall risk assessments into the Brigade's Home Fire Safety Visit and 2 fire risk assessments into Falls services by inviting older clinic attendees to book a Visit. Our primary objective is to examine the feasibility and effectiveness of these interventions. Furthermore, we are evaluating their

  1. Nuclear insurance fire risk

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dressler, E.G.

    2001-01-01

    Nuclear facilities operate under the constant risk that radioactive materials could be accidentally released off-site and cause injuries to people or damages to the property of others. Management of this nuclear risk, therefore, is very important to nuclear operators, financial stakeholders and the general public. Operators of these facilities normally retain a portion of this risk and transfer the remainder to others through an insurance mechanism. Since the nuclear loss exposure could be very high, insurers usually assess their risk first-hand by sending insurance engineers to conduct a nuclear insurance inspection. Because a serious fire can greatly increase the probability of an off-site release of radiation, fire safety should be included in the nuclear insurance inspection. This paper reviews essential elements of a facility's fire safety program as a key factor in underwriting nuclear third-party liability insurance. (author)

  2. Condition assessment and strengthening of residential units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatheer Zahra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available About 40, ground plus one (G+1 residential units were designed using a hybrid structural framing system (RC frame and load bearing walls. A few months after the completion of the ground floor of the residential units, cracks appeared at several locations in the structure. Field and Laboratory testing was conducted to ascertain the in situ strength of concrete and steel reinforcement. The results of the experimental work were used in the analytical ETABS model for the structural stability calculations. The results indicated that residential units were marginally safe in the existing condition (completed ground floor, but the anticipated construction of the floor above the ground floor (G+1 could not be carried out as the strength of the structural system was inadequate. To increase the safety of existing ground floor and to provide the option of the construction of one floor above, rehabilitation and strengthening design was performed. The proposed strengthening design made use of welded wire fabric (WWF and carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP laminates/sheets for the strengthening of walls, columns and slabs. The residential units will be strengthened in the near future.

  3. Family ties and residential locations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, C.H.; Cooke, T.J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, and in the Special Issue it introduces, the focus is on the role of family ties in residential location choice and, conversely, the role of residential locations in maintaining family ties. Not only do events in the nuclear family trigger residential relocations, but nearby family

  4. Development of photovoltaic array and module safety requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Safety requirements for photovoltaic module and panel designs and configurations likely to be used in residential, intermediate, and large-scale applications were identified and developed. The National Electrical Code and Building Codes were reviewed with respect to present provisions which may be considered to affect the design of photovoltaic modules. Limited testing, primarily in the roof fire resistance field was conducted. Additional studies and further investigations led to the development of a proposed standard for safety for flat-plate photovoltaic modules and panels. Additional work covered the initial investigation of conceptual approaches and temporary deployment, for concept verification purposes, of a differential dc ground-fault detection circuit suitable as a part of a photovoltaic array safety system.

  5. Nuclear hazard/fire hazard: an elusive and important linkage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariani, L.P.

    1977-01-01

    The Brown's Ferry Fire signaled a yellow alert for nuclear safety related fire protection and showed that fire protection engineering must be regarded as a bona fide nuclear discipline. A single-failure design criteria violation resulted in fire damage to plant systems and plant instrumentation. Localized damage lead to significant consequences. Although the linkage between fire and nuclear hazard is termed subtle, effective standards and criteria development must be aimed to future plants. Combined fire protection and nuclear engineering inspections are planned

  6. Fire Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — Fire Stations in the United States Any location where fire fighters are stationed or based out of, or where equipment that such personnel use in carrying out their...

  7. GREEN RETROFITTING RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    When compared with the rest of the world, the United States consumes a disproportionately large amount of energy and is a major source of greenhouse gases from fossil fuel combustion. As much as two thirds of U.S. electricity production is consumed by residential and commerci...

  8. Residential Mechanical Precooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, a. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This research conducted by the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team evaluated mechanical air conditioner pre-cooling strategies in homes throughout the United States. EnergyPlus modeling evaluated two homes with different performance characteristics in seven climates. Results are applicable to new construction homes and most existing homes built in the last 10 years, as well as fairly efficient retrofitted homes.

  9. Application Study of Fire Severity Classification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In Hwan; Kim, Hyeong Taek; Jee, Moon Hak; Kim, Yun Jung

    2013-01-01

    This paper introduces the Fire Incidents Severity Classification Method for Korean NPPs that may be derived directly from the data fields and feasibility study for domestic uses. FEDB was characterized in more detail and assessed based on the significance of fire incidents in the updated database and five fire severity categories were defined. The logical approach to determine the fire severity starts from the most severe characteristics, namely challenging fires, and continues to define the less challenging and undetermined categories in progress. If the FEDB is utilized for Korean NPPs, the ways of Fire Severity Classification suggested in 2.4 above can be utilized for the quantitative fire risk analysis in future. The Fire Events Database (FEDB) is the primary source of fire data which are used for fire frequency in Fire PSA (Probabilistic Safety Assessment). The purpose of its development is to calculate the quantitative fire frequency at the comprehensive and consolidated source derived from the fire incident information available for Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs). Recently, the Fire Events Database (FEDB) was updated by Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in U. S. The FEDB is intended to update the fire event history up to 2009. A significant enhancement to it is the reorganization and refinement of the database structure and data fields. It has been expanded and improved data fields, coding consistency, incident detail, data review fields, and reference data source traceability. It has been designed to better support several Fire PRA uses as well

  10. SFPE handbook of fire protection engineering

    CERN Document Server

    Gottuk, Daniel; Jr, John; Harada, Kazunori; Kuligowski, Erica; Puchovsky, Milosh; Torero, Jose´; Jr, John; WIECZOREK, CHRISTOPHER

    2016-01-01

    Revised and significantly expanded, the fifth edition of this classic work offers both new and substantially updated information. As the definitive reference on fire protection engineering, this book provides thorough treatment of the current best practices in fire protection engineering and performance-based fire safety. Over 130 eminent fire engineers and researchers contributed chapters to the book, representing universities and professional organizations around the world. It remains the indispensible source for reliable coverage of fire safety engineering fundamentals, fire dynamics, hazard calculations, fire risk analysis, modeling and more. With seventeen new chapters and over 1,800 figures, the this new edition contains: • Step-by-step equations that explain engineering calculations • Comprehensive revision of the coverage of human behavior in fire, including several new chapters on egress system design, occupant evacuation scenarios, combustion toxicity and data for human behavior analysis • Rev...

  11. The fire course and consequences to be drawn from the fire in the Browns Ferry nuclear power station

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoffmeister, N.

    1977-01-01

    After a short description of the fire course and the fire fighting measures during the cable fire at Browns Ferry nuclear power station, the effects on the safety system are given in chronological order, and consequences are drawn for a general fire protection programme for nuclear power plants. In this context, the licensing guideline of the NRC for fire protection in nuclear power plants is mentioned, which took particular account of the consequences to be drawn from the Browns Ferry fire. (ORU) [de

  12. Development and validation of a physics-based urban fire spread model

    OpenAIRE

    HIMOTO, Keisuke; TANAKA, Takeyoshi

    2008-01-01

    A computational model for fire spread in a densely built urban area is developed. The model is distinct from existing models in that it explicitly describes fire spread phenomena with physics-based knowledge achieved in the field of fire safety engineering. In the model, urban fire is interpreted as an ensemble of multiple building fires; that is, the fire spread is simulated by predicting behaviors of individual building fires under the thermal influence of neighboring building fires. Adopte...

  13. 46 CFR 109.329 - Fire pumps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps. 109.329 Section 109.329 Shipping COAST GUARD... of Safety Equipment § 109.329 Fire pumps. The master or person in charge shall insure that at least one of the fire pumps required in § 108.415 is ready for use on the fire main system at all times. ...

  14. US Fire Administration Fire Statistics

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — The U.S. Fire Administration collects data from a variety of sources to provide information and analyses on the status and scope of the fire problem in the United...

  15. Cigarette Fires Involving Upholstered Furniture in Residences: The Role that Smokers, Smoker Behavior, and Fire Standard Compliant Cigarettes Play

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butry, David T.; Thomas, Douglas S.

    2017-01-01

    Residential structure fires pose a significant risk to life and property. A major source of these fires is the ignition of upholstered furniture by cigarettes. It has long been established that cigarettes and other lighted tobacco products could ignite upholstered furniture and were a leading cause of fire deaths in residences. In recent years, states have adopted fire standard compliant cigarettes (‘FSC cigarettes’) that are made with a wrapping paper that contains regularly spaced bands, which increases the likelihood of self-extinguishment. This paper measures the effectiveness of FSC cigarettes on the number of residential fires involving upholstered furniture, and the resulting fatalities, injuries, and extent of flame spread, while accounting for the under-reporting of fire incidents. In total, four models were estimated using fire department data from 2002 to 2011. The results provide evidence that FSC cigarettes, on average, reduced the number of residential fires by 45 %, reduced fatalities by 23 %, and extent of flame spread by 27 % in 2011. No effect on injuries was found. Within each state, effectiveness is moderated by the number of smokers and their consumption patterns. In general, FSC cigarettes are more effective in places with a large smoking population who engage in heavier smoking. There is a very limited effect on the lightest of smokers, suggesting behavioral differences between heavy and light smokers that influence fire risk. PMID:28751788

  16. Carbon Monoxide Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with the Media Fire Protection Technology Carbon monoxide safety outreach materials Keep your community informed about the ... KB | Spanish PDF 592 KB Handout: carbon monoxide safety Download this handout and add your organization's logo ...

  17. Fire and EMS Districts, Fire District boundaries within Sedgwick County. Cover is programmatically derived from taxing unit districts. Used for Public Safety map rolls. Primary attribute is fire district name. Published to scfiredia.shp., Published in 2008, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Sedgwick County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Fire and EMS Districts dataset current as of 2008. Fire District boundaries within Sedgwick County. Cover is programmatically derived from taxing unit districts....

  18. Experimental study of fire barriers preventing vertical fire spread in ETISs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Huang

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, the external thermal insulation system (ETIS has been applied increasingly in a large amount of buildings for energy conservation purpose. However, the increase use of combustible insulation materials in the ETIS has raised serious fire safety problems. Fires involving this type of ETIS have caused severe damage and loss. In order to improve its fire safety, fire barriers were suggested to be installed. This paper introduces fire experiments that have been done to study the effects of fire barriers on preventing vertical fire spread along the ETIS. The experiments were performed according to BS 8414-1:2002 “Fire performance of external cladding systems – Part 1: Test method for non-loadbearing external cladding systems applied to the face of the building”. The test facility consists of a 9 m high wall. The fire sources were wood cribs with a fire size of 3 ± 0.5 MW. The insulation materials were expanded polystyrene foam (EPS. The fire barrier was a horizontal strip of rockwool with a width of 300 mm. Thermocouples were used to measure temperatures outside and inside the ETIS. A series of experiments with different fire scenarios were done: no fire barrier, two fire barriers and three fire barriers at different heights. Test results were compared. The results show that the ETIS using EPS without fire barriers almost burned out, while the ETIS with fire barriers performed well in preventing fire spread. The temperatures above the fire barrier were much lower than those below the fire barrier, and most of the insulation materials above the top fire barrier stayed in place.

  19. Forest fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuller, M.

    1991-01-01

    This book examines the many complex and sensitive issues relating to wildland fires. Beginning with an overview of the fires of 1980s, the book discusses the implications of continued drought and considers the behavior of wildland fires, from ignition and spread to spotting and firestorms. Topics include the effects of weather, forest fuels, fire ecology, and the effects of fire on plants and animals. In addition, the book examines firefighting methods and equipment, including new minimum impact techniques and compressed air foam; prescribed burning; and steps that can be taken to protect individuals and human structures. A history of forest fire policies in the U.S. and a discussion of solutions to fire problems around the world completes the coverage. With one percent of the earth's surface burning every year in the last decade, this is a penetrating book on a subject of undeniable importance

  20. Methodology for fire PSA during design process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kollasko, Heiko; Blombach, Joerg

    2009-01-01

    Fire PSA is an essential part of a full scope level 1 PSA. Cable fires play an important role in fire PSA. Usually, cable routing is therefore modeled in detail. During the design of new nuclear power plants the information on cable routing is not yet available. However, for the use of probabilistic safety insights during the design and for licensing purposes a fire PSA may be requested. Therefore a methodology has been developed which makes use of the strictly divisional separation of redundancies in the design of modern nuclear power plants: cable routing is not needed within one division but replaced by the conservative assumption that all equipment fails due to a fire in the concerned division; critical fire areas are defined where components belonging to different divisions may be affected by a fire. For the determination of fire frequencies a component based approach is proposed. The resulting core damage frequencies due to fire are conservative. (orig.)

  1. SAFETY

    CERN Multimedia

    C. Schaefer and N. Dupont

    2013-01-01

      “Safety is the highest priority”: this statement from CERN is endorsed by the CMS management. An interpretation of this statement may bring you to the conclusion that you should stop working in order to avoid risks. If the safety is the priority, work is not! This would be a misunderstanding and misinterpretation. One should understand that “working safely” or “operating safely” is the priority at CERN. CERN personnel are exposed to different hazards on many levels on a daily basis. However, risk analyses and assessments are done in order to limit the number and the gravity of accidents. For example, this process takes place each time you cross the road. The hazard is the moving vehicle, the stake is you and the risk might be the risk of collision between both. The same principle has to be applied during our daily work. In particular, keeping in mind the general principles of prevention defined in the late 1980s. These principles wer...

  2. Fire protection at the Mochovce nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnarova, Zuzana; Zeman, Peter

    2009-01-01

    A succinct account is given of current situation in fire prevention at the Mochovce NPP and of past fire events. The fact is stressed that no fire ever occurred at any technological facility of the plant since the startup of the reactor units. Steps required to improve fire safety at a nuclear power plant are highlighted. (orig.)

  3. Fire hazards analysis for solid waste burial grounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, K.M.

    1995-01-01

    This document comprises the fire hazards analysis for the solid waste burial grounds, including TRU trenches, low-level burial grounds, radioactive mixed waste trenches, etc. It analyzes fire potential, and fire damage potential for these facilities. Fire scenarios may be utilized in future safety analysis work, or for increasing the understanding of where hazards may exist in the present operation

  4. Forest fires in Pennsylvania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donald A. Haines; William A. Main; Eugene F. McNamara

    1978-01-01

    Describes factors that contribute to forest fires in Pennsylvania. Includes an analysis of basic statistics; distribution of fires during normal, drought, and wet years; fire cause, fire activity by day-of-week; multiple-fire day; and fire climatology.

  5. Safety handbook

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organization's Safety Handbook is to outline simply the fundamental procedures and safety precautions which provide an appropriate framework for safe working with any potential hazards, such as fire and explosion, welding, cutting, brazing and soldering, compressed gases, cryogenic liquids, chemicals, ionizing radiations, non-ionising radiations, sound and vibration, as well as safety in the office. It also specifies the organisation for safety at the Lucas Heights Research Laboratories and the responsibilities of individuals and committees. It also defines the procedures for the scrutiny and review of all operations and the resultant setting of safety rules for them. ills

  6. Coal fires in Indonesia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitehouse, Alfred E.; Mulyana, Asep A.S. [Office of Surface Mining/Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources Coal Fire Project, Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resources, Agency for Training and Education, Jl. Gatot Subroto, Kav. 49, Jakarta 12950 (Indonesia)

    2004-07-12

    Indonesia's fire and haze problem is increasingly being ascribed to large-scale forest conversion and land clearing activities making way for pulpwood, rubber and oil palm plantations. Fire is the cheapest tool available to small holders and plantation owners to reduce vegetation cover and prepare and fertilize extremely poor soils. Fires that escaped from agricultural burns have ravaged East Kalimantan forests on the island of Borneo during extreme drought periods in 1982-1983, 1987, 1991, 1994 and 1997-1998. Estimates based on satellite data and ground observations are that more than five million hectares were burned in East Kalimantan during the 1997/1998 dry season. Not only were the economic losses and ecological damage from these surface fires enormous, they ignited coal seams exposed at the ground surface along their outcrops.Coal fires now threaten Indonesia's shrinking ecological resources in Kutai National Park and Sungai Wain Nature Reserve. Sungai Wain has one of the last areas of unburned primary rainforest in the Balikpapan-Samarinda area with an extremely rich biodiversity. Although fires in 1997/1998 damaged nearly 50% of this Reserve and ignited 76 coal fires, it remains the most valuable water catchment area in the region and it has been used as a reintroduction site for the endangered orangutan. The Office of Surface Mining provided Indonesia with the capability to take quick action on coal fires that presented threats to public health and safety, infrastructure or the environment. The US Department of State's Southeast Asia Environmental Protection Initiative through the US Agency for International Development funded the project. Technical assistance and training transferred skills in coal fire management through the Ministry of Energy and Mineral Resource's Training Agency to the regional offices; giving the regions the long-term capability to manage coal fires. Funding was also included to extinguish coal fires as

  7. 30 CFR 75.1103-1 - Automatic fire sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Automatic fire sensors. 75.1103-1 Section 75.1103-1 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY... fire sensors. A fire sensor system shall be installed on each underground belt conveyor. Sensors so...

  8. Fire and explosion security in the petroleum sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The conference has 12 presentations on topics regarding fire fighting, explosions and development scenarios, safety and security aspects, management of safety issues and measures and preparedness. Some accidents and fires are discussed. Some important problems with LNG with respects to plants, transport, fires and risk assessment are presented.

  9. Safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, P.M.S.

    1987-01-01

    Aspects of fission reactors are considered - control, heat removal and containment. Brief descriptions of the reactor accidents at the SL-1 reactor (1961), Windscale (1957), Browns Ferry (1975), Three Mile Island (1979) and Chernobyl (1986) are given. The idea of inherently safe reactor designs is discussed. Safety assessment is considered under the headings of preliminary hazard analysis, failure mode analysis, event trees, fault trees, common mode failure and probabalistic risk assessments. These latter can result in a series of risk distributions linked to specific groups of fault sequences and specific consequences. A frequency-consequence diagram is shown. Fatal accident incidence rates in different countries including the United Kingdom for various industries are quoted. The incidence of fatal cancers from occupational exposure to chemicals is tabulated. Human factors and the acceptability of risk are considered. (U.K.)

  10. Assessing Wildland Fire Risk Transmission to Communities in Northern Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fermín J. Alcasena

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We assessed potential economic losses and transmission to residential houses from wildland fires in a rural area of central Navarra (Spain. Expected losses were quantified at the individual structure level (n = 306 in 14 rural communities by combining fire model predictions of burn probability and fire intensity with susceptibility functions derived from expert judgement. Fire exposure was estimated by simulating 50,000 fire events that replicated extreme (97th percentile historical fire weather conditions. Spatial ignition probabilities were used in the simulations to account for non-random ignitions, and were estimated from a fire occurrence model generated with an artificial neural network. The results showed that ignition probability explained most of spatial variation in risk, with economic value of structures having only a minor effect. Average expected loss to residential houses from a single wildfire event in the study area was 7955€, and ranged from a low of 740 to the high of 28,725€. Major fire flow-paths were analyzed to understand fire transmission from surrounding municipalities and showed that incoming fires from the north exhibited strong pathways into the core of the study area, and fires spreading from the south had the highest likelihood of reaching target residential structures from the longest distances (>5 km. Community firesheds revealed the scale of risk to communities and extended well beyond administrative boundaries. The results provided a quantitative risk assessment that can be used by insurance companies and local landscape managers to prioritize and allocate investments to treat wildland fuels and identify clusters of high expected loss within communities. The methodological framework can be extended to other fire-prone southern European Union countries where communities are threatened by large wildland fires.

  11. Root cause analysis for fire events at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-09-01

    Fire hazard has been identified as a major contributor to a plant' operational safety risk. The International nuclear power community (regulators, operators, designers) has been studying and developing tools for defending against this hazed. Considerable advances have been achieved during past two decades in design and regulatory requirements for fire safety, fire protection technology and related analytical techniques. The IAEA endeavours to provide assistance to Member States in improving fire safety in nuclear power plants. A task was launched by IAEA in 1993 with the purpose to develop guidelines and good practices, to promote advanced fire safety assessment techniques, to exchange state of the art information, and to provide engineering safety advisory services and training in the implementation of internationally accepted practices. This TECDOC addresses a systematic assessment of fire events using the root cause analysis methodology, which is recognized as an important element of fire safety assessment

  12. 46 CFR 28.820 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... REQUIREMENTS FOR COMMERCIAL FISHING INDUSTRY VESSELS Aleutian Trade Act Vessels § 28.820 Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses. (a) Each vessel must be equipped with a self-priming, power driven fire...

  13. Wildland fire limits subsequent fire occurrence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sean A. Parks; Carol Miller; Lisa M. Holsinger; Scott Baggett; Benjamin J. Bird

    2016-01-01

    Several aspects of wildland fire are moderated by site- and landscape-level vegetation changes caused by previous fire, thereby creating a dynamic where one fire exerts a regulatory control on subsequent fire. For example, wildland fire has been shown to regulate the size and severity of subsequent fire. However, wildland fire has the potential to influence...

  14. Exploratory Studies Facility Subsurface Fire Hazards Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Logan, Richard C.

    2002-01-01

    The primary objective of this Fire Hazard Analysis (FHA) is to confirm the requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) are sufficient to minimize the potential for: The occurrence of a fire or related event; A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees, the public or the environment; Vital U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards; Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE; and Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events

  15. Exploratory Studies Facility Subsurface Fire Hazards Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubicek, J. L.

    2001-01-01

    The primary objective of this Fire Hazard Analysis (FHA) is to confirm the requirements for a comprehensive fire and related hazards protection program for the Exploratory Studies Facility (ESF) are sufficient to minimize the potential for: (1) The occurrence of a fire or related event. (2) A fire that causes an unacceptable on-site or off-site release of hazardous or radiological material that will threaten the health and safety of employees, the public or the environment. (3) Vital US. Department of Energy (DOE) programs suffering unacceptable interruptions as a result of fire and related hazards. (4) Property losses from a fire and related events exceeding limits established by DOE. (5) Critical process controls and safety class systems being damaged as a result of a fire and related events

  16. Deterministic analysis of mid scale outdoor fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vidmar, P.; Petelin, S.

    2003-01-01

    The idea behind the article is how to define fire behaviour. The work is based on an analytical study of fire origin, its development and spread. Mathematical fire model called FDS (Fire Dynamic Simulator) is used in the presented work. A CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamic) model using LES (Large Eddie Simulation) is used to calculate fire development and spread of combustion products in the environment. The fire source is located in the vicinity of the hazardous plant, power, chemical etc. The article presents the brief background of the FDS computer program and the initial and boundary conditions used in the mathematical model. Results discuss output data and check the validity of results. The work also presents some corrections of the physical model used, which influence the quality of results. The obtained results were discussed and compared with the Fire Safety Analysis report included in the Probabilistic Safety Assessment of Krsko nuclear power plant. (author)

  17. Fire hazard analysis for fusion energy experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvares, N.J.; Hasegawa, H.K.

    1979-01-01

    The 2XIIB mirror fusion facility at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory (LLL) was used to evaluate the fire safety of state-of-the-art fusion energy experiments. The primary objective of this evaluation was to ensure the parallel development of fire safety and fusion energy technology. Through fault-tree analysis, we obtained a detailed engineering description of the 2XIIB fire protection system. This information helped us establish an optimum level of fire protection for experimental fusion energy facilities as well as evaluate the level of protection provided by various systems. Concurrently, we analyzed the fire hazard inherent to the facility using techniques that relate the probability of ignition to the flame spread and heat-release potential of construction materials, electrical and thermal insulations, and dielectric fluids. A comparison of the results of both analyses revealed that the existing fire protection system should be modified to accommodate the range of fire hazards inherent to the 2XIIB facility

  18. A Model of Clean Water Supply and Improvement of Enviromental Sanitary Conditions in Residential Clusters in The Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Nguyen Thuy Lan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Decision 99/TTg dated 9/2/1996 and Decision 173/TTg dated 6/11/2001 of the Prime Minister regarding the construction program of residential clusters (residential flood free areas, these residential areas as constructed would be fully equipped with critical infrastructures and services such as water supply and drainage works, toilets with sanitary appropriateness, etc. to ensure environmental sanitary conditions in the residential clusters. However, the actual surveys done in residential clusters in the Mekong Delta show that many arising problems must be addressed to enable the local communities to have better living conditions and ensure the sanitary conditions and environmental safety.

  19. Response of fire detectors to different smokes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjoerkman, J.; Keski-Rahkonen, O.

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to characterize the behavior of fire alarm systems based on smoke detectors on smoldering fires especially cable fires in nuclear power plants (NPP). Full-scale fire experiments were carried out in a laboratory designed according to the standard EN54-9. The laboratory was instrumented with additional equipment such as thermocouples and flow meters which are not used in standard fire sensitivity tests. This allows the results to be used as experimental data for validation tasks of numerical fire simulation computerized fluid dynamics (CFD)-codes. The ultimate goal of the research is to model theoretically smoldering and flaming cable fires, their smoke production, transfer of smoke to detectors, as well as the response of detectors and fire alarm systems to potential fires. This would allow the use of numerical fire simulation to predict fire hazards in different fire scenarios found important in PSA (probability safety assessment) of NPPs. This report concentrates on explaining full-scale fire experiments in the smoke sensitivity laboratory and experimental results from fire tests of detectors. Validation tasks with CFD-codes will be first carried out 'blind' without any idea about corresponding experimental results. Accordingly, the experimental results cannot be published in this report. (orig.)

  20. Re-thinking residential mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ham, Maarten; Findlay, Allan M.

    2015-01-01

    While researchers are increasingly re-conceptualizing international migration, far less attention has been devoted to re-thinking short-distance residential mobility and immobility. In this paper we harness the life course approach to propose a new conceptual framework for residential mobility research. We contend that residential mobility and immobility should be re-conceptualized as relational practices that link lives through time and space while connecting people to structural conditions. Re-thinking and re-assessing residential mobility by exploiting new developments in longitudinal analysis will allow geographers to understand, critique and address pressing societal challenges. PMID:27330243

  1. Large-Scale Residential Demolition

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA provides resources for handling residential demolitions or renovations. This includes planning, handling harmful materials, recycling, funding, compliance assistance, good practices and regulations.

  2. Nuclear safety - Topical issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-01-01

    The following topical issues related to nuclear safety are discussed: steam generators; maintenance strategies; control rod drive nozzle cracks; core shrouds cracks; sump strainer blockage; fire protection; computer software important for safety; safety during shutdown; operational safety experience; external hazards and other site related issues. 5 figs, 5 tabs

  3. Behaviour of electrical cables under fire conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, R.; Chaussard, M.; Gonzalez, R.; Lacoue, J.; Mattei, J.M.; Such, J.M.

    2002-01-01

    A Fire Probabilistic Safety Assessment - called the Fire PSA - is being carried out by the French Institute of Radiological Protection and Nuclear Safety (IPSN) to be used in the framework of the safety assessment of operating 900 MWe PWRs. The aim of this study is to evaluate the core damage conditional probability which could result from a fire. A fire can induce unavailability of safety equipment, notably damaging electrical cables introducing a significant risk contributor. The purpose of this paper is to present the electrical cable fire tests carried out by IPSN to identify the failure modes and to determine the cable damage criteria. The impact of each kind of cable failure mode and the methodology used to estimate the conditional probability of a failure mode when cable damage occurred is also discussed. (orig.) [de

  4. Passive fire protection role and evolutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cerosky, Tristan [NUVIA (France); Perdrix, Johan [NUVIA Protection (France)

    2015-12-15

    Major incidents associated with nuclear power plants often invoke a re-examination of key safety barriers. Fire hazard, in particular, is a key concern for safe operation of nuclear power plants given its propensity to damage safety systems which could ultimately lead to radioactive release into the atmosphere. In the recent past, events such as the Fukushima disaster have led to an industry-wide push to improve nuclear safety arrangements. As part of these measures, upgrading of fire safety systems has received significant attention. In addition to the inherent intricacies associated with such a complex undertaking, factors such as frequent changes in the national and European fire regulations also require due attention while formulating a fire protection strategy. This paper will highlight some salient aspects underpinning an effective fire protection strategy. This will involve: A) A comprehensive introduction to the different aspects of fire safety (namely prevention, containment and mitigation) supported by a review of the development of the RCC-I from 1993 to 1997 editions and the ETC-F (AFCEN codes used by EDF in France). B) Development of the fire risk analysis methodology and the different functions of passive fire protection within this method involving confinement and protection of safety-related equipment. C) A review of the benefits of an effective passive fire protection strategy, alongside other arrangements (such as active fire protection) to a nuclear operator in term of safety and cost savings. It is expected that the paper will provide nuclear operators useful guidelines for strengthening existing fire protection systems.

  5. FIRE-PRAN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waterfall, K.W.

    1991-01-01

    Shell Internationale Petroleum Maatschappij B.V. (SIPM), is a service company in the Royal Dutch/Shell Group of Companies who provides services worldwide (outside of the USA) to Shell Operating Companies. It has defined and recommended for implementation by Shell Companies a policy on safety (Enhanced Safety Management policy) to manage the total safety aspects of all they do, including the design, engineering, installation and operation of their facilities worldwide. This policy affects all activities in such a way as to avoid harm to health of, or injury to employees and others as well as avoiding damage to property. This in turn reflects through specific policies and standards for investment strategy, engineering and operations of facilities. With average Group losses due to major fires and explosion (for each incident over Brit-pounds 100,000) between 1988 and 1990 being of the order of Brit-pounds 28 million, there is an obvious potential to effectively employ fire protection criteria in design. However, Shell need to ensure the cost-effective application of protective measures, but first and foremost it is essential not to jeopardize life or risk damage to the environment. FIRE-PRAN has the possibility to do this efficiently as it is A systematic team approach for identification of all potential fire and explosion hazards and consequences, and a means for developing optimal means of protection for all types of facilities. It should thus be considered as an auditing technique, but one that fits into the overall safe management of activities. This paper discusses the status of development of the FIRE-PRAN technique following its successful application over a number of years to a variety of equipment and installations

  6. On fire

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Helle Rabøl

    The title of this paper: “On fire”, refers to two (maybe three) aspects: firstly as a metaphor of having engagement in a community of practice according to Lave & Wenger (1991), and secondly it refers to the concrete element “fire” in the work of the fire fighters – and thirdly fire as a signifier...

  7. Fire Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denker, Deb; West, Lee

    2009-01-01

    For education administrators, campus fires are not only a distressing loss, but also a stark reminder that a campus faces risks that require special vigilance. In many ways, campuses resemble small communities, with areas for living, working and relaxing. A residence hall fire may raise the specter of careless youth, often with the complication of…

  8. Fire Extinguisher Training for Fire Watch and Designated Workers, Course 9893

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Jimmy D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-04-19

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), all workers must be aware of LANL fire protection policies and be trained on what to do in the event of a fire. This course, Fire Extinguisher Training for Fire Watch and Designated Workers (#9893), provides awareness-level and hands-on training for fire watch personnel and designated workers. Fire watch personnel and designated workers are appointed by line management and must receive both awareness-level training and hands-on training in the use of portable fire extinguishers to extinguish an incipient-stage fire. This training meets the requirements of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 29 CFR 1910.157, Portable Fire Extinguishers, and Procedure (P) 101-26, Welding, Cutting, and Other Spark-/Flame-Producing Operations.

  9. Fire Extinguisher Designated Worker and Fire Watch: Self-Study Course 15672

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harris, Jimmy D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-07-08

    At Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), all workers must be aware of LANL fire protection policies and be trained on what to do in the event of a fire. This course, Fire Extinguisher Training for Fire Watch and Designated Workers (#9893), provides awareness-level and hands-on training for fire watch personnel and designated workers. Fire watch personnel and designated workers are appointed by line management and must receive both awareness-level training and hands-on training in the use of portable fire extinguishers to extinguish an incipient-stage fire. This training meets the requirements of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 29 CFR 1910.157, Portable Fire Extinguishers, and Procedure (P) 101-26, Welding, Cutting, and Other Spark-/Flame-Producing Operations.

  10. Risk Assessment of the Main Control Room Fire Using Fire Simulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Dae Il; Kim, Kilyoo; Jang, Seung Cheol

    2013-01-01

    KAERI is performing a fire PSA for a reference plant, Ulchin Unit 3, as part of developing the Korean site risk profile (KSRP). Fire simulations of the MCR fire were conducted using the CFAST (Consolidated Fire Growth and Smoke Transport) model and FDS (fire dynamic simulator) to improve the uncertainty in the MCR fire risk analysis. Using the fire simulation results, the MCR abandonment risk was evaluated. Level 1 PSA (probabilistic safety assessment) results of Ulchin Unit 3 using the EPRI PRA (probabilistic risk assessment) implementation guide showed that the MCR (main control room) fire was the main contributor to the core damage frequency. Recently, U. S. NRC and EPRI developed NUREG/CR-6850 to provide state-of-the-art methods, tools, and data for the conduct of a fire PSA for a commercial NPP

  11. Fighting fires... with science

    CERN Document Server

    Anaïs Schaeffer

    2016-01-01

    CERN firefighters are working with a research centre in the United States to develop more effective firefighting techniques.   One of the UL FSRI’s model houses is set alight... in the interest of science. (Photo: ©UL FSRI) For around ten years, the Underwriters Laboratories Firefighter Safety Research Institute (UL FSRI) has been carrying out scientific research on the various techniques used by firefighters in the United States and around the world. This research has focused on evaluating the effectiveness and safety of current practices worldwide with the aim of developing even better techniques. In many cases the research has shown that a combination of techniques gives the best results. The interiors of the model houses are fully furnished. (Photo: ©UL FSRI) Art Arnalich, who has worked with fire brigades in the United States and Europe and is now a member of CERN’s Fire Brigade, has actively participated in this research since 2013. His knowledge of ...

  12. 46 CFR 28.315 - Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses... After September 15, 1991, and That Operate With More Than 16 Individuals on Board § 28.315 Fire pumps, fire mains, fire hydrants, and fire hoses. (a) Each vessel 36 feet (11.8 meters) or more in length must...

  13. Forest-fire models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haiganoush Preisler; Alan Ager

    2013-01-01

    For applied mathematicians forest fire models refer mainly to a non-linear dynamic system often used to simulate spread of fire. For forest managers forest fire models may pertain to any of the three phases of fire management: prefire planning (fire risk models), fire suppression (fire behavior models), and postfire evaluation (fire effects and economic models). In...

  14. Fire hazard analysis for WWER nuclear power plants. Report of the IAEA extrabudgetary programme on the safety of WWER nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-12-01

    This status report presents an overview of the different techniques available to carry out a fire hazard analysis, from qualitative criteria to quantitative methodologies of different purposes and basis; and then, it details a simplified methodology based on a screening approach which could be used in former Soviet designed nuclear power plants. The methodology presented in this report is an adequate means to identify fire related plant specific vulnerabilities to severe accidents, and it provides a useful tool for ranking the various plant fires according to their significances, as well as technical basis for prioritizing the implementation of plant improvements. The applicability of the methodology proposed to the former Soviet Union designed reactors has been evaluated. Its usefulness to the purpose defined above is conclusive. However, some aspects need further consideration, among others data sources and screening criteria. Computer codes for studying fire effects and fire spread in plant locations are also dealt with. Some computer codes are shortly described, from simplified models to more complex ones which allow more accurate modelling of geometries and accounting for additional phenomena. 10 refs, 5 tabs

  15. Health and safety manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-02-01

    The manual consists of the following chapters: general policies and administration; the Environmental Health and Safety Department; the Medical Services Department: biological hazards; chemical safety; confined space entry; cryogenic safety; electrical safety; emergency plans; engineering and construction; evacuations, trenching, and shoring; fire safety; gases, flammable and compressed; guarding, mechanical; ladders and scaffolds, work surfaces; laser safety; materials handling and storage; noise; personal protective equipment; pressure safety; radiation safety, ionizing and non-ionizing; sanitation; seismic safety; training, environmental health and safety; tools, power and hand-operated; traffic and transportation; and warning signs and devices

  16. IPSN's experimental programmes on fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Every year fires occur in nuclear installations as they do in any industrial facility. They feed on cables, electrical equipment cabinets, oils, solvents..., they might lead to the degradation of the safety standard of the installation or they might threaten the confinement of radioactive materials. In this document IPSN presents its experimental programmes and its facilities in Saclay and Cadarache designed to study the triggering and the propagation of fires and flames in closed and ventilated premises. (A.C.)

  17. A fire risk analysis method for nuclear installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ormieres, Yannick; Lacoue, Jocelyne [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), PSN-RES, SA2I, Fontenay-aux-Roses (France)

    2013-07-01

    A fire safety analysis (FSA) is requested to justify the adequacy of fire protection measures set by the operator of a nuclear facility. An IRSN document outlines a global process for such a comprehensive fire safety analysis and focuses on compliance with performance criteria for fire protection measures. These performance criteria are related to the vulnerability of targets to effects of fire, and not only based upon outside radiological consequences caused by a fire. In his FSA, the operator has to define the safety functions to be preserved in the case of a fire in order to be compliant with nuclear safety objectives. Then, the operator has to justify the adequacy of fire protection measures, defined according to defence in depth principles. One of the key points of the fire analysis is the assessment of possible fire scenarios in the facility. Given the large number of possible fire scenarios, it is then necessary to evaluate ''reference fires'' which are envelope of all possible fire scenarios and which are used by the operator for the design of fire protection measures. (orig.)

  18. Residential Mechanical Precooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, Alea [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States). Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI); Hoeschele, Marc [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States). Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI)

    2014-12-01

    Residential air conditioning (AC) represents a challenging load for many electric utilities with poor load factors. Mechanical precooling improves the load factor by shifting cooling operation from on-peak to off-peak hours. This provides benefits to utilities and the electricity grid, as well as to occupants who can take advantage of time-of-use (TOU) electricity rates. Performance benefits stem from reduced compressor cycling, and shifting condensing unit operation to earlier periods of the day when outdoor temperatures are more favorable to operational efficiency. Finding solutions that save energy and reduce demand on the electricity grid is an important national objective and supports key Building America goals. The Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team evaluated mechanical AC precooling strategies in homes throughout the United States. EnergyPlus modeling was used to evaluate two homes with different performance characteristics in seven climates. Results are applicable to new construction homes and most existing homes built in the last 10 years, as well as fairly efficient retrofitted homes. A successful off-peak AC strategy offers the potential for increased efficiency and improved occupant comfort, and promotes a more reliable and robust electricity grid. Demand response capabilities and further integration with photovoltaic TOU generation patterns provide additional opportunities to flatten loads and optimize grid impacts.

  19. PSA methodology including new design, operational and safety factors, 'Level of recognition of phenomena with a presumed dominant influence upon operational safety' (failures of conventional as well as non-conventional passive components, dependent failures, influence of operator, fires and external threats, digital control, organizational factors)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jirsa, P.

    2001-10-01

    The document represents a specific type of discussion of existing methodologies for the creation and application of probabilistic safety assessment (PSA) in light of the EUR document summarizing requirements placed by Western European NPP operators on the future design of nuclear power plants. A partial goal of this discussion consists in mapping, from the PSA point of view, those selected design, operational and/or safety factors of future NPPs that may be entirely new or, at least, newly addressed. Therefore, the terms of reference for this stage were formulated as follows: Assess current level of knowledge and procedures in the analysis of factors and phenomena with a dominant influence upon operational safety of new generation reactors, especially in the following areas: (1) Phenomenology of failure types and mechanisms and reliability of conventional passive safety system components; (2) Phenomenology of failure types and mechanisms and reliability of non-conventional passive components of newly designed safety systems; (3) Phenomenology of types and mechanisms of dependent failures; (4) Human factor role in new generation reactors and its effect upon safety; (5) Fire safety and other external threats to new nuclear installations; (6) Reliability of the digital systems of the I and C system and their effect upon safety; and (7) Organizational factors in new nuclear installations. (P.A.)

  20. Millwright Apprenticeship. Related Training Modules. 1.1-1.8 Safety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane Community Coll., Eugene, OR.

    This packet, part of the instructional materials for the Oregon apprenticeship program for millwright training, contains eight modules covering safety. The modules provide information on the following topics: general safety, hand tool safety, power tool safety, fire safety, hygiene, safety and electricity, types of fire and fire prevention, and…

  1. Residential energy demand in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arouca, M.; Gomes, F.M.; Rosa, L.P.

    1981-01-01

    The energy demand in Brazilian residential sector is studied, discussing the methodology for analyzing this demand from some ideas suggested, for developing an adequate method to brazilian characteristics. The residential energy consumption of several fuels in Brazil is also presented, including a comparative evaluation with the United States and France. (author)

  2. Italian position paper on the safety analysis of liquid metal fast breeder reactors as related to sodium fires. The PEC reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerosa, A.

    1983-01-01

    To obtain a deep understanding of physical phenomena and engineering problems connected to sodium fires, and to optimize the utilization of human and financial resources available, CNEN (now ENEA) has decided to join the French Commissariat a l'Energie Atomique (CEA) in the realization of a Franco-Italian experimental programme on sodium fires, named ESMERALDA. As for design preventions for PEC reactor (a fast flux, liquid metal cooled, fuel element testing reactor) fundamental choices were made taking into account all available knowledge, but with particular reference to the results of CEA's previous experiments on sodium fires. More detailed design analysis will be possible in the future, based on experimental results coming from the ESMERALDA programme

  3. Fires: what plant locations should we really protect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, D.L.

    1980-01-01

    A fire protection analysis technique was developed from earlier work involving the protection of nuclear power plants against acts of sabotage. Characteristics unique to fire phenomena were used to modify the sabotage analysis methodology. These characteristics include the effects of fuel loads, ventilation rates, heat loss areas, barrier ratings, and plant locations. The new fire analysis technique was applied to an example nuclear power plant having 85 different plant areas. It was found that some safety and nonsafety areas were both highly vulnerable to fire spread and important to overall safety, while other areas were found to be of marginal importance to fire safety

  4. Nuclear power plant fire protection: philosophy and analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, D.L.

    1980-05-01

    This report combines a fire severity analysis technique with a fault tree methodology for assessing the importance to nuclear power plant safety of certain combinations of components and systems. Characteristics unique to fire, such as propagation induced by the failure of barriers, have been incorporated into the methodology. By applying the resulting fire analysis technique to actual conditions found in a representative nuclear power plant, it is found that some safety and nonsafety areas are both highly vulnerable to fire spread and impotant to overall safety, while other areas prove to be of marginal importance. Suggestions are made for further experimental and analytical work to supplement the fire analysis method

  5. Fire Risk Analysis and Optimization of Fire Prevention Management for Green Building Design and High Rise Buildings: Hong Kong Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yau Albert

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available There are many iconic high rise buildings in Hong Kong, for example, International Commercial Centre, International Financial Centre, etc. Fire safety issue in high rise buildings has been raised by local fire professionals in terms of occupant evacuation, means of fire-fighting by fire fighters, sprinkler systems to automatically put off fires in buildings, etc. Fire risk becomes an important issue in building fire safety because it relates to life safety of building occupants where they live and work in high rise buildings in Hong Kong. The aim of this research is to identify the fire risk for different types of high rise buildings in Hong Kong and to optimise the fire prevention management for those high rise buildings with higher level of fire risk and to validate the model and also to carry out the study of the conflict between the current fire safety building code and the current trend of green building design. Survey via the 7-point scale questionnaire was conducted through 50 participants and their responses were received and analysed via the statistical tool SPSS software computer program. A number of statistical methods of testing for significantly difference in samples were adopted to carry out the analysis of the data received. When the statistical analysis was completed, the results of the data analysis were validated by two Fire Safety Experts in this area of specialisation and also by quantitative fire risk analysis.

  6. 30 CFR 57.4161 - Use of fire underground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Use of fire underground. 57.4161 Section 57.4161 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR METAL AND NONMETAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH SAFETY AND HEALTH STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Fire Prevention...

  7. Applications of Living Fire PRA models to Fire Protection Significance Determination Process in Taiwan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De-Cheng, Chen; Chung-Kung, Lo; Tsu-Jen, Lin; Ching-Hui, Wu; Lin, James C.

    2004-01-01

    The living fire probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) models for all three operating nuclear power plants (NPPs) in Taiwan had been established in December 2000. In that study, a scenario-based PRA approach was adopted to systematically evaluate the fire and smoke hazards and associated risks. Using these fire PRA models developed, a risk-informed application project had also been completed in December 2002 for the evaluation of cable-tray fire-barrier wrapping exemption. This paper presents a new application of the fire PRA models to fire protection issues using the fire protection significance determination process (FP SDP). The fire protection issues studied may involve the selection of appropriate compensatory measures during the period when an automatic fire detection or suppression system in a safety-related fire zone becomes inoperable. The compensatory measure can either be a 24-hour fire watch or an hourly fire patrol. The living fire PRA models were used to estimate the increase in risk associated with the fire protection issue in terms of changes in core damage frequency (CDF) and large early release frequency (LERF). In compliance with SDP at-power and the acceptance guidelines specified in RG 1.174, the fire protection issues in question can be grouped into four categories; red, yellow, white and green, in accordance with the guidelines developed for FD SDP. A 24-hour fire watch is suggested only required for the yellow condition, while an hourly fire patrol may be adopted for the white condition. More limiting requirement is suggested for the red condition, but no special consideration is needed for the green condition. For the calculation of risk measures, risk impacts from any additional fire scenarios that may have been introduced, as well as more severe initiating events and fire damages that may accompany the fire protection issue should be considered carefully. Examples are presented in this paper to illustrate the evaluation process. (authors)

  8. Development of the CELVA-1D code to evaluate the safety of an air-ventilation system during postulated fire and explosion in the reprocessing plant. Contract research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishio, Gunji; Watanabe, Kouji; Kouno, Kouji; Yamazaki, Noboru; Mukaide, Shigeo; Yoshioka, Itsuo

    1998-03-01

    The CELVA-1D computer code was developed to evaluate the confinement of radioactive materials during postulated fire and explosion in a cell of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. The CELVA-1D code calculates a response of temperature, pressure, flow velocity of fluid in an air-ventilation system of the plants by one-dimensional thermofluid analysis and calculates an ability to confine radioactive aerosol particles by transport, deposition, and HEPA filtration. The mathematical models in CELVA-1D were verified by comparison of the calculation with the result of JAERI's demonstration tests simulating hypothetical fire and explosion accidents in the cell. (author)

  9. Development of the CELVA-1D code to evaluate the safety of an air-ventilation system during postulated fire and explosion in the reprocessing plant. Contract research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishio, Gunji; Watanabe, Kouji [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment; Kouno, Kouji; Yamazaki, Noboru; Mukaide, Shigeo; Yoshioka, Itsuo

    1998-03-01

    The CELVA-1D computer code was developed to evaluate the confinement of radioactive materials during postulated fire and explosion in a cell of nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. The CELVA-1D code calculates a response of temperature, pressure, flow velocity of fluid in an air-ventilation system of the plants by one-dimensional thermofluid analysis and calculates an ability to confine radioactive aerosol particles by transport, deposition, and HEPA filtration. The mathematical models in CELVA-1D were verified by comparison of the calculation with the result of JAERI`s demonstration tests simulating hypothetical fire and explosion accidents in the cell. (author)

  10. Fire protection in nuclear power plants. Pt. 3. Fire protection for mechanical and electrotechnical equipment and components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-01-01

    The KTA rule applies to LWRs and defines requirements to be met for fire protection of equipment and installations of the safety system, and all safety-relevant systems, and of those operating systems that under the effect of fire, may cause improper functioning of safety system components. (orig./HP) [de

  11. Prove of structural fire design in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schneider, U.; Hosser, D.; Max, U.

    1986-01-01

    Based on the application of comprehensive heat balance calculations the whole parameters like geometry, fire load, ventilation conditions etc. of a German PWR were covered. A practical design procedure based on diagrams was developed whereby separate diagrams for oil and cable fires were presented. A probabilistic safety concept was employed as to account for the specific variations of fire parameters as fire load and area, ventilation condition, rate of burning. With respect to the frequency of fire occurrences and the impact of fire fighting measures on the spread of fires latest statistical data of a special BMI investigation were used. (orig./HP) [de

  12. SAFETY INSTRUCTION AND SAFETY NOTE

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS Secretariat

    2002-01-01

    Please note that the SAFETY INSTRUCTION N0 49 (IS 49) and the SAFETY NOTE N0 28 (NS 28) entitled respectively 'AVOIDING CHEMICAL POLLUTION OF WATER' and 'CERN EXHIBITIONS - FIRE PRECAUTIONS' are available on the web at the following urls: http://edms.cern.ch/document/335814 and http://edms.cern.ch/document/335861 Paper copies can also be obtained from the TIS Divisional Secretariat, email: TIS.Secretariat@cern.ch

  13. Residential Energy Performance Metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Wright

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Techniques for residential energy monitoring are an emerging field that is currently drawing significant attention. This paper is a description of the current efforts to monitor and compare the performance of three solar powered homes built at Missouri University of Science and Technology. The homes are outfitted with an array of sensors and a data logger system to measure and record electricity production, system energy use, internal home temperature and humidity, hot water production, and exterior ambient conditions the houses are experiencing. Data is being collected to measure the performance of the houses, compare to energy modeling programs, design and develop cost effective sensor systems for energy monitoring, and produce a cost effective home control system.

  14. Windscale fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auxier, J.A.

    1986-01-01

    A graphite fire in the Windscale No. 1 reactor occurred during the period October 8-12, 1957. The Windscale reactors were located on a coastal plain in northwest England and were used to produce plutonium. A great wealth of information was gathered on the causes, handling, decontamination, and environmental effects of reactor accidents. Topics of discussion include: the cause of the fire; handling of the incident; radiation doses to the population; and radiation effects on the population

  15. Fire protection at nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-11-01

    The guide presents specific requirements for the design and implementation of fire protection arrangements at nuclear power plants and for the documents relating to the fire protection that are to be submitted to STUK (Finnish Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority). Inspections of the fire protection arrangements to be conducted by STUK during the construction and operation of the power plants are also described in this guide. The guide can also be followed at other nuclear facilities

  16. Fire hazard analysis of the radioactive mixed waste trenchs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, K.M.

    1995-01-01

    This Fire Hazards Analysis (FHA) is intended to assess comprehensively the risk from fire associated with the disposal of low level radioactive mixed waste in trenches within the lined landfills, provided by Project W-025, designated Trench 31 and 34 of the Burial Ground 218-W-5. Elements within the FHA make recommendations for minimizing risk to workers, the public, and the environment from fire during the course of the operation's activity. Transient flammables and combustibles present that support the operation's activity are considered and included in the analysis. The graded FHA contains the following elements: description of construction, protection of essential safety class equipment, fire protection features, description of fire hazards, life safety considerations, critical process equipment, high value property, damage potential--maximum credible fire loss (MCFL) and maximum possible fire loss (MPFL), fire department/brigade response, recovery potential, potential for a toxic, biological and/or radiation incident due to a fire, emergency planning, security considerations related to fire protection, natural hazards (earthquake, flood, wind) impact on fire safety, and exposure fire potential, including the potential for fire spread between fire areas. Recommendations for limiting risk are made in the text of this report and printed in bold type. All recommendations are repeated in a list in Section 18.0

  17. Alternative approach for fire suppression of class A, B and C fires in gloveboxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenberger, Mark S [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Tsiagkouris, James A [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2011-02-10

    Department of Energy (DOE) Orders and National Fire Protection Association (NFPA) Codes and Standards require fire suppression in gloveboxes. Several potential solutions have been and are currently being considered at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The objective is to provide reliable, minimally invasive, and seismically robust fire suppression capable of extinguishing Class A, B, and C fires; achieve compliance with DOE and NFPA requirements; and provide value-added improvements to fire safety in gloveboxes. This report provides a brief summary of current approaches and also documents the successful fire tests conducted to prove that one approach, specifically Fire Foe{trademark} tubes, is capable of achieving the requirement to provide reliable fire protection in gloveboxes in a cost-effective manner.

  18. Evaluation of various fire retardants for use in wood flour--polyethylene composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicole M. Stark; Robert H. White; Scott A. Mueller; Tim A. Osswald

    2010-01-01

    Wood-plastic composites represent a growing class of materials used by the residential construction industry and the furniture industry. For some applications in these industries, the fire performance of the material must be known, and in some cases improved. However, the fire performance of wood-plastic composites is not well understood, and there is little...

  19. Current Status of Fire Risk Assessment in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, H. P.

    2002-01-01

    The approach for fire risk assessment to be applied within periodic safety reviews of nuclear power plants in Germany starts with a screening process providing critical fire zones in which a fully developed fire has the potential to both cause an initiating event and impair the function of at least one component or system critical to safety. The second step is to perform a quantitative analysis. For that purpose, a standard event tree has been developed with elements for fire initiation, ventilation of the room, fire detection, fire suppression, and fire propagation. This standard event tree has to be adapted to each critical fire zone or room. In a final step, the fire induced frequency of initiating events, the main contributors and the calculated hazard state frequency for the fire event are determined. In order to perform a quantitative fire risk assessment, a basic data base must be established which should, e.g., include initiating frequencies, reliability data for all fire protection measures, fire barriers, etc. Detailed plant-specific information is needed on ignition sources, detection and extinguishing systems, manual fire fighting, stationary fire suppression systems. As one contributor to fire specific PSA input data, reliability data for the active fire protection measures are required for the application in the fire specific event tree analysis. These data needed to be estimated are unavailabilities per demand or failure rates per hour of plant operation for those components or systems belonging to the active fire protection means. The data on potential failures or unavailabilities per demand of the respective fire protection measures were gained from the plant specific documentation of inspection and maintenance. The assessment whether the detected findings are estimated as failures or only as deficiencies or deteriorations requires a deep insight in the plant specific operating conditions for the fire protection means and needs careful engineering

  20. How to reduce your fire insurance rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubain, M.

    1971-01-01

    Construction procedures and utilization of materials to reduce the cost of insuring large buildings against losses from fire are discussed. Examples of good and bad techniques in building construction and fire safety management are provided. The inadequacies of building codes and the hazards resulting from improper construction are examined.

  1. Combustion and extinction of magnesium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malet, J.C.; Duverger de Cuy, G.

    1988-01-01

    The studies made in France on magnesium combustion and extinguishing means are associated at the nuclear fuel of the graphite-gas reactor. Safety studies are made for ameliorate our knowledge on: - magnesium combustion - magnesium fire propagation - magnesium fire extinguishing [fr

  2. Combustion of metals, prevention and fire fighting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellottee, H.

    1991-01-01

    The paper reviews the knowledge on metal combustion. Few works are devoted on metals such as magnesium or titanium. On the contrary liquid metals used as coolants, especially sodium, are much more studied. Results obtained on pool fires and spray fires are briefly given for global safety analysis of LMFBR. 11 refs

  3. 10 CFR 36.27 - Fire protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire protection. 36.27 Section 36.27 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION LICENSES AND RADIATION SAFETY REQUIREMENTS FOR IRRADIATORS Design and Performance Requirements for Irradiators § 36.27 Fire protection. (a) The radiation room at a panoramic irradiator must...

  4. Healthcare costs of burn patients from homes without fire sprinklers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfield, Joanne; Rehou, Sarah; Gomez, Manuel; Redelmeier, Donald A; Jeschke, Marc G

    2015-01-01

    The treatment of burn injuries requires high-cost services for healthcare and society. Automatic fire sprinklers are a preventive measure that can decrease fire injuries, deaths, property damage, and environmental toxins. This study's aim was to conduct a cost analysis of patients with burn or inhalation injuries caused by residential fires and to compare this with the cost of implementing residential automatic fire sprinklers. We conducted a cohort analysis of adult burn patients admitted to our provincial burn center (1995-2012). Patient demographics and injury characteristics were collected from medical records and clinical and coroner databases. Resource costs included average cost per day at our intensive care and rehabilitation program, transportation, and property loss. During the study period, there were 1557 residential fire-related deaths province-wide and 1139 patients were admitted to our provincial burn center as a result of a flame injury occurring at home. At our burn center, the average cost was CAN$84,678 per patient with a total cost of CAN$96,448,194. All resources totaled CAN$3,605,775,200. This study shows the considerable healthcare costs of burn patients from homes without fire sprinklers.

  5. Nuclear power plant fire protection: fire detection (subsystems study Task 2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berry, D.L.

    1977-12-01

    This report examines the adequacy of fire detection in the context of nuclear power plant safety. Topics considered are: (1) establishing area detection requirements, (2) selecting specific detector types, (3) locating and spacing detectors, and (4) performing installation tests and maintenance. Based on a thorough review of fire detection codes and standards and fire detection literature, the report concludes that current design and regulatory guidelines alone are insufficient to ensure satisfactory fire detection system performance. To assure adequate fire detection, this report recommends the use of in-place testing of detectors under conditions expected to occur normally in areas being protected

  6. ENERGY STAR Certified Residential Dishwashers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 6.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Residential Dishwashers that are effective as of...

  7. ENERGY STAR Certified Residential Freezers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 5.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Residential Refrigerators and Freezers that are...

  8. ENERGY STAR Certified Residential Refrigerators

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 5.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Residential Refrigerators and Freezers that are...

  9. Fire risk assessment in Germany. Procedure, data, results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berg, H.P.

    2000-01-01

    The recommended approach for a quantitative fire risk assessment to be applied within periodic safety reviews of nuclear power plants in Germany starts with a screening process providing critical fire zones and is followed by a quantitative analysis using a standard event tree with elements for fire initiation, ventilation of the room, fire detection, fire suppression, and fire propagation. In a final step, the fire induced frequency of initiating events, the main contributors and the calculated hazard state frequency for the fire event are determined. For that purpose, a comprehensive data base is needed which has been developed in particular for active fire protection measures. As an example results of one fire PSA are reported. (author)

  10. Wildland Fire Management Plan for Brookhaven National Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schwager, K.; Green, T. M.

    2014-01-01

    The DOE policy for managing wildland fires requires that all areas managed by DOE and/or Its various contractors which can sustain fire must have a FMP that details fire management guidelines for operational procedures associated with wildland fire, operational, and prescribed fires. FMPs provide guidance on fire preparedness, fire prevention, wildfire suppression, and the use of controlled ''prescribed'' fires and mechanical means to control the amount of available combustible material. Values reflected in the BNL Wildland FMP include protecting life and public safety; Lab properties, structures and improvements; cultural and historical sites; neighboring private and public properties; and endangered, threatened, and species of concern. Other values supported by the plan include the enhancement of fire-dependent ecosystems at BNL. The plan will be reviewed periodically to ensure fire program advances and will evolve with the missions of DOE and BNL.

  11. Wildland Fire Management Plan for Brookhaven National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwager, K.; Green, T. M.

    2014-10-01

    The DOE policy for managing wildland fires requires that all areas managed by DOE and/or Its various contractors which can sustain fire must have a FMP that details fire management guidelines for operational procedures associated with wildland fire, operational, and prescribed fires. FMPs provide guidance on fire preparedness, fire prevention, wildfire suppression, and the use of controlled ''prescribed'' fires and mechanical means to control the amount of available combustible material. Values reflected in the BNL Wildland FMP include protecting life and public safety; Lab properties, structures and improvements; cultural and historical sites; neighboring private and public properties; and endangered, threatened, and species of concern. Other values supported by the plan include the enhancement of fire-dependent ecosystems at BNL. The plan will be reviewed periodically to ensure fire program advances and will evolve with the missions of DOE and BNL.

  12. Fire flow water consumption in sprinklered and unsprinklered buildings an assessment of community impacts

    CERN Document Server

    Code Consultants, Inc.

    2012-01-01

    Fire Flow Water Consumption in Sprinklered and Unsprinklered Buildings offers a detailed analysis for calculating the fire water demand required in buildings with existing and non-existant sprinkler systems. The installation of automatic sprinkler systems can significantly reduce the amount of water needed during a fire, but it requires water for commissioning, inspection, testing, and maintenance (CITM). This book provides an estimate of fire water used under both fire conditions, including CITM, to allow communities to develop fire water fees for both sprinklered and unsprinklered buildings that are proportional to the anticipated fire water usage. The types of buildings analyzed include residential (family dwellings as well as those up to four stories in height), business, assembly, institutional, mercantile, and storage facilities. Water volume was studied using guidelines from the International Code Council, the National Fire Protection Association, and the Insurance Services Office. Fire Flow Water Cons...

  13. Estimating Fire Risks at Industrial Nuclear Facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coutts, D.A.

    1999-01-01

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) has a wide variety of nuclear production facilities that include chemical processing facilities, machine shops, production reactors, and laboratories. Current safety documentation must be maintained for the nuclear facilities at SRS. Fire Risk Analyses (FRAs) are used to support the safety documentation basis. These FRAs present the frequency that specified radiological and chemical consequences will be exceeded. The consequence values are based on mechanistic models assuming specific fire protection features fail to function as designed

  14. Optimization of investment economic in PCI using the methodology of benefits design in analysis of the spread of fires with FDS (Fire Dynamics Simulator) in areas of nuclear fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salellas, J.

    2015-01-01

    Fire simulation analysis allows knowing the evolution and spread fire in areas of interest within a NPP such as control room, cable room and multi zone comportment among others. fires are a main concern regarding safety analysis of NPP. IDOM has the capability to carry out fire simulations, taken in to account smoke control, fire spread, toxicity levels, ventilation and all physical phenomena. As a result, appropriate fire protection measures can be assessed in each scenario. CFD tools applied to fire simulations can determine with higher resolution all damages caused during the fire. Furthermore, such tools can reduce costs due to a lower impact of design modifications. (Author)

  15. Sensitivity Analysis of a Simplified Fire Dynamic Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt; Nielsen, Anker

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses a method for performing a sensitivity analysis of parameters used in a simplified fire model for temperature estimates in the upper smoke layer during a fire. The results from the sensitivity analysis can be used when individual parameters affecting fire safety are assessed...

  16. Design of fire resistant concrete structures, using validated Fem models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Erich, S.J.F.; Overbeek, van A.B.M.; Heijden, van der G.H.A.; Pel, L.; Huinink, H.P.; Vervuurt, A.H.J.M.; Schlangen, E.; Schlutter, de G.

    2008-01-01

    Fire safety of buildings and structures is an important issue, and has a great impact on human life and economy. One of the processes negatively affecting the strength of a concrete building or structure during fire is spalling. Many examples exists in which spalling of concrete during fire has

  17. Basing of a complex design measures for protection against fire

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kryuger, V.

    1983-01-01

    Fire impact on NPP radiation safety is analyzed. The general industry requirements to the protection system against fire are shown to be insufficient for NPPs. A complex of protection measures against fire is suggested that should be taken into account in the NPP designs [ru

  18. National Fire Plan Research and Development 2002 Business Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    USDA Forest Service

    2003-01-01

    This report summarizes the progress made by Forest Service NFP R&D in FY2002, the second year of NFP funding. Fire research conducted by Forest Service R&D is working to provide the scientific foundation necessary to increase firefighting safety and effectiveness, enhance restoration of fire-scarred landscapes, reduce fire risk through improved management of...

  19. Active Fire Mapping Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Active Fire Mapping Program Current Large Incidents (Home) New Large Incidents Fire Detection Maps MODIS Satellite Imagery VIIRS Satellite Imagery Fire Detection GIS Data Fire Data in Google Earth ...

  20. Fire Research Enclosure

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Simulates submarine fires, enclosed aircraft fires, and fires in enclosures at shore facilities .DESCRIPTION: FIRE I is a pressurizable, 324 cu m(11,400 cu...