WorldWideScience

Sample records for residential buildings administration

  1. Modeling radon transport in multistory residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persily, A.K.

    1993-01-01

    Radon concentrations have been studied extensively in single-family residential buildings, but relatively little work has been done in large buildings, including multistory residential buildings. The phenomena of radon transport in multistory residential buildings is made more complicated by the multizone nature of the airflow system and the numerous interzone airflow paths that must be characterized in such a system. This paper presents the results of a computer simulation of airflow and radon transport in a twelve-story residential building. Interzone airflow rates and radon concentrations were predicted using the multizone airflow and contaminant dispersal program (CON-TAM88). Limited simulations were conducted to study the influence of two different radon source terms, indoor-outdoor temperature difference and exterior wall leakage values on radon transport and radon concentration distributions

  2. Energy savings in Danish residential building stock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    2006-01-01

    a short account of the technical energy-saving possibilities that are present in existing dwellings and presents a financial methodology used for assessing energy-saving measures. In order to estimate the total savings potential detailed calculations have been performed in a case with two typical...... buildings representing the residential building stock and based on these calculations an assessment of the energy-saving potential is performed. A profitable savings potential of energy used for space heating of about 80% is identified over 45 years (until 2050) within the residential building stock......A large potential for energy savings exists in the Danish residential building stock due to the fact that 75% of the buildings were constructed before 1979 when the first important demands for energy performance of building were introduced. It is also a fact that many buildings in Denmark face...

  3. Architectural design of passive solar residential building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ma Jing

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies thermal environment of closed balconies that commonly exist in residential buildings, and designs a passive solar residential building. The design optimizes the architectural details of the house and passive utilization of solar energy to provide auxiliary heating for house in winter and cooling in summer. This design might provide a more sufficient and reasonable modification for microclimate in the house.

  4. Development of two Danish building typologies for residential buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Jesper; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    building types: single-family houses, terraced houses and blocks of flats. Each main building type is presented for nine periods representing age, typical building tradition and insulation levels. Finally, an energy balance model of the residential building stock was devised to validate the average...

  5. Estimation of energy efficiency of residential buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glushkov Sergey

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Increasing energy performance of the residential buildings by means of reducing heat consumption on the heating and ventilation is the last segment in the system of energy resources saving. The first segments in the energy saving process are heat producing and transportation over the main lines and outside distribution networks. In the period from 2006 to 2013. by means of the heat-supply schemes optimization and modernization of the heating systems. using expensive (200–300 $US per 1 m though hugely effective preliminary coated pipes. the economy reached 2.7 mln tons of fuel equivalent. Considering the multi-stage and multifactorial nature (electricity. heat and water supply of the residential sector energy saving. the reasonable estimate of the efficiency of the saving of residential buildings energy should be performed in tons of fuel equivalent per unit of time.

  6. Data on European non-residential buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Delia; Cuniberti, Barbara; Bertoldi, Paolo

    2017-10-01

    This data article relates to the research paper Energy consumption and efficiency technology measures in European non-residential buildings (D'Agostino et al., 2017) [1]. The reported data have been collected in the framework of the Green Building Programme that ran from 2006 to 2014. The project has encouraged the adoption of efficiency measures to boost energy savings in European non-residential buildings. Data focus on the one-thousand buildings that joined the Programme allowing to save around 985 GWh/year. The main requirement to join the Programme was the reduction of at least 25% primary energy consumption in a new or retrofitted building. Energy consumption before and after the renovation are provided for retrofitted buildings while, in new constructions, a building had to be designed using at least 25% less energy than requested by the country's building codes. The following data are linked within this article: energy consumption, absolute and relative savings related to primary energy, saving percentages, implemented efficiency measures and renewables. Further information is given about each building in relation to geometry, envelope, materials, lighting and systems.

  7. FACTOR ANALYSIS OF MULTISTOREY RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Петр Матвеевич Мазуркин

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available According to the UN classification of 11 classes of soil cover, the first three are grass, trees and shrubs and forests. In the city they correspond to the three elements of vegetation: lawns, tree plantings (trees and shrubs. We have adopted zoning for city-building to identify statistical regularities. Map dimensions in GIS "Map 2011" Yoshkar-Ola was allocated to "residential zone" and "Area of construction of multi-storey residential buildings (cadastral 58 quart crystals". The parameters of the elements of the vegetation cover have been considered: the number of elements of different levels, area and perimeter, the absolute and relative form, and activity of vegetation. As the result, we have obtained equations of binomial rank distributions, conducted the ratings and selected the best of cadastral quarter on environmental conditions.

  8. Environmental impacts during the operational phase of residential buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, I.S.

    2010-01-01

    To date, the focus in the field of sustainable building has been on new building design. However, existing residential buildings inflict great environmental burden through three causes: continuous energy consumption, regular building maintenance and replacements. This publication analyses and

  9. Competitive solar heating systems for residential buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Thür, Alexander; Fiedler, Frank

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes the ongoing research project “Competitive solar heating systems for residential buildings”. The aim of the project is to develop competitive solar combisystems which are attractive to buyers. The solar combisystems must be attractive compared to traditional energy systems, both....... In Denmark and Norway the focus is on solar heating/natural gas systems, and in Sweden and Latvia the focus is on solar heating/pellet systems. Additionally, Lund Institute of Technology and University of Oslo are studying solar collectors of various types being integrated into the roof and facade...... of the building....

  10. Life-cycle energy of residential buildings in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Yuan; Ries, Robert J.; Wang, Yaowu

    2013-01-01

    In the context of rapid urbanization and new construction in rural China, residential building energy consumption has the potential to increase with the expected increase in demand. A process-based hybrid life-cycle assessment model is used to quantify the life-cycle energy use for both urban and rural residential buildings in China and determine the energy use characteristics of each life cycle phase. An input–output model for the pre-use phases is based on 2007 Chinese economic benchmark data. A process-based life-cycle assessment model for estimating the operation and demolition phases uses historical energy-intensity data. Results show that operation energy in both urban and rural residential buildings is dominant and varies from 75% to 86% of life cycle energy respectively. Gaps in living standards as well as differences in building structure and materials result in a life-cycle energy intensity of urban residential buildings that is 20% higher than that of rural residential buildings. The life-cycle energy of urban residential buildings is most sensitive to the reduction of operational energy intensity excluding heating energy which depends on both the occupants' energy-saving behavior as well as the performance of the building itself. -- Highlights: •We developed a hybrid LCA model to quantify the life-cycle energy for urban and rural residential buildings in China. •Operation energy in urban and rural residential buildings is dominant, varying from 75% to 86% of life cycle energy respectively. •Compared with rural residential buildings, the life-cycle energy intensity of urban residential buildings is 20% higher. •The life-cycle energy of urban residential buildings is most sensitive to the reduction of daily activity energy

  11. Energy options for residential buildings assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rezaie, Behnaz; Dincer, Ibrahim; Esmailzadeh, Ebrahim

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Studying various building energy options. ► Assessing these options from various points. ► Comparing these options for better environment and sustainability. ► Proposing renewable energy options as potential solutions. - Abstract: The building sector, as one of the major energy consumers, demands most of the energy research to assess different energy options from various aspects. In this paper, two similar residential buildings, with either low or high energy consumption patterns, are chosen as case studies. For these case studies, three different renewable energy technology and three different hybrid systems are designed for a specified size. Then, the environmental impact indices, renewable energy indices, and the renewable exergy indices have been estimated for every energy options. Results obtained show that the hybrid systems (without considering the economics factors) are superior and having top indices. The importance of the energy consumption patterns in buildings are proven by the indices. By cutting the energy consumption to about 40% the environment index would increase by more than twice (2.1). Utilization of the non-fossil fuels is one part of the solution to environmental problems while energy conservation being the other. It has been shown that the re-design of the energy consumption model is less complex but more achievable for buildings.

  12. Indoor Environment in Residential Prefabricated Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michal; Juhásová Šenitková, Ingrid

    2017-10-01

    The contribution presents results of the experimental measurement of indoor air quality in residential prefabricated buildings. People spend about 90% of their life in the indoor environment of buildings. Hygrothermal parameters and indoor air quality are the essential component that define the quality of the indoor environment. The results of case study characterize the quality of the indoor environment of the ordinary occupants in housing unit of residential prefabricated building. A current problem of revitalized prefabricated buildings is inadequate air exchange and related thereto to poor indoor air quality. The experimental measurements were carried out just before and at the beginning of the heating season (from 1st October to 30th November 2016). Heating season was launched in the middle of experimental measurement. The wireless indoor sensor Elgato Eve Room was used for measurements. The obtained values of indoor air temperature [°C], relative humidity [%] and indoor air quality [ppm] are describe and analysis in this study. The results of the study indicate that the values of temperature and indoor air quality meet optimal levels during the experiment with nuances. The mean air temperature in the indoor environment is 22.43 °C. The temperature of the indoor environment is held at the optimum level (18-24 °C) for 94.50% time of the experimental measurements. In addition, the indoor air quality in the context of the content of harmful volatile organic compounds (VOCs) has been excellent for almost 91% time of the total experiment. However, the values of relative humidity were less than the optimum value nearly 40% of the total observed time. The mean 10-minutes values of relative humidity during the heating season is about 10% lower than the mean 10-minutes relative humidity before the heating season.

  13. Ozone Reductions Using Residential Building Envelopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max; Nazaroff, William W.

    2009-02-01

    Ozone is an air pollutant with that can have significant health effects and a significant source of ozone in some regions of California is outdoor air. Because people spend the vast majority of their time indoors, reduction in indoor levels of ozone could lead to improved health for many California residents. Ozone is removed from indoor air by surface reactions and can also be filtered by building envelopes. The magnitude of the envelope impact depends on the specific building materials that the air flows over and the geometry of the air flow paths through the envelope that can be changes by mechanical ventilation operation. The 2008 Residential Building Standards in California include minimum requirements for mechanical ventilation by referencing ASHRAE Standard 62.2. This study examines the changes in indoor ozone depending on the mechanical ventilation system selected to meet these requirements. This study used detailed simulations of ventilation in a house to examine the impacts of different ventilation systems on indoor ozone concentrations. The simulation results showed that staying indoors reduces exposure to ozone by 80percent to 90percent, that exhaust ventilation systems lead to lower indoor ozone concentrations, that opening of windows should be avoided at times of high outdoor ozone, and that changing the time at which mechanical ventilation occurs has the ability to halve exposure to ozone. Future work should focus on the products of ozone reactions in the building envelope and the fate of these products with respect to indoor exposures.

  14. Indoor Noise Loading in Residential Prefabricated Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michal; Juhásová Šenitková, Ingrid

    2017-10-01

    Quality on indoor environment is among others also defined by an acoustic comfort and noise emissions. The indoor noise loading in the residential prefabricated buildings is specific problem related to structural design of these buildings. Problems with noise level of sanitary systems are mostly associated with hydraulic shock such as water distribution and sewage drainage. Another very common cause of excessive noise is also flushing the toilet or water fall on enamelled steel (bath or shower). This paper aims to analyse the acoustic properties in the residential prefabricated buildings. Sanitary core of the assessed apartment is in original condition without any alterations. The sanitary core is based on a formica (high-pressure laminate). The study discusses the maximum sound levels in the three assessed rooms for the three different noise sources. The values of maximum noise level are measured for the corridor, bedroom and living room. Sources of noise are common activities relating to the operation of sanitary core - the toilet flush in the toilet, falling water from the shower in the bathroom and the water falling on the bottom of the kitchen sink in the kitchen. Other sources of noise are eliminated or minimized during the experiment. The digital sound level meter Testo 815 is used for measurements. The measured values of maximum sound level LA,max [dB] are adjusted by the correction coefficient. The obtained values are compared with the hygienic limits for day and night period. Night hygienic limit (30 dB) is exceeded in all the rooms for all noise sources. This limit is exceeded from 17 to 73%. The values in the bedroom and the living room meet the daily hygienic limit (40 dB). The daily limit is exceeded only in the corridor. The highest values of noise are identified for the toilet flushing.

  15. 77 FR 24505 - Hazard Mitigation Assistance for Wind Retrofit Projects for Existing Residential Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-24

    ...] Hazard Mitigation Assistance for Wind Retrofit Projects for Existing Residential Buildings AGENCY... for Wind Retrofit Projects for Existing Residential Buildings. DATES: Comments must be received by... to protect existing one- and two-family residential buildings (not including manufactured housing...

  16. Vibration Analysis of a Residential Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampaio Regina Augusta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the results of a study regarding vibration problems in a 17 storey residential building during pile driving in its vicinity. The structural design of the building was checked according to the Brazilian standards NBR6118 and NBR6123, and using commercial finite element software. An experimental analysis was also carried out using low frequency piezo-accelerometers attached to the building structure. Structure vibrations were recorded under ambient conditions. Four monitoring tests were performed on different days. The objective of the first monitoring test was an experimental modal analysis. To obtain de modal parameters, data was processed in the commercial software ARTEMIS employing two methods: the Stochastic Subspace Identification and the Frequency Domain Decomposition. Human comfort was investigated considering the International Standard ISO 2631. The Portuguese standard, NP2074, was also used as a reference, since it aims to limit the adverse effects of vibrations in structures caused by pile driving in the vicinity of the structure. The carried out experimental tests have shown that, according to ISO2301, the measure vibration levels are above the acceptance limits. However, velocity peaks are below the limits established by NP2074. It was concluded that, although the structure has adequate capacity to resist internal forces according to normative criteria, it has low horizontal stiffness, which could be verified by observing the vibration frequencies and mode shapes obtained with the finite element models, and its similarity with the experimental results. Thus, the analyses indicate the occurrence of discomfort by the residents.

  17. 77 FR 29322 - Updating State Residential Building Energy Efficiency Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ... the Buildings Technologies Program-Building Energy Codes Program Manager, U.S. Department of Energy... hotel, motel, and other transient residential building types of any height as commercial buildings for... insulation and length requirements Skylight definition change Penalizing electric resistance heating in the...

  18. Capacity Building in Land Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Williamson, I

    2004-01-01

    Capacity building increasingly seen as a key component of land administration projects in developing and countries in transition undertaken by the international development banks and individual country development assistance agencies. However, the capacity building concept is often used within...... infrastructures for implementing land policies in a sustainable way. Where a project is established to create land administration infrastructures in developing or transition countries, it is critical that capacity building is a mainstream component, not as an add-on, which is often the case. In fact such projects...... should be dealt with as capacity building projects in themselves.    The article introduces a conceptual analytical framework that provides some guidance when dealing with capacity building for land administration in support of a broader land policy agenda....

  19. 29 CFR 779.335 - Sales of building materials for residential or farm building construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... materials for residential or farm building construction. Section 3(n) of the Act, as amended, excludes from... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sales of building materials for residential or farm building construction. 779.335 Section 779.335 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND...

  20. Thermal comfort in residential buildings by the millions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergård, Torben; Maagaard, Steffen; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2016-01-01

    In Danish building code and many design briefings, criteria regarding thermal comfort are defined for “critical” rooms in residential buildings. Identifying the critical room is both difficult and time-consuming for large, multistory buildings. To reduce costs and time, such requirement often cau...

  1. Application of Energy Performance Indicators for Residential Building Stocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wittchen, Kim Bjarne; Kragh, Jesper; Diefenbach, Nikolaus

    2016-01-01

    Energy performance indicators of residential building stocks can either describe existing empirical data of a building stock or the input and outcome of building stock modelling. In EPISCOPE both types of quantities are clearly separated by distinguishing monitoring indicators and scenario indica...

  2. Integrated Urban System and Energy Consumption Model: Residential Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Papa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a segment of research conducted within the project PON 04a2_E Smart Energy Master for the energetic government of the territory conducted by the Department of Civil, Architectural and Environment Engineering, University of Naples "Federico II".  In particular, this article is part of the study carried out for the definition of the comprehension/interpretation model that correlates buildings, city’s activities and users’ behaviour in order to promote energy savings. In detail, this segment of the research wants to define the residential variables to be used in the model. For this purpose a knowledge framework at international level has been defined, to estimate the energy requirements of residential buildings and the identification of a set of parameters, whose variation has a significant influence on the energy consumption of residential buildings.

  3. Architecture and craftsmanship: Residential building "Kaldera", Banjaluka, architect Branislav Stojanovic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić-Milašinović Dijana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The subjects of analysis were the multi-layered expressions applied by the author in designing the residential building in Banjaluka. These are foremost the site, the location, and the corner motif, as the building’s outstanding formal accents. Next is the analysis of the applied materials their treatment and the accomplished effects. The craftsmanship has been emphasised since it demanded a close cooperation of the architect and the craftsman. Furthermore, the interior organisation of this non-standard residential building has been elucidated.

  4. Solar ejector refrigerant system in China’s residential buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Hui-Fan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A simulation program describing the performance of solar ejector refrigerant system for air conditioning of China’s residential buildings was established. Hourly performance of the system under different operate conditions, the collector efficiency, coefficient of performance, cooling capacity and cooling load were analyzed. It is found that the collector efficiency and the overall coefficient of performance increase first and then decline, and it can be concluded that the application of solar ejector refrigerant system will have a better developmental prospect in China’s residential buildings.

  5. Residential and commercial buildings data book. Second edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crumb, L.W.; Bohn, A.A.

    1986-09-01

    This Data Book updates and expands the previous Data Book originally published by the Department of Energy in October, 1984 (DOE/RL/01830/16). Energy-related information is provided under the following headings: Characteristics of Residential Buildings in the US; Characteristics of New Single Family Construction in the US; Characteristics of New Multi-Family Construction in the US; Household Appliances; Residential Sector Energy Consumption, Prices, and Expenditures; Characteristics of US Commercial Buildings; Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption, Prices, and Expenditures; Additional Buildings and Community Systems Information. This Data Book complements another Department of Energy document entitled ''Overview of Building Energy Use and Report of Analysis-1985'' October, 1985 (DOE/CE-0140). The Data Book provides supporting data and documentation to the report.

  6. Contemporary facades of multistorey residential buildings in Kiev: Videoecological aspect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kozlova Nataliia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to one of the actual problems concerning the current state of the facades on apartment buildings in residential districts in Kiev - videoecology. The main purpose of the article is to determine the degree of visual aggressiveness of multistorey residential buildings in Kiev. It also investigates the problem of finding the optimal criteria for creating an ecologically healthy and friendly inhabited environment in the capital city of Ukraine. The modern visual environment in the capital is contaminated, not only because of the increasing numbers of promotional billboards, but also because of the contemporary architecture of high-rise buildings such as office buildings, apartment buildings. Their composition is usually based on a simple description of a rhythm. There are also repetitions of the end parts of buildings in “lowercase” buildings, which are high-rise buildings that alternate with nine or identical apartment groups. It creates a sense of oppressive monotony and leads to psychological and visual fatigue, especially when these repetitions are the only pattern the eye perceives. In the article a theoretical block of ecological-aesthetic criteria is defined, which must be met by the modern architecture facades of multistorey residential houses in Kiev.

  7. Using ANNs to predict cooling requirements for residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karatasou, S.; Santamouris, M.; Geros, V. [University of Athens (Greece). Physics Dept.

    2004-07-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) have been used for the prediction of cooling loads of residential buildings in Athens, Greece. The investigation was performed for the summer period, where for Southern European countries, short time cooling load forecasting in residential buildings with lead times from 1 hour to 7 days can play a key role in the economic and energy efficient operation of cooling appliances. The objective of this work is to produce a simulation algorithm, using ANNs, capable to forecast the following 24-hour cooling load profiles. Reliable cooling consumption measurements are required but are not usually available for residential buildings. State-ofthe- art building simulation software, TRNSYS, was used to calculate energy demand for cooling for five selected apartments in Athens, Greece, using detailed building data (geometry, wall construction, occupancy etc) and Athens climate conditions. These data are used to train artificial neural networks in order to generate the relationship between selected inputs and the desired output, the next day building energy consumption for cooling. A multiplayer perceptron architecture using the standard back-propagation learning algorithm has been applied yielded to satisfactory results and the conclusion that when ANNs are trained on reliable data they can simulate the behavior of the building, thus they can be effectively used to predict future performance. (orig.)

  8. Envelope Thermal Design Optimization for Urban Residential Buildings in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amos Kalua

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to optimize the envelope thermal design of free-running urban residential buildings in Malawi. It specifically set out to improve the urban residential buildings’ thermal comfort and suggest optimal envelope thermal design features for these buildings. The research study was primarily dependent on computer simulations in EnergyPlus to replicate the typical Malawian urban residential building’s thermal behaviour and then study the impacts of various envelope configurations on the thermal comfort conditions registered in the building. The simulation model was experimentally validated to check its appropriateness to the climatic design conditions prevalent in Malawi and out of the three major cities that were considered, the model was found to be appropriate for use in the two cities of Mzuzu and Lilongwe leaving out the city of Blantyre. The optimization methodology that was employed involved the use of orthogonal arrays, statistical analyses and the listing method. It was found that the optimal envelope thermal design, which registered up to 18% lower discomfort hours than that of the typical urban residential building, consists of a 50 mm concrete floor slab, 230 mm burnt brick walls with an external layer of 19 mm EPS, tiled roof with an internal layer of sarking and 50 mm EPS, double Low-E Glazing with a transparency ratio of 45% and 0.2408 m2 of adaptable operational surface area for the air bricks. Out of all the envelope features that were studied, air infiltration registered the most significant contribution towards the ultimate residential building thermal performance. It was demonstrated that controlled air infiltration through the use of operable air bricks whose operational surface area is adaptable can be very effective in enhancing the building’s comfort levels. It was further observed that excessive insulation of the building envelope generally has a detrimental effect on the indoor space thermal comfort

  9. A Probabilistic Model for Exteriors of Residential Buildings

    KAUST Repository

    Fan, Lubin

    2016-07-29

    We propose a new framework to model the exterior of residential buildings. The main goal of our work is to design a model that can be learned from data that is observable from the outside of a building and that can be trained with widely available data such as aerial images and street-view images. First, we propose a parametric model to describe the exterior of a building (with a varying number of parameters) and propose a set of attributes as a building representation with fixed dimensionality. Second, we propose a hierarchical graphical model with hidden variables to encode the relationships between building attributes and learn both the structure and parameters of the model from the database. Third, we propose optimization algorithms to generate three-dimensional models based on building attributes sampled from the graphical model. Finally, we demonstrate our framework by synthesizing new building models and completing partially observed building models from photographs.

  10. The post-evaluation of green residential building in Ningxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yunna; Wang, Zhen

    2017-06-01

    Green residential buildings are concerned by more and more people. However, the development of green residential buildings has been limited due to the single-standard requirements and lack of the multi-objective performance. At same time, the evaluation criteria system of green residential building is not comprehensive enough. So first of all, using SPSS software, residents questionnaire surveys are figured and found that the judge of experts and residents about the green elements is inconsistent, so the owners’ satisfaction is included in the post-evaluation criterial systems of green residential building from five aspects-the preliminary work of construction, construction process, economic, social benefits and owners satisfaction in Ningxia area, combined with expert interviews. Secondly, in the post-evaluation, it is difficult for many experts judgment matrix to meet the requirement of consistency, in this paper using MATLAB program, judgment matrix consistency is adjusted. And the weights of the criteria and sub-criteria and experts weights using group AHP method are determined. Finally, the grey clustering method is used to establish the post-evaluation model and the real case of Sai-shang project is carried out. It shows that the result obtained by using the improved criteria system and method in this paper is in a high degree of agreement with the actual result.

  11. Competitive solar heating systems for residential buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Thür, Alexander; Fiedler, Frank

    2005-01-01

    .D. studies in Denmark, Sweden and Latvia, and a post-doc. study in Norway. Close cooperation between the researchers and the industry partners ensures that the results of the project can be utilized. By the end of the project the industry partners will be able to bring the developed systems onto the market...... from an economical and architectural point of view. The project includes education, research, development and demonstration. The project started in 2003 and will be finished by the end of 2006. The participants of the project, which is financed by Nordic Energy Research and the participants themselves......The paper describes the ongoing research project “Competitive solar heating systems for residential buildings”. The aim of the project is to develop competitive solar combisystems which are attractive to buyers. The solar combisystems must be attractive compared to traditional energy systems, both...

  12. Parametric Design Strategy Aiming at Environmentally Sustainable Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hanne Tine Ring; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann; Heiselberg, Per

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary conclusions from a PhD study about methodical approaches to environmentally sustainable architecture. The presented results are from a local sensitivity analysis focused on the energy consumption of a typical residential reference building, when it is subjected...... to a parametric study of the impact of changes in input parameters relating to the design and the use of the building....

  13. Indoor Thermal Environment in Tropical Climate Residential Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamaludin Nazhatulzalkis

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Indoor thermal environment is one of the criteria in sustainable building. This criterion is important in ensuring a healthy indoor environment for the occupants. The consideration of environmental concerns at the early design stage would effectively integrate the sustainability of the building environment. Global climate changes such as global warming do affect human comfort since people spend most of their time and activities in the building. The increasing of urban population required additional housing for households, as well as places to shop, office and other facilities. Occupants are now more conscious the importance of sustainability for a better quality of life. Good thermal environment is essential for human wellness and comfort. A residential environment will influence residents’ health and safety. The global warming increase the earth’s temperature and greenhouse emission to the atmosphere cause adverse effects to the outdoor environment. Residential developments modify the materials, structure and energy balance in urban climate effects of human economic activities. As an indoor environment is influenced by the outdoor condition, the factors affecting indoor thermal environment are crucial in improving a comfortable and healthy environment in residential building. The microclimatic of a site such as temperature and relative humidity, and wind movement led to the variation of indoor thermal environment in the building.

  14. Analysis of institutional mechanisms affecting residential and commercial buildings retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    Barriers to energy conservation in the residential and commercial sectors influence (1) the willingness of building occupants to modify their energy usage habits, and (2) the willingness of building owners/occupants to upgrade the thermal characteristics of the structures within which they live or work and the appliances which they use. The barriers that influence the willingness of building owners/occupants to modify the thermal efficiency characteristics of building structures and heating/cooling systems are discussed. This focus is further narrowed to include only those barriers that impede modifications to existing buildings, i.e., energy conservation retrofit activity. Eight barriers selected for their suitability for Federal action in the residential and commercial sectors and examined are: fuel pricing policies that in the short term do not provide enough incentive to invest in energy conservation; high finance cost; inability to evaluate contractor performance; inability to evaluate retrofit products; lack of well-integrated or one-stop marketing systems (referred to as lack of delivery systems); lack of precise or customized information; lack of sociological/psychological incentives; and use of the first-cost decision criterion (expanded to include short-term payback criterion for the commercial sector). The impacts of these barriers on energy conservation are separately assessed for the residential and commercial sectors.

  15. Energy impacts of recycling disassembly material in residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao, Weijun; Ariyama, Takahiro; Ojima, Toshio; Meier, Alan

    2000-01-01

    In order to stop the global warmth due to the CO2 concentration, the energy use should be decreased. The investment of building construction industry in Japan is about 20 percent of GDP. This fraction is much higher than in most developed countries. That results the Japanese building construction industry including residential use consumes about one third of all energy and resources of the entire industrial sectors. In order to save energy as well as resource, the recycle of the building materials should be urgent to be carried out. In this paper, we focus on the potential energy savings with a simple calculated method when the building materials or products are manufactured from recycled materials. We examined three kinds of residential buildings with different construction techniques and estimated the decreased amount of energy consumption and resources resulting from use of recycled materials. The results have shown for most building materials, the energy consumption needed to remake housing materials from recycled materials is lower than that to make new housing materials. The energy consumption of building materials in all case-study housing can be saved by at least 10 percent. At the same time, the resource, measured by mass of building materials (kg) can be decreased by over 50 percent

  16. Thermal comfort in residential buildings by the millions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergård, Torben; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Maagaard, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    In Danish building code and many design briefings, criteria regarding thermal comfort are defined for “critical” rooms in residential buildings. Identifying the critical room is both difficult and time-consuming for large, multistory buildings. To reduce costs and time, such requirement often...... causes other less critical rooms to be designed with the same constraints as the critical one. In this paper, we propose a method to overcome the difficulty of identifying critical rooms and exploit the design potential of other rooms. First we have defined a set of typical room variations present...

  17. Tribal Green Building Administrative Code Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    This Tribal Green Building Administrative Code Example can be used as a template for technical code selection (i.e., building, electrical, plumbing, etc.) to be adopted as a comprehensive building code.

  18. Prediction of residential building energy consumption: A neural network approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, M.A. Rafe; Robinson, Melvin D.; Fumo, Nelson

    2016-01-01

    Some of the challenges to predict energy utilization has gained recognition in the residential sector due to the significant energy consumption in recent decades. However, the modeling of residential building energy consumption is still underdeveloped for optimal and robust solutions while this research area has become of greater relevance with significant advances in computation and simulation. Such advances include the advent of artificial intelligence research in statistical model development. Artificial neural network has emerged as a key method to address the issue of nonlinearity of building energy data and the robust calculation of large and dynamic data. The development and validation of such models on one of the TxAIRE Research houses has been demonstrated in this paper. The TxAIRE houses have been designed to serve as realistic test facilities for demonstrating new technologies. The input variables used from the house data include number of days, outdoor temperature and solar radiation while the output variables are house and heat pump energy consumption. The models based on Levenberg-Marquardt and OWO-Newton algorithms had promising results of coefficients of determination within 0.87–0.91, which is comparable to prior literature. Further work will be explored to develop a robust model for residential building application. - Highlights: • A TxAIRE research house energy consumption data was collected in model development. • Neural network models developed using Levenberg–Marquardt or OWO-Newton algorithms. • Model results match well with data and statistically consistent with literature.

  19. Deep influence of passive low energy consumption multi-storey residential building in cold region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Zhang; Lihua, Zhao; Rong, Jin; Dong, Junyan

    2018-02-01

    The example of passive architecture demonstration building in Jilin Province, China, based on the practical experience of this project, the control index of passive and low energy consumption residential buildings in cold and passive buildings is referenced by reference to the German construction standard and the Chinese residence construction document, “passive ultra-low energy consumption green Building Technology Guide (Trial)”. The requirement of passive low energy residential buildings on the ground heat transfer coefficient limits is determined, and the performance requirements of passive residential buildings are discussed. This paper analyzes the requirement of the passive low energy residential building on the ground heat transfer coefficient limit, and probes into the influence factors of the ground thermal insulation of the passive low energy consumption residential building. The construction method of passive low energy consumption residential building is proposed.

  20. Environmental assessment in support of proposed voluntary energy conservation standard for new residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, D.L.; Parker, G.B.; Callaway, J.W.; Marsh, S.J.; Roop, J.M.; Taylor, Z.T.

    1989-06-01

    The objective of this environmental assessment (EA) is to identify the potential environmental impacts that could result from the proposed voluntary residential standard (VOLRES) on private sector construction of new residential buildings. 49 refs., 15 tabs.

  1. Energy use and environmental impact of new residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adalberth, Karin

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this thesis is to investigate the energy use and environmental impact of residential buildings. Seven authentic buildings built in the 1990s in Sweden are investigated. They are analysed according to energy use and environmental impact during their life cycle: manufacture of building materials, transport of building materials and components to the building site, erection to a building, occupancy, maintenance and renovation, and finally demolition and removal of debris. Results show that approx. 85 % of the total estimated energy use during the life cycle is used during the occupation phase. The energy used to manufacture building and installation materials constitutes approx. 15 % of the total energy use. 70-90 % of the total environmental impact arises during the occupation phase, while the manufacture of construction and installation materials constitutes 10-20 %. In conclusion, the energy use and environmental impact during the occupation phase make up a majority of the total. At the end of the thesis, a tool is presented which helps designers and clients predict the energy use during the occupation phase for a future multi-family building before any constructional or installation drawings are made. In this way, different thermal properties may be elaborated in order to receive an energy-efficient and environmentally adapted dwelling.

  2. Preliminary estimate for reinforcement steel quantity in residential buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahamid Ibrahim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop prediction mathematical equations to compute reinforcement steel quantity in traditional residential buildings based on 158 sets of data collected in the West Bank in Palestine. The records related to the quantities were collected from consultancy firms that provide reinforced concrete design services. The data were collected for residential buildings up to four floors. Linear regression analysis was chosen to show the correlation between the included variables. The following variables were used in the regression models: quantity of reinforcement steel (dependent variable, structural element volume (independent variable and floor area (independent variable. Fourteen models were developed; nine models were developed to compute the quantity of reinforcement steel in different structural elements: slabs, beams, columns and footings. The other five models were used to estimate the total steel quantity in a residential building. The coefficient of multiple determination (R2 of the developed models ranged from 0.70 to 0.82. This confirms a good correlation between the dependent and the independent variables. The accuracy of the developed models was tested using the mean absolute percentage error (MAPE test. With MAPE values ranging from 21% to 36%, the results compare favourably with past research that indicated that accuracy between ±25% and ±50% at the early stages is acceptable. The results also show that the models built on structural element size have better accuracy than the models using floor area. Such types of equations are very useful, especially in their simplicity and ability to be handled by calculators or simple computer programmes.

  3. Integrated Strip Foundation Systems for Small Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2010-01-01

    A prefabricated lightweight element was designed for a strip foundation that was used on site as the bases of two small residential buildings, in this case single-family houses; one was built with a double-brick exterior wall separated by mineral fiber insulation and the other was built with a wood......-stud exterior wall with mineral fiber insulation. The element was placed on a stable surface underneath the top soil layer, just 0.25 m below the finished ground surface. The prefabricated element was designed to comply with the requirements of a high energy-efficient performance stipulated in the new Danish...

  4. Towards Nearly Zero Energy Buildings in Europe: A Focus on Retrofit in Non-Residential Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Delia D’Agostino

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Buildings are the focus of European (EU policies aimed at a sustainable and competitive low-carbon economy by 2020. Reducing energy consumption of existing buildings and achieving nearly zero energy buildings (NZEBs are the core of the Energy Efficiency Directive (EED and the recast of the Energy Performance of Building Directive (EPBD. To comply with these requirements, Member States have to adopt actions to exploit energy savings from the building sector. This paper describes the differences between deep, major and NZEB renovation and then it provides an overview of best practice policies and measures to target retrofit and investment related to non-residential buildings. Energy requirements defined by Member States for NZEB levels are reported comparing both new and existing residential and non-residential buildings. The paper shows how the attention given to refurbishment of NZEBs increased over the last decade, but the achievement of a comprehensive implementation of retrofit remains one of main challenges that Europe is facing.

  5. Potential for energy technologies in residential and commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glesk, M.M.

    1979-11-01

    The residential-commercial energy technology model was developed as a planning tool for policy analysis in the residential and commercial building sectors. The model and its procedures represent a detailed approach to estimating the future acceptance of energy-using technologies both in new construction and for retrofit into existing buildings. The model organizes into an analytical framework all relevant information and data on building energy technology, building markets, and government policy, and it allows for easy identification of the relative importance of key assumptions. The outputs include estimates of the degree of penetration of the various building energy technologies, the levels of energy use savings associated with them, and their costs - both private and government. The model was designed to estimate the annual energy savings associated with new technologies compared with continued use of conventional technology at 1975 levels. The amount of energy used under 1975 technology conditions is referred to as the reference case energy use. For analytical purposes the technologies were consolidated into ten groupings: electric and gas heat pumps; conservation categories I, II, and III; solar thermal (hot water, heating, and cooling); photovoltaics, and wind systems. These groupings clearly do not allow an assessment of the potential for individual technologies, but they do allow a reasonable comparison of their roles in the R/C sector. Assumptions were made regarding the technical and economic performances of the technologies over the period of the analysis. In addition, the study assessed the non-financial characteristics of the technologies - aesthetics, maintenance complexity, reliability, etc. - that will also influence their market acceptability.

  6. National Program for Solar Heating and Cooling of Buildings. Project Date Summaries. Vol. I: Commercial and Residential Demonstrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Energy Research and Development Administration, Washington, DC. Div. of Solar Energy.

    Three volumes present brief abstracts of projects funded by the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) and conducted under the National Program for Solar Heating and Cooling of Buildings through July 1976. The overall federal program includes demonstrations of heating and/or combined cooling for residential and commercial buildings…

  7. Application of advanced glazing and overhangs in residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebrahimpour, Abdulsalam [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Science and Research Branch, Islamic Azad University, P.O. Box 14515-775, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Maerefat, Mehdi [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, P.O. Box 14115-111, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    External shading affects the solar energy incident on a window and the transferred energy within the room through the window. In present study, the effect of advanced glazing and overhangs on the solar energy transmitted into or lost from the room through the fenestration areas have been evaluated for typical residential buildings in Tehran, using EnergyPlus trademark software. It was found that appropriate overhangs or side fins in the south, west and east windows would lead to the optimal reduction of the annual energy transferred into the buildings and can have an energetic behaviour equivalent to high performance glazing. The results have been summarized in a table to simple selecting the best window with different glazings, overhangs and side fins based on energy rating. (author)

  8. Factors Affecting Green Residential Building Development: Social Network Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaodong Yang

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Green residential buildings (GRBs are one of the effective practices of energy saving and emission reduction in the construction industry. However, many real estate developers in China are less willing to develop GRBs, because of the factors affecting green residential building development (GRBD. In order to promote the sustainable development of GRBs in China, this paper, based on the perspective of real estate developers, identifies the influential and critical factors affecting GRBD, using the method of social network analysis (SNA. Firstly, 14 factors affecting GRBD are determined from 64 preliminary factors of three main elements, and the framework is established. Secondly, the relationships between the 14 factors are analyzed by SNA. Finally, four critical factors for GRBD, which are on the local economy development level, development strategy and innovation orientation, developer’s acknowledgement and positioning for GRBD, and experience and ability for GRBD, are identified by the social network centrality test. The findings illustrate the key issues that affect the development of GRBs, and provide references for policy making by the government and strategy formulation by real estate developers.

  9. Net-zero emission residential building in temperate weather condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Mohammad T.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Residential load consumes a significant amount of grid energy for electrical and heating or cooling application. Greenhouse gas (GHG emission or equivalent CO2 emission is the direct or indirect effect from either form of these energy uses. Energy demand is increasing with the addition of various new home appliances and energy price is also going up. Various initiatives can be taken to reduce energy demand. However the best way is by improving energy efficiency and that eventually reduces the emission. Using renewable energy (RE to support local load demand is another approach to reduce CO2 emission. However effective use of RE depends on the climatic condition and synchronization of load-demand and local generation. Although unmatched energy from local RE generation can be sold back to the grid, the same amount of energy has to be purchased from the grid at higher cost. When the overall total amount of GHG emission in a year can be balanced by improving energy efficiency and by increasing local RE generation the condition of the house can be termed as zero emission house. This paper investigates the possibility of net-zero emission house in temperate weather condition in Geelong, Australia considering the cost of all relevant components. It was found that net-zero emission building can be implemented and can effectively reduce a total of 44 Mt of CO2 emission in a year from all 9 million residential buildings in Australia.

  10. Heavy metal concentration of settled surface dust in residential building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nor Aimi abdul Wahab; Fairus Muhamad Darus; Norain Isa; Siti Mariam Sumari; Nur Fatihah Muhamad Hanafi

    2012-01-01

    The concentrations of heavy metals (Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn) in settled surface dust were collected from nine residential buildings in different areas in Seberang Prai Tengah District, Pulau Pinang. The samples of settled surface dust were collected in 1 m 2 area by using a polyethylene brush and placed in the dust pan by sweeping the living room floor most accessible to the occupants. Heavy metals concentrations were determined by using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES) after digestion with nitric acid and sulphuric acid. The results show that the range of heavy metals observed in residential buildings at Seberang Prai Tengah were in the range of 2.20-14.00 mg/ kg, 1.50-32.70 mg/ kg, 1.50-76.80 mg/ kg and 14.60-54.40 mg/ kg for Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn respectively. The heavy metal concentration in the investigated areas followed the order: Pb > Zn > Ni > Cu. Statistical analysis indicates significant correlation between all the possible pairs of heavy metal. The results suggest a likely common source for the heavy metal contamination, which could be traced most probably to vehicular emissions, street dust and other related activities. (author)

  11. Research methods of the parameters of residential buildings construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigor’ev Vladimir Aleksandrovich

    Full Text Available The analysis of construction theory and practice shows that rational organizational and technological parameters of the construction of residential buildings should be based on the manifestation in time and space of the most important stages construction with their harmonization. Basing on the experience of normalizing the construction duration, it is advisable to express the complex of residential buildings’ construction processes by their basic stages - preparatory period, underground part, aboveground part, external engineering networks and land improvement. The main indicators of the development and implementation of optimization solutions are: the total duration of the construction, the duration of the preparation period, the duration of the construction of the underground part, the duration of the construction of the aboveground part, the duration of external engineering networks laying, the duration of land improvement. The indicators of the total duration of the construction of residential buildings, the construction the underground and aboveground parts are determined on the basis of the operation of one assembly crane on an object of up to four sections. In case of more sections two (three cranes are considered and the total construction duration is set depending on these conditions. The duration of the construction of multisectional buildings is determined basing on the simultaneous construction of the stages or their combination with a certain time shift. However, this approach requires a significant amount of optimization solutions due to its multivariance. Therefore, in order to reduce the volume of calculations in some cases, for example, when planning the development of districts and neighborhoods, statistical methods can be used for determining the duration of the construction basing on the compilation of optimization solutions. The total duration of the construction and the duration of the main stages are multiple

  12. Design and optimization of zero-energy-consumption based solar energy residential building systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, D. L.; Yu, L. J.; Tan, H. W.

    2017-11-01

    Energy consumption of residential buildings has grown fast in recent years, thus raising a challenge on zero energy residential building (ZERB) systems, which aim at substantially reducing energy consumption of residential buildings. Thus, how to facilitate ZERB has become a hot but difficult topic. In the paper, we put forward the overall design principle of ZERB based on analysis of the systems’ energy demand. In particular, the architecture for both schematic design and passive technology is optimized and both energy simulation analysis and energy balancing analysis are implemented, followed by committing the selection of high-efficiency appliance and renewable energy sources for ZERB residential building. In addition, Chinese classical residential building has been investigated in the proposed case, in which several critical aspects such as building optimization, passive design, PV panel and HVAC system integrated with solar water heater, Phase change materials, natural ventilation, etc., have been taken into consideration.

  13. Solar Heating and Cooling of Residential Buildings: Sizing, Installation and Operation of Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins. Solar Energy Applications Lab.

    This training course and a companion course titled "Design of Systems for Solar Heating and Cooling of Residential Buildings," are designed to train home designers and builders in the fundamentals of solar hydronic and air systems for space heating and cooling and domestic hot water heating for residential buildings. Each course, organized in 22…

  14. Cloud immersion building shielding factors for US residential structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, E D; Hamby, D M

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents validated building shielding factors designed for contemporary US housing-stock under an idealized, yet realistic, exposure scenario within a semi-infinite cloud of radioactive material. The building shielding factors are intended for use in emergency planning and level three probabilistic risk assessments for a variety of postulated radiological events in which a realistic assessment is necessary to better understand the potential risks for accident mitigation and emergency response planning. Factors are calculated from detailed computational housing-units models using the general-purpose Monte Carlo N-Particle computational code, MCNP5, and are benchmarked from a series of narrow- and broad-beam measurements analyzing the shielding effectiveness of ten common general-purpose construction materials and ten shielding models representing the primary weather barriers (walls and roofs) of likely US housing-stock. Each model was designed to scale based on common residential construction practices and include, to the extent practical, all structurally significant components important for shielding against ionizing radiation. Calculations were performed for floor-specific locations as well as for computing a weighted-average representative building shielding factor for single- and multi-story detached homes, both with and without basement, as well for single-wide manufactured housing-units.

  15. The evaluation of retrofit measures in a tall residential building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, M.M.; McLain, H.A.

    1995-07-01

    As part of a joint demonstration effort involving the US Department of Energy (DOE), the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), Boston Edison Company (BECo), and the Chelsea Housing Authority, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) participated in the evaluation of energy and demand saving retrofits for a tall residential building located in Boston. The thirteen story all-electric building underwent window, lighting, and control renovations in December, 1992. annual energy consumption was reduced by 15% and peak demand fell by 17%. Hourly should building consumption data were available for the comparison of pre- and post- conditions and for calibration of a DOE-2.1D simulation model. The analysis found the window retrofit accounted for 90% of total energy savings and 95% of average demand savings, due to reductions in both conduction and infiltration. Benefits from lighting retrofits were low in cooling months and negligible in winter months due to the increase in the demand for electric resistance heating which was proportional to the reduction in lighting capacity. Finally, the simulation model verified that heating system controls had not been used as intended, and that the utility rate structure would not allow cost savings from the original control strategy. These results and other interesting lessons learned are presented.

  16. Building Energy Asset Score for Utilities and Energy Efficiency Program Administrators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Building Technologies Office

    2015-01-01

    The Building Energy Asset Score is a national standardized tool for evaluating the physical and structural energy efficiency of commercial and multifamily residential buildings. The Asset Score generates a simple energy efficiency rating that enables comparison among buildings, and identifies opportunities for users to invest in energy efficiency upgrades. It is web-based and free to use. This fact sheet discusses the value of the score for utilities and energy efficiency program administrators.

  17. Hygrothermal Analysis of Indoor Environment of Residential Prefabricated Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michal

    2017-10-01

    Recent studies show that the relative humidity and the indoor air temperature constitute an important determinant of the quality of indoor air. Hygrothermal microclimate has a significant impact on occupant’s health and their comfort. The study presents the results of experimental measurement of indoor air temperature and relative humidity in selected apartment in prefabricated panel house situated in Ostrava, Czechia. The contribution describes and analysis the relation between indoor air temperature [°C] and relative humidity [%] in this apartment. The experimental object is selected with respect to the housing stock in the Czech Republic. A third of the housing stock in the Czech Republic is composed of prefabricated panel houses. Regeneration and revitalization of these buildings were in the focus of interest during recent years. Building modifications, such as thermal insulation of building envelope or window replacement, lead to a significantly higher level of airtightness of these objects. Humidity and indoor air temperature are measured in 10-minute cycles for two periods. The values of temperature and humidity are measured for the non-heating and the heating season. The length of each experimental period is 30 days. The mean value of indoor air temperature is 22.21 °C and average relative humidity is 45.87% in the non-heating period. The values of 22.62 °C and 35.20% represent average values for the heating period. A slight increase of the average temperature of the indoor environment (+1.85%) is observed. The decrease of the relative humidity is evident at first glance. The relative humidity of the internal environment is approximately 10% lower in the heating period. Long-term decline of relative humidity below 30% brings many problems. It is necessary to take measures to increase of relative humidity in residential prefabricated building. The aquarium appears to be ineffective. The solution may be forced artificial ventilation or humidifiers.

  18. Intelligent demand side management of residential building energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinha, Maruti N.

    Advent of modern sensing technologies, data processing capabilities and rising cost of energy are driving the implementation of intelligent systems in buildings and houses which constitute 41% of total energy consumption. The primary motivation has been to provide a framework for demand-side management and to improve overall reliability. The entire formulation is to be implemented on NILM (Non-Intrusive Load Monitoring System), a smart meter. This is going to play a vital role in the future of demand side management. Utilities have started deploying smart meters throughout the world which will essentially help to establish communication between utility and consumers. This research is focused on investigation of a suitable thermal model of residential house, building up control system and developing diagnostic and energy usage forecast tool. The present work has considered measurement based approach to pursue. Identification of building thermal parameters is the very first step towards developing performance measurement and controls. The proposed identification technique is PEM (Prediction Error Method) based, discrete state-space model. The two different models have been devised. First model is focused toward energy usage forecast and diagnostics. Here one of the novel idea has been investigated which takes integral of thermal capacity to identify thermal model of house. The purpose of second identification is to build up a model for control strategy. The controller should be able to take into account the weather forecast information, deal with the operating point constraints and at the same time minimize the energy consumption. To design an optimal controller, MPC (Model Predictive Control) scheme has been implemented instead of present thermostatic/hysteretic control. This is a receding horizon approach. Capability of the proposed schemes has also been investigated.

  19. Key Residential Building Equipment Technologies for Control and Grid Support PART I (Residential)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Onar, Omer C [ORNL; DeVault, Robert C [ORNL

    2011-09-01

    based on the largest electrical energy consumers in the residential sector are space heating and cooling, washer and dryer, water heating, lighting, computers and electronics, dishwasher and range, and refrigeration. As the largest loads, these loads provide the highest potential for delivering demand response and reliability services. Many residential loads have inherent flexibility that is related to the purpose of the load. Depending on the load type, electric power consumption levels can either be ramped, changed in a step-change fashion, or completely removed. Loads with only on-off capability (such as clothes washers and dryers) provide less flexibility than resources that can be ramped or step-changed. Add-on devices may be able to provide extra demand response capabilities. Still, operating residential loads effectively requires awareness of the delicate balance of occupants health and comfort and electrical energy consumption. This report is Phase I of a series of reports aimed at identifying gaps in automated home energy management systems for incorporation of building appliances, vehicles, and renewable adoption into a smart grid, specifically with the intent of examining demand response and load factor control for power system support. The objective is to capture existing gaps in load control, energy management systems, and sensor technology with consideration of PHEV and renewable technologies to establish areas of research for the Department of Energy. In this report, (1) data is collected and examined from state of the art homes to characterize the primary residential loads as well as PHEVs and photovoltaic for potential adoption into energy management control strategies; and (2) demand response rules and requirements across the various demand response programs are examined for potential participation of residential loads. This report will be followed by a Phase II report aimed at identifying the current state of technology of energy management systems

  20. Assessment of Alternative Scenarios for CO2 Reduction Potential in the Residential Building Sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Sun Jeong

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The South Korean government announced its goals of reducing the country’s CO2 emissions by up to 30% below the business as usual (BAU projections by 2020 in 2009 and 37% below BAU projections by 2030 in 2015. This paper explores the potential energy savings and reduction in CO2 emissions offered by residential building energy efficiency policies and plans in South Korea. The current and future energy consumption and CO2 emissions in the residential building were estimated using an energy–environment model from 2010 to 2030. The business as usual scenario is based on the energy consumption characteristic of residential buildings using the trends related to socio-economic prospects and the number of dwellings. The alternative scenarios took into account energy efficiency for new residential buildings (scenario I, refurbishment of existing residential buildings (scenario II, use of highly efficient boilers (scenario III, and use of a solar thermal energy system (scenario IV. The results show that energy consumption in the residential building sector will increase by 33% between 2007 and 2030 in the BAU scenario. Maximum reduction in CO2 emissions in the residential building sector of South Korea was observed by 2030 in scenario I. In each alternative scenario analysis, CO2 emissions were 12.9% lower than in the business as usual scenario by the year 2030.

  1. Integrated technique of planning the capital repair of residential buildings and objects of transport infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dement'eva, Marina

    2017-10-01

    The paper presents the results of a comparative analysis of two fundamentally different methods for planning capital repairs of objects of transport infrastructure and residential development. The first method was based on perspective long-term plans. Normative service life were the basis for planning the periodicity of repairs. The second method was based on the performance of repairs in fact of the onset of the malfunction. Problems of financing repair work, of the uneven aging of constructs and engineering systems, different wear mechanism in different conditions of exploitation, absence of methods of planning repairs of administrative and production buildings (depots, stations, etc.) justify the need to optimize methods of planning the repair and the relevance of this paper. The aim of the study was to develop the main provisions of an integrated technique for planning the capital repair of buildings of any functional purpose, which combines the advantages of each of the discussed planning methods. For this purpose, the consequences of technical and economic risk were analyzed of the buildings, including stations, depots, transport transfer hubs, administrative buildings, etc when choosing different planning methods. One of the significant results of the study is the possibility of justifying the optimal period of capital repairs on the basis of the proposed technical and economic criteria. The adjustment of the planned repair schedule is carried out taking into account the reliability and cost-effectiveness of the exploitation process.

  2. Building and occupant characteristics as determinants of residential energy consumption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.A.; Nieves, A.L.

    1981-10-01

    The major goals of the research are to gain insight into the probable effects of building energy performance standards on energy consumption; to obtain observations of actual residential energy consumption that could affirm or disaffirm comsumption estimates of the DOE 2.0A simulation model; and to investigate home owner's conservation investments and home purchase decisions. The first chapter covers the investigation of determinants of household energy consumption. The presentation begins with the underlying economic theory and its implications, and continues with a description of the data collection procedures, the formulation of variables, and then of data analysis and findings. In the second chapter the assumptions and limitations of the energy use projections generated by the DOE 2.0A model are discussed. Actual electricity data for the houses are then compared with results of the simulation. The third chapter contains information regarding households' willingness to make energy conserving investments and their ranking of various conservation features. In the final chapter conclusions and recommendations are presented with an emphasis on the policy implications of this study. (MCW)

  3. Control of energy flow in residential buildings; Energieflussregelung in Wohngebaeuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, Martin

    2011-07-01

    Energy systems in residential buildings are changing from monovalent, combustion based systems to multivalent systems containing technologies such as solar collectors, pellet boilers, heat pumps, CHP and multiple storages. Multivalent heat and electricity generation and additional storages raise the number of possible control signals in the system. This creates additional degrees of freedom regarding the choice of the energy converter and the instant of time for energy conversion. New functionality of controllers such as prioritisation of energy producers, optimization of electric self consumption and control of storages and energy feed-in are required. Within the scope of this thesis, new approaches for demand-driven optimal control of energy flows in multivalent building energy systems are developed and evaluated. The approaches are evaluated by means of system energy costs and operating emissions. For parametrisation of the controllers an easily understandable operating concept is developed. The energy flow controllers are implemented as a multi agent system (MAS) and a nonlinear model predictive controller (MPC). Proper functionality and stability are demonstrated in simulations of two example energy systems. In both example systems the MPC controller achieves less energy costs and operating emissions due to system wide global optimization and the more detailed system model within the controller. The multi agent approach turns out to perform better for systems with a huge number of components, e.g. in home automation and energy management systems. Due to the good performance of the reference control strategies, a significant reduction of energy costs and operating emissions is only possible with limitations. Systems for heat generation show only an especially low potential for optimization because of marginal variation ins heat production costs. The adaptation of the operation mode to user priorities, changing utilization characteristics and dynamic energy

  4. Summary of Gaps and Barriers for Implementing Residential Building Energy Efficiency Strategies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-08-01

    This report presents the key gaps and barriers to implementing residential energy efficiency strategies in the U.S. market, as identified in sessions at the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America 2010 Residential Energy Efficiency Meeting held in Denver, Colorado, on July 20-22, 2010.

  5. Building and household X-factors and energy consumption at the residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Estiri, Hossein

    2014-01-01

    Energy use in residential buildings is one of the major sources of greenhouse gas emission production from cities. Using microdata from the 2009 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS), this study applies structural equation modeling to analyze the direct, indirect, and total impacts of household and building characteristics on residential energy consumption. Results demonstrate that the direct impact of household characteristics on residential energy consumption is significantly smaller than the corresponding impact from the buildings. However, accounting for the indirect impact of household characteristics on energy consumption, through choice of the housing unit characteristics, the total impact of households on energy consumption is just slightly smaller than that of buildings. Outcomes of this paper call for smart policies to incorporate housing choice processes in managing residential energy consumption. - Highlights: • Households indirectly influence residential energy use through housing choice. • Households' total impact on energy use is comparable to that of buildings. • Understanding households' indirect impact will enhance residential energy policy. • Smart energy policies are needed to target both direct and indirect effects

  6. An Overview of Residential Ventilation Activities in the Building America Program (Phase I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barley, D.

    2001-05-21

    This report provides an overview of issues involved in residential ventilation; provides an overview of the various ventilation strategies being evaluated by the five teams, or consortia, currently involved in the Building America Program; and identifies unresolved technical issues.

  7. Research on the Implementation of Technological Measures for Controlling Indoor Environmental Quality in Green Residential Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruozhu; Liu, Pengda; Qian, Yongmei

    2018-02-01

    This paper analyzes the design technology of controlling indoor quality in engineering practice, it is proposed that, in framework system of green residential building design, how to realize the design idea of controlling the indoor environment quality, and the design technology with feasibility, including the sunshine and lighting, indoor air quality and thermal environment, sound insulation and noise reduction measures, etc.. The results of all will provide a good theoretical supportting for the design of green residential building.

  8. Selection and Exergy Analysis of Fuel Cell System to Meet all Energy Needs of Residential Buildings

    OpenAIRE

    G.R. Ashari; N.Hedayat; S. Shalbaf; E.Hajidavalloo

    2011-01-01

    In this paper a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell power system including burner, steam reformer, heat exchanger and water heater has been considered to meet the electrical, heating, cooling and domestic hot water loads of residential building which in Tehran. The system uses natural gas as fuel and works in CHP mode. Design and operating conditions of a PEM fuel cell system is considered in this study. The energy requirements of residential building and the num...

  9. Determination of sustainable values for the parameters of the construction of residential buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigoreva, Larisa; Grigoryev, Vladimir

    2018-03-01

    For the formation of programs for housing construction and planning of capital investments, when developing the strategic planning companies by construction companies, the norms or calculated indicators of the duration of the construction of high-rise residential buildings and multifunctional complexes are mandatory. Determination of stable values of the parameters for the high-rise construction residential buildings provides an opportunity to establish a reasonable duration of construction at the planning and design stages of residential complexes, taking into account the influence of market conditions factors. The concept of the formation of enlarged models for the high-rise construction residential buildings is based on a real mapping in time and space of the most significant redistribution with their organizational and technological interconnection - the preparatory period, the underground part, the above-ground part, external engineering networks, landscaping. The total duration of the construction of a residential building, depending on the duration of each redistribution and the degree of their overlapping, can be determined by one of the proposed four options. At the same time, a unified approach to determining the overall duration of construction on the basis of the provisions of a streamlined construction organization with the testing of results on the example of high-rise residential buildings of the typical I-155B series was developed, and the coefficients for combining the work and the main redevelopment of the building were determined.

  10. Determination of sustainable values for the parameters of the construction of residential buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grigoreva Larisa

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available For the formation of programs for housing construction and planning of capital investments, when developing the strategic planning companies by construction companies, the norms or calculated indicators of the duration of the construction of high-rise residential buildings and multifunctional complexes are mandatory. Determination of stable values of the parameters for the high-rise construction residential buildings provides an opportunity to establish a reasonable duration of construction at the planning and design stages of residential complexes, taking into account the influence of market conditions factors. The concept of the formation of enlarged models for the high-rise construction residential buildings is based on a real mapping in time and space of the most significant redistribution with their organizational and technological interconnection - the preparatory period, the underground part, the above-ground part, external engineering networks, landscaping. The total duration of the construction of a residential building, depending on the duration of each redistribution and the degree of their overlapping, can be determined by one of the proposed four options. At the same time, a unified approach to determining the overall duration of construction on the basis of the provisions of a streamlined construction organization with the testing of results on the example of high-rise residential buildings of the typical I-155B series was developed, and the coefficients for combining the work and the main redevelopment of the building were determined.

  11. The Suitability of Adaptive Reuse Practices on Historic Residential Buildings to National Memorials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nor Syahila Ab Rashid

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to prolong the life of the old buildings in the country through building conservation practices, there is a tendency by the government to acquire and reuse Malaysian leadership figures’ residential buildings as memorials. However, it raises the question of whether there is any adaptive reuse guidelines to reuse historic residential buildings in Malaysia as national memorials in maintaining those buildings as an exhibition space on the history of their leadership. The absence of guidelines raises questions about how to implement the process accordingly. The objective of this research is to find the best formula for reusing historic residential buildings as national memorials based on that issue by reviewing and identify the principles of adaptive reuse practices of historic residential buildings as national memorials that implemented in Malaysia. The case studies were conducted on three samples of historic residential buildings that reused as national memorials and those buildings were selected based on a list of the study population, which are Rumah Kelahiran Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad (The Birthplace of Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad, Rumah Merdeka (Freedom House and Memorial Tun Abdul Ghafar Baba (The Tun Abdul Ghafar Baba Memorial. The sample may be determined by the sampling method and evaluated using the checklist provided. Based on the results of the case studies that were analyzed and discussed, it can be concluded that aspects of building code (local requirements as well as environmental and conservation requirements are not met in implementing adaptive reuse process on historic residential buildings to national memorials which needs suggestions for improvement.

  12. Energy Performance of Three Residential College Buildings in University of Malaya Campus, Kuala Lumpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Ainurzaman Jamaludin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Three residential colleges located in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, were selected for energy performance analysis in regards to its implementation of bioclimatic design strategies. Specifically, passive design strategies on daylighting and natural ventilation were examined. In Malaysia, the residential college or hostel is a multi-residential building providing accommodation to university students. The three residential colleges in this study, namely C1, C2 and C3, were built in different years with different designs and forms, particularly with regards to enclosure and facade design, solar control devices, passive daylight concepts, and natural ventilation strategies. The building designs were carefully studied and an electric consumption analysis was carried out in each residential college. This study revealed that the wide-scale implementation of bioclimatic design strategies in college C2 help reduced the annual energy consumption. The building bioclimatic design features that are accountable to reduce energy consumption are the internal courtyard and balconies on each unit of floor area, as shown in C3.Results from this study highly recommend internal courtyard and balcony building combination for multi residential building design, especially in tropical urban regions.

  13. A statistical method to investigate national energy consumption in the residential building sector of China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Shuqin; Li, Nianping; Guan, Jun; Xie, Yanqun; Sun, Fengmei; Ni, Ji [Civil Engineering College, Hunan University, Changsha, Hunan 410082 (China)

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this research is to found a national statistical system of energy consumption in the residential building sector of China, so as to look into the actuality of residential energy consumption, and to provide data support for building energy efficiency work in China. The frame of a national statistical system of residential energy consumption is presented in this paper, according to current status of the climate, social and historic conditions, and energy consumption characteristics in the five architecture climate divisions in China. The statistical index system of residential energy consumption is constituted which refers to housing unit characteristics, household characteristics, possession and utilization of energy consuming equipment, and residential energy consumption quantities. This index system suits for all the different utilization structures of residential energy consumption in different architecture climate divisions. On this base, a complete set of statistical reports is worked out to measure the energy consumption of cities, provinces and the country stage by stage. Finally the statistical method above is applied to measure residential energy consumption by case studies, in order to validate the feasibility of this method. The research in this paper covers the first step of the elaboration of the statistical method to investigate energy consumption in China, and more work will be done in future to further impel national statistics of residential energy consumption. (author)

  14. IEA Project on Indoor Air Quality Design and Control in Low Energy Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Abadie, Marc; Qin, Menghao

    2016-01-01

    with heat recovery systems, one of the next focal points to limiting energy consumption for thermally conditioning the indoor environment will be to possibly reducing the ventilation rate, or to make it in a new way demand controlled. However, this must be done such that it has no have adverse effects...... on Indoor Air Quality (IAQ). Annex 68, Indoor Air Quality Design and Control in Low Energy Residential Buildings, is a project under IEA’s Energy Conservation in Buildings and Communities Program (EBC), which will endeavor to investigate how future residential buildings are able to have very high energy...... the hygrothermal parameters, the chemical conditions, ventilation and the wellbeing of occupants. A flagship outcome of the project is anticipated to be a guidebook on design and operation of ventilation in residential buildings to achieve high IAQ with smallest possible energy consumption....

  15. An International Project on Indoor Air Quality Design and Control in Low Energy Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rode, Carsten; Abadie, Marc; Qin, Menghao

    2016-01-01

    focal points to limiting energy consumption for thermally conditioning the indoor environment will be to possibly reducing the ventilation rate, or making it in a new way demand controlled. However, this must be done such that it does not have adverse effects on indoor air quality (IAQ). Annex 68......, Indoor Air Quality Design and Control in Low Energy Residential Buildings, is a project under IEA’s Energy Conservation in Buildings and Communities Program (EBC), which will endeavor to investigate how future residential buildings are able to have very high energy performance whilst providing...... studies. A flagship outcome of the project will be a guidebook on design and operation of ventilation in residential buildings to achieve high IAQ with least possible energy consumption. The paper illustrates the working program of each of these activities....

  16. Main functional elements having defects of illegal residential buildings : The case of Cova da Moura district

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vilhena, A.; Costa Branco De Oliveira Pedro, J.A.; Baptista Coelho, A.; Vasconcelos Paiva, J.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to describe the main functional elements with defects in illegal residential buildings. Three research questions are addressed: What are the main functional elements with defects in buildings and in dwellings? What are the main defects found? In which way these defects

  17. Main spatial defects of illegal residential buildings : The case of Alto da Cova da Moura districts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Costa Branco De Oliveira Pedro, J.A.; Vilhena, A.; Baptista Coelho, A.; Vasconcelos Paiva, J.; Cruz, C.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the paper is to describe the main spatial defects in illegal residential buildings. Three research questions are addressed: What are the main spatial defects of the dwellings? What are the main spatial defects in the relation between buildings? What is the impact of spatial defects to

  18. Impact of window selection on the energy performance of residential buildings in South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ihm, Pyeongchan; Park, Lyool; Krarti, Moncef; Seo, Donghyun

    2012-01-01

    With rapidly increasing energy consumption attributed to residential buildings in South Korea, there is a need to update requirements of the building energy code in order to improve the energy performance of buildings. This paper provides some guidelines to improve the building energy code to better select glazing types that minimize total energy use of residential buildings in Korea. In particular, detailed energy simulation analyses coupled with economical and environmental assessments are carried out to assess the thermal, economical, and environmental impacts of glazing thermal characteristics as well as window sizes associated with housing units in various representative climates within South Korea. The results of the analyses have clearly indicated that selecting glazing with low solar heat gain coefficient is highly beneficial especially for large windows and for mild climates. In particular, it is found that using any double-pane low-e glazing would provide better performance for windows in residential buildings than the clear double-pane glazing, currently required by the Korean building energy code. - Highlights: ► Results show that windows can be energy neutral for residential buildings. ► In Korea, double-pane low-e glazing would provide better energy performance. ► Double low-e clear filled with argon gas glazing is the most cost-effective.

  19. The Consortium of Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) - A Building America Energy Efficient Housing Partnership

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robb Aldrich; Lois Arena; Dianne Griffiths; Srikanth Puttagunta; David Springer

    2010-12-31

    This final report summarizes the work conducted by the Consortium of Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) (http://www.carb-swa.com/), one of the 'Building America Energy Efficient Housing Partnership' Industry Teams, for the period January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2010. The Building America Program (BAP) is part of the Department of Energy (DOE), Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Building Technologies Program (BTP). The long term goal of the BAP is to develop cost effective, production ready systems in five major climate zones that will result in zero energy homes (ZEH) that produce as much energy as they use on an annual basis by 2020. CARB is led by Steven Winter Associates, Inc. with Davis Energy Group, Inc. (DEG), MaGrann Associates, and Johnson Research, LLC as team members. In partnership with our numerous builders and industry partners, work was performed in three primary areas - advanced systems research, prototype home development, and technical support for communities of high performance homes. Our advanced systems research work focuses on developing a better understanding of the installed performance of advanced technology systems when integrated in a whole-house scenario. Technology systems researched included: - High-R Wall Assemblies - Non-Ducted Air-Source Heat Pumps - Low-Load HVAC Systems - Solar Thermal Water Heating - Ventilation Systems - Cold-Climate Ground and Air Source Heat Pumps - Hot/Dry Climate Air-to-Water Heat Pump - Condensing Boilers - Evaporative condensers - Water Heating CARB continued to support several prototype home projects in the design and specification phase. These projects are located in all five program climate regions and most are targeting greater than 50% source energy savings over the Building America Benchmark home. CARB provided technical support and developed builder project case studies to be included in near-term Joule Milestone reports for the following community scale projects: - SBER Overlook at

  20. Technology-Based Training of Administrators in Residential Care Facilities for the Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macias, Ron J.

    2011-01-01

    The Problem: The problem in this study was to determine whether there is a difference between technology-based and instructor-led RCFE administrator training. Method: A quasi-experimental research design study was conducted, and 70 students enrolled in the Residential Care Facility for the Elderly (RCFE) Administration Licensing renewal course…

  1. Integrating a hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicle with vehicle-to-grid technology, photovoltaic power and a residential building

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Robledo, C.B.; Oldenbroek, V.D.W.M.; Abbruzzese, F.; van Wijk, A.J.M.

    2018-01-01

    This paper presents the results of a demonstration project, including building-integrated photovoltaic (BIPV) solar panels, a residential building and a hydrogen fuel cell electric vehicle (FCEV) for combined mobility and power generation, aiming to achieve a net zero-energy residential building

  2. Medication administration errors for older people in long-term residential care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szczepura Ala

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Older people in long-term residential care are at increased risk of medication prescribing and administration errors. The main aim of this study was to measure the incidence of medication administration errors in nursing and residential homes using a barcode medication administration (BCMA system. Methods A prospective study was conducted in 13 care homes (9 residential and 4 nursing. Data on all medication administrations for a cohort of 345 older residents were recorded in real-time using a disguised observation technique. Every attempt by social care and nursing staff to administer medication over a 3-month observation period was analysed using BCMA records to determine the incidence and types of potential medication administration errors (MAEs and whether errors were averted. Error classifications included attempts to administer medication at the wrong time, to the wrong person or discontinued medication. Further analysis compared data for residential and nursing homes. In addition, staff were surveyed prior to BCMA system implementation to assess their awareness of administration errors. Results A total of 188,249 medication administration attempts were analysed using BCMA data. Typically each resident was receiving nine different drugs and was exposed to 206 medication administration episodes every month. During the observation period, 2,289 potential MAEs were recorded for the 345 residents; 90% of residents were exposed to at least one error. The most common (n = 1,021, 45% of errors was attempting to give medication at the wrong time. Over the 3-month observation period, half (52% of residents were exposed to a serious error such as attempting to give medication to the wrong resident. Error incidence rates were 1.43 as high (95% CI 1.32-1.56 p Conclusions The incidence of medication administration errors is high in long-term residential care. A barcode medication administration system can capture medication

  3. Quality Assurance Roadmap for High Performance Residential Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2008-10-05

    This report outlines the approach to quality assurance in the construction process for new residential construction, including seven process steps from the assessment of current construction practice, through design and documentation changes, to training and quality control for on-site personnel.

  4. 75 FR 54131 - Updating State Residential Building Energy Efficiency Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ... fraction of all new residential construction. The Wall Street Journal Online (June 3, 2003) reports three... correspond to those already in the code for steel walls. Another example is the relocation of the 51 pages of... and cooled zone. Additionally, new walls, doors or windows between the sunroom and the house must meet...

  5. Analysis of Installed Measures and Energy Savings for Single-Family Residential Better Buildings Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heaney, M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Polly, B. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-04-30

    This report presents an analysis of data for residential single-family projects reported by 37 organizations that were awarded federal financial assistance (cooperative agreements or grants) by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Better Buildings Neighborhood Program.1 The report characterizes the energy-efficiency measures installed for single-family residential projects and analyzes energy savings and savings prediction accuracy for measures installed in a subset of those projects.

  6. Analysis of heat source selection for residential buildings in rural areas

    OpenAIRE

    Szul Tomasz

    2018-01-01

    The research aiming to check whether the output of currently installed boilers matches the use requirements together with estimation of their energy efficiency was carried out on a group of 84 single-family residential buildings located in rural areas. Heating and hot water energy needs were calculated for each building in order to determine the use requirements. This enabled verification whether the currently installed boilers match the actual use requirements in the buildings. Based on the ...

  7. The methodology of technical due diligence report preparation for an office, residential and industrial buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kutera Beata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The methodology of a technical due diligence preparation is presented in this paper. It comprises actions that have to be undertaken prior to formal agreement with party ordering due diligence preparation, building a team of consultants, data collecting, preparing analysis and handing over the report to the client. All important issues were described and supported by examples. As there are many types of building objects this paper is limited to office, residential and industrial buildings.

  8. Residential Buildings of the Turkish Republican Period as Architectural Heritage in Aydın

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökçe ŞİMŞEK

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available At the end of the 19th century, Aydın was both a sanjak center and an important commercial center. It was connected to Izmir via Anatolia’s first railway line and was the commercial center through which the produce of central Anatolia was transferred to the port of İzmir. During the War of Independence, most of Aydin’s structures were destroyed and the center left almost entirely abandoned. After the foundation of the Turkish Republic, many efforts were made to rebuild and revitalize the settlement according to a new city plan. In the years following the war, as residential numbers increased, new housing was built as required. In this context, the current study aimed to define the architectural characteristics, value, potential and preservation problems of those registered residential buildings built between 1923 and 1950 in the city. The study presents a comprehensive look at the architectural characteristics of residential buildings in Aydın, and reveals how difficulties in identifying and registering architectural products of the Turkish Republican period is exemplified in the case of the city’s residential buildings. The study also shows that the architectural characteristics of residential buildings constructed between 1923 and 1950 represent both the new face of the Turkish Republic and the traditional living styles of the people of Aydın.

  9. Determining the market value of high-rise residential buildings based on evaluation of consumer properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolobova, Svetlana

    2018-03-01

    As you know, high-rise construction is an indicator of the practical implementation of advanced innovative technologies in the construction industry of the country. High-rise building inevitably comes to the big cities, in connection with the shortage and value of land. The life cycle of any construction project, including high-rise buildings consists of chains: of engineering survey - design-construction-operation. In the process of operation of a tall building, decisions about major repairs or reconstruction of a building are made for decision-making on further use. This article describes methods of assessing the consumer quality of high-rise residential buildings and the establishment of prices based on consumer characteristics of a tall residential building. It is proposed to assess the premises under their quality characteristics. The study was conducted to establish the influence of individual, comprehensive and integral indicators of comparable quality for effective quality living spaces. Simultaneously, there was established a relationship of quality with the consumer cost of housing, ultimately with the potential needs of owners, tenants of the home, lessor dwelling, or buyers of residential properties and other participants in the residential real estate market. This relationship further creates consumer requirements to quality standard of premises at a certain stage of socio-economic development.

  10. Analysis Thermal Comfort Condition in Complex Residential Building, Case Study: Chiangmai, Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juangjandee, Warangkana

    2017-10-01

    Due to the increasing need for complex residential buildings, it appears that people migrate into the high-density urban areas because the infrastructural facilities can be easily found in the modern metropolitan areas. Such rapid growth of urbanization creates congested residential buildings obstructing solar radiation and wind flow, whereas most urban residents spend 80-90% of their time indoor. Furthermore, the buildings were mostly built with average materials and construction detail. This causes high humidity condition for tenants that could promote mould growth. This study aims to analyse thermal comfort condition in complex residential building, Thailand for finding the passive solution to improve indoor air quality and respond to local conditions. The research methodology will be in two folds: 1) surveying on case study 2) analysis for finding the passive solution of reducing humidity indoor air The result of the survey indicated that the building need to find passive solution for solving humidity problem, that can be divided into two ways which raising ventilation and indoor temperature including increasing wind-flow ventilation and adjusting thermal temperature, for example; improving building design and stack driven ventilation. For raising indoor temperature or increasing mean radiant temperature, daylight can be passive solution for complex residential design for reducing humidity and enhance illumination indoor space simultaneous.

  11. Dynamic integration of residential building design and green energies : the Bireth approach : building integrated renewable energy total harvest approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, K.P. [Hong Kong Univ., Hong Kong (China). Dept. of Architecture; Luk, C.L.P. [Chu Hai College of Higher Education, Hong Kong (China). Dept. of Architecture; Wong, S.T. [Hong Kong Univ., Hong Kong (China). Div. of Arts and Humanities, SPACE; Chung, S.L.; Fung, K.S.; Leung, M.F. [Hong Kong Inst. of Vocational Education, Hong Kong (China)

    2006-07-01

    Renewable energy sources that are commonly used in buildings include solar energy, wind energy and rainwater collection. High quality environmentally responsive residential buildings are designed to provide good insulation in winter and solar shading in summer. However, this study demonstrated that the green energy design in residential buildings is not usually well integrated. For example, windows with clear double or triple glazed glass, allow good penetration of sunlight during the day in winter, but are not further dynamically insulated for when the sun goes down to avoid heat loss from the building. Additionally, good solar static shading devices often block much needed daylight on cloudy winter days. These examples emphasize the lack of an integrated approach to gain the best advantage of green energies and to minimize energy costs in residential buildings. This study addressed issues facing the integrated approach with particular reference to the design of a small residential building in rural Beijing. The design included a new approach for interpreting a traditional Beijing court yard house in the modern Beijing rural context, while integrating multi-responding innovative green energy applications derived from first principles. This paper also presented a proposal for a village house in Hong Kong to harvest as much renewable energies as possible, primarily wind energy and solar energy, that come into contact with the building. The purpose was to work towards a renewable energy approach for buildings, namely the Bireth approach, which will benefit practically all houses by making them zero energy houses. The paper described the feasibility of integrating renewable energies in buildings to fulfill performance requirements such improving ventilation, providing warm interiors, drying clothes, or storing solar and wind energies into power batteries. The challenges facing the development of a proposed micro solar hot air turbine were also presented. 15 refs., 6

  12. Application of Multiple Criteria Decision Making to Renovation of Multi-Residential Historic Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Galiotto, Nicolas; Flourentzou, Flourentzos; Thalmann, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    , we show on a case study how existing and newly developed evaluation methods were used to determine a convenient renovation scenario accepted by all the stakeholders. The building is a multi-residential historic building constructed in the early twentieth century. EPIQR+ method was used to evaluate...... the building deterioration, energy performance of refurbishment scenarios and the renovation costs. PETRA method was used to evaluate the quality of the historic building conservation. It was also used to evaluate the economic impact on tenants and the impact on the value of the building. In order to assess...

  13. Medication administration errors for older people in long-term residential care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szczepura, Ala; Wild, Deidre; Nelson, Sara

    2011-12-07

    Older people in long-term residential care are at increased risk of medication prescribing and administration errors. The main aim of this study was to measure the incidence of medication administration errors in nursing and residential homes using a barcode medication administration (BCMA) system. A prospective study was conducted in 13 care homes (9 residential and 4 nursing). Data on all medication administrations for a cohort of 345 older residents were recorded in real-time using a disguised observation technique. Every attempt by social care and nursing staff to administer medication over a 3-month observation period was analysed using BCMA records to determine the incidence and types of potential medication administration errors (MAEs) and whether errors were averted. Error classifications included attempts to administer medication at the wrong time, to the wrong person or discontinued medication. Further analysis compared data for residential and nursing homes. In addition, staff were surveyed prior to BCMA system implementation to assess their awareness of administration errors. A total of 188,249 medication administration attempts were analysed using BCMA data. Typically each resident was receiving nine different drugs and was exposed to 206 medication administration episodes every month. During the observation period, 2,289 potential MAEs were recorded for the 345 residents; 90% of residents were exposed to at least one error. The most common (n = 1,021, 45% of errors) was attempting to give medication at the wrong time. Over the 3-month observation period, half (52%) of residents were exposed to a serious error such as attempting to give medication to the wrong resident. Error incidence rates were 1.43 as high (95% CI 1.32-1.56 p < 0.001) in nursing homes as in residential homes. The level of non-compliance with system alerts was very low in both settings (0.075% of administrations). The pre-study survey revealed that only 12/41 staff administering

  14. Thermal Performance of Typical Residential Building in Karachi with Different Materials for Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nafeesa Shaheen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This research work deals with a study of a residential building located in climatic context of Karachi with the objective of being the study of thermal performance based upon passive design techniques. The study helps in reducing the electricity consumption by improving indoor temperatures. The existing residential buildings in Karachi were studied with reference to their planning and design, analyzed and evaluated. Different construction?s compositions of buildings were identified, surveyed and analyzed in making of the effective building envelops. Autodesk® Ecotect, 2011 was used to determine indoor comfort conditions and HVAC (Heating, Ventilation, Air-Conditioning and Cooling loads. The result of the research depicted significant energy savings of 38.5% in HVAC loads with proposed building envelop of locally available materials and glazing.

  15. Human Thermal Comfort In Residential House Buildings Of Jimma Town Southwest Ethiopia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chali Yadeta

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Indoor human thermal comfort is an important factor in indoor air quality assessment. Thermal comfort affects human health work efficiency and overall wellbeing. Thermal discomfort in indoors lowers the emotional and physical health of the occupants. This paper targets to explore human thermal comfort in residential house buildings of Jimma town and state some possible mechanisms to improve the existing thermal discomfort in large number the houses. For the study 303 structured questionnaires were distributed to the residential houses in thirteen places of the town based on predetermined criteria. The study reveals that human thermal discomfort in residential houses Jimma town are mainly from poor architectural design and improper use of heat generating appliances in indoors. The uses architectural design that suites the present climatic conditions and use of materials that facilitates ventilations will enhance the realization of the required human thermal comfort in residential houses of the study area.

  16. Energy refurbishment of the Italian residential building stock: energy and cost analysis through the application of the building typology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ballarini, Ilaria; Corrado, Vincenzo; Madonna, Francesco; Paduos, Simona; Ravasio, Franco

    2017-01-01

    The European residential building stock is largely composed of buildings with poor energy performance, therefore basic retrofit actions could lead to significant energy savings. However, energy refurbishment measures should be identified in accurate way, taking into account the technical viability and aiming both to increase the building energy performance and to restrain the costs. The present article investigates the effects of different measures applied to the Italian residential building stock by using the building typology, which consists of 120 building types, representative of six construction ages, four building sizes and five climatic zones. A quasi-steady state model has been used to calculate the energy performance; the economic evaluation has been carried out as specified in the EU cost-optimal comparative methodology (Directive 2010/31/EU). The most effective measures and packages of measures, in terms of energy saving and global cost reduction, are identified and discussed. The results are addressed to important purposes for energy policy, as for instance: (a) to provide political authorities with the most effective energy efficiency measures as to encourage retrofit processes through the allocation of financial incentives, (b) to offer a knowledge-base for developing energy refurbishment scenarios of residential building stocks and forecasting future energy resource demand. - Highlights: • Investigation of energy savings and cost effectiveness of the Italian housing stock refurbishments. • Application of the building typology approach of the IEE-TABULA project. • Knowledge-base for bottom-up models of the building stock energy performance. • Supporting the political authorities to promote effective refurbishment measures.

  17. APPLICATION OF DOE-2 TO RESIDENTIAL BUILDING ENERGY PERFORMANCE STANDARDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lokmanhekim, M.; Goldstein, D. B.; Levine, M. D.; Rosenfield, A. H.

    1980-10-01

    One important requirement emerging from national and international efforts to shift from our present energy-intensive way of life to an energy conservation mode is the development of standards for assessing and regulating energy use and performance in buildings. This paper describes a life-cycle-cost approach to Building Energy Performance Standards (BEPS) calculated by using DOE-2: The Energy Use Analysis of Buildings Computer Program. The procedure outlined raises important questions that must be answered before the energy budgets devised from this approach can be reliably used as a policy tool, The DOE-2 program was used to calculate the energy consumption in prototype buildings and in their modified versions in which energy conservation measures were effected. The energy use of a modified building with lowest life-cycle-cost determines the energy budget for all buildings of that type. These calculations were based on a number of assumptions that may be controversial. These assumptions regard accuracy of the model, comparison of the DOE-2 program with other programs, stability of the energy budget, and sensitivity of the results to variations in the building parameters.

  18. Entrances and entrance halls of residential buildings in Belgrade: 1918-1941

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Putnik Vladana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Between the two world wars Belgrade saw a surge in housing construction, including many rental apartment buildings, so-called 'luxury city palaces'. In addition to richly decorated street façades in the style of academism, eclecticism and Art Deco, architects paid much attention to the design of entrances and entrance halls. The entrance frequently was the main element of the façade even in buildings in a moderate modernist style. Since this aspect of architectural design is scantily documented, this paper seeks to identify its main trends in the 1920s and 1930s and to establish a typology of entrances and entrance halls of residential buildings. It also outlines the parameters and social circumstances that played a role in giving special attention to this element of residential buildings, and examines whether Belgrade architects pursued a sort of total design inspired by European models.

  19. Influence of building costs on rents of residential property in Owerri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Residential building accommodation projects undertaken by individuals and organizations are investment whose returns and rewards should be adequate to offset the costs incurred and give good level of profit for entrepreneurial risks. In the recent times there existed unprecedented rise in rental values of newly completed ...

  20. Solar heating and cooling of residential buildings: sizing, installation and operation of systems. 1980 edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-01

    This manual was prepared as a text for a training course on solar heating and cooling of residential buildings. The course and text are directed toward sizing, installation, operation, and maintenance of solar systems for space heating and hot water supply, and solar cooling is treated only briefly. (MHR)

  1. Recommendations for energy conservation standards for new residential buildings: Volume 1: Text of the standard

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-05-01

    The purpose of this Standard is to provide for the development of requirements for new residential buildings that promote the efficient use of energy within economic constraints and without compromising the comfort and safety of the occupants. 1 fig., 8 tabs.

  2. Architectural reflections on residential buildings and their renovation : destruction or preservation of the architectural language

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jurgenhake, B.M.

    2016-01-01

    This paper is about a study of Dutch residential buildings in the 20th century and the architectural means that were used to create an appearance towards the neighbourhood. The study shows how this appearance changed after renovation. More than 80% of the Dutch housing stock was built after World

  3. Complex analysis of energy efficiency in operated high-rise residential building: Case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korniyenko Sergey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Energy conservation and human thermal comfort enhancement in buildings is a topical issue of modern architecture and construction. The innovative solution of this problem makes it possible to enhance building ecological and maintenance safety, to reduce hydrocarbon fuel consumption, and to improve life standard of people. The requirements to increase of energy efficiency in buildings should be provided at all the stages of building's life cycle that is at the stage of design, construction and maintenance of buildings. The research purpose is complex analysis of energy efficiency in operated high-rise residential building. Many actions for building energy efficiency are realized according to the project; mainly it is the effective building envelope and engineering systems. Based on results of measurements the energy indicators of the building during annual period have been calculated. The main reason of increase in heat losses consists in the raised infiltration of external air in the building through a building envelope owing to the increased air permeability of windows and balcony doors (construction defects. Thermorenovation of the building based on ventilating and infiltration heat losses reduction through a building envelope allows reducing annual energy consumption. Energy efficiency assessment based on the total annual energy consumption of building, including energy indices for heating and a ventilation, hot water supply and electricity supply, in comparison with heating is more complete. The account of various components in building energy balance completely corresponds to modern direction of researches on energy conservation and thermal comfort enhancement in buildings.

  4. Complex analysis of energy efficiency in operated high-rise residential building: Case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korniyenko, Sergey

    2018-03-01

    Energy conservation and human thermal comfort enhancement in buildings is a topical issue of modern architecture and construction. The innovative solution of this problem makes it possible to enhance building ecological and maintenance safety, to reduce hydrocarbon fuel consumption, and to improve life standard of people. The requirements to increase of energy efficiency in buildings should be provided at all the stages of building's life cycle that is at the stage of design, construction and maintenance of buildings. The research purpose is complex analysis of energy efficiency in operated high-rise residential building. Many actions for building energy efficiency are realized according to the project; mainly it is the effective building envelope and engineering systems. Based on results of measurements the energy indicators of the building during annual period have been calculated. The main reason of increase in heat losses consists in the raised infiltration of external air in the building through a building envelope owing to the increased air permeability of windows and balcony doors (construction defects). Thermorenovation of the building based on ventilating and infiltration heat losses reduction through a building envelope allows reducing annual energy consumption. Energy efficiency assessment based on the total annual energy consumption of building, including energy indices for heating and a ventilation, hot water supply and electricity supply, in comparison with heating is more complete. The account of various components in building energy balance completely corresponds to modern direction of researches on energy conservation and thermal comfort enhancement in buildings.

  5. Environmental Impact Analysis on Residential Building in Malaysia Using Life Cycle Assessment

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Faiz Abd Rashid; Juferi Idris; Sumiani Yusoff

    2017-01-01

    The building industry has a significant impact on the environment due to massive natural resources and energy it uses throughout its life cycle. This study presents a life cycle assessment of a semi-detached residential building in Malaysia as a case study and assesses the environmental impact under cradle-to-grave which consists of pre-use, construction, use, and end-of-life phases by using Centre of Environmental Science of Leiden University (CML) 2001. Four impact categories were evaluated...

  6. Expansion of the residential conservation service program to multi-family and small commercial buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-11-01

    Alternative regulatory provisions are considered which might permit achievement of the building energy conservation regulatory goals at a lower cost. Major issues, regulatory and legislative options, and cost-benefit analyses are discussed for multi-family and commercial buildings. The following are presented: related government programs, urban and community impact analysis, institutional impacts, energy cost, Residential Conservation Service coverage, methods of analysis, and regional studies. (MHR)

  7. Development of a new energy efficiency rating system for existing residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, Choongwan; Hong, Taehoon; Lee, Minhyun; Seon Park, Hyo

    2014-01-01

    Building energy efficiency rating systems have been established worldwide to systematically manage the energy consumption of existing buildings. This study aimed to develop a new energy efficiency rating system for existing residential buildings from two perspectives: (i) establishment of reasonable and fair criteria for the building energy efficiency rating system; and (ii) establishment of comparative incentive and penalty programs to encourage the voluntary participation of all residents in the energy saving campaign. Based on the analysis of the conventional energy efficiency rating system for existing residential buildings, this study was conducted in five steps: (i) data collection and analysis; (ii) correlation analysis between the household size and the CO 2 emission density (i.e., CO 2 emission per unit area); (iii) cluster formation based on results of the correlation analysis using a decision tree; (iv) establishment of a new energy efficiency rating system for existing buildings; and (v) establishment of incentive and penalty programs using advanced case-based reasoning. The proposed system can allow a policymaker to establish a reasonable and fair energy efficiency rating system for existing residential buildings and can encourage the voluntary participation of all residents in the energy saving campaign. - Highlights: • A new energy efficiency rating system for the residential building was developed. • The incentive and penalty programs were established using an advanced CBR model. • The new system was established using reasonable and fair standards. • It allows all residents to voluntarily participate in the energy saving campaign. • It can be applied to any country or sector in the global environment

  8. Renewable energy and conservation measures for non-residential buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Andrew James

    The energy demand in most countries is growing at an alarming rate and identifying economically feasible building retrofit solutions to decrease the need for fossil fuels so as to mitigate their environmental and societal impacts has become imperative. Two approaches are available for identifying feasible retrofit solutions: 1) the implementation of energy conservation measures; and 2) the production of energy from renewable sources. This thesis focuses on the development of retrofit software planning tools for the implementation of solar photovoltaic systems, and lighting system retrofits for mid-Michigan institutional buildings. The solar planning tool exploits the existing blueprint of a building's rooftop, and via image processing, the layouts of the solar photovoltaic arrays are developed based on the building's geographical location and typical weather patterns. The resulting energy generation of a PV system is estimated and is utilized to determine levelized energy costs. The lighting system retrofit analysis starts by a current utilization assessment of a building to determine the amount of energy used by the lighting system. Several LED lighting options are evaluated on the basis of color correlation temperature, color rendering index, energy consumption, and financial feasibility, to determine a retrofit solution. Solar photovoltaic installations in mid-Michigan are not yet financially feasible, but with the anticipated growth and dynamic complexity of the solar photovoltaic market, this solar planning tool is able to assist building proprietors make executive decisions regarding their energy usage. Additionally, a lighting system retrofit is shown to have significant financial and health benefits.

  9. SOME SPECIFIC FEATURES OF ENERGY CONSUMPTION IN MODERN RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Osipov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 20 years there have been significant changes in the customer requirements for housing in the countries of the former USSR. Besides, new materials and construction products, such as the ones for sealed windows and balcony doors have appeared in the market. The number of vacant flats with the heating off in the winter significantly increased that may cause condensation on the surfaces of interroom partitions and the formation of mold. Meanwhile, the requirements for lower energy consumption are constantly increasing, that is especially pronouncedly manifested in the growth of normative values of thermal resistance of enclosing structures of buildings and in the increased interest in the use of secondary energy resources extracted from the air and effluent wastewater. The present article describes the method to prevent moisture condensation on the fencing of adjacent premises with different temperatures containing heating systems and the use of waste heat removed from the room exhaust air. For quick emergency switching of in-house systems of heat and gas supply to outdoor mobile sources of heat and gas it is recommended to install special taps with connectors insulated in special niches in the walls or other parts of buildings considering the possibility of placing them close to the outer mobile sources of heat and gas. In the case of heating the building with the aid of a roof gas boiler or by doorto-door heaters fueled by gas, a single pipeline (collector, equipped with an additional device for the connection of emergency gas supply is being put along the wall. In order to reduce specific heat consumption for heating of buildings it is recommended to increase the net enclosure volume of buildings and to improve their form in various ways, including by combining two or more adjacent low-rise buildings in one secondary building with increasing height and with the broadening of either or each side for modernization and reconstruction

  10. Statistical assessment of fire safety in multi-residential buildings in Slovenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domen Kušar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nearly a third of residential units in Slovenia are located in multi-residential buildings. The majority of such buildings were built after WW2, when the need for suitable accommodation buildings was at its peak. They were built using the construction possibilities and requirements of the time. Every year there are over 200 fires in these buildings, resulting in fatalities and vast material damage. Due to the great efforts over the past centuries, which were all mainly aimed at replacing combustible construction materials with non-combustible ones, and with advancements in fire service equipment and techniques, the number of fires and their scope has decreased significantly but they were not entirely put out. New and greater advances in the field of fire safety of multi-residential buildings became obvious within the last few years, when stricter regulations regarding the construction of such objects came into force. Developments in science and within the industry itself brought about several new solutions in improving the situation in this field, which has been confirmed by experiences from abroad. Unfortunately in Slovenia, the establishment of safety principles still depends mainly on an occupants’ perception, financial means, and at the same time, certain implementation procedures that are much more complicated due to new property ownership. With the aid of the statistical results from the 2002 Census and contemporary fire safety requirements, this article attempts to show the present-day situation of the problem at both the state and municipality level and will propose solutions to improve this situation. The authors established that not even one single older, multi-residential building meets complies with modern requirements. Fortunately, the situation is improved by the fact that most buildings in Slovenia are built from non-combustible materials (concrete, brick, which limit the spread of fire.

  11. Verification of Occupants’ Behaviour Models in Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune Korsholm

    During the last decade, studies about stochastic models of occupants’ behaviour in relation to control of the indoor environment have been published. Often the overall aim of these models is to enable more reliable predictions of building performance using building performance simulations (BPS...... to determine if the event takes place or not. Finally, the simulated window position is compared to the measured ones and the True Positive Rate and False Positive Rate along with other metrics can be calculated and compared. The method evaluates the models abilities to predict the position of the window...... based on the dataset. In each time step, the probabilities are subtracted from the observed transitions, to find the residuals. Finally, the residuals can be averaged, and compared. The validation by simulation relies on detailed Building Performance Simulations (BPS) using models under evaluation...

  12. Application of Prefabricated Panels for the Energy Retrofit of Portuguese Residential Buildings Facades: A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sousa J.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to evaluate the potential application of prefabricated panels in energy retrofit of facades in the Portuguese building stock. The fundamentals of this study were part of Annex 50, which was an international ECBCS IEA project, with the purpose of developing an innovative concept of building renovation for the most representative buildings based on prefabricated systems. To analyze the potential application of energy retrofit using prefabricated panels, was important to know the reality of the existing building stock and its morphology. To know the reality of the building stock, an analysis was done based on the existing statistical data and to find the most representative residential buildings, target of the study, three criteria were defined: buildings built before 1990, with 2 to 6 floors and with renovation needs in the exterior envelope.

  13. Energy Efficiency Trends in Residential and Commercial Buildings - August 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2010-08-01

    This report overviews trends in the construction industry, including profiles of buildings and the resulting impacts on energy consumption. It begins with an executive summary of the key findings found in the body of the report, so some of the data and charts are replicated in this section. Its intent is to provide in a concise place key data points and conclusions. The remainder of the report provides a specific profile of the construction industry and patterns of energy use followed by sections providing product and market insights and information on policy efforts, such as taxes and regulations, which are intended to influence building energy use. Information on voluntary programs is also offered.

  14. Modeling the Temperature Effect of Orientations in Residential Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sabahat Arif

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Indoor thermal comfort in a building has been an important issue for the environmental sustainability. It is an accepted fact that their designs and planning consume a lot of energy in the modern architecture of 20th and 21st centuries. An appropriate orientation of a building can provide thermally comfortable indoor temperatures which otherwise can consume extra energy to condition these spaces through all the seasons. This experimental study investigates the potential effect of this solar passive design strategy on indoor temperatures and a simple model is presented for predicting indoor temperatures based upon the ambient temperatures.

  15. Assessment of natural ventilation for Canadian residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reardon, J.T. [National Research Council of Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2007-08-13

    There are generally two types of ventilation in houses, notably natural infiltration produced by stack and wind pressures, and mechanical ventilation by exhaust or intake fans operating across the house envelope. This research paper utilized historical data collected in Ottawa to establish those periods of low natural ventilation, when stack and wind pressures become so low that sufficient natural ventilation does not occur. Modelling and weather data was used to extend the analysis to other locations in Canada. This paper described the research project including its objectives and work plan. Each of the tasks in the study were explained. These included establishing a definition of adequate residential ventilation; establishing typical characteristics of Canadian dwellings; selecting a suitable air infiltration/natural ventilation model for houses; identifying measured data sets suitable for analysis; and reviewing selected data to determine periods of inadequate natural ventilation. Conclusions and future work were also presented. It was concluded that natural ventilation, at least due to air filtration, cannot be relied upon to provide all the ventilation needs in Canadian houses. Mechanical ventilation is needed in most Canadian houses to supplement natural ventilation during mild weather. 73 refs., 74 tabs., 7 figs., 3 appendices.

  16. 76 FR 42688 - Updating State Residential Building Energy Efficiency Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ... IECC in general and the building thermal envelope (ceilings, walls, doors, windows, foundations, etc... correspond to those already in the code for steel walls. Another example is the relocation of the 51 pages of...\\ (46.5 m\\2\\). Sunroom additions are permitted to have ceiling, wall insulation, and window U-factor...

  17. Solar Heating and Cooling of Residential Buildings: Design of Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins. Solar Energy Applications Lab.

    This is the second of two training courses designed to develop the capability of practitioners in the home building industry to design solar heating and cooling systems. The course is organized in 23 modules to separate selected topics and to facilitate learning. Although a compact schedule of one week is shown, a variety of formats can be…

  18. Exploring Socio-Technical Features of Green Interior Design of Residential Buildings: Indicators, Interdependence and Embeddedness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Ning

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This research aims to develop indicators for assessing green interior design of new residential buildings in China, grounded in the socio-technical systems approach. The research was carried out through a critical literature review and two focus group studies. The results show that the boundaries of green interior design were identified with respect to three dimensions, namely performance, methodology and stakeholders. The socio-technical systems approach argues for the recognition of the interdependence between the systems elements and the feature of embeddedness. The interdependence of the systems elements exists within each of these three dimensions and across them. It is also found that the socio-technical systems of green interior design are embedded in the social, regulatory and geographic context. Taking interior design of residential buildings as the empirical setting, this study contributes to the literature of green building assessment by presenting a socio-technical systems approach.

  19. Urban Imperviousness Effects on Summer Surface Temperatures Nearby Residential Buildings in Different Urban Zones of Parma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Morabito

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Rapid and unplanned urban growth is responsible for the continuous conversion of green or generally natural spaces into artificial surfaces. The high degree of imperviousness modifies the urban microclimate and no studies have quantified its influence on the surface temperature (ST nearby residential building. This topic represents the aim of this study carried out during summer in different urban zones (densely urbanized or park/rural areas of Parma (Northern Italy. Daytime and nighttime ASTER images, the local urban cartography and the Italian imperviousness databases were used. A reproducible/replicable framework was implemented named “Building Thermal Functional Area” (BTFA useful to lead building-proxy thermal analyses by using remote sensing data. For each residential building (n = 8898, the BTFA was assessed and the correspondent ASTER-LST value (ST_BTFA and the imperviousness density were calculated. Both daytime and nighttime ST_BTFA significantly (p < 0.001 increased when high levels of imperviousness density surrounded the residential buildings. These relationships were mostly consistent during daytime and in densely urbanized areas. ST_BTFA differences between urban and park/rural areas were higher during nighttime (above 1 °C than daytime (about 0.5 °C. These results could help to identify “urban thermal Hot-Spots” that would benefit most from mitigation actions.

  20. Energy usage and technical potential for energy saving measures in the Swedish residential building stock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mata, Érika; Sasic Kalagasidis, Angela; Johnsson, Filip

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the current energy usage (net energy and final energy by fuels) and associated carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions of the Swedish residential building stock, which includes single-family dwellings and multi-family dwellings. Twelve energy saving measures (ESMs) are assessed using a bottom–up modeling methodology, in which the Swedish residential stock is represented by a sample of 1400 buildings (based on data from the year 2005). Application of the ESMs studied gives a maximum technical reduction potential in energy demand of 53%, corresponding to a 63% reduction in CO 2 emissions. Although application of the investigated ESMs would reduce CO 2 emissions, the measures that reduce electricity consumption for lighting and appliances (LA) will increase CO 2 emissions, since the saved electricity production is less CO 2 -intensive than the fuel mix used for the increased space heating required to make up for the loss in indirect heating obtained from LA. - Highlights: ► Analysis of year 2005energy use and CO2 emissions of Swedish residential buildings. ► Includes all single-family dwellings and multi-family dwellings. ► Bottom–up modeling of building stock represented by 1400 buildings. ► Technical effects of 12 energy saving measures are assessed. ► Energy demand can be reduced by53% and associated CO 2 emissions by 63%

  1. PCMs for Residential Building Applications: A Short Review Focused on Disadvantages and Proposals for Future Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashley Bland

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Phase change materials (PCMs offer great potential as a latent heat energy storage technique to provide energy efficient systems in new and existing residential buildings. Due to their unique characteristic of high storage densities and latent heat properties, PCMs provide opportunities for greater energy storage in many applications for residential buildings. These applications include, but are not limited to, solar water heating, space heating/cooling, and waste heat recovery. This study reviews PCM systems in residential building applications, with a focus on their major disadvantages and concludes with proposals for future development. Several disadvantages of PCM use in the given application have been identified and include; super cooling, low thermal conductivity, phase segregation, fire safety, and cost. The issues caused by super cooling and phase segregation lead to thermal cycling degradation, limiting the useful lifecycle of the material. These issues could limit their potential in building applications, which require systems of a long lifespan. Low thermal conductivities can slow down the rate at which heat is distributed or absorbed from the building, which affect the occupants comfort and as well as the efficiency of the system. Ideas based on the current research on ways to limit these disadvantages are included in the study. This study also identifies that further research is required on novel maintenance ways for the PCM systems after they have been installed.

  2. SOLAR SYSTEMS FOR RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS IN ACCORDANCE WITH OPERATING CONDITIONS OF THE REPUBLIC OF BELARUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Rutkowski

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar systems are actively applied for heat supply of buildings in Europe. Usage of solar energy for heat supply of residential buildings is considered as rather efficient for the Republic of Belarus because total amount of direct and scattered solar radiation entering horizontal surface is equivalent to an average European index for the climate of Belarus. The paper analyzes an existing dependence on determination of solar system efficiency and proposes an amended formula for calculations while designing solar consumption systems and its legitimacy has been experimentally proved. A scheme of an experimental unit with explanations and a brief description for execution of experiments and main results of the completed investigations have been presented in the paper. Experiments have been carried out for solar systems with natural and forced coolant circulation. Attention has been paid to obtaining maximum possible temperature potential of the coolant during operation of the solar system within periods of high and low solar radiation intensity. Recommendations on practical application of solar systems for multi-storey residential buildings houses and mansion-type houses have been given in the paper. The paper presents technological principles of constructing “passive” solar heating devices. A comparison of traditionally applied and proposed alternative solar systems has been made for operational conditions in Belarus. The paper proposes a solar system for hot water supply of multi-storey buildings. The proposed system has found its first realization in the Republic while designing and constructing an energy-efficient demonstration 10-storey residential building in Mogilev within the framework of the UN Development Program project and Global Environment Fund “Improvement of energy efficiency for residential buildings in the Republic of Belarus”

  3. Upgrading of the non-residential building stock towards nZEB standard

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haavik, Trond; Helgesen, Paul Jacob; Rose, Jørgen

    the Net Zero Energy Building standards NZEB in a sustainable and cost efficient way; ways to identify important market and policy issues; and effective marketing strategies for such renovations. This report describes the work of Subtask B, which covers market and policy issues and marketing strategies...... aware that such savings are possible, they tend to set less ambitious targets. Buildings that are renovated to mediocre performance can be a lost opportunity for decades. The objectives of IEA SHC Task 47 are to develop a solid knowledge-base including: how to renovate non-residential buildings towards...

  4. Effect of energy renovation on indoor air quality in multifamily residential buildings in Slovakia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Földváry, Veronika; Bekö, Gabriel; Langer, Sarka

    2017-01-01

    efficiency of these buildings rarely consider their impact on the indoor air quality (IAQ). The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of simple energy renovation on IAQ, air exchange rates (AER) and occupant satisfaction in Slovak residential buildings. Three pairs of identical naturally...... of nitrogen dioxide (NO2), formaldehyde and total and individual volatile organic compounds (VOC) were also measured. CO2 concentrations were significantly higher and AERs were lower in the renovated buildings. Formaldehyde concentrations increased after renovation and were positively correlated with CO2...

  5. Flood vulnerability assessment of residential buildings by explicit damage process modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Custer, Rocco; Nishijima, Kazuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    The present paper introduces a vulnerability modelling approach for residential buildings in flood. The modelling approach explicitly considers relevant damage processes, i.e. water infiltration into the building, mechanical failure of components in the building envelope and damage from water...... masonry building. Results are presented in terms of a parameter study for several building parameters and hazard characteristics, as well as, in terms of a comparison with damage data and literature vulnerability models. The parameter study indicates that hazard characteristics and building...... characteristics impact damage ratios as expected. Furthermore, the results are comparable to vulnerability models in literature. Strengths and shortcomings of the model are discussed. The modelling approach is considered as a step towards the establishment of vulnerability models that can serve as a basis...

  6. Impact of Furniture Layout on Indoor Daylighting Performance in Existing Residential Buildings in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Mousavi

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Currently, home-based computing workspaces have developed substantially all over the world, especially in Malaysia. This growing trend attracts computer workers to run a business from their residential units. Hence, visual comfort needs to be considered in addition to thermal comfort for home workers in their residential working rooms. While such rooms are always occupied with furniture, the layout of the furniture may influence the indoor daylighting distribution. Several various furniture layouts can be arranged in a residential working room. However, to have better generalisation, this study focused on the impacts of mostly-used-furniture-layouts (MUFLs on indoor daylighting performance in residential working rooms. The field measurement was conducted in a typically furnished room under a tropical sky to validate the results of the simulation software under different sky conditions. Then, daylight ratio (DR, as a quantitative daylighting variable, and the illuminance uniformity ratio (IUR, CIE glare index (CGI, and Guth visual comfort probability (GVCP, as qualitative daylighting variables, were analysed through simulation experiments. In conclusion, by changing the furniture layout, daylight uniformity recorded the highest fluctuations in the case room among all variables. While various furniture layouts, in a residential working room in the tropics, may even slightly reduce the extreme indoor daylight quantity, they can worsen the indoor daylight quality compared to an unfurnished space. The paper shows that furniture as an interior design parameter cannot help to improve tropical daylighting performance in a building.

  7. Ways of modernization of large-panel residential buildings in Yerevan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hakobyan Tigran Davidovich

    Full Text Available The present article discusses some problems of renovation and modernization of large-panel residential buildings built in the postwar period in Yerevan. The analysis of the current situation showed that today these buildings have many problems related to their functional and aesthetic aspects of quality and become obsolete. The floor plans don’t satisfy modern functional requirements of inhabitants: similar and repeatable types of buildings became the reason of large arrays of monotonously built up districts with low indicators of quality. Furthermore, there are many low quality extensions and add-ins to the buildings made by inhabitants without control, which destroy the architectural appearance of habitat. Yard places of large-panel residential buildings are occupied by car parks and road travel, buildings are cut off from courtyard areas, which as a consequence don’t meet tsocial and functional requirements of the people. The consideration of the international experience of large-panel old housing renovation in European countries has shown that the main activities include improving the energy efficiency of residential buildings with removing heat loss and using solar panels, contrast changes in architectural appearance with large terraces, loggias, using wide range of colors, add-in attics and enlarging the height and the use of space-planning decisions to increase the living space. Analyzing the current situation of the housing and the international experience of modernization the concept of complex modernization of large-panel buildings was offered, which suggested bringing it to life on three main levels of habitat: apartments, building shapes, residential environment and areas. The main goals of the concept are increasing the comfort of planning decisions as well as the total size of the apartment, improving architectural appearance of the building and introducing areas for public services to housing, increasing energy efficiency and

  8. Background to the development process, Automated Residential Energy Standard (ARES) in support of proposed interim energy conservation voluntary performance standards for new non-federal residential buildings: Volume 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-09-01

    This report documents the development and testing of a set of recommendations generated to serve as a primary basis for the Congressionally-mandated residential standard. This report treats only the residential building recommendations.

  9. Market influence on the low carbon energy refurbishment of existing multi-residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Atkinson, Jonathan G.B.; Jackson, Tim; Mullings-Smith, Elizabeth

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between the energy market; the political and regulatory context; and energy design decisions for existing multi-residential buildings, to determine what form the energy market landscape would take if tailored to encourage low carbon solutions. The links between market dynamics, Government strategies, and building designs are mapped to understand the steps that achieve carbon reduction from building operation. This is achieved using a model that takes financial and energy components with market and design variables to provide net present cost and annual carbon outputs. The financial component applies discounted cash flow analysis over the building lifespan, with discount rates reflecting contractual characteristics; the carbon component uses Standard Assessment Procedure (SAP) 2005. A scenario approach is adopted to test alternative strategies selected to encourage low carbon solutions in two residential and two office designs. The results show that the forward assumption of energy price escalation is the most influential factor on energy investment, together with the expected differentiation between the escalation of gas and electricity prices. Using this, and other influencing factors, the research reveals trends and strategies that will achieve mainstream application of energy efficiency and microgeneration technologies, and reduce carbon emissions in the existing multi-residential sector.

  10. A methodology for energy performance classification of residential building stock of Hamirpur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aniket Sharma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In India, there are various codes, standards, guidelines and rating systems launched to make energy intensive and large sized buildings energy efficient whereas independent residential buildings are not covered even though they exist most in numbers of total housing stock. This paper presents a case study methodology for energy performance assessment of existing residential stock of Hamirpur that can be used to develop suitable energy efficiency regulations. The paper discusses the trend of residential development in Hamirpur followed by classification based on usage, condition, predominant material use, ownership size and number of rooms, source of lighting, assets available, number of storey and plot sizes using primary and secondary data. It results in identification of predominant materials used and other characteristics in each of urban and rural area. Further cradle to site embodied energy index of various dominant building materials and their market available alternative materials is calculated from secondary literature and by calculating transportation energy. One representative existing building is selected in each of urban and rural area and their energy performance is evaluated for material embodied energy and operational energy using simulation. Further alternatives are developed based on other dominant materials in each area and evaluated for change in embodied and operational energy. This paper identifies the energy performance of representative houses for both areas and in no way advocates the preference of one type over another. The paper demonstrates a methodology by which energy performance assessment of houses shall be done and also highlights further research.

  11. Registered nurses' experience of delegating the administration of medicine to unlicensed personnel in residential care homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gransjön Craftman, Åsa; Grape, Charlotte; Ringnell, Katarina; Westerbotn, Margareta

    2016-11-01

    The aim was to describe registered nurses' experience in the context of delegating the administration of medication to unlicensed personnel in residential care homes. The residents in residential care homes have a need for extensive care and nursing, and large amounts of medicines are common practice. Registered nurses' workload and difficulties in fulfilling their duties, such as administration of medicines, have led to frequent delegation of this task between the registered nurses and unlicensed assisting personnel. It is, of course, a great responsibility to ensure that the care of the older people remains safe while maintaining quality in the prevailing situation. A qualitative inductive descriptive study. Data were collected using audio-recorded semistructured interviews with a purposive sample of 18 registered nurses and interpreted using manifest content analysis. The study was approved by the ethical research committee. Registered nurses found the organisation unsupportive with regard to nursing interventions. The delegation context was experienced as a grey zone; the rules and regulations were not in line with the unspoken expectation to delegate the administration of medicine to unlicensed personnel, in order to be able to manage their daily work. The slimmed organisation of residential care homes relies upon registered nurses' use of delegation of medicine administration to unlicensed assistant personnel. It becomes an inevitable assignment entailing a challenging responsibility for patient safety and the quality of care. The results of this study may contribute to a better understanding of the complexity of caring for older people in residential care homes and to improving the work environment of all healthcare personnel. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Estimation of construction and demolition waste volume generation in new residential buildings in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villoria Sáez, Paola; del Río Merino, Mercedes; Porras-Amores, César

    2012-02-01

    The management planning of construction and demolition (C&D) waste uses a single indicator which does not provide enough detailed information. Therefore the determination and implementation of other innovative and precise indicators should be determined. The aim of this research work is to improve existing C&D waste quantification tools in the construction of new residential buildings in Spain. For this purpose, several housing projects were studied to determine an estimation of C&D waste generated during their construction process. This paper determines the values of three indicators to estimate the generation of C&D waste in new residential buildings in Spain, itemizing types of waste and construction stages. The inclusion of two more accurate indicators, in addition to the global one commonly in use, provides a significant improvement in C&D waste quantification tools and management planning.

  13. Effectiveness of an energy-consumption information system for residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueno, Tsuyoshi [Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, Tokyo (Japan); Inada, Ryo; Saeki, Osamu; Tsuji, Kiichiro [Osaka University, (Japan). Graduate School of Engineering

    2006-08-15

    The authors have proposed a method of reducing the energy consumption in residential buildings by providing household members with information on energy consumptions in their own houses. An on-line interactive 'energy-consumption information system' that displays power consumptions of, at most, 18 different appliances, power and city-gas consumption of the whole house and room temperature, for the purpose of motivating energy-saving activities has been constructed and the effectiveness of the system investigated by installing it in 10 residential buildings. The experiment showed that energy-saving consciousness was raised and energy consumption was in fact reduced by the energy-saving activities of the household members. In this paper, the system is described in detail and the effectiveness of reducing energy-consumption of the whole house and for space heating will be discussed. Also the energy-saving activities in a certain household are shown by using load duration curves. (author)

  14. Identification of Parameters Affecting the Variability of Energy Use in Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gianniou, Panagiota; Heller, Alfred; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    2016-01-01

    Energy use of buildings varies significantly. When aggregating the demand profiles of a group of buildings, the variations of energy demand are critical to determine the aggregated load profile. Especially when dimensioning district energy systems, it is important to know the variability of energy...... demand that can guarantee the efficient operation of the system. For this reason, it is useful to distinguish the parameters that affect building energy performance the most and to estimate the magnitude of these variations on each parameter. The aim of the present study is to identify the parameters...... that lead to the largest variations in energy performance of residential buildings in Denmark. A set of sensitivity analysis has been carried out using an extensive search algorithm. These sensitivity analyses were then applied for modelling a reference building representing Danish single-family houses...

  15. Using ANNS to predict energy consumption of split AC systems in residential buildings and offices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karatasou, S.; Santamouris, M.; Geros, V. [National and Kapodistrian Univ. of Athens., Athens (Greece). Dept. of Physics

    2007-07-01

    Artificial neural networks (ANNs) were used to predict AC power consumption in residential and small office buildings in Greece. The aim of the study was to produce a simple algorithm capable of predicting AC power consumption for a period of 24 hours. The performance of short-term predictors was evaluated. The predictive abilities of single step and 24-step predictors were then compared. Real data from an apartment building and a small office building in Athens were used. Datasets covered the summer period, and input variables were pre-selected among the available environmental and calendar variables. Feed forward ANNs with a single hidden layer of units were used. A single linear output to predict hourly energy consumptions consisted of 3 parts: the identification of all potential relevant inputs; the selection of hidden units for the preliminary set of inputs; and the removal of irrelevant inputs and useless hidden units through a subtractive phase. A Lavenberg Marquardt (LM) algorithm was used to train the networks. The network architecture was determined for both datasets through the selection procedures. Performance of the predictors was evaluated using the considered training and test sets. Results showed that both the single step and the 24-step predictors were accurate in the case of office buildings. However, the apartment building mean bias error (MBE) was approximately 10 per cent. Attempts to predict the residential building's energy consumption over a 24 hour period yielded an MBE of more than 30 per cent. 10 refs., 2 tabs., 3 figs.

  16. Economic and environmental impacts of community-based residential building energy efficiency investment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Jun-Ki; Morrison, Drew; Hallinan, Kevin P.; Brecha, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    A systematic framework for evaluating the local economic and environmental impacts of investment in building energy efficiency is developed. Historical residential building energy data, community-wide economic input–output data, and emission intensity data are utilized. The aim of this study is to show the comprehensive insights and connection among achieving variable target reductions for a residential building energy use, economic and environmental impacts. Central to this approach for the building energy reduction goal is the creation of individual energy models for each building based upon historical energy data and available building data. From these models, savings estimates and cost implications can be estimated for various conservation measures. A ‘worst to first’ (WF) energy efficient investment strategy is adopted to optimize the level of various direct, indirect, and induced economic impacts on the local community. This evaluation helps to illumine opportunities to establish specific energy reduction targets having greatest economic impact in the community. From an environmental perspective, short term economy-wide CO 2 emissions increase because of the increased community-wide economic activities spurred by the production and installation of energy efficiency measures, however the resulting energy savings provide continuous CO 2 reduction for various target savings. - Highlights: • WF energy efficient strategy helps to optimize various level of economic impacts. • Greatest community benefits are achieved from specific energy reduction targets. • Community-wide economic impacts vary for different energy conservation measures

  17. Rhode Island Model Evaluation & Support System: Building Administrator. Edition III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhode Island Department of Education, 2015

    2015-01-01

    Rhode Island educators believe that implementing a fair, accurate, and meaningful educator evaluation and support system will help improve teaching, learning, and school leadership. The primary purpose of the Rhode Island Model Building Administrator Evaluation and Support System (Rhode Island Model) is to help all building administrators improve.…

  18. Planning solutions of sanitary facilities in modern residential buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Evgeniy Vladimirovich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the short historical review on the design of sanitary rooms and their configurations is given. The main errors of the recent years, which led to the decrease in accommodation convenience because of the wrong approach from both the architect and engineers, are given. It is possible to use a small useful area for sanitary facilities, but it is connected with the lack of possibility of connecting washing and dishwashers. The author considers the options of engineering equipment placement in sanitary rooms taking into account the convenience of use, safety, and also resource-saving aspect. Various solutions on the organization of heating and ventilation are provided. The possible technical solutions allowing solving a flooding problem of the first floors in elite housing estates in case of accident are offered with the help of full waterproofing of sanitary rooms, and also the whole area of the apartment. The main attention was focused on the improvements of sanitary rooms for one-room and two-room apartments, which are the most demanded in the modern market of real estate. Layout solutions of the reduced bathrooms on the placement of the necessary equipment with choice justification are provided. The attention is paid to the layout solution for modern kitchens on order to increase their comfort by the use of special two-section sinks, and also a grinder of food waste in order to allow to lower the load of the systems of rubbish disposal of a building, by dumping the crushed garbage in an internal sewer network. Various options of evolutionary development of sanitary rooms for increasing the comfort degree are given. First of all, the development should happen in the direction of not only sanitation and hygiene, but also of the maintenance of the physical health of the people living in the building. It can be carried out by increase in a useful area of sanitary rooms, installation of exercise machines, medical bathtubs and a Jacuzzi

  19. Energy flexibility of residential buildings using short term heat storage in the thermal mass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreau, Jerome Le; Heiselberg, Per Kvols

    2016-01-01

    Highlights •Two residential buildings (80's and passive house) with two emitters (radiator, UH). •Different modulations of the set-point (upward/downward, duration, starting time). •Large differences between the 80s and the passive house, influence of the emitter. •Evaluation of the flexibility p...... potential: comfort, capacity, efficiency, shifting. •Test of simple control strategies on the elspot price from 2009 in Denmark....

  20. Possibility of heat recovery from gray water in residential building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Aleksandra; Słyś, Daniel

    2017-12-01

    Recovery of waste heat from gray water can be an interesting alternative to other energy saving systems in a building, including alternative energy sources. Mainly, due to a number of advantages including independence from weather conditions, small investment outlay, lack of user support, or a slight interference with the installation system. The purpose of this article is to present the financial effectiveness of installations which provide hot, usable water to a detached house, using a Drain Water Heat Recovery (DWHR) system depending on the number of system users and the various combinations of bathing time in the shower, which has an influence on the daily warm water demand in each of the considered options. The economic analysis of the adopted installation variants is based on the Life Cycle Cost (LCC) method, which is characterized by the fact that it also includes the operating costs in addition to the capital expenditure during the entire analysis period. For each case, the necessary devices were selected and the cost of their installation was estimated.

  1. Possibility of heat recovery from gray water in residential building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mazur Aleksandra

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Recovery of waste heat from gray water can be an interesting alternative to other energy saving systems in a building, including alternative energy sources. Mainly, due to a number of advantages including independence from weather conditions, small investment outlay, lack of user support, or a slight interference with the installation system. The purpose of this article is to present the financial effectiveness of installations which provide hot, usable water to a detached house, using a Drain Water Heat Recovery (DWHR system depending on the number of system users and the various combinations of bathing time in the shower, which has an influence on the daily warm water demand in each of the considered options. The economic analysis of the adopted installation variants is based on the Life Cycle Cost (LCC method, which is characterized by the fact that it also includes the operating costs in addition to the capital expenditure during the entire analysis period. For each case, the necessary devices were selected and the cost of their installation was estimated.

  2. A REVIEW ON HEAT DISSIPATING PASSIVE COOLING TECHNIQUES FOR RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS AT TROPICAL REGION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. PRAKASH

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Thermal comfort is very essential for the occupants in a residential building without air-conditioning system especially in tropical region. Passive cooling is the only solution to achieve the required thermal comfort without sacrificing occupant’s health with zero energy consumption. All passive cooling techniques are broadly categorized under (i solar and heat protection, (ii heat modulation and (iii heat dissipation techniques. This paper reviews various techniques and advancements in passive cooling of buildings through heat dissipation approach. In the heat dissipation approach, the heat generated from various sources are reduced by natural ventilation and natural cooling.

  3. Assessment of infiltration heat recovery and its impact on energy consumption for residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solupe, Mikel; Krarti, Moncef

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Five steady-state air infiltration heat recovery or IHR models are described and compared. • IHR models are incorporated within whole-building simulation analysis tool. • IHR can reduce the thermal loads of residential buildings by 5–30%. - Abstract: Infiltration is a major contributor to the energy consumption of buildings, particularly in homes where it accounts for one-third of the heating and cooling loads. Traditionally, infiltration is calculated independent of the building envelope performance, however, it has been established that a thermal coupling exists between the infiltration and conduction heat transfer of the building envelope. This effect is known as infiltration heat recovery (IHR). Experiments have shown that infiltration heat recovery can typically reduce the infiltration thermal load by 10–20%. Currently, whole-building energy simulation tools do not account for the effect of infiltration heat recovery on heating and cooling loads. In this paper, five steady-state IHR models are described to account for the thermal interaction between infiltration air and building envelope components. In particular, inter-model and experimental comparisons are carried out to assess the prediction accuracy of five IHR models. In addition, the results from a series of sensitivity analyses are presented, including an evaluation of the predictions for heating energy use associated with four audited homes obtained from whole-building energy simulation analysis with implemented infiltration heat recovery models. Experimental comparison of the IHR models reveal that the predictions from all the five models are consistent and are within 2% when 1-D flow and heat transfer conditions are considered. When implementing IHR models to a whole-building simulation environment, a reduction of 5–30% in heating consumption is found for four audited residential homes

  4. Study on the optimum PCM melting temperature for energy savings in residential buildings worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saffari, M.; de Gracia, A.; Fernández, C.; Zsembinszki, G.; Cabeza, L. F.

    2017-10-01

    To maintain comfort conditions in residential buildings along a full year period, the use of active systems is generally required to either supply heating or cooling. The heating and cooling demands strongly depend on the climatic conditions, type of building and occupants’ behaviour. The overall annual energy consumption of the building can be reduced by the use of renewable energy sources and/or passive systems. The use of phase change materials (PCM) as passive systems in buildings enhances the thermal mass of the envelope, and reduces the indoor temperature fluctuations. As a consequence, the overall energy consumption of the building is generally lower as compared to the case when no PCM systems are used. The selection of the PCM melting temperature is a key issue to reduce the energy consumption of the buildings. The main focus of this study is to determine the optimum PCM melting temperature for passive heating and cooling according to different weather conditions. To achieve that, numerical simulations were carried out using EnergyPlus v8.4 coupled with GenOpt® v3.1.1 (a generic optimization software). A multi-family residential apartment was selected from ASHRAE Standard 90.1- 2013 prototype building model, and different climate conditions were considered to determine the optimum melting temperature (in the range from 20ºC to 26ºC) of the PCM contained in gypsum panels. The results confirm that the optimum melting temperature of the PCM strongly depends on the climatic conditions. In general, in cooling dominant climates the optimum PCM temperature is around 26ºC, while in heating dominant climates it is around 20ºC. Furthermore, the results show that an adequate selection of the PCM as passive system in building envelope can provide important energy savings for both heating dominant and cooling dominant regions.

  5. VOLTTRON-Based System for Providing Ancillary Services with Residential Building Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Xin

    2016-07-01

    Ancillary services entail controlled modulation of building equipment to maintain a stable balance of generation and load in the power system. Ancillary services include frequency regulation and contingency reserves, whose acting time ranges from several seconds to several minutes. Many pilot studies have been implemented to use industrial loads to provide ancillary services, and some have explored services from commercial building loads or electric vehicle charging loads. Residential loads, such as space conditioning and water heating, represent a largely untapped resource for providing ancillary services. The residential building sector accounts for a significant fraction of the total electricity use in the United States. Many loads in residential buildings are flexible and could potentially be curtailed or shifted at the request of the grid. However, there are many barriers that prevent residential loads being widely used for ancillary services. One of the major technical barriers is the lack of communication capabilities between end-use devices and the grid. End-use devices need to be able to receive the automatic generation control (AGC) signal from the grid operator and supply certain types of telemetry to verify response. With the advance of consumer electronics, communication-enabled, or 'connected,' residential equipment has emerged to overcome the communication barrier. However, these end-use devices have introduced a new interoperability challenge due to the existence of numerous standards and communication protocols among different end devices. In this paper, we present a VOLTTRON-based system that overcomes these technical challenges and provides ancillary services with residential loads. VOLTTRON is an open-source control and sensing platform for building energy management, facilitating interoperability solutions for end devices. We have developed drivers to communicate and control different types of end devices through standard

  6. Leveraging Human-environment Systems in Residential Buildings for Aggregate Energy Efficiency and Sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoqi

    Reducing the energy consumed in the built environment is a key objective in many sustainability initiatives. Existing energy saving methods have consisted of physical interventions to buildings and/or behavioral modifications of occupants. However, such methods may not only suffer from their own disadvantages, e.g. high cost and transient effect, but also lose aggregate energy saving potential due to the oftentimes-associated single-building-focused view and an isolated examination of occupant behaviors. This dissertation attempts to overcome the limitations of traditional energy saving research and practical approaches, and enhance residential building energy efficiency and sustainability by proposing innovative energy strategies from a holistic perspective of the aggregate human-environment systems. This holistic perspective features: (1) viewing buildings as mutual influences in the built environment, (2) leveraging both the individual and contextualized social aspects of occupant behaviors, and (3) incorporating interactions between the built environment and human behaviors. First, I integrate three interlinked components: buildings, residents, and the surrounding neighborhood, and quantify the potential energy savings to be gained from renovating buildings at the inter-building level and leveraging neighborhood-contextualized occupant social networks. Following the confirmation of both the inter-building effect among buildings and occupants' interpersonal influence on energy conservation, I extend the research further by examining the synergy that may exist at the intersection between these "engineered" building networks and "social" peer networks, focusing specifically on the additional energy saving potential that could result from interactions between the two components. Finally, I seek to reach an alignment of the human and building environment subsystems by matching the thermostat preferences of each household with the thermal conditions within their

  7. Smart meter adoption and deployment strategy for residential buildings in Indonesia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Jui-Sheng; Gusti Ayu Novi Yutami, I

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Limited consumer awareness of smart meters contributes to skepticism. • Data obtained from a survey of energy users are analyzed using SEM. • A CAP index is developed via SEM results to measure consumer propensity for adopting smart meters. • The findings of this study enhance understanding of consumer perceptions and behaviors. • Concrete strategies are proposed to help policy makers and utility companies. - Abstract: For countries pursuing sustainable development and energy efficiency, the use of smart meters is considered a first step in allowing residential consumers to remotely control their energy consumption, and a promising technology for conserving limited energy resources. However, despite the growing interest in smart meters, limited consumer awareness, knowledge, and understanding of these devices contributes to skepticism. This study thus developed an index to measure consumer propensity to adopt smart meters in residential buildings. Data obtained from a survey of energy use by Indonesian households were analyzed using structural equation modeling to determine the interacting factors in consumer acceptance of smart meters. Consumer perceptions, expectations, and intentions regarding the potential use of smart meters in Indonesia were also discussed. The findings of this study enhance understanding of consumer perceptions and behaviors, and can help decision makers and energy utility companies develop policies and strategies for a “one-size-fits-all” program related to smart meter applications in future residential buildings

  8. Ambitions of Residential Houses in Dutch cities - The interface of the building as a research object : Discussing two highlights of Dutch residential houses and their changes through time

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jurgenhake, B.M.

    2016-01-01

    The architecture of residential buildings has always being related to social conditions and political tendencies, to new techniques, new materials and contemporary popular taste. Dwelling in the urban context makes it very necessary to deal with the aspect of privacy next to the public

  9. Incentive mechanism design for the residential building energy efficiency improvement of heating zones in North China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong, Y.; Cai, W.G.; Wu, Y.; Ren, H.

    2009-01-01

    Starting with analyzing the investigation results by Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of China in 2005, more than half of the 10,236 participants are willing to improve the residential building energy efficiency and accept an additional cost of less than 10% of the total cost, the authors illustrate that incenting actions are necessary to improve building energy efficiency and build a central government-local government-market model. As a result of the model analysis, to pursue good execution effects brought by the incentive policies, the executors are required to distinguish the differences of incentive objects' economic activities and strongly respect the incenting on the energy conservation performance. A case study on the incentive policies of existing residential building energy efficiency improvement in heating zones in North China is given as well. Finally, it is strongly recommended to give the first priority to performance-based incentives so that to reduce the lazy behaviors of the incented objects and ensure the targets to be achieved.

  10. Environmental Impact Analysis on Residential Building in Malaysia Using Life Cycle Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Faiz Abd Rashid

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The building industry has a significant impact on the environment due to massive natural resources and energy it uses throughout its life cycle. This study presents a life cycle assessment of a semi-detached residential building in Malaysia as a case study and assesses the environmental impact under cradle-to-grave which consists of pre-use, construction, use, and end-of-life phases by using Centre of Environmental Science of Leiden University (CML 2001. Four impact categories were evaluated, namely, acidification, eutrophication, global warming potential (GWP, and ozone layer depletion (ODP. The building operation under use phase contributed the highest global warming potential and acidification with 2.41 × 103 kg CO2 eq and 1.10 × 101 kg SO2 eq, respectively. In the pre-use phase, concrete in the substructure has the most significant overall impact with cement as the primary raw material. The results showed that the residential building in Malaysia has a fairly high impact in GWP but lower in acidification and ODP compared to other studies.

  11. Smart Residential Buildings as Learning Agent Organizations in the Internet of Things

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schatten Markus

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Smart buildings are one of the major application areas of technologies bound to embedded systems and the Internet of things. Such systems have to be adaptable and flexible in order to provide better services to its residents. Modelling such systems is an open research question. Herein, the question is approached using an organizational modelling methodology bound to the principles of the learning organization. Objectives: Providing a higher level of abstraction for understanding, developing and maintaining smart residential buildings in a more human understandable form. Methods/Approach: Organization theory provides us with the necessary concepts and methodology to approach complex organizational systems. Results: A set of principles for building learning agent organizations, a formalization of learning processes for agents, a framework for modelling knowledge transfer between agents and the environment, and a tailored organizational structure for smart residential buildings based on Nonaka’s hypertext organizational form. Conclusions: Organization theory is a promising field of research when dealing with complex engineering systems

  12. A method of identifying and weighting indicators of energy efficiency assessment in Chinese residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yulan; Li Baizhan; Yao Runming

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a method of identifying and weighting indicators for assessing the energy efficiency of residential buildings in China. A list of indicators of energy efficiency assessment in residential buildings in the hot summer and cold winter zone in China has been proposed, which supplies an important reference for policy makings in energy efficiency assessment in buildings. The research method applies a wide-ranging literature review and a questionnaire survey involving experts in the field. The group analytic hierarchy process (group AHP) has been used to weight the identified indicators. The size of survey samples are sufficient to support the results, which has been validated by consistency estimation. The proposed method could also be extended to develop the weighted indicators for other climate zones in China. - Research highlights: →Method of identifying indicators of building energy efficiency assessment. →The group AHP method for weighting indicators. →Method of solving multi-criteria decision making problems of choice and prioritisation in policy makings.

  13. A District Approach to Building Renovation for the Integral Energy Redevelopment of Existing Residential Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Conci

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Building energy renovation quotas are not currently being met due to unfavorable conditions such as complex building regulations, limited investment incentives, historical preservation priorities, and technical limitations. The traditional strategy has been to incrementally lower the energy consumption of the building stock, instead of raising the efficiency of the energy supply through a broader use of renewable sources. This strategy requires an integral redefinition of the approach to energy building renovations. The joint project SWIVT elaborates on a district redevelopment strategy that combines a reduction in the energy demand of existing buildings and their physical interconnection within a local micro-grid and heating network. The district is equipped with energy generation and distribution technologies as well as hybrid thermal and electrical energy storage systems, steered by an optimizing energy management controller. This strategy is explored through three scenarios designed for an existing residential area in Darmstadt, Germany, and benchmarked against measured data. Presented findings show that a total primary energy balance at least 30% lower than that of a standard building renovation can be achieved by a cluster of buildings with different thermal qualities and connected energy generation, conversion, and storage systems, with only minimal physical intervention to existing buildings.

  14. Influence of simulation assumptions and input parameters on energy balance calculations of residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dodoo, Ambrose; Tettey, Uniben Yao Ayikoe; Gustavsson, Leif

    2017-01-01

    In this study, we modelled the influence of different simulation assumptions on energy balances of two variants of a residential building, comprising the building in its existing state and with energy-efficient improvements. We explored how selected parameter combinations and variations affect the energy balances of the building configurations. The selected parameters encompass outdoor microclimate, building thermal envelope and household electrical equipment including technical installations. Our modelling takes into account hourly as well as seasonal profiles of different internal heat gains. The results suggest that the impact of parameter interactions on calculated space heating of buildings is somewhat small and relatively more noticeable for an energy-efficient building in contrast to a conventional building. We find that the influence of parameters combinations is more apparent as more individual parameters are varied. The simulations show that a building's calculated space heating demand is significantly influenced by how heat gains from electrical equipment are modelled. For the analyzed building versions, calculated final energy for space heating differs by 9–14 kWh/m 2 depending on the assumed energy efficiency level for electrical equipment. The influence of electrical equipment on calculated final space heating is proportionally more significant for an energy-efficient building compared to a conventional building. This study shows the influence of different simulation assumptions and parameter combinations when varied simultaneously. - Highlights: • Energy balances are modelled for conventional and efficient variants of a building. • Influence of assumptions and parameter combinations and variations are explored. • Parameter interactions influence is apparent as more single parameters are varied. • Calculated space heating demand is notably affected by how heat gains are modelled.

  15. Thermal Comfort and Ventilation Criteria for low Energy Residential Buildings in Building Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Guangyu; Kurnitski, Jarek; Awbi, Hazim

    2012-01-01

    of the indoor air quality in such buildings. Currently, there are no global guidelines for specifying the indoor thermal environment in such low-energy buildings. The objective of this paper is to analyse the classification of indoor thermal comfort levels and recommended ventilation rates for different low......Indoor environmental quality and energy performance of buildings are becoming more and more important in the design and construction of low energy, passive and zero energy buildings. At the same time, improved insulation and air tightness have the potential to resulting in a deterioration...... energy buildings, and propose a set of indices that would enable better quantification and comparison among low energy buildings. In this study, the building codes and voluntary guidelines have been reviewed on the basis of experience of Finland, UK, Denmark, USA and Germany. The analysis in this paper...

  16. Dynamic Heat Production Modeling for Life Cycle Assessment of Insulation in Danish Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohn, Joshua L.; Kalbar, Pradip; Birkved, Morten

    2017-01-01

    insulation in a Danish single-family detached home. This single family house, is based on averages of current Danish construction practices with building heat losses estimated using Be10. To simulate a changing district heating grid mix, heat supply fuel sources are modeled according to Danish energy mix...... reports of fuel mix since 1972. Both the dynamic impact potentials saved by using insulation and the impacts induced from insulations production are utilized to create an overall dynamic energy inventory for the life cycle assessment. Our study shows that the use of such a dynamic energy inventory......Residential building insulation is regarded as an easy solution for environmentally friendly building design. This assumption is based on the perception that the amount of thermal energy used to create insulation in most cases is much smaller than the amount of thermal energy that is needed...

  17. Industrial technologies of the residential buildings reconstruction of the first mass-produced series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afanas’ev Aleksandr

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article dwells upon the reconstruction technologies of the residential buildings of the series that are not subjected to demolishing by way of superstructing of the attic floors and standard floors made of unitized folding units, adding of lifts, unitized elements of kitchens, living rooms and loggias. Their application makes it possible to increase the areas of kitchens by 6.0…8.2 m2, of bedrooms and other premises - by 3.5−4.2 m2. The technology of the attic units manufacture under plant conditions has been worked out. It has made it possible to optimize the design concept of the articulated joints, ensuring the transport adaptability due to flatwork elements folding. The technologies of the high-speed superstructing and building up of the buildings, using line production of works have been investigated.

  18. Energy Efficiency Program Administrators and Building Energy Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Explore how energy efficiency program administrators have helped advance building energy codes at federal, state, and local levels—using technical, institutional, financial, and other resources—and discusses potential next steps.

  19. Modeling hourly consumption of electricity and district heat in non-residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kipping, A.; Trømborg, E.

    2017-01-01

    Models for hourly consumption of heat and electricity in different consumer groups on a regional level can yield important data for energy system planning and management. In this study hourly meter data, combined with cross-sectional data derived from the Norwegian energy label database, is used to model hourly consumption of both district heat and electrical energy in office buildings and schools which either use direct electric heating (DEH) or non-electric hydronic heating (OHH). The results of the study show that modeled hourly total energy consumption in buildings with DEH and in buildings with OHH (supplied by district heat) exhibits differences, e.g. due to differences in heat distribution and control systems. In a normal year, in office buildings with OHH the main part of total modeled energy consumption is used for electric appliances, while in schools with OHH the main part is used for heating. In buildings with OHH the share of modeled annual heating energy is higher than in buildings with DEH. Although based on small samples our regression results indicate that the presented method can be used for modeling hourly energy consumption in non-residential buildings, but also that larger samples and additional cross-sectional information could yield improved models and more reliable results. - Highlights: • Schools with district heating (DH) tend to use less night-setback. • DH in office buildings tends to start earlier than direct electric heating (DEH). • In schools with DH the main part of annual energy consumption is used for heating. • In office buildings with DH the main part is used for electric appliances. • Buildings with DH use a larger share of energy for heating than buildings with DEH.

  20. Optimal technical and economic strategy for retrofitting residential buildings in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Căruțașiu Mihail-Bogdan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The European Legislation is very strict regarding the importance of reducing the energy consumption in buildings sector. The importance of achieving nearly zero energy consumption levels for both new and existing buildings is also highlighted in each Members’ national legislation. Moreover, the high percentage of existing buildings across European Union, indicates that they need to be adequately approached in order to achieve the ambitious energy efficiency goals. This implies creating the optimal technical and financial retrofit strategies regarding minimizing the energy consumption without lowering the interior comfort levels. In Romania, there is no unitary strategy aiming to maximize the energy efficiency in buildings which also takes into consideration the financial part of the process. Moreover, there are no known national guidelines and strategies for buildings retrofit which takes into consideration a wide range of equipment. The Romanian Energy Efficiency Strategy presents few possibilities resulted from integrating renewable energy sources within typical Romanian buildings, while the Buildings Performance Institute Europe conducted a research regarding the potential of nearly Zero Energy Buildings implementation across Romanian territory. Both studies refer only to typical buildings and do not present a large perspective for retrofitting action, while the financial study is not properly presented. Thus, this paper develops a comprehensive financial study which could be used as guideline by stakeholders, in order to find the best technical solution for decreasing the final energy consumption in Romanian residential buildings. Using the RETScreen software and its economical features, there were developed several energy efficiency solutions, and by analyzing the financial benefits implied, the best solution was chosen. By adopting the solutions presented within this feasibility study, the energy consumption of buildings should be

  1. Energy performance of building fabric - Comparing two types of vernacular residential houses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draganova, Vanya Y.; Matsumoto, Hiroshi; Tsuzuki, Kazuyo

    2017-10-01

    Notwithstanding apparent differences, Japanese and Bulgarian traditional residential houses share a lot of common features - building materials, building techniques, even layout design. Despite the similarities, these two types of houses have not been compared so far. The study initiates such comparison. The focus is on houses in areas with similar climate in both countries. Current legislation requirements are compared, as well as the criteria for thermal comfort of people. Achieving high energy performance results from a dynamic system of 4 main key factors - thermal comfort range, heating/cooling source, building envelope and climatic conditions. A change in any single one of them can affect the final energy performance. However, it can be expected that a combination of changes in more than one factor usually occurs. The aim of this study is to evaluate the correlation between the thermal performance of building envelope designed under current regulations and a traditional one, having in mind the different thermal comfort range in the two countries. A sample building model is calculated in Scenario 1 - Japanese traditional building fabric, Scenario 2 - Bulgarian traditional building fabric and Scenario 3 - meeting the requirements of the more demanding current regulations. The energy modelling is conducted using EnergyPlus through OpenStudio cross-platform of software tools. The 3D geometry for the simulation is created using OpenStudio SketchUp Plug-in. Equal number of inhabitants, electricity consumption and natural ventilation is assumed. The results show that overall low energy consumption can be achieved using traditional building fabric as well, when paired with a wider thermal comfort range. Under these conditions traditional building design is still viable today. This knowledge can reestablish the use of traditional building fabric in contemporary design, stimulate preservation of local culture, building traditions and community identity.

  2. Evaluation of daylight intensity for sustainbility in residential buildings in cantonment cottages multan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yousuf, S.; Maqsood, S.

    2017-01-01

    Day lighting is a useful and effective source of energy savings and visual comforts in buildings. Occupants expect good daylight in their living spaces for better living environment. The quality and quantity of natural light entering in to a building depend on both internal and external factors. Daylight strategies basically depend on the accessibility of natural light that is determined by the latitude of the building site and the conditions surrounding the building. Daylight provides lighting energy and energy demand reduction during peak utility hours. Bringing daylight into a building that displaces electric lighting and provides sufficient illumination is the greenest way to light a building presently. This research, aims at analyzing the daylight intensity in residential buildings in Cantonment Cottages Multan which is one of the hottest and progresse city of Pakistan. The intensity of daylight can be expressed in the terms of luminance and daylight factor. In this research, the 5 and 7 marla houses in Cantt Cottages in Multan were selected. The device lux meter was used for measuring intensity with which the brightness appears to the human eye. The readings were taken by placing Lux Meter at the center and near windows in each building component at 2-4 pm. In order to evaluate the daylight intensity, the measured luminance in each component of building is compared with the standard illuminance as per recommendation of CIBSE (Chartered Institute of Building Service Engineers). After investigation, it has been found that daylight factor is much higher than the standard values as per recommended by CIBSE. The design parameters including building orientation, glazing area, room size to window opening ratio etc. is not appropriate with respect to sustainable design. (author)

  3. Reconstruction of residential buildings by detail analysis of multi-aspect InSAR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Antje; Cadario, Erich; Schulz, Karsten; Thoennessen, Ulrich; Soergel, Uwe

    2008-10-01

    State-of-the-art SAR sensors suggest utilizing InSAR-Data for the analysis of dense urban areas. The appearance of buildings in SAR or InSAR data is characterized by the effects of the inherent oblique scene illumination, such as layover, occlusion by radar shadow and multipath signal propagation. Therefore, especially in dense built-up areas reconstruction quality can be improved by a combined analysis of multi-aspect data. The presented approach focuses on reconstruction of buildings in residential districts supported by knowledge based analysis considering the mentioned SAR-specific effects. The algorithm of building extraction starts with the segmentation of primitives, such as lines and edges, followed by the assembly of building hypotheses based on typical building features like linearity and right-angularity. The subsequent post-processing of building hypotheses contains the analysis of InSAR phases to improve footprint or to detect roof-type of buildings. The results are presented by using optical data and a high resolution LIDAR surface model as ground truth data.

  4. Analyzing the Impact of Residential Building Attributes, Demographic and Behavioral Factors on Natural Gas Usage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Livingston, Olga V.; Cort, Katherine A.

    2011-03-03

    This analysis examines the relationship between energy demand and residential building attributes, demographic characteristics, and behavioral variables using the U.S. Department of Energy’s Residential Energy Consumption Survey 2005 microdata. This study investigates the applicability of the smooth backfitting estimator to statistical analysis of residential energy consumption via nonparametric regression. The methodology utilized in the study extends nonparametric additive regression via local linear smooth backfitting to categorical variables. The conventional methods used for analyzing residential energy consumption are econometric modeling and engineering simulations. This study suggests an econometric approach that can be utilized in combination with simulation results. A common weakness of previously used econometric models is a very high likelihood that any suggested parametric relationships will be misspecified. Nonparametric modeling does not have this drawback. Its flexibility allows for uncovering more complex relationships between energy use and the explanatory variables than can possibly be achieved by parametric models. Traditionally, building simulation models overestimated the effects of energy efficiency measures when compared to actual "as-built" observed savings. While focusing on technical efficiency, they do not account for behavioral or market effects. The magnitude of behavioral or market effects may have a substantial influence on the final energy savings resulting from implementation of various energy conservation measures and programs. Moreover, variability in behavioral aspects and user characteristics appears to have a significant impact on total energy consumption. Inaccurate estimates of energy consumption and potential savings also impact investment decisions. The existing modeling literature, whether it relies on parametric specifications or engineering simulation, does not accommodate inclusion of a behavioral component. This

  5. Factors Influencing the Usage of Compact Fluorescent Lamps in Existing Residential Buildings in Lagos, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olusola Olugbemileke Johnson

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria as a developing nation is facing increasing demand for electricity especially in the residential areas. The use of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs is one of the several measures towards reducing the demand. However, in Nigeria, the use of CFLs is low. The present study was designed to investigate some factors responsible for the low usage of CFLs in Lagos, Nigeria. Questionnaires were administered by hand on 984 households, selected through systematic random sampling techniques from 5 local government areas in Lagos State. The first building along the major street in each of the local government was selected randomly and every tenth building constituted the sample. A household head was surveyed in each of the building selected, and was asked to rate some factors that might have influenced the usage of CFLs. The data generated from the questionnaire were analysed using ranking method. The findings show that inability to measure the saving benefits of CFLs on electricity bills, lack of affordability and high initial cost of acquisition and installation were the most important factors which influence the use of the CFLs. The study concludes by providing some recommendations on how to achieve sustainable energy management in the Lagos and beyond through more efficient residential house lighting.

  6. Effects of types of ventilation system on indoor particle concentrations in residential buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J S; Jee, N-Y; Jeong, J-W

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to quantify the influence of ventilation systems on indoor particle concentrations in residential buildings. Fifteen occupied, single-family apartments were selected from three sites. The three sites have three different ventilation systems: unbalanced mechanical ventilation, balanced mechanical ventilation, and natural ventilation. Field measurements were conducted between April and June 2012, when outdoor air temperatures were comfortable. Number concentrations of particles, PM2.5 and CO2 , were continuously measured both outdoors and indoors. In the apartments with natural ventilation, I/O ratios of particle number concentrations ranged from 0.56 to 0.72 for submicron particles, and from 0.25 to 0.60 for particles larger than 1.0 μm. The daily average indoor particle concentration decreased to 50% below the outdoor level for submicron particles and 25% below the outdoor level for fine particles, when the apartments were mechanically ventilated. The two mechanical ventilation systems reduced the I/O ratios by 26% for submicron particles and 65% for fine particles compared with the natural ventilation. These results showed that mechanical ventilation can reduce exposure to outdoor particles in residential buildings. Results of this study confirm that mechanical ventilation with filtration can significantly reduce indoor particle levels compared with natural ventilation. The I/O ratios of particles substantially varied at the naturally ventilated apartments because of the influence of variable window opening conditions and unsteadiness of wind flow on the penetration of outdoor air particles. For better prediction of the exposure to outdoor particles in naturally ventilated residential buildings, it is important to understand the penetration of outdoor particles with variable window opening conditions. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Assessing cooling energy performance of windows for residential buildings in the Mediterranean zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsikaloudaki, K.; Theodosiou, Th.; Laskos, K.; Bikas, D.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Cooling energy performance of residential windows in warm climates is studied. ► It is primarily determined by the window’s solar transmittance g and orientation. ► Advanced windows perform worse when compared to conventional ones with the same g. ► Shading contributes notably in decreasing the cooling loads attributed to the window. ► Equations for predicting the cooling energy performance of windows were developed. - Abstract: Heat transfer through windows accounts for a significant proportion of energy used in the building sector for covering both heating and cooling needs, since the optical and the thermal characteristics of conventional fenestration products constitute them more “vulnerable” in energy flows when compared to opaque building elements. In this study, an approach for evaluating the cooling energy performance of residential windows is presented. It is based on a parametric study, which aims at highlighting the impact of the window configuration on its energy behavior in terms of geometrical characteristics, thermophysical and optical properties, as well as orientation and shading levels. The results underlined the magnitude of the relationship between the thermal and optical properties of the transparent elements with respect to their orientation; especially for residential buildings, the solar transmittance determines at a considerable extent the cooling energy performance of fenestration, at least in the warmest part of Europe. Furthermore, the statistical analysis of the derived data provided mathematical expressions, which can be used in praxis for predicting the cooling energy performance of windows with respect to their thermal and optical characteristics.

  8. Life cycle assessment of energy and CO2 emissions for residential buildings in Jakarta, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surahman, U.; Kubota, T.; Wijaya, A.

    2016-04-01

    In order to develop low energy and low carbon residential buildings, it is important to understand their detailed energy profiles. This study provides the results of life cycle assessment of energy and CO2 emissions for residential buildings in Jakarta, Indonesia. A survey was conducted in the city in 2012 to obtain both material inventory and household energy consumption data within the selected residential buildings (n=300), which are classified into three categories, namely simple, medium and luxurious houses. The results showed that the average embodied energy of simple, medium and luxurious houses was 58.5, 201.0, and 559.5 GJ, respectively. It was found that total embodied energy of each house can be explained by its total floor area alone with high accuracy in respective house categories. Meanwhile, it was seen that operational energy usage patterns varied largely among house categories as well as households especially in the simple and medium houses. The energy consumption for cooling was found to be the most significant factor of the increase in operational energy from simple to luxurious houses. Further, in the life cycle energy, the operational energy accounted for much larger proportions of about 86-92% than embodied energy regardless of the house categories. The life cycle CO2 emissions for medium and luxurious houses were larger than that of simple houses by 2 and 6 times on average. In the simple houses, cooking was the largest contributor to the CO2 emissions (25%), while the emissions caused by cooling increased largely with the house category and became the largest contributors in the medium (26%) and luxurious houses (41%).

  9. Sustainable Renovation of Residential Buildings and the Landlord/Tenant Dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ástmarsson, Björn; Jensen, Per Anker; Maslesa, Esmir

    2013-01-01

    solutions can help solve the landlord/tenant dilemma in relation to sustainable renovation of residential buildings, and how the general awareness of sustainable renovation can be increased. Particular focus is on whether tools like energy performance contracting and energy labeling can help solve...... be overcome with a package solution. In the Danish national context the package solution must consist of legislative changes, financial incentives and better dissemination of information. Therefore, an array of different tools must be integrated and used in cooperation to overcome the dilemma....

  10. Demand Side Management in non-residential buildings; Demand Side Management in Nichtwohngebaeuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungwirth, Johannes [Technische Univ. Muenchen (DE). Lehrstuhl fuer Energiewirtschaft und Anwendungstechnik (IfE)

    2011-07-01

    Due to the fluctuating supply characteristics and a paradigm shift, the strong expansion of renewable energy generators expect the structure of the concept of energy supply. An integration of renewables into the electricity grid requires new ways to compensate the discrepancy between production and consumption. The implementation of a demand-side management requires an electrical load and the possibility to control consumers in response to an external signal. From this perspective, the author of the contribution under consideration reports on innovative systems for the realization of a demand-side management in non-residential buildings.

  11. Calculated heat-and-technical indicators of brick external walls of the historical residential buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pukhkal, Viktor; Murgul, Vera

    2017-10-01

    The analysis of the external brick walls structures of the historical residential buildings (constructions of XIX century and the beginnings of the 20th century) in St. Petersburg is carried out. The heat-and-technical indicators (coefficient of heat conductivity of brick and coefficient of the heat transfer of external brick walls) are defined. That is established that the use of modern norms of design is possible. The obtained data allow to carry out some heat-and-technical and moist calculations during designing of heating systems as well during the development of measures for energy saving.

  12. Public participation in energy saving retrofitting of residential buildings in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Wenling; Zhang, Jinyun; Bluemling, Bettina; Mol, Arthur P.J.; Wang, Can

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We compare public participation in three early cases of residential retrofitting in Beijing. • Residents’ involvement in pre-retrofit activities as well as in the choice and use of technologies varied. • More involvement of residents during retrofitting improves energy saving performance. • Taking into account motives and energy use practices of residents improves energy saving through retrofitting. - Abstract: Retrofitting existing residential buildings has been claimed as one crucial way to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions within the Chinese residential sector. In China’s government-dominated retrofitting projects, the participation of residents is often neglected. The objective of this paper is to assess the influence level of public participation (before, during and after retrofit) on energy saving by comparing three Beijing neighborhoods with different retrofitting models: a central government-led model, a local government-led model, and an old neighborhood retrofit model. In the three cases data were collected through interviews with neighborhood workers and residents. The results show that residents’ involvement in pre-retrofit activities, in technology selection and in the use of technology differs greatly among the three cases. This study concludes that in order to improve the effectiveness of energy saving interventions, the motives, intentions and living habits of residents need to be given more consideration when designing and implementing retrofitting. By highlighting the importance of public participation this paper contributes to energy saving policy development in China

  13. Thermal Comfort and Ventilation Criteria for low Energy Residential Buildings in Building Codes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Guangyu; Kurnitski, Jarek; Awbi, Hazim

    2012-01-01

    of the indoor air quality in such buildings. Currently, there are no global guidelines for specifying the indoor thermal environment in such low-energy buildings. The objective of this paper is to analyse the classification of indoor thermal comfort levels and recommended ventilation rates for different low...

  14. A DFuzzy-DAHP Decision-Making Model for Evaluating Energy-Saving Design Strategies for Residential Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Lung Chen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The construction industry is a high-pollution and high-energy-consumption industry. Energy-saving designs for residential buildings not only reduce the energy consumed during construction, but also reduce long-term energy consumption in completed residential buildings. Because building design affects investment costs, designs are often influenced by investors’ decisions. A set of appropriate decision-support tools for residential buildings are required to examine how building design influences corporations externally and internally. From the perspective of energy savings and environmental protection, we combined three methods to develop a unique model for evaluating the energy-saving design of residential buildings. Among these methods, the Delphi group decision-making method provides a co-design feature, the analytical hierarchy process (AHP includes multi-criteria decision-making techniques, and fuzzy logic theory can simplify complex internal and external factors into easy-to-understand numbers or ratios that facilitate decisions. The results of this study show that incorporating solar building materials, double-skin facades, and green roof designs can effectively provide high energy-saving building designs.

  15. Particulate Matter Mass Concentration in Residential Prefabricated Buildings Related to Temperature and Moisture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michal; Juhásová Šenitková, Ingrid

    2017-10-01

    Building environmental audit and the assessment of indoor air quality (IAQ) in typical residential buildings is necessary process to ensure users’ health and well-being. The paper deals with the concentrations on indoor dust particles (PM10) in the context of hygrothermal microclimate in indoor environment. The indoor temperature, relative humidity and air movement are basic significant factors determining the PM10 concentration [μg/m3]. The experimental measurements in this contribution represent the impact of indoor physical parameters on the concentration of particulate matter mass concentration. The occurrence of dust particles is typical for the almost two-thirds of interiors of the buildings. Other parameters indoor environment, such as air change rate, volume of the room, roughness and porosity of the building material surfaces, static electricity, light ions and others, were set constant and they are not taken into account in this study. The mass concentration of PM10 is measured during summer season in apartment of residential prefabricated building. The values of global temperature [°C] and relative humidity of indoor air [%] are also monitored. The quantity of particulate mass matter is determined gravimetrically by weighing according to CSN EN 12 341 (2014). The obtained results show that the temperature difference of the internal environment does not have a significant effect on the concentration PM10. Vice versa, the difference of relative humidity exhibits a difference of the concentration of dust particles. Higher levels of indoor particulates are observed for low values of relative humidity. The decreasing of relative air humidity about 10% caused 10µg/m3 of PM10 concentration increasing. The hygienic limit value of PM10 concentration is not exceeded at any point of experimental measurement.

  16. An attributional life cycle assessment for an Italian residential multifamily building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Pierluca; Arena, Umberto

    2017-09-06

    The study describes an attributional life cycle assessment carried out according to the ISO standards and focused on an Italian multifamily residential building. The aim was developing an exhaustive and reliable inventory of high-quality primary data, comparing the environmental impacts along the three stages of the building life cycle. The pre-use phase takes into account the production of all the construction materials, transportation, and on-site assembling. The use phase quantifies the resource consumptions for 50 years of the building utilization and ordinary maintenance. The end-of-life phase includes the building demolition and the management of generated wastes. The results quantify how the design criteria affect the environmental performances of the residential building along its life cycle. The role of the pre-use phase appears remarkable for global warming potential (GWP), due to the huge impacts of steel and concrete production processes. The use phase gives the largest contributions, which reach 77% and 84% of the total, for the categories of global warming and non-renewable energy. The end-of-life phase provides limited avoided impacts. A comparative analysis quantifies the improvements achievable with an alternative type of partitions and external walls. Acronyms: AC: air conditioning; C&DW: construction and demolition waste; CFL: compact fluorescent lamp; DHW: domestic hot water; EC: European Commission; EU: European Union; GDP: gross domestic product; GHG: greenhouse gases; GWP: global warming potential; LCA: life cycle assessment; LCI: life cycle inventory; LCIA: life cycle impact assessment; MFA: material flow analysis; NREP: non-renewable energy potential; RINP: respiratory inorganics potential; WFD: Waste Framework Directive.

  17. Multiobjective optimisation of energy systems and building envelope retrofit in a residential community

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, Raphael; Mavromatidis, Georgios; Orehounig, Kristina; Carmeliet, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Simultaneous optimisation of building envelope retrofit and energy systems. • Retrofit and energy systems change interact and should be considered simultaneously. • Case study quantifies cost-GHG emission tradeoffs for different retrofit options. - Abstract: In this paper, a method for a multi-objective and simultaneous optimisation of building energy systems and retrofit is presented. Tailored to be suitable for the diverse range of existing buildings in terms of age, size, and use, it combines dynamic energy demand simulation to explore individual retrofit scenarios with an energy hub optimisation. Implemented as an epsilon-constrained mixed integer linear program (MILP), the optimisation matches envelope retrofit with renewable and high efficiency energy supply technologies such as biomass boilers, heat pumps, photovoltaic and solar thermal panels to minimise life cycle cost and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. Due to its multi-objective, integrated assessment of building transformation options and its ability to capture both individual building characteristics and trends within a neighbourhood, this method is aimed to provide developers, neighbourhood and town policy makers with the necessary information to make adequate decisions. Our method is deployed in a case study of typical residential buildings in the Swiss village of Zernez, simulating energy demands in EnergyPlus and solving the optimisation problem with CPLEX. Although common trade-offs in energy system and retrofit choice can be observed, optimisation results suggest that the diversity in building age and size leads to optimal strategies for retrofitting and building system solutions, which are specific to different categories. With this method, GHG emissions of the entire community can be reduced by up to 76% at a cost increase of 3% compared to the current emission levels, if an optimised solution is selected for each building category.

  18. Global warming and its implication to emission reduction strategies for residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Xiaoming; Chen, Dong; Ren, Zhengen [CSIRO Climate Adaptation Flagship and CSIRO Ecosystem Sciences, Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO), P.O. Box 56, Graham Road, Highett, Victoria 3190 (Australia)

    2011-04-15

    Carbon emission reduction schemes by improving residential building energy performance are often developed and assessed upon the assumption of current or stationary climates. This study investigated the heating and cooling (H-C) energy requirements and corresponding carbon emissions of residential houses in different climatic conditions in relation to global warming. This included assessing and quantifying the efficacy of emission reduction schemes based on emission reduction capacity (ERC). ERC represents the percentage of projected carbon emission reduction under changing climate in a specific year compared to the expected reduction by a scheme at current or stationary climates. It is shown that in a heating-dominated region with a cold climate or temperate climate with cold winter, ERC is projected to increase (or the projected emission reduction is higher than the expected reduction under the emission reduction scheme) in the presence of global warming. In contrast, in a cooling-dominated region with a hot dry or hot humid climate or an H-C balanced temperate climate, ERC is projected to decline. This implies that emission reductions will be lower than those initially targeted by the emission reduction scheme without consideration of global warming. Additionally, to reflect the changing carbon emission over years due to climate change, the average emission reduction capacity (AERC) was also proposed for the assessment of reduction schemes. It was concluded that the design and assessment of carbon emission reduction schemes for residential buildings need to move beyond its assumptions of a current or stationary climate to take into account climate change impacts. (author)

  19. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Cold Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Building Industry Research Alliance (BIRA); Building Science Consortium (BSC); Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB); Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC); IBACOS; National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    2006-08-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in Cold Climates on a cost-neutral basis.

  20. The Accelerated Window Work Method Using Vertical Formwork for Tall Residential Building Construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taehoon Kim

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available In tall residential building construction, there is a process gap between the window work and the structural work. This process gap extends the total period of the project and increases its cost. In addition, as this process gap increases external exposure to noise and dust, it negatively affects the environment of a site and often causes civil complaints. This paper introduces a new window work process called the accelerated window work (AWW method, which minimizes the process gap and can reduce construction cost and duration and the number of civil complaints. We provide technical details and management elements of the AWW method with a case study that demonstrates the reductions in construction costs and duration compared with the conventional method. This work contributes to the body of knowledge in window work in tall buildings by introducing and validating a new window work method and process. The proposed method will be useful for practitioners who are under short-term constraints.

  1. Multicriteria Decision Analysis of Material Selection of High Energy Performance Residential Building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Čuláková, Monika; Vilčeková, Silvia; Katunská, Jana; Krídlová Burdová, Eva

    2013-11-01

    In world with limited amount of energy sources and with serious environmental pollution, interest in comparing the environmental embodied impacts of buildings using different structure systems and alternative building materials will be increased. This paper shows the significance of life cycle energy and carbon perspective and the material selection in reducing energy consumption and emissions production in the built environment. The study evaluates embodied environmental impacts of nearly zero energy residential structures. The environmental assessment uses framework of LCA within boundary: cradle to gate. Designed alternative scenarios of material compositions are also assessed in terms of energy effectiveness through selected thermal-physical parameters. This study uses multi-criteria decision analysis for making clearer selection between alternative scenarios. The results of MCDA show that alternative E from materials on nature plant base (wood, straw bales, massive wood panel) present possible way to sustainable perspective of nearly zero energy houses in Slovak republic

  2. Sustainable renovation of residential buildings and the landlord/tenant dilemma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ástmarsson, Björn; Jensen, Per Anker; Maslesa, Esmir

    2013-01-01

    The landlord/tenant dilemma arises when the interests of landlords and tenants misalign and is one of the greatest barriers hindering the development of sustainable renovation of residential buildings in Europe. The aim of this research is to investigate how regulatory changes and contractual solutions can help solve the landlord/tenant dilemma in relation to sustainable renovation of residential buildings, and how the general awareness of sustainable renovation can be increased. Particular focus is on whether tools like energy performance contracting and energy labeling can help solve the landlord/tenant dilemma. The research was done in relation to the specific situation in Denmark, but theory, information and experiences from other countries were included. The results show that there are plenty of opportunities to overcome the landlord/tenant dilemma, but principal/agent problems can only be overcome with a package solution. In the Danish national context the package solution must consist of legislative changes, financial incentives and better dissemination of information. Therefore, an array of different tools must be integrated and used in cooperation to overcome the dilemma. - Highlights: • There are plenty of opportunities to overcome the landlord/tenant dilemma. • The principal/agent problems can only be overcome with a package solution. • An array of different tools must be integrated and used in cooperation. • Legislative changes, financial incentives and better dissemination of information

  3. Generation of a Tropically Adapted Energy Performance Certificate for Residential Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karl Wagner

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Since the 1990s, national green building certification indices have emerged around the globe as promising measurement tools for environmental-friendly housing. Since 2008, tools for countries in the Northern “colder” hemisphere have been adapted to tropical countries. In contrast, the Tropically Adapted Energy Performance Certificate (TEPC, established in 2012, translates the United Nations’ triple bottom line principle into green building sustainability (planet, thermal comfort (people and affordability (profit. The tool has been especially developed and revamped for affordable green building assessment helping to reduce global warming. Hence, by the comparably simple and transparent energy audit it provides, the TEPC examines buildings for their: (1 contribution to reduce CO2; (2 transmission rate in shielding a building’s envelope against the effects of the tropical heat; (3 generation of thermal comfort and (4 referring total cost of ownership to green the building further. All four dimensions are measured in the rainbow colour scale in compliance with national energy regulations. Accordingly, this research examines the tool’s implementation in tropical countries. Exemplified tropical case studies in residential areas seek to demonstrate the practicability of the approach and to derive a holistic certification by an internationally accredited certification board.

  4. Environmental Design Consideration for Courtyards in Residential Buildings in Hot-humid Climates: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Azuan Zakaria

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses environmental design considerations for courtyards in residential buildings in hot-humid climates through a literature review by contrasting with those in hot-dry climates. The main focus of discussion is on shading and ventilation effects of courtyards. The results of the analysis revealed that the form and orientation of a courtyard were less significant in its environmental design considerations for the hot-humid climates. Although these factors were reported to be the most important design considerations in the case of hot-dry climates. Mean-while, natural ventilation has been commonly utilized in wooden-structured traditional build-ings in hot-humid climates. However, most of the urban houses in Southeast Asian regions are becoming heavy-weight brick-walled buildings nowadays. It could be seen that the required environmental effects of a courtyard and its design considerations in the case of high thermal mass buildings in hot-humid climates are still uncertain and need to be investigated further.

  5. Efficiency Analysis of Independent and Centralized Heating Systems for Residential Buildings in Northern Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Rinaldi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The primary energy consumption in residential buildings is determined by the envelope thermal characteristics, air change, outside climatic data, users’ behaviour and the adopted heating system and its control. The new Italian regulations strongly suggest the installation of centralized boilers in renovated buildings with more than four apartments. This work aims to investigate the differences in primary energy consumption and efficiency among several independent and centralized heating systems installed in Northern Italy. The analysis is carried out through the following approach: firstly building heating loads are evaluated using the software TRNSYS® and, then, heating system performances are estimated through a simplified model based on the European Standard EN 15316. Several heating systems have been analyzed, evaluating: independent and centralized configurations, condensing and traditional boilers, radiator and radiant floor emitters and solar plant integration. The heating systems are applied to four buildings dating back to 2010, 2006, 1960s and 1930s. All the combinations of heating systems and buildings are analyzed in detail, evaluating efficiency and primary energy consumption. In most of the cases the choice between centralized and independent heating systems has minor effects on primary energy consumption, less than 3%: the introduction of condensing technology and the integration with solar heating plant can reduce energy consumption by 11% and 29%, respectively.

  6. Potential Job Creation in Nevada as a Result of Adopting New Residential Building Energy Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Michael J.; Niemeyer, Jackie M.

    2013-09-01

    Are there advantages to states that adopt the most recent model building energy codes other than saving energy? For example, can the construction activity and energy savings associated with code-compliant housing units become significant sources of job creation for states if new building energy codes are adopted to cover residential construction? , The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building Energy Codes Program (BECP) asked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to research and ascertain whether jobs would be created in individual states based on their adoption of model building energy codes. Each state in the country is dealing with high levels of unemployment, so job creation has become a top priority. Many programs have been created to combat unemployment with various degrees of failure and success. At the same time, many states still have not yet adopted the most current versions of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) model building energy code, when doing so could be a very effective tool in creating jobs to assist states in recovering from this economic downturn.

  7. Potential Job Creation in Minnesota as a Result of Adopting New Residential Building Energy Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Michael J.; Niemeyer, Jackie M.

    2013-09-01

    Are there advantages to states that adopt the most recent model building energy codes other than saving energy? For example, can the construction activity and energy savings associated with code-compliant housing units become significant sources of job creation for states if new building energy codes are adopted to cover residential construction? , The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building Energy Codes Program (BECP) asked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to research and ascertain whether jobs would be created in individual states based on their adoption of model building energy codes. Each state in the country is dealing with high levels of unemployment, so job creation has become a top priority. Many programs have been created to combat unemployment with various degrees of failure and success. At the same time, many states still have not yet adopted the most current versions of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) model building energy code, when doing so could be a very effective tool in creating jobs to assist states in recovering from this economic downturn.

  8. Potential Job Creation in Rhode Island as a Result of Adopting New Residential Building Energy Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Michael J.; Niemeyer, Jackie M.

    2013-09-01

    Are there advantages to states that adopt the most recent model building energy codes other than saving energy? For example, can the construction activity and energy savings associated with code-compliant housing units become significant sources of job creation for states if new building energy codes are adopted to cover residential construction? , The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building Energy Codes Program (BECP) asked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to research and ascertain whether jobs would be created in individual states based on their adoption of model building energy codes. Each state in the country is dealing with high levels of unemployment, so job creation has become a top priority. Many programs have been created to combat unemployment with various degrees of failure and success. At the same time, many states still have not yet adopted the most current versions of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) model building energy code, when doing so could be a very effective tool in creating jobs to assist states in recovering from this economic downturn.

  9. Potential Job Creation in Tennessee as a Result of Adopting New Residential Building Energy Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Michael J.; Niemeyer, Jackie M.

    2013-09-01

    Are there advantages to states that adopt the most recent model building energy codes other than saving energy? For example, can the construction activity and energy savings associated with code-compliant housing units become significant sources of job creation for states if new building energy codes are adopted to cover residential construction? , The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Building Energy Codes Program (BECP) asked Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to research and ascertain whether jobs would be created in individual states based on their adoption of model building energy codes. Each state in the country is dealing with high levels of unemployment, so job creation has become a top priority. Many programs have been created to combat unemployment with various degrees of failure and success. At the same time, many states still have not yet adopted the most current versions of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) model building energy code, when doing so could be a very effective tool in creating jobs to assist states in recovering from this economic downturn.

  10. Fine-Scale Population Estimation by 3D Reconstruction of Urban Residential Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shixin; Tian, Ye; Zhou, Yi; Liu, Wenliang; Lin, Chenxi

    2016-01-01

    Fine-scale population estimation is essential in emergency response and epidemiological applications as well as urban planning and management. However, representing populations in heterogeneous urban regions with a finer resolution is a challenge. This study aims to obtain fine-scale population distribution based on 3D reconstruction of urban residential buildings with morphological operations using optical high-resolution (HR) images from the Chinese No. 3 Resources Satellite (ZY-3). Specifically, the research area was first divided into three categories when dasymetric mapping was taken into consideration. The results demonstrate that the morphological building index (MBI) yielded better results than built-up presence index (PanTex) in building detection, and the morphological shadow index (MSI) outperformed color invariant indices (CIIT) in shadow extraction and height retrieval. Building extraction and height retrieval were then combined to reconstruct 3D models and to estimate population. Final results show that this approach is effective in fine-scale population estimation, with a mean relative error of 16.46% and an overall Relative Total Absolute Error (RATE) of 0.158. This study gives significant insights into fine-scale population estimation in complicated urban landscapes, when detailed 3D information of buildings is unavailable. PMID:27775670

  11. Techno-economic assessment and optimization of Stirling engine micro-cogeneration systems in residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alanne, Kari; Soederholm, Niklas; Siren, Kai; Beausoleil-Morrison, Ian

    2010-01-01

    Micro-cogeneration offers numerous potential advantages for the supply of energy to residential buildings in the sense of improved energy efficiency and reduced environmental burdens. To realize these benefits, however, such systems must reduce energy costs, primary energy consumption, and CO 2 emissions relative to conventional heating systems. In this paper, we search for optimized strategies for the integration of a Stirling engine-based micro-cogeneration system in residential buildings by comparing the performance of various system configurations and operational strategies with that of a reference system, i.e. hydronic heating and a low temperature gas boiler in standard and passive house constructions located in different climates. The IDA-ICE whole-building simulation program is employed with the Stirling engine micro-cogeneration model that was developed by IEA/ECBCS Annex 42. In this way the dynamic effects of micro-cogeneration devices, such as warm-ups and shutdowns, are accounted for. This study contributes to the research by addressing hourly changes in the fuel mix used for central electricity generation and the utilization of thermal exhaust through heat recovery. Our results suggest that an optimally operated micro-cogeneration system encompassing heat recovery and appropriate thermal storage would result in a 3-5% decrease in primary energy consumption and CO 2 emissions when compared to a conventional hydronic heating system. Moreover, this configuration is capable of delivering annual savings in all the combinations of electricity and fuel price between 0.05 and 0.15 Euro kW h -1 . As can be expected, these results are sensitive to the electrical energy supply mix, building type, and climate.

  12. Analysis of Energy Consumption and Possibilities of Thermal-Modernization in Residential Buildings in Poland Case Study: The Town of Zielona Góra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsabry, A.; Truszkiewicz, P.; Szymański, K.; Łaskawiec, K.; Rojek, Ł.

    2017-12-01

    The article presents an analysis of buildings belonging the Department of Public Utilities and Housing in Zielona Góra. The research was based on a set of questions for building operators. The questionnaires consisted of 30 questions concerning general and detailed information about the buildings. In order to clearly present the results, this article includes data only about residential and residential-commercial buildings. Forty building built in different periods were selected for analysis.

  13. Quantification of Improvement in Environmental Quality for Old Residential Buildings Using Life Cycle Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Mitterpach

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available In Slovakia, 35% of buildings are older than 50 years but most newer buildings built before 1990 have greater energy consumption. Some other countries also have similar problems. The growing importance of energy saving in buildings can be, in the case of new and old residential buildings (RB, achieved by lowering thermal energy consumption most often by application of polystyrene insulation on the external walls and roof and the exchange of wood window frames for PVC (polyvinyl chloride windows. The novelty of the article for Slovakia and some other central European countries consists in using the life cycle assessment (LCA method for the objective assessment of the environmental benefits of the selected systems of wall insulation, as well as of energy savings in various time intervals of insulation functionality (up to 20 years. LCA software SimaPro (LE Amersfoort, The Netherlands was used with ReCiPe and IMPACT 2002+ assessment methods to quantify the total environmental impact at selected endpoints and midpoints (IMPACT 2002+ of basic structural materials of an RB and its energy demand—heat consumption (hot water heating, central heating before the application of insulation and thermal energy saving (TES after application of insulation to its external walls, roof, and the exchange of windows. The data we obtained confirmed that the environmental impact of the polystyrene insulation of external walls, roof, and exchange of windows of one residential building (RB in the first year after insulation is higher than the reduction caused by achieving a TES of 39%. When taking a lifespan of 20 years into consideration, the impact over the life cycle of the building materials is reduced by 25% (global warming: −4792 kg CO2 eq; production of carcinogens: −2479 kg C2H3Cl eq; acidification: −12,045 kg SO2 eq; and aquatic eutrophication: −257 kg PO4 P-lim. The verified LCA methodology will be used for comparative analysis of different variants

  14. Recommendations for energy conservation standards for new residential buildings: Volume 2: Automated residential energy standard---user's guide--version 1. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lortz, V.B.; Taylor, Z.T.

    1989-05-01

    This report documents the development and testing of a set of recommendations from the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration and Air Conditioning Engineers, Inc. (ASHRAE) Special Projects Committee No. 53, designed to provide the technical foundation for the Congressionally-mandated energy standard for new residential buildings. The recommendations were developed over a 25-month period by a multidisciplinary project team under the management of the DOE and its prime contractor, Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL).

  15. Perspectives on Near ZEB Renovation Projects for Residential Buildings: The Spanish Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faustino Patiño-Cambeiro

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available EU regulations are gradually moving towards policies that reduce energy consumption and its environmental impact. To reach this goal, improving energy efficiency in residential buildings is a key action line. The European Parliament adopted the Near Zero-Energy Building (nZEB as the energy efficiency paradigm through Directive 2010/31/EU, but a common technical and legislative framework for energy renovations is yet to be established. In this paper, the nZEB definition by COHERENO was adopted to evaluate several energy renovation packages in a given building, which is also representative of the Spanish building stock. Global costs are calculated for all of them following EPBD prescriptions. Two economic scenarios are analysed: with entirely private funding and with the current public financial incentives, respectively. The results show the divergence between optimum solutions in terms of costs and of minimum CO2 footprint and maximum energy saving. Moreover, in the absence of enough incentives, some inefficient renovations could achieve a global cost close to the optimal cost. The optimum solution both in terms of energy performance and global costs was carried out and described.

  16. Energy and Economic Evaluation of Green Roofs for Residential Buildings in Hot-Humid Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abubakar S. Mahmoud

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Green roofs may be considered a passive energy saving technology that also offer benefits like environmental friendliness and enhancement of aesthetic and architectural qualities of buildings. This paper examines the energy and economic viability of the green roof technology in the hot humid climate of Saudi Arabia by considering a modern four bedroom residential building in the city of Dhahran as a case study. The base case and green roof modelling of the selected building has been developed with the help of DesignBuilder software. The base case model has been validated with the help of 3-month measured data about the energy consumption without a green roof installed. The result shows that the energy consumption for the base case is 169 kWh/m2 while the energy consumption due to the application of a green roof on the entire roof surface is 110 kWh/m2. For the three investigated green roof options, energy saving is found to be in the range of 24% to 35%. The economic evaluation based on the net present value (NPV approach for 40 years with consideration to other environmental advantages indicates that the benefits of the green roof technology are realized towards the end of the life cycle of the building.

  17. SOME FEATURES OF THE POWER SUPPLY OF RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS DURING THE HEATING SEASON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Osipov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A large proportion of consumption of different types of energy by the residential sector, especially in the heating period, makes the energy efficiency of buildings without considering the loss of fuel with a significant reduction in hourly load on the generators, especially at night, already insufficient for real energy savings. Therefore in Belarus, in order to attract the consumer, electricity tariff for heating at night hours (from 11 p.m. to 6.00 a.m. is three times cheaper than at any other time. Significant increase of the electricity consumption of at night could be achieved by using heat accumulators for heating and hot water supply to the residential sector. Particularly effective are water accumulators of heat and accumulators of underfloor heating that enable to use a coolant with a temperature of 40 оC and to increase the useful supply of heat. The use of heat accumulators for daily heating, ventilation and hot water supply of buildings significantly reduces the cost of creating the infrastructure of the territory under construction by eliminating the necessity of running the distribution network of heat or gas supply. The use of the heat accumulators is necessary due to the increase of the time-weighted average outdoor temperature. The mentioned increase in the City of Minsk in the heating season is of about 0.1 °C per year in average, and as for the last 20 years, the increase has led to a reduction of the required heat load on the premises by about 10 %. Research and project work on choosing the most effective options for the arrangement and use the heat accumulators in buildings of the various functions ought to be fulfilled in order to make the application of heat accumulators successful. In this respect civil and power engineers as well as operators should work together so to determine the chronological, technical and economic conditions of charging and use of heat accumulators.

  18. Fuzzy logic-based advanced on–off control for thermal comfort in residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Chang-Soon; Hyun, Chang-Ho; Park, Mignon

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Fuzzy logic-based advanced on–off control is proposed. • An anticipative control mechanism is implemented by using fuzzy theory. • Novel thermal analysis program including solar irradiation as a factor is developed. • The proposed controller solves over-heating and under-heating thermal problems. • Solar energy compensation method is applied to compensate for the solar energy. - Abstract: In this paper, an advanced on–off control method based on fuzzy logic is proposed for maintaining thermal comfort in residential buildings. Due to the time-lag of the control systems and the late building thermal response, an anticipative control mechanism is required to reduce energy loss and thermal discomfort. The proposed controller is implemented based on an on–off controller combined with a fuzzy algorithm. On–off control was chosen over other conventional control methods because of its structural simplicity. However, because conventional on–off control has a fixed operating range and a limited ability for improvements in control performance, fuzzy theory can be applied to overcome these limitations. Furthermore, a fuzzy-based solar energy compensation algorithm can be applied to the proposed controller to compensate for the energy gained from solar radiation according to the time of day. Simulations were conducted to compare the proposed controller with a conventional on–off controller under identical external conditions such as outdoor temperature and solar energy; these simulations were carried out by using a previously reported thermal analysis program that was modified to consider such external conditions. In addition, experiments were conducted in a residential building called Green Home Plus, in which hydronic radiant floor heating is used; in these experiments, the proposed system performed better than a system employing conventional on–off control methods

  19. Energy security of residential buildings as an aspect of managerial activity in the modern concept of globalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chumakova, Olga

    2017-10-01

    The paper shows the management aspects of ensuring the safety of residential buildings. The article presents an analytical review of the state of the existing heat supply systems in the Russian Federation, assesses their energy security, highlights the results of research into the causes of accidents in engineering systems in water-bearing communications, and provides methods and comparative calculations of failures of these systems. It is indicated that according to the results of the All-Russian Census of 2010, the total population of the Russian Federation at the time of the survey was 142 million 857 thousand people living in more than 1100 settlements that have the status of the city (subject to their identification by population, administrative and national economic significance and the nature of the building), as well as in almost 160,000 rural settlements. It should be noted that in accordance with the classification of settlements in the Russian Federation, there are five main categories, namely: The above classification of settlements has formed the basis for the analysis of the existing processes of functioning of the heat supply systems of the Russian Federation at the objects of housing, social and industrial development from the point of view of energy security. Thus, for example, it turned out that in large cities with multi-storey buildings the centralized heat supply system is dominated by a system consisting of one or several sources of heat, heat networks having different diameter of pipelines, their number and length, and also serving various types of heat consumers) from cogeneration plants (CHP) of public use, or industrial enterprises. As for the welterweight and small towns, including urban-type settlements with a multi-storey building of the post-war period, they, as a rule, have the majority of IGFs, fed from the city or district boiler houses.

  20. Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Technologies in Residential Building Codes: June 15, 1998 to September 15, 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wortman, D.; Echo-Hawk, L.

    2005-02-01

    This report is an attempt to describe the building code requirements and impediments to the application of EE and RE technologies in residential buildings. Several modern model building codes were reviewed. These are representative of the codes that will be adopted by most locations in the coming years. The codes reviewed for this report include: International Residential Code, First Draft, April 1998; International Energy Conservation Code, 1998; International Mechanical Code, 1998; International Plumbing Code, 1997; International Fuel Gas Code, 1997; National Electrical Code, 1996. These codes were reviewed as to their application to (1) PV systems in buildings and building-integrated PV systems and (2) active solar domestic hot water and space-heating systems. A discussion of general code issues that impact these technologies is also included. Examples of this are solar access and sustainability.

  1. The effects of window alternatives on energy efficiency and building economy in high-rise residential buildings in moderate to humid climates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yaşar, Yalçın; Kalfa, Sibel Maçka

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We investigated energy and economy efficiency of window alternatives in Trabzon. ► Energy consumptions of eight window alternatives were simulated and discussed. ► Window alternatives’s life cycle costs were calculated and compared. ► We suggested appropriate energy and economy efficient window alternatives. ► The study defines useful guidelines to select appropriate window alternatives. - Abstract: Currently, focused efforts are being made to determine the influence of windows on the energy consumption and economy of high-rise buildings. Certain window designs and appropriate glazing systems reduce building energy consumption for heating and cooling and contribute to building economy. This paper addresses double-glazed window units that are composed of tinted glass; clear reflective glass; low emissivity (low-e) glass; and smart glass (one surface consists of a high-performance, heat-reflective glass, and other surface has a low-emissivity coated). These materials reduce the heating and cooling loads of buildings by providing solar control and heat conservation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of these alternative units, rather than readily available double-glazed units, in two types of flats. The flats have the same construction and operating system, but they have different plan types with regard to building energy consumption and building economy as it relates to life cycle cost analysis. For this study, we selected buildings in Trabzon, in Climate Region II of Turkey, due to its moderate-humid climate. F- and C-type high-rise residential blocks, with flats composed of two to three bedrooms, constructed by the Republic of Turkey’s Prime Ministry Housing Development Administration of Turkey (TOKİ) are used as models for the simulation. The flat plans in these blocks are modeled using DesignBuilder v.1.8 energy simulation software. The simulation results show that smart-glazed units and those with low emissivity

  2. Energy, economic and environmental analysis on RET-hydrogen systems in residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beccali, M.; Brunone, S.; Cellura, M.; Franzitta, V. [Dipartimento di Ricerche Energetiche e Ambientali, Universita degli Studi di Palermo, Viale delle Scienze, 90128 Palermo (Italy)

    2008-03-15

    The aim of this study was to analyze energy, economic and environmental performances of a set of scenarios dealing with the production and the use of hydrogen as energy carriers in residential applications in combination with renewable energy (RE). The authors also made an investigation into the required economic conditions necessary for making H{sub 2}-RE residential systems competitive with conventional ones, which are based on the use of grid electricity and natural gas. A case study was enacted in a small residential district in Palermo (Italy) made by five multi-storey buildings. Many energy systems have been considered according to several fuel-device combinations (electric grid, fuel cell, PV panels, wind turbines, boiler etc.). The software HOMER (hybrid optimization model for electric renewables), developed by NREL and Midwest Research Institute (USA), was used, in order to study the energy balance of the system and its components. Moreover, it was possible to simulate the hourly operation of each system and to calculate technical, economic and environmental performance parameters. The net present cost and the cost of energy are the two main parameters used to compare economic performances of the systems with both actual and expected costs in the medium term. A sensitivity analysis was carried out in order to appreciate the most important parameters influencing the economic performances of the systems and to define possible future scenarios of competitiveness between technologies. Emissions of CO{sub 2} (the most important greenhouse gas) and other pollutants have been considered for an environmental benefits analysis. (author)

  3. Life-cycle energy implications of different residential settings: Recognizing buildings, travel, and public infrastructure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, Brice G.; Kockelman, Kara M.

    2014-01-01

    The built environment can be used to influence travel demand, but very few studies consider the relative energy savings of such policies in context of a complex urban system. This analysis quantifies the day-to-day and embodied energy consumption of four different neighborhoods in Austin, Texas, to examine how built environment variations influence various sources of urban energy consumption. A microsimulation combines models for petroleum use (from driving) and residential and commercial power and natural gas use with rigorously measured building stock and infrastructure materials quantities (to arrive at embodied energy). Results indicate that the more suburban neighborhoods, with mostly detached single-family homes, consume up to 320% more embodied energy, 150% more operational energy, and about 160% more total life-cycle energy (per capita) than a densely developed neighborhood with mostly low-rise-apartments and duplexes. Across all neighborhoods, operational energy use comprised 83 to 92% of total energy use, and transportation sources (including personal vehicles and transit, plus street, parking structure, and sidewalk infrastructure) made up 44 to 47% of the life-cycle energy demands tallied. Energy elasticity calculations across the neighborhoods suggest that increased population density and reduced residential unit size offer greatest life-cycle energy savings per capita, by reducing both operational demands from driving and home energy use, and from less embodied energy from construction. These results provide measurable metrics for comparing different neighborhood styles and develop a framework to anticipate energy-savings from changes in the built environment versus household energy efficiency. - Highlights: • Total energy demands (operational and embodied) of 5 Austin settings were studied here. • Suburban settings consume much more energy than densely developed neighborhoods. • Transportation sources make up 44 to 47% of the total energy

  4. International transitional administrations and the politics of authority building

    OpenAIRE

    Zaum, Dominik

    2017-01-01

    This article critically examines authority-building practices in the context of statebuilding through the lens of one particular form of external statebuilding interventions: international transitional administrations (ITAs), which are established by international organisations (mainly the UN) to exercise governmental functions over a territory, and in some cases to engage in the establishment or reform of political, administrative, and economic institutions. Drawing in particular on one ITA,...

  5. Greenhouse gases emission assessment in residential sector through buildings simulations and operation optimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stojiljković, Mirko M.; Ignjatović, Marko G.; Vučković, Goran D.

    2015-01-01

    Buildings use a significant amount of primary energy and largely contribute to greenhouse gases emission. Cost optimality and cost effectiveness, including cost-optimal operation, are important for the adoption of energy efficient and environmentally friendly technologies. The long-term assessment of buildings-related greenhouse gases emission might take into account cost-optimal operation of their energy systems. This is often not the case in the literature. Long-term operation optimization problems are often of large scale and computationally intensive and time consuming. This paper formulates a bottom-up methodology relying on an efficient, but precise operation optimization approach, applicable to long-term problems and use with buildings simulations. We suggest moving-horizon short-term optimization to determine near-optimal operation modes and show that this approach, applied to flexible energy systems without seasonal storage, have satisfactory efficiency and accuracy compared with solving problem for an entire year. We also confirm it as a valuable pre-solve technique. Approach applicability and the importance of energy systems optimization are illustrated with a case study considering buildings envelope improvements and cogeneration and heat storage implementation in an urban residential settlement. EnergyPlus is used for buildings simulations while mixed integer linear programming optimization problems are constructed and solved using the custom-built software and the branch-and-cut solver Gurobi Optimizer. - Highlights: • Bottom-up approach for greenhouse gases emission assessment is presented. • Short-term moving-horizon optimization is used to define operation regimes. • Operation optimization and buildings simulations are connected with modeling tool. • Illustrated optimization method performed efficiently and gave accurate results.

  6. Solar plus: Optimization of distributed solar PV through battery storage and dispatchable load in residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Shaughnessy, Eric; Cutler, Dylan; Ardani, Kristen; Margolis, Robert

    2018-03-01

    As utility electricity rates evolve, pairing solar photovoltaic (PV) systems with battery storage has potential to ensure the value proposition of residential solar by mitigating economic uncertainty. In addition to batteries, load control technologies can reshape customer load profiles to optimize PV system use. The combination of PV, energy storage, and load control provides an integrated approach to PV deployment, which we call 'solar plus'. The U.S. National Renewable Energy Laboratory's Renewable Energy Optimization (REopt) model is utilized to evaluate cost-optimal technology selection, sizing, and dispatch in residential buildings under a variety of rate structures and locations. The REopt model is extended to include a controllable or 'smart' domestic hot water heater model and smart air conditioner model. We find that the solar plus approach improves end user economics across a variety of rate structures - especially those that are challenging for PV - including lower grid export rates, non-coincident time-of-use structures, and demand charges.

  7. Meeting the Electrical Energy Needs of a Residential Building with a Wind-Photovoltaic Hybrid System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Hosein Mohammadnezami

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A complete hybrid system including a photovoltaic cell, a wind turbine, and battery is modeled to determine the best approach for sizing the system to meet the electrical energy needs of a residential building. In evaluating system performance, the city of Tehran is used as a case study. Matlab software is used for analyzing the data and optimizing the system for the given application. Further, the cost of the system design is investigated, and shows that the electrical cost of the hybrid system in Tehran is 0.62 US$/kWh, which is 78% less expensive than a wind turbine system and 34% less expensive than a photovoltaic system.

  8. Energy requirements of a multi-sensor based demand control ventilation system in residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chul Seong, Nam; Min Hong, Sung; Won Yoon, Dong [Kyoungwon University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Jun Moon, Hyeun [Dankook University, Yongin (Korea, Republic of); Augenbroe, Godfried [Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta (United States)

    2010-07-01

    Nowadays, people spend most of their time indoors. Therefore indoor air quality is of high importance and the building regulation in Korea was revised to apply 0.7 air change rate in residential apartment housing. However residents do not often operate mechanical ventilation systems mainly due to their utility cost. The aim of this paper is to present a demand control ventilation (DCV) system which implements ventilation strategies to meet the ventilation requirements. An evaluation was conducted on both conventional ventilation and sensor based DCV systems to compare their energy requirements. The study showed that the use of the DCV system results in a better indoor air quality and a lower energy consumption than conventional ventilation. This paper highlighted that the Korean ventilation regulation is not enough to control the CO2 concentration and that the use of the sensor-based DCV would result in a healthier and more comfortable indoor environment.

  9. The Airborne Transmission of Infection Between Flats in High-rise Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, N.P.; Niu, J. L.; Perino, M.

    2008-01-01

    Airborne transmission of infectious respiratory diseases in indoor environments has drawn our attention for decades, and this issue is revitalized with the outbreak of severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS). One of the concerns is that there may be multiple transmission routes across households....... High-speed winds can restrain the convective transfer of heat and mass between flats, functioning like an air curtain. Despite the complexities of the air flow involved, it is clear that this transmission route should be taken into account in infection control....... in high-rise residential buildings, one of which is the natural ventilative airflow through open windows between flats, caused by buoyancy effects. Our early on-site measurement using tracer gases confirmed qualitatively and quantitatively that the re-entry of the exhaust-polluted air from the window...

  10. Solar heating and cooling of residential buildings: design of systems, 1980 edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-01

    This manual was prepared primarily for use in conducting a practical training course on the design of solar heating and cooling systems for residential and small office buildings, but may also be useful as a general reference text. The content level is appropriate for persons with different and varied backgrounds, although it is assumed that readers possess a basic understanding of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning systems of conventional (non-solar) types. This edition is a revision of the manual with the same title, first printed and distributed by the US Government Printing Office in October 1977. The manual has been reorganized, new material has been added, and outdated information has been deleted. Only active solar systems are described. Liquid and air-heating solar systems for combined space and service water heating or service water heating are included. Furthermore, only systems with proven experience are discussed to any extent.

  11. Analysis of heat-conducting inclusions in exterior walls of residential building

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larionov, Arkady; Minnullina, Anna

    2017-10-01

    The study is aimed at detecting the zones of major heat losses in exterior walls of residential buildings and developing recommendations on their elimination. The “ELCUT” software program calculated the temperature fields of the external wall under the design temperature of the outside air. The calculation was carried out for three options: the thermal characteristics of the materials of the layers of the outer wall correspond to the design parameters; thermal characteristics of the materials of the layers of the outer wall correspond to the actual measured values; Thermal technical characteristics of the materials of the layers of the outer wall correspond to the actual indicators and additional insulation is made. It is established that with additional insulation, the irregularity of the temperature field on the external surface of the wall is eliminated and normalized thermal resistance complies with the requirements.

  12. Building Fit-for-Purpose Land Administration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enemark, Stig; Bell, Keith; Lemmen, Christiaan

    2014-01-01

    of society today and that can be incrementally improved over time. The paper addresses some of the key technological, economic, legal, and social issues related to building fit-for purpose land administration systems in support of sustainable and transparent land governance especially in developing countries...

  13. Construction and design defects in the residential buildings and observed earthquake damage types in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cogurcu, M. T.

    2015-04-01

    Turkey is situated in a very active earthquake region. In the last century, several earthquakes resulted in thousands of deaths and enormous economic losses. In 1999, the Kocaeli earthquake had an approximate death toll of more than 20 000, and in 2011 the Van earthquake killed 604 people. In general, Turkish residential buildings have reinforced concrete structural systems. These reinforced concrete structures have several deficiencies, such as low concrete quality, non-seismic steel detailing and inappropriate structural systems including several architectural irregularities. In this study, the general characteristics of Turkish building stock and the deficiencies observed in structural systems are explained, and illustrative figures are given with reference to the Turkish Earthquake Code 2007. The poor concrete quality, lack of lateral or transverse reinforcement in beam-column joints and column confinement zones, high stirrup spacings, under-reinforced columns and over-reinforced beams are the primary causes of failures. Other deficiencies include weak-column-stronger-beam formations, insufficient seismic joint separations, soft-story or weak-story irregularities and short columns. Similar construction and design mistakes are also observed in other countries situated on active earthquake belts. Existing buildings still have these undesirable characteristics, and so to prepare for future earthquakes they must be rehabilitated.

  14. A neuro-fuzzy model for prediction of the indoor temperature in typical Australian residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alasha' ary, Haitham; Moghtaderi, Behdad; Page, Adrian; Sugo, Heber [Priority Research Centre for Energy, Chemical Engineering, School of Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Built Environment, the University of Newcastle, Callaghan, Newcastle, NSW 2308 (Australia)

    2009-07-15

    The Masonry Research Group at The University of Newcastle, Australia has embarked on an extensive research program to study the thermal performance of common walling systems in Australian residential buildings by studying the thermal behaviour of four representative purpose-built thermal test buildings (referred to as 'test modules' or simply 'modules' hereafter). The modules are situated on the university campus and are constructed from brick veneer (BV), cavity brick (CB) and lightweight (LW) constructions. The program of study has both experimental and analytical strands, including the use of a neuro-fuzzy approach to predict the thermal behaviour. The latter approach employs an experimental adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) which is used in this study to predict the room (indoor) temperatures of the modules under a range of climatic conditions pertinent to Newcastle (NSW, Australia). The study shows that this neuro-fuzzy model is capable of accurately predicting the room temperature of such buildings; thus providing a potential computationally efficient and inexpensive predictive tool for the more effective thermal design of housing. (author)

  15. Holistic Diagnosis of Rising Damp and Salt Attack in Two Residential Buildings in Kumasi, Ghana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kofi Agyekum

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rising damp is one of the most severe phenomena that leads to decay and deterioration of both old and modern types of buildings. This study employed a holistic approach to dampness investigation and sought to examine the problem of rising damp in the walls of two residential apartments in Kumasi, Ghana. The study sought to determine the types of soluble salts and their concentrations in the soils and accumulated percentages in the walls over time and whether there exists any linkage between the salts in the walls and those in the ground. Results from the geotechnical survey of the building sites found that the soils on site 1 consisted of silty sandy gravel with some clay particles and those on site 2 consisted of silty sandy soil with some clay and traces of gravel. The study identified several groups of salts in the walls of the buildings, with the most damaging and dangerous being magnesium sulphate, magnesium chloride, and sodium sulphate salts. Similar salts were identified in the soil samples from the trial pits. The results therefore indicate a linkage between the salts found in the ground and those found in the walls and therefore confirm the presence of rising dampness.

  16. Experimental Analysis of Cool Traditional Solar Shading Systems for Residential Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Laura Pisello

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years there has been a growing interest in the development and thermal-energy analysis of passive solutions for reducing building cooling needs and thus improving indoor thermal comfort conditions. In this view, several studies were carried out about cool roofs and cool coatings, producing acknowledged mitigation effects on urban heat island phenomenon. The purpose of this work is to investigate the thermal-energy performance of cool louvers of shutters, usually installed in residential buildings, compared to dark color traditional shading systems. To this aim, two full-scale prototype buildings were continuously monitored under summer conditions and the role of the cool shutter in reducing the overheating of the shading system and the energy requirements for cooling was analyzed. After an in-lab optical analysis of the cool coating, showing a huge solar reflectance increase with respect to the traditional configuration, i.e., by about 75%, field monitoring results showed that the cool shutter is able to decrease the indoor air temperature up to 2 °C under free floating conditions. The corresponding energy saving was about 25%, with even much higher peaks during very hot summer conditions.

  17. Phase Change Materials as a solution to improve energy efficiency in Portuguese residential buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, C.; Pinheiro, A.; Castro, M. F.; Bragança, L.

    2017-10-01

    The buildings sector contributes to 30% of annual greenhouse gas emissions and consumes about 40% of energy. However, this consumption can be reduced by between 30% and 80% through commercially available technologies. The consumption of energy in the dwellings is mostly associated with the heating and cooling of the interior environment. One solution to reduce these consumptions is the implementation of technologies and Phase Change Materials (PCMs) for Thermal Energy Storage (TES). So, the aim of this work is to analyse the advantages, in terms of decreasing energy consumption, associated with the application of PCMs in Portuguese residential buildings. For this, eight PCMs with different melting ranges were analysed. These materials were analysed through a dynamic simulation performed with EnergyPlus software. The results achieved, showed that the materials studied allow to reduce up to 13% of the heating needs and up to 92% of the cooling needs of a building located in the North of Portugal, at an altitude higher than 100m.

  18. The economic impact of energy saving retrofits of residential and public buildings in Croatia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikulić, Davor; Bakarić, Ivana Rašić; Slijepčević, Sunčana

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to estimunate the impact of energy saving investment in residential and public buildings in Croatia for the period 2015–2020. The aim is to assess the overall socio-economic impact of energy saving renovation measures defined in Croatian strategic documents in terms of the direct, indirect and induced growth of gross value added, employment and government revenues. An estimate of the avoided costs of air pollution is also included. The overall economic impact assessment is based on an input-output methodology. From the point of view of individual investors, the benefits in terms of reduced future expenses related to energy products are usually below energy efficient renovation investment costs, making an investment financially viable only if government support is provided. If the benefits for society as a whole are included, energy efficient renovation could be assessed as viable even in the short-run. Energy saving retrofits of residential and public buildings positively contribute to economic growth, employment and protection of the environment. Because of economic growth, the tax revenues induced by these investments could compensate for government expenditures, and the overall impact on the public deficit is expected to be neutral even in the short-run. - Highlights: •Estimate of the overall socioeconomic impact of energy saving renovation measures on national economy. •Energy efficient renovation if not subsidised is not financially viable from the owner perspective. •Total social benefits are higher than social costs due to positive externalities. •Impact of subsidies on public deficit is neutral even in the short run.

  19. Prioritized rule based load management technique for residential building powered by PV/battery system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.R. Ayodele

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, Solar Photovoltaic (PV system has presented itself as one of the main solutions to the electricity poverty plaguing the majority of buildings in rural communities with solar energy potential. However, the stochasticity associated with solar PV power output owing to vagaries in weather conditions is a major challenge in the deployment of the systems. This study investigates approach for maximizing the benefits of a Stand-Alone Photovoltaic-Battery (SAPVB system via techniques that provide for optimum energy gleaning and management. A rule-based load management scheme is developed and tested for a residential building. The approach allows load prioritizing and shifting based on certain rules. To achieve this, the residential loads are classified into Critical Loads (CLs and Uncritical Loads (ULs. The CLs are given higher priority and therefore are allowed to operate at their scheduled time while the ULs are of less priority, hence can be shifted to a time where there is enough electric power generation from the PV arrays rather than the loads being operated at the time period set by the user. Four scenarios were created to give insight into the applicability of the proposed rule based load management scheme. The result revealed that when the load management technique is not utilized as in the case of scenario 1 (Base case, the percentage satisfaction of the critical and uncritical loads by the PV system are 49.8% and 23.7%. However with the implementation of the load management scheme in scenarios 2, 3 and 4, the percentage satisfaction of the loads (CLs, ULs are (93.8%, 74.2%, (90.9%, 70.1% and (87.2%, 65.4% for scenarios 2, 3 and 4, respectively.

  20. The trigger matters: The decision-making process for heating systems in the residential building sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hecher, Maria; Hatzl, Stefanie; Knoeri, Christof; Posch, Alfred

    2017-01-01

    As heat demand of buildings accounts for a significant amount of final energy use and related carbon emissions, it’s important to gain insights into the homeowners’ decision-making processes and to identify factors determining the choice of heating systems. In this study, data was collected in an online survey carried out in 2015, from private homeowners of existing and newly built single and double-family houses in Austria who had invested in a new heating system within the last ten years (N=484). In contrast to previous studies, this study specifically investigates the triggers behind homeowner decisions to invest in a new heating system (e.g. problem, opportunity, or new building situation). Results of binary logistic regression analysis show that subsidies for heating system tabinvestments and infrastructural adjustments reveal to be most effective for homeowners in problem situations to foster alternative heating systems. For homeowners in opportunity situations (e.g. building refurbishment), in addition operational convenience appears to be important. For new buildings, the main barriers for alternative heating system adoption were found in the positive perception of fuel supply security and feasibility of fossil systems. Thus, the use of trigger-specific policy measures is proposed to foster alternative heating systems in the residential building sector. - Highlights: • Homeowners’ triggers determine heating system adoption decisions. • It is crucial to reach homeowners early enough to avoid problem situations. • For problem-triggered homeowners, subsidies are most effective. • Opportunity-triggered homeowners prefer alternative heating systems. • Opportunity-triggered homeowners need solid decision basis for technology comparison.

  1. Open Space between Residential Buildings as a Factor of Sustainable Development - Case Studies in Brno (Czech Republic) and Vienna (Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilnarová, Pavla; Wittmann, Maxmilian

    2017-12-01

    The characteristics of open spaces between residential buildings have, as authors suppose, an impact on the sustainable development of urban areas. Spatial arrangement and accessibility of these spaces, the type and height of surrounding buildings, the quantity and character of greenery, and many more characteristics influence the quality of environment, and the quality of life of local residents. These and further characteristics of the open spaces between residential buildings influence the ecological stability of the area, its hygienic qualities, the intensity and way of using by various social groups, and also the prices of real estates. These qualities indicate the environmental, social and economic sustainability of the urban area. The proposed research methodology assessed specific indicators of sustainability within a range from 0 to 10 points. 5 points correspond to the general standard in the area, 0 points indicate degradation, and 10 points indicate the highest contribution to sustainable development. Observation methods, questionnaire survey, statistical analyses, and methods of measurement were used to determine the values of the given indicators. The paper analyses the impact of the open spaces between residential buildings on sustainability via the case studies performed in the Central European cities of Brno, Czech Republic and Vienna, Austria. Two forms of residential urban structures in the City of Brno in the Czech Republic were selected for the analysis: the closed courtyards in the urban block from the 19th century and the open spaces in the housing estates constructed under socialism in the 20th century. The question is, if the different forms of spaces between residential buildings influence the sustainability of urban area and satisfaction of inhabitants in different ways. A complementary case study in Vienna indicates that inhabitants of a housing estate in Vienna, as well as inhabitants of housing estates in Brno, highly appreciate the

  2. Window opening behaviour: simulations of occupant behaviour in residential buildings using models based on a field survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Valentina, Fabi; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Corgnati, Stefano Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Window opening behaviour has been shown to have a significant impact on airflow rates and hence energy consumption. Nevertheless, the inhabitant behaviour related to window opening in residential buildings is currently poorly investigated through both field surveys and building energy simulations....... In particular, reliable information regarding user behaviour in residential buildings is crucial for suitable prediction of building performance (energy consumption, indoor environmental quality, etc.). To face this issue, measurements of indoor climate and outdoor environmental parameters and window “opening...... and closing” actions were performed in 15 dwellings from January to August 2008 in Denmark. Probabilistic models of inhabitants’ window “opening and closing” behaviour were developed and implemented in the energy simulation software IDA ICE to improve window opening and closing strategies in simulations...

  3. Nation-wide development of sustainable production patterns. The case of 16 years of sustainability in Dutch residential house building

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossink, B.A.G.

    2009-01-01

    This paper integrates the interorganisational innovation process and national innovation system-approach into a new model. A case study research project that covers a 16-year period of sustainable innovations in the Dutch residential building industry applies the model. The research outcomes

  4. Maintenance and Expansion: Modeling Material Stocks and Flows for Residential Buildings and Transportation Networks in the EU25.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiedenhofer, Dominik; Steinberger, Julia K; Eisenmenger, Nina; Haas, Willi

    2015-08-01

    Material stocks are an important part of the social metabolism. Owing to long service lifetimes of stocks, they not only shape resource flows during construction, but also during use, maintenance, and at the end of their useful lifetime. This makes them an important topic for sustainable development. In this work, a model of stocks and flows for nonmetallic minerals in residential buildings, roads, and railways in the EU25, from 2004 to 2009 is presented. The changing material composition of the stock is modeled using a typology of 72 residential buildings, four road and two railway types, throughout the EU25. This allows for estimating the amounts of materials in in-use stocks of residential buildings and transportation networks, as well as input and output flows. We compare the magnitude of material demands for expansion versus those for maintenance of existing stock. Then, recycling potentials are quantitatively explored by comparing the magnitude of estimated input, waste, and recycling flows from 2004 to 2009 and in a business-as-usual scenario for 2020. Thereby, we assess the potential impacts of the European Waste Framework Directive, which strives for a significant increase in recycling. We find that in the EU25, consisting of highly industrialized countries, a large share of material inputs are directed at maintaining existing stocks. Proper management of existing transportation networks and residential buildings is therefore crucial for the future size of flows of nonmetallic minerals.

  5. End use technology choice in the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS): An analysis of the residential and commercial building sectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilkerson, Jordan T.; Cullenward, Danny; Davidian, Danielle; Weyant, John P.

    2013-01-01

    The National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) is arguably the most influential energy model in the United States. The U.S. Energy Information Administration uses NEMS to generate the federal government's annual long-term forecast of national energy consumption and to evaluate prospective federal energy policies. NEMS is considered such a standard tool that other models are calibrated to its forecasts, in both government and academic practice. As a result, NEMS has a significant influence over expert opinions of plausible energy futures. NEMS is a massively detailed model whose inner workings, despite its prominence, receive relatively scant critical attention. This paper analyzes how NEMS projects energy demand in the residential and commercial sectors. In particular, we focus on the role of consumers' preferences and financial constraints, investigating how consumers choose appliances and other end-use technologies. We identify conceptual issues in the approach the model takes to the same question across both sectors. Running the model with a range of consumer preferences, we estimate the extent to which this issue impacts projected consumption relative to the baseline model forecast for final energy demand in the year 2035. In the residential sector, the impact ranges from a decrease of 0.73 quads (− 6.0%) to an increase of 0.24 quads (+ 2.0%). In the commercial sector, the impact ranges from a decrease of 1.0 quads (− 9.0%) to an increase of 0.99 quads (+ 9.0%). - Highlights: • This paper examines the impact of consumer preferences on final energy in the Commercial and Residential sectors of the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS). • We describe the conceptual and empirical basis for modeling consumer technology choice in NEMS. • We offer a range of alternative parameters to show the energy demand sensitivity to technology choice. • We show there are significant potential savings available in both building sectors. • Because the model uses its own

  6. Multidisciplinary approach to evaluate flood damage for residential buildings: first results in Northern Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luino, Fabio

    2015-04-01

    Flooding is the most common natural instability process in Italy. Flood damage are the results of land-use planning policies which, starting chiefly from the late 1950s and early 1960s, did not take into account the geomorphologic-hydraulic characteristics of an area or the its historical data on past flood events. Historically, compared to other areas, riverside property has always been less valuable. Unfortunately, year after year, even areas of high recreational and environmental value were intensely urbanized despite their being exposed to the threat of flooding. As the number of residential dwellings, infrastructure and industrial buildings increased, what was originally a hazard became a risk. For each flood event, the damage depends on the specific land-use of the area and subsequently on the elements at risk in the area involved and its vulnerability, expressed as a percentage of the element that has actually been lost during the event. This is why a comprehensive knowledge of the area it is so important for conducting a detailed survey of an area's structures and infrastructure and to evaluate the degree of vulnerability. This paper presents first results in Italy of the European Project called DAMAGE, the first attempt by the civil protection agencies of several European Union member states to devise a common methodology for the assessment of damage caused by natural or anthropic disasters. The main objective was to create an initial tool for practical and immediate application by civil protection agencies and local governments, to assess damage in a multidimensional perspective that takes into account infrastructure, the economy, the environment and social problems. Within the framework of a broad-based project for the evaluation and collection of reports on damage caused by floods, the CNR-IRPI of Turin and Regione Lombardia have directed attention to the town of Cittiglio (province of Varese), which was struck by severe flash flood in May 2002. One of

  7. Drift Reliability Assessment of a Four Storey Frame Residential Building Under Seismic Loading Considering Multiple Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sil, Arjun; Longmailai, Thaihamdau

    2017-09-01

    The lateral displacement of Reinforced Concrete (RC) frame building during an earthquake has an important impact on the structural stability and integrity. However, seismic analysis and design of RC building needs more concern due to its complex behavior as the performance of the structure links to the features of the system having many influencing parameters and other inherent uncertainties. The reliability approach takes into account the factors and uncertainty in design influencing the performance or response of the structure in which the safety level or the probability of failure could be ascertained. This present study, aims to assess the reliability of seismic performance of a four storey residential RC building seismically located in Zone-V as per the code provisions given in the Indian Standards IS: 1893-2002. The reliability assessment performed by deriving an explicit expression for maximum roof-lateral displacement as a failure function by regression method. A total of 319, four storey RC buildings were analyzed by linear static method using SAP2000. However, the change in the lateral-roof displacement with the variation of the parameters (column dimension, beam dimension, grade of concrete, floor height and total weight of the structure) was observed. A generalized relation established by regression method which could be used to estimate the expected lateral displacement owing to those selected parameters. A comparison made between the displacements obtained from analysis with that of the equation so formed. However, it shows that the proposed relation could be used directly to determine the expected maximum lateral displacement. The data obtained from the statistical computations was then used to obtain the probability of failure and the reliability.

  8. Assessment of technical and economical viability for large-scale conversion of single family residential buildings into zero energy buildings in Brazil: Climatic and cultural considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, Miguel; Lamberts, Roberto

    2013-01-01

    This paper addresses the viability of converting single-family residential buildings in Brazil into zero energy buildings (ZEBs). The European Union and the United States aim ZEBs implementation to address ‘peak oil’ and environmental concerns. However, literature shows no agreement on a consensual definition of ZEB. Seeking a Brazilian ZEB definition, this paper addresses PassivHaus and thermal comfort standards for hot climates, source metrics for ZEB, Brazil′s energy mix, residential energy end uses and Brazilian legal framework for residential photovoltaic (PV) generation. Internal Rate of Return for PV systems in two Brazilian cities is calculated under various scenarios. It shows grid parity was reached from April 2012 to November 2012 assuming residential electric tariffs of that period and the financial conditions given by the Brazilian government for the construction of new dams in the Amazon and the lowest rates offered by Brazilian banks to private individuals. Governmental decision to lower electric residential tariffs in November 2012 reduced the scope of grid parity. Later revocation of a tax exemption in April 2013 ended grid parity in Brazil. It concludes, conversely to developed countries, it is the volatile Brazilian energy policy, instead of economical barriers, the main obstacle for ZEB viability in Brazil. - Highlights: • Critique on super insolated buildings as a good solution for hot climates. • PV parity already reached in some parts of Brazil. • Proposal for a zero energy building definition for Brazil. • Critique of the source metric for energy balance in zero energy buildings. • Average roof area in Brazil enough for PV array to meet average energy consumption

  9. Building Fit-For-Purpose Land Administration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemmen, Christiaan; Enemark, Stig; McLaren, Robin

    2016-01-01

    New solutions in land administration are required that can deliver security of tenure for all, are affordable and can be quickly developed and incrementally improved over time. The Fit-For-Purpose (FFP) approach to land administration has emerged to meet these simple, but challenging requirements...... administration following the FFP principles for building the spatial framework. The Social Tenure Domain Model (STDM) is recommended.  ‘Review (Conversion)’ means assessing the evidence of rights and any possible out-standing claims and when conditions are met, the security of the rights will be increased...... of formality, legality and technical accuracy. Such flexibility also relates to the recordation that should be organised at various levels rather than through one central register. The land administration system can then be upgraded and incrementally improved over time in response to social and legal needs...

  10. The Impact of Subsidies on the Prevalence of Climate-Sensitive Residential Buildings in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David T. Tan

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Dependence on air-conditioning (AC for residential cooling and ventilation is a health and sustainability challenge. In hot temperatures, climate-sensitive buildings (CSB can complement and/or substitute for AC usage in achieving thermal comfort. Many countries facing such conditions—particularly in tropical climates—are developing quickly, with rising populations and income creating demand for new housing and AC. This presents a window for adoption of CSB but could also result in long term lock-in of AC-dependent buildings. Here, a simple system dynamics model is used to explore the potential and limitations of subsidies to affect futures of housing stock and night-time AC usage in Malaysia. The effectiveness of subsidies in achieving high uptake of CSB and resulting health benefits is highly dependent on homebuyer willingness to pay (WTP. A detailed understanding of WTP in the Malaysian context and factors that can shift WTP is necessary to determine if CSB subsidies can be a good policy mechanism for achieving CSB uptake.

  11. Residential building energy estimation method based on the application of artificial intelligence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marshall, S.; Kajl, S.

    1999-07-01

    The energy requirements of a residential building five to twenty-five stories high can be measured using a newly proposed analytical method based on artificial intelligence. The method is fast and provides a wide range of results such as total energy consumption values, power surges, and heating or cooling consumption values. A series of database were created to take into account the particularities which influence the energy consumption of a building. In this study, DOE-2 software was created for use in 8 apartment models. A total of 27 neural networks were used, 3 for the estimation of energy consumption in the corridor, and 24 for inside the apartments. Three user interfaces were created to facilitate the estimation of energy consumption. These were named the Energy Estimation Assistance System (EEAS) interfaces and are only accessible using MATLAB software. The input parameters for EEAS are: climatic region, exterior wall resistance, roofing resistance, type of windows, infiltration, number of storeys, and corridor ventilation system operating schedule. By changing the parameters, the EEAS can determine annual heating, cooling and basic energy consumption levels for apartments and corridors. 2 tabs., 2 figs.

  12. Selection and Assessment of Passive Cooling Techniques for Residential Buildings in Oman Using a Bioclimatic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Al-Azri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Passive cooling is an ancient technique used in air reconditioning and ventilation. Despite its historical use, its relevance in building design has never ceased. To be sure, with the increasing interest in saving energy and preserving the environment, passive cooling stands out as a sustainable possibility. However, this is not always a viable option, and its practicality is determined mainly by the system's functionality, the type of activities involved in the space to be cooled, and the surrounding area's bioclimatic variables (i.e. temperature, humidity, and diurnal temperature differences. In areas under consideration for passive cooling systems, bioclimatic charts are helpful. Comprehensive charts, in which yearlong hourly meteorological data are projected on a psychrometric chart, help to determine the fits required by a particular location. In this paper, psychrometric charts were developed for eight locations in Oman, and a systematic procedure on the selection and viability of using passive cooling techniques is provided through meteorological data. Givoni's passive cooling zones are used and the applicability of each technique is quantified. The eight study locations are widely scattered around and Oman, and possess great geographical diversity. The presented results can help delineate the applicability of each passive cooling technique for residential buildings at each of the study locations and their proximities.

  13. Developing Innovative Wall Systems that Improve Hygrothermal Performance of Residential Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert Tichy; Chuck Murray

    2006-05-31

    This document serves as the Topical Report documenting work completed by Washington State University (WSU) under U.S. Department of Energy Grant, Developing Innovative Wall Systems that Improve Hygrothermal Performance of Residential Buildings. This project was conducted in collaboration with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and includes the participation of several industry partners including Weyerhaeuser, APA - The Engineered Wood Association, CertainTeed Corporation and Fortifiber. This document summarizes work completed by Washington State University August 2002 through June 2006. WSU's primary experimental role is the design and implementation of a field testing protocol that monitored long term changes in the hygrothermal response of wall systems. During the project period WSU constructed a test facility, developed a matrix of test wall designs, constructed and installed test walls in the test facility, installed instrumentation in the test walls and recorded data from the test wall specimens. Each year reports were published documenting the hygrothermal response of the test wall systems. Public presentation of the results was, and will continue to be, made available to the building industry at large by industry partners and the University.

  14. The Spitak (Armenia, USSR) Earthquake: Residential Building Typology and Seismic Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomonis, A

    1990-06-01

    The 1988 earthquake in Armenia was the most serious seismic disaster since the 1976 earthquake in Tangshan, China. At least 25,000 people lost their lives in a tremor of moderate magnitude and the USSR suffered a loss of more than 2.5 per cent of 1988's GDP. Research at the Martin Centre on the effects of earthquakes on human lives has shown an increase in global earthquake mortality rate, despite the well known improvements in some countries. The Armenian disaster was a warning to all of us concerned with natural or man-made disasters. Areas of potential high hazard are pointed out for the sub-Caucasian region. Construction practices similar to those in Armenia are certainly found in many other parts of the world, with some regional variations, and the fast assimilation of the lessons is an important target. The structural characteristics of all the residential building types existing in the affected area are presented in terms of their seismic vulnerability. Vulnerable points are discussed with a view to low cost interventions that will drastically improve the seismic safety of new buildings.

  15. Structural Risk Assessment and Mitigation for Low- to Mid-Rise Residential Buildings in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasim A. Korkmaz

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available China has experienced major earthquakes recently. The 2014 Ludian earthquake struck Ludian County, Yunnan, (Mw = 6.1 on 3 August, 2014. On April 20th 2013, Ya’an earthquake (Mw = 6.9, on April 14th 2010, Qinghai earthquake (Mw = 7.1, on July 9th 2009, Yunnan earthquake (Mw = 6.0, and on May 12th 2008, Sichuan earthquake (Mw = 7.9 struck China. Among these disasters, the most devastating, the Sichuan earthquake, resulted in the collapse of 5 million buildings and damage to more than 21 million. Human loss was also high with over 60,000 people dead, 360,000 injured, and more than 14 million people displaced. South-west China lies in an area that is prone to earthquakes. In 1970, a magnitude 7.7 earthquake in Yunnan with 15,000 lost. This study presents a detailed risk assessment for a structural risk assessment and mitigation for low- to mid-rise residential buildings for China. The risk assessment, through seismic hazard assessment approaches, evaluates the impact of the disasters for integrated structural health monitoring. Among the results of the investigation, relations and links between safety and risk are defined.

  16. Building Footprints, Primarily residential, at risk buildings such as hospitals, nursing homes, etc for use in Emergency Management Hazard Mitigation planning., Published in 2010, 1:4800 (1in=400ft) scale, Carroll County Government.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Building Footprints dataset current as of 2010. Primarily residential, at risk buildings such as hospitals, nursing homes, etc for use in Emergency Management Hazard...

  17. ENERGY-EFFICIENT REGIMES FOR HEATING-SUPPLY OF THE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Osipov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Rise in comfort and inhabitation safety is one of the main requirements of the general maintenance, reconstruction of the old and construction of the new residential houses. One of the essential factors of it is substitution in the household hot-water preparing sources: from the individual domestic gas  water-heaters to  the common  entire-building hot-water supply at the expense of the centralized heat supply. Extremely erratic hot-water daily consumption by tenants leads to the necessity of sharp increase in central heat-supply level during a few hours of the day, which requires a significant increase of the source heat-power. On that score, the authors propose to direct a significant part (up to 50 % of the centralized heating and ventilation heat power-consumption to the hot water preparation during the period of short-term hot water consumption peak.Substitution  of  the  individual  domestic  gas  water-heaters  with  the  common  entirebuilding hot-water supply releases a huge amount of natural gas which can be utilized not only for production of the necessary heat power but as well for electric power producing. This substitution is especially advantageous if heat-power is delivered to the residential area from a НРС where significant part of heat especially in a relatively warm season of the year is thrown out into the air. The content of the article is based on several patents received earlier.

  18. Government regulation as an impetus for innovation: Evidence from energy performance regulation in the Dutch residential building sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beerepoot, Milou; Beerepoot, Niels

    2007-01-01

    The recent implementation of energy performance policy as a way to tackle energy consumption in the building sector in Europe draws attention to the effect it has on the development and diffusion of energy-saving innovations. According to innovation system literature, government regulation through norms and standards is one of the factors stimulating innovation. This paper concentrates on the role of stricter government regulation as an incentive to innovation in the Dutch residential building sector. Innovation in this sector is predominantly a process of applying incremental modifications to comply with new and stricter government regulations and standards. Energy performance policy in its current shape will therefore not contribute to the diffusion of really new innovation in energy techniques for residential buildings in the Netherlands. If diffusion of really new innovation is an explicit aim of energy performance policy then the European wide introduction of this scheme needs reconsideration

  19. Applicability research on passive design of residential buildings in hot summer and cold winter zone in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hui; Wang, Huihui; Zhou, Xuan

    2017-04-01

    Passive design has long been a concern as an effective way of building energy efficiency. However, different urban climate characteristics determine the time-effectiveness of passive design. According to the climate characteristics of hot summer and cold winter zone in China, this research chose five cities, Shanghai, Wuhan, Chongqing, Nanjing and Changsha, to analyze their residential building energy consumption and thermal environment conditions. Based on Weather Tool calculation and analysis, the purpose of this research is to put forward the concept of Suitable Degree (SD), namely the applicability of the passive design. In addition, five cities’ SD of passive design technology had been analyzed from aspect of ventilation, temperature, solar radiation and envelope, then passive design strategies and methods of five cities’ residential building were discussed.

  20. Preliminary study on influences of radioactivity of residential granite building materials upon parent mice and their offspring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liang Minyi; Zhang Jinghong; Zhu Weiyun; Li Yinyan; Liang Yongqing; Zhang Songshuan; Zhu Daming; Li Jinlin; Lu Qingpu

    2006-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effects of radioactivity of the residential granite building materials on the survival and fertility of mice. Methods: The radioactivities of A, B, C, and D granite building materials were measured and screened by gamma-ray spectrometer, and then these materials were placed into the mice cages. The residential radon was measured with solid state nuclear track detector's and 24-hour continuous measurement. Ninety-six healthy and ablactated mice were randomly selected and put into the four animal cages with different levels of radioactivity, and fed for 120 days. Mice mated and bred naturally. The fertilities and survivals of P, F 1 , and F 2 generation were observed and analyzed. Results: External exposures in the four mice cages were higher than those from the internal exposure. The differences of rates of pregnancy, abortion, and infertility between the P and F 1 generations had no statistical significance among all the groups after being fed for 120 days (P>0.05). There was significant difference among each group in the fertility of F 1 generation (P< 0.001), and the survival rates of the offspring were decreased with increase of radioactivity in granite building materials (P<0.001). Conclusion: Compared with the residential radon, the gamma rays released from the granite building materials had a greater influence on animals. The study suggested that different granite building materials had different influences on the survival and fertility of mice. (authors)

  1. Health impacts due to personal exposure to fine particles caused by insulation of residential buildings in Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gens, Alexandra; Hurley, J. Fintan; Tuomisto, Jouni T.; Friedrich, Rainer

    2014-02-01

    The insulation of residential buildings affects human exposure to fine particles. According to current EU guidelines, insulation is regulated for energy saving reasons. As buildings become tighter, the air exchange rate is reduced and, thus, the indoor concentration of pollutants is increased if there are significant indoor sources. While usually the effects of heat insulation and increase of the air-tightness of buildings on greenhouse gas emissions are highlighted, the negative impacts on human health due to higher indoor concentrations are not addressed. Thus, we investigated these impacts using scenarios in three European countries, i. e. Czech Republic, Switzerland and Greece. The assessment was based on modelling the human exposure to fine particles originating from sources of particles within outdoor and indoor air, including environmental tobacco smoke. Exposure response relationships were derived to link (adverse) health effects to the exposure. Furthermore, probable values for the parameters influencing the infiltration of fine particles into residential buildings were modelled. Results show that the insulation and increase of the air-tightness of residential buildings leads to an overall increase of the mean population exposure - and consequently adverse health effects - in all considered countries (ranging for health effects from 0.4% in Czech Republic to 11.8% in Greece for 100% insulated buildings) due to an accumulation of particles indoors, especially from environmental tobacco smoke. Considering only the emission reductions in outdoor air (omitting changes in infiltration parameters) leads to a decrease of adverse health effects. This study highlights the importance of ensuring a sufficient air exchange rate when insulating buildings, e. g. by prescribing heat ventilation and air conditioning systems in new buildings and information campaigns on good airing practice in renovated buildings. It also shows that assessing policy measures based on the

  2. Life cycle assessment of the end-of-life phase of a residential building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitale, Pierluca; Arena, Noemi; Di Gregorio, Fabrizio; Arena, Umberto

    2017-02-01

    The study investigates the potential environmental impacts related to the end-of-life phase of a residential building, identified in a multifamily dwelling of three levels, constructed in the South of Italy by utilizing conventional materials and up-to-date procedures. An attributional life cycle assessment has been utilised to quantify the contributions of each stage of the end-of-life phase, with a particular attention to the management of the demolition waste. The investigation takes into account the selective demolition, preliminary sorting and collection of main components of the building, together with the processes of sorting, recycling and/or disposal of main fractions of the demolition waste. It quantifies the connections between these on-site and off-site processes as well as the main streams of materials sent to recycling, energy recovery, and final disposal. A sensitivity analysis has been eventually carried out by comparing the overall environmental performances of some alternative scenarios, characterised by different criteria for the demolition of the reference building, management of demolition waste and assessment of avoided burdens of the main recycled materials. The results quantify the advantage of an appropriate technique of selective demolition, which could increase the quality and quantity of residues sent to the treatment of resource recovery and safe disposal. They also highlight the contributions to the positive or negative environmental impact of each stage of the investigated waste management system. The recycling of reinforcing steel appears to play a paramount role, accounting for 65% of the total avoided impacts related to respiratory inorganics, 89% of those for global warming and 73% of those for mineral extraction. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Energy and economic evaluation of the single-family residential building energy performance standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Neal, D.L.; Jones, J.L.

    1981-11-01

    The Energy Production and Conservation Act (EPCA) of 1976 mandated the setting of building energy performance standards (BEPS) for all newly constructed buildings. One of the classes of buildings included in EPCA is single-family residences. These standards cover the energy used for space heating, air conditioning, and water heating. This report describes the evaluation of direct energy and economic impacts of three proposed levels of single-family BEPS: lenient, mid, and strict. The lenient level is the least stringent in requiring improvements in eneryperformance of residence while the strict is the most stringent. Each of the levels and the method of developing them are also described. The ORNL residential energy model is used to calculate energy savings and economic impacts of BEPS to the nation. The model is also used to estimate the sensitivity of the results to several exogenous variables: projected fuel prices, baseline energy codes, capital csts, short-run price elasticities, and discount rates. The Net Present Value (NPV) and cumulative energy savings from 1980 to 2020 are the two measures used to compare the standards. Both the lenient and mid level standards provide a positive economic benefit to the country of 1.24 and 2.58 billion dollars, respectively. Even though the strict standard has the largest energy savings, it has a negative economic cost of 1.5 billion dollars to the nation. The cumulative energy savings of the lenient, mid, and strict level standards are 4.2, 10.2, and 20.1 EJ, respectively.

  4. A Prediction Mechanism of Energy Consumption in Residential Buildings Using Hidden Markov Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israr Ullah

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Internet of Things (IoT is considered as one of the future disruptive technologies, which has the potential to bring positive change in human lifestyle and uplift living standards. Many IoT-based applications have been designed in various fields, e.g., security, health, education, manufacturing, transportation, etc. IoT has transformed conventional homes into Smart homes. By attaching small IoT devices to various appliances, we cannot only monitor but also control indoor environment as per user demand. Intelligent IoT devices can also be used for optimal energy utilization by operating the associated equipment only when it is needed. In this paper, we have proposed a Hidden Markov Model based algorithm to predict energy consumption in Korean residential buildings using data collected through smart meters. We have used energy consumption data collected from four multi-storied buildings located in Seoul, South Korea for model validation and results analysis. Proposed model prediction results are compared with three well-known prediction algorithms i.e., Support Vector Machine (SVM, Artificial Neural Network (ANN and Classification and Regression Trees (CART. Comparative analysis shows that our proposed model achieves 2.96 % better than ANN results in terms of root mean square error metric, 6.09 % better than SVM and 9.03 % better than CART results. To further establish and validate prediction results of our proposed model, we have performed temporal granularity analysis. For this purpose, we have evaluated our proposed model for hourly, daily and weekly data aggregation. Prediction accuracy in terms of root mean square error metric for hourly, daily and weekly data is 2.62, 1.54 and 0.46, respectively. This shows that our model prediction accuracy improves for coarse grain data. Higher prediction accuracy gives us confidence to further explore its application in building control systems for achieving better energy efficiency.

  5. External perforated Solar Screens for daylighting in residential desert buildings: Identification of minimum perforation percentages

    KAUST Repository

    Sherif, Ahmed

    2012-06-01

    The desert climate is endowed by clear sky conditions, providing an excellent opportunity for optimum utilization of natural light in daylighting building indoor spaces. However, the sunny conditions of the desert skies, in countries like Egypt and Saudi Arabia, result in the admittance of direct solar radiation, which leads to thermal discomfort and the incidence of undesired glare. One type of shading systems that is used to permit daylight while controlling solar penetration is " Solar Screens" Very little research work addressed different design aspects of external Solar Screens and their influence on daylighting performance, especially in desert conditions, although these screens proved their effectiveness in controlling solar radiation in traditional buildings throughout history.This paper reports on the outcomes of an investigation that studied the influence of perforation percentage of Solar Screens on daylighting performance in a typical residential living room of a building in a desert location. The objective was to identify minimum perforation percentage of screen openings that provides adequate illuminance levels in design-specific cases and all-year-round.Research work was divided into three stages. Stage one focused on the analysis of daylighting illuminance levels in specific dates and times, while the second stage was built on the results of the first stage, and addressed year round performance using Dynamic Daylight Performance Metrics (DDPMs). The third stage addressed the possibility of incidence of glare in specific cases where illuminance levels where found very high in some specific points during the analysis of first stage. The research examined the daylighting performance in an indoor space with a number of assumed fixed experimentation parameters that were chosen to represent the principal features of a typical residential living room located in a desert environment setting.Stage one experiments demonstrated that the screens fulfilled the

  6. Optimum Insulation Thickness for Walls and Roofs for Reducing Peak Cooling Loads in Residential Buildings in Lahore

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SIBGHA SIDDIQUE SIDDIQUE

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Thermal insulation is the most effective energy saving measure for cooling in buildings. Therefore, the main subject of many engineering investigations is the selection and determination of the optimum insulation thickness. In the present study, the optimum insulation thickness on external walls and roofs is determined based on the peak cooling loads for an existing residential building in Lahore, Pakistan. Autodesk® Revit 2013 is used for the analysis of the building and determination of the peak cooling loads. The analysis shows that the optimum insulation thickness to reduce peak cooling loads up to 40.1% is 1 inch for external walls and roof respectively.

  7. Critical analysis about solutions and models of solar shades in non-residential buildings from tropical regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castañon, J A B; Caldeira, L F D; Gervásio, M F; Brum, F M

    2012-01-01

    Whereas the non-residential buildings consume a significant percentage of the total energy produced by the city, is important that these buildings have for such consumption is reduced or consumed in a conscious way. To do so, using concepts of energy efficiency, this work is to explain passive strategies with the use of flexible solar shades that help to get a favorable outcome with respect to the performance of the building right in the initial stages of planning and design. Once initial gains can be obtained and the architecture constants that value at the same time provide better working conditions and indoor comfort.

  8. Essays in economics of energy efficiency in residential buildings - An empirical analysis[Dissertation 17157

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakob, M.

    2007-07-01

    Energy efficiency in the building sector is a key element of cost-effective climate change and energy policies in most countries throughout the world. (...) However, a gap between the cost-effectiveness of energy efficiency measures, their benefits, the necessities from a societal point of view on the one hand and the actual investments in the building stock - particularly in the moment of re-investment and refurbishing - on the other hand became more and more evident. The research questions that arose against this background were whether this gap and the low energy efficiency levels and rates could be confirmed empirically and if yes, how the gap could be explained and how it could be overcome by adequate policy measures. To address these questions, the multi-functional character of buildings (i.e. well conditioned and quiet living rooms and working space) had to be considered. Associated benefits arise on the societal level (ancillary benefits) and on the private level (co-benefits), the latter being increasingly addressed by different building labels such as 'Minergie', 'Passive House', and others. It was assumed that these co-benefits are of economic relevance, but empirical evidence regarding their economic value was missing. Thus, putting these benefits into an appropriate economic appraisal framework was at stake to make use of them in market information and policy instruments, preventing uninformed and biased cost benefit analyses and decisions on the private and on the societal level. The research presented in this PhD thesis had the goal to provide a sound empirical basis about costs and benefits of energy efficiency investments in residential buildings, with a special emphasis on the economic valuation of their co-benefits from a building user perspective (owner-occupiers, purchasers and tenants). In view of long time-horizons in the building sector, the techno-economic dynamics should also be addressed. The results should be useful

  9. The Value of Energy Efficiency Programs for U.S. Residential and Commercial Buildings in a Warmer World

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, Michael J; Dirks, James A; Cort, Katherine A

    2007-06-15

    U.S. residential and commercial buildings currently use about 39 quadrillion Btu (quads) of energy per year and account for 0.6 gigatonnes (GT) of carbon emitted to the atmosphere (38% of U.S. total emissions of 1.6 GT and approximately 9% of the world fossil-fuel related anthropogenic emissions of 6.7 GT). U.S. government buildings-related energy efficiency research and implementation programs are expected to reduce energy consumption in buildings. This has value both in reducing carbon emissions that result in global warming and adapting the U.S. residential and commercial building stock to a potentially warmer world. Analyses conducted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) show that the world’s climate could warm relative to 1990 by 0.4ºC to 1.2°C by the year 2030 and by 1.4°C to 5.8°C by the end of the 21st century. This paper shows that the effect of the regional projected warming on energy consumption in U.S. residential and commercial buildings is a net decrease ranging from about 5% in 2020 to as much as 20% in 2080, but with an increase of as much as 25% in space cooling. Buildings-related energy efficiency programs should reduce energy consumption in buildings by more than 2 quads in 2020, which would more than offset the growth in space cooling due to climate and growth in building stock combined, and would be worth between $28 and $33 billion.

  10. Microzonation of seismic risk in a low-rise Latin American city based on the macroseismic evaluation of the vulnerability of residential buildings: Colima city, México

    OpenAIRE

    Zobin, V. M.; Cruz-Bravo, A. A.; Ventura-Ramírez, F.

    2010-01-01

    A macroseismic methodology of seismic risk microzonation in a low-rise city based on the vulnerability of residential buildings is proposed and applied to Colima city, Mexico. The seismic risk microzonation for Colima consists of two elements: the mapping of residential blocks according to their vulnerability level and the calculation of an expert-opinion based damage probability matrix (DPM) for a given level of earthquake intensity and a given type of residential block. A specified exposure...

  11. [Preventive effects of sound insulation windows on the indoor noise levels in a street residential building in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bin; Huang, Jing; Guo, Xin-biao

    2015-06-18

    To evaluate the preventive effects of sound insulation windows on traffic noise. Indoor noise levels of the residential rooms (on both the North 4th ring road side and the campus side) with closed sound insulation windows were measured using the sound level meter, and comparisons with the simultaneously measured outdoor noise levels were made. In addition, differences of indoor noise levels between rooms with closed sound insulation windows and open sound insulation windows were also compared. The average outdoor noise levels of the North 4th ring road was higher than 70 dB(A), which exceeded the limitation stated in the "Environmental Quality Standard for Noise" (GB 3096-2008) in our country. However, with the sound insulation windows closed, the indoor noise levels reduced significantly to the level under 35 dB(A) (Pwindows had significant influence on the indoor noise levels (Pwindow, when the sound insulation windows were closed, the indoor noise levels reduced 18.8 dB(A) and 8.3 dB(A) in residential rooms facing North 4th ring road side and campus side, respectively. The results indicated that installation of insulation windows had significant noise reduction effects on street residential buildings especially on the rooms facing major traffic roads. Installation of the sound insulation windows has significant preventive effects on indoor noise in the street residential building.

  12. Evaluation of heat pumps usage and energy savings in residential buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Nehad Elsawaf, Tarek Abdel-Salam, Leslie Pagliari

    2012-01-01

    The residential housing sector is a major consumer of energy in most countries around the world. In the United States the residential sector consumes about 21 % of the energy and about 35% of the electricity production. Of the total energy consumption per house hold about 33% is consumed for space heating. This study evaluates the energy consumption in residential houses during the heating season. The main objective of the study is to test the effectiveness of using heat pumps for space heati...

  13. Evaluation of Automated Model Calibration Techniques for Residential Building Energy Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robertson, J.; Polly, B.; Collis, J.

    2013-09-01

    This simulation study adapts and applies the general framework described in BESTEST-EX (Judkoff et al 2010) for self-testing residential building energy model calibration methods. BEopt/DOE-2.2 is used to evaluate four mathematical calibration methods in the context of monthly, daily, and hourly synthetic utility data for a 1960's-era existing home in a cooling-dominated climate. The home's model inputs are assigned probability distributions representing uncertainty ranges, random selections are made from the uncertainty ranges to define 'explicit' input values, and synthetic utility billing data are generated using the explicit input values. The four calibration methods evaluated in this study are: an ASHRAE 1051-RP-based approach (Reddy and Maor 2006), a simplified simulated annealing optimization approach, a regression metamodeling optimization approach, and a simple output ratio calibration approach. The calibration methods are evaluated for monthly, daily, and hourly cases; various retrofit measures are applied to the calibrated models and the methods are evaluated based on the accuracy of predicted savings, computational cost, repeatability, automation, and ease of implementation.

  14. Evaluation of Automated Model Calibration Techniques for Residential Building Energy Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    and Ben Polly, Joseph Robertson [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Polly, Ben [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Collis, Jon [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This simulation study adapts and applies the general framework described in BESTEST-EX (Judkoff et al 2010) for self-testing residential building energy model calibration methods. BEopt/DOE-2.2 is used to evaluate four mathematical calibration methods in the context of monthly, daily, and hourly synthetic utility data for a 1960's-era existing home in a cooling-dominated climate. The home's model inputs are assigned probability distributions representing uncertainty ranges, random selections are made from the uncertainty ranges to define "explicit" input values, and synthetic utility billing data are generated using the explicit input values. The four calibration methods evaluated in this study are: an ASHRAE 1051-RP-based approach (Reddy and Maor 2006), a simplified simulated annealing optimization approach, a regression metamodeling optimization approach, and a simple output ratio calibration approach. The calibration methods are evaluated for monthly, daily, and hourly cases; various retrofit measures are applied to the calibrated models and the methods are evaluated based on the accuracy of predicted savings, computational cost, repeatability, automation, and ease of implementation.

  15. Production patterns of packaging waste categories generated at typical Mediterranean residential building worksites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    González Pericot, N., E-mail: natalia.gpericot@upm.es [Escuela Técnica Superior de Edificación, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Calle Juan de Herrera n°6, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Villoria Sáez, P., E-mail: paola.villoria@upm.es [Escuela Técnica Superior de Edificación, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Calle Juan de Herrera n°6, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Del Río Merino, M., E-mail: mercedes.delrio@upm.es [Escuela Técnica Superior de Edificación, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Calle Juan de Herrera n°6, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Liébana Carrasco, O., E-mail: oscar.liebana@uem.es [Escuela de Arquitectura, Universidad Europea de Madrid, Calle Tajo s/n, 28670 Villaviciosa de Odón (Spain)

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • On-site segregation level: 1.80%; training and motivation strategies were not effective. • 70% Cardboard waste: from switches and sockets during the building services stage. • 40% Plastic waste: generated during structures and partition works due to palletizing. • >50% Wood packaging waste, basically pallets, generated during the envelope works. - Abstract: The construction sector is responsible for around 28% of the total waste volume generated in Europe, which exceeds the amount of household waste. This has led to an increase of different research studies focusing on construction waste quantification. However, within the research studies made, packaging waste has been analyzed to a limited extent. This article focuses on the packaging waste stream generated in the construction sector. To this purpose current on-site waste packaging management has been assessed by monitoring ten Mediterranean residential building works. The findings of the experimental data collection revealed that the incentive measures implemented by the construction company to improve on-site waste sorting failed to achieve the intended purpose, showing low segregation ratios. Subsequently, through an analytical study the generation patterns for packaging waste are established, leading to the identification of the prevailing kinds of packaging and the products responsible for their generation. Results indicate that plastic waste generation maintains a constant trend throughout the whole construction process, while cardboard becomes predominant towards the end of the construction works with switches and sockets from the electricity stage. Understanding the production patterns of packaging waste will be beneficial for adapting waste management strategies to the identified patterns for the specific nature of packaging waste within the context of construction worksites.

  16. Controlling indoor climate. Passive cooling of residential buildings in hot-humid climates in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Zhiwu

    1996-10-01

    Overheating is a paramount problem in residential buildings in hot and humid climates in China during summer. This study aims to deal with the overheating problem and the problem of poor air quality in dwellings. The main objective is to improve indoor thermal conditions by passive cooling approaches, climatisation techniques in buildings without auxiliary cooling from air conditioning equipment. This thesis focuses on the study of cross-ventilation in apartments, which is one of the most effective ways of natural cooling in a hot humid climate, but is also one of the least understood parts in controlling indoor climate. The Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technique is used, which is a new approach, since cross-ventilation studies have been conventionally made by wind tunnel tests. The validations of the CFD technique are examined by a comparison between wind tunnel tests and computer simulations. The factors influencing indoor air movement are investigated for a single room. Cross-ventilation in two apartments is studied, and the air change efficiency in a Chinese kitchen is calculated with CFD techniques. The thermal performance of ventilated roofs, a simple and widely used type of roof in the region, is specially addressed by means of a full-scale measurement, wind tunnel tests and computer simulations. An integrated study of passive cooling approaches and factors affecting indoor thermal comfort is carried out through a case study in a southern Chinese city, Guangzhou. This thesis demonstrates that passive cooling measure have a high potential in significantly improving indoor thermal conditions during summer. This study also gives discussions and conclusions on the evaluation of indoor thermal environment; effects influencing cross-ventilation in apartments; design guidelines for ventilated roofs and an integrated study of passive cooling. 111 refs, 83 figs, 65 tabs

  17. Lambda-Based Data Processing Architecture for Two-Level Load Forecasting in Residential Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gde Dharma Nugraha

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Building energy management systems (BEMS have been intensively used to manage the electricity consumption of residential buildings more efficiently. However, the dynamic behavior of the occupants introduces uncertainty problems that affect the performance of the BEMS. To address this uncertainty problem, the BEMS may implement load forecasting as one of the BEMS modules. Load forecasting utilizes historical load data to compute model predictions for a specific time in the future. Recently, smart meters have been introduced to collect electricity consumption data. Smart meters not only capture aggregation data, but also individual data that is more frequently close to real-time. The processing of both smart meter data types for load forecasting can enhance the performance of the BEMS when confronted with uncertainty problems. The collection of smart meter data can be processed using a batch approach for short-term load forecasting, while the real-time smart meter data can be processed for very short-term load forecasting, which adjusts the short-term load forecasting to adapt to the dynamic behavior of the occupants. This approach requires different data processing techniques for aggregation and individual of smart meter data. In this paper, we propose Lambda-based data processing architecture to process the different types of smart meter data and implement the two-level load forecasting approach, which combines short-term and very short-term load forecasting techniques on top of our proposed data processing architecture. The proposed approach is expected to enhance the BEMS to address the uncertainty problem in order to process data in less time. Our experiment showed that the proposed approaches improved the accuracy by 7% compared to a typical BEMS with only one load forecasting technique, and had the lowest computation time when processing the smart meter data.

  18. Identifying critical success factors (CSFs) of Facilities Management (FM) in non-low cost high-rise residential buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlan, F. M.; Zainuddin, A.

    2018-02-01

    Critical success factors (CSFs) are important key areas of activity that must be performed well in any Facilities Management (FM) organisation to achieve its missions, objectives or goals. Before implementing CSFs, an FM organisation must identify the key areas where things must be done properly to enable the business to flourish. Although many performance measurements in FM organisation have been discussed in previous research, not much research has been done on CSFs from the perspective of FM business in non-low cost high-rise residential buildings. The purpose of this study is to develop a methodology in developing the CSFs group and CSFs for FM organisation in non-low cost residential buildings. This research will involve three (3) phases of research strategy to achieve the objective of this research.

  19. Environmental assessment in support of proposed interim energy conservation voluntary performance standards for new non-federal residential buildings: Volume 7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-09-01

    The objective of this environmental assessment (EA) is to identify the potential environmental impacts that could result from the proposed voluntary residential standard (VOLRES) on private sector construction of new residential buildings. In this report, the scope, objectives, and approach of this EA are presented.

  20. Building Fit-For-Purpose Land Administration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lemmen, Christiaan; Enemark, Stig; McLaren, Robin

    2016-01-01

    . A complete overview is required of the tenure systems and land rights related to the areas affected. All formal and informal tenure categories and sub-categories should be identified and related to space. It is recommended that a National Tenure Atlas will be developed in order to get overview of the spatial...... administration following the FFP principles for building the spatial framework. The Social Tenure Domain Model (STDM) is recommended.  ‘Review (Conversion)’ means assessing the evidence of rights and any possible out-standing claims and when conditions are met, the security of the rights will be increased...... of formality, legality and technical accuracy. Such flexibility also relates to the recordation that should be organised at various levels rather than through one central register. The land administration system can then be upgraded and incrementally improved over time in response to social and legal needs...

  1. Global warming implications of facade parameters: A life cycle assessment of residential buildings in Bahrain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radhi, Hassan; Sharples, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    On a global scale, the Gulf Corporation Council Countries (GCCC), including Bahrain, are amongst the top countries in terms of carbon dioxide emissions per capita. Building authority in Bahrain has set a target of 40% reduction of electricity consumption and associated CO 2 emissions to be achieved by using facade parameters. This work evaluates how the life cycle CO 2 emissions of buildings are affected by facade parameters. The main focus is placed on direct and indirect CO 2 emissions from three contributors, namely, chemical reactions during production processes (Pco 2 ), embodied energy (Eco 2 ) and operational energy (OPco 2 ). By means of the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, it has been possible to show that the greatest environmental impact occurs during the operational phase (80–90%). However, embodied CO 2 emissions are an important factor that needs to be brought into the systems used for appraisal of projects, and hence into the design decisions made in developing projects. The assessment shows that masonry blocks are responsible for 70–90% of the total CO 2 emissions of facade construction, mainly due to their physical characteristics. The highest Pco 2 emissions factors are those of window elements, particularly aluminium frames. However, their contribution of CO 2 emissions depends largely on the number and size of windows. Each square metre of glazing is able to increase the total CO 2 emissions by almost 30% when compared with the same areas of opaque walls. The use of autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) walls reduces the total life cycle CO 2 emissions by almost 5.2% when compared with ordinary walls, while the use of thermal insulation with concrete wall reduces CO 2 emissions by 1.2%. The outcome of this work offers to the building industry a reliable indicator of the environmental impact of residential facade parameters. - Highlights: ► Life cycle carbon assessment of façade parameters. ► Greatest environmental impact occurs

  2. Global warming implications of facade parameters: A life cycle assessment of residential buildings in Bahrain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radhi, Hassan, E-mail: h_alradhi@yahoo.com [Global Engineering Bureau, P.O Box 33130, Manama, Kingdom of Bahrain (Bahrain); Sharples, Stephen, E-mail: steve.sharples@liverpool.ac.uk [School of Architecture, University of Liverpool (United Kingdom)

    2013-01-15

    On a global scale, the Gulf Corporation Council Countries (GCCC), including Bahrain, are amongst the top countries in terms of carbon dioxide emissions per capita. Building authority in Bahrain has set a target of 40% reduction of electricity consumption and associated CO{sub 2} emissions to be achieved by using facade parameters. This work evaluates how the life cycle CO{sub 2} emissions of buildings are affected by facade parameters. The main focus is placed on direct and indirect CO{sub 2} emissions from three contributors, namely, chemical reactions during production processes (Pco{sub 2}), embodied energy (Eco{sub 2}) and operational energy (OPco{sub 2}). By means of the life cycle assessment (LCA) methodology, it has been possible to show that the greatest environmental impact occurs during the operational phase (80-90%). However, embodied CO{sub 2} emissions are an important factor that needs to be brought into the systems used for appraisal of projects, and hence into the design decisions made in developing projects. The assessment shows that masonry blocks are responsible for 70-90% of the total CO{sub 2} emissions of facade construction, mainly due to their physical characteristics. The highest Pco{sub 2} emissions factors are those of window elements, particularly aluminium frames. However, their contribution of CO{sub 2} emissions depends largely on the number and size of windows. Each square metre of glazing is able to increase the total CO{sub 2} emissions by almost 30% when compared with the same areas of opaque walls. The use of autoclaved aerated concrete (AAC) walls reduces the total life cycle CO{sub 2} emissions by almost 5.2% when compared with ordinary walls, while the use of thermal insulation with concrete wall reduces CO{sub 2} emissions by 1.2%. The outcome of this work offers to the building industry a reliable indicator of the environmental impact of residential facade parameters. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Life cycle

  3. Energy Savings Potential and Research, Development, & Demonstration Opportunities for Residential Building Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goetzler, William [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Zogg, Robert [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Young, Jim [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States); Schmidt, Justin [Navigant Consulting, Inc., Burlington, MA (United States)

    2012-10-01

    This report is an assessment of 135 different heating, ventilation, and air-conditioning (HVAC) technologies for U.S. residential buildings to identify and provide analysis on 19 priority technology options in various stages of development. The analyses include an estimation of technical energy-savings potential, descriptions of technical maturity, descriptions of non-energy benefits, descriptions of current barriers for market adoption, and descriptions of the technology's applicability to different building or HVAC equipment types. From these technology descriptions, are suggestions for potential research, development and demonstration (RD&D) initiatives that would support further development of the priority technology options.

  4. Fatal Gas Explosion of a Residential Building: Three Levels of Lessons Learned; Strategic Insights: v.7, issue 1 (February 2008)

    OpenAIRE

    Wieser, I.; Schneider, B.; Oppenheim, H.

    2008-01-01

    This article appeared in Strategic Insights (February 2008), v.7 no.1 The hazardous potential of natural gas concerns production as well as transport and the environment of end users. The following presentation is the report of a case study of a very severe gas-explosion in the enduser's environment and deals with an explosion in a brick-stone residential building in Wilhelmsburg, a community in Lower Austria, on December 2, 1999, which resulted in total collapse of the building. The incid...

  5. Selective classification and quantification model of C&D waste from material resources consumed in residential building construction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercader-Moyano, Pilar; Ramírez-de-Arellano-Agudo, Antonio

    2013-05-01

    The unfortunate economic situation involving Spain and the European Union is, among other factors, the result of intensive construction activity over recent years. The excessive consumption of natural resources, together with the impact caused by the uncontrolled dumping of untreated C&D waste in illegal landfills have caused environmental pollution and a deterioration of the landscape. The objective of this research was to generate a selective classification and quantification model of C&D waste based on the material resources consumed in the construction of residential buildings, either new or renovated, namely the Conventional Constructive Model (CCM). A practical example carried out on ten residential buildings in Seville, Spain, enabled the identification and quantification of the C&D waste generated in their construction and the origin of the waste, in terms of the building material from which it originated and its impact for every m(2) constructed. This model enables other researchers to establish comparisons between the various improvements proposed for the minimization of the environmental impact produced by building a CCM, new corrective measures to be proposed in future policies that regulate the production and management of C&D waste generated in construction from the design stage to the completion of the construction process, and the establishment of sustainable management for C&D waste and for the selection of materials for the construction on projected or renovated buildings.

  6. Radiant floor cooling coupled with dehumidification systems in residential buildings: A simulation-based analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zarrella, Angelo; De Carli, Michele; Peretti, Clara

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The floor radiant cooling in a typical apartment is analyzed. • Dehumidification devices, fan-coil and mechanical ventilation are compared. • The results are analyzed in terms of both thermal comfort and energy consumption. • The energy consumption of the dehumidifiers is higher than that of other systems. • The mechanical ventilation decreases the moisture level better than other systems. - Abstract: The development of radiant cooling has stimulated an interest in new systems based on coupling ventilation with radiant cooling. However, radiant cooling systems may cause condensation to form on an active surface under warm and humid conditions during the cooling season. This phenomenon occurs when surface temperature falls below dew point. To prevent condensation, air humidity needs to be reduced with a dehumidification device or a mechanical ventilation system. There are two main options to achieve this. The first is to use dehumidification devices that reduce humidity, but are not coupled with ventilation, i.e. devices that handle room air and leave air change to infiltrations. The second is to combine a mechanical ventilation system with dehumidifying finned coils. This study analyzes the floor radiant cooling of a typical residential apartment within a multi-storey building in three Italian climate zones by means of a detailed simulation tool. Five systems were compared in terms of both indoor thermal comfort and energy consumption: radiant cooling without dehumidification; radiant cooling with a soft dehumidification device; radiant cooling with a dehumidification device which also supplies sensible cooling; radiant cooling coupled with fan coils; and radiant cooling with a mechanical ventilation system which dehumidifies and cools

  7. The role of hydrogen as a future solution to energetic and environmental problems for residential buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badea, G.; Felseghi, R. A.; Aşchilean, I.; Rǎboacǎ, S. M.; Şoimoşan, T.

    2017-12-01

    The concept of sustainable development aims to meet the needs of the present without compromising the needs of future generations. In achieving the desideratum "low-carbon energy system", in the domain of energy production, the use of innovative low-carbon technologies providing maximum efficiency and minimum pollution is required. Such technology is the fuel cell; as these will be developed, it will become a reality to obtain the energy based on hydrogen. Thus, hydrogen produced by electrolysis of water using different forms of renewable resources becomes a secure and sustainable energy alternative. In this context, in the present paper, a comparative study of two different hybrid power generation systems for residential building placed in Cluj-Napoca was made. In these energy systems have been integrated renewable energies (photovoltaic panels and wind turbine), backup and storage system based on hydrogen (fuel cell, electrolyser and hydrogen storage tank), and, respectively, backup and storage system based on traditional technologies (diesel generator and battery). The software iHOGA was used to simulate the operating performance of the two hybrid systems. The aim of this study was to compare energy, environmental and economic performances of these two systems and to define possible future scenarios of competitiveness between traditional and new innovative technologies. After analyzing and comparing the results of simulations, it can be concluded that the fuel cells technology along with hydrogen, integrated in a hybrid system, may be the key to energy production systems with high energy efficiency, making possible an increased capitalization of renewable energy which have a low environmental impact.

  8. User-Preference-Driven Model Predictive Control of Residential Building Loads and Battery Storage for Demand Response: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Xin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Baker, Kyri A. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, Dane T. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Isley, Steven C. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-08-21

    This paper presents a user-preference-driven home energy management system (HEMS) for demand response (DR) with residential building loads and battery storage. The HEMS is based on a multi-objective model predictive control algorithm, where the objectives include energy cost, thermal comfort, and carbon emission. A multi-criterion decision making method originating from social science is used to quickly determine user preferences based on a brief survey and derive the weights of different objectives used in the optimization process. Besides the residential appliances used in the traditional DR programs, a home battery system is integrated into the HEMS to improve the flexibility and reliability of the DR resources. Simulation studies have been performed on field data from a residential building stock data set. Appliance models and usage patterns were learned from the data to predict the DR resource availability. Results indicate the HEMS was able to provide a significant amount of load reduction with less than 20% prediction error in both heating and cooling cases.

  9. User-Preference-Driven Model Predictive Control of Residential Building Loads and Battery Storage for Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, Xin [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Baker, Kyri A [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Isley, Steven C [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, Dane T [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-07-03

    This paper presents a user-preference-driven home energy management system (HEMS) for demand response (DR) with residential building loads and battery storage. The HEMS is based on a multi-objective model predictive control algorithm, where the objectives include energy cost, thermal comfort, and carbon emission. A multi-criterion decision making method originating from social science is used to quickly determine user preferences based on a brief survey and derive the weights of different objectives used in the optimization process. Besides the residential appliances used in the traditional DR programs, a home battery system is integrated into the HEMS to improve the flexibility and reliability of the DR resources. Simulation studies have been performed on field data from a residential building stock data set. Appliance models and usage patterns were learned from the data to predict the DR resource availability. Results indicate the HEMS was able to provide a significant amount of load reduction with less than 20% prediction error in both heating and cooling cases.

  10. Mitigating the Impacts of Uncontrolled Air Flow on Indoor Environmental Quality and Energy Demand in Non-Residential Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hugh I. Henderson; Jensen Zhang; James B. Cummings; Terry Brennan

    2006-07-31

    This multi-faceted study evaluated several aspects of uncontrolled air flows in commercial buildings in both Northern and Southern climates. Field data were collected from 25 small commercial buildings in New York State to understand baseline conditions for Northern buildings. Laboratory wall assembly testing was completed at Syracuse University to understand the impact of typical air leakage pathways on heat and moisture transport within wall assemblies for both Northern and Southern building applications. The experimental data from the laboratory tests were used to verify detailed heat and moisture (HAM) simulation models that could be used to evaluate a wider array of building applications and situations. Whole building testing at FSEC's Building Science Laboratory (BSL) systematically evaluated the energy and IAQ impacts of duct leakage with various attic and ceiling configurations. This systematic test carefully controlled all aspects of building performance to quantify the impact of duct leakage and unbalanced flow. The newest features of the EnergyPlus building simulation tool were used to model the combined impacts of duct leakage, ceiling leakage, unbalanced flows, and air conditioner performance. The experimental data provided the basis to validate the simulation model so it could be used to study the impact of duct leakage over a wide range of climates and applications. The overall objective of this project was to transfer work and knowledge that has been done on uncontrolled air flow in non-residential buildings in Florida to a national basis. This objective was implemented by means of four tasks: (1) Field testing and monitoring of uncontrolled air flow in a sample of New York buildings; (2) Detailed wall assembly laboratory measurements and modeling; (3) Whole building experiments and simulation of uncontrolled air flows; and (4) Develop and implement training on uncontrolled air flows for Practitioners in New York State.

  11. Load Management in Residential Buildings Considering Techno-Economic and Environmental Aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abaravicius, Juozas

    2004-12-01

    Load problems in electricity markets occur both on the supply and demand side and can have technical, economic and even political causes. Commonly, such problems have been solved by expanding production and/or distribution capacity, importing electricity or by load management. Load management is a techno-economic measure for harmonizing the relations between supply and demand sides, optimizing power generation and transmission and increasing security of supply. Interest in load management differs depending on the perspective of the actors involved: from customer, utility, or producer to state policy maker. The problem of load demand and load management in residential sector is in this thesis approached from different perspectives, i.e. technical, economic, and environmental. The study does not go deep into detailed analyses of each perspective, but rather aims to establish and analyze the links between them. This trans-disciplinary approach is the key methodological moment used in the research work performed by the research group for load management in buildings at the Lund Institute of Technology. The key objective of this study is to analyze load demand variation and load management possibilities in residential sector, particularly detached and semi-detached houses, to experimentally test and analyze the conditions and potential of direct load management from customer and utility viewpoint. Techno-economic and environmental aspects are investigated. The study was performed in collaboration with one electric utility in Southern Sweden. Ten electric-heated houses were equipped with extra meters, enabling hourly load measurements for heating, hot water and total electricity use. Household heating and hot water systems were controlled by the utility using an existing remote reading and monitoring system. The residents noticed some of the control periods, although they didn't express any larger discomfort. The experiments proved that direct load management might

  12. Sandia Administrative Micrographics Facility, Building 802: Hazards assessment document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swihart, A.

    1994-12-01

    The Department of Energy Order 5500.3A requires facility-specific hazards assessments be prepared, maintained, and used for emergency planning purposes. This hazards assessment document describes the chemical and radiological hazards associated with the Sandia Administrative Micrographics Facility, Building 802. The entire inventory was screened according to the potential airborne impact to onsite and offsite individuals. The air dispersion model, ALOHA, estimated pollutant concentrations downwind from the source of a release, taking into consideration the toxicological and physical characteristics of the release site, the atmospheric conditions, and the circumstances of the release. The greatest distance at which a postulated facility event will produce consequences exceeding the Early Severe Health Effects threshold is 33 meters. The highest emergency classification is a Site Area Emergency. The Emergency Planning Zone is 75 meters

  13. Nearly Zero Energy Standard for Non-Residential Buildings with high Energy Demands—An Empirical Case Study Using the State-Related Properties of BAVARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Keltsch

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Energy Performance of Buildings Directive (EPBD 2010 calls for the Nearly Zero Energy Building (nZEB Standard for new buildings from 2021 onwards: Buildings using “almost no energy” are powered by renewable sources or by the energy produced by the building itself. For residential buildings, this ambitious new standard has already been reached. But for other building types, this goal is still far away. The potential of these buildings to meet a nZEB Standard was investigated by analyzing ten case studies, representing non-residential buildings with different uses. The analysis shows that the primary characteristics common to critical building types are a dense building context with a very high degree of technical installation (such as hospital, research, and laboratory buildings. The large primary energy demand of these types of buildings cannot be compensated by building- and property-related energy generation, including off-site renewables. If the future nZEB Standard were to be defined with lower requirements because of this, the state-related properties of Bavaria suggest that the real potential energy savings available in at least 85% of all new buildings would be insufficiently exploited. Therefore, it would be more useful to individualize the legal energy verification process for new buildings, to distinguish critical building types such as laboratories and hospitals from the other building types.

  14. Analysis of the effect of passive strategies on a nearly zero Danish residential building by means of dynamic simulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Avantaggiato, Marta; Simone, Angela; de Carli, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Increase of outdoors temperature, due to climate changes, results in warmer summers even in cold climate regions. Moreover the use of wider glazing surfaces leads to high amount of incoming solar radiation. As a consequence, the moving toward low energy buildings with the improved air tightness.......The main result is that a crossed use of both strategies leads to a cooling demand reduction (21 kWh/m2year) that varies between 98%-100% depending on the building’s tightness. Behavioural actions of the occupants were also considered in the calculation of the cooling energy demand and their impact...... is raising the issue of overheating even in the middle seasons creating not negligible thermal discomfort. Through building simulation program, the effect of passive cooling strategies, such as solar shading and natural night-time ventilation, on a residential building under Copenhagen climate conditions...

  15. On methods of sustainable architectural design of bio-positive buildings in the low-rise residential development structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhogoleva Anna

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the author’s research is to determine the actual content of sustainable architectural design for suburban residential development. In accordance with the methodology of area sustainable development the traditional architectural design according to the rules and regulations is completed with additional approaches and methods. As a result, methods of bio-positive design of buildings have been studied and defined, including: the principle of planning transformations, the use of environmentally friendly, local building materials and design concepts, energy-efficient architectural design, the use of alternative energy in building operation, the design of the energy intake and accumulationsystems, the architectural and landscape design that ensures stable functioning of autonomous, sustainable biosystems on the site, non-waste functioning of architectural objects, introduction of waste disposal systems in the project.

  16. Energy and environmental quality of buildings and open space. Public administration regulations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1998-01-01

    Residential sector is responsible of a third of total energy consumption in Italy and 30-40% of CO 2 emission. An energy efficient buildings reduce cost and save energy and emission. The energy recovery is possible also with bioclimatic architecture that represents a contribution at the economic and environmental balance [it

  17. Estimating energy impacts of residential and commercial building development. A manual for the Pacific Northwest and Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-22

    This energy-impact manual presents information on energy implications of new building design and operation, providing a reasonably accurate means of assessing the total energy impact of new construction in the commercial and residential sectors. While developed specifically for the states of Alaska, Idaho, Oregon, and Washington, much of the data used are national averages; the procedures described are applicable to other regions of the nation, with appropriate adjustments for climatic differences. The manual is organized into three parts, each covering one aspect of the energy impacts of building development. Part I addresses the energy impact of erecting the building(s). This includes the energy cost of grading and excavating and other site preparation. It also takes into account the energy embodied in the fabrication of materials used in building construction, as well as the energy cost of transporting materials to the site and assembling them. Part II focuses on the end use of energy during normal building operation, i.e., the energy consumed for space heating, cooling, lighting, water heating, etc. A simplified calculation sequence is provided which allows the user to estimate the consumption of most combinations of building orientation, characteristics, and operating conditions. Part III examines the relationship of land use to energy consumption, principally the transportation energy impact of various land-development patterns, the embodied energy impacts of infrastructure requirements, and the impacts of various orientation and siting schemes. (MCW)

  18. Highlight of Grid-connected PV systems in administrative buildings in Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dina Said

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Solar energy applications are becoming increasingly common in Egypt. The abundant sunshine in Egypt, as well as the increasing competitiveness of solar energy systems including- but not limited to photovoltaic (PV, – predicts that these technologies could be weighed to be raised in Egypt.PV systems are installed on roof tiles or other parts of building structures to supplement grid utility, reduce electric bills, and provide emergency back–up energy. Moreover, they simultaneously reduce significant amounts of CO2 emissions. It is foreseen, a number of residential and public buildings in Egypt are using solar power to cut electric utility bills significantly. The approximately payback period to recover the investment costs for PV systems is up to about 5 years.  In addition, it is more economical to use PV system than grid utility systems. The two components that determine the total initial price of a grid- connected PV system are the modules and the balance of systems (BOS. The BOS includes different components such as mounting frames, inverters and site- specific installation hardware.The Government of Egypt (GOE has endorsed the deployment of PV systems through three approaches. It started with a prime minister decree to install PV projects on one-thousand of the governmental buildings. This was followed by as an initiative called "Shamsk ya Masr", and finally the Feed-in Tariff (FiT projects.Following the prime minster decree the Egyptian Electricity Holding Company (EEHC and its affiliated companies took the lead to install PV systems at the top roof of their administrative buildings and interconnect these systems to the electricity network where the suitable locations have been selected for mounting them. About 90 PV systems have been already mounted with about a capacity of 9 MW. On the other hand, "Shamsk ya Masr" has considered energy efficiency (EE so as to complement the PV systems, which will be installed on administrative

  19. Energy efficient of the residential buildings based climatic condition using experimental design: a case study in malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahraee Seyed Mojib

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, energy consumption has become a critical issue in the developed and developing countries. Residential buildings are one of the most users of energy in the construction sector that use the highest share of energy. This paper aims at evaluating the effect of four factors that are temperature, humidity, airflow and pressure on the cooling load in the residential buildings. To achieve this goal, statistical experimental design is used to determine the optimum setting of factors that result in optimum energy usage. Simulation software and energy analysis is used to simulate a two-storey building in Malaysia as the case of study. Final results showed that the temperature, humidity and interaction between them have the most significant effect on the energy cooling load. Moreover, to obtain the minimum value of cooling load the temperature and humidity should be equal to A=20 Celsius degree and B=60% respectively. In addition, the other two insignificant factors, airflow and pressure should be placed at the high level which are equal to C=3 cubic meters per hour, and D=6 Pascal (P respectively.

  20. Energy and behavioral impacts of integrative retrofits for residential buildings: What is at stake for building energy policy reforms in northern China?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Peng; Xu, Tengfang; Shen, Pengyuan

    2013-01-01

    Based upon the results from extensive building monitoring and surveys on occupant’s behaviors in a representative nine-story apartment building in northern China, building energy simulations were performed to evaluate the impacts of integrative retrofits implemented. Integrative retrofits required by the newer building energy standard produced significant heating-energy savings (i.e., 53%) when compared with baseline buildings commonly built in early 1980s. Taking into account district-heating-system upgrades as part of integrative retrofit measures, a representative apartment building was 66% more efficient than the baseline building. Contrary to expectation, little behavioral change was found in response to the provisions of monetary incentive, billing-method reform, or metering of heating energy use in individual apartment units. Yet this paper identified sizable energy savings potential if occupants’ behavioral changes were to actually happen. This indicates that provisions of financial incentives or individual metering were insufficient for triggering substantial behavioral changes leading toward more energy savings in the current buildings. It is recommended that innovative energy policies, technology upgrades, and education would be needed to promote behavioral changes toward additional energy savings. Finally, measures and strategies to further enhance thermal integrity criteria (e.g., insulations of roof and balcony) are recommended in China’s future building energy policy reforms. - Highlights: ► Integrative retrofits significantly reduce residential heating energy in north China. ► Energy effects of retrofits, incentive, billing and behavioral changes were studied. ► Monetary incentive, control or metering technologies did not lead to behavior change. ► Potential energy savings due to occupants’ behavioral changes are sizable. ► Thermal integrity needs to be enhanced in future building standards and policies.

  1. Wood Products Other Building Materials Used in New Residential Construction in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    David B. McKeever; Joe Elling

    2015-01-01

    On average, new residential construction accounts for about one-third of all wood products consumed in the United States annually. During periods of robust housing activity, 45% or more of all wood products consumed are for new single-family and multifamily housing. This can fall to as low as 20% or less during times of economic recession. Unfortunately, 2012 was not...

  2. Microzonation of seismic risk in a low-rise Latin American city based on the macroseismic evaluation of the vulnerability of residential buildings: Colima city, México

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zobin, V. M.; Cruz-Bravo, A. A.; Ventura-Ramírez, F.

    2010-06-01

    A macroseismic methodology of seismic risk microzonation in a low-rise city based on the vulnerability of residential buildings is proposed and applied to Colima city, Mexico. The seismic risk microzonation for Colima consists of two elements: the mapping of residential blocks according to their vulnerability level and the calculation of an expert-opinion based damage probability matrix (DPM) for a given level of earthquake intensity and a given type of residential block. A specified exposure time to the seismic risk for this zonation is equal to the interval between two destructive earthquakes. The damage probability matrices were calculated for three types of urban buildings and five types of residential blocks in Colima. It was shown that only 9% of 1409 residential blocks are able to resist to the Modify Mercalli (MM) intensity VII and VIII earthquakes without significant damage. The proposed DPM-2007 is in good accordance with the experimental damage curves based on the macroseismic evaluation of 3332 residential buildings in Colima that was carried out after the 21 January 2003 intensity MM VII earthquake. This methodology and the calculated PDM-2007 curves may be applied also to seismic risk microzonation for many low-rise cities in Latin America, Asia, and Africa.

  3. Microzonation of seismic risk in a low-rise Latin American city based on the macroseismic evaluation of the vulnerability of residential buildings: Colima city, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. M. Zobin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available A macroseismic methodology of seismic risk microzonation in a low-rise city based on the vulnerability of residential buildings is proposed and applied to Colima city, Mexico. The seismic risk microzonation for Colima consists of two elements: the mapping of residential blocks according to their vulnerability level and the calculation of an expert-opinion based damage probability matrix (DPM for a given level of earthquake intensity and a given type of residential block. A specified exposure time to the seismic risk for this zonation is equal to the interval between two destructive earthquakes. The damage probability matrices were calculated for three types of urban buildings and five types of residential blocks in Colima. It was shown that only 9% of 1409 residential blocks are able to resist to the Modify Mercalli (MM intensity VII and VIII earthquakes without significant damage. The proposed DPM-2007 is in good accordance with the experimental damage curves based on the macroseismic evaluation of 3332 residential buildings in Colima that was carried out after the 21 January 2003 intensity MM VII earthquake. This methodology and the calculated PDM-2007 curves may be applied also to seismic risk microzonation for many low-rise cities in Latin America, Asia, and Africa.

  4. A preliminary impact assessment of typhoon wind risk of residential buildings in Japan under future climate change

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nishijima, Kazuyoshi; Maruyama, Takashi; Graf, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    of the building portfolio remains unchanged. Based on these results, the assumptions and inputs to the assessment are critically reviewed. Thereby, the needs of further research efforts toward more credible and comprehensive assessment are addressed.......This paper performs a quantitative impact assessment of the climate change on typhoon wind risk, focusing on residential buildings in Japan. The risk is assessed based on (1) the typhoon event set extracted from the simulation by the super-high resolution atmospheric general circulation model...... developed within the KAKUSHIN program; (2) the probabilistic typhoon modeling scheme developed by our group; (3) a fragility model empirically estimated on the basis of the damage report of typhoon Songda in 2004 and the reproduced wind field by a mesoscale meteorological model; JMA-NHM. The main results...

  5. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Marine Climates; January 2006 - December 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership (BAIHP); Building Industry Research Alliance (BIRA); Building Science Consortium (BSC); Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB); Davis Energy Group (DEG); IBACOS; National Association of Home Builders Research Center (NAHBRC); National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    2006-12-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Marine Climate Region on a cost neutral basis.

  6. Marginal costs of intensified energy-efficiency measures in residential buildings; Grenzkosten bei forcierten Energie-Effizienzmassnahmen in Wohngebaeuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakob, M.; Jochem, E. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Centre for Energy Policy and Economics (CEPE), Zuerich (Switzerland); Kristen, K. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Architektur und Baurealisation, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2002-07-01

    This detailed report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the large potential for increasing the energy efficiency of residential buildings in Switzerland. The aims of the research project are described including investigation of costs and marginal costs for thermal insulation and efficiency measures, the updating of technical parameters for cost - efficiency characteristics on an empirical basis, a transparent presentation of cost/benefit ratios for different concepts. Another aim is to obtain a more detailed overview of costs and benefits that could be of use for planners, building owners and technology companies. The methodology used for the collection of data for the study is described. The report also takes a look at the indirect advantages of improving the thermal insulation of buildings and examines the initial economic and technical situation. A detailed review of the costs and benefits is given for the various elements of a building such as walls, floors and windows and a reference development scenario for the period 2000 -2030 is presented. Marginal cost curves for various categories of buildings are presented for thermal insulation and ventilation measures.

  7. Empirical assessment of the Hellenic non-residential building stock, energy consumption, emissions and potential energy savings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaglia, Athina G.; Balaras, Constantinos A.; Mirasgedis, Sevastianos; Georgopoulou, Elena; Sarafidis, Yiannis; Lalas, Dimitris P.

    2007-01-01

    Comprehensive information and detailed data for the non-residential (NR) building stock is rather limited, although it is the fastest growing energy demand sector. This paper elaborates the approach used to determine the potential energy conservation in the Hellenic NR building stock. A major obstacle that had to be overcome was the need to make suitable assumptions for missing detailed primary data. A qualitative and quantitative assessment of scattered national data resulted in a realistic assessment of the existing NR building stock and energy consumption. Different energy conservation scenarios and their impact on the reduction of CO 2 emissions were evaluated. Accordingly, the most effective energy conservation measures are: addition of thermal insulation of exposed external walls, primarily in hotels and hospitals; installation of energy efficient lamps; installation of solar collectors for sanitary hot water production, primarily in hotels and health care; installation of building management systems in office/commercial and hotel buildings; replacement of old inefficient boilers; and regular maintenance of central heating boilers

  8. Mosaic analysis for personal water consumption in residential buildings in Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lo, Yuet Fai; Wong, Ling Tim; Mui, Kwok Wai

    2018-02-01

    This paper investigates the daily per capita residential water use based on the demographic and socio-economic factors described by Mosaic Hong Kong and provides insights into future water supply planning. A survey was conducted to collect information on household water use behaviours and water consumption patterns. The survey results indicate that considerable consumption differences (in the range of 115.6 to 167.7 litres per person per day) exist among the Mosaic Groups, and the average daily per capita residential water consumption is estimated to be 139.6 litres per person per day. The results also reveal that the daily per capita water consumption is inversely proportional to household size in the range of 2 to 6. Moreover, consumption differences among housing types and districts are reported.

  9. Final Technical Report. Sault Tribe Building Efficiency Audits of Tribally-Owned Governmental Buildings and Residential Tribal Housing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holt, Jeffrey W. [Sault Sainte Marie Tribe of Chippewa Indians, Marie, MI (United States)

    2015-03-27

    The Tribe is working to reduce energy consumption and expense in Tribally-owned governmental buildings and low income housing sites. In 2009, the Tribe applied to the U. S. Department of Energy for funding to conduct energy audits of Tribally-owned governmental buildings. Findings from the energy audits would define the extent and types of energy efficiency improvements needed, establish a basis for energy priorities, strategies and action plans, and provide a benchmark for measuring improvements from energy efficiency implementations. In 2010, the DOE awarded a grant in the amount of $95,238 to the Tribe to fund the energy audits of nine governmental buildings and to pay for travel expenses associated with attendance and participation at the DOE annual program reviews. In 2011, the Tribe applied for and was awarded a DOE grant in the amount of $75,509 to conduct energy audits of the remaining 30 Tribally-owned governmental buildings. Repeating mobilization steps performed during the first DOE energy audits grant, the Tribe initiated the second round of governmental building energy audits by completing energy auditor procurement. The selected energy auditor successfully passed DOE debarment and Sault Tribe background clearances. The energy audits contract was awarded to U. P. Engineers and Architects, Inc. of Sault Ste. Marie, Michigan. The Tribe continued mobilizing for the energy audits by providing the energy auditor with one year of electric, gas and water utility invoice copies per building, as well as supplemental building information, such as operating hours. The Tribe also contacted building occupants to coordinate scheduling for the on-site energy audit inspections and arranged for facilities management personnel to guide the energy auditor through the buildings and answer questions regarding building systems.

  10. Sustainable solutions for cooling systems in residential buildings: case study in the Western Cape Province, South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foudzai, F.; M' Rithaa, M. [Cape Peninsula University of Technology, Cape Town (South Africa). Dept. of Industrial Design

    2010-07-01

    sustainable cooling in residential buildings of Western Cape, South Africa are discussed.

  11. Optimizing Energy Savings from Direct-DC in U.S. Residential Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garbesi, Karina; Vossos, Vagelis; Sanstad, Alan; Burch, Gabriel

    2011-10-13

    An increasing number of energy efficient appliances operate on direct current (DC) internally, offering the potential to use DC from renewable energy systems directly and avoiding the losses inherent in converting power to alternating current (AC) and back. This paper investigates that potential for net-metered residences with on-site photovoltaics (PV) by modeling the net power draw of the ‘direct-DC house’ with respect to today’s typical configuration, assuming identical DC-internal loads. Power draws were modeled for houses in 14 U.S. cities, using hourly, simulated PV-system output and residential loads. The latter were adjusted to reflect a 33% load reduction, representative of the most efficient DC-internal technology, based on an analysis of 32 electricity end-uses. The model tested the effect of climate, electric vehicle (EV) loads, electricity storage, and load shifting on electricity savings; a sensitivity analysis was conducted to determine how future changes in the efficiencies of power system components might affect savings potential. Based on this work, we estimate that net-metered PV residences could save 5% of their total electricity load for houses without storage and 14% for houses with storage. Based on residential PV penetration projections for year 2035 obtained from the National Energy Modeling System (2.7% for the reference case and 11.2% for the extended policy case), direct-DC could save the nation 10 trillion Btu (without storage) or 40 trillion Btu (with storage). Shifting the cooling load by two hours earlier in the day (pre-cooling) has negligible benefits for energy savings. Direct-DC provides no energy savings benefits for EV charging, to the extent that charging occurs at night. However, if charging occurred during the day, for example with employees charging while at work, the benefits would be large. Direct-DC energy savings are sensitive to power system and appliance conversion efficiencies but are not significantly

  12. Indoor air quality in green buildings: A case-study in a residential high-rise building in the northeastern United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Youyou; Krogmann, Uta; Mainelis, Gediminas; Rodenburg, Lisa A; Andrews, Clinton J

    2015-01-01

    Improved indoor air quality (IAQ) is one of the critical components of green building design. Green building tax credit (e.g., New York State Green Building Tax Credit (GBTC)) and certification programs (e.g., Leadership in Energy & Environmental Design (LEED)) require indoor air quality measures and compliance with allowable maximum concentrations of common indoor air pollutants. It is not yet entirely clear whether compliance with these programs results in improved IAQ and ultimately human health. As a case in point, annual indoor air quality measurements were conducted in a residential green high-rise building for five consecutive years by an industrial hygiene contractor to comply with the building's GBTC requirements. The implementation of green design measures resulted in better IAQ compared to data in references of conventional homes for some parameters, but could not be confirmed for others. Relative humidity and carbon dioxide were satisfactory according to existing standards. Formaldehyde levels during four out of five years were below the most recent proposed exposure limits found in the literature. To some degree, particulate matter (PM) levels were lower than that in studies from conventional residential buildings. Concentrations of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) with known permissible exposure limits were below levels known to cause chronic health effects, but their concentrations were inconclusive regarding cancer health effects due to relatively high detection limits. Although measured indoor air parameters met all IAQ maximum allowable concentrations in GBTC and applicable LEED requirements at the time of sampling, we argue that these measurements were not sufficient to assess IAQ comprehensively because more sensitive sampling/analytical methods for PM and VOCs are needed; in addition, there is a need for a formal process to ensure rigor and adequacy of sampling and analysis methods. Also, we suggest that a comprehensive IAQ assessment should

  13. Predicted and actual indoor environmental quality: Verification of occupants' behaviour models in residential buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Fabi, Valentina; Corgnati, Stefano P.

    2016-01-01

    Occupants' interactions with the building envelope and building systems can have a large impact on the indoor environment and energy consumption in a building. As a consequence, any realistic forecast of building performance must include realistic models of the occupants' interactions...... with the building controls (windows, thermostats, solar shading etc.). During the last decade, studies about stochastic models of occupants' behaviour in relation to control of the indoor environment have been published. Often the overall aim of these models is to enable more reliable predictions of building...... performance using building energy performance simulations (BEPS). However, the validity of these models has only been sparsely tested. In this paper, stochastic models of occupants' behaviour from literature were tested against measurements in five apartments. In a monitoring campaign, measurements of indoor...

  14. Comparison of real-time instruments and gravimetric method when measuring particulate matter in a residential building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zuocheng; Calderón, Leonardo; Patton, Allison P; Sorensen Allacci, MaryAnn; Senick, Jennifer; Wener, Richard; Andrews, Clinton J; Mainelis, Gediminas

    2016-11-01

    This study used several real-time and filter-based aerosol instruments to measure PM 2.5 levels in a high-rise residential green building in the Northeastern US and compared performance of those instruments. PM 2.5 24-hr average concentrations were determined using a Personal Modular Impactor (PMI) with 2.5 µm cut (SKC Inc., Eighty Four, PA) and a direct reading pDR-1500 (Thermo Scientific, Franklin, MA) as well as its filter. 1-hr average PM 2.5 concentrations were measured in the same apartments with an Aerotrak Optical Particle Counter (OPC) (model 8220, TSI, Inc., Shoreview, MN) and a DustTrak DRX mass monitor (model 8534, TSI, Inc., Shoreview, MN). OPC and DRX measurements were compared with concurrent 1-hr mass concentration from the pDR-1500. The pDR-1500 direct reading showed approximately 40% higher particle mass concentration compared to its own filter (n = 41), and 25% higher PM 2.5 mass concentration compared to the PMI 2.5 filter. The pDR-1500 direct reading and PMI 2.5 in non-smoking homes (self-reported) were not significantly different (n = 10, R 2 = 0.937), while the difference between measurements for smoking homes was 44% (n = 31, R 2 = 0.773). Both OPC and DRX data had substantial and significant systematic and proportional biases compared with pDR-1500 readings. However, these methods were highly correlated: R 2 = 0.936 for OPC versus pDR-1500 reading and R 2 = 0.863 for DRX versus pDR-1500 reading. The data suggest that accuracy of aerosol mass concentrations from direct-reading instruments in indoor environments depends on the instrument, and that correction factors can be used to reduce biases of these real-time monitors in residential green buildings with similar aerosol properties. This study used several real-time and filter-based aerosol instruments to measure PM 2.5 levels in a high-rise residential green building in the northeastern United States and compared performance of those instruments. The data show that while the use of real

  15. DEMONSTRATION OF THE DOE INTERIM ENERGY CONSERVATION STANDARDS FOR NEW FEDERAL RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A. D.; Baechler, H. C.; Di Massa, F. V.; Lucas, R. G.; Shankle, D. L.

    1992-01-01

    In accordance with federal legislation, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has sponsored a study to demonstrate use of its Interim Energy Conservation Standards for New Federal Residential Buildings. The demonstration study was conducted by DOE and the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL). The demonstration is the second step in a three-step process: I) development of interim standards, 2) demonstration of the interim standards, and 3) development of final standards. The standards are mandatory for federal agency housing procurements. Nevertheless, PNL found at the start of the demonstration that agency use of the interim standards had been minimal. The purpose of the standards is to improve the energy efficiency of federal housing and increase the use of nondepletable energy sources. In accordance with the legislation, the standards were to be performance-based rather than prescribing specific energy conservation measures. To fulfill this aspect of the legislation, the standards use a computer software program called COSTSAFR which generates a point system that individualizes the standards to specific projects based on climate, housing type, and fuel costs. The standards generate minimum energy-efficiency requirements by applying the life-cycle cost methodology developed for federal projects. For the demonstration, PNL and DOE chose five federal agency housing projects which had been built in diverse geographic and climate regions. Participating agencies were the Air Force, the Army (which provided two case studies), the Navy, and the Department of Health and Human Services. PNL worked with agency housing procurement officials and designers/architects to hypothetically apply the interim standards to the procurement and design of each housing project. The demonstration started at the point in the project where agencies would establish their energyefficiency requirements for the project and followed the procurement process through the designers' use of the point

  16. Development of Program to Enhance Team Building Leadership Skills of Primary School Administrators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sairam, Boonchauy; Sirisuthi, Chaiyuth; Wisetrinthong, Kanjana

    2017-01-01

    Team building leadership skills are important to understandings of how the primary school administrators might work towards creating more effective teamwork in the school. This research aimed 1) to study the components of team building leadership skills needed for primary school administrators, 2) to examine the current states and desirable…

  17. Forecasting energy consumption of multi-family residential buildings using support vector regression: Investigating the impact of temporal and spatial monitoring granularity on performance accuracy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jain, Rishee K.; Smith, Kevin M.; Culligan, Patricia J.; Taylor, John E.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We develop a building energy forecasting model using support vector regression. • Model is applied to data from a multi-family residential building in New York City. • We extend sensor based energy forecasting to multi-family residential buildings. • We examine the impact temporal and spatial granularity has on model accuracy. • Optimal granularity occurs at the by floor in hourly temporal intervals. - Abstract: Buildings are the dominant source of energy consumption and environmental emissions in urban areas. Therefore, the ability to forecast and characterize building energy consumption is vital to implementing urban energy management and efficiency initiatives required to curb emissions. Advances in smart metering technology have enabled researchers to develop “sensor based” approaches to forecast building energy consumption that necessitate less input data than traditional methods. Sensor-based forecasting utilizes machine learning techniques to infer the complex relationships between consumption and influencing variables (e.g., weather, time of day, previous consumption). While sensor-based forecasting has been studied extensively for commercial buildings, there is a paucity of research applying this data-driven approach to the multi-family residential sector. In this paper, we build a sensor-based forecasting model using Support Vector Regression (SVR), a commonly used machine learning technique, and apply it to an empirical data-set from a multi-family residential building in New York City. We expand our study to examine the impact of temporal (i.e., daily, hourly, 10 min intervals) and spatial (i.e., whole building, by floor, by unit) granularity have on the predictive power of our single-step model. Results indicate that sensor based forecasting models can be extended to multi-family residential buildings and that the optimal monitoring granularity occurs at the by floor level in hourly intervals. In addition to implications for

  18. AWARENESS ON ENERGY MANAGEMENT IN RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS: A CASE STUDY IN KAJANG AND PUTRAJAYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MAYTHAM S. AHMED

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a case study on a survey and measurement being carried out for the purpose of determining residential electric power consumption and awareness toward smart energy management system in the areas of Putrajaya and Kajang, Malaysia. Questionnaires were developed with 37 questions grouped in 5 different sections related to home appliance information. Data was collected from a sample size of 384 respondents with confidence level of 95%. The accuracy of the percentage energy usage data were analysed by applying the SPSS software. Actual residential electric power consumption was measured by using a power quality analyser to determine the total power consumption at weekday and weekend and power consumption of each electrical appliance. The measurement results showed that the average energy consumption is 25.8 kWh/day during weekend and 21.9 kWh/day during weekdays with 11.5 kWh/day for the air conditioner only. The survey results revealed that 89.06% of the respondents expressed awareness toward household power consumption and that they are willing to install home automation system to reducing their electricity bill.

  19. Refurbishment of Residential Buildings : A Design Approach to Energy-Efficiency Upgrades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konstantinou, T.; Knaack, U.

    Refurbishing the existing building stock is an acknowledged issue in the building industry. Even though awareness has been raised, the design phase of refurbishment projects is often problematic. The decisions taken in the early stages of the design determine the final result; however, the

  20. Evaluation of financial aspects and energy performance indicators of residential building stock in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Entrop, Alexis Gerardus; Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.; Brouwers, Jos; Kenneweg, H.; Tröger, U.

    2007-01-01

    The introduction of the concept of sustainable building in the construction industry has led to different measures to reduce the environmental impact of building objects in the past decades. Because the built environment accounts for more than 40% of the total energy consumption in Europe (EC,

  1. Development of Hybrid Model for Estimating Construction Waste for Multifamily Residential Buildings Using Artificial Neural Networks and Ant Colony Optimization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongoun Lee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to the increasing costs of construction waste disposal, an accurate estimation of the amount of construction waste is a key factor in a project’s success. Korea has been burdened by increasing construction waste as a consequence of the growing number of construction projects and a lack of construction waste management (CWM strategies. One of the problems associated with predicting the amount of waste is that there are no suitable estimation strategies currently available. Therefore, we developed a hybrid estimation model to predict the quantity and cost of waste in the early stage of construction. The proposed approach can be used to address cost overruns and improve CWM in the subsequent stages of construction. The proposed hybrid model uses artificial neural networks (ANNs and ant colony optimization (ACO. It is expected to provide an accurate waste estimate by applying historical data from multifamily residential buildings.

  2. Indoor air quality in mechanically ventilated residential dwellings/low-rise buildings: A review of existing information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aganovic, Amar; Hamon, Mathieu; Kolarik, Jakub

    Mechanical ventilation has become a mandatory requirement in multiple European standards addressing indoor air quality (IAQ) and ventilation in residential dwellings (single family houses and low-rise apartment buildings). This article presents the state of the art study through a review...... of the existing literature, to establish a link between ventilation rate and key indoor air pollutants. Design characteristics of a mechanical ventilation system such as supply/exhaustairflow, system and design of supply and exhaust outlets were considered. The performance of various ventilation solutionswas......-house ventilation rate was reported below 0.5h-1 or 14 l/s·person in bedrooms, the concentrations of the pollutants elevated above minimum threshold limits (CO2>1350 ppm; TVOC >3000 μg/m3) defined by the standard. Insufficient or non-existent supply of air was related to significantly higher pollutant...

  3. Effect of Air Cleaning Technologies in Conjunction With the Use of Rotary Heat Exchangers in Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Afshari, Alireza; Bergsøe, Niels Christian; Ekberg, Lars

    2013-01-01

    with rotary air-to-air heat exchangers. For this purpose, a mechanical filter with low pressure drop and a 4 cm thick activated carbon filter were selected for testing in a laboratory environment. The measurements included testing of the filters, separately and combined, in a ductwork to study the efficiency......This study is part of a research project concerning the possibilities of applying efficient air cleaning technologies using rotary heat exchanger in residential buildings. The purpose of this project was to identify and adapt new air-cleaning technologies for implementation in HVAC systems...... was approximately 5 Pascal at an airflow rate of 216 m3/h. The air velocity through the filter was 0.49 m/s. Furthermore, the removal efficiency of the combined filter for 6 chemical substances were examined using Hexane, Butanol, 2-Ethylhexanol, Heptane, 2-Heptanone and Acetaldehyde as sources for emission...

  4. Feasibility study of a hybrid renewable energy system with geothermal and solar heat sources for residential buildings in South Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Young Ju; Woo, Nam Sub; Jang, Sung Cheol; Choi, Jeong Ju

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the economic feasibility of a hybrid renewable energy system (HRES) that uses geothermal and solar heat sources for water heating, space heating, and space cooling in a residential building in Korea. A small-scale HRES consists of a geothermal heat pump for heating and cooling, solar collectors for hot water, a gas-fired backup boiler, and incidental facilities. To determine whether the Hares will produce any economic benefits for homeowners, an economic analysis is conducted to compare the Hares with conventional methods of space heating and cooling in Korea. The payback period of a small-scale Hares is predicted as a maximum of 9 yrs by life cycle costing based on a performance index compared with conventional systems. However, the payback period of large-scale HRES above 400 RT is 6 yrs to 7 yrs.

  5. Experimental analysis of an air-to-air heat recovery unit for balanced ventilation systems in residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez-Seara, Jose; Diz, Ruben; Uhia, Francisco J.; Dopazo, Alberto; Ferro, Jose M. [Area de Maquinas y Motores Termicos, E.T.S. de Ingenieros Industriales, University of Vigo, Campus Lagoas-Marcosende No. 9, 36310 Vigo (Spain)

    2011-01-15

    This paper deals with the experimental analysis of an air-to-air heat recovery unit equipped with a sensible polymer plate heat exchanger (PHE) for balanced ventilation systems in residential buildings. The PHE is arranged in parallel triangular ducts. An experimental facility was designed to reproduce the typical outdoor and exhaust air conditions with regard to temperature and humidity. The unit was tested under balanced operation conditions, as commonly used in practice. A set of tests was conducted under the reference operating conditions to evaluate the PHE performance. Afterwards, an experimental parametric analysis was conducted to investigate the influence of changing the operating conditions on the PHE performance. Experiments were carried out varying the inlet fresh air temperature, the exhaust air relative humidity and the air flow rate. The experimental results are shown and discussed in this paper. (author)

  6. Implementation of an Integrative Medicine Treatment Program at a Veterans Health Administration Residential Mental Health Facility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaddy, Melinda A

    2017-10-12

    A 4-week interdisciplinary integrative medicine program was recently added to the core treatment offerings for veterans participating in the Mental Health Residential Rehabilitation Program at the Dwight D. Eisenhower Veterans Affairs Medical Center. The new integrative medicine program teaches veterans about using meditative practices, nutrition, creative expression, tai chi, hatha yoga, sensory and breathing techniques, and lifestyle changes to enhance well-being. The groups are run by professionals from a variety of disciplines including recreation therapy, art therapy, occupational therapy, psychology, and nutrition. For the first 42 veterans to complete the program, the Short Form 12-item Health Survey was administered before and after participation in the integrative medicine program to assess the potential effectiveness of the program in enhancing physical and psychological well-being. In addition, a brief semistructured interview was used to assess veteran opinions about the program. Results suggest that the program was well received and that both physical and mental health scores improved from before to after treatment in this sample of veterans with complex behavioral health concerns. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  7. Inheritance as Intimate, Implicated Publics: Building Practices of Remembrance with Future Teachers in Response to Residential School Survivor Testimonial Media and Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I contextualize and outline my use of testimonial literature, including orature, by residential school survivors in a preservice course focused on building practices of witness-­as-study (Simon & Eppert, 2005). My theorization of the course curriculum and pedagogy draws on key texts by Roger Simon as a means of proposing…

  8. Instructor's Manual for Teaching and Practical Courses on Design of Systems and Sizing, Installation and Operation of Systems for Solar Heating and Cooling of Residential Buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colorado State Univ., Ft. Collins. Solar Energy Applications Lab.

    Presented are guidelines for instructors of two courses in the design, installation, and operation of solar heating and cooling systems. These courses are: (1) Design of Systems, and (2) Sizing, Installation, and Operation of Systems. Limited in scope to active solar systems for residential buildings, these courses place primary emphasis upon…

  9. The ditches of México City and implications on residential buildings of the XVIII century

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Jimenez Vaca

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Known for its canals or by its designation in the New Spain as ditches, the image of aquatic city of Mexico City was widespread in the world. It would seem that those romantic references of the city had been left alone in the lines written by the chroniclers, but when analyzing architectural plans and current cadastral can glimpse vestiges of this lakeside past. This research is done by analyzing eigh-teenth century plans, through identification of ex-isting ditches in Mexico City during this period, and its current trajectory in a plane, performing both an analysis of their influence on residential architecture, determining the characteristics of the houses in the path of the canals, by classifying canal houses, depending on the level of relationship between these two constructive general.

  10. Drug Administration via Enteral Feeding Tube in Residential Care Facilities for Individuals with Intellectual Disability: A Focus Group Study on Guideline Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joos, Elke; Van Tongelen, Inge; Wijnants, Karen; Mehuys, Els; Van Bocxlaer, Jan; Remon, Jean Paul; Grypdonck, Maria; Van Winckel, Myriam; Boussery, Koen

    2016-01-01

    People with profound intellectual disabilities often receive medication through enteral feeding tube (EFT). In a previous study, we found that current guidelines concerning medication preparation and administration through EFT are often not followed in residential care facilities (RCFs) for individuals with intellectual disabilities. The present…

  11. [On the question of occurrence and the problem of hygiene rating of fungal air pollution of the environment of residential and public buildings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubernskiĭ, Iu D; Beliaeva, N N; Kalinina, N V; Mel'nikova, A I; Chuprina, O V

    2013-01-01

    Comprehensive sanitary examinations of fungal pollution of the environment of residential and public buildings were performed. There is established the occurrence of sensitization of the population associated with the fungal contamination of the wallings of buildings and presence of viable mold spores in the indoor air environment. Major factors determining the degree of fungal contamination of indoor environments: increasing humidity of indoor air due to leaks and bays, the area of enclosure structures and the temperature factor have been identified.

  12. Model Standards and Techniques for Control of Radon in New Residential Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    This document is intended to serve as a model for use to develop and adopt building codes, appendices to codes, or standards specifically applicable to unique local or regional radon control requirements.

  13. Building a sustainable administrative infrastructure for worksite wellness programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Larry S

    2009-01-01

    As health care reform intensifies increasing references are being made to Worksite Wellness. These references are naturally leading to higher expectations for the effectiveness of Worksite Wellness programs. Yet the ultimate provisions regarding prevention and Wellness are not known. In the absence of legislative outcomes the focus for this edition is on the necessary administrative infrastructure that is needed to produce behavioral change, health risk mitigation and economic return from Wellness programming. Sixteen (16) administrative components are identified as critical to effective Wellness programming. Employee or health plan population size is seen as a significant variable in the design of the Wellness program's administrative infrastructure. Factors in sustainability and programming are also considered.

  14. Effects of heat and electricity saving measures in district-heated multistory residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truong, Nguyen Le; Dodoo, Ambrose; Gustavsson, Leif

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We analyzed the potential for energy savings in district heated buildings. • Measures that reduce more peak load production give higher primary energy savings. • Efficient appliances increase heat demand but give net primary energy savings. • Efficient appliances give the largest net primary energy savings. - Abstract: The effects of heat and electricity saving measures in district-heated buildings can be complex because these depend not only on how energy is used on the demand side but also on how energy is provided from the supply side. In this study, we analyze the effects of heat and electricity saving measures in multistory concrete-framed and wood-framed versions of an existing district-heated building and examine the impacts of the reduced energy demand on different district heat (DH) production configurations. The energy saving measures considered are for domestic hot water reduction, building thermal envelope improvement, ventilation heat recovery (VHR), and household electricity savings. Our analysis is based on a measured heat load profile of an existing DH production system in Växjö, Sweden. Based on the measured heat load profile, we model three minimum-cost DH production system using plausible environmental and socio-political scenarios. Then, we investigate the primary energy implications of the energy saving measures applied to the two versions of the existing building, taking into account the changed DH demand, changed cogenerated electricity, and changed electricity use due to heat and electricity saving measures. Our results show that the difference between the final and primary energy savings of the concrete-framed and wood-framed versions of the case-study building is minor. The primary energy efficiency of the energy saving measures depends on the type of measure and on the composition of the DH production system. Of the various energy saving measures explored, electricity savings give the highest primary energy savings

  15. AIRFLOW PATTERNS AND STACK PRESSURE SIMULATION IN A HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDING LOCATED IN SEOUL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoukhi Maatouk

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Buoyancy forces due to air density difference between outdoor air and indoor air cause stack effect in high-rise buildings in cold climates. This stack effect occurs mainly at the core of the building such as the stairway and elevator shafts and causes many problems such as the energy loss caused by air flow, the blocked elevator door and discomfort due to inflowing of strong outdoor air. The main purpose of this work is to model the airflow pattern in a highrise building during the winter period by mean of COMIS. The presented building which is situated in Korea contains 30 floors above the ground level and 5 basement floors. Using COMIS, the simulation has been carried out for the entire building. However, the simulation failed due to the huge number of zones and interactions between them. Therefore, a model of building which contains 14 floors with 5 floors in the basement has been considered; and a simplified model based on the considered one has been constructed and compared with the 14 floors model. The simplified model consists on reducing the number of floors by combining a certain number of stories into one so that to enable the simulation to be carried on with a minimum number of zones and links. The result of the simulation shows that this approach could be used with accuracy still being satisfied. Therefore, the simplified procedure has been extended and applied to the high rise building model with 30 stories above the ground level and 5 stories in the basement. The effect of the exterior wall air-tightness of the building with 30 stories on the stack pressure and airflow by infiltration and/or by exfiltration has been investigated. The result shows that the total air by infiltration and/or exfiltration within the elevator shafts increases with the decrease of the level of the air-tightness of the exterior wall of the building. It has been also shown that a huge amount of air infiltrates through the shuttle and emergency elevator

  16. Improving Thermal Performance of a Residential Building, Related to Its Orientations - A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akshaya, S.; Harish, S.; Arthy, R.; Muthu, D.; Venkatasubramanian, C.

    2017-07-01

    Urban planners and stakeholders require knowledge about the effectiveness of city-scale climate adaptation measures in order to develop climate resilient cities and to push forward the political process for the implementation of climate adaptation strategies. This study examines the impact of modifications in orientation of buildings with respect to heat load. Heat load calculation is a mathematical process to determine the best capacity, application and style of HVAC system. The purpose is to ensure energy efficiency while also maximizing comfort inside the building. This study of load calculation is essential for a building because it helps to pick the best orientation and focuses to find an orientation that will reduce energy due to direct solar radiation. One of the factors affecting this assessment is the latitude of the location. The heat gain is effective through walls and fenestration. Improper management through ineffective orientation of the building’s natural heat gain leads to excessive consumption of energy in the form of CL. The total heat gain for the above factors is calculated with the equations and assumptions as per ASHRAE code. After the calculation of heat load for different orientations, the best suited orientation of the building is found. By altering the building to suitable orientation, the dependence on electrical equipment can be minimized and thereby helps in energy conservation.

  17. Steam System Balancing and Tuning for Multifamily Residential Buildings in Chicagoland - Second Year of Data Collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, J.; Ludwig, P.; Brand, L.

    2013-08-01

    Steam heated buildings often suffer from uneven heating as a result of poor control of the amount of steam entering each radiator. In order to satisfy the heating load to the coldest units, other units are overheated. As a result, some tenants complain of being too hot and open their windows in the middle of winter, while others complain of being too cold and are compelled to use supplemental heat sources. Building on previous research, CNT Energy identified 10 test buildings in Chicago and conducted a study to identify best practices for the methodology, typical costs, and energy savings associated with steam system balancing. A package of common steam balancing measures was assembled and data were collected on the buildings before and after these retrofits were installed to investigate the process, challenges, and the cost effectiveness of improving steam systems through improved venting and control systems. The test buildings that received venting upgrades and new control systems showed 10.2% savings on their natural gas heating load, with a simple payback of 5.1 years. The methodologies for and findings from this study are presented in detail in this report. This report has been updated from a version published in August 2012 to include natural gas usage information from the 2012 heating season and updated natural gas savings calculations.

  18. DESIGN SOLUTIONS FOR THERMAL INSULATION OF EXTERIOR WALLS OF CAST-IN-PLACE CONCRETE HIGH-RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS IN CENTRAL REGIONS OF СHINA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bantserova Ol'ga Leonidovna

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A significant portion of the overall heat loss is due to the heat loss through the building envelope. According to the opinions of experts, the surface area of exterior walls has the insulation of about 65 % of the total envelope of apartment buildings; therefore, thermal protection of external walls of buildings is a key issue in ensuring the thermal performance of envelopes of apartment buildings. The author has developed design solutions that assure the thermal protection of exterior walls and that are aimed at identifying the optimal solution in terms of the location of insulation materials, their thermal performance and insulation of exterior walls of apartment buildings in central regions of China. The author presents a comparative analysis of the main methodologies of thermal insulation designated for the exterior walls of multi-storey residential buildings: internal and external insulation, as well as the insulation in-between the wall layers. The analyses of wall designs are based on the insulation performance, thermal insulation performance, methods of mounting different systems of insulation, and cost of work. As a result, practical recommendations originate from the statement that the most optimal designs of exterior walls of monolithic high-rise apartment buildings of central regions of China are those that have insulation on the outside of the building. They include layers of insulation made of extruded polystyrene, which is currently planned for use in the construction of high-rise monolithic residential buildings in central China.

  19. Pseudo-dynamic tests on masonry residential buildings seismically retrofitted by precast steel reinforced concrete walls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenfeng; Wang, Tao; Chen, Xi; Zhong, Xiang; Pan, Peng

    2017-07-01

    A retrofitting technology using precast steel reinforced concrete (PSRC) panels is developed to improve the seismic performance of old masonry buildings. The PSRC panels are built up as an external PSRC wall system surrounding the existing masonry building. The PSRC walls are well connected to the existing masonry building, which provides enough confinement to effectively improve the ductility, strength, and stiffenss of old masonry structures. The PSRC panels are prefabricated in a factory, significantly reducing the situ work and associated construction time. To demonstrate the feasibility and mechanical effectivenss of the proposed retrofitting system, a full-scale five-story specimen was constructed. The retrofitting process was completed within five weeks with very limited indoor operation. The specimen was then tested in the lateral direction, which could potentially suffer sigifnicant damage in a large earthquake. The technical feasibility, construction workability, and seismic performance were thoroughly demonstrated by a full-scale specimen construction and pseudo-dynamic tests.

  20. Life-cycle based dynamic assessment of mineral wool insulation in a Danish residential building application

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sohn, Joshua L.; Kalbar, Pradip; Banta, Gary T.

    2017-01-01

    There has been significant change in the way buildings are constructed and the way building energy performance is evaluated. Focus on solely the use phase of a building is beginning to be replaced by a life-cycle based performance assessment. This study assesses the environmental impact trade...... regarding change in Danish energy supply was used in the analysis. This novel approach of generating inventory for Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) helped to refine an understanding of optimal insulation levels. The findings of this study discourage the over-insulation of houses connected to the district heating...... grid, which is potentially promoted at present in Danish regulation. It is further concluded that improvement of the mineral wool insulation production process could allow for greater levels of environmentally beneficial insulation and would also help in reducing the overall environmental burden from...

  1. Cost and Benefit Tradeoffs in Using a Shade Tree for Residential Building Energy Saving

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sappinandana Akamphon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Global warming and urban heat islands result in increased cooling energy consumption in buildings. Previous literature shows that planting trees to shade a building can reduce its cooling load. This work proposes a model to determine the cost effectiveness and profitability of planting a shade tree by considering both its potential to reduce cooling energy and its purchase and maintenance cost. A comparison between six selected tree species is used for illustration. Using growth rates, crown sizes, and shading coefficients, cooling energy savings from the tree shades are computed using an industrial-standard building energy simulation program, offset by costs of purchase, planting, and maintenance of these trees. The result shows that most worthwhile tree to plant should have high shading coefficient and moderate crown size to maximize shading while keeping the maintenance costs manageable.

  2. Decreasing of energy consumption for space heating in existing residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamov, S.; Zlateva, M.; Gechkov, N.

    2000-01-01

    An analysis is for the technical possibilities for reducing the energy consumption in existing buildings by means of the heat control and measurement. The basic performances of the heat capacity control methods, of the hierarchy structure of the control and of the heat measurement technologies are presented. This paper also presents the results from the long-term investigation of energy consumption for heating. The results area consist of three typical and uniform buildings in the city of Kazanlak (Bulgaria). The outcome of the investigation provides a valuable basis for future decisions to be made concerning reconstruction of heating installations and enables the results to be transferred. (Authors)

  3. Energy Analysis of a Complementary Heating System Combining Solar Energy and Coal for a Rural Residential Building in Northwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Xiaofei; Abdalla Osman, Yassir Idris; Feng, Rong; Zhang, Xuemin

    2018-01-01

    In order to utilize solar energy to meet the heating demands of a rural residential building during the winter in the northwestern region of China, a hybrid heating system combining solar energy and coal was built. Multiple experiments to monitor its performance were conducted during the winter in 2014 and 2015. In this paper, we analyze the efficiency of the energy utilization of the system and describe a prototype model to determine the thermal efficiency of the coal stove in use. Multiple linear regression was adopted to present the dual function of multiple factors on the daily heat-collecting capacity of the solar water heater; the heat-loss coefficient of the storage tank was detected as well. The prototype model shows that the average thermal efficiency of the stove is 38%, which means that the energy input for the building is divided between the coal and solar energy, 39.5% and 60.5% energy, respectively. Additionally, the allocation of the radiation of solar energy projecting into the collecting area of the solar water heater was obtained which showed 49% loss with optics and 23% with the dissipation of heat, with only 28% being utilized effectively. PMID:29651424

  4. Design and Analysis of an Optical Coupler for Concentrated Solar Light Using Optical Fibers in Residential Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afshin Aslian

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Concentrated sunlight that is transmitted by fiber optics has been used for generating electricity, heat, and daylight. On the other hand, multijunction photovoltaic cells provide high efficiency for generating electricity from highly concentrated sunlight. This study deals with designing and simulating a high-efficiency coupler, employing a mathematical model to connect sunlight with fiber optics for multiple applications. The coupler concentrates and distributes irradiated light from a primary concentrator. In this study, a parabolic dish was used as the primary concentrator, a coupler that contains nine components called a compound truncated pyramid and a cone (CTPC, all of which were mounted on a plate. The material of both the CTPC and the plate was BK7 optical glass. Fiber optics cables and multijunction photovoltaic cells were connected to the cylindrical part of the CTPC. The fibers would transmit the light to the building to provide heat and daylight, whereas multijunction photovoltaic cells generate electricity. Theoretical and simulation results showed high performance of the designed coupler. The efficiency of the coupler was as high as 92%, whereas the rim angle of the dish increased to an optimum angle. Distributed sunlight in the coupler increased the flexibility and simplicity of the design, resulting in a system that provided concentrated electricity, heat, and lighting for residential buildings.

  5. Achievements and suggestions of heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit for existing residential buildings in northern heating regions of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Ding; Zhe Tian; Yong Wu; Neng Zhu

    2011-01-01

    In order to promote energy efficiency and emission reduction, the importance of improving building energy efficiency received sufficient attention from Chinese Government. The heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit for existing residential buildings of 0.15 billion m 2 in northern heating regions of China was initiated in 2007 and completed successfully at the end of 2010. This article introduced the background and outline of the retrofit project during the period of 11th five-year plan. Numerous achievements that received by retrofit such as environmental protection effect, improvement of indoor environment, improvement of heating system, investment guidance effect, promotion of relevant industries and increasing chances of employment were concluded. Valuable experience that acquired from the retrofit project during the period of 11th five-year plan was also summarized in this article. By analyzing the main problems emerged in the past, pertinent suggestions were put forward to promote a larger scale and more efficient retrofit project in the period of 12th five-year plan. - Highlights: →Successful implementation of a retrofit project in China is introduced. → Significance of the project contributing to emission reduction is analyzed. →Achievements are summarized and future suggestions are put forward.

  6. Assessing residential building values in Spain for risk analyses - application to the landslide hazard in the Autonomous Community of Valencia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarino, I.; Torrijo, F. J.; Palencia, S.; Gielen, E.

    2014-11-01

    This paper proposes a method of valuing the stock of residential buildings in Spain as the first step in assessing possible damage caused to them by natural hazards. For the purposes of the study we had access to the SIOSE (the Spanish Land Use and Cover Information System), a high-resolution land-use model, as well as to a report on the financial valuations of this type of building throughout Spain. Using dasymetric disaggregation processes and GIS techniques we developed a geolocalized method of obtaining this information, which was the exposure variable in the general risk assessment formula. Then, with the application over a hazard map, the risk value can be easily obtained. An example of its application is given in a case study that assesses the risk of a landslide in the entire 23 200 km2 of the Valencia Autonomous Community (NUT2), the results of which are analysed by municipal areas (LAU2) for the years 2005 and 2009.

  7. Assessing residential buildings value in Spain for risk analyses. Application to the landslide hazard in the Autonomous Community of Valencia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cantarino, I.; Torrijo, F. J.; Palencia, S.; Gielen, E.

    2014-05-01

    This paper proposes a method of valuing the stock of residential buildings in Spain as the first step in assessing possible damage caused to them by natural hazards. For the purposes of the study we had access to the SIOSE (the Spanish Land Use and Cover Information System), a high-resolution land-use model, as well as to a report on the financial valuations of this type of buildings throughout Spain. Using dasymetric disaggregation processes and GIS techniques we developed a geolocalized method of obtaining this information, which was the exposure variable in the general risk assessment formula. If hazard maps and risk assessment methods - the other variables - are available, the risk value can easily be obtained. An example of its application is given in a case study that assesses the risk of a landslide in the entire 23 200 km2 of the Valencia Autonomous Community (NUT2), the results of which are analyzed by municipal areas (LAU2) for the years 2005 and 2009.

  8. Energy Analysis of a Complementary Heating System Combining Solar Energy and Coal for a Rural Residential Building in Northwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhen, Xiaofei; Li, Jinping; Abdalla Osman, Yassir Idris; Feng, Rong; Zhang, Xuemin; Kang, Jian

    2018-01-01

    In order to utilize solar energy to meet the heating demands of a rural residential building during the winter in the northwestern region of China, a hybrid heating system combining solar energy and coal was built. Multiple experiments to monitor its performance were conducted during the winter in 2014 and 2015. In this paper, we analyze the efficiency of the energy utilization of the system and describe a prototype model to determine the thermal efficiency of the coal stove in use. Multiple linear regression was adopted to present the dual function of multiple factors on the daily heat-collecting capacity of the solar water heater; the heat-loss coefficient of the storage tank was detected as well. The prototype model shows that the average thermal efficiency of the stove is 38%, which means that the energy input for the building is divided between the coal and solar energy, 39.5% and 60.5% energy, respectively. Additionally, the allocation of the radiation of solar energy projecting into the collecting area of the solar water heater was obtained which showed 49% loss with optics and 23% with the dissipation of heat, with only 28% being utilized effectively.

  9. Future Residential Water Heating Prospects in Brazil: A Scenario Building Ground Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe de Albuquerque Sgarbi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, electricity is the prime energy carrier for bath shower heating purposes. However, since analyses indicate that expansion of the country´s electricity generation capacity shall spruce from an increased non-renewable sources’ stake in detriment to that of hydroelectricity, high electricity consumption rates that spring from home end uses of the kind have drawn the attention of those who are involved with local energy planning. Furthermore, massive use of electric showers in a short timeframe largely drive electricity demands to culminate in peak loads. For water heating purposes, this context has favoured an alternative to electricity, deemed feasible from both an efficiency and energy infrastructure standpoint: promote fuel gas consumption (liquefied petroleum gas and natural gas in particular. A scenario methodology is herein employed to map electric shower use related variables and players and assess the future behaviour of the core elements that condition resorting to this technology. Thereafter, strategies and opportunities to promote the rational consumption of the country´s power sources ground on the increased use of fuel gases for residential water heating purposes are discussed.

  10. Data-Driven Baseline Estimation of Residential Buildings for Demand Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saehong Park

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The advent of advanced metering infrastructure (AMI generates a large volume of data related with energy service. This paper exploits data mining approach for customer baseline load (CBL estimation in demand response (DR management. CBL plays a significant role in measurement and verification process, which quantifies the amount of demand reduction and authenticates the performance. The proposed data-driven baseline modeling is based on the unsupervised learning technique. Specifically we leverage both the self organizing map (SOM and K-means clustering for accurate estimation. This two-level approach efficiently reduces the large data set into representative weight vectors in SOM, and then these weight vectors are clustered by K-means clustering to find the load pattern that would be similar to the potential load pattern of the DR event day. To verify the proposed method, we conduct nationwide scale experiments where three major cities’ residential consumption is monitored by smart meters. Our evaluation compares the proposed solution with the various types of day matching techniques, showing that our approach outperforms the existing methods by up to a 68.5% lower error rate.

  11. Residential Solar-Based Seasonal Thermal Storage Systems in Cold Climates: Building Envelope and Thermal Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Hugo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of electricity use for heating and domestic hot water in cold climates can be achieved by: (1 reducing the heating loads through the improvement of the thermal performance of house envelopes, and (2 using solar energy through a residential solar-based thermal storage system. First, this paper presents the life cycle energy and cost analysis of a typical one-storey detached house, located in Montreal, Canada. Simulation of annual energy use is performed using the TRNSYS software. Second, several design alternatives with improved thermal resistance for walls, ceiling and windows, increased overall air tightness, and increased window-to-wall ratio of South facing windows are evaluated with respect to the life cycle energy use, life cycle emissions and life cycle cost. The solution that minimizes the energy demand is chosen as a reference house for the study of long-term thermal storage. Third, the computer simulation of a solar heating system with solar thermal collectors and long-term thermal storage capacity is presented. Finally, the life cycle cost and life cycle energy use of the solar combisystem are estimated for flat-plate solar collectors and evacuated tube solar collectors, respectively, for the economic and climatic conditions of this study.

  12. Identification of Parameters Affecting the Variability of Energy Use in Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gianniou, Panagiota; Heller, Alfred; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    2016-01-01

    in space heating demand. Also, the infiltration rate and occupancy behavior play important role on space heating consumption. It was concluded that these findings highly depend on the specific case study and the characteristics of the buildings that are examined. If outdoor climate and location differ from...

  13. Assessing the implementation potential of PCM: the situation for residential buildings in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Entrop, Alexis Gerardus; Halman, Johannes I.M.; Dewulf, Geert P.M.R.; Reinders, Angelina H.M.E.

    2016-01-01

    To be able to come to zero-energy buildings we need to apply multiple Energy Techniques and Measures (ETMs). Phase Change Materials (PCMs) can be considered as one of these ETMs and they seem to have a lot of potential. Due to their latent heat capacity, PCMs can help to store energy of our main

  14. Assesment of Emerging Renewable Energy-based Cogeneration Systems for nZEB Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Carmo, Carolina; Dumont, Olivier; Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    2016-01-01

    Net Zero Energy Buildings (nZEB) imply reduced consumption by means of good insulation, passive strategies and highly efficient energy supply systems. Among others, micro cogeneration systems are considered as one of the system solutions with the highest potential to enable nZEB. These systems en...

  15. Photovoltaic and solar-thermal technologies in residential building codes, tackling building code requirements to overcome the impediments to applying new technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wortman, D.; Echo-Hawk, L. [authors] and Wiechman, J.; Hayter, S.; Gwinner, D. [eds.

    1999-10-04

    This report describes the building code requirements and impediments to applying photovoltaic (PV) and solar-thermal technologies in residential buildings (one- or two-family dwellings). It reviews six modern model building codes that represent the codes to be adopted by most locations in the coming years: International Residential Code, First Draft (IRC), International Energy Conservation Code (IECC), International Mechanical Code (IMC), International Plumbing Code (IPC), International Fuel Gas Code (IFGC), and National Electrical Code (NEC). The IRC may become the basis for many of the building codes in the United States after it is released in 2000, and it references the other codes that will also likely become applicable at that time. These codes are reviewed as they apply to photovoltaic systems in buildings and building-integrated photovoltaic systems and to active-solar domestic hot-water and space-heating systems. The first discussion is on general code issues that impact the s e technologies-for example, solar access and sustainability. Then, secondly, the discussion investigates the relationship of the technologies to the codes, providing examples, while keeping two major issues in mind: How do the codes treat these technologies as building components? and Do the IECC and other codes allow reasonable credit for the energy impacts of the technologies? The codes can impact the implementation of the above technologies in several ways: (1) The technology is not mentioned in the codes. It may be an obstacle to implementing the technology, and the solution is to develop appropriate explicit sections or language in the codes. (2) The technology is discussed by the codes, but the language is confusing or ambiguous. The solution is to clarify the language. (3) The technology is discussed in the codes, but the discussion is spread over several sections or different codes. Practitioners may not easily find all of the relevant material that should be considered. The

  16. Solutions to Improve the Thermal Protection of the Administrative Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostenko Valeriya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available At the end of the 90s, with the introduction of changes in the regulatory documents of the Russian Federation №3 to SNiP II-3-79*, regulatory requirements for thermal protection of buildings were revised towards increase. For this reason, the buildings built till 2000 don't conform to modern requirements. The actual solution of this problem is to carry out works on renovation of facades of the existing buildings with the use of innovative materials. As object of research one of educational cases of Peter the Great St. Petersburg Polytechnic University has been chosen, where by practical consideration the size of the actual thermal resistance of external walls has been determined by heat flux meter, the numerical value of which was significantly lower than the standard values. Based on the obtained data two modern ways of thermal insulation of facades (Ventilated Façade System (VFS and External Thermal Insulation Composite System (ETICS have been analyzed, the assessment of energy saving potential and the discounted payback period of the investments directed to warming of facades has been made.

  17. Grant Writing Skill Building: A Business Administration Curriculum Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankenship, Dianna; Jones, Irma; Lovett, Marvin

    2010-01-01

    This paper reviews the need for grant writing skills within various types of organizations and the resulting proposal for including grant writing within business administration curriculum at the undergraduate and/or graduate levels. An introduction precedes the results of a survey regarding current grant writing courses within AACSB schools of…

  18. A new survey tool to assess pluvial damage to residential buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rözer, Viktor; Spekkers, Matthieu; ten Veldhuis, Marie-Claire; Kreibich, Heidi

    2017-04-01

    Pluvial floods have caused severe damage to urban dwellings in Europe and elsewhere in recent years. These type of flood events are caused by storm events with exceptionally high rainfall rates, which lead to inundation of streets and buildings and are commonly associated with a failure of the urban drainage system. Therefore, pluvial floods often happen with little warning and in areas that are not obviously prone to flooding. With a predicted increase in extreme weather events as well as an ongoing urbanization, pluvial flood damage is expected to increase in the future. So far little research was done on the adverse consequences of pluvial floods, as empirical damage data of pluvial flooding is scarce. Therefore, a newly developed survey tool to assess pluvial flood damage as well as the results of a comparison between two international pluvial flood case studies are presented. The questionnaire used in the two study areas was developed with the aim to create a harmonized transnational pluvial flood damage survey that can potentially be extended to other European countries. New indicator variables have been developed to account for different national and regional standards in building structure, early warning, socio-economic data and recovery. The surveys comprise interviews with 510 households in the Münster area (Germany) and 349 households in Amsterdam (the Netherlands), which were affected by the heavy rainfall events on July 28 2014. The respondents were asked more than 80 questions about the damage to their building structure and contents, as well as on topics such as early warning, emergency and precautionary measures, building properties and hazard characteristics. A comparison of the two surveys revealed strong similarities concerning damage reducing effects and the popularity of precautionary measures, besides significant differences between the mean water levels inside the house as well as the median of the building structure and content damage. A

  19. The importance of historical residential address information in longitudinal studies using administrative health data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youens, David; Preen, David B; Harris, Mark N; Moorin, Rachael E

    2018-02-01

    When information on changes in address or migration of people to or from a study jurisdiction is unavailable in longitudinal studies, issues relating to loss-to-follow-up and misclassification bias may result. This study investigated how estimations of associations between general practitioner (GP) contact and hospital use were affected by incomplete address and migration data. This was a retrospective population-based cohort study of Western Australians from 1990 to 2004. Linked administrative data including mortality records, hospital admissions, primary care and Electoral Roll records were used. Regularity of GP contact, based on the variance of the number of days between GP visits, was calculated for each person-year. Outcomes were the number and costs (A$2014) of diabetes-related hospital admissions in the following year. Models were estimated separately for cohorts where (i) postcode was ascertained at study commencement and held constant, and (ii) postcode and residency within Western Australia were updated with each change of address recorded on the Electoral Roll over the study period. Updating address data reduced total person-years by 11% and changed the distribution of covariates. Estimations of associations between patterns of GP contact and number of hospitalizations changed; the incidence rate ratios measuring the relationship with the most regular GP contact (baseline of those with <2 GP visits) changed from 0.81 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.66-1.00] to 0.42 (95% CI 0.33-0.53) after updating postcode information. Impacts on cost models were smaller, though still statistically significant. Longitudinal studies using administrative data may report biased results if they ignore address changes and migration. Researchers should attempt to link to these data wherever possible, or choose study designs which these issues are less likely to affect. Custodians should be aware that such data can be vital to high quality research. © The Author 2017; all

  20. Loss of residential buildings in the event of a re-awakening of the Laacher See Volcano (Germany)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leder, Jan; Wenzel, Friedemann; Daniell, James E.; Gottschämmer, Ellen

    2017-05-01

    We estimate damage and loss to the residential building stock from tephra fallout for a re-eruption of the Laacher See Volcano in Germany with similar volcanological features as compared to the 10900BCE eruption (VEI = 6) but current population and wind conditions. This eruption was the largest eruption north of the Alps since the Late Quaternary. It generated several fallout fans with proximal deposits of several meters in height. The main cities that would be affected today are Cologne, Bonn, Koblenz and Frankfurt with a total population of at least 2.2 million people. We derive possible wind fields from an analysis of 44years of radiosonde observations provided by the Deutsche Wetterdienst (DWD). As they vary significantly with season, the loss numbers and patterns reflect this dependency. We use the HAZMAP software to calculate the spatial distribution of tephra. HAZMAP simulates the tephra distribution using a 2D advection-diffusion-sedimentation model. The tephra load as a hazard parameter is used to quantify roof and building damage. As the physical parameter for damage due to snow loads is comparable, we utilise the available knowledge on snow load damage to buildings and derive vulnerability curves that are representative within a geo-cell of 500 × 500m. Available information on the replacement values in each geo-cell are derived and loss estimation is undertaken. Depending on the wind conditions, we calculate a range of 18 to 27 billion Euros for the various scenarios. These absolute numbers translate to Mean Damage Ratios (MDR, ratio of absolute loss to Capital Stock in the affected area) of about 4%. This is very close to the MDR of the 1991 VEI 6 Pinatubo eruption in the Philippines.

  1. Rational designing of the internal water supply system in reconstructed residential buildings of mass standard series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlov Evgeny

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The issues of water supply system reconstruction in mass series buildings are reviewed with consideration of water- and resource saving. Principal points for location of plumbing cells in apartments, arrangement of water devices and wastewater receivers, selection of pipelines for reconstructed water line are described. Comparative analysis of design variants of inner water line before and following reconstruction are given. It was found that applying the developed system design approaches the head losses in the inner water supply line will be significantly decreased as well as the water mains length will be decreased with material and installation saving. Based on the data the conclusions on necessity to review standard arrangement solutions of water supply systems in the reconstructed buildings were made. Recommendations on water loss reduction in the system by installation of special water saving fittings on water devices and touchless faucets.

  2. Effect of passive cooling strategies on overheating in low energy residential buildings for Danish climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simone, Angela; Avantaggiato, Marta; de Carli, Michele

    2014-01-01

    Climate changes have progressively produced an increase of outdoors temperature resulting in tangible warmer summers even in cold climate regions. An increased interest for passive cooling strategies is rising in order to overcome the newly low energy buildings’ overheating issue. The growing level...... creating not negligible thermal discomfort. In the present work the effect of passive strategies, such as solar shading and natural night-time ventilation, are evaluated through computer simulations. The analyses are performed for 1½-storey single-family house in Copenhagen’s climate. The main result...... of air-tightness plays in low-energy buildings a double-acting role: reduction of energy demand and lack of adequate infiltration rate. In particular, the last one combined with higher outside air temperatures brings these new concepts buildings to progressively experience higher indoor temperatures...

  3. Steam System Balancing and Tuning for Multifamily Residential Buildings in Chicagoland - Second Year of Data Collection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jayne [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States); Ludwig, Peter [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States); Brand, Larry [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit, Chicago, IL (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Steam heated buildings often suffer from uneven heating as a result of poor control of the amount of steam entering each radiator. In order to satisfy the heating load to the coldest units, other units are overheated. As a result, some tenants complain of being too hot and open their windows in the middle of winter, while others complain of being too cold and are compelled to use supplemental heat sources.

  4. Smart Residential Buildings as Learning Agent Organizations in the Internet of Things

    OpenAIRE

    Schatten, Markus

    2014-01-01

    Background: Smart buildings are one of the major application areas of technologies bound to embedded systems and the Internet of things. Such systems have to be adaptable and flexible in order to provide better services to its residents. Modelling such systems is an open research question. Herein, the question is approached using an organizational modelling methodology bound to the principles of the learning organization. Objectives: Providing a higher level of abstraction for understanding, ...

  5. Effective Moisture Penetration Depth Model for Residential Buildings: Sensitivity Analysis and Guidance on Model Inputs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woods, Jason D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Winkler, Jonathan M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2018-01-31

    Moisture buffering of building materials has a significant impact on the building's indoor humidity, and building energy simulations need to model this buffering to accurately predict the humidity. Researchers requiring a simple moisture-buffering approach typically rely on the effective-capacitance model, which has been shown to be a poor predictor of actual indoor humidity. This paper describes an alternative two-layer effective moisture penetration depth (EMPD) model and its inputs. While this model has been used previously, there is a need to understand the sensitivity of this model to uncertain inputs. In this paper, we use the moisture-adsorbent materials exposed to the interior air: drywall, wood, and carpet. We use a global sensitivity analysis to determine which inputs are most influential and how the model's prediction capability degrades due to uncertainty in these inputs. We then compare the model's humidity prediction with measured data from five houses, which shows that this model, and a set of simple inputs, can give reasonable prediction of the indoor humidity.

  6. Integral energy concepts for office and residential buildings; Integrale Energiekonzepte fuer Buero- und Wohngebaeude

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Velten, W.

    1998-06-01

    It has been confirmed by practical project experience that integral energy concepts are an excellent basis for the construction of energy-efficient buildings. In the extreme case buildings can even be self-sufficient in their energy supply. Uniting the responsibility for the overall energy and technology concept in the hands of a single contractor can help reduce frictional losses between those involved in the planning as well costs. A good example of this is the use of a simulation calculation for the prescribed demonstration of proper heat insulation. The presented projects show that it is possible to construct ecologically answerable buildings at attractively low costs. The presented concepts appear particularly convincing from the viewpoint of long-term maintenance of value and user-specific advantages such as agreeable working conditions. [Deutsch] Die konkreten Projekterfahrungen bestaetigen, dass durch integrale Energiekonzepte sowohl im Verwaltungs- als auch im Wohnungsbau hervorragende Voraussetzungen fuer energiesparende Gebaeude geschaffen werden koennen. Im Extremfall kann sogar eine autarke Energieversorgung erreicht werden. Durch Zusammenfassung der Gesamtverantwortung fuer das Energie- und Technikkonzept in einer Hand koennen Reibungsverluste zwischen den Planungsbeteiligten reduziert und Kosten gesenkt werden. Ein Beispiel hierfuer ist die Verbindung des vorgeschriebenen Waermeschutznachweises mit einer fuer alle Beteiligten wesentlich aussagekraeftigeren Simulationsrechnung. Die vorgestellten Projekte zeigen, dass oekologisch sinnvolle Gebaeude auch zu oekonomisch attraktiven Kosten erstellt werden koennen, wobei insbesondere der Aspekt des langfristigen Werterhalts und die nutzerspezifischen Vorteile, z.B. durch angenehmere Arbeitsbedingungen, fuer die vorgestellten Konzepte spricht. (orig.)

  7. Spergilli on Building Partitions Infested with Moulds in Residential Housing and Public Utility Premises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piontek, Marlena; Łuszczyńska, Katarzyna; Lechów, Hanna

    2017-12-01

    Aspergilli constitute a serious risk to the health of the inhabitants of infested rooms. Mycological analysis conducted in buildings infected with moulds in the area of the Lubuskie province (Poland) demonstrated the presence of 9 species of Aspergillus moulds: A. carbonarius A. clavatus, A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, A. ochraceus, A. terreus, A ustus and A. versicolor. The highest frequency (4 - frequently) was observed in the case of A. versicolor, while frequency 3 (fairly frequently) was characteristic of such species as A. flavus and A. niger. A. ustus was encountered with frequency 2 (individually), while frequency 1 (sporadically) referred to four species: A. carbonarius, A. clavatus, A. fumigatus and A. terreus. Because Aspergillus versicolor occurs with the highest frequency in buildings, and as a consequence of this, synthesizes toxic and carcinogenic sterigmatocystin (ST), it constitutes the greatest risk to the inhabitants of the infested premises. All species of Aspergillus present on building partitions are able to synthesise mycotoxins, are pathogens and may cause allergies.

  8. Advanced phase change materials and systems for solar passive heating and cooling of residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salyer, I.O.; Sircar, A.K.; Dantiki, S.

    1988-01-01

    During the last three years under the sponsorship of the DOE Solar Passive Division, the University of Dayton Research Institute (UDRI) has investigated four phase change material (PCM) systems for utility in thermal energy storage for solar passive heating and cooling applications. From this research on the basis of cost, performance, containment, and environmental acceptability, we have selected as our current and most promising series of candidate phase change materials, C-15 to C-24 linear crystalline alkyl hydrocarbons. The major part of the research during this contract period was directed toward the following three objectives. Find, test, and develop low-cost effective phase change materials (PCM) that melt and freeze sharply in the comfort temperature range of 73--77{degree}F for use in solar passive heating and cooling of buildings. Define practical materials and processes for fire retarding plasterboard/PCM building products. Develop cost-effective methods for incorporating PCM into building construction materials (concrete, plasterboard, etc.) which will lead to the commercial manufacture and sale of PCM-containing products resulting in significant energy conservation.

  9. Multi-Objective Optimization for Energy Performance Improvement of Residential Buildings: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangji Li

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Numerous conflicting criteria exist in building design optimization, such as energy consumption, greenhouse gas emission and indoor thermal performance. Different simulation-based optimization strategies and various optimization algorithms have been developed. A few of them are analyzed and compared in solving building design problems. This paper presents an efficient optimization framework to facilitate optimization designs with the aid of commercial simulation software and MATLAB. The performances of three optimization strategies, including the proposed approach, GenOpt method and artificial neural network (ANN method, are investigated using a case study of a simple building energy model. Results show that the proposed optimization framework has competitive performances compared with the GenOpt method. Further, in another practical case, four popular multi-objective algorithms, e.g., the non-dominated sorting genetic algorithm (NSGA-II, multi-objective particle swarm optimization (MOPSO, the multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA and multi-objective differential evolution (MODE, are realized using the propose optimization framework and compared with three criteria. Results indicate that MODE achieves close-to-optimal solutions with the best diversity and execution time. An uncompetitive result is achieved by the MOPSO in this case study.

  10. Next-generation heat pump systems in residential buildings and commercial premises; Naesta generations vaermepumpssystem i bostaeder och lokaler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haglund Stignor, Caroline; Lindahl, Markus; Alsbjer, Markus; Nordman, Roger; Rolfsman, Lennart; Axell, Monica

    2009-07-01

    Summarising, the following conclusions can be drawn from this work. - Installation of a heat pump system is a very efficient way of reducing a building's energy demand without making any greater changes to the building's climate screen, and can therefore assist Sweden's achievement of its energy efficiency improvement targets. - A new generation of cost-effective smaller heat pumps is needed for installation in new detached houses or those being renovated and upgraded. - There also seems to be an excellent market potential for heat pumps that are larger than has previously been common: there should be good prospects for selling them for use in apartment buildings and in commercial or similar premises. - Heat pump installations are particularly competitive in applications where there are simultaneous heating and cooling demands in the property, and also in those cases where heating is required for most of the year and cooling for some other part of the year. If these suggested system arrangements are to be fully realised, there will be a need for further research in certain cases. Particularly, there is a need for research and development of more efficient pumps, fans and speed-controlled compressors in order to get such products on to the market. Performance measurements and follow-up of real systems are needed in order to obtain a clear picture of the efficiency of both present-day and proposed systems. This knowledge is essential for further development of systems, not only for residential buildings but also, even more importantly, for commercial and similar premises. Actual heating and cooling requirements in different types of non-residential premises need to be known more accurately in order to decide how systems should be controlled in order to minimise total energy use. Much indicates that future detached houses will be more energy-efficient, which could have the undesirable result of greater use of direct electric heating, as the investment

  11. Validation of models of users' window opening behaviour in residential buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corgnati, Stefano P.; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Fabi, Valentina

    2013-01-01

    The characterisation of window opening behaviour is crucial for suitable prediction of building performance (energy consumption, indoor environmental quality, etc.) by means of simulations. In this paper, data from a measurement campaign was used to validate three models of window opening behaviour....... Data from the measurement campaign was used as input in the models to calculate the probability of opening and closing windows. Afterwards, the validation was carried out by comparing the predicted probabilities with the actual measured state of the windows in the dwellings....

  12. Life Cycle Cost Analysis of a Multi-Storey Residential Net Zero Energy Building in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marszal, Anna Joanna; Heiselberg, Per

    2011-01-01

    renewable energy technologies? This analysis adopts the LCC methodology and uses a multi-family Net ZEB to find the answer to this question. Moreover, it looks at the issue from the building owner’s perspective, hence it should be seen as a private economy analysis. The study includes three levels of energy......It is well recognized that in the long run, the implementation of energy efficiency measures is a more cost-optimal solution in contrast to taking no action. However, the Net ZEB concept raises a new issue: how far should we go with energy efficiency measures and when should we start to apply...

  13. Integration of a magnetocaloric heat pump in a low-energy residential building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johra, Hicham

    2018-01-01

    The EnovHeat project aims at developing an innovative heat pump system based on the magnetocaloric effect and active magnetic regenerator technology to provide for the heating needs of a single family house in Denmark. Unlike vapor-compression devices, magnetocaloric heat pumps use the reversible...... magnetocaloric effect of a solid refrigerant to build a cooling/heating cycle. It has the potential for high coefficient of performance, more silent operation and efficient part-load control. After presenting the operation principles of the magnetocaloric device and the different models used in the current...

  14. Facilities Management Service Delivery in Public and Private High Rise Residential Buildings in Nigeria: A case study of Eko Court Complex and Niger Towers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olanrele O. O.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study assessed and compared the delivery of Facilities Management (FM services in public and private high rise residential buildings in Lagos, Nigeria. While some facilities or services may not be available in some public estates, the efficiency of the available ones is inadequate in comparison with the adequacy and efficiency of services provided in private estates. The objectives set for the study include identification of services that are provided in the case studies, service delivery method, and an assessment of the residents’ satisfaction of the services. This study adopted questionnaire survey for collection of data. 127 questionnaires were distributed to the residents of the case studies and 93 were returned. Three of which were discarded for incompleteness, thus 90 were analysed. The study found that most but not all of the facilities services expected in high rise buildings are available in the case studies and the services are outsourced under a standard Service Level Agreement. The service delivery in private high rise residential building is better than the public residential high rise buildings as revealed by the study. The study recommends improved standardization of services, customized services and meeting customer’s expectation for improved service delivery.

  15. Augmenting natural ventilation using solar heat and free cool energy for residential buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. B. Geetha

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In many urban buildings ventilation is not sufficient that will increase the temperature and also create unhealthy atmosphere inside the room. In such buildings artificially induced ventilation through freely available energy promote comfort conditions by reducing the temperature by 2 to 3°C and also creating good circulation of fresh air inside the room. In the present work the concept of improving the ventilation by excess hot energy available during summer days from the solar flat plate collector and by storing cool energy available during the early morning hour in the Phase Change Material (PCM based storage system is attempted. An experimental setup is made to study the effect of improvement in natural ventilation and the results are reported. A visible reduction in temperature is observed through circulation of air from the bottom side of the room to the roof of the house using the stored hot and cool energy. A CFD analysis is also carried out using ANSYS-CFX software to simulate and evaluate the mass flow of air at the inlet and at the selected RTD location by matching the transient temperature profile of the simulated result with the experimental results at the selected RTD location.

  16. Educational Administration as National Capacity Building: Towards South Korea Becoming a Creative Learning State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macpherson, Reynold; Sun Hyung, Park

    2015-01-01

    This philosophy paper proposes that a primary purpose of Educational Administration, as a field of study, research and practice in South Korea, becomes national capacity building. It does this by evaluating the current scope of Educational Administration against the need for a new national education policy to help South Korea make the transition…

  17. An Efficient Approach for Energy Consumption Optimization and Management in Residential Building Using Artificial Bee Colony and Fuzzy Logic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazli Wahid

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The energy management in residential buildings according to occupant’s requirement and comfort is of vital importance. There are many proposals in the literature addressing the issue of user’s comfort and energy consumption (management with keeping different parameters in consideration. In this paper, we have utilized artificial bee colony (ABC optimization algorithm for maximizing user comfort and minimizing energy consumption simultaneously. We propose a complete user friendly and energy efficient model with different components. The user set parameters and the environmental parameters are inputs of the ABC, and the optimized parameters are the output of the ABC. The error differences between the environmental parameters and the ABC optimized parameters are inputs of fuzzy controllers, which give the required energy as the outputs. The purpose of the optimization algorithm is to maximize the comfort index and minimize the error difference between the user set parameters and the environmental parameters, which ultimately decreases the power consumption. The experimental results show that the proposed model is efficient in achieving high comfort index along with minimized energy consumption.

  18. Uncertainty analysis of daily potable water demand on the performance evaluation of rainwater harvesting systems in residential buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Arthur Santos; Ghisi, Enedir

    2016-09-15

    The objective of this paper is to perform a sensitivity analysis of design variables and an uncertainty analysis of daily potable water demand to evaluate the performance of rainwater harvesting systems in residential buildings. Eight cities in Brazil with different rainfall patterns were analysed. A numeric experiment was performed by means of computer simulation of rainwater harvesting. A sensitivity analysis was performed using variance-based indices for identifying the most important design parameters for rainwater harvesting systems when assessing the potential for potable water savings and underground tank capacity sizing. The uncertainty analysis was performed for different scenarios of potable water demand with stochastic variations in a normal distribution with different coefficients of variation throughout the simulated period. The results have shown that different design variables, such as potable water demand, number of occupants, rainwater demand, and roof area are important for obtaining the ideal underground tank capacity and estimating the potential for potable water savings. The stochastic variations on the potable water demand caused amplitudes of up to 4.8% on the potential for potable water savings and 9.4% on the ideal underground tank capacity. Average amplitudes were quite low for all cities. However, some combinations of parameters resulted in large amplitude of uncertainty and difference from uniform distribution for tank capacities and potential for potable water savings. Stochastic potable water demand generated low uncertainties in the performance evaluation of rainwater harvesting systems; therefore, uniform distribution could be used in computer simulation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Integration of a magnetocaloric heat pump in a low-energy residential building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johra, Hicham; Filonenko, Konstantin; Heiselberg, Per

    2018-01-01

    magnetocaloric effect of a solid refrigerant to build a cooling/heating cycle. It has the potential for high coefficient of performance, more silent operation and efficient part-load control. After presenting the operation principles of the magnetocaloric device and the different models used in the current......The EnovHeat project aims at developing an innovative heat pump system based on the magnetocaloric effect and active magnetic regenerator technology to provide for the heating needs of a single family house in Denmark. Unlike vapor-compression devices, magnetocaloric heat pumps use the reversible...... heat pump can deliver 2600 W of heating power with an appreciable average seasonal system COP of 3.93. On variable part-load operation with a simple fluid flow controller, it can heat up an entire house with an average seasonal system COP of 1.84....

  20. Modeling of an Air Conditioning System with Geothermal Heat Pump for a Residential Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Cocchi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The need to address climate change caused by greenhouse gas emissions attaches great importance to research aimed at using renewable energy. Geothermal energy is an interesting alternative concerning the production of energy for air conditioning of buildings (heating and cooling, through the use of geothermal heat pumps. In this work a model has been developed in order to simulate an air conditioning system with geothermal heat pump. A ground source heat pump (GSHP uses the shallow ground as a source of heat, thus taking advantage of its seasonally moderate temperatures. GSHP must be coupled with geothermal exchangers. The model leads to design optimization of geothermal heat exchangers and to verify the operation of the geothermal plant.

  1. Economic viability of a residential building integrated photovoltaic generator in South Africa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziuku, Sosten; Meyer, Edson L. [Fort Hare Institute of Technology, University of Fort Hare, Private Bag X1314, Alice 5700 (South Africa)

    2012-07-01

    A photovoltaic (PV) generator was integrated onto the north facing roof of an energy efficient house in South Africa. The building integrated photovoltaic generator (BIPV) supplies power to the household loads and the grid and is also the roof facade. This paper presents an economic evaluation of the viability of the BIPV system using methods of investment analysis. The capital cost and life cycle cost of energy were found to be ZAR 52 631-58/kWp and ZAR 1-94/kWh respectively. The payback period was 8 years and adjusted internal rate of return 9.3%. Parametric sensitivity analysis revealed that a 50% decrease in module price results in a 29% reduction in life cycle cost of energy and more than 50% reduction in payback period.

  2. Micro combined heat and power operating on renewable energy for residential building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoun, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    The building sector consumes more than 43% of the total national energy consumption in France leading to more than 25% of CO 2 emissions associated to this energy consumption. A large number of options exist to limit CO 2 emissions and to improve the performance of buildings. One of these options is developed in this thesis, the use of renewable energies (solar and biomass) in combined production of heat and power. Conventional systems of combined heat and power production are briefly analyzed. The major part of this work has been focused on the development of a micro-CHP system based on an organic Rankine cycle operating on renewable energies intermittent and non-intermittent (solar and wood). The working fluids have been analyzed to allow reaching high thermodynamic performance. The different promising technologies, for each components of the system are identified, depending on the working fluid. A special test bench has been designed and realized to test and characterize an oil-free vapor scroll expander suitable for our application. The different components have been sized using computerized tools developed for the modeling of the Organic Rankine cycle. A dynamic simulation tool has been developed to simulate the annual performance of the micro-CHP system operating under different climate conditions and thermal loads. Results show that the micro-CHP system could save more than 40% of the primary energy consumption and up to 60% of CO 2 emissions. The Levelized electricity cost has been calculated using economic analysis; results show that the electricity cost (50 c-euros/kWhel) is still high compared to other technologies. (author)

  3. Analysis of federal policy options for improving US lighting energy efficiency: Commercial and residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, B.A.; McMahon, J.E.; Mills, E.; Chan, P.; Chan, T.W.; Eto, J.H.; Jennings, J.D.; Koomey, J.G.; Lo, K.W.; Lecar, M.; Price, L.; Rubinstein, F.; Sezgen, O.; Wenzel, T.

    1992-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized the opportunity to achieve energy, economic, and environmental benefits by promoting energy-efficient lighting through federal policies, including lighting standards, financial incentives, and information programs. To assist in this process, the Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy`s Office of Codes and Standards invited Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to assess prospective national impacts for a variety of policy options. Some progress has already been made in developing lighting policies at both the federal and state levels. The US DOE`s Office of Building Technologies has evaluated lighting efficiency incentives as part of its analysis for the National Energy Strategy. Fluorescent and incandescent lamp standards are included in the national Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486, October 24, 1992). A few states have analyzed or implemented lamp and luminaire standards. Many policy-related issues merit further investigation. For example, there is considerable debate over issues such as mandatory or voluntary standards versus component labeling and other education-oriented strategies. Several different technologies are involved that interact with each other-lamps (incandescent, compact fluorescent, and HID), ballasts (for fluorescent and HID lamps), and fixtures with reflectors and lenses. Control systems and operation patterns must also be considered (timers, automated dimming, or occupancy sensors). Lighting applications are diverse, ranging from offices, restaurants, hallways, hospital operating rooms, to exterior lights. Lighting energy use influences heating and cooling requirements in buildings. Successful lighting system design must also address interactions between architectural design elements and daylighting availability. Proper system installation and ongoing operation and maintenance are crucial. The economic aspects of the preceding points must also be considered for policy making.

  4. Analysis of federal policy options for improving US lighting energy efficiency: Commercial and residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atkinson, B.A.; McMahon, J.E.; Mills, E.; Chan, P.; Chan, T.W.; Eto, J.H.; Jennings, J.D.; Koomey, J.G.; Lo, K.W.; Lecar, M.; Price, L.; Rubinstein, F.; Sezgen, O.; Wenzel, T.

    1992-12-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) has recognized the opportunity to achieve energy, economic, and environmental benefits by promoting energy-efficient lighting through federal policies, including lighting standards, financial incentives, and information programs. To assist in this process, the Office of Conservation and Renewable Energy's Office of Codes and Standards invited Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory to assess prospective national impacts for a variety of policy options. Some progress has already been made in developing lighting policies at both the federal and state levels. The US DOE's Office of Building Technologies has evaluated lighting efficiency incentives as part of its analysis for the National Energy Strategy. Fluorescent and incandescent lamp standards are included in the national Energy Policy Act of 1992 (P.L. 102-486, October 24, 1992). A few states have analyzed or implemented lamp and luminaire standards. Many policy-related issues merit further investigation. For example, there is considerable debate over issues such as mandatory or voluntary standards versus component labeling and other education-oriented strategies. Several different technologies are involved that interact with each other-lamps (incandescent, compact fluorescent, and HID), ballasts (for fluorescent and HID lamps), and fixtures with reflectors and lenses. Control systems and operation patterns must also be considered (timers, automated dimming, or occupancy sensors). Lighting applications are diverse, ranging from offices, restaurants, hallways, hospital operating rooms, to exterior lights. Lighting energy use influences heating and cooling requirements in buildings. Successful lighting system design must also address interactions between architectural design elements and daylighting availability. Proper system installation and ongoing operation and maintenance are crucial. The economic aspects of the preceding points must also be considered for policy making.

  5. SIZING AND COSTING OPTIMISATION OF A TYPICAL WIND/PV HYBRID ELECTRICITY GENERATION SYSTEM FOR A TYPICAL RESIDENTIAL BUILDING IN URBAN ARMIDALE NSW, AUSTRALIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser Maklad

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the wind and solar electricity generation availability and potentiality for residential buildings in Armidale NSW, Australia. The main purpose of this study is to design an appropriate wind-PV hybrid system to cover the electricity consumption of typical residential buildings of various occupancy rates and relevant various average electrical daily consumption. In order to do achieve that, monthly average solar irradiance monthly average wind speed historical data observed at weather station belongs to the Australian bureau of meteorology in Armidale town over a fourteen years period from 1997–2010. Simulation of solar photovoltaic panels and wind turbines were conducted to obtain the optimal hybrid system sizing and best efficient with lowest cost. Correlations between the solar and wind power data were carried out on an hourly, daily, and monthly basis. It is shown that the hybrid system can be applied for the efficient and economic utilization of wind and solar renewable energy sources.

  6. Feasibility and potential of thermal demand side management in residential buildings considering different developments in the German energy market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolisz, Henryk; Punkenburg, Carl; Streblow, Rita; Müller, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A scenario analysis for the German energy market in the year 2030 is performed. • Growing demand for flexible electric capacities is identified in all scenarios. • Significant potential for domestic demand side management is identified. • A distinct potential for dynamic operation of domestic supply systems is found. • The necessity for a quick introduction of smart metering and control is found. - Abstract: A transition in the electricity market is required to manage the volatility of increasing renewable energy generation. These fluctuations can be faced with flexible consumption through Demand Side Management (DSM), establishment of further centralized storage capacities and provisioning of dynamic back up generation capacities. At least the latter two options can impose large establishment and operation costs upon the electricity market. Therefore, the feasibility and the resulting potential of coupling the electricity grid with the thermal supply of residential buildings is analysed in this paper. Thereby, inexpensive and widespread thermal storage capacities could be used to improve the integration of dynamic renewable electricity generation. In this paper the technical and economical key impact factors for such thermal DSM approach are elaborated. Based on a literature review, the identified key factors are aggregated to form consistent scenarios of the German “Energiewende” (turnaround in energy policy). The practicability and possible magnitude of the intended DSM is then analysed based on the identified scenarios. All resulting scenarios highlight the growing demand for a flexible electricity market. Especially in scenarios with strong growth of renewable electricity generation, up to 45 GW of flexible electric capacities would be required in Germany by the year 2030. Furthermore, the analysis demonstrates that independently of the energy market development, it is very likely that electricity coupled supply systems will

  7. Bacterial community structures in air conditioners installed in Japanese residential buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatayama, Kouta; Oikawa, Yurika; Ito, Hiroyuki

    2018-01-01

    The bacterial community structures in four Japanese split-type air conditioners were analyzed using a next-generation sequencer. A variety of bacteria were detected in the air filter of an air conditioner installed on the first floor. In the evaporator of this air conditioner, bacteria belonging to the genus Methylobacterium, or the family of Sphingomonadaceae, were predominantly detected. On the other hand, the majority of bacteria detected in the air filters and evaporators of air conditioners installed on the fifth and twelfth floors belonged to the family Enterobacteriaceae. The source of bacteria belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae may have been aerosols generated by toilet flushing in the buildings. Our results suggested the possibility that the bacterial contamination in the air conditioners was affected by the floor level on which they were installed. The air conditioner installed on the lower floor, near the ground, may have been contaminated by a variety of outdoor bacteria, whereas the air conditioners installed on floors more distant from the ground may have been less contaminated by outdoor bacteria. However, these suppositions may apply only to the specific split-type air conditioners that we analyzed, because our sample size was small.

  8. Occurrence of the Toxin-Producing Aspergillus versicolor Tiraboschi in Residential Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlena Piontek

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In an area representative of a moderate climate zone (Lubuskie Province in Poland, mycological tests in over 270 flats demonstrated the occurrence of 82 species of moulds. Aspergillus versicolor Tiraboschi was often encountered on building partitions (frequency 4: frequently. The ability to synthesize the carcinogenic sterigmatocystin (ST means that it poses a risk to humans and animals. Biotoxicological tests of biomasses of A. versicolor were conducted in the Microbiological and Toxicological Laboratory, using the planarians Dugesia tigrina (Girard. The obtained results of the tests covered a broad range of toxicity levels of isolated strains: from weakly toxic (100–1000 mg·L−3 to potently toxic (1–10 mg·L−3. The high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC physicochemical method confirmed the ability of A. versicolor strains to synthesize sterigmatocystin. All of the samples of the air-dry biomasses of the fungi contained ST in the range between 0.03 and 534.38 mg·kg−1. In the bio-safety level (BSL classification A. versicolor belongs to category 1. Additionally, A. versicolor is an allergenic mould.

  9. Development of Innovative Heating and Cooling Systems Using Renewable Energy Sources for Non-Residential Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cinzia Buratti

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Industrial and commercial areas are synonymous with high energy consumption, both for heating/cooling and electric power requirements, which are in general associated to a massive use of fossil fuels producing consequent greenhouse gas emissions. Two pilot systems, co-funded by the Italian Ministry for the Environment, have been created to upgrade the heating/cooling systems of two existing buildings on the largest industrial estate in Umbria, Italy. The upgrade was specifically designed to improve the system efficiency and to cover the overall energy which needs with renewable energy resources. In both cases a solar photovoltaic plant provides the required electric power. The first system features a geothermal heat pump with an innovative layout: a heat-storage water tank, buried just below ground level, allows a significant reduction of the geothermal unit size, hence requiring fewer and/or shorter boreholes (up to 60%–70%. In the other system a biomass boiler is coupled with an absorption chiller machine, controlling the indoor air temperature in both summer and winter. In this case, lower electricity consumption, if compared to an electric compression chiller, is obtained. The first results of the monitoring of summer cooling are presented and an evaluation of the performance of the two pilot systems is given.

  10. Wood products and other building materials used in new residential construction in Canada, with comparison to previous studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joe Elling; David B. McKeever

    2015-01-01

    New residential construction is a critical driver of the demand for lumber, structural panels and engineered wood products in Canada. For the period 2010 through 2013, residential construction accounted for roughly 23 percent of the lumber consumed in Canada and 47 percent of structural panel usage. Insufficient data concerning imports and exports prevent estimates of...

  11. Regional variations in US residential sector fuel prices: implications for development of building energy performance standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieves, L.A.; Tawil, J.J.; Secrest, T.J.

    1981-03-01

    The Notice of Proposed Rulemaking for Energy Performance Standards for New Buildings presented life-cycle-cost based energy budgets for single-family detached residences. These energy budgets varied with regional climatic conditions but were all based on projections of national average prices for gas, oil and electricity. The Notice of Proposed Rulemaking indicated that further analysis of the appropriateness of various price measures for use in setting the Standards was under way. This part of that ongoing analysis addresses the availability of fuel price projections, the variation in fuel prices and escalation rates across the US and the effects of aggregating city price data to the state, Region, or national level. The study only provides a portion of the information required to identify the best price aggregation level for developing of the standards. The research addresses some of the economic efficiency considerations necessary for design of a standard that affects heterogeneous regions. The first section discusses the effects of price variation among and within regions on the efficiency of resource allocation when a standard is imposed. Some evidence of the extreme variability in fuel prices across the US is presented. In the second section, time series, cross-sectional fuel price data are statistically analyzed to determine the similarity in mean fuel prices and price escalation rates when the data are treated at increasing levels of aggregation. The findings of this analysis are reported in the third section, while the appendices contain price distributions details. The last section reports the availability of price projections and discusses some EIA projections compared with actual prices.

  12. Application of solar energy in heating and cooling of residential buildings under Central Asian conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usmonov Shukhrat Zaurovich

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Solar radiation is the main source of thermal energy for almost all the processes developing in the atmosphere, hydrosphere, and biosphere. The total duration of sunshine in Tajikistan ranges from 2100 to 3170 hours per year. Solar collectors can be mounted on the roof of a house after its renovation and modernization. One square meter of surface area in Central Asia accounts for up to 1600 kW/h of solar energy gain, whilst the average gain is 1200 kW/h. Active solar thermal systems are able to collect both low- and high-temperature heat. Active systems require the use of special engineering equipment for the collection, storage, conversion and distribution of heat, while a low-grade system is based on the principle of using a flat solar collector. The collector is connected to the storage tank for storing the heated water, gas, etc. The water temperature is in the range 50-60 °C. For summer air conditioning in hot climates, absorption-based solar installations with open evaporating solution are recommended. The UltraSolar PRO system offers an opportunity to make a home independent of traditional electricity. Combining Schneider Electric power generation and innovative energy storage technology results in an independent power supply. Traditional power supply systems can be short-lived since they store energy in lead-acid batteries which have a negligible lifetime. Lead-acid batteries operate in a constant charge-discharge mode, require specific conditions for best performance and can fail suddenly. Sudden failure of lead acid batteries, especially in winter in the northern part of Tajikistan, completely disables the heating system of a building. Instead, it is recommended to use industrial lithium-ion batteries, which have a significantly longer life and reliability compared to lead-acid type. UltraSolar PRO are ideal and provide a complete package, low noise and compact lithium-ion power supply.

  13. An optimization methodology for the design of renewable energy systems for residential net zero energy buildings with on-site heat production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milan, Christian; Bojesen, Carsten; Nielsen, Mads Pagh

    2011-01-01

    The concept of net zero energy buildings (NZEB) has received increased attention throughout the last years. A well adapted and optimized design of the energy supply system is crucial for the performance of such buildings. This paper aims at developing a method for the optimal sizing of renewable...... energy supply systems for residential NZEB involving on-site production of heat and electricity in combination with electricity exchanged with the public grid. The model is based on linear programming and determines the optimal capacities for each relevant supply technology in terms of the overall system...

  14. Preliminary experimental investigation of a natural gas-fired ORC-based micro-CHP system for residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrokhi, M.; Noie, S.H.; Akbarzadeh, A.A.

    2014-01-01

    The continual increases in energy demand and greenhouse gas emissions, call for efficient use of energy resources. Decentralized combined heat and power (CHP) technology provides an alternative for the world to meet and solve energy-related problems including energy shortages, energy supply security, emission control and conservation of energy. This paper presents the preliminary results of an experimental investigation of a natural gas-fired micro-CHP system for residential buildings based on an organic Rankine cycle (ORC). Isopentane was used as the ORC working fluid in consideration of several criteria including its environmentally-friendly characteristics. Experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of the developed system at different heat source temperatures of nominally 85, 80, 75, 70, and 65 °C. The maximum electrical power output of 77.4 W was generated at heating water entry temperature of 84.1 °C, corresponding to net cycle electrical efficiency of 1.66%. Further work will be done with a view to increasing the cycle electrical efficiency by using more efficient components, in particular the expander and generator. - Highlights: •A natural gas-fired ORC-based micro-scale CHP system has been developed and tested. •The good agreement between the mechanical and gross power validates the assumptions. •A vane expander suits a micro-CHP system based on an organic Rankine cycle. •A vane expander does not suit power generation by a Trilateral Flash Cycle (TFC). •Domestic gas-fired ORC systems may reduce reliance on central power stations

  15. Estimating Demand Response Load Impacts: Evaluation of BaselineLoad Models for Non-Residential Buildings in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, Katie; Piette, Mary Ann; Goldman, Charles; Kiliccote,Sila

    2008-01-01

    Both Federal and California state policymakers areincreasingly interested in developing more standardized and consistentapproaches to estimate and verify the load impacts of demand responseprograms and dynamic pricing tariffs. This study describes a statisticalanalysis of the performance of different models used to calculate thebaseline electric load for commercial buildings participating in ademand-response (DR) program, with emphasis onthe importance of weathereffects. During a DR event, a variety of adjustments may be made tobuilding operation, with the goal of reducing the building peak electricload. In order to determine the actual peak load reduction, an estimateof what the load would have been on the day of the event without any DRactions is needed. This baseline load profile (BLP) is key to accuratelyassessing the load impacts from event-based DR programs and may alsoimpact payment settlements for certain types of DR programs. We testedseven baseline models on a sample of 33 buildings located in California.These models can be loosely categorized into two groups: (1) averagingmethods, which use some linear combination of hourly load values fromprevious days to predict the load on the event, and (2) explicit weathermodels, which use a formula based on local hourly temperature to predictthe load. The models were tested both with and without morningadjustments, which use data from the day of the event to adjust theestimated BLP up or down.Key findings from this study are: - The accuracyof the BLP model currently used by California utilities to estimate loadreductions in several DR programs (i.e., hourly usage in highest 3 out of10 previous days) could be improved substantially if a morning adjustmentfactor were applied for weather-sensitive commercial and institutionalbuildings. - Applying a morning adjustment factor significantly reducesthe bias and improves the accuracy of all BLP models examined in oursample of buildings. - For buildings with low load

  16. Regional Design Approach in Designing Climatic Responsive Administrative Building in the 21st Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haja Bava Mohidin, Hazrina Binti; Ismail, Alice Sabrina

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to explicate on the study of modern administrative building in Malaysia which portrays regional design approach that conforms to the local context and climate by reviewing two case studies; Perdana Putra (1999) and former Prime Minister's Office (1967). This paper is significant because the country's stature and political statement was symbolized by administrative building as a national icon. In other words, it is also viewed as a cultural object that is closely tied to a particular social context and nation historical moment. Administrative building, therefore, may exhibit various meanings. This paper uses structuralism paradigm and semiotic principles as a methodological approach. This paper is of importance for practicing architects and society in the future as it offers new knowledge and understanding in identifying the suitable climatic consideration that may reflect regionalist design approach in modern administrative building. These elements then may be adopted in designing public buildings in the future with regional values that are important for expressing national culture to symbolize the identity of place and society as well as responsive to climate change.

  17. Regional Design Approach in Designing Climatic Responsive Administrative Building in the 21st Century

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohidin, Hazrina Binti Haja Bava; Ismail, Alice Sabrina

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to explicate on the study of modern administrative building in Malaysia which portrays regional design approach that conforms to the local context and climate by reviewing two case studies; Perdana Putra (1999) and former Prime Minister's Office (1967). This paper is significant because the country's stature and political statement was symbolized by administrative building as a national icon. In other words, it is also viewed as a cultural object that is closely tied to a particular social context and nation historical moment. Administrative building, therefore, may exhibit various meanings. This paper uses structuralism paradigm and semiotic principles as a methodological approach. This paper is of importance for practicing architects and society in the future as it offers new knowledge and understanding in identifying the suitable climatic consideration that may reflect regionalist design approach in modern administrative building. These elements then may be adopted in designing public buildings in the future with regional values that are important for expressing national culture to symbolize the identity of place and society as well as responsive to climate change

  18. Estimating length of stay in publicly-funded residential and nursing care homes: a retrospective analysis using linked administrative data sets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steventon Adam

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Information about how long people stay in care homes is needed to plan services, as length of stay is a determinant of future demand for care. As length of stay is proportional to cost, estimates are also needed to inform analysis of the long-term cost effectiveness of interventions aimed at preventing admissions to care homes. But estimates are rarely available due to the cost of repeatedly surveying individuals. Methods We used administrative data from three local authorities in England to estimate the length of publicly-funded care homes stays beginning in 2005 and 2006. Stays were classified into nursing home, permanent residential and temporary residential. We aggregated successive placements in different care home providers and, by linking to health data, across periods in hospital. Results The largest group of stays (38.9% were those intended to be temporary, such as for rehabilitation, and typically lasted 4 weeks. For people admitted to permanent residential care, median length of stay was 17.9 months. Women stayed longer than men, while stays were shorter if preceded by other forms of social care. There was significant variation in length of stay between the three local authorities. The typical person admitted to a permanent residential care home will cost a local authority over £38,000, less payments due from individuals under the means test. Conclusions These figures are not apparent from existing data sets. The large cost of care home placements suggests significant scope for preventive approaches. The administrative data revealed complexity in patterns of service use, which should be further explored as it may challenge the assumptions that are often made.

  19. Combined heat and power generation with fuel cells in residential buildings in the future energy system; Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung mit Brennstoffzellen in Wohngebaeuden im zukuenftigen Energiesystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jungbluth, C.H.

    2007-04-27

    Combined heat and power generation (CHP) is regarded as one of the cornerstones of a future sustainable energy system. The application of this approach can be substantially extended by employing fuel cell technologies in small units for supplying heat to residential buildings. This could create an additional market for combined heat and power generation corresponding to approx. 25% of the final energy demand in Germany today. In parallel, the extensive application of distributed fuel cell systems in residential buildings would have substantial effects on energy infrastructures, primary energy demand, the energy mix and greenhouse gas emissions. It is the aim of the present study to quantify these effects via scenario modelling of energy demand and supply for Germany up to the year 2050. Two scenarios, reference and ecological commitment, are set up, and the application and operation of fuel cell plants in the future stock of residential buildings is simulated by a bottom-up approach. A model of the building stock was developed for this purpose, consisting of 213 types of reference buildings, as well as detailed simulation models of the plant operation modes. The aim was, furthermore, to identify economically and ecologically optimised plant designs and operation modes for fuel cells in residential buildings. Under the assumed conditions of the energy economy, economically optimised plant sizes for typical one- or two-family homes are in the range of a generating capacity of a few hundred watts of electrical power. Plant sizes of 2 to 4.7 kW{sub el} as discussed today are only economically feasible in multifamily dwellings. The abolition of the CHP bonus reduces profitability, especially for larger plants operated by contractors. In future, special strategies for power generation and supply can be an economically useful addition for the heat-oriented operation mode of fuel cells. On the basis of the assumed conditions of the energy economy, a technical potential for

  20. Field Measurement and Evaluation of the Passive and Active Solar Heating Systems for Residential Building Based on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijian Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Passive and active solar heating systems have drawn much attention and are widely used in residence buildings in the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau due to its high radiation intensity. In fact, there is still lack of quantitative evaluation of the passive and active heating effect, especially for residential building in the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau areas. In this study, three kinds of heating strategies, including reference condition, passive solar heating condition and active solar heating condition, were tested in one demonstration residential building. The hourly air temperatures of each room under different conditions were obtained and analyzed. The results show the indoor air temperature in the living room and bedrooms (core zones was much higher than that of other rooms under both passive and active solar heating conditions. In addition, the heating effect with different strategies for core zones of the building was evaluated by the ratio of indoor and outdoor degree hour, which indicates that solar heating could effectively reduce the traditional energy consumption and improve the indoor thermal environment. The passive solar heating could undertake 49.8% degree hours for heating under an evaluation criterion of 14 °C and the active solar heating could undertake 75% degree hours for heating under evaluation criterion of 18 °C, which indicated that solar heating could effectively reduce the traditional energy consumption and improve the indoor thermal environment in this area. These findings could provide reference for the design and application of solar heating in similar climate areas.

  1. Administration Building

    OpenAIRE

    Černota, Tomáš

    2016-01-01

    Cílem bakalářské práce je nadimenzovat a posoudit železobetonovou stropní desku nad prvním nadzemním podlaží na mezní stav. K řešení vnítřních sil je využíto výpočetního program SCIA Engineer 2012. Stropní deska je lokálně podepřená železobetonovými stĺpi. Práce obsahuje vypracování statického výpočtu, výkres tvaru a výkres výstuže stropní desky. The aim of the bachelor thesis is the projection and appraisal of the reinforced concrete floor slab above the first overground storey at the ult...

  2. COMBINED EFFECT OF THE AIRBORNE AND IMPACT NOISE PRODUCED ONTO THE SOUND INSULATION OF INSERTED FLOORS OF RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS: THEORETICAL ASPECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saltykov Ivan Petrovich

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The indoor environment of residential buildings is a complex system. It consists of diverse though related elements. An optimal correlation of parameters of the indoor space converts into the appropriate equilibrium and harmonious human living free from any stimulating or irritating factors that interfere with any working and/or relaxation processes. The author has selected the following three principal factors of the indoor environment. They include heat, daylight and sound. The research has revealed a strong linkn between these factors. Noise pollution of residential houses is taken into account through the introduction of the airborne insulation index and the impact sound index underneath the inserted floor. The findings of theoretical researches and experiments have proven a strong functional relationship between airborne and impact sound values.

  3. Choosing the Right Technologies – A Model for Cost Optimized Design of a Renewable Supply System for Residential Zero Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Milan, Christian

    , individual performance models are defined. For small scale residential systems the hot water tank is one of the main components, connecting supply and demand side and acting as a buffer during mismatch periods. For this reason, the developed hot water tank model is rather detailed accounting for three......This work presents a methodology to identify and investigate the cost optimal design of supply systems for Low and Net Zero Energy Buildings with the focus on residential single family houses. A preliminary analysis investigating relevant literature and existing computer tools resulted...... different temperature layers, two different supply and demand loops as well as individual heat losses. It is presented at the end of the technology chapter. Subsequently, the methodology is validated by investigating the output with one single technology at a time and thus the individual performance models...

  4. Building capacity for the conduct of nursing research at a Veterans Administration hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phelan, Cynthia H; Schumacher, Sandra; Roiland, Rachel; Royer, Heather; Roberts, Tonya

    2015-05-01

    Evidence is the bedrock of nursing practice, and nursing research is the key source for this evidence. In this article, we draw distinctions between the use and the conduct of nursing research and provide a perspective for how the conduct of nursing research in a Veterans Administration hospital can build an organization's capacity for nursing research.

  5. Building administrative capacities in developing countries: Swat teams or beat cops?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S. Tankha (Sunil)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractAfter reading Professor Ali Farazmand's essay "Building Administrative Capacity in the Age of Rapid Globalization: A Modest Prescription for the Twenty-First Century," one is reminded that the list of capacities we need to develop is long, the tasks are diverse, and the challenges are

  6. Target-oriented obstacle analysis by PESTEL modeling of energy efficiency retrofit for existing residential buildings in China's northern heating region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shilei, Lv; Wu Yong

    2009-01-01

    According to the 'Comprehensive Work Program of Energy Efficiency and Emission Reduction' of the Chinese government, during the period of the '11th Five-Year Plan', 1.5x10 8 m 2 of existing residential buildings in China's northern heating region are to be retrofitted for energy efficiency. However, at present, this 'Energy Efficiency Retrofit for Existing Residential Buildings' (EERFERB) faces many obstacles. Under the current working and market system, both the central and local governments and the energy supply companies can not push on this work smoothly. Using both the results of the annual national special inspection of building energy efficiency and some case analyses, this paper examines the necessity for energy efficiency retrofit, along with the relationships among the various Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Environmental and Legal (PESTEL) factors affecting it. Furthermore, organizational, financial and technical support systems are explored to promote the development of retrofit. Finally, some primary principles to be followed toward the implementation of EERFERB are suggested.

  7. Target-oriented obstacle analysis by PESTEL modeling of energy efficiency retrofit for existing residential buildings in China's northern heating region

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shilei, Lv [School of Environment Science and Technology, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Yong, Wu [Department of Science and Technology, Ministry of Housing and Urban-Rural Development of the People' s Republic of China, Beijing 100835 (China)

    2009-06-15

    According to the 'Comprehensive Work Program of Energy Efficiency and Emission Reduction' of the Chinese government, during the period of the '11th Five-Year Plan', 1.5 x 10{sup 8} m{sup 2} of existing residential buildings in China's northern heating region are to be retrofitted for energy efficiency. However, at present, this 'Energy Efficiency Retrofit for Existing Residential Buildings' (EERFERB) faces many obstacles. Under the current working and market system, both the central and local governments and the energy supply companies can not push on this work smoothly. Using both the results of the annual national special inspection of building energy efficiency and some case analyses, this paper examines the necessity for energy efficiency retrofit, along with the relationships among the various Political, Economic, Social, Technological, Environmental and Legal (PESTEL) factors affecting it. Furthermore, organizational, financial and technical support systems are explored to promote the development of retrofit. Finally, some primary principles to be followed toward the implementation of EERFERB are suggested. (author)

  8. Contribution of insurance data to cost assessment of coastal flood damage to residential buildings: insights gained from Johanna (2008 and Xynthia (2010 storm events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. André

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of methodological issues involved in assessing damage caused by natural hazards. The first is the lack of data, due to the rarity of events and the widely different circumstances in which they occur. Thus, historical data, albeit scarce, should not be neglected when seeking to build ex-ante risk management models. This article analyses the input of insurance data for two recent severe coastal storm events, to examine what causal relationships may exist between hazard characteristics and the level of damage incurred by residential buildings. To do so, data was collected at two levels: from lists of about 4000 damage records, 358 loss adjustment reports were consulted, constituting a detailed damage database. The results show that for flooded residential buildings, over 75% of reconstruction costs are associated with interior elements, with damage to structural components remaining very localised and negligible. Further analysis revealed a high scatter between costs and water depth, suggesting that uncertainty remains high in drawing up damage functions with insurance data alone. Due to the paper format of the loss adjustment reports, and the lack of harmonisation between their contents, the collection stage called for a considerable amount of work. For future events, establishing a standardised process for archiving damage information could significantly contribute to the production of such empirical damage functions. Nevertheless, complementary sources of data on hazards and asset vulnerability parameters will definitely still be necessary for damage modelling; multivariate approaches, crossing insurance data with external material, should also be investigated more deeply.

  9. Contribution of insurance data to cost assessment of coastal flood damage to residential buildings: insights gained from Johanna (2008) and Xynthia (2010) storm events

    Science.gov (United States)

    André, C.; Monfort, D.; Bouzit, M.; Vinchon, C.

    2013-08-01

    There are a number of methodological issues involved in assessing damage caused by natural hazards. The first is the lack of data, due to the rarity of events and the widely different circumstances in which they occur. Thus, historical data, albeit scarce, should not be neglected when seeking to build ex-ante risk management models. This article analyses the input of insurance data for two recent severe coastal storm events, to examine what causal relationships may exist between hazard characteristics and the level of damage incurred by residential buildings. To do so, data was collected at two levels: from lists of about 4000 damage records, 358 loss adjustment reports were consulted, constituting a detailed damage database. The results show that for flooded residential buildings, over 75% of reconstruction costs are associated with interior elements, with damage to structural components remaining very localised and negligible. Further analysis revealed a high scatter between costs and water depth, suggesting that uncertainty remains high in drawing up damage functions with insurance data alone. Due to the paper format of the loss adjustment reports, and the lack of harmonisation between their contents, the collection stage called for a considerable amount of work. For future events, establishing a standardised process for archiving damage information could significantly contribute to the production of such empirical damage functions. Nevertheless, complementary sources of data on hazards and asset vulnerability parameters will definitely still be necessary for damage modelling; multivariate approaches, crossing insurance data with external material, should also be investigated more deeply.

  10. Thermal analysis of Brazilian standards proposals for social residential buildings; Avaliacao termica das propostas de normas brasileiras para edificacoes de interesse social

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilkin, Pedro [Universidade Regional do Noroeste do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Ijui, RSA (Brazil). Dept. de Fisica, Estatistica e Matematica]. E-mail: dilkin@main.unijui.tche.br; Schneider, Paulo Smith [Rio Grande do Sul Univ., Porto Alegre, RS (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Mecanica]. E-mail: pss@mecanica.ufrgs.br

    2000-07-01

    This work presents a critical analysis of national proposals of standards for the thermal performance of simple residential buildings. A review of some international standards is performed together with the description of the national proposals of standards, and a prototype of a house is assembled, following each one of the texts. Results are displayed and the prototypes are simulated using the TRNSYS environment, concerning winter and summer periods of Porto Alegre. Finally, the national proposal that achieved the best performance is improved by means new simulations. (author)

  11. Final Report. Solar Assist for Administration Building and Community Gym/Pool

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Synder, Randy [Tonto Apache Tribe, Payson, AZ (United States); Bresette, Joseph [Tonto Apache Tribe, Payson, AZ (United States)

    2015-06-23

    Tonto Apache Tribe applied to the Department of Energy’s “Tribal Energy Program” for the “Community Scale Clean Energy Projects” in Indian Country in 2013 to implement a solar project to reduce energy use in two tribal buildings. Total estimated project cost was $804,140, with the Department and Tribe each providing 50% of the project costs. Photovoltaic systems totaling 75 kW on the Administration Building and 192 kW on the Gymnasium were installed. We used roof tops and installed canopies in adjacent parking areas for mounting the systems. The installed systems were designed to offset 65% of the facilities electric load.

  12. Building Bridges between the School and the Home: Understanding the Literacy Practices of Children Living in Residential Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jennifer Poh Sim

    2015-01-01

    Research has consistently shown that children in residential care fall behind at school. This proves a great challenge for educators who have to cater to the students' needs to ensure no one is left behind. Studies investigating family literacy practices of different social classes show a positive implication if the home literacy practices are…

  13. Residential building energy conservation and avoided power plant emissions by urban and community trees in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    David J. Nowak; Nathaniel Appleton; Alexis Ellis; Eric Greenfield

    2017-01-01

    Urban trees and forests alter building energy use and associated emissions from power plants by shading buildings, cooling air temperatures and altering wind speeds around buildings. Field data on urban trees were combined with local urban/community tree and land cover maps, modeling of tree effects on building energy use and pollutant emissions, and state energy and...

  14. Influence of Energy Efficient Elements on Energy Saving in Residential Buildings: Case Study of Three Apartments in Penang

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejad Moghadam M.H.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper examined the energy consumption of energy efficient buildings, and ascertained the extent to which these buildings are efficient when compared to normal buildings. For this purpose, the early literature regarding energy efficient buildings and the related elements have been reviewed, then three energy efficient buildings have been chosen and data collected from their occupants through a questionnaire. The data was then analysed by computing the average yearly electricity consumption per square feet, for both energy efficient buildings and normal buildings. A comparison of the results showed that the energy consumption in energy efficient buildings was almost half that of the normal buildings. Finally a few suggestions are proposed for promoting these types of energy efficient buildings which will eventually lead to economic growth and environment protection.

  15. Energy Efficiency and Sustainability Evaluation of Space and Water Heating in Urban Residential Buildings of the Hot Summer and Cold Winter Zone in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Chen

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available With the urbanization process of the hot summer and cold winter (HSCW zone in China, the energy consumption of space and water heating in urban residential buildings of the HSCW zone has increased rapidly. This study presents the energy efficiency and sustainability evaluation of various ways of space and water heating taking 10 typical cities in the HSCW zone as research cases. Two indicators, primary energy efficiency (PEE and sustainability index based on exergy efficiency, are adopted to perform the evaluation. Models for the energy and total exergy efficiencies of various space and water heating equipment/systems are developed. The evaluation results indicate that common uses of electricity for space and water heating are the most unsustainable ways of space and water heating. In terms of PEE and sustainability index, air-source heat pumps for space and water heating are suitable for the HSCW zone. The PEE and sustainability index of solar water heaters with auxiliary electric heaters are greatly influenced by local solar resources. Air-source heat pump assisted solar hot water systems are the most sustainable among all water heating equipment/systems investigated in this study. Our works suggest the key potential for improving the energy efficiency and the sustainability of space and water heating in urban residential buildings of the HSCW zone.

  16. Benchmarking energy performance of residential buildings using two-stage multifactor data envelopment analysis with degree-day based simple-normalization approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Endong; Shen, Zhigang; Alp, Neslihan; Barry, Nate

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Two-stage DEA model is developed to benchmark building energy efficiency. • Degree-day based simple normalization is used to neutralize the climatic noise. • Results of a real case study validated the benefits of this new model. - Abstract: Being able to identify detailed meta factors of energy performance is essential for creating effective residential energy-retrofitting strategies. Compared to other benchmarking methods, nonparametric multifactor DEA (data envelopment analysis) is capable of discriminating scale factors from management factors to reveal more details to better guide retrofitting practices. A two-stage DEA energy benchmarking method is proposed in this paper. This method includes (1) first-stage meta DEA which integrates the common degree day metrics for neutralizing noise energy effects of exogenous climatic variables; and (2) second-stage Tobit regression for further detailed efficiency analysis. A case study involving 3-year longitudinal panel data of 189 residential buildings indicated the proposed method has advantages over existing methods in terms of its efficiency in data processing and results interpretation. The results of the case study also demonstrated high consistency with existing linear regression based DEA.

  17. Effects of Vernacular Climatic Strategies (VCS on Energy Consumption in Common Residential Buildings in Southern Iran: The Case Study of Bushehr City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Mohammadi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to use the vernacular climatic strategies (VCS of traditional dwellings in Bushehr, in the common residential buildings of this southern Iranian city (which is characterized by its hot and humid climate, and provide answers to the following question: What effects do VCS have in terms of energy consumption in these buildings? This study has been conducted at three levels. At the first level, three context-based climatic solutions including shading, natural ventilation, and insulation of external walls and roofs were identified and selected based on bibliographic study. At the second level, a case study reflecting the current typology of common residential buildings in Bushehr city was selected. A combination of the mentioned climatic solutions was used in the baseline case to create a developed model. Based on the space layout of the developed model and some design criteria, a series of proposed models was also created and modeled. The selected case study building was also used to establish a local weather station at a height of 12 m based on the roof, collecting local climate data which were then used for simulation to improve simulation accuracy. Finally, all models were simulated with the use of Design Builder software under natural ventilation conditions during moderate climatic periods of the year while split air-conditioning systems were used during hot and humid periods. The results showed reductions of 16% in energy consumption and 22% in CO2 emissions for the developed model, and reductions of 24–26% in energy consumption and 32–34% in CO2 emissions for the proposed models, as compared with the baseline model. Furthermore, all proposed models achieved lower annual energy consumption when compared with a selection of international sustainable low energy standards and domestic energy performance references for the Middle East region. Further studies are also recommended, and there is potential for combining VCS with

  18. Analysis of higher harmonics in the power supply system of the administrative building with grouped nonlinear low-power loads

    OpenAIRE

    Derikučka Ilija M.; Radović Jadranka S.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the analysis of influences of higher harmonics in the power supplying systems of administration building, obtained on the basis of formed simulation model. It also presents and analyses specific measurements of power quality at the level of distribution substations that feed the typical administration building. Formed simulation model as well as the conclusions drawn on the basis of measurements and simulation calculation for the given administration buildin...

  19. Formulation of models for determination of the fuel gas demand and consumption in residential buildings; Formulacao de modelos para determinacao da demanda e consumo de gas combustivel em edificios residenciais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ilha, Marina Sangoi de Oliveira [Universidade Estadual de Campinas, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia Civil. Dept. de Hidraulica e Saneamento; Goncalves, Orestes Marracini [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Escola Politecnica. Dept. de Engenharia de Construcao Civil

    1996-07-01

    This work presents models for design flow rate and gas volume determination in residential buildings. First, an experimental investigation, applied on a sample of residential buildings at Sao Paulo, Brazil, is described, which essentially consisted in the filling of a form and measurement of gas volume at one minute interval during 10 days (mean). From this data, it was performed a regression analysis in order to explain design flow rate (demand) and gas volume values (consumption), based on different variables. Models proposed on this work are different from the current applied methodology due to their 'open' approach, that is, involved variables can be explicitly found in formulas. (author)

  20. Determinants of residential electricity consumption: Using smart meter data to examine the effect of climate, building characteristics, appliance stock, and occupants' behavior

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kavousian, Amir; Rajagopal, Ram; Fischer, Martin

    2013-01-01

    We propose a method to examine structural and behavioral determinants of residential electricity consumption, by developing separate models for daily maximum (peak) and minimum (idle) consumption. We apply our method on a data set of 1628 households' electricity consumption. The results show that weather, location and floor area are among the most important determinants of residential electricity consumption. In addition to these variables, number of refrigerators and entertainment devices (e.g., VCRs) are among the most important determinants of daily minimum consumption, while number of occupants and high-consumption appliances such as electric water heaters are the most significant determinants of daily maximum consumption. Installing double-pane windows and energy-efficient lights helped to reduce consumption, as did the energy-conscious use of electric heater. Acknowledging climate change as a motivation to save energy showed correlation with lower electricity consumption. Households with individuals over 55 or between 19 and 35 years old recorded lower electricity consumption, while pet owners showed higher consumption. Contrary to some previous studies, we observed no significant correlation between electricity consumption and income level, home ownership, or building age. Some otherwise energy-efficient features such as energy-efficient appliances, programmable thermostats, and insulation were correlated with slight increase in electricity consumption. - Highlights: • Weather, location and floor area are the most important determinants of residential electricity use. • Daily minimum and maximum are explained by different factors. • Number of refrigerators and entertainment devices explain daily minimum the best. • Number of occupants and high-consumption appliances explain daily maximum the best. • Other factors such as energy efficient features and household's socioeconomic status are examined

  1. Analysis of higher harmonics in the power supply system of the administrative building with grouped nonlinear low-power loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derikučka Ilija M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of the analysis of influences of higher harmonics in the power supplying systems of administration building, obtained on the basis of formed simulation model. It also presents and analyses specific measurements of power quality at the level of distribution substations that feed the typical administration building. Formed simulation model as well as the conclusions drawn on the basis of measurements and simulation calculation for the given administration building, may be of significance both in exploitation and in the planning of distribution networks with significant participation of nonlinear low-power loads in the structure of their consumption.

  2. Improving benefit-cost analysis to overcome financing difficulties in promoting energy-efficient renovation of existing residential buildings in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Xiaotong; Lu, Meijun; Mao, Wei; Ouyang, Jinlong; Zhou, Bo; Yang, Yunkai

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Financing difficulties hinder energy retrofit of aging residential buildings in China. • New indices based on benefit-cost analysis are presented to overcome barriers. • New indices can be applied to rank energy measures and propose optimum plans. • Improved benefit-cost analysis will attract the government and residents to co-invest. • A “win–win” model means the governments and residents can co-invest and co-benefit. - Abstract: Energy-efficient renovation of existing residential buildings is an important energy policy in China, but financing difficulties seriously hinder the promotion of the policy. In this article, novel indices based on benefit-cost analysis are presented to overcome the barriers. Firstly, benefit-cost analysis is expanded to include the ratio of energy-saving benefit to investment cost (EnIR), the ratio of environmental benefit to investment cost (EvIR), and the ratio of economic benefit to investment cost (EcIR). The above ratios are applied to determine the optimum plans with the highest cost-effectiveness for the buildings to be renovated. Secondly, according to the actual situation regarding both the government and residents, EnIR is modified to the ratio of energy-saving benefit from the retrofit plan to the part of the investment cost undertaken by the government (EnIgR), EvIR to the ratio of environmental benefit from the retrofit plan to the part of the investment cost undertaken by the government (EvIgR), and EcIR to the ratio of economic benefit from the retrofit plan to the part of the investment cost undertaken by residents (EcIrR). The modified ratios can increase awareness of residents in respect of their individual benefits from the adoption of the optimum plans, and can attract them to co-invest. Through these two steps, financing difficulties could be eased or even no longer considered as obstacles to some extent. The ratios are applied to a case study building in Hangzhou. Based on the results

  3. Technical and economical assessment of the utilization of photovoltaic systems in residential buildings: The case of Jordan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Salaymeh, A.; Al-Hamamre, Z.; Sharaf, F.; Abdelkader, M.R.

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the feasibility of utilizing photovoltaic systems in a standard residential apartment in Amman city in Jordan. Data on solar radiation, sunshine duration and the ambient temperature has been recorded in Amman city. An apartment in Amman was chosen as a case study to conduct energy and economic calculations. The electrical power needs and cost were calculated for the apartment. The component design and cost of PV system required to supply required energy was calculated and the payback period for the suggested stand-alone PV system in this paper was estimated in a constant inflation rate in electricity price similar to that of interest rate. The calculated payback period was high in a stand-alone system, to decrease payback period a grid-connected PV system is suggested. Considering an annual increase of 3% in electricity price, 15% of payback period was decreased in a stand-alone PV system and 21% in a grid-connected PV system. The output results of this study show that installation of PV system in a residential flat in Jordan may not be economically rewarding owing to the high cost of PV system compared to the cost of grid electricity. A feed-in tariff law of solar electricity may help to reduce PV system cost like the case of Germany. Additional conclusions are PV systems may be economically rewarding in Jordan if applied in locations far from electrical grid or in remote large scale PV power installations to overcome economical limitations of PV technology.

  4. Simulation and performance analysis of 110 kWp grid-connected photovoltaic system for residential building in India: A comparative analysis of various PV technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akash Kumar Shukla

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available System simulation is necessary to investigate the feasibility of Solar PV system at a given location. This study is done to evaluate the feasibility of grid connected rooftop solar photovoltaic system for a residential Hostel building at MANIT, Bhopal, India (Latitude: 23° 16′ N, Longitude: 77° 36′ E. The study focuses on the use of Solargis PV Planner software as a tool to analyze the performance a 110 kWp solar photovoltaic rooftop plant and also compares the performances of different PV technologies based on simulated energy yield and performance ratio. Solargis proves to easy, fast, accurate and reliable software tool for the simulation of solar PV system.

  5. Airborne Survey Capacity Building of National Nuclear Safety Administration (MEP) in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han Shanbiao; Li Hongyu; Yuan Zhilun; Yue Huiguo

    2015-01-01

    Airborne survey is being paid more and attention in the nuclear radiation environment monitoring due to its unique advantages, especially monitoring due to its unique advantages, especially after the nuclear accident of Fukushima Japan. Thus, National Nuclear Safety Administration is strengthening to build airborne survey capacity. The administration has set up an advanced airborne survey system and established expert team. This airborne survey system here is fixed under a capable helicopter, which has a monitoring volume of 75.6 liters, independent advanced digital spectrometer and intelligent data processing functions. In this paper, a way that is applied for wireless data real-time transmission is presented, and our research works on calibration and the survey methods are also included. The airborne survey system can be widely used in the nuclear and radiation accidents monitoring and relative radiation monitoring in NORM. (author)

  6. Towards the definition of indicators for assessment of indoor air quality and energy performance in low-energy residential buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cony Renaud Salis, Louis; Abadie, Marc; Wargocki, Pawel

    2017-01-01

    -pinene, benzene, carbon dioxide, formaldehyde, naphthalene, nitrogen dioxide, PM10, PM2.5, radon, styrene, toluene, trichloroethylene, TVOC and mould. Both short-term and long-term effects of these pollutants were considered. The compound with the highest ratio of concentration to its exposure limit value...... to develop such an IAQ index is that hundreds of chemical compounds are present in indoor air, including residential environments, at concentrations much lower than occurring during occupational exposures. There is a lack of clear consensus on which pollutant or group of pollutants should be used to form...... was proposed as the IAQ index for the short term effects so that the existing exposure limits could be referred to and to avoid problems associated with the aggregation of many air quality indices. The same approach was proposed for the IAQ index for the long-term effects together with the calculation...

  7. Influence of input data on airflow network accuracy in residential buildings with natural wind- and stack-driven ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendt, Krzysztof; Krzaczek, Marek; Tejchman, Jacek

    2017-01-01

    are obtained from secondary sources which are solely representative for very simplified buildings, i.e. for buildings without facade details. Although studies comparing wind pressure coefficients or discharge coefficients from different sources exist, the knowledge regarding the effect of input data on AFN......The airflow network (AFN) modeling approach provides an attractive balance between the accuracy and computational demand for naturally ventilated buildings. Its accuracy depends on input parameters such as wind pressure and opening discharge coefficients. In most cases, these parameters...... is still poor. In this paper, the influence of wind pressure data on the accuracy of a coupled AFN-BES model for a real building with natural wind- and stack-driven ventilation was analyzed. The results of 8 computation cases with different wind pressure data from secondary sources were compared...

  8. Designing, building, and testing a solar thermoelectric generation, STEG, for energy delivery to remote residential areas in developing regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moumouni, Yacouba

    New alternatives and inventive renewable energy techniques which encompass both generation and power management solutions are fundamental for meeting remote residential energy supply and demand today, especially if the grid is quasi-inexistent. Solar thermoelectric generators can be a cost-effective alternative to photovoltaics for a remote residential household power supply. A complete solar thermoelectric energy harvesting system is presented for energy delivery to remote residential areas in developing regions. To this end, the entire system was built, modeled, and then validated with LTspice simulator software via thermal-to-electrical analogy schemes. Valuable data in conjunction with two novel LTspice circuits were obtained, showing the achievability of analyzing transient heat transfer with the Spice simulator. Hence, the proposed study begins with a comprehensive method of extracting thermal parameters that appear in thermoelectric modules. A step-by-step procedure was developed and followed to succinctly extract parameters, such as the Seebeck coefficient, electrical conductivity, thermal resistance, and thermal conductivity needed to model the system. Data extracted from datasheet, material properties, and geometries were successfully utilized to compute the thermal capacities and resistances necessary to perform the analogy. In addition, temperature variations of the intrinsic internal parameters were accounted for in this process for accuracy purposes. The steps that it takes to simulate any thermo-electrical system with the LTspice simulator are thoroughly explained in this work. As a consequence, an improved Spice model for a thermoelectric generator is proposed. Experimental results were compiled in the form of a lookup table and then fed into the Spice simulator using the piecewise linear (PWL) command in order to validate the model. Experimental results show that a temperature differential of 13.43°C was achievable whereas the simulation indicates

  9. Influence of occupant's heating set-point preferences on indoor environmental quality and heating demand in residential buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabi, Valentina; Corgnati, Stefano Paolo; Andersen, Rune Korsholm

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to switch from a deterministic approach of building energy simulation toward a probabilistic one that takes into account the occupants interactions with the building controls. A probabilistic approach is proposed and applied to simulate occupant behavior realistically...... of energy consumption. The aim was to compare the obtained results with a traditional deterministic use of the simulation program. Based on heating set-point behavior of 13 Danish dwellings, logistic regression was used to infer the probability of adjusting the set-point of thermostatic radiator valves...

  10. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in the Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Building Industry Research Alliance (BIRA); Building Science Consortium (BSC); Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB); Davis Energy Group (DEG); Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC); IBACOS; National Association of Home Builders Research Center (NAHBRC); National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    2006-01-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Hot-Dry/Mixed-Dry Climate Region on a cost neutral basis.

  11. Economic potential of energy-efficient retrofitting in the Swiss residential building sector: The effects of policy instruments and energy price expectations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amstalden, Roger W.; Kost, Michael; Nathani, Carsten; Imboden, Dieter M.

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse the profitability of energy-efficient retrofit investments in the Swiss residential building sector from the house owner's perspective. Different energy price expectations, policy instruments such as subsidies, income tax deduction and a carbon tax, as well as potential future cost degression of energy efficiency measures were taken into account. The discounted cash flow method was used for the investment analysis of different retrofit packages applied to a model building scheduled for renovation, i.e. a single-family house constructed between 1948 and 1975. The results show that present Swiss policy instruments push investments for energy-efficient retrofitting to profitability. Cost degression has a minor significance for investment profitability. However, the most relevant factor for the investment analysis is the expected energy price. Expecting a future fuel oil price at the level of 2005, efficiency investments are close to profitability even without policy support. If higher energy prices were expected, energy-efficient retrofitting would be an attractive investment opportunity

  12. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Mixed-Humid Climates; January 2006 - December 2006

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Building America Industrialized Housing Partnership (BAIHP); Building Industry Research Alliance (BIRA); Building Science Consortium (BSC); Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB); Davis Energy Group (DEG); IBACOS; National Association of Home Builders Research Center (NAHBRC); National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    2006-12-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Mixed-Humid Climate Region on a cost-neutral basis.

  13. Energy performance strategies for the large scale introduction of geothermal energy in residential and industrial buildings: The GEO.POWER project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giambastiani, B.M.S.; Tinti, F.; Mendrinos, D.; Mastrocicco, M.

    2014-01-01

    Use of shallow geothermal energy, in terms of ground coupled heat pumps (GCHP) for heating and cooling purposes, is an environmentally-friendly and cost-effective alternative with potential to replace fossil fuels and help mitigate global warming. Focusing on the recent results of the GEO.POWER project, this paper aims at examining the energy performance strategies and the future regional and national financial instruments for large scale introduction of geothermal energy and GCHP systems in both residential and industrial buildings. After a transferability assessment to evaluate the reproducibility of some outstanding examples of systems currently existing in Europe for the utilisation of shallow geothermal energy, a set of regulatory, economic and technical actions is proposed to encourage the GCHP market development and support geothermal energy investments in the frame of the existing European normative platforms. This analysis shows that many European markets are changing from a new GCHP market to growth market. However some interventions are still required, such as incentives, regulatory framework, certification schemes and training activities in order to accelerate the market uptake and achieve the main European energy and climate targets. - Highlights: • Potentiality of geothermal applications for heating and cooling in buildings. • Description of the GEO.POWER project and its results. • Local strategies for the large scale introduction of GCHPs

  14. Building Emotion and Affect Regulation (BEAR): Preliminary Evidence from an Open Trial in Children's Residential Group Homes in Singapore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pat-Horenczyk, R.; Shi, C. Sim Wei; Schramm-Yavin, S.; Bar-Halpern, M.; Tan, L. J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Building Emotion and Affect Regulation (BEAR) program is a theory-based group intervention for enhancing resilience in children, with a focus on strengthening emotion regulation. The BEAR is a 6-session protocol for children aged 7-12 who have been subject to traumatic life events. Objective: This paper presents the guiding…

  15. Optimal allocation and sizing of PV/Wind/Split-diesel/Battery hybrid energy system for minimizing life cycle cost, carbon emission and dump energy of remote residential building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogunjuyigbe, A.S.O.; Ayodele, T.R.; Akinola, O.A.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Genetic Algorithm is used for tri-objective design of hybrid energy system. • The objective is minimizing the Life Cycle Cost, CO 2 emissions and dump energy. • Small split diesel generators are used in place of big single diesel generator. • The split diesel generators are aggregable based on certain set of rules. • The proposed algorithm achieves the set objectives (LCC, CO 2 emission and dump). - Abstract: In this paper, a Genetic Algorithm (GA) is utilized to implement a tri-objective design of a grid independent PV/Wind/Split-diesel/Battery hybrid energy system for a typical residential building with the objective of minimizing the Life Cycle Cost (LCC), CO 2 emissions and dump energy. To achieve some of these objectives, small split Diesel generators are used in place of single big Diesel generator and are aggregable based on certain set of rules depending on available renewable energy resources and state of charge of the battery. The algorithm was utilized to study five scenarios (PV/Battery, Wind/Battery, Single big Diesel generator, aggregable 3-split Diesel generators, PV/Wind/Split-diesel/Battery) for a typical load profile of a residential house using typical wind and solar radiation data. The results obtained revealed that the PV/Wind/Split-diesel/Battery is the most attractive scenario (optimal) having LCC of $11,273, COE of 0.13 ($/kW h), net dump energy of 3 MW h, and net CO 2 emission of 13,273 kg. It offers 46%, 28%, 82% and 94% reduction in LCC, COE, CO 2 emission and dump energy respectively when compared to a single big Diesel generator scenario.

  16. Modeling electric load and water consumption impacts from an integrated thermal energy and rainwater storage system for residential buildings in Texas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upshaw, Charles R.; Rhodes, Joshua D.; Webber, Michael E.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Hydronic integrated rainwater thermal storage (ITHERST) system concept presented. • ITHERST system modeled to assess peak electric load shifting and water savings. • Case study shows 75% peak load reduction and 9% increase in energy consumption. • Potable rainwater collection could provide ∼50–90% of water used for case study. - Abstract: The United States’ built environment is a significant direct and indirect consumer of energy and water. In Texas, and other parts of the Southern and Western US, air conditioning loads, particularly from residential buildings, contribute significantly to the peak electricity load on the grid, straining transmission. In parallel, water resources in these regions are strained by growing populations and shrinking supplies. One potential method to address both of these issues is to develop integrated thermal energy and auxiliary water (e.g. rainwater, greywater, etc.) storage and management systems that reduce peak load and freshwater consumption. This analysis focuses on a proposed integrated thermal energy and rainwater storage (ITHERST) system that is incorporated into a residential air-source chiller/heat pump with hydronic distribution. This paper describes a step-wise hourly thermodynamic model of the thermal storage system to assess on-peak performance, and a daily volume-balance model of auxiliary water collection and consumption to assess water savings potential. While the model is generalized, this analysis uses a case study of a single family home in Austin, Texas to illustrate its capabilities. The results indicate this ITHERST system could reduce on-peak air conditioning electric power demand by over 75%, with increased overall electric energy consumption of approximately 7–9%, when optimally sized. Additionally, the modeled rainwater collection reduced municipal water consumption by approximately 53–89%, depending on the system size.

  17. Presence of Legionella spp. in Hot Water Networks of Different Italian Residential Buildings: A Three-Year Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totaro, Michele; Valentini, Paola; Costa, Anna Laura; Frendo, Lorenzo; Cappello, Alessia; Casini, Beatrice; Miccoli, Mario; Privitera, Gaetano; Baggiani, Angelo

    2017-10-26

    Although the European reports highlight an increase in community-acquired Legionnaires' disease cases, the risk of Legionella spp. in private houses is underestimated. In Pisa (Italy) we performed a three-year survey on Legionella presence in 121 buildings with an independent hot water production (IB); 64 buildings with a central hot water production (CB); and 35 buildings with a solar thermal system for hot water production (TB). From all the 220 buildings Legionella spp. was researched in two hot water samples collected either at the recirculation point or on the first floor and on the last floor, while the potable water quality was analysed in three cold water samples collected at the inlet from the aqueduct network, at the exit from the autoclave, and at the most remote tap. Legionella pneumophila sg1, Legionella pneumophila sg2-16, and non- pneumophila Legionella species were detected in 26% of the hot water networks, mostly in CB and TB. In these buildings we detected correlations between the presence of Legionella and the total chlorine concentration decrease and/or the increase of the temperature. Cold water resulted free from microbiological hazards, with the exception of Serratia liquefaciens and Enterobacter cloacae isolated at the exit from two different autoclaves. We observed an increase in total microbial counts at 22 °C and 37 °C between the samples collected at the most remote taps compared to the ones collected at the inlet from the aqueduct. The study highlights a condition of potential risk for susceptible categories of population and supports the need for measures of risk assessment and control.

  18. Residential Mechanical Precooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, a. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This research conducted by the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team evaluated mechanical air conditioner pre-cooling strategies in homes throughout the United States. EnergyPlus modeling evaluated two homes with different performance characteristics in seven climates. Results are applicable to new construction homes and most existing homes built in the last 10 years, as well as fairly efficient retrofitted homes.

  19. Green rooms - schemes, feasible ways and aims concerning the improvement of the quality of life in residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roehrbein, R.

    1986-06-01

    Both an improvement of environs and an improvement of the quality of buildings contribute to checking the economic, social and psychological motives of the migration from urban to rural areas. An introductory survey describes the constructional schemes (e.g. Le Corbusier) the relevant efforts are based on. The author stresses the trend towards more roominess and freedom of movement. A brief description of the development since 1945 is followed by a detailed discussion exemplifying the rehabilitation of urban areas. Along with cost calculations and regulatory aspects (planning, building ordinance, attached greenhouses) the author presents a four-room maisonnette model with one of its rooms designed as a 'green room'. The zone verte of the latter (5x5 m) proved to be ideally suited for various most attractive uses. (HWJ).

  20. Optimisation of a Swedish district heating system with reduced heat demand due to energy efficiency measures in residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Åberg, M.; Henning, D.

    2011-01-01

    The development towards more energy efficient buildings, as well as the expansion of district heating (DH) networks, is generally considered to reduce environmental impact. But the combined effect of these two progressions is more controversial. A reduced heat demand (HD) due to higher energy efficiency in buildings might hamper co-production of electricity and DH. In Sweden, co-produced electricity is normally considered to displace electricity from less efficient European condensing power plants. In this study, a potential HD reduction due to energy efficiency measures in the existing building stock in the Swedish city Linköping is calculated. The impact of HD reduction on heat and electricity production in the Linköping DH system is investigated by using the energy system optimisation model MODEST. Energy efficiency measures in buildings reduce seasonal HD variations. Model results show that HD reductions primarily decrease heat-only production. The electricity-to-heat output ratio for the system is increased for HD reductions up to 30%. Local and global CO 2 emissions are reduced. If co-produced electricity replaces electricity from coal-fired condensing power plants, a 20% HD reduction is optimal for decreasing global CO 2 emissions in the analysed DH system. - Highlights: ► A MODEST optimisation model of the Linköping district heating system is used. ► The impact of heat demand reduction on heat and electricity production is examined. ► Model results show that heat demand reductions decrease heat-only production. ► Local and global CO 2 emissions are reduced. ► The system electricity-to-heat output increases for reduced heat demand up to 30%.

  1. Energy in the residential building. Electricity, heat, e-mobility. 2. rev. and enl. ed.; Energie im Wohngebaeude. Strom, Waerme, E-Mobilitaet

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schwarzburger, Heiko

    2017-11-01

    Photovoltaics, heat pumps and fuel cells offer enormous potential for sustainable energy supply in residential buildings. Solar thermal energy and wood-fired boilers also play an important role in refurbishment. Due to the wide range of possible combinations, the wishes of building owners and homeowners for an ecologically and economically individually adapted energy concept can be fulfilled accurately. This book provides you with a holistic approach to the residential building and its supply of electricity, heat and water. All processes that play a role in the house's energy consumption are examined in their entirety for their potentials and potential savings. The author analyses and describes in detail the resources of buildings and their surroundings - and how they can be used for a truly independent supply. The focus is on reducing energy consumption and costs, the generation and supply of energy from renewable sources and energy storage - considered in new construction and modernisation. The supply of water is also dealt with if it touches on energy issues. The author draws attention to standards and regulations and gives practical advice for planning and installation. The focus is on the so-called sector coupling: electricity from the sun, wind and hydrogen is used to supply electrical consumers in the home, charging technology for electric vehicles, hot water and heating. The time of the boilers and combustion engines has elapsed. Clean electricity and digital controls - power and intelligence - determine the regenerative building technology. [German] Photovoltaik, Waermepumpen und Brennstoffzellen bieten enormes Potenzial, die Energieversorgung im Wohngebaeude nachhaltig zu gestalten. In der Sanierung spielen auch Solarthermie und Holzfeuerungen eine wichtige Rolle. Aufgrund der vielfaeltigen Kombinationsmoeglichkeiten lassen sich die Wuensche der Bauherren und Hausbesitzer nach einem oekologisch und oekonomisch individuell angepassten Energiekonzept

  2. The impact of changing solar screen rotation angle and its opening aspect ratios on Daylight Availability in residential desert buildings

    KAUST Repository

    Sherif, Ahmed H.

    2012-11-01

    In desert sunny clear-sky regions solar penetration can become excessive. This can cause non-uniform daylight distribution, glare and high solar heat gain, affecting both visual and thermal comfort. Shading devices, such as solar screens, were usually used to diffuse and prevent direct solar penetration into spaces. This paper investigates the impact of changing solar screen axial rotation angle and screen opening aspect ratio on daylighting performance in a typical residential living room space under the desert sunny clear-sky. The larger aim is to arrive at efficient solar screen designs that suit the different orientations.The study was divided into three consecutive phases. In phase one, the effect of the two parameters on Daylight Availability was tested. The solar screen was axially rotated by three different angles at 10° increments. Also, the aspect ratio of the screen opening in both horizontal and vertical directions was changed systematically. Simulation was conducted using the annual Daylight Dynamic Performance Metrics (DDPMs). In phase two, the Annual Daylight Glare Probability (DGP) metric was evaluated for the cases that were found adequate in phase one. In the third phase, the annual solar energy transmittance through the screen was calculated for the cases that achieved acceptable performance in the two previous phases in order to identify the more energy efficient screens.Solar screens with openings having horizontal aspect ratios were found to be the most effective, while those with vertical aspect ratios were achieved the lowest performance. In the North orientation, since almost all the cases that were tested in this research provided acceptable daylighting performance, the designer now have a variety of options to choose from. Preference should be given to screen openings of horizontal aspect ratios, especially the 12:1 and 18:1 (H:V) screens that achieved the best performance where 92% of the space was " daylit" in comparison with only 53

  3. Harnessing the hybrid power supply systems of utility grid and photovoltaic panels at retrofit residential single family building in Medan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pangaribuan, A. B.; Rahmat, R. F.; Lidya, M. S.; Zálešák, M.

    2017-01-01

    The paper describes improvisation mode of energy supply source by collaboration between national utility grid as represented by fossil fuels and PV as independent renewable power resource in order to aim the energy consumptions efficiently in retrofit single family house. In this case, one existing single family house model in Medan, Indonesia was observed for the possibility of future refurbishment. The eco-design version of the house model and prediction analyses regarding nearby potential renewable energy resource (solar system) had been made using Autodesk Revit MEP 2015, Climate Consultant 6.0 and Green Building Studio Analysis. Economical evaluation of using hybrid power supply is discussed as well.

  4. A methodology for modelling energy-related human behaviour: Application to window opening behaviour in residential buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fabi, Valentina; Andersen, Rune Korsholm; Corgnati, Stefano P.

    2013-01-01

    . The occupant behaviour related to the building control potentialities is a very complex process that has been studied only in the last years with some focuses related to natural ventilation (window opening behaviour), space heating energy demand (in particular the adjustments in the temperature set...... for modelling the human behaviour related to the control of indoor environment. The procedure is applied at models of occupants’ interactions with windows (opening and closing behaviour). Models of occupants’ window opening behaviour were inferred based on measurements and implemented in a simulation program...

  5. Assessing energy and thermal comfort of different low-energy cooling concepts for non-residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salvalai, Graziano; Pfafferott, Jens; Sesana, Marta Maria

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Impact of five cooling technologies are simulated in six European climate zones with Trnsys 17. • The ventilation strategies reduce the cooling energy need even in South Europe climate. • Constant ventilation controller can lead to a poor cooling performance. • Comparing radiant strategies with air conditioning scenario, the energy saving is predicted to within 5–35%. - Abstract: Energy consumption for cooling is growing dramatically. In the last years, electricity peak consumption grew significantly, switching from winter to summer in many EU countries. This is endangering the stability of electricity grids. This article outlines a comprehensive analysis of an office building performances in terms of energy consumption and thermal comfort (in accordance with static – ISO 7730:2005 – and adaptive thermal comfort criteria – EN 15251:2007 –) related to different cooling concepts in six different European climate zones. The work is based on a series of dynamic simulations carried out in the Trnsys 17 environment for a typical office building. The simulation study was accomplished for five cooling technologies: natural ventilation (NV), mechanical night ventilation (MV), fan-coils (FC), suspended ceiling panels (SCP), and concrete core conditioning (CCC) applied in Stockholm, Hamburg, Stuttgart, Milan, Rome, and Palermo. Under this premise, the authors propose a methodology for the evaluation of the cooling concepts taking into account both, thermal comfort and energy consumption

  6. Life Cycle Assessment of Energy and CO2 Emissions for Residential Buildings in Jakarta and Bandung, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usep Surahman

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to analyze life cycle energy and CO2 emission profiles by employing an input–output analysis method for urban houses in major cities of Indonesia. Two surveys investigating building material inventory and household energy consumption within individual houses were conducted in Bandung in 2011 and 2012. The results show that, if reused and recycled materials were assumed to be zero, the averaged embodied energy for simple, medium and luxurious houses in Bandung was larger than that for their respective houses in Jakarta. Overall, the average annual energy consumption of all samples in Jakarta was approximately 20.6 GJ, which is 5.0 GJ larger than that in Bandung. In terms of life cycle energy, the operational energy accounted for 79%–86% and 69%–81% of the total for respective houses in Jakarta and Bandung. The profiles of life cycle CO2 emissions are similar to those of energy. The results of the scenario analysis prove that the promotion of reusing/recycling is important to reduce building material inputs/waste and their corresponding embodied energy. It is also important to reduce the use of air-conditioning for operational energy in the future by adopting passive cooling techniques wherever possible.

  7. Strategies to optimize the electric energy use in non-residential buildings; Estrategias para eficientizar el uso de la energia electrica en edificios no residenciales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro Flores, J.; Morillon Galvez, D. [Comision Nacional para el Ahorro de Energia, Mexico, D. F. (Mexico)

    1995-12-31

    This paper presents the problems identified in non-residential buildings, where the inadequate use of energy is mainly shown in three points: inadequate technology and maintenance, wrong use and wrong habits in the energy use. The consequences of this situation in the ecological, politic and social environment were analyzed. In base of the problems detected the following strategies are proposed: An adequate project and design, retrofit, maintenance and users awareness for the rational energy use. The economic evaluation performed for the implementation of these strategies shows a significant saving potential of the electric power, with measures of null and low investment. [Espanol] Se presenta la problematica identificada en edificios no residenciales; donde el uso inadecuado de la energia electrica se manifiesta principalmente en tres puntos: tecnologia y mantenimiento inadecuados, y mal uso y costumbres de la energia. Se analizo las consecuencias de esta situacion en el ambito ecologico, economico, politico y social. Con base a la problematica se proponen las siguientes estrategias: un adecuado proyecto y diseno, retrofit, mantenimiento y concientizacion del usuario para el uso racional de la energia. La evaluacion economica realizada para implantar estas estrategias muestra un significativo potencial de ahorro de energia electrica, con medidas de nula y baja inversion.

  8. Dynamic performance assessment of a residential building-integrated cogeneration system under different boundary conditions. Part II: Environmental and economic analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosato, Antonio; Sibilio, Sergio; Scorpio, Michelangelo

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A building-integrated micro-cogeneration system was dynamically simulated. • Simulation data were analyzed from both environmental and economic point of views. • The proposed system was compared with a conventional supply system. • The proposed system reduces the environmental impact under heat-led operation. • The proposed system reduces the operating costs whatever the control logic is. - Abstract: This work examines the performance of a residential building-integrated micro-cogeneration system during the winter by means of a whole building simulation software. The cogeneration unit was coupled with a multi-family house composed of three floors, compliant with the transmittance values of both walls and windows suggested by the Italian Law; a stratified combined tank for both heating purposes and domestic hot water production was also used for storing heat. Simulations were performed considering the transient nature of the building and occupant driven loads as well as the part-load characteristics of the cogeneration unit. This system was described in detail and analyzed from an energy point of view in the companion paper. In this paper the simulation results were evaluated in terms of both carbon dioxide equivalent emissions and operating costs; detailed analyses were performed in order to estimate the influence of the most significant boundary conditions on both environmental and economic performance of the proposed system: in particular, three volumes of the hot water storage, four climatic zones corresponding to four Italian cities, two electric demand profiles, as well as two control strategies micro-cogeneration unit were considered. The assessment of environmental impact was performed by using the standard emission factors approach, neglecting the effects of local pollutants. The operating costs due to both natural gas and electric energy consumption were evaluated in detail, whereas both the capital and maintenance costs were

  9. Comparison of a Constant Air Volume (CAV) and a Demand Controlled Ventilation (DCV) System in a Residential Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Dorthe Kragsig; Nielsen, Toke Rammer; Topp, Claus

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to compare the indoor climate and the energy performance of a Constant Air Volume (CAV) system of 0.5h-1 with a Demand Controlled Ventilation (DCV) system controlled by occupancy and relative humidity for a studio apartment. Furthermore the impact of building materials...... it was found that the energy consumption for heating and operating the ventilation system could be reduced by respectively 8.0% and 10.6 % in the case of DCV without negative impact on the indoor climate. Including the hygroscopic properties of the materials resulted in a reduction of the energy consumption...... for heating and operating the ventilation system by respectively 9.5% and 17.1 % in favour of the DCV system....

  10. Technical Problems of Residential Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowogońska, Beata; Cibis, Jerzy

    2017-10-01

    Beauty, utility, durability - these are the features of good architecture and should also be the distinguishing qualities of every residential building. But do beauty and utility remain along with the passing of time? Performance characteristics are an indicator of both, the technical as well as aesthetic state of buildings. Aesthetic needs are in disagreement with the merciless aging process. The beauty of a city is formed not only by the original forms of new residential buildings, but also by existing tenement housing; thus preserving their aesthetics becomes a necessity. Time is continuously passing and along with it, aging intensifies. The aging process is a natural phenomenon for every material. The life expectancy of building materials is also limited. Along with the passing of time, the technical state of residential buildings continuously deteriorates. With the passing of time, the aesthetic values and preferences of users of flats change and the usability of the building decreases. The permanence of buildings, including residential buildings, is shaped not only by the forces of nature but also by activities of humans. A long lifespan is ensured by carrying out ongoing, systematic renovation-repair works. It is thanks to them that buildings derived from past centuries are still being used, and their market attractiveness is not decreasing.

  11. Methods of modeling TCO residential real estate in the life cycles of buildings as a promising energy efficiency management tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulakov Kirill

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Building and developing an affordable housing market is a huge challenge for Russia’s national economy. Today, the housing construction industry finds itself in a situation torn by a conflict caused by the simultaneous needs to minimize the housing construction costs in order to make housing more affordable for Russians and to increase the energy efficiency of the housing projects, which is associated with additional costs for developers. To find solutions to this contradictory situation, one needs new theoretical and practical approaches and economic tools. The global economic trend of managing goods and services on the basis of the value of goods and services over the life cycle is also manifested in the construction industry in Russia. The problem of forming a new economic thinking in the housing sector predetermines the perception of the value of housing not only as the price of purchased real estate, but as the equivalent of the total cost of ownership of real estate throughout its life cycle. This approach allows to compensate the initial rise in the cost of construction resulting from the introduction of energy-efficient technologies by savings in the operational phase of the life cycle of the property. In this regard, management of the total cost of real estate ownership based on energy modeling is of high research and practical relevance.

  12. Administration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bogen handler om den praksis, vi kalder administration. Vi er i den offentlige sektor i Danmark hos kontorfolkene med deres sagsmapper, computere, telefoner,, lovsamlinger,, retningslinier og regneark. I bogen udfoldes en mangfoldighed af konkrete historier om det administrative arbejde fra...... forskellige områder i den offentlige sektor. Hensigten er at forstå den praksis og faglighed der knytter sig til det administrative arbejde...

  13. Balancing the daylighting and energy performance of solar screens in residential desert buildings: Examination of screen axial rotation and opening aspect ratio

    KAUST Repository

    Sabry, Hanan

    2014-05-01

    Solar screens are typically used to control solar access into building spaces. They proved their usefulness in improving the daylighting and energy performance of buildings in the hot arid desert environments which are endowed with abundance of clear skies.The daylighting and energy performance of solar screens is affected by many parameters. These include screen perforation, depth, reflectivity and color, aspect ratio of openings, shape, tilt angle and rotation. Changing some of these parameters can improve the daylighting performance drastically. However, this can result in increased energy consumption. A balanced solution must be sought, where acceptable daylighting performance would be achieved at minimum energy consumption.This paper aims at defining solar screen designs that achieve visual comfort and at the same time minimum energy consumption in residential desert settings. The study focused on the effect of changing the solar screen axial rotation and the aspect ratio of its openings under the desert clear-sky. The individual and combined effects of changing these parameters were studied.Results of this study demonstrated that a non-rotated solar screen that has wide horizontal openings (aspect ratio of 18:1) proved to be successful in the north and south orientations. Its performance in the east/west orientations was also superior. In contrast, the screen that was rotated along its vertical axis while having small size openings (aspect ratio of 1:1) proved to be more successful in the east/west orientations. Its performance in the north orientation was also good. These solutions enhanced daylighting performance, while maintaining the energy consumption at a minimum.Moreover, it was observed that combining two screen parameters which proved useful in previous studies on daylighting or thermal performance does not add up to better solutions. The combined solutions that were tested in this study did not prove successful in satisfying daylighting and thermal

  14. SIA model for buildings: energy-efficiency path for commercial and residential buildings. Preliminary study on the Swiss model for buildings - Basics for the revision of the 'SIA energy-efficiency path' - Final report; Gebaeudeparkmodell 'SIA Effizienzpfad Energie', Dienstleistungs- und Wohngebaeude. Vorstudie zum Gebaeudeparkmodell Schweiz - Grundlagen zur Ueberarbeitung des SIA Effizienzpfades Energie - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heeren, N.; Gabathuler, M.; Wallbaum, H. [Institut fuer Bauplanung und Baubetrieb, Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule Zuerich (ETHZ), Zuerich (Switzerland); Jakob, M.; Martius, M.; Gross, N. [TEP Energy GmbH, Technology Economics Policy - Research and Advice, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2009-10-15

    The aim of the project was to provide a basis for the revision of the so-called 'Efficiency Path' of the Swiss Association of Engineers and Architects (SIA) in the context of the goals of the 2000-Watt-Society. Particularly, the objective is to find the conditions in which the specific goals of the 2000-Watt-Society for residential, school and office buildings could be reached. Considered indicators are the per capita primary energy use in terms of average power and the greenhouse gas emissions. A bottom-up model was developed to estimate final and primary energy demand of the mentioned building types, broken down by different types of energy utilisation. Assumptions were made regarding the most important physical drivers as well as for regarding energy efficiency parameters of new buildings, building retrofits, building technologies and other energy applications in the residential, school and office buildings. Two basic scenarios were developed: an ambitious efficiency scenario was compared to a reference scenario which included current and foreseeable energy policy elements. Regarding electricity supply three scenario-variants of the so-called Swiss Energy Perspectives of the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) were used: variant I b 'business-as-usual - nuclear and central fossil plants', IV a: Path to the 2000-Watt-Society - nuclear' and, IV e 'Path to the 2000-Watt-Society - renewable energies'. With this respect it was found that in the case of the efficiency scenario the influence of the electricity generation mix is relatively small. This finding is explained by the fact that hydro power (which is held more or less at the current level) has a large share in the power supply mix in the case of the efficiency scenario with moderate electricity demand and that hydro power is efficient in terms of primary energy and has considerably low greenhouse gas emissions. The results of the study show that with the underlying

  15. Building sustainable institutions ? : the results of international administration in Bosnia & Herzegovina and Kosovo: 1995-2008

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Willigen, Niels Johannes Gerard van

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, there have been several large and ambitious international administrations established to govern territories plagued by war and left without effective governments. The international administrations in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia) and in Kosovo were among those established.

  16. Administration

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Cet imposant volume constitue un registre des cours magistraux tenus par l’auteur à l’École supérieure allemande des sciences administratives de Spire, enrichis des résultats de travaux scientifiques menés principalement à l'Institut Allemand de Recherche en Administration Publique (Deutsches Forschungsinstitut für öffentliche Verwaltung Speyer, FÖV). Il s’agit donc d’une entreprise au long cours, destinée à apporter un nouvel éclairage (quasi ?) exhaustif sur l’administration publique : son ...

  17. Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashwani kumar

    2015-08-01

    This paper discusses existing development scenario and issues to accommodate future development in hill towns located in Indian Himalayan region, also highlights the state of existing building regulations through an in-depth study of building regulations in major hill towns, and briefly discuses possible approaches to change existing building regulations for achieving contextually appropriate development.

  18. Residential Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde; Matsufuji, Y.

    2011-01-01

    are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing residential waste is faced with the problem that many residences already divert some waste away from the official collection systems, for example performing home composting of vegetable waste and garden waste, having their bundled newspaper picked up by the scouts...... twice a year or bringing their used furniture to the flea markets organized by charity clubs. Thus, much of the data available on residential waste represents collected waste and not necessarily all generated waste. The latter can only be characterized by careful studies directly at the source...

  19. ARRA FEMP Technical Assistance -- Federal Aviation Administration Project 209 -- Control Tower and Support Building, Palm Springs, CA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arends, J.; Sandusky, William F.

    2010-03-31

    This report represents findings of a design review team that evaluated construction documents (at the 100% level) and operating specifications for a new control tower and support building that will be built in Palm Springs, California by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA). The focus of the review was to identify measures that could be incorporated into the final design and operating specifications that would result in additional energy savings for the FAA that would not have otherwise occurred.

  20. Healthy citizens and building projects. What can be realized by administrators improving local air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoekstra, B.; Woudenberg, F.

    2006-01-01

    European regulations with respect to air quality in urban areas forces national governments to follow those regulations in case of spatial planning, building and construction projects. Many of those plans in the Netherlands do not meet those regulations and appear to exceed the boundary values of emission and the quality of ambient air. Therefor building and construction projects can not start or be finalized. In this article an overview is given of possibilities to improve the air quality [nl

  1. Guiding Principles for Building Fit-For-Purpose Land Administration Systems in Developing Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McLaren, Robin; Enemark, Stig; Lemmen, Christiaan

    2016-01-01

    Most developing countries are struggling to find remedies for their many land problems that are often causing land conflicts, reducing economic development and preventing countries reaching their true potential. Existing investments in land administration have been built on legacy approaches and ...... and issues associated with implementing FFP land administration, including change management, capacity development and project delivery....

  2. Building the Innovative and Entrepreneurial University: An Institutional Case Study of Administrative Academic Capitalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, Kevin R.

    2016-01-01

    Although researchers have explored dimensions of academic capitalism among students and faculty members, knowledge of the roles of administrators at all levels is underdeveloped in the literature. This institutional case study of a public research-extensive university examines the roles of executive and managerial administrators in bringing a…

  3. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in South Carolina. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in South Carolina.

  4. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Nebraska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Nebraska. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Nebraska.

  5. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Georgia. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2011 Georgia State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Georgia.

  6. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Wisconsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Wisconsin. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2006 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Wisconsin.

  7. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Illinois. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Illinois.

  8. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Pennsylvania. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Pennsylvania.

  9. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Arkansas. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Arkansas.

  10. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Alabama. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Alabama.

  11. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Nevada. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Nevada.

  12. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Texas. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Texas.

  13. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Maine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Maine. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Maine.

  14. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Oklahoma. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Oklahoma.

  15. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Missouri. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Missouri.

  16. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V.; Zhao, Mingjie; Taylor, Zachary T.; Poehlman, Eric A.

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Indiana. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Indiana.

  17. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Rhode Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Rhode Island. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Rhode Island.

  18. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Florida. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Florida.

  19. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in New Mexico. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in New Mexico.

  20. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in North Dakota. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in North Dakota.

  1. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Ohio. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Ohio.

  2. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Arizona. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Arizona.

  3. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Louisiana. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Louisiana.

  4. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Connecticut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Connecticut. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Connecticut.

  5. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in New York. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in New York.

  6. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Delaware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Delaware. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Delaware.

  7. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Kansas. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Kansas.

  8. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Iowa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Iowa. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2014 Iowa State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Iowa.

  9. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Massachusetts. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Massachusetts.

  10. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Vermont

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Vermont. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Vermont.

  11. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Kentucky. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Kentucky.

  12. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Mississippi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Mississippi. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Mississippi.

  13. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Virginia. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Virginia.

  14. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Wyoming. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Wyoming.

  15. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Idaho. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2015 Idaho State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Idaho.

  16. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in West Virginia. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in West Virginia.

  17. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Colorado. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Colorado.

  18. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Alaska. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Alaska.

  19. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Utah. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 Utah State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Utah.

  20. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Tennessee. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2006 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Tennessee.

  1. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for South Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in South Dakota. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in South Dakota.

  2. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Hawaii. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2006 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Hawaii.

  3. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Maryland. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Maryland.

  4. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Michigan. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Michigan.

  5. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Minnesota. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Minnesota.

  6. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Montana. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2014 Montana State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Montana.

  7. Cost-competitiveness of organic photovoltaics for electricity self-consumption at residential buildings: A comparative study of Denmark and Greece under real market conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chatzisideris, Marios Dimos; Laurent, Alexis; Christoforidis, Georgios C.

    2017-01-01

    To address sustainability challenges, photovoltaics (PV) are regarded as a promising renewable energy technology. Decreasing PV module costs and increasing residential electricity prices have made self-consumption of PV-generated electricity financially more attractive than exporting to the grid...... has not been evaluated under real market conditions, especially under PV self-consumption schemes. In this study, we investigate the self-consumption of electricity generation from conventional and organic PV systems installed at residential houses in two different countries, Denmark and Greece, under...... applying to all PV technologies show that PV systems installed at residential houses in Greece perform economically better than those in Denmark do in terms of self-sufficiency and gross electricity bill savings (i.e. excluding PV costs). Using the two country cases, which present very different settings...

  8. Evaluation of Heating, Ventilation, and Air conditioning (HVAC System Performance in an Administrative Building in Tehran (Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Mari Oriyad

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: One of the factors influencing on indoor air quality of the buildings is performance of HVAC (heating, ventilation, and air conditioning systems. These systems supply clean and odorless air, with temperature, humidity, and air velocity within comfort ranges for the residents. The aim of this study was to evaluate performance HVAC system in an administrative building in Tehran. .Material and Method: A questionnaire, developed in their research was used to assess the building occupants’ perception about the performance of HVAC system. To evaluate the performance of HVAC systems, air velocities were measured in the diffusers using a thermal anemometer. Moreover, CO2 concentration, air temperature and relative humidity were measured in the whole floors of the building. Air distribution inside the building was evaluated using smoke test. .Results: Most of the studied people complained about the direction of airflow, thermal conditions and cigarette odor. The highest level of carbon dioxide was measured at 930 ppm inside the restaurant. The maximum and minimum air temperatures and relative humidity were measured 28.3-13.8° C and 28.4-23% respectively. Smoke test showed that the air distribution/direction wasn’t suitable in one third of air diffusers. .Conclusion: Improper air distribution / direction was the main problem with the studied HVAC system which could be corrected by adjusting and balancing of the system.

  9. Residential fuel choice in the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.D.; Englin, J.E.; Harkreader, S.A.

    1989-02-01

    In 1983, the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) issued Model Conservation Standards (MCS) designed to improve the efficiency of electrically heated buildings. Since then, the standards have been adopted by numerous local governments and utilities. The Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) has played an active role in marketing residential energy efficiency improvements through the Super Good Cents Program (SGCP) and encouraging the adoption and implementation of the MCS as local codes through the Early Adopter Program (EAP). Since the inception of the MCS, however, questions have arisen about the effect of the code and programs on the selection of heating fuels for new homes. Recently, Bonneville has proposed a gradual reduction in the incentive levels under these two programs prior to 1995 based on several assumptions about the market for MCS homes: builder costs will decline as builders gain experience building them; buyers will seek out MCS homes as their appreciation for their lower energy costs and greater comfort increases; and the resale market will increasingly reflect the greater quality of MCS homes. The growing availability of data from several jurisdictions where the MCS have been implemented has recently made it possible to begin assessing the effect of the MCS programs on residential fuel choice and evaluating assumptions underlying the programs and Bonneville's plans to revise them. This study is the first such assessment conducted for Bonneville.

  10. Guidelines for residential commissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wray, Craig P.; Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.

    2003-01-31

    Currently, houses do not perform optimally or even as many codes and forecasts predict, largely because they are field assembled and there is no consistent process to identify problems or to correct them. Residential commissioning is a solution to this problem. This guide is the culmination of a 30-month project that began in September 1999. The ultimate objective of the project is to increase the number of houses that undergo commissioning, which will improve the quality, comfort, and safety of homes for California citizens. The project goal is to lay the groundwork for a residential commissioning industry in California focused on end-use energy and non-energy issues. As such, we intend this guide to be a beginning and not an end. Our intent is that the guide will lead to the programmatic integration of commissioning with other building industry processes, which in turn will provide more value to a single site visit for people such as home energy auditors and raters, home inspectors, and building performance contractors. Project work to support the development of this guide includes: a literature review and annotated bibliography, which facilitates access to 469 documents related to residential commissioning published over the past 20 years (Wray et al. 2000), an analysis of the potential benefits one can realistically expect from commissioning new and existing California houses (Matson et al. 2002), and an assessment of 107 diagnostic tools for evaluating residential commissioning metrics (Wray et al. 2002). In this guide, we describe the issues that non-experts should consider in developing a commissioning program to achieve the benefits we have identified. We do this by providing specific recommendations about: how to structure the commissioning process, which diagnostics to use, and how to use them to commission new and existing houses. Using examples, we also demonstrate the potential benefits of applying the recommended whole-house commissioning approach to

  11. Public and vehicle lighting in residential areas : paper presented to the Chartered Institution of Building Services CIBS Annual Conference 1979, Harrogate, 19-23 May 1979.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    Roads in the conventional residential areas serve the purpose of leading to and from the houses in them. Thus, they are essentially traffic routes which may carry all road traffic modes, viz: pedestrians, pedal and motor bicycles, motor cars and trucks, and public service vehicles (buses or trams).

  12. 24 CFR 200.935 - Administrator qualifications and procedures for HUD building products certification programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... guidelines in any quality assurance review: (1) ASQC Q9000-1-1994 Quality Management and Quality Assurance... Systems—Model for Quality Assurance in Final Inspection and Test; (5) ASQC Q9004-1-1994 Quality Management...) Definitions—(1) Certification program (“program”). The procedure under which accepted administrators validate...

  13. Evaluation of Multi Residential House Renovation Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiva Rapcevičienė

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Analyzed multi residential house renovation investment projects efficiency evaluation methods: economic-social, and environmental, as well as key financial valuation methods: simple pay-back period, the energy cost savings, the net present value, internal rate of return. Building walls condition regenerative rate which is used to evaluate investments in energy-saving measures is also discussed. According to reconstruction investments of multi residential house, three government financing programs of multi residential house are evaluated and selected the most effective program by comparing financial valuation methods taking and without taking into account building walls condition regenerative rate. Article in Lithuanian

  14. Improved model for the calculation of the energy demand for the energetic evaluation of non-residential buildings; Verbessertes Modell zur Berechnung des Energiebedarfs zur energetischen Bewertung von Nichtwohngebaeuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kempf, Heike

    2011-06-29

    The German Industrial Norm DIN V 18599, which is related to the German Energieeinsparverordnung (EnEV), addresses the energetic evaluation of nonresidential buildings. With its more than 800 pages it is very voluminous and complex. Due to the complex subject of DIN V 18599, discrepancies causing considerable differences in the overall result are possible. A further weak point in the current procedure for energetic evaluation is the composition of individual zones within the considered buildings and the subsequent effort for acquisition and determination of values needed during computation. Before a non-residential building can be evaluated energetically, the building has to be divided into individual areas with identical boundary conditions (zoning). The process of zoning is an elementary step within the balancing according to DIN V 18599. It provides, beside the determination of geometrical data, the basis for further computations. Thus, the energetic evaluation of non-residential buildings is based on the so-called Multiple-Zone-Model as described in DIN V 18599. Zoning, especially the gathering of data connected to it, is a very time-consuming task, because the building areas and volumes have to be determined for each zone individually. Nevertheless, zoning is mandatory because of the often completely different net energies to be provided. In order to reduce this effort, a Single-Zone-Model was added to the Energieeinsparverordnung, which may be used under certain preconditions. However, in comparison to the Multi-Zone-Model, differences in the evaluation results are possible. The elimination of weak points, that is to say the difference in time and result, is reached by the computation of the annual primary energy demand on the basis of an Improved-Single-Zone-Model. The Improved-Single-Zone-Model works with improved use values and includes computations of the Single-Zone-Model as well as the Multiple-Zone-Model. The advantage of the Improved

  15. Residential energy use in Lithuania: The prospects for energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vine, E. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab., CA (United States); Kazakevicius, E. [Kazakevicius (Eduardas), Vilnius (Lithuania)

    1998-06-01

    While the potential for saving energy in Lithuania`s residential sector (especially, space heating in apartment buildings) is large, significant barriers (financial, administration, etc.) to energy efficiency remain. Removing or ameliorating these barriers will be difficult since these are systematic barriers that require societal change. Furthermore, solutions to these problems will require the cooperation and, in some cases, active participation of households and homeowner associations. Therefore, prior to proposing and implementing energy-efficiency solutions, one must understand the energy situation from a household perspective.

  16. ASHRAE and residential ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max H.

    2003-10-01

    In the last quarter of a century, the western world has become increasingly aware of environmental threats to health and safety. During this period, people psychologically retreated away from outdoors hazards such as pesticides, smog, lead, oil spills, and dioxin to the seeming security of their homes. However, the indoor environment may not be healthier than the outdoor environment, as has become more apparent over the past few years with issues such as mold, formaldehyde, and sick-building syndrome. While the built human environment has changed substantially over the past 10,000 years, human biology has not; poor indoor air quality creates health risks and can be uncomfortable. The human race has found, over time, that it is essential to manage the indoor environments of their homes. ASHRAE has long been in the business of ventilation, but most of the focus of that effort has been in the area of commercial and institutional buildings. Residential ventilation was traditionally not a major concern because it was felt that, between operable windows and envelope leakage, people were getting enough outside air in their homes. In the quarter of a century since the first oil shock, houses have gotten much more energy efficient. At the same time, the kinds of materials and functions in houses changed in character in response to people's needs. People became more environmentally conscious and aware not only about the resources they were consuming but about the environment in which they lived. All of these factors contributed to an increasing level of public concern about residential indoor air quality and ventilation. Where once there was an easy feeling about the residential indoor environment, there is now a desire to define levels of acceptability and performance. Many institutions--both public and private--have interests in Indoor Air Quality (IAQ), but ASHRAE, as the professional society that has had ventilation as part of its mission for over 100 years, is the

  17. Residential Mechanical Precooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, Alea [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States). Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI); Hoeschele, Marc [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States). Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI)

    2014-12-01

    Residential air conditioning (AC) represents a challenging load for many electric utilities with poor load factors. Mechanical precooling improves the load factor by shifting cooling operation from on-peak to off-peak hours. This provides benefits to utilities and the electricity grid, as well as to occupants who can take advantage of time-of-use (TOU) electricity rates. Performance benefits stem from reduced compressor cycling, and shifting condensing unit operation to earlier periods of the day when outdoor temperatures are more favorable to operational efficiency. Finding solutions that save energy and reduce demand on the electricity grid is an important national objective and supports key Building America goals. The Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team evaluated mechanical AC precooling strategies in homes throughout the United States. EnergyPlus modeling was used to evaluate two homes with different performance characteristics in seven climates. Results are applicable to new construction homes and most existing homes built in the last 10 years, as well as fairly efficient retrofitted homes. A successful off-peak AC strategy offers the potential for increased efficiency and improved occupant comfort, and promotes a more reliable and robust electricity grid. Demand response capabilities and further integration with photovoltaic TOU generation patterns provide additional opportunities to flatten loads and optimize grid impacts.

  18. Air condensation thermo-pumps for residential and small commercial buildings; Les thermopompes a condensation par air dans le residentiel et le petit tertiaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carteret, P. [Societe Airwell, (France)

    1997-12-31

    The advantages of recent air conditioning systems in terms of temperature control, air quality, air renewal, humidity control, air distribution, acoustic comfort, flexibility, are reviewed and some aspects concerning the evolution of the market in France are discussed (steady growth of the AC residential market). The different types of air conditioning systems are presented (direct expansion with the split-system, and cool water system); the characteristics, advantages and investment/operation costs of split-system and multi-splits thermo-pumps and hot water / cooled water production central units are described

  19. Energy statistics for single-family houses, apartment buildings and non-residential premises in 2012; Energistatistik foer smaahus, flerbostadshus och lokaler 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    This report presents a summary of energy use and heating method in Swedish buildings (2012). The report covers basically three surveys - energy use in houses, in apartment buildings and premises. These three studies are first published separately. The results are then processed further, with the aim to provide a comprehensive picture of energy use in permanently occupied dwellings (houses and apartments) and commercial buildings (excluding industrial premises). This report presents the results of these operations.

  20. 2011 Residential Energy Efficiency Technical Update Meeting Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-11-01

    This report provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy Building America program's Summer 2011 Residential Energy Efficiency Technical Update Meeting. This meeting was held on August 9-11, 2011, in Denver, Colorado, and brought together more than 290 professionals representing organizations with a vested interest in energy efficiency improvements in residential buildings.