WorldWideScience

Sample records for residential areas measurement

  1. Measuring preferences for parking facilities in old residential areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgers, A.W.J.; Kemperman, A.D.A.M.; Toll, L.M.M.; Timmermans, H.J.P.

    2010-01-01

    One of the problems in restructuring old residential areas in European cities is parking. The narrow streets and lack of open spaces challenge city planners to find solutions to this problem. Insight in preferences regarding possible parking solutions may facilitate the development of restructure

  2. Zones 30 : urban residential areas.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2006-01-01

    Sustainable Safety uses a road categorization in which through traffic is concentrated on motorways and other main roads. In residential areas, which have a living, shopping, or work function, through traffic is discouraged by setting a speed limit of 30 km/h, and by speed reducing measures such as

  3. Main challenges of residential areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Luca

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article is a position paper aiming to initiate a professional debate related to the aspects related to the urban dysfunctions leading to the wear of the residential areas. The paper proposes a definition of the wear process, identify the main causes leading to its occurrence and propose a number of solutions to neutralise the dysfunctions. The three wearing phases of residential areas components are emphasized, exploring their lifecycle. In order to perform the study of urban wear, the status of the residential areas components can be established and monitored, and also the variables of the function that can mathematically model the specific wear process may be considered. The paper is considered a first step for the model adjustment, to be tested and validated in the following steps. Based on the mathematical method and model, there can be created, in a potential future research, the possibility of determining the precarity degree for residential areas/neighbourhoods and cities, by minimising the subjective component of the analyses preceding the decision for renovation or regeneration.

  4. Suggestions on Strengthening Greening Construction of Ecological Residential Areas

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Peng

    2013-01-01

    Greening construction is an important part of the construction of ecological residential areas, but there exist some misunderstandings in greening construction of ecological residential districts at present. Based on the description of functions of green space in ecological residential areas, the summarization of principles of greening design, and the discussion of questions in greening construction of ecological residential districts, some suggestions as well as specific measures for strengt...

  5. Comparisons of Traffic-Related Ultrafine Particle Number Concentrations Measured in Two Urban Areas by Central, Residential, and Mobile Monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Matthew C; Hudda, Neelakshi; Naumova, Elena N; Levy, Jonathan I; Brugge, Doug; Durant, John L

    2017-11-01

    Traffic-related ultrafine particles (UFP; monitoring strategies upon which the models are based have varied between studies. Our study compares particle number concentrations (PNC; a proxy for UFP) measured by three different monitoring approaches (central-site, short-term residential-site, and mobile on-road monitoring) in two study areas in metropolitan Boston (MA, USA). Our objectives were to quantify ambient PNC differences between the three monitoring platforms, compare the temporal patterns and the spatial heterogeneity of PNC between the monitoring platforms, and identify factors that affect correlations across the platforms. We collected >12,000 hours of measurements at the central sites, 1,000 hours of measurements at each of 20 residential sites in the two study areas, and >120 hours of mobile measurements over the course of ~1 year in each study area. Our results show differences between the monitoring strategies: mean one-minute PNC on-roads were higher (64,000 and 32,000 particles/cm 3 in Boston and Chelsea, respectively) compared to central-site measurements (23,000 and 19,000 particles/cm 3 ) and both were higher than at residences (14,000 and 15,000 particles/cm 3 ). Temporal correlations and spatial heterogeneity also differed between the platforms. Temporal correlations were generally highest between central and residential sites, and lowest between central-site and on-road measurements. We observed the greatest spatial heterogeneity across monitoring platforms during the morning rush hours (06:00-09:00) and the lowest during the overnight hours (18:00-06:00). Longer averaging times (days and hours vs. minutes) increased temporal correlations (Pearson correlations were 0.69 and 0.60 vs. 0.39 in Boston; 0.71 and 0.61 vs. 0.45 in Chelsea) and reduced spatial heterogeneity (coefficients of divergence were 0.24 and 0.29 vs. 0.33 in Boston; 0.20 and 0.27 vs. 0.31 in Chelsea). Our results suggest that combining stationary and mobile monitoring may lead

  6. Comparisons of traffic-related ultrafine particle number concentrations measured in two urban areas by central, residential, and mobile monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Matthew C.; Hudda, Neelakshi; Naumova, Elena N.; Levy, Jonathan I.; Brugge, Doug; Durant, John L.

    2017-11-01

    Traffic-related ultrafine particles (UFP; strategies upon which the models are based have varied between studies. Our study compares particle number concentrations (PNC; a proxy for UFP) measured by three different monitoring approaches (central-site, short-term residential-site, and mobile on-road monitoring) in two study areas in metropolitan Boston (MA, USA). Our objectives were to quantify ambient PNC differences between the three monitoring platforms, compare the temporal patterns and the spatial heterogeneity of PNC between the monitoring platforms, and identify factors that affect correlations across the platforms. We collected >12,000 h of measurements at the central sites, 1000 h of measurements at each of 20 residential sites in the two study areas, and >120 h of mobile measurements over the course of ∼1 year in each study area. Our results show differences between the monitoring strategies: mean 1 min PNC on-roads were higher (64,000 and 32,000 particles/cm3 in Boston and Chelsea, respectively) compared to central-site measurements (23,000 and 19,000 particles/cm3) and both were higher than at residences (14,000 and 15,000 particles/cm3). Temporal correlations and spatial heterogeneity also differed between the platforms. Temporal correlations were generally highest between central and residential sites, and lowest between central-site and on-road measurements. We observed the greatest spatial heterogeneity across monitoring platforms during the morning rush hours (06:00-09:00) and the lowest during the overnight hours (18:00-06:00). Longer averaging times (days and hours vs. minutes) increased temporal correlations (Pearson correlations were 0.69 and 0.60 vs. 0.39 in Boston; 0.71 and 0.61 vs. 0.45 in Chelsea) and reduced spatial heterogeneity (coefficients of divergence were 0.24 and 0.29 vs. 0.33 in Boston; 0.20 and 0.27 vs. 0.31 in Chelsea). Our results suggest that combining stationary and mobile monitoring may lead to improved characterization of

  7. Dataset on energy efficiency assessment and measurement method for child-friendly space in cold residential area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Ren

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The data related in this paper are related to “Environmental-behavior studies of sustainable construction of the third place – based on outdoor environment-behavior cross-feed symbiotic analysis and verification of selective activities” (Ren, 2017 [1]. The dataset was from a field sub-time extended investigation to children of Hohhot West Inner Mongolia Electric Power Community Residential Area in Inner Mongolia of China that belongs to cold region of ID area according to Chinese design code for buildings. This filed data provided descriptive statistics about outdoor time, behavior scale specificity, age exclusivity and self-centeredness for children in different ages (babies, preschool children, school age children. This data provided five measurement elements of child-friendly space and their weight ratio. The field data set is made publicly available to enable critical or extended analyzes.

  8. INVESTIGATION OF ELECTROMAGNETIC FIELDS IN RESIDENTIAL AREAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušan MEDVEĎ

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This article is devoted to investigation of impact of electromagnetic fields around the electrical equipment used in a residential area and their impact on the human body. This paper was based on sets of measurements of magnetic induction B with magnetometer and on computational simulations in ANSYS for particular appliances often used in household. The results from measurements and simulations led to setting out the recommendations for practical action in the form of elimination of harmful electromagnetic radiation.

  9. Integration of motor traffic in residential areas.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    In stead of banning the cars from residential areas, the plan is to integrate them in such a way that they can still be used, but that they will loose their predominant position. The areas where this integration is to take place are called residential yards. This paper concentrates on the lighting

  10. Steering Angle Function Algorithm of Morphing of Residential Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XIE Tian

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A residential area feature morphing method based on steering angle function is presented. To residential area with the same representation under two different scales,transforming the representation of the residential area polygon from vector coordinates to steering angle function,then using the steering angle function to match,and finding out the similarity and the differences between the residential areas under different scale to get the steering angle function of the the residential areas under any middle scale,the final,transforming the middle scale steering angle function to vector coordinates form,and get the middle shape interpolation of the the residential area polygon.Experimental results show:the residential area morphing method by using steering angle function presented can realize the continuous multi-scale representation under the premise of keeping in shape for the residential area with the rectangular boundary features.

  11. LED Context Lighting System in Residential Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sook-Youn Kwon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As issues of environment and energy draw keen interest around the globe due to such problems as global warming and the energy crisis, LED with high optical efficiency is brought to the fore as the next generation lighting. In addition, as the national income level gets higher and life expectancy is extended, interest in the enhancement of life quality is increasing. Accordingly, the trend of lightings is changing from mere adjustment of light intensity to system lighting in order to enhance the quality of one’s life as well as reduce energy consumption. Thus, this study aims to design LED context lighting system that automatically recognizes the location and acts of a user in residential areas and creates an appropriate lighting environment. The proposed system designed in this study includes three types of processing: first, the creation of a lighting environment index suitable for the user’s surroundings and lighting control scenarios and second, it measures and analyzes the optical characteristics that change depending on the dimming control of lighting and applies them to the index. Lastly, it adopts PIR, piezoelectric, and power sensor to grasp the location and acts of the user and create a lighting environment suitable for the current context.

  12. Traffic Noise Assessment at Residential Areas in Skudai, Johor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulaiman, F. S.; Darus, N.; Mashros, N.; Haron, Z.; Yahya, K.

    2018-03-01

    Vehicles passing by on roadways in residential areas may produce unpleasant traffic noise that affects the residents. This paper presents the traffic noise assessment of three selected residential areas located in Skudai, Johor. The objectives of this study are to evaluate traffic characteristics at selected residential areas, determine related noise indices, and assess impact of traffic noise. Traffic characteristics such as daily traffic volume and vehicle speed were evaluated using automatic traffic counter (ATC). Meanwhile, noise indices like equivalent continuous sound pressure level (LAeq), noise level exceeded 10% (L10) and 90% (L90) of measurement time were determined using sound level meter (SLM). Besides that, traffic noise index (TNI) and noise pollution level (LNP) were calculated based on the measured noise indices. The results showed an increase in noise level of 60 to 70 dBA maximum due to increase in traffic volume. There was also a significant change in noise level of more than 70 dBA even though average vehicle speed did not vary significantly. Nevertheless, LAeq, TNI, and LNP values for all sites during daytime were lower than the maximum recommended levels. Thus, residents in the three studied areas were not affected in terms of quality of life and health.

  13. Residential damage in an area of underground coal mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padgett, M.F.

    1988-01-01

    In order to estimate the potential for future subsidence-related residential damage, a statistical analysis of past residential damage in the Boulder-Weld, Colorado, coal field was performed. The objectives of this study were to assess the difference in damage severity and frequency between undermined and non-undermined areas, and to determine, where applicable, which mining factors significantly influence the severity and frequency of residential damage. The results of this study suggest that undermined homes have almost three times the risk of having some type of structural damage than do non-undermined homes. The study also indicated that both geologic factors, such as the ratio of sandstone/claystone in the overburden, and mining factors, such as the mining feature (room, pillar, entry, etc.), can significantly affect the severity of overlying residential damage. However, the results of this study are dependent on local conditions and should not be applied elsewhere unless the geologic, mining, and residential conditions are similar

  14. Homeowner interactions with residential trees in urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jana Dilley; Kathleen L. Wolf

    2013-01-01

    Urban forests are a critical element in sustainable urban areas because of the many environmental, economic, and social benefits that city trees provide. In order to increase canopy cover in urban areas, residential homeowners, who collectively own the majority of the land in most cities, need to engage in planting and retaining trees on their properties. This...

  15. PROCIV, Protection Coefficient from Fallout in Residential Area Housing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Warme-Janville, B.

    1983-01-01

    Description of problem or function: PROCIV calculates the protection coefficients against radioactive fallout for collective housing in a residential area. Each house is simulated by a cylindrical tower. The material thickness traversed by the photons is converted to an equivalent layer of air. The masking by neighbouring houses is taken into account

  16. Residential fencing in a metropolitan area and three small towns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwin Kallio; Jerry A. Sesco

    1967-01-01

    Many types of fences were found on residential lots in the metropolitan-suburban area of St. Louis County, Missouri, and three small towns in southern Illinois. Wire fences predominated. More wooden fences were found on village lots than on city lots. In general, the more expensive homes had the most wooden fencing. Homes over 5 years old had more fencing of all...

  17. Some aspects of traffic safety in residential areas.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kraay, J.H. & Wegman, F.C.M.

    1977-01-01

    In the framework of international co-operation within OECD Research Group Traffic Safety in Residential areas the Netherlands have accepted the task of collecting Dutch data for a report. As far as Dutch research exists for the various chapters and sections of the complete report, this can be found

  18. Smart density: A more accurate method of measuring rural residential density for health-related research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owens, Peter M; Titus-Ernstoff, Linda; Gibson, Lucinda; Beach, Michael L; Beauregard, Sandy; Dalton, Madeline A

    2010-02-12

    Studies involving the built environment have typically relied on US Census data to measure residential density. However, census geographic units are often unsuited to health-related research, especially in rural areas where development is clustered and discontinuous. We evaluated the accuracy of both standard census methods and alternative GIS-based methods to measure rural density. We compared residential density (units/acre) in 335 Vermont school neighborhoods using conventional census geographic units (tract, block group and block) with two GIS buffer measures: a 1-kilometer (km) circle around the school and a 1-km circle intersected with a 100-meter (m) road-network buffer. The accuracy of each method was validated against the actual residential density for each neighborhood based on the Vermont e911 database, which provides an exact geo-location for all residential structures in the state. Standard census measures underestimate residential density in rural areas. In addition, the degree of error is inconsistent so even the relative rank of neighborhood densities varies across census measures. Census measures explain only 61% to 66% of the variation in actual residential density. In contrast, GIS buffer measures explain approximately 90% of the variation. Combining a 1-km circle with a road-network buffer provides the closest approximation of actual residential density. Residential density based on census units can mask clusters of development in rural areas and distort associations between residential density and health-related behaviors and outcomes. GIS-defined buffers, including a 1-km circle and a road-network buffer, can be used in conjunction with census data to obtain a more accurate measure of residential density.

  19. Smart density: a more accurate method of measuring rural residential density for health-related research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gibson Lucinda

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies involving the built environment have typically relied on US Census data to measure residential density. However, census geographic units are often unsuited to health-related research, especially in rural areas where development is clustered and discontinuous. Objective We evaluated the accuracy of both standard census methods and alternative GIS-based methods to measure rural density. Methods We compared residential density (units/acre in 335 Vermont school neighborhoods using conventional census geographic units (tract, block group and block with two GIS buffer measures: a 1-kilometer (km circle around the school and a 1-km circle intersected with a 100-meter (m road-network buffer. The accuracy of each method was validated against the actual residential density for each neighborhood based on the Vermont e911 database, which provides an exact geo-location for all residential structures in the state. Results Standard census measures underestimate residential density in rural areas. In addition, the degree of error is inconsistent so even the relative rank of neighborhood densities varies across census measures. Census measures explain only 61% to 66% of the variation in actual residential density. In contrast, GIS buffer measures explain approximately 90% of the variation. Combining a 1-km circle with a road-network buffer provides the closest approximation of actual residential density. Conclusion Residential density based on census units can mask clusters of development in rural areas and distort associations between residential density and health-related behaviors and outcomes. GIS-defined buffers, including a 1-km circle and a road-network buffer, can be used in conjunction with census data to obtain a more accurate measure of residential density.

  20. Ecological approach in constructing residential areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdanović Ružica

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available As a concept sustainable development has evolved over the past two decades from a concept closely associated with the biophysical environment to become much more complex, embracing social, cultural, economic political and esthetic phenomenon, which are invariably in mutual interaction, so they influence sustainability of natural environment. The very notion of "sustainable" we are meeting today in almost all significance areas of human activities. Contemporary planning, projecting and building techniques undoubtedly implied integration of goals of environmental prevention with goals of socio-economic development, all with respecting the esthetic standards. This paper represents experience from foreign praxis. Project defines and resolves objectives from social, economical, morphological and ecological aspects. Most important is aspect of Ecological Optimisation, which consists of main components: energy use optimization, water concept, exemplary waste management concept and ecological soil management.

  1. Radon measurements in some areas in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamid Khan, M.A.; Chowdhury, M.S.

    2008-01-01

    A survey of radon level measurements using CR-39 has been carried out in some of urban and rural residential areas and one gas explosion area in Bangladesh. The lowest level of radon concentration was found to be 49Bqm -3 inside a hospital in Cox's Bazar district and the highest level was found to be 835Bqm -3 inside a mud-made old residential house in Sylhet city. It was observed that old residential houses were found to have higher levels of radon concentrations compared to newly built houses. The radon level at the gas explosion area at Magurchara in Moulvibazar district was found to be 408±98Bqm -3

  2. Residential preferences towards urban and suburban areas and their relationship with demographic characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrić Jasna

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Urban sprawl is, among all, also the result of voluntary or induced resettlement of population from the inner city to urban periphery, or by in-migration to peripheral parts of cities where the origin of migrants is in other settlements. The focus of this paper is on the influence that residential preferences have on suburbanization, with the emphasis on analysis of the residential choice and certain population groups' tendencies to prioritise living in suburbs or the inner-city living. Theoretical considerations which are set in this paper initiate with residential preference components and the hypothesis of change in dominant motives for residential choice throughout family and individual's lifecycle. Then, the demographic data have been analysed according to the latest Census results in the two pilot-areas of urban and suburban type in Belgrade. Additional research on residential preferences are founded on preparation of specific questionnaire which would enable application of more powerful statistical techniques, especially a wider use of measuring scales for the variables deriving from the questionnaire, and formulation of a model for prediction of different population groups' residential preferences in urban and suburban settings.

  3. Impact of wood combustion on particle levels in a residential area in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glasius, M.; Ketzel, M.; Wåhlin, P.

    2006-01-01

    The influence of residential wood-combustion on local air quality was studied during two periods in 2002 and 2003/04 in a small rural town with widespread use of wood combustion for heating. During one 6-week winter period, particle levels (PM2.5) in the residential area were about 4 μg m-3 higher...... than at a nearby background site. This was comparable to the local traffic contribution observed at a busy street (about 70,000 vehicles per day) in the city of Copenhagen. The diurnal variation in the residential area showed increased particle levels (PM2.5) in the evening and night as expected from...... local heating sources. Particle size distributions showed highest volume concentrations of particles with diameters of 400-500 nm, and the diurnal variation of particle volume was similar to PM2.5. The particle measurements were supported by measurements of combustion gases in both the residential area...

  4. Declining human population but increasing residential development around protected areas in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Castro-Prieto; S. Martinuzzi; V.C. Radeloff; D.P. Helmers; M. Quiñones; W.A. Gould

    2017-01-01

    Increasing residential development around protected areas is a major threat for protected areas worldwide, and human population growth is often the most important cause. However, population is decreasing in many regions as a result of socio-economic changes, and it is unclear how residential development around protected areas is affected in these situations. We...

  5. Measuring urban tree loss dynamics across residential landscapes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ossola, Alessandro; Hopton, Matthew E

    2018-01-15

    The spatial arrangement of urban vegetation depends on urban morphology and socio-economic settings. Urban vegetation changes over time because of human management. Urban trees are removed due to hazard prevention or aesthetic preferences. Previous research attributed tree loss to decreases in canopy cover. However, this provides little information about location and structural characteristics of trees lost, as well as environmental and social factors affecting tree loss dynamics. This is particularly relevant in residential landscapes where access to residential parcels for field surveys is limited. We tested whether multi-temporal airborne LiDAR and multi-spectral imagery collected at a 5-year interval can be used to investigate urban tree loss dynamics across residential landscapes in Denver, CO and Milwaukee, WI, covering 400,705 residential parcels in 444 census tracts. Position and stem height of trees lost were extracted from canopy height models calculated as the difference between final (year 5) and initial (year 0) vegetation height derived from LiDAR. Multivariate regression models were used to predict number and height of tree stems lost in residential parcels in each census tract based on urban morphological and socio-economic variables. A total of 28,427 stems were lost from residential parcels in Denver and Milwaukee over 5years. Overall, 7% of residential parcels lost one stem, averaging 90.87 stems per km 2 . Average stem height was 10.16m, though trees lost in Denver were taller compared to Milwaukee. The number of stems lost was higher in neighborhoods with higher canopy cover and developed before the 1970s. However, socio-economic characteristics had little effect on tree loss dynamics. The study provides a simple method for measuring urban tree loss dynamics within and across entire cities, and represents a further step toward high resolution assessments of the three-dimensional change of urban vegetation at large spatial scales. Published by

  6. Radon measurements in some areas in Bangladesh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamid Khan, M.A. [Physics Division, Atomic Energy Centre, Bangladesh Atomic Energy Commission, P.O. Box 164, Dhaka-1000 (Bangladesh)], E-mail: hamidkhan1950@yahoo.com; Chowdhury, M.S. [Physics Department, Dhaka University, Dhaka-1000 (Bangladesh)

    2008-08-15

    A survey of radon level measurements using CR-39 has been carried out in some of urban and rural residential areas and one gas explosion area in Bangladesh. The lowest level of radon concentration was found to be 49Bqm{sup -3} inside a hospital in Cox's Bazar district and the highest level was found to be 835Bqm{sup -3} inside a mud-made old residential house in Sylhet city. It was observed that old residential houses were found to have higher levels of radon concentrations compared to newly built houses. The radon level at the gas explosion area at Magurchara in Moulvibazar district was found to be 408{+-}98Bqm{sup -3}.

  7. Methodology for the Detection of Residential Vulnerable Areas - the Case of Barcelona

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornado, Cossima; Garcia-Almirall, Pilar; Vima, Sara; Vila Busqued, Gemma; Uzqueda, Angel

    2017-10-01

    In a context of a shifting environmental, economic and social paradigm, European cities face a situation that is at the same time challenge and opportunity: the need for urban rehabilitation of the vulnerable degraded socio residential fabric. Public administrations in big cities and metropolitan areas are confronted with both the undercurrent need of actualization of the built stock and the rise of urban residential vulnerability. The city of Barcelona, as many others, is the result of multiple phenomena with high urban and social consequences. The socio spatial integration of immigrant population, the touristic rise and gentrification processes are current situations simultaneously taking place in the city. In parallel, a framework of economic crisis in which public investments in urban and social matters decrease, provides a temporal juncture that results into an increase of social polarization and socio economic inequality that becomes evident and expressed in the territory. This research focuses in the case of Barcelona, and presents a methodology based on a system of indicators elaborated through the exploitation of statistical data complemented with very specific data supplied by the Barcelona City Council. The accurate knowledge of socio demographic, socioeconomic and residential and urban characteristics is crucial in order to define the very complex urban dynamics that describe in the city neighbourhoods and areas. Residential vulnerability is defined as an assembly of objective conditions that relate to residential space and indicate situations of social discrimination and structural disadvantage of the population, related to a specific time and context. Thus, it is relevant to analyse the concentration of certain indicators of vulnerability in specific places or neighbourhoods, to contrast its effect on the socio-residential situation and its temporal evolution in order to identify tendencies. The present study contributes to the identification of data

  8. Evaluation of flow hood measurements for residential register flows; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Walker, I.S.; Wray, C.P.; Dickerhoff, D.J.; Sherman, M.H.

    2001-01-01

    Flow measurement at residential registers using flow hoods is becoming more common. These measurements are used to determine if the HVAC system is providing adequate comfort, appropriate flow over heat exchangers and in estimates of system energy losses. These HVAC system performance metrics are determined by using register measurements to find out if individual rooms are getting the correct airflow, and in estimates of total air handler flow and duct air leakage. The work discussed in this paper shows that commercially available flow hoods are poor at measuring flows in residential systems. There is also evidence in this and other studies that flow hoods can have significant errors even when used on the non-residential systems they were originally developed for. The measurement uncertainties arise from poor calibrations and the sensitivity of exiting flow hoods to non-uniformity of flows entering the device. The errors are usually large-on the order of 20% of measured flow, which is unacceptably high for most applications. Active flow hoods that have flow measurement devices that are insensitive to the entering airflow pattern were found to be clearly superior to commercially available flow hoods. In addition, it is clear that current calibration procedures for flow hoods may not take into account any field application problems and a new flow hood measurement standard should be developed to address this issue

  9. Cheap type solar bioclimatic individual houses for residential areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihailescu Teofil

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Romanian architectural practice for individual houses in residential areas, designing the architectural object in order to function together with the nature is neglected in the majority of the situations. This happens despite of a great variety of the solar bioclimatic solutions materialized in the traditional houses of all the Romanian geographical regions in a history of over 2000 years of traditional architecture. Unfortunately, in the local real estate realities, other choices are preferred in instead those of the solar bioclimatic architecture. The approach starts with a historical approach, analyzing several examples of traditional houses from all the regions of Romania, in order to identify the traditional bioclimatic solutions used to better adapt to the environment. This constitutes the source of inspiration for the modern cheap type solar bioclimatic houses presented. But a way of thinking should be changed for it, with the help of the Romanian state transformed in financial and legislative realities. These cheap type solar bioclimatic individual houses are destined for the middle class families and involve minimum costs for building and living, creating the best premises to efficiently use one or all of the complementary systems for producing, storage and/or transforming the energy from the environment (using solar, wind, water and/or earth energy.

  10. Measuring radon source magnitude in residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nazaroff, W.W.; Boegel, M.L.; Nero, A.V.

    1981-08-01

    A description is given of procedures used in residences for rapid grab-sample and time-dependent measurements of the air-exchange rate and radon concentration. The radon source magnitude is calculated from the results of simultaneous measurements of these parameters. Grab-sample measurements in three survey groups comprising 101 US houses showed the radon source magnitude to vary approximately log-normally with a geometric mean of 0.37 and a range of 0.01 to 6.0 pCi 1 -1 h -1 . Successive measurements in six houses in the northeastern United States showed considerable variability in source magnitude within a given house. In two of these houses the source magnitude showed a strong correlation with the air-exchange rate, suggesting that soil gas influx can be an important transport process for indoor radon

  11. Gis Based Analysis For Suitability Location Finding In The Residential Development Areas Of Greater Matara Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.K.G.M Madurika

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Urban Planning and Land utilization for the Residential is one of crucial factors in high density Cities. Many theories in Planning explain the Residential areas are moving to periphery areas in cities by its commercial development. Martara is one of developing city in Southern Sri Lanka and Residential land value are comparative high in city sub urban areas. In this study it is examined that where is the best locations for residential development in Grater Matara Region by using five criteria. GIS based Multi Criteria Method MCE method have been applied to find the suitable locations. The results of analysis have been shown that there are 5378.99 hectares area suitable within study area and however extremely importance areas only 1.40 hectares accordingly given criteria but very strongly importance and importance category have 1560.51 and 2468.22 respectively.

  12. On public space design for Chinese urban residential area based on integrated architectural physics environment evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, J. Y.; Cheng, W.; Ma, C. P.; Tan, Y. T.; Xin, L. S.

    2017-04-01

    The residential public space is an important part in designing the ecological residence, and a proper physics environment of public space is of greater significance to urban residence in China. Actually, the measure to apply computer aided design software into residential design can effectively avoid an inconformity of design intent with actual using condition, and a negative impact on users due to bad architectural physics environment of buildings, etc. The paper largely adopts a design method of analyzing architectural physics environment of residential public space. By analyzing and evaluating various physics environments, a suitability assessment is obtained for residential public space, thereby guiding the space design.

  13. Maximizing Information from Residential Measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddalena, Randy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Li, Na [Berkeley Analytical Associates, Richmond, CA (United States); Hodgson, Alfred [Berkeley Analytical Associates, Richmond, CA (United States); Offermann, Francis [Indoor Environmental Engineering, San Francisco, CA (United States); Singer, Brett [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Continually changing materials used in home construction and finishing can introduce new chemicals or changes in the VOC profile in residential air and the trend towards tighter homes can lead to higher exposure concentrations for many indoor sources. However, the complex mixture of VOCs in residential air makes it difficult to discover emerging contaminants and/or trends in pollutant profiles. The purpose of this study is to prepare a comprehensive library of chemicals found in homes, along with a semi-quantitative approach to maximize the information gained from VOC measurements. We carefully reviewed data from 108 new California homes and identified 238 individual compounds. The majority of the identified VOCs originated indoors. Only 31% were found to have relevant health based exposure guidelines and less than 10% had a chronic reference exposure level (CREL). The finding highlights the importance of extending IAQ studies to include a wider range of VOCs

  14. Integrated urban water management for residential areas: a reuse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, A B; Argue, J R

    2009-01-01

    Global concern over growing urban water demand in the face of limited water resources has focussed attention on the need for better management of available water resources. This paper takes the "fit for purpose" concept and applies it in the development of a model aimed at changing current practices with respect to residential planning by integrating reuse systems into the design layout. This residential reuse model provides an approach to the design of residential developments seeking to maximise water reuse. Water balance modelling is used to assess the extent to which local water resources can satisfy residential demands with conditions based on the city of Adelaide, Australia. Physical conditions include a relatively flat topography and a temperate climate, with annual rainfall being around 500 mm. The level of water-self-sufficiency that may be achieved within a reuse development in this environment is estimated at around 60%. A case study is also presented in which a conventional development is re-designed on the basis of the reuse model. Costing of the two developments indicates the reuse scenario is only marginally more expensive. Such costings however do not include the benefit to upstream and downstream environments resulting from reduced demand and discharges. As governments look to developers to recover system augmentation and environmental costs the economics of such approaches will increase.

  15. Aperture area measurement facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — NIST has established an absolute aperture area measurement facility for circular and near-circular apertures use in radiometric instruments. The facility consists of...

  16. Methods for Finding Legacy Wells in Residential and Commercial Areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammack, Richard W. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Veloski, Garret A. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)

    2016-06-16

    In 1919, the enthusiasm surrounding a short-lived gas play in Versailles Borough, Pennsylvania resulted in the drilling of many needless wells. The legacy of this activity exists today in the form of abandoned, unplugged gas wells that are a continuing source of fugitive methane in the midst of a residential and commercial area. Flammable concentrations of methane have been detected near building foundations, which have forced people from their homes and businesses until methane concentrations decreased. Despite mitigation efforts, methane problems persist and have caused some buildings to be permanently abandoned and demolished. This paper describes the use of magnetic and methane sensing methods by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) to locate abandoned gas wells in Versailles Borough where site access is limited and existing infrastructure can interfere. Here, wells are located between closely spaced houses and beneath buildings and parking lots. Wells are seldom visible, often because wellheads and internal casing strings have been removed, and external casing has been cut off below ground level. The magnetic survey of Versailles Borough identified 53 strong, monopole magnetic anomalies that are presumed to indicate the locations of steel-cased wells. This hypothesis was tested by excavating the location of one strong, monopole magnetic anomaly that was within an area of anomalous methane concentrations. The excavation uncovered an unplugged gas well that was within 0.2 m of the location of the maximum magnetic signal. Truck-mounted methane surveys of Versailles Borough detected numerous methane anomalies that were useful for narrowing search areas. Methane sources identified during truck-mounted surveys included strong methane sources such as sewers and methane mitigation vents. However, inconsistent wind direction and speed, especially between buildings, made locating weaker methane sources (such as leaking wells) difficult. Walking surveys with

  17. Predicting the Impact of Urban Green Areas on Microclimate Changes of Mashhad Residential Areas during the Hottest Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zahra karimian

    2017-09-01

    between receptors was obtained at 13 hour. The trend of relative humidity changes was very similar in both residential sites. In these two sites the most differences in the relative humidity was obtained at 12 oclock.. In addition, the trend of Predicted Mean Vote (PMV in Andisheh residential block showed that these changes in central and south-west part of the site were similar. The simulation with vegetation in the sites, also, showed that the trend of temperature and relative humidity changes were similar. The trends of temperature changes in residential site, Hesabi, in the defined receptors were very similar. So that temperature increased from 12 oclock to 15. While the trend of relative humidity changes was quite the reverse. This study results showed that the difference in temperature, relative humidity and PMV between measured and simulated data were minimal in both residential sites. Moreover, the data comparison of PMV indicated that in both residential sites, despite of simulation with vegetation, the human thermal comfort did not improve, so that these sites were in the range of extreme heat stress. There are several reasons to justify this issue, such as the percentage and the type of vegetation, factors related to the topography and geography of area, building distribution and density, type and color of the building materials and surfaces, etc. However, in this part of the study, other factors were constant, except vegetation. It seems that with increase of percentage and the ratio of vegetation, changes in temperature, relative humidity and other micro-climate factors, are created, but sometimes for the reasons stated, the temperature during the hottest period of the year is too high so that increase in vegetation will have little impact on outdoor thermal comfort. It might be the simulated area on these sites as well as the type and the ratio of the selected species to reduce the temperature and increase the relative humidity have been not adequately

  18. Assessment of road traffic noise indices in urban residential areas of Klang Valley, Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halim, Herni; Abdullah, Ramdzani; Nor, Mohd Jailani Mohd; Aziz, Hamidi Abdul; Rahman, Noorhazlinda Abd

    2017-10-01

    Traffic noise has been recognized as a serious threat to the quality of life in most industrialised nations. Klang valley is rapidly emerging as industrialized and urbanized city and has started facing severe noise pollution problems. Urban noise quality assessment is studied in three residential areas; Desa Tun Razak, Kinrara Court and Taman Sentul Utama. Noise pollution indices of L10, L50, L90, Lmax and Lmin as well as equivalent continuous noise level (Leq) were measured for all dwellings. Noise indices results illustrate that Desa Tun Razak recorded the highest values of noise levels among three studied sites. Results also indicate that the highest Leq of 75.7 dB(A) was observed in Desa Tun Razak followed by 74.3 dB(A) in Kinrara Court, and 72.1 dB(A) in Taman Sentul Utama. The noise assessment study clearly reveals the alarming condition of noise pollution in residential areas of Klang Valley as the noise level measured exceeded permissible limit by WHO and Malaysia Guidelines.

  19. Evaluation of the Influence of Jiangxiang Reservoir Immersion on Corp and Residential Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Chen

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Reservoir immersion is an environmental geological issue. Jiangxiang reservoir was taken as an example, where both analytical and numerical methods were employed to calculate the banked-up water level after reservoir impoundment, based on the hydrological, meteorological, geological, and hydrogeological conditions. The capillary rise height of soils in the reservoir area was determined through in situ measurement and laboratory analysis. The depth of foundation and crop roots in residential areas can be obtained by field investigation. The critical depth to groundwater was calculated according to the height of capillary rise and land elevation. Furthermore, the influence of reservoir immersion was evaluated, which provides a scientific basis for the relocation of people in reservoir areas, planting of crops, and project investment.

  20. Spatio-Temporal Modelling of Dust Transport over Surface Mining Areas and Neighbouring Residential Zones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Gulikova

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Projects focusing on spatio-temporal modelling of the living environment need to manage a wide range of terrain measurements, existing spatial data, time series, results of spatial analysis and inputs/outputs from numerical simulations. Thus, GISs are often used to manage data from remote sensors, to provide advanced spatial analysis and to integrate numerical models. In order to demonstrate the integration of spatial data, time series and methods in the framework of the GIS, we present a case study focused on the modelling of dust transport over a surface coal mining area, exploring spatial data from 3D laser scanners, GPS measurements, aerial images, time series of meteorological observations, inputs/outputs form numerical models and existing geographic resources. To achieve this, digital terrain models, layers including GPS thematic mapping, and scenes with simulation of wind flows are created to visualize and interpret coal dust transport over the mine area and a neighbouring residential zone. A temporary coal storage and sorting site, located near the residential zone, is one of the dominant sources of emissions. Using numerical simulations, the possible effects of wind flows are observed over the surface, modified by natural objects and man-made obstacles. The coal dust drifts with the wind in the direction of the residential zone and is partially deposited in this area. The simultaneous display of the digital map layers together with the location of the dominant emission source, wind flows and protected areas enables a risk assessment of the dust deposition in the area of interest to be performed. In order to obtain a more accurate simulation of wind flows over the temporary storage and sorting site, 3D laser scanning and GPS thematic mapping are used to create a more detailed digital terrain model. Thus, visualization of wind flows over the area of interest combined with 3D map layers enables the exploration of the processes of coal dust

  1. Public reactions to drone use in residential and public areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bajde, Domen; Woerman, Niklas; Bruun, Maja Hojer

    The public will play a vital role in shaping the future of the drone sector. The sector’s fate is tied to factors such as the capacity to serve the public and convince it that drones can benefit society, the ability to ensure that drones are used in a safe and considerate manner, and the readiness...... and effectiveness of the sector to address public concerns, such as safety and privacy. This report addresses public reactions to drones in residential and public settings and the concerns they raised. We present the results of two studies conducted as part of a collaborative project between the University...... of Southern Denmark (SDU), Aalborg University (AAU) and the Danish Transport, Construction and Housing Authority. The report builds upon and supplements the research conducted in the initial phase of the project (Bajde et al. 2017)....

  2. Selected cost considerations for geothermal district heating in existing single-family residential areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafferty, Kevin

    1996-06-01

    In the past, district heating (geothermal or conventionally fueled) has not been widely applied to the single-family residential sector. Low-heat load density is the commonly cited reason for this. Although it's true that load density in these areas is much lower than for downtown business districts, other frequently overlooked factors may compensate for load density. In particular, costs for distribution system installation can be substantially lower in some residential areas due to a variety of factors. This reduced development cost may partially compensate for the reduced revenue resulting from low-load density. This report examines cost associated with the overall design of the system (direct or indirect system design), distribution piping installation, and customer branch lines. It concludes with a comparison of the costs for system development and the revenue from an example residential area.

  3. Objectively measured residential environment and self-reported health: a multilevel analysis of UK census data.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Dunstan

    Full Text Available Little is known about the association between health and the quality of the residential environment. What is known is often based on subjective assessments of the environment rather than on measurements by independent observers. The aim of this study, therefore, was to determine the association between self-reported general health and an objectively assessed measure of the residential environment. We studied over 30,000 residents aged 18 or over living in 777 neighbourhoods in south Wales. Built environment quality was measured by independent observers using a validated tool, the Residential Environment Assessment Tool (REAT, at unit postcode level. UK Census data on each resident, which included responses to a question which assessed self-reported general health, was linked to the REAT score. The Census data also contained detailed information on socio-economic and demographic characteristics of all respondents and was also linked to the Welsh Index of Multiple Deprivation. After adjusting for both the individual characteristics and area deprivation, respondents in the areas of poorest neighbourhood quality were more likely to report poor health compared to those living in areas of highest quality (OR 1.36, 95% confidence interval 1.22-1.49. The particular neighbourhood characteristics associated with poor health were physical incivilities and measures of how well the residents maintained their properties. Measures of green space were not associated with self-reported health. This is the first full population study to examine such associations and the results demonstrate the importance for health of the quality of the neighbourhood area in which people live and particularly the way in which residents behave towards their own and their neighbours' property. A better understanding of causal pathways that allows the development of interventions to improve neighbourhood quality would offer significant potential health gains.

  4. Inter-relationships between objective and subjective measures of the residential environment among urban African American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sealy-Jefferson, Shawnita; Messer, Lynne; Slaughter-Acey, Jaime; Misra, Dawn P

    2017-03-01

    The inter-relationships between objective (census based) and subjective (resident reported) measures of the residential environment is understudied in African American (AA) populations. Using data from the Life Influences on Fetal Environments Study (2009-2011; n = 1387) of AA women, we quantified the area-level variation in subjective reports of residential healthy food availability, walkability, safety, and disorder that can be accounted for with an objective neighborhood disadvantage index (NDI). Two-level generalized linear models estimated associations between objective and subjective measures of the residential environment, accounting for individual-level covariates. In unconditional models, intraclass correlation coefficients for block-group variance in subjective reports ranged from 11% (healthy food availability) to 30% (safety). Models accounting for the NDI (vs. both NDI and individual-level covariates) accounted for more variance in healthy food availability (23% vs. 8%) and social disorder (40% vs. 38%). The NDI and individual-level variables accounted for 39% and 51% of the area-level variation in walkability and safety, respectively. Associations between subjective and objective measures of the residential environment were significant and in the expected direction. Future studies on neighborhood effects on health, especially among AAs, should include a wide range of residential environment measures, including subjective, objective, and spatial contextual variables. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. The configuration of residential area in urban structure of the palace in Siak Sri Indrapura - Riau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rijal, Muhammad

    2018-05-01

    This article is part of major research in describing the configuration of waterfront residential area in urban space structure of the palace and related to the Malay Kingdom in the waterside of the Strait of Malacca. This research aimed to identify the configuration of riverfront residential area in Siak Sri Indrapura City based on physical and non-physical aspects. The method used in this research was qualitative rationalistic referring to the components of urban design theory. The results of the research showed that the spatial configuration in Siak Sri Indrapura City is linear and related to the past events and socio-cultural and socio-economic interaction of the society.

  6. Mapping and characterising children’s daily mobility in urban residential areas in Turku, Finland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Charlotta Fagerholm

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Independent mobility in a local environment is crucial for a child’s development and physical activity, contributing to overall health and well-being. This methodological article describes a study capturing children’s daily mobility in two residential areas in Turku, southwestern Finland, by combining the methods of GPS tracking, mobility diaries, interviews and questionnaires. Geographical positioning data enables analysis of spatial characteristics of children’s mobility, e.g. the comparison to land use structure and analysis of the travel speed, while the qualitative data sets reveal how, why and with whom the travel was realised and the level of children’s independence in mobility.The results show that children’s mobility is clustered around homes and schools and evident gender differences exist; boys travel longer distances and at higher speeds than girls. The children in Turku are relatively independent and have extensive mobility licenses. However, the travel undertaken to practise hobbies or participate in organised leisure activities is realised in adult company and significantly dominated by car transportation. The results strengthen the observation that Finnish children are allowed to travel rather independently and to explore the surrounding environment without adult company, using active forms of transportation. The significant level of independence is a consequence of the high perception of safety, both from the children and the parents in the residential areas. The described mixed methods approach, combining objective measurement of actual mobility with qualitative data sets, is applicable for further mobility studies and the results offer implications for planning child-friendly urban environments.

  7. Distributed generation in the Dutch LV network - self-supporting residential area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mes, M.; Vanalme, G.M.A.; Myrzik, J.M.A.; Bongaerts, M.; Verbong, G.P.J.; Kling, W.L.

    2008-01-01

    A self-supporting residential area is seen as an alternative operational approach of power supply in low voltage (LV) networks. The intention of the new approach is to exploit the advantages of distributed generation (DG) and avoid the difficulties, that come with DG when implemented in the

  8. Fire Situations and Prevention Measures of residential building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhou Baixia

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The proportion of residential building is the largest in all buildings. With the development of urbanization, residential building fires are at high momentum. The paper lists the residential building fires and the number of casualties’ proportion to total fires from 2011 to 2014, analyzing the high incidence causes of the fires and casualties and putting forward suggestions and countermeasures including carrying out fire safety education to improve the fire safety awareness of residents, fulfilling responsibility to enhancing fire safety management capabilities, perfecting fire apparatus to develop fire safety environment and enhancing public awareness of fire safety, equipping evacuation equipments to promote response ability to deal with disasters etc.

  9. Measuring Group Care Worker Interventions in Residential Youth Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bastiaanssen, I.L.W.; Kroes, G.; Nijhof, K.S.; Delsing, M.J.M.H.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Veerman, J.W.

    2012-01-01

    Background By interacting with children, group care workers shape daily living environments to influence treatment. Current literature provides little knowledge about the content of youth residential care. Objective In this study, a questionnaire called the Group care worker Intervention

  10. Do measures matter? Comparing surface-density-derived and census-tract-derived measures of racial residential segregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waller Lance A

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Racial residential segregation is hypothesized to affect population health by systematically patterning health-relevant exposures and opportunities according to individuals' race or income. Growing interest into the association between residential segregation and health disparities demands more rigorous appraisal of commonly used measures of segregation. Most current studies rely on census tracts as approximations of the local residential environment when calculating segregation indices of either neighborhoods or metropolitan areas. Because census tracts are arbitrary in size and shape, reliance on this geographic scale limits understanding of place-health associations. More flexible, explicitly spatial derivations of traditional segregation indices have been proposed but have not been compared with tract-derived measures in the context of health disparities studies common to social epidemiology, health demography, or medical geography. We compared segregation measured with tract-derived as well as GIS surface-density-derived indices. Measures were compared by region and population size, and segregation measures were linked to birth record to estimate the difference in association between segregation and very preterm birth. Separate analyses focus on metropolitan segregation and on neighborhood segregation. Results Across 231 metropolitan areas, tract-derived and surface-density-derived segregation measures are highly correlated. However overall correlation obscures important differences by region and metropolitan size. In general the discrepancy between measure types is greatest for small metropolitan areas, declining with increasing population size. Discrepancies in measures are greatest in the South, and smallest in Western metropolitan areas. Choice of segregation index changed the magnitude of the measured association between segregation and very preterm birth. For example among black women, the risk ratio for very

  11. The impact of area residential property values on self-rated health: A cross-sectional comparative study of Seattle and Paris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfeng Jiao

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the impact of area residential property values, an objective measure of socioeconomic status (SES, on self-rated health (SRH in Seattle, Washington and Paris, France. This study brings forth a valuable comparison of SRH between cities that have contrasting urban forms, population compositions, residential segregation, food systems and transportation modes. The SOS (Seattle Obesity Study was based on a representative sample of 1394 adult residents of Seattle and King County in the United States. The RECORD Study (Residential Environment and Coronary Heart Disease was based on 7131 adult residents of Paris and its suburbs in France. Socio-demographics, SRH and body weights were obtained from telephone surveys (SOS and in-person interviews (RECORD. All home addresses were geocoded using ArcGIS 9.3.1 (ESRI, Redlands, CA. Residential property values were obtained from tax records (Seattle and from real estate sales (Paris. Binary logistic regression models were used to test the associations among demographic and SES variables and SRH. Higher area property values significantly associated with better SRH, adjusting for age, gender, individual education, incomes, and BMI. The associations were significant for both cities. A one-unit increase in body mass index (BMI was more detrimental to SRH in Seattle than in Paris. In both cities, higher area residential property values were related to a significantly lower obesity risk and better SRH. Ranked residential property values can be useful for health and weight studies, including those involving social inequalities and cross-country comparisons.

  12. Refining the COPES to Measure Social Climate in Therapeutic Residential Youth Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leipoldt, Jonathan D.; Kayed, Nanna S.; Harder, Annemiek T.; Grietens, Hans; Rimehaug, Tormod

    2018-01-01

    Background: Previous studies have shown that social climate in therapeutic residential youth care (TRC) is important to the welfare of residents, staff, and assessing treatment outcomes. The most influential theory on social climate in residential settings is the theory of Moos. The measurement of the concepts and aspects of this theory using the…

  13. The greener, the happier? The effects of urban green and abandoned areas on residential well-being

    OpenAIRE

    Krekel, Christian; Kolbe, Jens; Wüstemann, Henry

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates the effects of urban green and abandoned areas on residential well-being in major German cities, using panel data from the German Socio-Economic Panel (SOEP) for the time period between 2000 and 2012 and cross-section data from the European Urban Atlas (EUA) for the year 2006. Using a Geographical Information System (GIS), it calculates the distance to urban green and abandoned areas, measured as the Euclidean distance in 100 metres between households and the border of...

  14. Croatian small islands – residential and/or leisure area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josip Faričić

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper discusses modern geographic processes on Croatian small inhabited islands. For centuries, Croatian small islands have been continuously inhabited area characterized by different social and economic activities. However, in the last several decades, the islands have experienced a severe depopulation, and on the other hand, the interest for occasional use of that attractive insular space for recreational purposes increased. Consequently, the basic insular functions have changed, which, among other things, contributes to changes of insular landscape and to the changed role of small islands in regional socio-economic systems.

  15. CO2 Fluxes and Concentrations in a Residential Area in the Southern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissert, L. F.; Salmond, J. A.; Turnbull, J. C.; Schwendenmann, L.

    2014-12-01

    While cities are generally major sources of anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions, recent research has shown that parts of urban areas may also act as CO2 sinks due to CO2 uptake by vegetation. However, currently available results are related to a large degree of uncertainty due to the limitations of the applied methods and the limited number of studies available from urban areas, particularly from the southern hemisphere. In this study, we explore the potential of eddy covariance and tracer measurements (13C and 14C isotopes of CO2) to quantify and partition CO2 fluxes and concentrations in a residential urban area in Auckland, New Zealand. Based on preliminary results from autumn and winter (March to July 2014) the residential area is a small source of CO2 (0.11 mol CO2 m-2 day-1). CO2 fluxes and concentrations follow a distinct diurnal cycle with a morning peak between 7:00 and 9:00 (max: 0.25 mol CO2 m-2 day-1/412 ppm) and midday low with negative CO2 fluxes (min: -0.17 mol CO2 m-2 day-1/392 ppm) between 10:00 and 15:00 local time, likely due to photosynthetic CO2 uptake by local vegetation. Soil CO2 efflux may explain that CO2 concentrations increase and remain high (401 ppm) throughout the night. Mean diurnal winter δ13C values are in anti-phase with CO2 concentrations and vary between -9.0 - -9.7‰. The depletion of δ13C compared to clean atmospheric air (-8.2‰) is likely a result of local CO2 sources dominated by gasoline combustion (appr. 60%) during daytime. A sector analysis (based on prevailing wind) of CO2 fluxes and concentrations indicates lower CO2 fluxes and concentrations from the vegetation-dominated sector, further demonstrating the influence of vegetation on local CO2 concentrations. These results provide an insight into the temporal and spatial variability CO2 fluxes/concentrations and potential CO2 sinks and sources from a city in the southern hemisphere and add valuable information to the global database of urban CO2 fluxes.

  16. Characteristics of residential areas and transportational walking among frail and non-frail Dutch elderly: Does the size of the area matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Schop-Etman (Astrid); C.B.M. Kamphuis (Carlijn); R. Prins (Remco); A. Burdorf (Alex); F.H. Pierik (Frank); F.J. van Lenthe (Frank)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractBackground: A residential area supportive for walking may facilitate elderly to live longer independently. However, current evidence on area characteristics potentially important for walking among older persons is mixed. This study hypothesized that the importance of area characteristics

  17. Characteristics of residential areas and transportational walking among frail and non-frail Dutch elderly : Does the size of the area matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etman, Astrid; Kamphuis, Carlijn B M; Prins, Richard G.; Burdorf, Alex; Pierik, Frank H.; van Lenthe, Frank J.

    2014-01-01

    Background: A residential area supportive for walking may facilitate elderly to live longer independently. However, current evidence on area characteristics potentially important for walking among older persons is mixed. This study hypothesized that the importance of area characteristics for

  18. Characteristics of residential areas and transportational walking among frail and non-frail Dutch elderly: does the size of the area matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etman, A.; Kamphuis, C.B.M.; Prins, R.G.; Burdorf, A.; Pierik, F.H.; Lenthe, F.J. van

    2014-01-01

    Background: A residential area supportive for walking may facilitate elderly to live longer independently. However, current evidence on area characteristics potentially important for walking among older persons is mixed. This study hypothesized that the importance of area characteristics for

  19. Plutonium contamination in soils in open space and residential areas near Rocky Flats, Colorado

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Litaor, M.I.

    1999-01-01

    Spatial analysis of the 240 Pu: 239 Pu isotopic ratio of 42 soil samples collected around Rocky Flats Plant near Golden, Colorado, was conducted to assess the effect of Rocky Flats Plant activity on the soil environment. Two probability maps that quantified the uncertainty of the spatial distribution of plutonium isotopic ratios were constructed using the sequential Gaussian simulation technique (sGs). Assuming a plutonium isotopic ratio range of 0.152 ± 0.003 to 0.169 ± 0.009 is characteristic to global fallout in Colorado, and a mean value of 0.155 is representative for the Rocky Flats Plant area, the main findings of the current work were (1) the areas northwest and southwest of Rocky Flats Plant exhibited a plutonium ratio ≥0.155, this were minimally impacted by the plant activity; (2) he study area east of Rocky Flats Plant exhibited a plutonium isotopic ratio ≤0.155, which is a definitive indicator of Rocky Flats Plant-derived plutonium; and (3) inventory calculations across the study area exhibited large standard error of estimates. These errors were originated from the high variability in plutonium activity over a small sampling scale and the uncertainty in the global fallout isotopic ratio. Using the mean simulated estimates of plutonium isotopic ratio, coupled with plutonium activity measured at 11 soil pits and additional plutonium information published elsewhere, the plutonium loading on the open space and residential areas amounted to 111.2 GBq, with a standard error of estimate of 50.8 GBq

  20. Rodent Species Distribution and Hantavirus Seroprevalence in Residential and Forested areas of Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamdan, Nur Elfieyra Syazana; Ng, Yee Ling; Lee, Wei Bin; Tan, Cheng Siang; Khan, Faisal Ali Anwarali; Chong, Yee Ling

    2017-01-01

    Rodents belong to the order Rodentia, which consists of three families in Borneo (i.e., Muridae, Sciuridae and Hystricidae). These include rats, mice, squirrels, and porcupines. They are widespread throughout the world and considered pests that harm humans and livestock. Some rodent species are natural reservoirs of hantaviruses (Family: Bunyaviridae) that can cause zoonotic diseases in humans. Although hantavirus seropositive human sera were reported in Peninsular Malaysia in the early 1980s, information on their infection in rodent species in Malaysia is still lacking. The rodent populations in residential and forested areas in Sarawak were sampled. A total of 108 individuals from 15 species of rodents were collected in residential ( n = 44) and forested ( n = 64) areas. The species diversity of rodents in forested areas was significantly higher (H = 2.2342) compared to rodents in residential areas (H = 0.64715) ( p Sarawak, East Malaysia. The results suggested that hantavirus was not circulating in the studied rodent populations in Sarawak, or it was otherwise at a low prevalence that is below the detection threshold. It is important to remain vigilant because of the zoonotic potential of this virus and its severe disease outcome. Further studies, such as molecular detection of viral genetic materials, are needed to fully assess the risk of hantavirus infection in rodents and humans in this region of Malaysia.

  1. Analysis of heat source selection for residential buildings in rural areas

    OpenAIRE

    Szul Tomasz

    2018-01-01

    The research aiming to check whether the output of currently installed boilers matches the use requirements together with estimation of their energy efficiency was carried out on a group of 84 single-family residential buildings located in rural areas. Heating and hot water energy needs were calculated for each building in order to determine the use requirements. This enabled verification whether the currently installed boilers match the actual use requirements in the buildings. Based on the ...

  2. Physical countermeasures to sustain acceptable living and working conditions in radioactively contaminated residential areas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Kasper Grann; Roed, Jørn; Eged, K.

    2003-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident highlighted the need in nuclear preparedness for robust, effective and sustainable countermeasure strategies for restoration of radioactively contaminated residential areas. Under the EC-supported STRATEGY project a series ofinvestigations were made of countermeasures...... that were deemed potentially applicable for implementation in such events in European Member States. The findings are presented in this report, in a standardised datasheet format to clarify the features of theindividual methods and facilitate intercomparison. The aspects of averted doses and management...

  3. A Residential Area Extraction Method for High Resolution Remote Sensing Imagery by Using Visual Saliency and Perceptual Organization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CHEN Yixiang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Inspired by human visual cognitive mechanism,a method of residential area extraction from high-resolution remote sensing images was proposed based on visual saliency and perceptual organization. Firstly,the data field theory of cognitive physics was introduced to model the visual saliency and the candidate residential areas were produced by adaptive thresholding. Then,the exact residential areas were obtained and refined by perceptual organization based on the high-frequency features of multi-scale wavelet transform. Finally,the validity of the proposed method was verified by experiments conducted on ZY-3 and Quickbird image data sets.

  4. A District Approach to Building Renovation for the Integral Energy Redevelopment of Existing Residential Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mira Conci

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Building energy renovation quotas are not currently being met due to unfavorable conditions such as complex building regulations, limited investment incentives, historical preservation priorities, and technical limitations. The traditional strategy has been to incrementally lower the energy consumption of the building stock, instead of raising the efficiency of the energy supply through a broader use of renewable sources. This strategy requires an integral redefinition of the approach to energy building renovations. The joint project SWIVT elaborates on a district redevelopment strategy that combines a reduction in the energy demand of existing buildings and their physical interconnection within a local micro-grid and heating network. The district is equipped with energy generation and distribution technologies as well as hybrid thermal and electrical energy storage systems, steered by an optimizing energy management controller. This strategy is explored through three scenarios designed for an existing residential area in Darmstadt, Germany, and benchmarked against measured data. Presented findings show that a total primary energy balance at least 30% lower than that of a standard building renovation can be achieved by a cluster of buildings with different thermal qualities and connected energy generation, conversion, and storage systems, with only minimal physical intervention to existing buildings.

  5. Analysis of Installed Measures and Energy Savings for Single-Family Residential Better Buildings Projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heaney, M. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Polly, B. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-04-30

    This report presents an analysis of data for residential single-family projects reported by 37 organizations that were awarded federal financial assistance (cooperative agreements or grants) by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Better Buildings Neighborhood Program.1 The report characterizes the energy-efficiency measures installed for single-family residential projects and analyzes energy savings and savings prediction accuracy for measures installed in a subset of those projects.

  6. Market opportunities in Canada for multimedia residential services in rural and small urban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariatmadar, Mehran; Narasimhan, Vasantha

    1995-01-01

    This paper reviews the studies which were undertaken jointly by Telesat and Industry Canada to provide an estimate of the market opportunities for residential multi-media services in the rural and small urban areas of Canada. This study is part of the Advanced Satcom program, a Ka-band satellite system proposal which is currently in the implementation proposal phase by the government and the Canadian space industry of which Telesat is an active member. Advanced Satcom extends the reach of terrestrial information highways to the remote and sparsely populated parts of the country in a cost-effective manner and thus provides a ubiquitous coverage of the information highways to all Canadians. Therefore, the rural and small urban markets are believed to be good opportunities for the Advanced Satcom. Although the results are primarily intended for fixed residential applications, they can also be used as input to market opportunity studies for wideband mobile applications.

  7. Optimizing Scoring and Sampling Methods for Assessing Built Neighborhood Environment Quality in Residential Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Adu-Brimpong

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of existing measurement tools is necessary to explore links between aspects of the neighborhood built environment and health behaviors or outcomes. We evaluate a scoring method for virtual neighborhood audits utilizing the Active Neighborhood Checklist (the Checklist, a neighborhood audit measure, and assess street segment representativeness in low-income neighborhoods. Eighty-two home neighborhoods of Washington, D.C. Cardiovascular Health/Needs Assessment (NCT01927783 participants were audited using Google Street View imagery and the Checklist (five sections with 89 total questions. Twelve street segments per home address were assessed for (1 Land-Use Type; (2 Public Transportation Availability; (3 Street Characteristics; (4 Environment Quality and (5 Sidewalks/Walking/Biking features. Checklist items were scored 0–2 points/question. A combinations algorithm was developed to assess street segments’ representativeness. Spearman correlations were calculated between built environment quality scores and Walk Score®, a validated neighborhood walkability measure. Street segment quality scores ranged 10–47 (Mean = 29.4 ± 6.9 and overall neighborhood quality scores, 172–475 (Mean = 352.3 ± 63.6. Walk scores® ranged 0–91 (Mean = 46.7 ± 26.3. Street segment combinations’ correlation coefficients ranged 0.75–1.0. Significant positive correlations were found between overall neighborhood quality scores, four of the five Checklist subsection scores, and Walk Scores® (r = 0.62, p < 0.001. This scoring method adequately captures neighborhood features in low-income, residential areas and may aid in delineating impact of specific built environment features on health behaviors and outcomes.

  8. Has the income of the residential area impact on the use of intensive care?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liisanantti, J H; Käkelä, R; Raatiniemi, L V; Ohtonen, P; Hietanen, S; Ala-Kokko, T I

    2017-08-01

    The socioeconomic factors have an impact on case mix and outcome in critical illness, but how these factors affect the use of intensive care is not studied. The aim of this study was to evaluate the incidence of intensive care unit (ICU) admissions in patients from residential areas with different annual incomes. Single-center, retrospective study in Northern Finland. All the non-trauma-related emergency admissions from the hospital district area were included. The postal codes were used to categorize the residential areas according to each area's annual median income: the low-income area, €18,979 to €28,841 per year; the middle-income area, €28,879 to €33,856 per year; and the high-income area, €34,221 to €53,864 per year. A total of 735 non-trauma-related admissions were included. The unemployment or retirement, psychiatric comorbidities and chronic alcohol abuse were common in this population. The highest incidence, 5.5 (4.6-6.7)/1000/year, was in population aged more than 65 years living in high-income areas. In working-aged population, the incidence was lowest in high-income areas (1.5 (1.3-1.8/1000/year) compared to middle-income areas (2.2 (1.9-2.6)/1000/year, P = 0.001) and low-income areas (2.0 (1.7-2.4)/1000/, P = 0.009). Poisonings were more common in low-income areas. There were no differences in outcome. The incidence of ICU admission in working-aged population was 25% higher in those areas where the annual median income was below the median annual income of €38,775 per inhabitant per year in Finland. © 2017 The Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica Foundation. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  9. Research on the Implementation of Technological Measures for Controlling Indoor Environmental Quality in Green Residential Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ruozhu; Liu, Pengda; Qian, Yongmei

    2018-02-01

    This paper analyzes the design technology of controlling indoor quality in engineering practice, it is proposed that, in framework system of green residential building design, how to realize the design idea of controlling the indoor environment quality, and the design technology with feasibility, including the sunshine and lighting, indoor air quality and thermal environment, sound insulation and noise reduction measures, etc.. The results of all will provide a good theoretical supportting for the design of green residential building.

  10. Research highlights : study of the noise generated by heat pumps in residential areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rousseau, J.

    2000-01-01

    Rising energy costs and aggressive marketing played a major role in the substantial increase in the number of domestic heat pumps installed. As a rule, heat pumps are connected to the heating and ventilation systems on the outside of the house. Whether the heat pump is equipped with an integrated compressor or not, it creates noise. The noise is generated by the powerful fan designed to cool all the coils, and also by the compressor itself and the circulation of the refrigerant gas. Some municipalities received so many complaints on this topic that they are considering adopting noise bylaws. The first objective of the research undertaken by Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation on heat pumps in residential areas was to analyze the noise pollution mode of commonly used heat pumps. A study of a simple noise reduction device was performed, and the extent to which it should be used. Finally, there had to be no reduction of the thermal capacities of the pumps. Phase 1 of the study took place between May and August 1990, in the area of Quebec City. A total of 125 heat pumps were identified. The four major manufacturers were Trane, Carrier, York, and Lennox. Initial sound pressure levels measurements were made at one metre from the unit, for 80 such units, respecting the ratio by brands in the sample of 125. A detailed global noise measurement determined the sound power of each pump. A detailed muffler feasibility study was then conducted, using a Trane heat pump. The results of the study indicated that heat pumps were a major source of continuous noise in low and mid-density areas. It was discovered that a noise attenuation device could always be built around heat pumps, which needed to be installed as close as possible to the casing of the heat pump. It is not possible to design a device to fit each and every heat pump, the design is specific to the dimensions and characteristics of each model of heat pump. The thermal performance of the pumps will not be affected by

  11. Chieti-Pescara Metropolitan Area: International Migrations, Residential Choices and Economic Deconcentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Montanari

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available The subject of human mobility – with reference to the migratory component – has taken on specific significance during the last decade, particularly with regard to the concept of place. This paper considers the subject in relation to residential and economic deconcentration. The specific point of reference is the metropolitan area of Chieti-Pescara, in the central part of Italy’s Adriatic coast. The research was carried out through quantitative analysis of official data from population censuses and register offices. The results highlight the links between movements of residents and those of firms, in which foreign residents show distinctive behaviour. The residential choices made by foreigners in the area are based on economic reasons and are primarily linked to housing and transport costs. Their communities tend to be concentrated in specific zones of the metropolitan area and in specific districts of the cities, as a consequence of a feeling of belonging and solidarity. Although there are no clear signs of segregation phenomena, the native population tends to avoid mingling with foreigners from marginal countries.

  12. Gravity models to classify commuting vs. resident workers. An application to the analysis of residential risk in a contaminated area

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The analysis of risk for the population residing and/or working in contaminated areas raises the topic of commuting. In fact, especially in contaminated areas, commuting groups are likely to be subject to lower exposure than residents. Only very recently environmental epidemiology has started considering the role of commuting as a differential source of exposure in contaminated areas. In order to improve the categorization of groups, this paper applies a gravitational model to the analysis of residential risk for workers in the Gela petrochemical complex, which began life in the early 60s in the municipality of Gela (Sicily, Italy) and is the main source of industrial pollution in the local area. Results A logistic regression model is implemented to measure the capacity of Gela "central location" to attract commuting flows from other sites. Drawing from gravity models, the proposed methodology: a) defines the probability of finding commuters from municipalities outside Gela as a function of the origin's "economic mass" and of its distance from each destination; b) establishes "commuting thresholds" relative to the origin's mass. The analysis includes 367 out of the 390 Sicilian municipalities. Results are applied to define "commuters" and "residents" within the cohort of petrochemical workers. The study population is composed of 5,627 workers. Different categories of residence in Gela are compared calculating Mortality Rate Ratios for lung cancer through a Poisson regression model, controlling for age and calendar period. The mobility model correctly classifies almost 90% of observations. Its application to the mortality analysis confirms a major risk for lung cancer associated with residence in Gela. Conclusions Commuting is a critical aspect of the health-environment relationship in contaminated areas. The proposed methodology can be replicated to different contexts when residential information is lacking or unreliable; however, a careful consideration

  13. Gravity models to classify commuting vs. resident workers. An application to the analysis of residential risk in a contaminated area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    La Rocca Marina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The analysis of risk for the population residing and/or working in contaminated areas raises the topic of commuting. In fact, especially in contaminated areas, commuting groups are likely to be subject to lower exposure than residents. Only very recently environmental epidemiology has started considering the role of commuting as a differential source of exposure in contaminated areas. In order to improve the categorization of groups, this paper applies a gravitational model to the analysis of residential risk for workers in the Gela petrochemical complex, which began life in the early 60s in the municipality of Gela (Sicily, Italy and is the main source of industrial pollution in the local area. Results A logistic regression model is implemented to measure the capacity of Gela "central location" to attract commuting flows from other sites. Drawing from gravity models, the proposed methodology: a defines the probability of finding commuters from municipalities outside Gela as a function of the origin's "economic mass" and of its distance from each destination; b establishes "commuting thresholds" relative to the origin's mass. The analysis includes 367 out of the 390 Sicilian municipalities. Results are applied to define "commuters" and "residents" within the cohort of petrochemical workers. The study population is composed of 5,627 workers. Different categories of residence in Gela are compared calculating Mortality Rate Ratios for lung cancer through a Poisson regression model, controlling for age and calendar period. The mobility model correctly classifies almost 90% of observations. Its application to the mortality analysis confirms a major risk for lung cancer associated with residence in Gela. Conclusions Commuting is a critical aspect of the health-environment relationship in contaminated areas. The proposed methodology can be replicated to different contexts when residential information is lacking or unreliable

  14. Trends of multiple air pollutants emissions from residential coal combustion in Beijing and its implication on improving air quality for control measures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Yifeng; Zhou, Zhen; Nie, Teng; Wang, Kun; Nie, Lei; Pan, Tao; Wu, Xiaoqing; Tian, Hezhong; Zhong, Lianhong; Li, Jing; Liu, Huanjia; Liu, Shuhan; Shao, Panyang

    2016-10-01

    Residential coal combustion is considered to be an important source of air pollution in Beijing. However, knowledge regarding the emission characteristics of residential coal combustion and the related impacts on the air quality is very limited. In this study, we have developed an emission inventory for multiple hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) associated with residential coal combustion in Beijing for the period of 2000-2012. Furthermore, a widely used regional air quality model, the Community Multi-Scale Air Quality model (CMAQ), is applied to analyze the impact of residential coal combustion on the air quality in Beijing in 2012. The results show that the emissions of primary air pollutants from residential coal combustion have basically remained the same levels during the past decade, however, along with the strict emission control imposed on major industrial sources, the contribution of residential coal combustion emissions to the overall emissions from anthropogenic sources have increased obviously. In particular, the contributions of residential coal combustion to the total air pollutants concentrations of PM10, SO2, NOX, and CO represent approximately 11.6%, 27.5%, 2.8% and 7.3%, respectively, during the winter heating season. In terms of impact on the spatial variation patterns, the distributions of the pollutants concentrations are similar to the distribution of the associated primary HAPs emissions, which are highly concentrated in the rural-urban fringe zones and rural suburb areas. In addition, emissions of primary pollutants from residential coal combustion are forecasted by using a scenario analysis. Generally, comprehensive measures must be taken to control residential coal combustion in Beijing. The best way to reduce the associated emissions from residential coal combustion is to use economic incentive means to promote the conversion to clean energy sources for residential heating and cooking. In areas with reliable energy supplies, the coal used

  15. Early-life residential exposure to soil components in rural areas and childhood respiratory health and allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devereux, Graham; Tagiyeva, Nara; Turner, Stephen W; Ayres, Jon G; Seaton, Anthony; Hudson, Gordon; Hough, Rupert L; Campbell, Colin D; Shand, Charles A

    2014-01-01

    The increase in asthma and allergies has been attributed to declining exposure to environmental microorganisms. The main source of these is soil, the composition of which varies geographically and which is a major component (40-45%) of household dust. Our hypothesis-generating study aimed to investigate associations between soil components, respiratory health and allergy in a Scottish birth cohort. The cohort was recruited in utero in 1997/8, and followed up at one, two and five years for the development of wheezing, asthma and eczema. Lung function, exhaled nitric oxide and allergic sensitization were measured at age five in a subset. The Scottish Soils Database held at The James Hutton Institute was linked to the birth cohort data by the residential postcode at birth and five years. The soil database contained information on size separates, organic matter concentration, pH and a range of inorganic elements. Soil and clinical outcome data were available for 869, 790 and 727 children at one, two and five years. Three hundred and fifty nine (35%) of children had the same address at birth and five years. No associations were found between childhood outcomes and soil content in the residential area at age five. The soil silt content (2-20 μm particle size) of the residential area at birth was associated with childhood wheeze (adjusted OR 1.20, 95% CI [1.05; 1.37]), wheeze without a cold (1.41 [1.18; 1.69]), doctor-diagnosed asthma (1.54 [1.04; 2.28]), lung function (FEV1: beta -0.025 [-0.047;-0.001]) and airway inflammation (FENO: beta 0.15 [0.03; 0.27]) at age five, but not with allergic status or eczema. Whilst residual confounding is the most likely explanation for the associations reported, the results of this study lead us to hypothesise that early life exposure to residential soil silt may adversely influence childhood respiratory health, possibly because of the organic components of silt. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Residential proximity to urban centres, local-area walkability and change in waist circumference among Australian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiyama, Takemi; Niyonsenga, Theo; Howard, Natasha J; Coffee, Neil T; Paquet, Catherine; Taylor, Anne W; Daniel, Mark

    2016-12-01

    Consistent associations have been observed between macro-level urban sprawl and overweight/obesity, but whether residential proximity to urban centres predicts adiposity change over time has not been established. Further, studies of local-area walkability and overweight/obesity have generated mixed results. This study examined 4-year change in adults' waist circumference in relation to proximity to city centre, proximity to closest suburban centre, and local-area walkability. Data were from adult participants (n=2080) of a cohort study on chronic conditions and health risk factors in Adelaide, Australia. Baseline data were collected in 2000-03 with a follow-up in 2005-06. Multilevel regression models examined in 2015 the independent and joint associations of the three environmental measures with change in waist circumference, accounting for socio-demographic covariates. On average, waist circumference rose by 1.8cm over approximately 4years. Greater distance to city centre was associated with a greater increase in waist circumference. Participants living in distal areas (20km or further from city centre) had a greater increase in waist circumference (mean increase: 2.4cm) compared to those in proximal areas (9km or less, mean increase: 1.2cm). Counterintuitively, living in the vicinity of a suburban centre was associated with a greater increase in adiposity. Local-area walkability was not significantly associated with the outcome. Residential proximity to city centre appears to be protective against excessive increases in waist circumference. Controlled development and targeted interventions in the urban fringe may be needed to tackle obesity. Additional research needs to assess behaviours that mediate relationships between sprawl and obesity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Potential Settlement Due to Seismic Effects in the Residential Area of Ilgin (Konya, Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Ozdemir

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Ilgin lies on newly formed, loose, granular deposits, and there is a substantial risk for surface liquefaction and foundation settlements due to the seismic effects resulting from groundwater close to the surface. This study evaluates potential settlement due to seismic effects in the residential areas of Ilgin using the Standard Penetration Test (SPT performed on 45 geotechnical bores. In Turkey, where earthquakes occur frequently, the selection of residential areas is of great importance. In this research, the number of settlements was calculated considering an earthquake having a Local Magnitude of 6 (i.e., ML ≥ 6.0 and a ≥ 0.4 g under a 0.4 g seismic force, and a potential settlement map of the residential area was prepared. The amount of settlement exceeds 20 cm at locations near Ilgin Lake and in the northern section of Ilgin residential areas; downtown, the settlement ranges from 10-20 cm. The settlements presented here exceed the allowable threshold limits for structures constructed using adobe and brick in this district. Thus, improvements to minimize earthquake-induced damages are required for structures in Ilgin. Moreover, the selection of new residential areas, along with the proper design of the structures before construction, should be examined further to avoid ground liquefaction and structure damage due to settlement.    Resumen La localidad de Ilgin está ubicada sobre depósitos recién formados, granulares y no compactos, por lo que existe un riesgo sustancial de licuefacción de la superficie y la creación de asentamientos o deslizamientos debido a los efectos sísmicos resultantes del agua subterránea poco profunda. Este artículo evalúa el potencial de asentamiento debido a los efectos sísmicos en las áreas residenciales de Ilgin a través del Ensayo de Penetración Estándar (SPT, en inglés realizado en 45 perforaciones geotécnicas. En Turquía, donde los terremotos ocurren frecuentemente, la selección de

  18. The evaluation of retrofit measures in a tall residential building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abraham, M.M.; McLain, H.A.

    1995-07-01

    As part of a joint demonstration effort involving the US Department of Energy (DOE), the US Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), Boston Edison Company (BECo), and the Chelsea Housing Authority, Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) participated in the evaluation of energy and demand saving retrofits for a tall residential building located in Boston. The thirteen story all-electric building underwent window, lighting, and control renovations in December, 1992. annual energy consumption was reduced by 15% and peak demand fell by 17%. Hourly should building consumption data were available for the comparison of pre- and post- conditions and for calibration of a DOE-2.1D simulation model. The analysis found the window retrofit accounted for 90% of total energy savings and 95% of average demand savings, due to reductions in both conduction and infiltration. Benefits from lighting retrofits were low in cooling months and negligible in winter months due to the increase in the demand for electric resistance heating which was proportional to the reduction in lighting capacity. Finally, the simulation model verified that heating system controls had not been used as intended, and that the utility rate structure would not allow cost savings from the original control strategy. These results and other interesting lessons learned are presented.

  19. Physical countermeasures to sustain acceptable living and working conditions in radioactively contaminated residential areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, K G; Roed, J; Eged, K [and others

    2003-02-01

    The Chernobyl accident highlighted the need in nuclear preparedness for robust, effective and sustainable countermeasure strategies for restoration of radioactively contaminated residential areas. Under the EC-supporter STRATEGY project a series of investigations were made of countermeasures that were deemed potentially applicable for implementation in such events in European Member States. The findings are presented in this report, in a standardised data sheet format to clarify the features of the individual methods and facilitate intercomparison. The aspects of averted doses and management of wastes generated by countermeasures had to be described separately to provide room for the required level of detail. The information is mainly intended as a tool for decision makers and planners and constitutes of basis for the STRATEGY decision framework for remediation of contaminated urban areas. (au)

  20. Physical countermeasures to sustain acceptable living and working conditions in radioactively contaminated residential areas

    CERN Document Server

    Andersson, K G; Roed, J

    2003-01-01

    The Chernobyl accident highlighted the need in nuclear preparedness for robust, effective and sustainable countermeasure strategies for restoration of radioactively contaminated residential areas. Under the EC-supporter STRATEGY project a series of investigations were made of countermeasures that were deemed potentially applicable for implementation in such events in European Member States. The findings are presented in this report, in a standardised data sheet format to clarify the features of the individual methods and facilitate intercomparison. The aspects of averted doses and management of wastes generated by countermeasures had to be described separately to provide room for the required level of detail. The information is mainly intended as a tool for decision makers and planners and constitutes of basis for the STRATEGY decision framework for remediation of contaminated urban areas. (au)

  1. Understanding heterogeneity in metropolitan India: the added value of remote sensing data for analyzing sub-standard residential areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baud, I.; Kuffer, M.; Pfeffer, K.; Sliuzas, R.; Karuppannan, S.

    2010-01-01

    Analyzing the heterogeneity in metropolitan areas of India utilizing remote sensing data can help to identify more precise patterns of sub-standard residential areas. Earlier work analyzing inequalities in Indian cities employed a constructed index of multiple deprivations (IMDs) utilizing data from

  2. Measurement error in mobile source air pollution exposure estimates due to residential mobility during pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Audrey Flak; Strickland, Matthew J; Klein, Mitchel; Zhai, Xinxin; Russell, Armistead G; Hansen, Craig; Darrow, Lyndsey A

    2017-09-01

    Prenatal air pollution exposure is frequently estimated using maternal residential location at the time of delivery as a proxy for residence during pregnancy. We describe residential mobility during pregnancy among 19,951 children from the Kaiser Air Pollution and Pediatric Asthma Study, quantify measurement error in spatially resolved estimates of prenatal exposure to mobile source fine particulate matter (PM 2.5 ) due to ignoring this mobility, and simulate the impact of this error on estimates of epidemiologic associations. Two exposure estimates were compared, one calculated using complete residential histories during pregnancy (weighted average based on time spent at each address) and the second calculated using only residence at birth. Estimates were computed using annual averages of primary PM 2.5 from traffic emissions modeled using a Research LINE-source dispersion model for near-surface releases (RLINE) at 250 m resolution. In this cohort, 18.6% of children were born to mothers who moved at least once during pregnancy. Mobile source PM 2.5 exposure estimates calculated using complete residential histories during pregnancy and only residence at birth were highly correlated (r S >0.9). Simulations indicated that ignoring residential mobility resulted in modest bias of epidemiologic associations toward the null, but varied by maternal characteristics and prenatal exposure windows of interest (ranging from -2% to -10% bias).

  3. Ambient Air Quality Assessment of Al-Mansoriah Residential Area in the State of Kuwait

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Al-Salem

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Air quality data (ground level ozone (O3 , non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC, methane (CH4 , nitrogen oxide (NO, nitrogen dioxide (NO2 , carbon monoxide (CO, hydrogen sulfide (H2 S and sulfur dioxide (SO2 of a Kuwaiti residential area, Al-Mansoriah, were analyzed to evaluate and determine: (a the exceedances of air quality from permissible limits set by the Kuwait Environment Public Authority (KUEPA, (b the diurnal patterns of air pollutants, (c the predominant sources of airborne pollutants in the surrounding area, and (d the ''weekend effect'' on ozone levels. The dataset covered the period of five consecutive years, from January 2000 to December 2004. High levels of ozone were witnessed; recording a number of exceedances. Inhabitants of Al-Mansoriah were exposed, during the period of study, to acute and chronic levels of SO2 . Concerning NMHC, the permissible limit (0.24 ppm- rolling average between 6-9 am, was violated in each of the monitoring years. NO diurnal pattern showed two distinct strong peaks during the months from October to March, in which the low solar radiation does not cause intense photochemical reactions, which lead to NO destruction. A clear H2 S source (considered as a primary one was witnessed from Kuwait city (Sharq district. The backed up sewage lines and maintenance work coinciding with study period clearly affected Al- Mansoriah. A clear "weekend effect", in terms of difference in levels occurring during midweek and weekends, was ascertained. The analysis suggests that Al-Mansoriah residential area should be considered a NOx sensitive region of Kuwait.

  4. Assessing energy techniques and measures in residential buildings: a multidisciplinary perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Entrop, Alexis Gerardus

    2013-01-01

    Many Energy Techniques and Measures (ETMs) are available to reduce the fossil energy use of residential buildings. However, the rate at which these ETMs are implemented is relatively low. Bram Entrop (1980) addresses, in this design-oriented research, the influence that ETMs have on the energy

  5. MULTI-CRITERIA APPROACH FOR DESIGNING SUSTAINABLE DRAINAGE IN MALANG RESIDENTIAL AREA INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAPSARI Ratih Indri

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmentally sound approach for sustainable urban drainage could promote infiltration and lower the risk of flooding. This study presents the framework to evaluate the drainage alternatives considering multiple aspects including water quantity, life cycle cost and amenity. This approach is verified through application at a residential area in Malang city Indonesia. Different combinations of drainage components comprising of drainage channels, infiltration wells and biopore absorption holes are assessed regarding runoff reduction, present value of life cycle cost, and willingness to pay for the convenience. The first part describes the effective designs of sustainable drainage components in the houses as well as in the public spaces of the housing. The second part of this study describes the use of analytic hierarchy process for weight assignment of sustainability criteria and multiple benefit calculation. The study recommends infiltration wells and biopore absorption holes together with drainage channels as the best management practice of sustainable drainage system based on its overall sustainability index.

  6. ANALYSIS OF THE FLORA OF RESIDENTIAL AND TECHNOGENIC AREAS OF GROZNY CITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kh. Alikhadzhiev

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The process of territorial expansion of the city is accompanied by intensive construction of industrial and social facilities, road network is actively developed, that leads to the transformation of natural vegetation, the appearance of manmade habitats which are actively colonized by segetal-ruderal species.Aim of the work is inventory of flora of disturbed habitats and the study of its current state, identify the taxonomic composition of phytocenoses.Field works were carried with help of route-floristic method in different growing seasons 2010-2012., technogenic and residential area of the city were studied.According to research a list of vascular plants of disturbed habitats numbering 237 species was compiled. Biomorphological and geographic structure is showed, adventive and indigenous flora fraction is determined.

  7. The Application Modular Floating Pontoon to Support Floods Disaster Evacuation System in Heavy Populated Residential Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Fauzan Zakki

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available During floods disaster in the heavy populated residential area, the lack of existing life saving appliances system such as rubber boat and wooden boat were not able to evacuate the disaster victims spontaneously in mass. The condition might be explained since the rubber boat and wooden boat have limited occupant capacity. Based on the conditions, the main objectives of the research are focused on the evaluation of the application of modular floating pontoon as multipurpose floating equipment to support floods disaster evacuation process. The investigation of the modular floating pontoon performance such as hydrostatics characteristics, the equilibrium condition and the intact stability was studied using strip theory and Krylov’s method. Furthermore, the strength analysis of the modular floating pontoon structure was calculated using finite element method. The results show that the modular floating pontoon is reliable to support the evacuation process.

  8. Field assessment of the impacts of landscape structure on different-sized airborne particles in residential areas of Beijing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Shuxin; Li, Xiaopeng; Han, Jing; Cao, Yu; Dong, Li

    2017-10-01

    In high-density metropolis, residential areas are important human living environments. Aimed at investigating the impacts of landscape structure on the levels of different-sized airborne particle in residential areas, we conducted field monitoring of the levels of TSP, PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 using mobile traverses in 18 residential areas during the daytime in winter (Dec. 2015-Feb. 2016) and summer (Jun.-Aug. 2016) in Beijing, China. The net concentration differences (d) of the four-sized particles (dTSP, dPM10, dPM2.5 and dPM1) between residential environments and nearby corresponding urban backgrounds, which can be regarded as the reduction of particle concentration in residential environments, were calculated. The effects and relative contributions of different landscape structure parameters on these net concentration differences were further investigated. Results showed that the distribution of particle concentrations has great spatial variation in urban environments. Within the residential environment, there were overall lower concentrations of the four-sized particles compared with the nearby urban background. The net concentration differences of the four-sized particles were all significantly different among the 18 studied residential areas. The average dTSP, dPM10, dPM2.5 and dPM1 reached 18.92, 12.28, 2.01 and 0.53 μg/m3 in summer, and 9.91, 7.81, 1.39 and 0.38 μg/m3 in winter, respectively. The impacts and relative contribution of different landscape structure parameters on the reductions of TSP, PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 in residential environments differed and showed seasonal variation. Percentage of vegetation cover (PerVC) and building cover (PerBC) had the greatest impact. A 10% increase in PerVC would increase about 5.03, 8.15, 2.16 and 0.20 μg/m3 of dTSP, dPM10, dPM2.5 and dPM1 in summer, and a 10% increase in PerBC would decreased about 41.37, 16.54, 2.47 and 0.95 μg/m3 of them in winter. Increased vegetation coverage and decreased building

  9. Understanding heterogeneity in metropolitan India: The added value of remote sensing data for analyzing sub-standard residential areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baud, Isa; Kuffer, Monika; Pfeffer, Karin; Sliuzas, Richard; Karuppannan, Sadasivam

    2010-10-01

    Analyzing the heterogeneity in metropolitan areas of India utilizing remote sensing data can help to identify more precise patterns of sub-standard residential areas. Earlier work analyzing inequalities in Indian cities employed a constructed index of multiple deprivations (IMDs) utilizing data from the Census of India 2001 ( http://censusindia.gov.in). While that index, described in an earlier paper, provided a first approach to identify heterogeneity at the citywide scale, it neither provided information on spatial variations within the geographical boundaries of the Census database, nor about physical characteristics, such as green spaces and the variation in housing density and quality. In this article, we analyze whether different types of sub-standard residential areas can be identified through remote sensing data, combined, where relevant, with ground-truthing and local knowledge. The specific questions address: (1) the extent to which types of residential sub-standard areas can be drawn from remote sensing data, based on patterns of green space, structure of layout, density of built-up areas, size of buildings and other site characteristics; (2) the spatial diversity of these residential types for selected electoral wards; and (3) the correlation between different types of sub-standard residential areas and the results of the index of multiple deprivations utilized at electoral ward level found previously. The results of a limited number of test wards in Delhi showed that it was possible to extract different residential types matching existing settlement categories using the physical indicators structure of layout, built-up density, building size and other site characteristics. However, the indicator 'amount of green spaces' was not useful to identify informal areas. The analysis of heterogeneity showed that wards with higher IMD scores displayed more or less the full range of residential types, implying that visual image interpretation is able to zoom in

  10. Nature on the doorstep : the relationship between protected natural areas and residential activity in the European countryside

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elbersen, Berien Sjamkea

    2002-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to gain insight into the ability of protected natural areas to attract new residential activity and in the role they play in the enhancement of the quality of life of local rural residents. To understand these processes information was collected on the

  11. Can money buy green? Demographic and socioeconomic predictors of lawn-care expenditures and lawn greenness in urban residential areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiqi Zhou; Austin Troy; J. Morgan Grove; Jennifer C. Jenkins

    2009-01-01

    It is increasingly important to understand how household characteristics influence lawn characteristics, as lawns play an important ecological role in human-dominated landscapes. This article investigates household and neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics as predictors of residential lawn-care expenditures and lawn greenness. The study area is the Gwynns Falls...

  12. Risk Assessment of Aluminum in Drinking Water between Two Residential Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aizat I. Syazwan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A cross-sectional study was conducted at Sungai Lembing (SL and Bukit Ubi (BU, Kuantan, Malaysia. The main objectives of this epidemiological study were to determine the aluminum concentration in drinking water, to compare with the government standard and to perform health risk assessment prediction among respondents from these two residential areas. A total of 100 respondents were selected from the study areas based on a few inclusive and exclusive criteria. Two duplicates of treated water samples were taken from each respondent's house using a 200 mL high-density polyethylene (HDPE bottle and 0.4 mL (69% pure concentrated nitric acid added as preservative. Aluminum concentrations were analyzed using Lambda 25 UV/V spectrophotometer. The result showed that the mean concentration of aluminum in drinking water from SL was 0.11 ± 0.0634 mg/L and 0.12 ± 0.0462 mg/L for BU. The mean value of Chronic Daily Intake (CDI in SL (0.0035 ± 0.0028 mg/kg/day was lower compared to BU (0.0037 ± 0.0021 mg/kg/day. The Hazard Index (HI calculation showed all respondents had HI less than 1. In conclusion, there was unlikely potential for adverse health effects from aluminum intake in drinking water. However, it was necessary for some action to be taken in order to reduce aluminum levels found in drinking water in both locations.

  13. Determination of the Priority Aspect in Process of Determining Urban Residential Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhekti Pribadi, Cherie; Hariyanto, Teguh

    2017-12-01

    Recently, the population growth is increasingly crowded in urban area and as a source of land supply for housing development into the needs of each individual becomes increasingly limited. the home is one of the basic rights of the people and therefore every citizen has the right to reside and got a good environment and healthy. Besides the house is also a basic human need to enhance the dignity, the dignity, quality of life and livelihood, as well as personal self-reflection in order to improve the standard of living, as well as the formation of character, character and personality of the nation. The construction of such housing should always take into consideration many aspects in order to create a balanced environment not only based on the suitability of land but also based on the aspects that exist in surrounding. Therefore, this study will be to analyze the priority aspect in process of determining urban residential area using Analytical Hierarchy Process Method. This method aims to determine priority aspect were used based on primary data collection form of questionnaires and interviews to respondents who expert in the field.

  14. Ground-water quality beneath an urban residential and commercial area, Montgomery, Alabama, 1999-2000

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, James L.

    2002-01-01

    The Black Warrior River aquifer, which is composed of the Coker, Gordo, and Eutaw Formations, supplies more than 50 percent of the ground water used for public water supply in the Mobile River Basin. The city of Montgomery, Alabama, is partially built upon a recharge area for the Black Warrior River aquifer, and is one of many major population centers that depend on the Black Warrior River aquifer for public water supply. To represent the baseline ground-water quality in the Black Warrior River aquifer, water samples were collected from 30 wells located in a low-density residential or rural setting; 9 wells were completed in the Coker Formation, 9 wells in the Gordo Formation, and 12 wells in the Eutaw Formation. To describe the ground-water quality beneath Montgomery, Alabama, water samples also were collected from 30 wells located in residential and commercial areas of Montgomery, Alabama; 16 wells were completed in the Eutaw Formation, 8 wells in alluvial deposits, and 6 wells in terrace deposits. The alluvial and terrace deposits directly overlie the Eutaw Formation with little or no hydraulic separation. Ground-water samples collected from both the rural and urban wells were analyzed for physical properties, major ions, nutrients, metals, volatile organic compounds, and pesticides. Samples from the urban wells also were analyzed for bacteria, chlorofluorocarbons, dissolved gases, and sulfur hexafluoride. Ground-water quality beneath the urban area was compared to baseline water quality in the Black Warrior River aquifer.Compared to the rural wells, ground-water samples from urban wells contained greater concentrations or more frequent detections of chloride and nitrate, and the trace metals aluminium, chromium, cobalt, copper, nickel, and zinc. Pesticides and volatile organic compounds were detected more frequently and in greater concentrations in ground-water samples collected from urban wells than in ground-water samples from rural wells.The Spearman rho

  15. Renewable energy and conservation measures for non-residential buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, Andrew James

    The energy demand in most countries is growing at an alarming rate and identifying economically feasible building retrofit solutions to decrease the need for fossil fuels so as to mitigate their environmental and societal impacts has become imperative. Two approaches are available for identifying feasible retrofit solutions: 1) the implementation of energy conservation measures; and 2) the production of energy from renewable sources. This thesis focuses on the development of retrofit software planning tools for the implementation of solar photovoltaic systems, and lighting system retrofits for mid-Michigan institutional buildings. The solar planning tool exploits the existing blueprint of a building's rooftop, and via image processing, the layouts of the solar photovoltaic arrays are developed based on the building's geographical location and typical weather patterns. The resulting energy generation of a PV system is estimated and is utilized to determine levelized energy costs. The lighting system retrofit analysis starts by a current utilization assessment of a building to determine the amount of energy used by the lighting system. Several LED lighting options are evaluated on the basis of color correlation temperature, color rendering index, energy consumption, and financial feasibility, to determine a retrofit solution. Solar photovoltaic installations in mid-Michigan are not yet financially feasible, but with the anticipated growth and dynamic complexity of the solar photovoltaic market, this solar planning tool is able to assist building proprietors make executive decisions regarding their energy usage. Additionally, a lighting system retrofit is shown to have significant financial and health benefits.

  16. Distribution of uranium-238 in environmental samples from a residential area impacted by mining and milling activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McConnell, M.A.; Ramanujam, V.M.S.; Alcock, N.W.; Gabehart, G.J.; Au, W.W.

    1998-01-01

    The northern region of Karnes County, Texas, USA, has been the site of extensive mining/milling of uranium for over 30 years. A previous study in their laboratory indicates that residents living near these facilities have increased chromosomal aberrations and a reduced DNA repair capacity. In this study, the long-lived radionuclides uranium-238 ( 238 U) and thorium-232 ( 232 Th) were measured in order to evaluate the extent of contamination from mining/milling facilities. 232 Th was quantified simultaneously and served as a reference. Soil samples were collected from the yards of previously studied households and adjacent areas near former mining and mining/milling sites at the surface and 30 cm subsurface. Additionally, samples from drinking water wells were collected from selected households. Sites located over 14 km from the study area with no known history of mining/milling served as the control. In the control area, 238 U concentrations in soil were consistent between surface (0.13--0.26 mg/kg) and subsurface samples. Near mining/milling sites, 238 U in surface soil was found to be consistently and statistically higher than corresponding subsurface samples. Near mining-only areas, 238 U in surface soil, however, was not significantly increased over subsurface soil. As expected, 238 U was much higher overall in the mining/milling and mining-only areas compared to the control sites. No trends were detected in the distribution of 232 Th. The concentration of 238 U was up to six times higher in a drinking water well near a former mining/milling operation, indicating possible leaching into the groundwater, while 232 Th concentrations were low and uniform. Furthermore, lead isotope ratio analysis indicates contamination from the interstate shipping of ore by rail to and from a mining/milling facility. These data indicate contamination of the environment by the mining/milling activities in a residential area

  17. GPS measurements in Satakunta area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poutanen, M.; Nyberg, S.; Ahola, J.

    2010-10-01

    background of the GPS measurements, introduce the GeoSatakunta GPS network, discuss the GPS processing and present the results of the time series analysis. More measurement campaigns are anticipated in the future but it is not necessary to carry out measurements as frequently. Observing every 2-3 years one can monitor long-term trends but the epoch of abrupt movements are not possible to get accurately. The GPS network can be used also as a reference for the cities and municipalities in the area. It is the most accurately measured regional network in Finland and its free access and open structure allows the use for many common purposes. (orig.)

  18. Measure Guideline: Ventilation Guidance for Residential High-Performance New Construction - Multifamily

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lstiburek, Joseph [Building Science Corporation, Westford, MA (United States)

    2017-01-01

    The measure guideline provides ventilation guidance for residential high performance multifamily construction that incorporates the requirements of the ASHRAE 62.2 ventilation and indoor air quality standard. The measure guideline focus is on the decision criteria for weighing cost and performance of various ventilation systems. The measure guideline is intended for contractors, builders, developers, designers and building code officials. The guide may also be helpful to building owners wishing to learn more about ventilation strategies available for their buildings. The measure guideline includes specific design and installation instructions for the most cost effective and performance effective solutions for ventilation in multifamily units that satisfies the requirements of ASHRAE 62.2-2016.

  19. Energy usage and technical potential for energy saving measures in the Swedish residential building stock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mata, Érika; Sasic Kalagasidis, Angela; Johnsson, Filip

    2013-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the current energy usage (net energy and final energy by fuels) and associated carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions of the Swedish residential building stock, which includes single-family dwellings and multi-family dwellings. Twelve energy saving measures (ESMs) are assessed using a bottom–up modeling methodology, in which the Swedish residential stock is represented by a sample of 1400 buildings (based on data from the year 2005). Application of the ESMs studied gives a maximum technical reduction potential in energy demand of 53%, corresponding to a 63% reduction in CO 2 emissions. Although application of the investigated ESMs would reduce CO 2 emissions, the measures that reduce electricity consumption for lighting and appliances (LA) will increase CO 2 emissions, since the saved electricity production is less CO 2 -intensive than the fuel mix used for the increased space heating required to make up for the loss in indirect heating obtained from LA. - Highlights: ► Analysis of year 2005energy use and CO2 emissions of Swedish residential buildings. ► Includes all single-family dwellings and multi-family dwellings. ► Bottom–up modeling of building stock represented by 1400 buildings. ► Technical effects of 12 energy saving measures are assessed. ► Energy demand can be reduced by53% and associated CO 2 emissions by 63%

  20. Analysis of heat source selection for residential buildings in rural areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szul Tomasz

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The research aiming to check whether the output of currently installed boilers matches the use requirements together with estimation of their energy efficiency was carried out on a group of 84 single-family residential buildings located in rural areas. Heating and hot water energy needs were calculated for each building in order to determine the use requirements. This enabled verification whether the currently installed boilers match the actual use requirements in the buildings. Based on the calculations it was determined that the designed average boiler output in the group of buildings subject to analysis is 15.7 kW, whereas the mean rated output capacity of boilers installed therein is 25.4 kW. On average, the output capacity of the installed boilers exceeds the use requirements for the buildings by 60%. To calculate the energy efficiency of boilers, the mean annual boiler output capacity use coefficient was determined. For boilers selected on the basis of standard calculations, the mean coefficient is 0.47. For boilers currently in use it is 0.31, less than the above figure. The above calculations show that if boilers were correctly selected in compliance to the building needs, then the average estimated seasonal efficiency of 65% would be feasible. However, in the current state the achievable efficiency is approx. 55%.

  1. A measure to manage approach to characterizing the energy impact of residential building stocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afamia Elnakat

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The city of San Antonio is the seventh largest in the United States by population and the second in the state of Texas, with a population of over 1.3 million people. As one of the fastest growing cities, the San Antonio residential real estate market has expanded to meet the demands of the growing population. Managing the energy footprint of single-family houses can be enhanced by big data analysis of combined metered energy consumption and building infrastructure characteristics. This study analyzes the energy intensity of 389,160 single family detached homes and identifies energy utilization trends across various residential building stock size and vintage categories. Supported by the “measure to manage” premise, this study highlights the value of this characterization as a forecasting and planning tool for sustainable growth and a more engaged consumer.

  2. Exploring the range of energy savings likely from energy efficiency retrofit measures in Ireland's residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dineen, D.; Ó Gallachóir, B.P.

    2017-01-01

    This paper estimates the potential energy savings in the Irish residential sector by 2020 due to the introduction of an ambitious retrofit programme. We estimate the technical energy savings potential of retrofit measures targeting energy efficiency of the space and water heating end uses of the 2011 stock of residential dwellings between 2012 and 2020. We build eight separate scenarios, varying the number of dwellings retrofitted and the depth of retrofit carried out in order to investigate the range of energy savings possible. In 2020 the estimated technical savings potential lies in the range from 1713 GWh to 10,817 GWh, but is more likely to fall within the lower end of this range, i.e. between 1700 and 4360 GWh. When rebound effects are taken into account this reduces further to 1100 GWh and 2800 GWh per annum. The purpose of this paper was to test the robustness of the NEEAP target savings for residential retrofit, i.e. 3000 GWh by 2020. We conclude that this target is technically feasible but very challenging and unlikely to be achieved based on progress to date. It will require a significant shift towards deeper retrofit measures compared to what has been achieved by previous schemes. - Highlights: • Paper estimates range of energy savings likely from Irish residential retrofit. • Achieving NEEAP target savings of 3000 GWh by 2020 is feasible but very challenging. • Likely savings of 1100–2800 GWh per annum in 2020, including rebound. • NEEAP target unlikely to be achieved based on current trends.

  3. The Study of Thermal Comfort in Transforming Residential Area in Bandung using ENVI-met Software. Case Study: Progo Street

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aziz Soelaiman, Tubagus M.; Soedarsono, Woerjantari K.; Donny Koerniawan, M.

    2018-05-01

    Bandung has a high potential in attracting tourists. This potential impact on building function near tourist attraction that can transform residential uses into commercial uses. Progo Street and its surrounding area used as the case study, which is close to Gedung Sate and Riau Street as tourist destinations in Bandung. Moreover, this transformation is also reinforced by the spatial planning policies in Bandung, known as RTRW and RDTR, said that this area will be fully non-residential area. This condition in some cases could affect thermal comfort. This paper provides the changes of thermal comfort phenomenon that occurs using EnviMet software. The study compares Predicted Mean Voted (PMV) as thermal comfort indicator between existing and Bandung detailed spatial plan (RDTR) condition. The result shows that the PMV value of current condition is higher than future planning, nonetheless the planned area will be changed into higher non-residential buildings and less greeneries. Some environmental factors that are used to calculate PMV such as air temperature, mean radiant temperature, humidity, and wind speed are also examined to find out what makes the plan more comfortable than the existing. Simulations using ENVI-met software could be considered in making more objective planning policy in the future.

  4. Response of residential electricity demand to price: The effect of measurement error

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alberini, Anna; Filippini, Massimo

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we present an empirical analysis of the residential demand for electricity using annual aggregate data at the state level for 48 US states from 1995 to 2007. Earlier literature has examined residential energy consumption at the state level using annual or monthly data, focusing on the variation in price elasticities of demand across states or regions, but has failed to recognize or address two major issues. The first is that, when fitting dynamic panel models, the lagged consumption term in the right-hand side of the demand equation is endogenous. This has resulted in potentially inconsistent estimates of the long-run price elasticity of demand. The second is that energy price is likely mismeasured. To address these issues, we estimate a dynamic partial adjustment model using the Kiviet corrected Least Square Dummy Variables (LSDV) (1995) and the Blundell-Bond (1998) estimators. We find that the long-term elasticities produced by the Blundell-Bond system GMM methods are largest, and that from the bias-corrected LSDV are greater than that from the conventional LSDV. From an energy policy point of view, the results obtained using the Blundell-Bond estimator where we instrument for price imply that a carbon tax or other price-based policy may be effective in discouraging residential electricity consumption and hence curbing greenhouse gas emissions in an electricity system mainly based on coal and gas power plants. - Research Highlights: → Updated information on price elasticities for the US energy policy. → Taking into account measurement error in the price variable increase price elasticity. → Room for discouraging residential electricity consumption using price increases.

  5. Response of residential electricity demand to price: The effect of measurement error

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alberini, Anna [Department of Agricultural Economics, University of Maryland (United States); Centre for Energy Policy and Economics (CEPE), ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Gibson Institute and Institute for a Sustainable World, School of Biological Sciences, Queen' s University Belfast, Northern Ireland (United Kingdom); Filippini, Massimo, E-mail: mfilippini@ethz.ch [Centre for Energy Policy and Economics (CEPE), ETH Zurich (Switzerland); Department of Economics, University of Lugano (Switzerland)

    2011-09-15

    In this paper we present an empirical analysis of the residential demand for electricity using annual aggregate data at the state level for 48 US states from 1995 to 2007. Earlier literature has examined residential energy consumption at the state level using annual or monthly data, focusing on the variation in price elasticities of demand across states or regions, but has failed to recognize or address two major issues. The first is that, when fitting dynamic panel models, the lagged consumption term in the right-hand side of the demand equation is endogenous. This has resulted in potentially inconsistent estimates of the long-run price elasticity of demand. The second is that energy price is likely mismeasured. To address these issues, we estimate a dynamic partial adjustment model using the Kiviet corrected Least Square Dummy Variables (LSDV) (1995) and the Blundell-Bond (1998) estimators. We find that the long-term elasticities produced by the Blundell-Bond system GMM methods are largest, and that from the bias-corrected LSDV are greater than that from the conventional LSDV. From an energy policy point of view, the results obtained using the Blundell-Bond estimator where we instrument for price imply that a carbon tax or other price-based policy may be effective in discouraging residential electricity consumption and hence curbing greenhouse gas emissions in an electricity system mainly based on coal and gas power plants. - Research Highlights: > Updated information on price elasticities for the US energy policy. > Taking into account measurement error in the price variable increase price elasticity. > Room for discouraging residential electricity consumption using price increases.

  6. Domestic Wood Burning in a Residential Area: PM2.5 Trace Elements and Black Smoke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnar, P.; Gustafson, P.; Johannesson, S.; Barregaard, L.; Saellsten, G.; Boman, J.

    2005-01-01

    Indoor and outdoor levels of PM2.5 have been studied in a residential area in Hagfors, a small town in Sweden. The sampling took place during typical Swedish winter conditions with sub-zero temperatures and full snow cover between February 10th and Mars 6th, 2003. The area consists of single houses having different heating systems. Some of the houses are heated by burning wood; some use heat pumps while others use direct electrical heating. 13 houses burning wood in boilers or similar for heating and 10 houses heated by other means but situated in the same area were selected for this study. Only houses without tobacco smoke were selected since this is one of the major sources of indoor particles. The objectives of the study were to identify levels and differences in composition of aerosol particles outdoors and inside houses with boilers using wood as fuel and houses heated in other ways. For K, Ca, Mn, Zn and Rb significantly higher (p < 0.05) indoor concentration for wood burners were found. The elements most often referred to as markers for wood burning are K and Zn. In addition, Si, S, Cl, Br and Rb are also mentioned as markers (Hedberg et al., 2002, Moloi et al., 2003). Black smoke was linked to wood burning, although not fully significant (p-value 0.07), as seen in figure 1a. Within the wood-burning group, some houses have concentrations comparable to the concentrations in the houses where no wood is used, while the others have much higher concentrations. These houses also have higher concentrations of K compared to the other wood burners. The possible reasons are different types of wood burning appliances and their placement in the houses as well as possible leakage. Sulphur, although sometimes linked to wood burning, shows no relationship to wood burning in this study. In figure 1b it can be seen that the indoor concentrations of sulphur is clearly lower compared to outdoor concentrations and that the levels indoors do not differ between wood and non

  7. Influence of oil and gas emissions on ambient atmospheric non-methane hydrocarbons in residential areas of Northeastern Colorado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chelsea R. Thompson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The Northern Front Range (NFR region of Colorado has experienced rapid expansion of oil and gas extraction from shale and tight sands reservoirs in recent years due to advances in hydraulic fracturing technology, with over 25,000 wells currently in operation. This region has also been designated as a federal ozone non-attainment area by the U.S. EPA. High ozone levels are a significant health concern, as are potential health impacts from chronic exposure to primary emissions of non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC for residents living near wells. From measurements of ambient atmospheric NMHC present in residential areas located in close proximity to wells in Erie, Colorado, we find that mean mole fractions of the C2–C5 alkanes are enhanced by a factor of 18–77 relative to the regional background, and present at higher levels than typically found in large urban centers. When combined with NMHC observations from downtown Denver and Platteville, it is apparent that these compounds are elevated across the NFR, with highest levels within the Greater Wattenberg Gas Field. This represents a large area source for ozone precursors in the NFR. The BTEX aromatic compounds in Erie were comparable to (e.g., benzene or lower than (e.g., toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene in large urban centers, however, benzene was significantly higher in Platteville, and within the range of chronic health-based exposure levels. An initial look at comparisons with data sets from previous years reveal that ambient levels for oil and gas-related NMHC in Erie, as well as further downwind in Boulder, have not decreased, but appear to have been increasing, despite tightening of emissions standards for the oil and gas industries in 2008.

  8. Relationship between atmospheric pollution in the residential area and concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in human breast milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulkrabova, Jana; Stupak, Michal; Svarcova, Andrea; Rossner, Pavel; Rossnerova, Andrea; Ambroz, Antonin; Sram, Radim; Hajslova, Jana

    2016-08-15

    Human milk is an important source of beneficial nutrients and antibodies for newborns and infants and, under certain circumstances, its analysis may provide information on mothers' and infants' exposure to various contaminants. In the presented study, we have introduced the new analytical approach for analysis of 24 highly occurring polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in this indicator matrix. The sample preparation procedure is based on an ethyl acetate extraction of milk; the transfer of analytes into an organic layer is enhanced by addition of inorganic salts, i.e. sodium chloride and magnesium sulphate. Following the clean-up of a crude extract on silica SPE columns, gas chromatography coupled to triple quadrupole mass spectrometry is used for PAH identification and quantitation. The average recoveries of targeted PAHs from spiked samples were in the range of 68-110% with repeatabilities below 30% and method quantitation limits ranging from 0.03 to 0.3ng/g lipid weight. This newly validated method was successfully applied for analyses of 324 human milk samples collected from nonsmoking women during two sampling periods (summer and winter) in two residential areas in the Czech Republic differing in atmospheric pollution by PAHs. From 24 targeted analytes 17 were detected at least in one sample. Phenantherene, fluoranthrene, pyrene and fluorene were the most abundant compounds found at average concentration of 13.81, 1.80, 0.86, and 2.01ng/g lipid weight respectively. Comparing the data from two sampling periods, in both areas higher concentrations were measured in samples collected during winter. Also in the highly industrialized locality with heavily contaminated air PAH amounts in milk were higher than in the control locality. These first data on PAH concentrations in human milk collected in the Czech Republic are comparable with measurements for nonsmoking women reported earlier in the United States but significantly lower than results from China, Turkey

  9. Energy saving in residential and tertiary sectors: regulations, inciting measures and consumer attitude

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnaud, P.; Aubert, D.; Grel, P.; Herant, P.; Molia, J.P.; Thelinge, H.

    2007-01-01

    Energy saving regulations in the residential and tertiary sectors are under permanent evolution. What are the most significant rules already existing and under preparation? What is the position of the natural gas industry with respect to this regulatory environment? Is there more specific regulatory measures that would be needed to reach the CO 2 abatement goals? What are the means to sensibilize consumers? What are the contributions of the building industry and of energy services? This workshop gathered five experts and a chairman who debated these different points. (J.S.)

  10. Effects of ground surface decontamination on the air radiation dose rate. Results of a decontamination trial at a playground lot in a Fukushima residential area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tagawa, Akihiro

    2012-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Agency decontaminated schools, playgrounds, swimming pools, and houses in nonevacuated, less-contaminated areas in Fukushima for environmental restoration. A small, 150 m 2 playground lot in the residential area was chosen for decontamination demonstration, which used routinely available tools and commodities to carry out the work. The surfaces of playground lot equipment, such as swings, slides, and horizontal iron bars, were completely decontaminated by brushing with water and/or detergent. Side gutters around the playground lot were cleaned by removing the mud and then brushed and washed with a high-pressure water jet (7 MPa). The air dose rate at the playground lot was dominated by radiation from the ground surface and adjacent surroundings, such as apartments and rice fields. Two or three centimeters of the surface soil contaminated with cesium was removed manually with shovels, hoes, and other gardening tools. This significantly reduced the average air dose rate of the entire playground lot from 1.5 μSv/h before decontamination to 0.6 μSv/h. These results showed that ground surface decontamination can contribute measurably to the reduction in air dose rate in relatively small areas in residential areas. (author)

  11. The average concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni and Pb in residential soil and drinking water obtained from springs and wells in Rosia Montana area.

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The average concentrations of As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Ni and Pb in n=84 residential soil samples, in Rosia Montana area, analyzed by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry are...

  12. Laboratory Evaluation of Air Flow Measurement Methods for Residential HVAC Returns for New Instrument Standards

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Stratton, Chris [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This project improved the accuracy of air flow measurements used in commissioning California heating and air conditioning systems in Title 24 (Building and Appliance Efficiency Standards), thereby improving system performance and efficiency of California residences. The research team at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory addressed the issue that typical tools used by contractors in the field to test air flows may not be accurate enough to measure return flows used in Title 24 applications. The team developed guidance on performance of current diagnostics as well as a draft test method for use in future evaluations. The study team prepared a draft test method through ASTM International to determine the uncertainty of air flow measurements at residential heating ventilation and air conditioning returns and other terminals. This test method, when finalized, can be used by the Energy Commission and other entities to specify required accuracy of measurement devices used to show compliance with standards.

  13. A Bayesian kriging model for estimating residential exposure to air pollution of children living in a high-risk area in Italy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana M. Vicedo-Cabrera

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A core challenge in epidemiological analysis of the impact of exposure to air pollution on health is assessment of the individual exposure for subjects at risk. Geographical information systems (GIS-based pollution mapping, such as kriging, has become one of the main tools for evaluating individual exposure to ambient pollutants. We applied universal Bayesian kriging to estimate the residential exposure to gaseous air pollutants for children living in a high-risk area (Milazzo- Valle del Mela in Sicily, Italy. Ad hoc air quality monitoring campaigns were carried out: 12 weekly measurements for sulphur dioxide (SO2 and nitrogen dioxide (NO2 were obtained from 21 passive dosimeters located at each school yard of the study area from November 2007 to April 2008. Universal Bayesian kriging was performed to predict individual exposure levels at each residential address for all 6- to 12-years-old children attending primary school at various locations in the study area. Land use, altitude, distance to main roads and population density were included as covariates in the models. A large geographical heterogeneity in air quality was recorded suggesting complex exposure patterns. We obtained a predicted mean level of 25.78 (±10.61 μg/m3 of NO2 and 4.10 (±2.71 μg/m3 of SO2 at 1,682 children’s residential addresses, with a normalised root mean squared error of 28% and 25%, respectively. We conclude that universal Bayesian kriging approach is a useful tool for the assessment of realistic exposure estimates with regard to ambient pollutants at home addresses. Its prediction uncertainty is highly informative and can be used for both designing subsequent campaigns and for improved modelling of epidemiological associations.

  14. A novel field measurement method for determining fine particle and gas emissions from residential wood combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tissari, Jarkko; Hytönen, Kati; Lyyränen, Jussi; Jokiniemi, Jorma

    Emission data from residential wood combustion are usually obtained on test stands in the laboratory but these measurements do not correspond to the operational conditions in the field because of the technological boundary conditions (e.g. testing protocol, environmental and draught conditions). The field measurements take into account the habitual practice of the operators and provide the more reliable results needed for emission inventories. In this study, a workable and compact method for measuring emissions from residential wood combustion in winter conditions was developed. The emissions for fine particle, gaseous and PAH compounds as well as particle composition in real operational conditions were measured from seven different appliances. The measurement technique worked well and was evidently suitable for winter conditions. It was easy and fast to use, and no construction scaffold was needed. The dilution of the sample with the combination of a porous tube diluter and an ejector diluter was well suited to field measurement. The results indicate that the emissions of total volatile organic carbon (TVOC) (17 g kg -1 (of dry wood burned)), carbon monoxide (CO) (120 g kg -1) and fine particle mass (PM 1) (2.7 g kg -1) from the sauna stove were higher than in the other measured appliances. In the masonry heaters, baking oven and stove, the emissions were 2.9-9 g kg -1 TVOC, 28-68 g kg -1 CO and 0.6-1.6 g kg -1 PM 1. The emission of 12 PAHs (PAH 12) from the sauna stove was 164 mg kg -1 and consisted mainly of PAHs with four benzene rings in their structure. PAH 12 emission from other appliances was, on average, 21 mg kg -1 and was dominated by 2-ring PAHs. These results indicate that despite the non-optimal operational practices in the field, the emissions did not differ markedly from the laboratory measurements.

  15. Predicting personal exposure to airborne carbonyls using residential measurements and time/activity data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Weili; Zhang, Junfeng (Jim); Korn, Leo R.; Zhang, Lin; Weisel, Clifford P.; Turpin, Barbara; Morandi, Maria; Stock, Tom; Colome, Steve

    As a part of the Relationships of Indoor, Outdoor, and Personal Air (RIOPA) study, 48 h integrated residential indoor, outdoor, and personal exposure concentrations of 10 carbonyls were simultaneously measured in 234 homes selected from three US cities using the Passive Aldehydes and Ketones Samplers (PAKS). In this paper, we examine the feasibility of using residential indoor concentrations to predict personal exposures to carbonyls. Based on paired t-tests, the means of indoor concentrations were not different from those of personal exposure concentrations for eight out of the 10 measured carbonyls, indicating indoor carbonyls concentrations, in general, well predicted the central tendency of personal exposure concentrations. In a linear regression model, indoor concentrations explained 47%, 55%, and 65% of personal exposure variance for formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, and hexaldehyde, respectively. The predictability of indoor concentrations on cross-individual variability in personal exposure for the other carbonyls was poorer, explainingexposure concentrations. It was found that activities related to driving a vehicle and performing yard work had significant impacts on personal exposures to a few carbonyls.

  16. Residential characteristics and radiofrequency electromagnetic field exposures from bedroom measurements in Germany

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Breckenkamp, J; Blettner, M; Schüz, J

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to assess total exposure to radiofrequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) in bedrooms and the contribution of different radioservices (FM radio, analogue TV and DVB-T, TETRA, GSM900 downlink, GSM1800 downlink, UMTS downlink, DECT, and wireless LAN and blue tooth......) to the total exposure. Additional aims were to describe the proportion of measuring values above the detection limit of the dosimeters and to characterize the differences in exposure patterns associated with self-reported residential characteristics. Exposure to RF sources in bedrooms was measured using...... Antennessa(®) EME Spy 120 dosimeters in 1,348 households in Germany; 280 measures were available for each frequency band per household. Mean electrical field strengths and power flux densities were calculated. Power flux densities allow the calculation of proportions of different radioservices on total...

  17. Widespread arsenic contamination of soils in residential areas and public spaces: an emerging regulatory or medical crisis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belluck, D A; Benjamin, S L; Baveye, P; Sampson, J; Johnson, B

    2003-01-01

    A critical review finds government agencies allow, permit, license, or ignore arsenic releases to surface soils. Release rates are controlled or evaluated using risk-based soil contaminant numerical limits employing standardized risk algorithms, chemical-specific and default input values. United States arsenic residential soil limits, approximately 0.4- approximately 40 ppm, generally correspond to a one-in-one-million to a one-in-ten-thousand incremental cancer risk range via ingestion of or direct contact with contaminated residential soils. Background arsenic surface soil levels often exceed applicable limits. Arsenic releases to surface soils (via, e.g., air emissions, waste recycling, soil amendments, direct pesticide application, and chromated copper arsenic (CCA)-treated wood) can result in greatly elevated arsenic levels, sometimes one to two orders of magnitude greater than applicable numerical limits. CCA-treated wood, a heavily used infrastructure material at residences and public spaces, can release sufficient arsenic to result in surface soil concentrations that exceed numerical limits by one or two orders of magnitude. Although significant exceedence of arsenic surface soil numerical limits would normally result in regulatory actions at industrial or hazardous waste sites, no such pattern is seen at residential and public spaces. Given the current risk assessment paradigm, measured or expected elevated surface soil arsenic levels at residential and public spaces suggest that a regulatory health crisis of sizeable magnitude is imminent. In contrast, available literature and a survey of government agencies conducted for this paper finds no verified cases of human morbidity or mortality resulting from exposure to elevated levels of arsenic in surface soils. This concomitance of an emerging regulatory health crisis in the absence of a medical crisis is arguably partly attributable to inadequate government and private party attention to the issue.

  18. Willingness to pay for energy-saving measures in residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banfi, Silvia; Farsi, Mehdi; Jakob, Martin; Filippini, Massimo

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses a choice experiment to evaluate the consumers' willingness to pay for energy-saving measures in Switzerland's residential buildings. These measures include air renewal (ventilation) systems and insulation of windows and facades. Two groups of respondents consisting respectively of 163 apartment tenants and 142 house owners were asked to choose between their housing status quo and each one of the several hypothetical situations with different attributes and prices. The estimation method is based on a fixed-effects logit model. The results suggest that the benefits of the energy-saving attributes are significantly valued by the consumers. These benefits include both individual energy savings and environmental benefits as well as comfort benefits namely, thermal comfort, air quality and noise protection. (author)

  19. The use of load patterns to identify residential customers in a chosen area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalik, G.; Lech, M.; Mielczarski, W. [Monash Univ., Clayton, VIC (Australia). Centre for Electrical Power Engineering

    1995-12-31

    Information on customers` categories and energy use patterns is a basis for the development of any Demand Side Management program. This paper presents an application of energy consumption patterns to identification of customers in a chosen area. Customers have been segmented into four main categories with six subgroups in each category. A total pattern of energy use can be achieved by the combination of characteristic patterns for each subgroup with multiplication by the number of customers in each subgroup. The paper proposes to apply characteristic patterns developed and nonlinear programming techniques to identify customers in a chosen area from patterns measured at distribution feeders. The procedure can be applied as an alternative to surveys and measurements at the mains of particular customers but may also be implemented as an accompanying system to verify results from other procedures of customer identification. (author). 1 tab., 6 figs., 4 refs.

  20. Analysis of PAEs contaminants in water sources for agriculture, industrial and residential areas from local city district

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qidan; Chen, Qixian; Wu, Fei; Liao, Jia; Zhao, Xi

    2018-02-01

    The technology of DEHP and DBP detection by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with ultraviolet detection (HPLC-UV) was developed and applied in analysis of local water sources from agriculture, industrial and residential areas. Under the optimized sample pretreatment and detection conditions, DEHP and DBP were well separated and detected in 4 mins. The detection limit of DBP was 0.002 mg/L and DEHP was 0.006 mg/L, and it meets the Chinese National Standard limitations for drinking water quality. The linear correlation coefficient of DBP and DEHP standard calibration curves was 0.9998 and 0.9995. The linear range of DBP was 0.020 mg/L ∼20.0 mg/L, with the standard deviation of 0.560% ∼5.07%, and the linear range of DEHP was 0.060 mg/L ∼15.0 mg/L, with the standard deviation of 0.546% ∼5.74%. Ten water samples from Jinwan district of Zhuhai in Guangdong province of China were analyzed. However, the PAEs amounts found in the water sources from industrial areas were higher than the agriculture and residential areas, industries grow incredibly fast in the district in recently years and more attention should be paid to the increasing risks of water sources pollution.

  1. Urban planning and agriculture. Methodology for assessing rooftop greenhouse potential of non-residential areas using airborne sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, Ana; Alamús, Ramón; Pipia, Luca; Ruiz, Antonio; Corbera, Jordi; Cuerva, Eva; Rieradevall, Joan; Josa, Alejandro

    2017-12-01

    The integration of rooftop greenhouses (RTGs) in urban buildings is a practice that is becoming increasingly important in the world for their contribution to food security and sustainable development. However, the supply of tools and procedures to facilitate their implementation at the city scale is limited and laborious. This work aims to develop a specific and automated methodology for identifying the feasibility of implementation of rooftop greenhouses in non-residential urban areas, using airborne sensors. The use of Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) and Long Wave Infrared (LWIR) data and the Leica ALS50-II and TASI-600 sensors allow for the identification of some building roof parameters (area, slope, materials, and solar radiation) to determine the potential for constructing a RTG. This development represents an improvement in time and accuracy with respect to previous methodology, where all the relevant information must be acquired manually. The methodology has been applied and validated in a case study corresponding to a non-residential urban area in the industrial municipality of Rubí, Barcelona (Spain). Based on this practical application, an area of 36,312m 2 out of a total area of 1,243,540m 2 of roofs with ideal characteristics for the construction of RTGs was identified. This area can produce approximately 600tons of tomatoes per year, which represents the average yearly consumption for about 50% of Rubí total population. The use of this methodology also facilitates the decision making process in urban agriculture, allowing a quick identification of optimal surfaces for the future implementation of urban agriculture in housing. It also opens new avenues for the use of airborne technology in environmental topics in cities. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Impact of ancestry categorisations on residential segregation measures using Swedish register data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarvis, Benjamin; Kawalerowicz, Juta; Valdez, Sarah

    2017-07-01

    Country-of-birth data contained in registers are often aggregated to create broad ancestry group categories. We examine how measures of residential segregation vary according to levels of aggregation. We use Swedish register data to calculate pairwise dissimilarity indices from 1990 to 2012 for ancestry groups defined at four nested levels of aggregation: (1) micro-groups containing 50 categories, (2) meso-groups containing 16 categories, (3) macro-groups containing six categories and (4) a broad Western/non-Western binary. We find variation in segregation levels between ancestry groups that is obscured by data aggregation. This study demonstrates that the practice of aggregating country-of-birth statistics in register data can hinder the ability to identify highly segregated groups and therefore design effective policy to remedy both intergroup and intergenerational inequalities.

  3. Survey of roadside alien plants in Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park and adjacent residential areas 2001-2005

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bio, Keali'i F.; Pratt, Linda W.; Jacobi, James D.

    2012-01-01

    The sides of all paved roads of Hawai`i Volcanoes National Park (HAVO) were surveyed on foot in 2001 to 2005, and the roadside presence of 240 target invasive and potentially invasive alien plant species was recorded in mile-long increments. Buffer zones 5–10 miles (8–16 km) long along Highway 11 on either side of the Kīlauea and Kahuku Units of the park, as well as Wright Road that passed by the disjunct `Ōla`a Tract Unit, were included in the survey. Highway 11 is the primary road through the park and a major island thoroughfare. Three residential subdivisions adjacent to the park were similarly surveyed in 0.5–1 mile (0.8–1.6 km) intervals in 2003, and data were analyzed separately. Two roads to the east and northeast were also surveyed, but data from these disjunct areas were analyzed separately from park roads. In total, 174 of the target alien species were observed along HAVO roads and buffers, exclusive of residential areas, and the mean number of target aliens per mile surveyed was 20.6. Highway 11 and its buffer zones had the highest mean number of target alien plants per mile (26.7) of all park roads, and the Mauna Loa Strip Road had the lowest mean (11.7). Segments of Highway 11 adjacent to HAVO and Wright Road next to `Ōla`a Tract had mean numbers of target alien per mile (24–47) higher than those of any internal road. Alien plant frequencies were summarized for each road in HAVO. Fifteen new records of vascular plants for HAVO were observed and collected along park roads. An additional 28 alien plant species not known from HAVO were observed along the buffer segments of Highway 11 adjacent to the park. Within the adjacent residential subdivisions, 65 target alien plant species were sighted along roadsides. At least 15 potentially invasive species not currently found within HAVO were observed along residential roads, and several other species found there have been previously eliminated from the park or controlled to remnant populations

  4. Estimation of doses received in a dry-contaminated residential area in the Bryansk region, Russia, since the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, K.G.; Roed, J.

    2006-01-01

    In nuclear preparedness, an essential requirement is the ability to adequately predict the likely consequences of a major accident situation. In this context it is very important to evaluate which contributions to dose are important, and which are not likely to have significance. As an example of this type of evaluation, a case study has been conducted to estimate the doses received over the first 17 years after the Chernobyl accident in a dry-contaminated residential area in the Bryansk region in Russia. Methodologies for estimation of doses received through nine different pathways, including contamination of streets, roofs, exterior walls, and landscape, are established, and best estimates are given for each of the dose contributions. Generally, contaminated soil areas were estimated to have given the highest dose contribution, but a number of other contributions to dose, e.g., from contaminated roofs and inhalation of contaminants during the passage of the contaminated plume, were of the same order of magnitude

  5. Finnish workshop on the restoration of contaminated residential areas after a nuclear accident: strategy generation and impact assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ammann, M.

    2006-01-01

    Scenario-focused workshops on the restoration of contaminated residential areas are planned in a number of European countries within the EVATECH project of the EU's Fifth Framework Programme. The intention is to identify factors driving decision-making, explore the kinds of strategies that might be appropriate, develop methods for stakeholder involvement, and reveal information needs. The scenario of the Finnish workshop is presented. A policy generation scheme is proposed that yields a manageable but feature-rich set of strategies that is not constraint by lack of feasibility, justification, or public acceptability. The scheme rests on the premise that the affected area is divided into zones according to the level of contamination and that clean-up actions are applied in any combination and in combination with relocation

  6. The impact of unconfined mine tailings in residential areas from a mining town in a semi-arid environment: Nacozari, Sonora, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meza-Figueroa, Diana; Maier, Raina M; de la O-Villanueva, Margarita; Gómez-Alvarez, Agustín; Moreno-Zazueta, Alan; Rivera, Jacinto; Campillo, Alberto; Grandlic, Christopher J; Anaya, Ricardo; Palafox-Reyes, Juan

    2009-09-01

    Past mining activities in northern Mexico left a legacy of delerict landscapes devoid of vegetation and seasonal formation of salt efflorescence. Metal content was measured in mine tailings, efflorescent salts, soils, road dust, and residential soils to investigate contamination. Climatic effects such as heavy wind and rainfall events can have great impact on the dispersion of metals in semi-arid areas, since soils are typically sparsely vegetated. Geochemical analysis of this site revealed that even though total metal content in mine tailings was relatively low (e.g. Cu= 1000 mg kg(-1)), metals including Mn, Ba, Zn, and Cu were all found at significantly higher levels in efflorescence salts formed by evaporation on the tailings impoundment surface following the rainy season (e.g. Cu= 68,000 mg kg(-1)). Such efflorescent fine-grained salts are susceptible to wind erosion resulting in increased metal spread to nearby residential soils. Our results highlight the importance of seasonally dependent salt-formation and wind erosion in determining risk levels associated with potential inhalation or ingestion of airborne particulates originating from contaminated sites such as tailings impoundments. In low metal-content mine tailings located in arid and semi-arid environments, efflorescence salts could represent a human health risk and a challenge for plant establishment in mine tailings.

  7. Measuring social climate in Norwegian residential youth care : A revision of the community oriented programs environment scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leipoldt, Jonathan David; Rimehaug, Tormod; Harder, A.T.; Kayed, Nanna; Grietens, Hans

    2016-01-01

    Introduction and objectives: Social climate is an understudied factor in residential youth care (RYC) institutions. Already in the 1950’s, the World Health Organization stated that “atmosphere” is an important factor in psychiatric treatment, but a very difficult element to measure. Assessing the

  8. Combined heat and power and thermally insulating measures in residential housing stock; Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung und Daemmmassnahmen im Wohngebaeudebestand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buller, Michael [Gas- und Waerme-Institut Essen e.V., Essen (Germany)

    2013-02-15

    The author of the contribution under consideration reports on the economic, ecologic and primary energetic potential of micro-combined heat and power (micro-CHP) in the residential housing stock under consideration of possible correlations between CHP and thermally insulating measures.

  9. In-situ real time measurements of thermal comfort and comparison with the adaptive comfort theory in Dutch residential dwellings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ioannou, A.; Itard, L.C.M.; Agarwal, Tushar

    2018-01-01

    Indoor thermal comfort is generally assessed using the PMV or the adaptive model. This research presents the results obtained by in-situ real time measurements of thermal comfort and thermal comfort perception in 17 residential dwellings in the Netherlands. The study demonstrates the new

  10. Monitoring of nitrates in drinking water from agricultural and residential areas of Podravina and Prigorje (Croatia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nemčić-Jurec, Jasna; Konjačić, Miljenko; Jazbec, Anamarija

    2013-11-01

    Nitrates are the most common chemical pollutant of groundwater in agricultural and suburban areas. Croatia must comply with the Nitrate Directive (91/676/EEC) whose aim is to reduce water pollution by nitrates originating from agriculture and to prevent further pollution. Podravina and Prigorje are the areas with a relatively high degree of agricultural activity. Therefore, the aim of this study was, by monitoring nitrates, to determine the distribution of nitrates in two different areas, Podravina and Prigorje (Croatia), to determine sources of contamination as well as annual and seasonal trends. The nitrate concentrations were measured in 30 wells (N = 382 samples) in Prigorje and in 19 wells (N = 174 samples) in Podravina from 2002 to 2007. In Podravina, the nitrate content was 24.9 mg/l and 6% of the samples were above the maximum available value (MAV), and in Prigorje the content was 53.9 mg/l and 38% of the samples above MAV. The wells were classified as correct, occasionally incorrect and incorrect. In the group of occasionally incorrect and incorrect wells, the point sources were within 10 m of the well. There is no statistically significant difference over the years or seasons within the year, but the interaction between locations and years was significant. Nitrate concentrations' trend was not significant during the monitoring. These results are a prerequisite for the adjustment of Croatian standards to those of the EU and will contribute to the implementation of the Nitrate Directive and the Directives on Environmental Protection in Croatia and the EU.

  11. LABORATORY EVALUATION OF AIR FLOW MEASUREMENT METHODS FOR RESIDENTIAL HVAC RETURNS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain; Stratton, Chris

    2015-02-01

    This project improved the accuracy of air flow measurements used in commissioning California heating and air conditioning systems in Title 24 (Building and Appliance Efficiency Standards), thereby improving system performance and efficiency of California residences. The research team at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory addressed the issue that typical tools used by contractors in the field to test air flows may not be accurate enough to measure return flows used in Title 24 applications. The team developed guidance on performance of current diagnostics as well as a draft test method for use in future evaluations. The series of tests performed measured air flow using a range of techniques and devices. The measured air flows were compared to reference air flow measurements using inline air flow meters built into the test apparatus. The experimental results showed that some devices had reasonable results (typical errors of 5 percent or less) but others had much bigger errors (up to 25 percent). Because manufacturers’ accuracy estimates for their equipment do not include many of the sources of error found in actual field measurements (and replicated in the laboratory testing in this study) it is essential for a test method that could be used to determine the actual uncertainty in this specific application. The study team prepared a draft test method through ASTM International to determine the uncertainty of air flow measurements at residential heating ventilation and air conditioning returns and other terminals. This test method, when finalized, can be used by the Energy Commission and other entities to specify required accuracy of measurement devices used to show compliance with standards.

  12. Shaping a Favorable Environment in Line with Social Expectations on Residential Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Agnieszka Pawłowicz

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The driving force behind the development of any city includes its residents. Hence, it is very important that they have the opportunity to live, work and rest in a friendly environment. The source of their well-being and positive aesthetic experience is a harmonious landscape shaped by a functional spatial arrangement of streets, shapes of buildings, as well as the accompanying nature, ensuring rational development of the city space. One of the key stages that developers and construction companies must take into consideration when planning new investments, is becoming familiar with people's expectations regarding their future place of residence. It is no secret that each square meter of building land is a potential source of profit for developers. The more apartments they build and sell, the more they earn. However, in order for apartments to be sold, they must meet the expectations of their potential buyers related not only to apartments and buildings themselves, but also to the environment surrounding them. Therefore, it is very important that residential estates be attractive and satisfy the needs of their dwellers, which substantially comes down to the comfort of living, rest and recreation within their place of residence. The primary objective behind meeting these needs is to stimulate the demand for new apartments among people, integrate the local community and increase the people' satisfaction with living in a friendly environment.

  13. Pollution and health risk assessment of industrial and residential area based on metal and metalloids contents in soil and sediment samples from and around the petrochemical industry, Serbia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Relic, Dubravka; Sakan, Sanja; Andjelkovic, Ivan; Djordjevic, Dragana

    2017-04-01

    Within this study the investigation of pollution state of metal and metalloids contamination in soils and sediments samples of the petrochemical and nearby residential area is present. The pseudo-total concentrations of Ba, Cd, Co, Cu, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb, V, Zn, As, Hg, and Se were monitored with ICP/OES. The pollution indices applied in this work, such as the enrichment factor, the pollution load index, the total enrichment factor, and the ecological risk index showed that some of the soil and sediment samples were highly polluted by Hg, Ba, Pb, Cd, Cr Cu and Zn. The highest pollution indices were calculated for Hg in samples from the petrochemical area: chloralkali plant, electrolysis factory, mercury disposal area, and in samples from the waste channel. The pollution indices of the samples from the residential area indicated that this area is not polluted by investigated elements. Besides the pollution indices, the metal and metalloids concentrations were used in the equations for calculating the health risk criteria. We calculate no carcinogenic and carcinogenic risks for the composite worker and residential people by usage adequate equations. In analyzed samples, the no carcinogenic risks were lower than 1. The highest values of carcinogenic risk were obtained in sediment samples from the waste channel within the petrochemical industry and the metal that mostly contributes to the highest carcinogenic risk is Cr. Correlation analysis of pollution indices and carcinogenic risks calculated from the residential area samples showed good correlations while this is not the case for an industrial area.

  14. Valuing energy-saving measures in residential buildings. A choice experiment study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwak, So-Yoon; Kwak, Seung-Jun [Department of Economics, Korea University, 5-1 Anam-Dong, Seoul 136-701 (Korea); Yoo, Seung-Hoon [Department of International Area Studies, Hoseo University, 268 Anseo-Dong, Cheonan, Chungnam 330-713 (Korea)

    2010-01-15

    Air-conditioning and heating energy-saving measures can cut back the usage of energy. This paper attempts to apply a choice experiment in evaluating the consumer's willingness to pay (WTP) for air-conditioning and heating energy-saving measures in Korea's residential buildings. We consider the trade-offs between price and three attributes of energy-saving (window, facade, and ventilation) for selecting a preferred alternative and derive the marginal WTP (MWTP) estimate for each attribute. We also try to test irrelevant alternatives property for the estimation model holds and compare the estimation results of the multinomial logit (MNL) and the nested logit (NL) models. The NL model outperforms the MNL model. The NL model show that MWTPs for increasing the number of glasses and their variety, for increasing the thickness of facade for 1 mm, and for establishing a ventilation system are KRW 17,392 (USD 18.2), 1,112 (1.2), and 11,827 (12.4), respectively. Overall, the potential consumers have significant amount of WTP. (author)

  15. Evaluation of early phase nuclear accident clean-up procedures for Nordic residential areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersson, K.G.

    1996-12-01

    The work reported was carried out as a part of the EKO-5 project under the framework of the Nordic co-operative NKS programme. The project is aimed at giving guidelines relating to Nordic conditions for the reduction of external doses in the early phase of a major accidental airborne nuclear contamination (essentially with 137 Cs) situation in urban areas. The material in this report describes the expected effects, in terms of immediate dose rate reduction and of reduction of the integrated doses over 70 years, of implementation of the methods which were considered to be feasible for early phase treatment of contaminated urban surfaces. Also given are estimates of the integrated doses if no action were taken. The given estimates were based on the experience obtained through large amounts of in situ measurements on different types of surface, mainly since the Chernobyl accident in 1986. The computer model URGENT, was used to apply the information on the migration of the radioactive material with time, together with the results of Monte Carlo photon transport calculations, for the time-integrated dose estimates. 66 data sheets describe the beneficial effects, costs and disadvantages of application of a feasible method for cleaning in the early phase of a specific type of surface in one of five different urban or suburban environments. These data form the foundation for the recommendations on guidelines, which are the ultimate goal of the EKO-5 project. References are given to recommended supplementary reading. (EG)

  16. A novel approach for detail surveys by the motorized GPSSIT concept in residentials areas and its application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Kalayci

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the usage and reliability of Motorized GPSSIT technique which is a novel approach for surveying. It reviews the advantages of Motorized GPSSIT concept and also considers to provide GNSS accuracy in the process of surveying especially for the cases which cannot be surveyed directly by the satellite navigation systems (GPS-GNSS, such as closely packed residential areas, tall buildings, trees, etc., and also places which GNSS receivers cannot be work efficiently due to signal interferences. In this technique, all the survey instruments are installed on a bed of a pick-up truck whereas in present techniques they are installed on the ground, therefore it is called Motorized GPSSIT. Study area was chosen within the housing area of our campus. In this area, classical surveying, GPSSIT and Motorized GPSSIT were performed to collect data for comparison and for the analysis of this technique's usability and reliability. Stop and Go and RTK surveying techniques were performed with GPSSIT and Motorized GPSSIT concepts. It is shown that the Motorized GPSSIT technique is applicable as other present techniques in terms of accuracy and reliability.

  17. Contact area measurements on structured surfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kücükyildiz, Ömer Can; Jensen, Sebastian Hoppe Nesgaard; De Chiffre, Leonardo

    In connection with the use of brass specimens featuring structured surfaces in a tribology test, an algorithm was developed for automatic measurement of the contact area by optical means.......In connection with the use of brass specimens featuring structured surfaces in a tribology test, an algorithm was developed for automatic measurement of the contact area by optical means....

  18. Racial Residential Segregation: Measuring Location Choice Attributes of Environmental Quality and Self-Segregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhaohua Zhang

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Both sorting on public goods and tastes for segregation contribute to the persistence of segregation in America. Incorporating Schelling’s (1969, 1971 concept of “neighborhood tipping” into a two-stage equilibrium sorting model, in which both neighborhood demographic composition and public goods (e.g., environmental quality affect households’ residential location choice, this study investigates how preferences for neighborhood demographic composition could obscure the role of exogenous public goods on segregation. The results reveal that non-white households face higher level of exposure to air pollution, suggesting the presence of environmental injustice in Franklin County, OH. Using a counterfactual scenario of switching off heterogeneous taste for environmental quality, this study identifies that sorting on Toxic Release Inventory (TRI emissions drives little correlations between emissions and demographics. However, when taste parameters of the interactions between neighborhood demographic composition and household race are eliminated, segregation (as measured by over-exposure to households of the same race of black and white households decreases by 7.63% and 16.36%, respectively, and own-race neighbor preferences contribute to segregation differently according to household income. These results may help explain some recent puzzles in the relationship between environmental quality and demographics.

  19. Social learning and energy systems: implementing a high energy saving goal in a residential area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glad, Wiktoria (Linkoeping University, Department of Thematic Studies (Sweden))

    2011-07-01

    Generally, retrofitting existing housing stock is considered the area with the most energy-efficiency potential, since buildings last a long time and turnover is slow. This paper presents practice- based research into social learning in the domain of new energy systems in existing dwellings. A case study from Sweden is presented and analysed in relation to social learning. The methodology and data collection are guided by a 'thick description' approach that acknowledges the importance of putting human action in context. The theoretical framework chosen also stresses contexts, using social learning concepts from social shaping of technology (SST) theory. The energy systems as used and managed by professionals and tenants of this retrofitted housing project are the focus. I analyse three connected systems, i.e., the electricity, heating, and hot water system, all parts of a novel individual metering and debiting system installed during the retrofit. An overall goal of the retrofit was to reduce energy demand by 52 % which was achieved but not by the measures invested in. The delivery, metering, and debiting of the energy services are managed in-house by the housing company, but it is up to the tenants to reduce their energy demand. The housing company's technology and implementation policies were ambivalent and evolved in response to the needs of professionals and tenants. Statistics from the property owner's evaluation indicate that the project achieved its goal, but the figures hide that it might have been due to fewer flats, new tenants and new use of buildings

  20. Air quality measurements in urban green areas - a case study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuttler, W.; Strassburger, A.

    The influence of traffic-induced pollutants (e.g. CO, NO, NO 2 and O 3) on the air quality of urban areas was investigated in the city of Essen, North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW), Germany. Twelve air hygiene profile measuring trips were made to analyse the trace gas distribution in the urban area with high spatial resolution and to compare the air hygiene situation of urban green areas with the overall situation of urban pollution. Seventeen measurements were made to determine the diurnal concentration courses within urban parks (summer conditions: 13 measurements, 530 30 min mean values, winter conditions: 4 measurements, 128 30 min mean values). The measurements were carried out during mainly calm wind and cloudless conditions between February 1995 and March 1996. It was possible to establish highly differentiated spatial concentration patterns within the urban area. These patterns were correlated with five general types of land use (motorway, main road, secondary road, residential area, green area) which were influenced to varying degrees by traffic emissions. Urban parks downwind from the main emission sources show the following typical temporal concentration courses: In summer rush-hour-dependent CO, NO and NO 2 maxima only occurred in the morning. A high NO 2/NO ratio was established during weather conditions with high global radiation intensities ( K>800 W m -2), which may result in a high O 3 formation potential. Some of the values measured found in one of the parks investigated (Gruga Park, Essen, area: 0.7 km 2), which were as high as 275 μg m -3 O 3 (30-min mean value) were significantly higher than the German air quality standard of 120 μg m -3 (30-min mean value, VDI Guideline 2310, 1996) which currently applies in Germany and about 20% above the maximum values measured on the same day by the network of the North Rhine-Westphalian State Environment Agency. In winter high CO and NO concentrations occur in the morning and during the afternoon rush-hour. The

  1. Ambient Levels of Primary and Secondary Pollutants in a Residential Area: Population Risk and Hazard Index Calculation over a Three Years Study Period

    OpenAIRE

    S. Al-Salem; A. Al-Fadhlee

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims at presenting data collected over the period of three years (2004-2006) in a residential area in the state of Kuwait. The data collected include ambient levels of primary and secondary pollutants with a number of metrological parameters. A series of unfiltered and filtered concentration roses were plotted to determine the predominant sources as well as the prevailing winds affecting the area under investigation. Local and international air quality regulations were cross refere...

  2. The development of rural area residence based on participatory planning case study: A rural residential area of Pucungrejo village, Magelang through "neighborhood development" program

    Science.gov (United States)

    KP, R. M. Bambang Setyohadi; Wicaksono, Dimas

    2018-03-01

    The poverty is one of the prevailing problems in Indonesia until now. Even a change of the era of governance has not succeeded in eradicating the problem of poverty. The program of poverty alleviation program has always been a focus in the budget allocation in all era of leadership in Indonesia. Those programs were strategic because it prepared the foundation of community self-reliance in the form of representative, entrenched and conducive community leadership institutions to develop of social capital of society in the future. Developing an area of the village requires an integrated planning (Grand Design) to figure out the potential and the problems existing in the rural area as well as the integration of the rural area surrounding. In addition, the grand design needs to be synchronized to the more comprehensive spatial plan with a hierarchical structure such as RTBL, RDTRK / RRTRK, RTRK, and RTRW. This rural area management plan can be oriented or refer to the pattern developed from neighborhood Development program which is part of the PNPM Mandiri program. The neighborhood development program is known as residential area development plan whose process involves of the entire community. Therefore, the regional development up to the scale of the environment requires the planning phase. Particularly, spatial planning which emphasizes the efforts to optimize sectorial development targets to be integrated into an integrated development process must be conducted, in addition to taking into consideration the opportunities, potentials and limitations of the resources, the level of interconnection with the central government within the district and between sub-districts and rural areas.

  3. Optimizing Scoring and Sampling Methods for Assessing Built Neighborhood Environment Quality in Residential Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adu-Brimpong, Joel; Coffey, Nathan; Ayers, Colby; Berrigan, David; Yingling, Leah R.; Thomas, Samantha; Mitchell, Valerie; Ahuja, Chaarushi; Rivers, Joshua; Hartz, Jacob; Powell-Wiley, Tiffany M.

    2017-01-01

    Optimization of existing measurement tools is necessary to explore links between aspects of the neighborhood built environment and health behaviors or outcomes. We evaluate a scoring method for virtual neighborhood audits utilizing the Active Neighborhood Checklist (the Checklist), a neighborhood audit measure, and assess street segment representativeness in low-income neighborhoods. Eighty-two home neighborhoods of Washington, D.C. Cardiovascular Health/Needs Assessment (NCT01927783) participants were audited using Google Street View imagery and the Checklist (five sections with 89 total questions). Twelve street segments per home address were assessed for (1) Land-Use Type; (2) Public Transportation Availability; (3) Street Characteristics; (4) Environment Quality and (5) Sidewalks/Walking/Biking features. Checklist items were scored 0–2 points/question. A combinations algorithm was developed to assess street segments’ representativeness. Spearman correlations were calculated between built environment quality scores and Walk Score®, a validated neighborhood walkability measure. Street segment quality scores ranged 10–47 (Mean = 29.4 ± 6.9) and overall neighborhood quality scores, 172–475 (Mean = 352.3 ± 63.6). Walk scores® ranged 0–91 (Mean = 46.7 ± 26.3). Street segment combinations’ correlation coefficients ranged 0.75–1.0. Significant positive correlations were found between overall neighborhood quality scores, four of the five Checklist subsection scores, and Walk Scores® (r = 0.62, p health behaviors and outcomes. PMID:28282878

  4. Eco-restoration: Simultaneous nutrient removal from soil and water in a complex residential-cropland area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu Yonghong [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 71 Beijing East Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Graduate Schools, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Kerr, Philip G. [School of Biomedical Sciences, Charles Sturt University, Wagga Wagga, NSW 2678 (Australia); Hu Zhengyi [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 71 Beijing East Road, Nanjing 210008 (China); Graduate Schools, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049 (China); Yang Linzhang, E-mail: lzyang@issas.ac.c [State Key Laboratory of Soil and Sustainable Agriculture, Institute of Soil Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 71 Beijing East Road, Nanjing 210008 (China)

    2010-07-15

    An eco-restoration system to remove excess nutrients and restore the agricultural ecosystem balance was proposed and applied from August 2006 to August 2008 in a residential-cropland complex area (1.4 x 10{sup 5} m{sup 2}) in Kunming, western China, where the self-purifying capacity of the agricultural ecosystem had been lost. The proposed eco-restoration system examined includes three main foci: farming management, bioremediation, and wastewater treatment. The results showed that the removal efficiencies of total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) from the complex wastewater were 83% and 88%, respectively. The Simpson's diversity indices of macrophytes and zoobenthos indicated that the system had increased macrophyte and zoobenthic diversity as well as improved growth conditions of the plankton habitats. The results demonstrated that the proposed eco-restoration system is a promising approach for decreasing the output of nutrients from soil, improving agricultural ecosystem health, and minimizing the downstream eutrophication risk for surface waters. - A promising and environmentally benign integrated eco-restoration technology has proven highly effective for simultaneously removing nutrients from soil and water, decreasing the output of nutrient, and reducing eutrophic risk of surface waters.

  5. Eco-restoration: Simultaneous nutrient removal from soil and water in a complex residential-cropland area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu Yonghong; Kerr, Philip G.; Hu Zhengyi; Yang Linzhang

    2010-01-01

    An eco-restoration system to remove excess nutrients and restore the agricultural ecosystem balance was proposed and applied from August 2006 to August 2008 in a residential-cropland complex area (1.4 x 10 5 m 2 ) in Kunming, western China, where the self-purifying capacity of the agricultural ecosystem had been lost. The proposed eco-restoration system examined includes three main foci: farming management, bioremediation, and wastewater treatment. The results showed that the removal efficiencies of total phosphorus (TP) and total nitrogen (TN) from the complex wastewater were 83% and 88%, respectively. The Simpson's diversity indices of macrophytes and zoobenthos indicated that the system had increased macrophyte and zoobenthic diversity as well as improved growth conditions of the plankton habitats. The results demonstrated that the proposed eco-restoration system is a promising approach for decreasing the output of nutrients from soil, improving agricultural ecosystem health, and minimizing the downstream eutrophication risk for surface waters. - A promising and environmentally benign integrated eco-restoration technology has proven highly effective for simultaneously removing nutrients from soil and water, decreasing the output of nutrient, and reducing eutrophic risk of surface waters.

  6. Land use and land cover classification for rural residential areas in China using soft-probability cascading of multifeatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Liu, Yueyan; Zhang, Zuyu; Shen, Yonglin

    2017-10-01

    A multifeature soft-probability cascading scheme to solve the problem of land use and land cover (LULC) classification using high-spatial-resolution images to map rural residential areas in China is proposed. The proposed method is used to build midlevel LULC features. Local features are frequently considered as low-level feature descriptors in a midlevel feature learning method. However, spectral and textural features, which are very effective low-level features, are neglected. The acquisition of the dictionary of sparse coding is unsupervised, and this phenomenon reduces the discriminative power of the midlevel feature. Thus, we propose to learn supervised features based on sparse coding, a support vector machine (SVM) classifier, and a conditional random field (CRF) model to utilize the different effective low-level features and improve the discriminability of midlevel feature descriptors. First, three kinds of typical low-level features, namely, dense scale-invariant feature transform, gray-level co-occurrence matrix, and spectral features, are extracted separately. Second, combined with sparse coding and the SVM classifier, the probabilities of the different LULC classes are inferred to build supervised feature descriptors. Finally, the CRF model, which consists of two parts: unary potential and pairwise potential, is employed to construct an LULC classification map. Experimental results show that the proposed classification scheme can achieve impressive performance when the total accuracy reached about 87%.

  7. Distribution and larval breeding habitats of Aedes mosquito species in residential areas of northwest Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferede, Getachew; Tiruneh, Moges; Abate, Ebba; Kassa, Wondmeneh Jemberie; Wondimeneh, Yitayih; Damtie, Demekech; Tessema, Belay

    2018-01-01

    The Aedes mosquito is a vector for transmitting many arboviruses. Knowledge of the breeding habitat of this vector is vital for implementing appropriate interventions. Thus, this study was conducted to determine the breeding habitats and presence of Aedes mosquito species in the study areas. A house-to-house cross-sectional survey of Aedes mosquito breeding habitats was carried out in Metema and Humera, Ethiopia, in August 2017. All available water-holding containers present in and around houses were inspected for the presence of immature stages of Aedes mosquitoes, and they were collected and reared to the adult stage for species identification. In the larval survey, the house index, container index, and Breteau index were computed as risk indices. Of the 384 houses surveyed for the presence of Aedes mosquito larval breeding, 98 were found to be positive for larvae. During the survey, a total of 566 containers were inspected, of which 186 were found to be infested with Aedes mosquito larvae, with a container index of 32.9, a house index of 25.5, and a Breteau index of 48.4. The most common Aedes mosquito breeding habitats were discarded tires (57.5%), followed by mud pots (30.0%). Of the 1,077 larvae and pupae collected and reared, Aedes aegypti (49.3%), Ae. vittatus (6.5%), and Culex species (44.2%) were identified. Discarded tires were the most preferred breeding habitats for Aedes mosquitoes. Moreover, Ae. aegypti , the main vector of dengue and other arboviruses, was identified for the first time in this region, suggesting a high potential for arbovirus transmission in the study areas.

  8. A Measure of the Parent-Team Alliance in Youth Residential Psychiatry: The Revised Short Working Alliance Inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamers, Audri; Delsing, Marc J M H; van Widenfelt, Brigit M; Vermeiren, Robert R J M

    The therapeutic alliance between multidisciplinary teams and parents within youth (semi) residential psychiatry is essential for the treatment process and forms a promising process variable for Routine Outcome Monitoring (ROM). No short evaluative instrument, however, is currently available to assess parent-team alliance. In this study, the Working Alliance Inventory-Short Version (WAV-12), a widely used alliance questionnaire, was adjusted to assess parent-team alliance from both a parent and team perspective within a youth residential setting. Psychometric properties, including factor structure and validity of the subscales, were explored. A sample of youth with mainly complex developmental disorders admitted to 11 inpatient and day patient units of a child and adolescent psychiatric institute participated in this study. The case manager involved with the youth and the primary caregiver of 87 youth completed the revised WAV-12 (WAV-12R). The team version of the WAV-12R showed a good fit to the original conceptualized model, and distinguished Bond, Task and Goal scales. For the parents' version an adjusted model with Insight, Bond and combined Task/Goal scales had the best fit. The reliability and validity of the scales were shown to be good. This paper presents preliminary evidence that the parent and treatment team versions of the WAV-12R are psychometrically sound for assessing parent-team alliance within youth (semi) residential psychiatry in the Netherlands. The team and parents' versions of the WAV-12R are recommended instruments to complement outcome measures in ROM.

  9. Experimental study of water fluxes in a residential area: 2. Road infiltration, runoff and evaporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragab, R.; Rosier, P.; Dixon, A.; Bromley, J.; Cooper, J. D.

    2003-08-01

    Lack of accurate data has led some hydrologists and city planners to assume that urban infiltration is zero and runoff is 100% of the rainfall. These assumptions lead to an over estimation of road runoff volume and an underestimation of direct recharge to groundwater, which is already rising under some UK cities. This study investigates infiltration and runoff processes and quantifies the percentage of rainfall that contributes to storm drainage, and that which infiltrates through different types of road surface. Access tubes were installed for measuring soil water content using a neutron probe in three car parks, a road and a grass site at the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Crowmarsh Gifford, Wallingford. Storm drainage was recorded at the exit of the Thamesmead Estate in Crowmarsh Gifford, just before the drain joins the River Thames at Wallingford. Rainfall and water table depth were also recorded. Weekly measurements of soil moisture content indicated that the top 40 cm layer is not influenced by water-table fluctuations and, therefore, positive changes in soil moisture could be attributed to infiltration of rainfall through the surface. Depending on the nature of the surface, subsurface layers, level of traffic, etc., between 6 and 9% of rainfall was found to infiltrate through the road surfaces studied. The storm drainage generated by road runoff revealed a flow pattern similar to that of the receiving watercourse (River Thames) and increased with the increase of infiltration and soil water content below the road surface. The ratio of runoff to rainfall was 0·7, 0·9 and 0·5 for annual, winter (October-March) and summer (April-September) respectively. As the results of the infiltration indicated that 6 to 9% of annual rainfall infiltrates through the road surface, this means that evaporation represents, 21-24% of annual rainfall, with more evaporation taking place during summer than winter.

  10. Residential cancer cluster investigation nearby a Superfund Study Area with trichloroethylene contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Press, David J; McKinley, Meg; Deapen, Dennis; Clarke, Christina A; Gomez, Scarlett Lin

    2016-05-01

    Trichloroethylene (TCE) is an industrial solvent associated with liver cancer, kidney cancer, and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). It is unclear whether an excess of TCE-associated cancers have occurred surrounding the Middlefield-Ellis-Whisman Superfund site in Mountain View, California. We conducted a population-based cancer cluster investigation comparing the incidence of NHL, liver, and kidney cancers in the neighborhood of interest to the incidence among residents in the surrounding four-county region. Case counts and address information were obtained using routinely collected data from the Greater Bay Area Cancer Registry, part of the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results program. Population denominators were obtained from the 1990, 2000, and 2010 US censuses. Standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) with two-sided 99 % confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for time intervals surrounding the US Censuses. There were no statistically significant differences between the neighborhood of interest and the larger region for cancers of the liver or kidney. A statistically significant elevation was observed for NHL during one of the three time periods evaluated (1996-2005: SIR = 1.8, 99 % CI 1.1-2.8). No statistically significant NHL elevation existed in the earlier 1988-1995 (SIR = 1.3, 99 % CI 0.5-2.6) or later 2006-2011 (SIR = 1.3, 99 % CI 0.6-2.4) periods. There is no evidence of an increased incidence of liver or kidney cancer, and there is a lack of evidence of a consistent, sustained, or more recent elevation in NHL occurrence in this neighborhood. This evaluation included existing cancer registry data, which cannot speak to specific exposures incurred by past or current residents of this neighborhood.

  11. Measurements of radon in residential buildings in Maryland and Pennsylvania, U.S.A

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    George, A.C.; Duncan, M.; Franklin, H.

    1984-01-01

    Radon concentrations were measured in six all-electric and 31 randomly selected homes in Pennslyvania, and 41 homes in Maryland. The measurements were made in the basements and living areas of each home using integrating passive activated carbon detectors for an exposure period of about 3 days. The average concentration varied substantially among the homes and correlated well with the age of the home, the degree of insulation, and ventilation. On average, concentrations in the living areas were lower than those in the basements. Radon levels in the living areas of a substantial number of homes (39% in Pennslyvania, excluding the six all-electric homes, and 51% in Maryland) were greater than or equal to 3 pCi.1 -1 , resulting in a substantial annual absorbed dose to the bronchial epithelial cells of the occupants of the homes. (author)

  12. Dioxin-like chemicals in soil and sediment from residential and industrial areas in central South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieuwoudt, Claudine; Quinn, Laura P; Pieters, Rialet; Jordaan, Ilse; Visser, Maret; Kylin, Henrik; Borgen, Anders R; Giesy, John P; Bouwman, Henk

    2009-08-01

    Persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are a global concern due to their ubiquitous presence and toxicity. Currently, there is a lack of information regarding POPs from South Africa. Here we report and interpret concentrations of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), -dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and co-planar-biphenyls (PCBs) in soils and sediments collected from central South Africa. High resolution gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (HRGC/HRMS) and the H4IIE-luc bio-assay were used to identify and quantify individual PCDD/F congeners and to report the total concentration of 2,3,7,8-tetrachloro dibenzo-p-dioxin equivalents (TCDD-EQ), respectively. TCDD-EQs determined by use of the bio-assay, and concentrations of WHO(2005)-TEQ (toxic equivalents) determined by chemical analysis, were similar. The limit of detection (LOD) for the bio-assay was 0.82 and 2.8 ng TCDD-EQ kg(-1), dw for sediment and soil, respectively. EQ20 concentrations determined by use of the bio-assay ranged from industrial area of Vanderbijlpark and the residential area of Klerksdorp contained the greatest concentrations. Based on the congener-specific HRGC/HRMS analyzes, concentrations of WHO(2005)-TEQ ranged from 0.12 to 32 ng WHO(2005)-TEQ kg(-1), dw in sediments, and between 0.34 and 20 ng WHO(2005)-TEQkg(-1), dw in soils. The sources, processes and threats that govern and are associated with the lesser concentrations in sediment and greater concentrations in soils need further investigation.

  13. Comparison of Indoor Mercury Vapor in Common Areas of Residential Buildings with Outdoor Levels in a Community Where Mercury Is Used for Cultural Purposes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garetano, Gary; Gochfeld, Michael; Stern, Alan H.

    2006-01-01

    Elemental mercury has been imbued with magical properties for millennia, and various cultures use elemental mercury in a variety of superstitious and cultural practices, raising health concerns for users and residents in buildings where it is used. As a first step in assessing this phenomenon, we compared mercury vapor concentration in common areas of residential buildings versus outdoor air, in two New Jersey cities where mercury is available and is used in cultural practices. We measured mercury using a portable atomic absorption spectrometer capable of quantitative measurement from 2 ng/m3 mercury vapor. We evaluated the interior hallways in 34 multifamily buildings and the vestibule in an additional 33 buildings. Outdoor mercury vapor averaged 5 ng/m3; indoor mercury was significantly higher (mean 25 ng/m3; p < 0.001); 21% of buildings had mean mercury vapor concentration in hallways that exceeded the 95th percentile of outdoor mercury vapor concentration (17 ng/m3), whereas 35% of buildings had a maximum mercury vapor concentration that exceeded the 95th percentile of outdoor mercury concentration. The highest indoor average mercury vapor concentration was 299 ng/m3, and the maximum point concentration was 2,022 ng/m3. In some instances, we were able to locate the source, but we could not specifically attribute the elevated levels of mercury vapor to cultural use or other specific mercury releases. However, these findings provide sufficient evidence of indoor mercury source(s) to warrant further investigation. PMID:16393659

  14. Ten years of monitored natural attenuation of a major gasoline spill in a residential area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Munz, Ch.; Moller, M.; Haner, A.; Berg, M.; Zwank, L.; Zwank, L.

    2005-01-01

    In march 1994 a tank train carrying gasoline derailed and caught fire in the suburbs of Zuerich. A total of approximately 400 t of gasoline were lost in the accident. On the order of 80000 kg of gasoline leached into the subsurface. According to the risk assessment conducted following the accident, remediation was limited to soil vapor extraction (SVE) in the vadose zone. Remediation was successfully completed in 1998. However, monitoring of the groundwater contamination has continued to ascertain that natural attenuation is indeed leading to the predicted reduction in groundwater contamination. Following a brief review of the contaminant mass balance derived after completion of the remedial measures in 1998, we present and discuss the results of 10 years of monitoring the groundwater plume, focusing on the development of the benzene and MTBE plumes and the concurrent evolution of the geochemical parameters nitrate and sulfate. With the available data of 10 years of monitored natural attenuation, predictions made shortly after the accident have been confirmed. Initial estimates of the quantities of contaminants released into the aquifer could be ascertained and the contaminant plumes were contained within the predicted range downstream of the accident site. At this site the observed overall rate of attenuation (biodegradation, sorption, dispersion) of MTBE was always greater or equal than that of benzene. This finding is unexpected, especially since no anaerobic biodegradation of MTBE was observed at the site, according to the stable carbon and hydrogen analysis conducted. Natural attenuation can be an (cost-) effective remedial option, if the site specific characteristics are advantageous, e.g. no immediate targets threatened, adequate hydro-geochemical properties, etc., and the required time is available, as was the case in Zuerich-Affoltern

  15. Residential greenhouse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1985-02-01

    The following report examines the technical and economic viability of residential greenhouse additions in Whitehorse, Yukon. The greenhouse was constructed using the south facing wall of an existing residence as a common wall. Total construction costs were $18,000, including labour. Annual fuel demand for the residence has been reduced by about 10 per cent for an annual saving of $425. In addition, produce to the value of $1,000 is grown annually in the greenhouse for domestic consumption and commercial resale. Typically the greenhouse operates for nine months each year. There is a net thermal loss during the months of November, December and January as a result of the large area of glazing. As well as supplementing the heating supply solar greenhouses can provide additional cash crops which can be used to offset the cost of construction. Humidity problems are minimal and can be dealt with by exhausting high humidity air. One system which has been considered for the greenhouse is to use a standard residential heat pump to remove excess moisture and to pump heat into the house. This would have a secondary benefit of excluding the need to circulate greenhouse air through the house. Thus any allergenic reactions to the greenhouse air would be prevented. 8 refs., 3 figs, 2 tabs.

  16. Automated System of Area Radiation Measurement (ASARM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hernandez G, J.

    2013-10-01

    The realized activities in nuclear facilities involve the determination of the presence of ionizing radiation fields in the workspaces. The instruments designed to detect and to measure these radiation fields provide useful information (specific type of radiation, intensity, etc.) to take the appropriate radiological protection measures, with the purpose of reducing to the minimum the workers exposition and the people in general. The radiological protection program of Reactor TRIGA Mark III contains the instructions and procedures to implement a periodic radiological monitoring, surveillance, rising of contamination levels, type and number of the instruments required for the radiological monitoring of areas and personal. The ana logical monitoring system model Rms II used to detect and measuring exposition speed and neutron radiation fields in several areas of the installation, provides the information in a logarithmic scale measurer of 4 or 5 decades located in a shelf where the previously mentioned measurement channels are centralized. Also inside the reactor monitoring system are two monitors of radioactive material concentration in the air: The particles continuous monitor and the gaseous effluents monitor which present the referred information of the diverse detectors through ana logical readers. These monitors when operating with an ana logical indication does not present the possibility to generate historical files electronically of each monitor previously mentioned neither to generate visual and audible indications of the alarms. This work presents the Automated System of Area Radiation Measurement which potentiated the functionality of the area monitors for gamma and neutron radiation, as well as of the particles continuous monitor and the gaseous effluents of reactor TRIGA Mark III, when being developed a computer system that captures in real time the information of all the monitors, generating this way an electronic binnacle, a visual and audible alarm

  17. Residential photovoltaic module and array requirement study. Low-Cost Solar Array Project engineering area. Final report appendices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-06-01

    This volume contains the appendices to a study to identify design requirements for photovoltaic modules and arrays used in residential applications. Appendices include: (1) codes, standards, and manuals of accepted practice-definition and importance; (2) regional code variations-impact; (3) model and city codes-review; (4) National Electric Code (NEC)-review; (5) types of standards-definition and importance; (6) federal standards-review; (7) standards review method; (8) manuals of accepted practice; (9) codes and referenced standards-summary; (10) public safety testing laboratories; (11) insurance review; (12) studies approach; (13) mounting configurations; (14) module/panel size and shape cost analysis; (15) grounding, wiring, terminal and voltage studies; (16) array installation cost summary; (17) photovoltaic shingle/module comparison; (18) retrofit application; (19) residential photovoltaic module performance criteria; (20) critique of JPL's solar cell module design and test specifications for residential applications; and (21) CSI format specification. (WHK)

  18. Impact of suburban residential development on water resources in the area of Winslow Township, Camden County, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusillo, Thomas V.

    1981-01-01

    Surface-water and ground-water quality, streamflow, and data on ground-water levels in the upper Great Egg Harbor River basin in the vicinity of the Winslow Crossing residential development in Winslow Township are evaluated. The data include continuous streamflow at four sites, monthly stream water quality at seven sites, ground-water levels and periodic ground-water quality in four wells from 1972 through 1978. Pumpage from the Cohansey Sand in the study area was lower than anticipated because of a slowdown in construction. The average pumpage of 0.48 million gallons per day during 1978 had little effect on ground-water levels. Dissolved-solids concentrations were lower in a well upgradient from the urbanized area. Elevated levels of dissolved solids, specific conductance, chloride, nitrate, and phosphorus were found in the shallow ground water in the vicinity of the Winslow wastewater treatment plant because of effluent infiltration ponds. Nitrate was greatly reduced in October 1974 by a change in the treatment process, which increased denitrification. Phosphorus concentrations in the ground water remained elevated, however. Water from the most urbanized drainage basin was a magnesium bicarbonate type, while the less developed basins had sodium chloride sulfate type waters. Water from the two developed basins had higher median pH (7.1) compared with that of the other basins (5.6-6.3). Winslow Crossing?s development had only a slight effect on the quality of water in Great Egg Harbor River. The river receives point and non-point discharges upstream from Winslow Crossing, and the quality of the water generally improves as the river flows downstream. Streamflow and rainfall were slightly above normal. Unit hydrograph analysis of one basin showed an 80 percent increase in the peak discharge of a 60-minute unit hydrograph (from approximately 150 to 270 cubic feet per second) after the development of 14 percent of the basin. Installation of a stormwater detention basin

  19. Conceptual provisions of the implementation of energy saving measures in the residential facilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meshcheryakova Tatiana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Research purpose is identification of sales problems of energy saving actions for residential sector of economy, including with use of the power service contract. The choice of the object of the study is related to the general issues on energy saving of residential facilities and increasing the number of unresolved problems. Unfortunately, the efficiency of energy consumption of housing stock is extremely low that directly leads to an increase in citizens’ payments for public utilities (housing and communal services. There are many problems associated with the aging of fixed assets: it becomes especially evident in winter seasons. The level of quality of delivery, distribution and consumption of expensive heat resources that has the greatest impact on a residence comfort and sometimes human life and health, is very low. Our population faces to year overheating or freezing, to leakages through worn pipes and the subsequent disconnection of water and heat. Despite the public declaration of the of the active processes of modernization of the housing municipal economy in the Russian Federation, the implementation of the necessary energy-saving elements in the housing sector is evolving very slowly. The article presents conceptual positions, which will bring the issues related to energy saving and efficiency to a new level.

  20. Comparison of real-time instruments and gravimetric method when measuring particulate matter in a residential building.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zuocheng; Calderón, Leonardo; Patton, Allison P; Sorensen Allacci, MaryAnn; Senick, Jennifer; Wener, Richard; Andrews, Clinton J; Mainelis, Gediminas

    2016-11-01

    This study used several real-time and filter-based aerosol instruments to measure PM 2.5 levels in a high-rise residential green building in the Northeastern US and compared performance of those instruments. PM 2.5 24-hr average concentrations were determined using a Personal Modular Impactor (PMI) with 2.5 µm cut (SKC Inc., Eighty Four, PA) and a direct reading pDR-1500 (Thermo Scientific, Franklin, MA) as well as its filter. 1-hr average PM 2.5 concentrations were measured in the same apartments with an Aerotrak Optical Particle Counter (OPC) (model 8220, TSI, Inc., Shoreview, MN) and a DustTrak DRX mass monitor (model 8534, TSI, Inc., Shoreview, MN). OPC and DRX measurements were compared with concurrent 1-hr mass concentration from the pDR-1500. The pDR-1500 direct reading showed approximately 40% higher particle mass concentration compared to its own filter (n = 41), and 25% higher PM 2.5 mass concentration compared to the PMI 2.5 filter. The pDR-1500 direct reading and PMI 2.5 in non-smoking homes (self-reported) were not significantly different (n = 10, R 2 = 0.937), while the difference between measurements for smoking homes was 44% (n = 31, R 2 = 0.773). Both OPC and DRX data had substantial and significant systematic and proportional biases compared with pDR-1500 readings. However, these methods were highly correlated: R 2 = 0.936 for OPC versus pDR-1500 reading and R 2 = 0.863 for DRX versus pDR-1500 reading. The data suggest that accuracy of aerosol mass concentrations from direct-reading instruments in indoor environments depends on the instrument, and that correction factors can be used to reduce biases of these real-time monitors in residential green buildings with similar aerosol properties. This study used several real-time and filter-based aerosol instruments to measure PM 2.5 levels in a high-rise residential green building in the northeastern United States and compared performance of those instruments. The data show that while the use of real

  1. Quantification of emissions from domestic heating in residential areas of İzmir, Turkey and assessment of the impact on local/regional air-quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sari, Deniz, E-mail: deniz.sari@tubitak.gov.tr [TUBITAK Marmara Research Center, Environment and Cleaner Production Institute, 41470 Kocaeli (Turkey); Bayram, Abdurrahman [Department of Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Dokuz Eylul University, Kaynaklar Campus, 35160 Buca, Izmir (Turkey)

    2014-08-01

    Air pollution in cities is a major environmental problem principally in the developing countries. The quantification of emissions is a basic requirement to assess the human influence to the atmosphere. The air quality generally shows decreases with the major contribution residential emissions and meteorology in the winter season in the big cities. Poor meteorological conditions especially inversion events for the efficient mixing of air pollutants occurred during the winter months in İzmir. With this work we quantify the amount of domestic heating emissions for particulate matter (PM10), sulfur dioxides (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen dioxides (NO{sub 2}), volatile organic compounds (VOC) and carbon monoxide (CO) together with greenhouse gases which are carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) and methane (CH{sub 4}) in İzmir for 2008–2009 winter season. The results showed that the most affected residential areas were central districts in the city center from domestic heating emissions due to meteorological condition and demographic reasons. Air quality modeling is a great tool for assisting policy makers how to decrease emissions and improve air quality. At the second part of the study, calculated emissions were modeled by using CALMET/CALPUFF dispersion modeling system and plotted in the form of air pollution maps by using geographical information system to determine the locations and estimate the effects of the new residential areas that will be established in the future in İzmir. - Highlights: • The air pollution in cities especially shows raises with the opening of winter season. • Air pollution has become a problem due to rapid urbanization in İzmir, Turkey. • The air quality shows decreases with the residential emissions in İzmir's winter. • With this work we quantify the amount of domestic heating emissions for pollutants. • The impact of emissions on local air-quality is determined by using dispersion model.

  2. Quantification of emissions from domestic heating in residential areas of İzmir, Turkey and assessment of the impact on local/regional air-quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sari, Deniz; Bayram, Abdurrahman

    2014-01-01

    Air pollution in cities is a major environmental problem principally in the developing countries. The quantification of emissions is a basic requirement to assess the human influence to the atmosphere. The air quality generally shows decreases with the major contribution residential emissions and meteorology in the winter season in the big cities. Poor meteorological conditions especially inversion events for the efficient mixing of air pollutants occurred during the winter months in İzmir. With this work we quantify the amount of domestic heating emissions for particulate matter (PM10), sulfur dioxides (SO 2 ), nitrogen dioxides (NO 2 ), volatile organic compounds (VOC) and carbon monoxide (CO) together with greenhouse gases which are carbon dioxide (CO 2 ), nitrous oxide (N 2 O) and methane (CH 4 ) in İzmir for 2008–2009 winter season. The results showed that the most affected residential areas were central districts in the city center from domestic heating emissions due to meteorological condition and demographic reasons. Air quality modeling is a great tool for assisting policy makers how to decrease emissions and improve air quality. At the second part of the study, calculated emissions were modeled by using CALMET/CALPUFF dispersion modeling system and plotted in the form of air pollution maps by using geographical information system to determine the locations and estimate the effects of the new residential areas that will be established in the future in İzmir. - Highlights: • The air pollution in cities especially shows raises with the opening of winter season. • Air pollution has become a problem due to rapid urbanization in İzmir, Turkey. • The air quality shows decreases with the residential emissions in İzmir's winter. • With this work we quantify the amount of domestic heating emissions for pollutants. • The impact of emissions on local air-quality is determined by using dispersion model

  3. Chapter 17: Residential Behavior Evaluation Protocol. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Stewart, James [Cadmus, Waltham, MA (United States); Todd, Annika [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2017-11-01

    Residential behavior-based (BB) programs use strategies grounded in the behavioral and social sciences to influence household energy use. These may include providing households with real-time or delayed feedback about their energy use; supplying energy efficiency education and tips; rewarding households for reducing their energy use; comparing households to their peers; and establishing games, tournaments, and competitions. BB programs often target multiple energy end uses and encourage energy savings, demand savings, or both. Savings from BB programs are usually a small percentage of energy use, typically less than 5 percent. Utilities will continue to implement residential BB programs as large-scale, randomized control trials (RCTs); however, some are now experimenting with alternative program designs that are smaller scale; involve new communication channels such as the web, social media, and text messaging; or that employ novel strategies for encouraging behavior change (for example, Facebook competitions). These programs will create new evaluation challenges and may require different evaluation methods than those currently employed to verify any savings they generate. Quasi-experimental methods, however, require stronger assumptions to yield valid savings estimates and may not measure savings with the same degree of validity and accuracy as randomized experiments.

  4. Technology line and case analysis of heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit of existing residential buildings in Northern heating areas of China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jing; Zhu Neng; Wu Yong

    2009-01-01

    The building area in northern heating areas accounting for 70% of the total land area in China is 6,500,000,000 m 2 . The average heating energy consumption in northern China is 100-200% times more than developed countries in the same latitude. This paper introduced firstly the heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit background of existing residential buildings in northern heating areas of China organized by mohurd and MOF, and then put forward the total principle and contents of retrofit. Through analyzing some retrofit cases in Germany, Poland and China, some technological experiences were summarized and finally a technology line suitable for heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit of existing residential buildings in northern heating areas of China which involved retrofit for heat metering and temperature regulation of heating systems, heat balance of heat source and network, and building envelope was described to provide a systematic, scientific, technological guide for the retrofit projects of 0.15 billion m 2 in 'the Eleventh Five-Year Plan' period.

  5. Through The Decades - Changes in Social, Economic, Legal and Planning Determinants of Residential Development across Decades - Evidence from Suburban Areas in Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Źróbek-Różańska, Alina; Zysk, Elżbieta; Źróbek, Ryszard

    2017-10-01

    Poland has experienced many political, legal, social and economic transformations. For the last twelve decades, this country was under foreign partition, in the war, under the influence of socialist system with centrally planned economy and finally regained autonomy and rapidly introduced market economy. Each epoch had its own characteristic, that can be recognized also in the residential buildings development. Therefore, the authors focused on the social, economic, legal and planning conditionings that shaped the development of the residential buildings with the most characteristic periods: pre-II world war, 50-ties, 60-ties, 70-ties, 80-ties, 90-ties and XXI century. Some of them are visible in the still existing residential buildings, especially in the suburban villages. The most recent process that can be observed in the study area is urban sprawl. Since the beginning of the XXI century, urban population in Poland has been gradually declining, while suburban villages transform into ‘urban-like’ districts. The aim of the study was to arrange and present in the decade-by-decade manner, the social, economic, legal and planning conditionings that were valid in particular periods. It was realized by correlating information on the contemporary social trends, economic conditions, legal framework and planning regulations. Presentation was enriched by the examples of the buildings developed in the accordance with the contemporary restrictions.

  6. Developing a theoretical model and questionnaire survey instrument to measure the success of electronic health records in residential aged care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ping; Qian, Siyu

    2018-01-01

    Electronic health records (EHR) are introduced into healthcare organizations worldwide to improve patient safety, healthcare quality and efficiency. A rigorous evaluation of this technology is important to reduce potential negative effects on patient and staff, to provide decision makers with accurate information for system improvement and to ensure return on investment. Therefore, this study develops a theoretical model and questionnaire survey instrument to assess the success of organizational EHR in routine use from the viewpoint of nursing staff in residential aged care homes. The proposed research model incorporates six variables in the reformulated DeLone and McLean information systems success model: system quality, information quality, service quality, use, user satisfaction and net benefits. Two variables training and self-efficacy were also incorporated into the model. A questionnaire survey instrument was designed to measure the eight variables in the model. After a pilot test, the measurement scale was used to collect data from 243 nursing staff members in 10 residential aged care homes belonging to three management groups in Australia. Partial least squares path modeling was conducted to validate the model. The validated EHR systems success model predicts the impact of the four antecedent variables-training, self-efficacy, system quality and information quality-on the net benefits, the indicator of EHR systems success, through the intermittent variables use and user satisfaction. A 24-item measurement scale was developed to quantitatively evaluate the performance of an EHR system. The parsimonious EHR systems success model and the measurement scale can be used to benchmark EHR systems success across organizations and units and over time.

  7. Extraction of Point Source Gamma Signals from Aerial Survey Data Taken over a Las Vegas Nevada, Residential Area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thane J. Hendricks

    2007-01-01

    Detection of point-source gamma signals from aerial measurements is complicated by widely varying terrestrial gamma backgrounds, since these variations frequently resemble signals from point-sources. Spectral stripping techniques have been very useful in separating man-made and natural radiation contributions which exist on Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) plant sites and other like facilities. However, these facilities are generally situated in desert areas or otherwise flat terrain with few man-made structures to disturb the natural background. It is of great interest to determine if the stripping technique can be successfully applied in populated areas where numerous man-made disturbances (houses, streets, yards, vehicles, etc.) exist

  8. Correlation between nutritional status and comprehensive physical performance measures among older adults with undernourishment in residential institutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh DKA

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Devinder KA Singh,1 Zahara A Manaf,2 Noor Aini M Yusoff,3 Nur A Muhammad,2 Mei Fang Phan,1 Suzana Shahar2 1Physiotherapy Program, School of Rehabilitation Sciences, 2Nutrition and Dietetics Program, School of Health Care Sciences, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur, 3ASIA Metropolitan University, Cheras, Malaysia Purpose: The consequences of combined undernourishment and decreased physical ­performance in older adults are debilitating and increases cost of care. To date, the information regarding the association between nutritional status and physical performance does not provide a complete picture. Most studies used limited or self-reported measures to evaluate physical performance. The objective of this study was to examine the correlation between nutritional status and comprehensive physical performance measures among undernourished older adults who reside in residential institutions.Methods: Forty-seven older adults (26 males, 21 females aged ≥60 (69.23±8.63 years who were identified as undernourished from two residential institutions participated in this study. A battery of physical performance tests (10 m gait speed test, dominant hand grip strength test, timed five-repetition sit-to-stand test, ten step test, arm curl test, scratch test, and respiratory muscle strength test, biochemical profiles (serum albumin, hemoglobin, serum ferritin, and prealbumin levels, and falls risk using the short-form Physiological Profile Approach were performed. The Functional Ability Questionnaire and Geriatric Depression Scale were also administered.Results: The results demonstrated that generally older adults with undernourishment scored poorly on the physical performance tests, had depression, and a high risk of falls. Biochemical results demonstrated that 10.9% of the participants were anemic, 63% had hypoalbuminemia (<3.5 g/dL, and 21.7% were at risk of protein energy malnutrition with prealbumin level (100–170 mg/L. A significant

  9. Volatile organic compounds in a residential and commercial urban area with a diesel, compressed natural gas and oxygenated gasoline vehicular fleet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Eduardo Monteiro; Arbilla, Graciela; Gatti, Luciana Vanni

    2010-02-01

    Air samples were collected in a typical residential and commercial area in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, where buses and trucks use diesel and light duty vehicles use compressed natural gas, ethanol, and gasohol (gasoline blended with ethanol) as fuel. A total of 66 C3-C12 volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were identified. The most abundant compounds, on a mass concentration basis, included propane, isobutane, i-pentane, m,p-xylene, 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene, toluene, styrene, ethylbenzene, isopropylbenzene, o-xylene and 1,2,4-trimethylbenzene. Two VOCs photochemical reactivity rankings are presented: one involves reaction with OH and the other involves production of ozone.

  10. Residential Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Kids For Teens For Parents & Teachers Resolving Family Conflicts The Holidays and Alzheimer's Glossary Virtual Library Online ... longer an option Costs Choosing a care setting Types of residential care A good long-term care ...

  11. Safeguards needs in the measurement area: the realm of measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammond, G.; Auerbach, C.

    1978-01-01

    An effective safeguards measurement system must cover a multitude of material forms ranging from essentially pure substances to highly heterogeneous materials. In addition there are varied and sometimes conflicting demands for accuracy and timeliness. Consequently, a judicious and systematic choice must be made between methods based on sampling followed by chemical analysis or nondestructive methods based on nuclear properties. Fundamental advances in analytical chemistry made during the year preceding World War II enabled Manhattan Project scientists to develop methods which contributed to the success of both the immediate goal and the developments which have taken place since. Examples are given of evolutionary developments in the direction of timeliness through varying degrees of automation. Nondestructive methods, first introduced because of the need to measure scrap and other intractable material, are finding broader areas of application. Aided by DOE-sponsored research and development, new techniques providing greater accuracy, versatility and timeliness are being introduced. It is now recognized that an effective safeguards measurement system must make concerted use of both chemical and nondestructive methods. Recent studies have fostered understanding of the relative importance of various process streams in the material balance equations and have highlighted the need for a systematic approach to measurement solutions for safeguarding nuclear materials

  12. Image Segmentation Parameter Optimization Considering Within- and Between-Segment Heterogeneity at Multiple Scale Levels: Test Case for Mapping Residential Areas Using Landsat Imagery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian A. Johnson

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Multi-scale/multi-level geographic object-based image analysis (MS-GEOBIA methods are becoming widely-used in remote sensing because single-scale/single-level (SS-GEOBIA methods are often unable to obtain an accurate segmentation and classification of all land use/land cover (LULC types in an image. However, there have been few comparisons between SS-GEOBIA and MS-GEOBIA approaches for the purpose of mapping a specific LULC type, so it is not well understood which is more appropriate for this task. In addition, there are few methods for automating the selection of segmentation parameters for MS-GEOBIA, while manual selection (i.e., trial-and-error approach of parameters can be quite challenging and time-consuming. In this study, we examined SS-GEOBIA and MS-GEOBIA approaches for extracting residential areas in Landsat 8 imagery, and compared naïve and parameter-optimized segmentation approaches to assess whether unsupervised segmentation parameter optimization (USPO could improve the extraction of residential areas. Our main findings were: (i the MS-GEOBIA approaches achieved higher classification accuracies than the SS-GEOBIA approach, and (ii USPO resulted in more accurate MS-GEOBIA classification results while reducing the number of segmentation levels and classification variables considerably.

  13. Antibiotic-resistant genes and antibiotic-resistant bacteria in the effluent of urban residential areas, hospitals, and a municipal wastewater treatment plant system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianan; Cheng, Weixiao; Xu, Like; Strong, P J; Chen, Hong

    2015-03-01

    In this study, we determined the abundance of 8 antibiotics (3 tetracyclines, 4 sulfonamides, and 1 trimethoprim), 12 antibiotic-resistant genes (10 tet, 2 sul), 4 antibiotic-resistant bacteria (tetracycline, sulfamethoxazole, and combined resistance), and class 1 integron integrase gene (intI1) in the effluent of residential areas, hospitals, and municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) systems. The concentrations of total/individual targets (antibiotics, genes, and bacteria) varied remarkably among different samples, but the hospital samples generally had a lower abundance than the residential area samples. The WWTP demonstrated removal efficiencies of 50.8% tetracyclines, 66.8% sulfonamides, 0.5 logs to 2.5 logs tet genes, and less than 1 log of sul and intI1 genes, as well as 0.5 log to 1 log removal for target bacteria. Except for the total tetracycline concentration and the proportion of tetracycline-resistant bacteria (R (2) = 0.330, P antibiotics and the corresponding resistant bacteria (P > 0.05). In contrast, various relationships were identified between antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (P antibiotic-resistant bacteria (P < 0.01).

  14. Measuring the Externality Effects of Commercial Land Use on Residential Land Value: A Case Study of Seoul

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hee Jin Yang

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Two contrasting theories purport to explain the effects of neighborhood non-residential use on residential property values. In traditional zoning theory, separating land from commercial land use is considered to protect residential environments from negative externalities such as noise, litter, and congestion. By contrast, contemporary planning principles including Smart Growth emphasize positive impacts of mixed land use on residential environment, which lead to more walkable and sustainable communities. This study attempts to empirically investigate how positive and negative externalities of commercial land use, referred to as “proximity effects” and “disamenity effects” respectively, affect residential land values. Using data gathered in Seoul, we pay attention to two particular aspects of commercial land use: spatial concentration and neighborhood scale. Spatial concentration is determined by the number of commercial employees present in the buffer zone around an individual residential parcel. We model four geographically distinct neighborhood scales as we compare spatial concentrations in and across commercial zones. Quadratic regression analyses of our data show the trade-off relationship that a higher spatial concentration of commercial land use in a neighborhood initially results in increased residential land values, but drops off beyond a threshold level by excessive noise or crowding.

  15. Impacts of residential heating intervention measures on air quality and progress towards targets in Christchurch and Timaru, New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Angelique J.; Scarrott, Carl

    2011-06-01

    Elevated wintertime particulate concentrations in the New Zealand cities of Christchurch and Timaru are mostly attributed to the burning of wood and coal for residential heating. A carrot-and-stick approach was adopted for managing air quality in Christchurch, where strict intervention measures were introduced together with a residential heater replacement programme to encourage householders to change to cleaner forms of heating. A similar approach was only recently implemented for Timaru. This paper presents the results of a partial accountability analysis, where the impact of these measures on the target source, PM 10 emissions, and PM 10 concentrations are quantified. A statistical model was developed to estimate trends in the concentrations, which were tested for significance after accounting for meteorological effects, and to estimate the probability of meeting air quality targets. Results for Christchurch and Timaru are compared to illustrate the impacts of differing levels of intervention on air quality. In Christchurch, approximately 34,000 (76%) open fires and old solid fuel burners were replaced with cleaner heating technology from 2002 to 2009, and total open fires and solid fuel burner numbers decreased by 45%. Over the same time period, estimated PM 10 emissions reduced by 71% and PM 10 concentrations by 52% (maxima), 36% (winter mean), 26% (winter median) and 41% (meteorology-adjusted winter means). In Timaru, just 3000 (50%) open fires and old solid fuel burners were replaced from 2001 to 2008, with total open fire and solid fuel burner numbers reduced by 24%. PM 10 emissions declined by 32%, with low reductions in the PM 10 concentrations (maxima decreased by 7%, winter means by 11% and winter medians by 3%). These findings, supported by the results of the meteorology corrected trend analysis for Christchurch, strongly indicate that the combination of stringent intervention measures and financial incentives has led to substantial air quality

  16. Understanding Residential Polarization in a Globalizing City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Rotimi Aliu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the spatial polarization that characterizes the dwellings in the African leading megacity of Lagos. Data were collected through an extensive housing survey carried out on 1,485 household residences in 56 wards within 12 administrative units in Lagos megacity. The spatial dimension of residential density in the city generates three unique residential patterns which are low residential density (LRD, medium residential density (MRD, and high residential density (HRD areas. Descriptive and multivariate inferential statistics were used to render explanations for the spatial variations in the residential quality variables in the study area. Findings indicated that a clear difference exists in the residential quality within the three residential density areas of Lagos. High correlations exist among the residential quality indicators and housing type. The principal component analysis shows that residential polarizations that occur in the LRD, MRD, and HRD are based on the location, dwelling facility, interior and exterior quality, neighborhood integrity, social bond, barrier to entry, and security. The practical implications of residential polarizations along the residential density areas are explicitly expressed.

  17. Simple Stirling engine as cogeneration unit in residential areas; Einfacher Stirling-Motor fuer die Waerme-Kraft-Kopplung (WKK) in kleinen Wohngebaeuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Budliger, J.P.

    2000-07-01

    Free-piston Stirling engines have been recognized for long as an ideally suited unit for combined heat and power (CHP) production in homes. The considerably improved use of fossil fuel as compared to their separate production, the clean, external combustion process and low noise are major assets, favouring the use of this technology in residential areas. However, up to present, the complexity and correspondingly high cost of these units hampered their practical application. A new, simple concept has recently been devised, which can easily be controlled and operated according to demand. Cost may be reduced substantially as compared to presently known concepts, giving promise for their widespread use in residential homes, as well as in a variety of other applications. (orig.) [German] Freikolben-Stirling-Motoren sind ideale Aggregate fuer die Waerme-Kraft-Kopplung (WKK oder KWK) in kleineren Wohnhaeusern. Der Brennstoff kann wesentlich besser genutzt werden als bei getrennter Bereitung der benoetigten Heizwaerme und der elektrischen Energie. Die saubere, kontinuierliche aeussere Verbrennung und der geringe abgegebene Laerm stellen wichtige Bedingungen fuer einen erfolgreichen Einsatz solcher Systeme im Wohnbereich dar. Bisher verhinderten aber die Komplexitaet der verfuegbaren Systeme den praktischen Einsatz dieser Einheiten. Im Folgenden wird ein neues, einfaches Konzept vorgestellt, welches zuverlaessig funktioniert und auch unter Teillast, dem benoetigten Waermebedarf genau angepasst, betrieben werden kann. Die Herstellungskosten sind wesentlich geringer als bei den bisher bekannten Systemen, was ideale Voraussetzungen fuer deren verbreitete Anwendung im Haushalt, wie in vielfaeltigen anderen Einsatzgebieten darstellt. (orig.)

  18. Planning for a Low Carbon Future? Comparing Heat Pumps and Cogeneration as the Energy System Options for a New Residential Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jukka Heinonen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to compare, from an urban planning perspective, the choice between combined heat and power (CHP and a ground-source heat pump (HP as the energy systems of a new residential area in the light of the uncertainty related to the assessments. There has been a strong push globally for CHP due to its climate mitigation potential compared to separate production, and consequently it is often prioritized in planning without questioning. However, the uncertainties in assessing the emissions from CHP and alternative options in a certain planning situation make it very difficult to give robust decision guidelines. In addition, even the order of magnitude of the climate impact of a certain plan is actually difficult to assess robustly. With a case study of the new residential development of Härmälänranta in Tampere, Finland, we show how strongly the uncertainties related to (1 utilizing average or marginal electricity as the reference; (2 assigning emissions intensities for the production; and (3 allocating the emissions from CHP to heat and electricity affect the results and lead to varying decision guidelines. We also depict how a rather rarely utilized method in assigning the emissions from CHP is the most robust for planning support.

  19. Marginal costs of intensified energy-efficiency measures in residential buildings; Grenzkosten bei forcierten Energie-Effizienzmassnahmen in Wohngebaeuden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jakob, M.; Jochem, E. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Centre for Energy Policy and Economics (CEPE), Zuerich (Switzerland); Kristen, K. [Eidgenoessische Technische Hochschule (ETH), Architektur und Baurealisation, Zuerich (Switzerland)

    2002-07-01

    This detailed report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) examines the large potential for increasing the energy efficiency of residential buildings in Switzerland. The aims of the research project are described including investigation of costs and marginal costs for thermal insulation and efficiency measures, the updating of technical parameters for cost - efficiency characteristics on an empirical basis, a transparent presentation of cost/benefit ratios for different concepts. Another aim is to obtain a more detailed overview of costs and benefits that could be of use for planners, building owners and technology companies. The methodology used for the collection of data for the study is described. The report also takes a look at the indirect advantages of improving the thermal insulation of buildings and examines the initial economic and technical situation. A detailed review of the costs and benefits is given for the various elements of a building such as walls, floors and windows and a reference development scenario for the period 2000 -2030 is presented. Marginal cost curves for various categories of buildings are presented for thermal insulation and ventilation measures.

  20. Residential Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde; Matsufuji, Y.

    2011-01-01

    are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing residential waste is faced with the problem that many residences already divert some waste away from the official collection systems, for example performing home composting of vegetable waste and garden waste, having their bundled newspaper picked up by the scouts...... twice a year or bringing their used furniture to the flea markets organized by charity clubs. Thus, much of the data available on residential waste represents collected waste and not necessarily all generated waste. The latter can only be characterized by careful studies directly at the source......, but such studies are very expensive if fair representation of both spatial and temporal variations should be obtained. In addition, onsite studies may affect the waste generation in the residence because of the increased focus on the issue. Residential waste is defined in different ways in different countries...

  1. Effects of heat and electricity saving measures in district-heated multistory residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truong, Nguyen Le; Dodoo, Ambrose; Gustavsson, Leif

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We analyzed the potential for energy savings in district heated buildings. • Measures that reduce more peak load production give higher primary energy savings. • Efficient appliances increase heat demand but give net primary energy savings. • Efficient appliances give the largest net primary energy savings. - Abstract: The effects of heat and electricity saving measures in district-heated buildings can be complex because these depend not only on how energy is used on the demand side but also on how energy is provided from the supply side. In this study, we analyze the effects of heat and electricity saving measures in multistory concrete-framed and wood-framed versions of an existing district-heated building and examine the impacts of the reduced energy demand on different district heat (DH) production configurations. The energy saving measures considered are for domestic hot water reduction, building thermal envelope improvement, ventilation heat recovery (VHR), and household electricity savings. Our analysis is based on a measured heat load profile of an existing DH production system in Växjö, Sweden. Based on the measured heat load profile, we model three minimum-cost DH production system using plausible environmental and socio-political scenarios. Then, we investigate the primary energy implications of the energy saving measures applied to the two versions of the existing building, taking into account the changed DH demand, changed cogenerated electricity, and changed electricity use due to heat and electricity saving measures. Our results show that the difference between the final and primary energy savings of the concrete-framed and wood-framed versions of the case-study building is minor. The primary energy efficiency of the energy saving measures depends on the type of measure and on the composition of the DH production system. Of the various energy saving measures explored, electricity savings give the highest primary energy savings

  2. Laboratory Evaluation of Air Flow Measurement Methods for Residential HVAC Returns

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain; Stratton, Chris

    2015-07-01

    This project improved the accuracy of air flow measurements used in commissioning California heating and air conditioning systems in Title 24 (Building and Appliance Efficiency Standards), thereby improving system performance and efficiency of California residences. The research team at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory addressed the issue that typical tools used by contractors in the field to test air flows may not be accurate enough to measure return flows used in Title 24 applications. The team developed guidance on performance of current diagnostics as well as a draft test method for use in future evaluations. The series of tests performed measured air flow using a range of techniques and devices. The measured air flows were compared to reference air flow measurements using inline air flow meters built into the test apparatus. The experimental results showed that some devices had reasonable results (typical errors of 5 percent or less) but others had much bigger errors (up to 25 percent).

  3. Measuring the performance of electronic health records: a case study in residential aged care in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Ping; Qian, Siyu; Yu, Hui; Lei, Jianbo

    2013-01-01

    Measuring the performance of electronic health records (EHR) is an important, yet un-resolved challenge. Various measurements have addressed different aspects of EHR success, yet a holistic, comprehensive measurement tool needs to be developed to capture the potential EHR success variables completely. A self-administered questionnaire survey instrument was developed based on the theoretical framework of the DeLone and McLean Information Systems Success Model. It measures nigh variables of EHR success: system quality, information quality, service quality, training, self efficacy, intention to use, use, user satisfaction and net benefits. The instrument was used to measure the performance of aged care EHR systems in three aged care organizations. The results suggest that the instrument was reliable.

  4. A Measure of the Parent-Team Alliance in Youth Residential Psychiatry: The Revised Short Working Alliance Inventory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lamers, A.; Delsing, M.J.M.H.; Van Widenfelt, B.M.; Vermeiren, R.R.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The therapeutic alliance between multidisciplinary teams and parents within youth (semi) residential psychiatry is essential for the treatment process and forms a promising process variable for Routine Outcome Monitoring (ROM). No short evaluative instrument, however, is currently

  5. Zinc and copper status in childbearing age Tunisian women: Relation to age, residential area, socioeconomic situation and physiologic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ati-Hellal, Myriam; Doggui, Radhouene; Hedhili, Abderrazek; Traissac, Pierre; El Ati, Jalila

    2016-04-01

    Plasma zinc and copper status of 1689 non pregnant Tunisian women, aged 20-49 years old, was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. A multiple regression was run to predict plasma trace element concentrations from age, BMI, marital status, menopause, education level, professional activity, economic level and area of living. The mean zinc and copper values were similar to those measured among comparable populations in earlier studies. However, a high prevalence of low plasma zinc and copper concentrations was observed assuming that women at childbearing age are at high risk of zinc and copper deficiencies and specific intervention may be considered. In univariate analysis, the mean values of plasma zinc and copper were associated with sitting areas and professional activity. For only plasma copper levels, there was an increase with BMI and parity, and a decrease with increasing schooling level and economic score. After adjustment for all variables, profession and parity showed a significant relationship between plasma levels copper. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Air pollution from residential wood combustion in a Danish village. Measuring campaign and analysis of results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waahlin, P.; Roerdam Olesen, H.; Bossi, R.; Stubkjaer, J.

    2010-05-15

    A campaign took place in the winter 2006/2007 comprising measurements of many air pollution components at two sites: a wood smoke exposed site within the village Slagslunde, and a background site 500 m outside of the village. The report describes the campaign and its results. A central result is a so-called 'wood smoke source profile', which relates several measures of wood smoke pollution to each other. This is based on a 'cleaned' data set, for which the effect of other sources than wood smoke was small. The wood smoke profile links the measures PM2.5, particle volume, soot, monosaccharide anhydrides (levoglucosan and mannosan) and different PAHs to each other. Particle number N does not have a close link to the other measures. (author)

  7. Air pollution from residential wood combustion in a Danish village. Measuring campaign and analysis of results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Waahlin, P; Roerdam Olesen, H; Bossi, R; Stubkjaer, J

    2010-05-15

    A campaign took place in the winter 2006/2007 comprising measurements of many air pollution components at two sites: a wood smoke exposed site within the village Slagslunde, and a background site 500 m outside of the village. The report describes the campaign and its results. A central result is a so-called 'wood smoke source profile', which relates several measures of wood smoke pollution to each other. This is based on a 'cleaned' data set, for which the effect of other sources than wood smoke was small. The wood smoke profile links the measures PM2.5, particle volume, soot, monosaccharide anhydrides (levoglucosan and mannosan) and different PAHs to each other. Particle number N does not have a close link to the other measures. (author)

  8. Landless female peasants living in resettlement residential areas in China have poorer quality of life than males: results from a household study in the Yangtze River Delta region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ying; Li, Shuqin

    2014-05-15

    Urbanization has accelerated in China, and a large amount of arable land has been transformed into urban land. Moreover, the number of landless peasants has continually increased. Peasants lose not only their land, but also a series of rights and interests related with land. The problems of landless peasants have been long-standing; however, only a few studies have examined their health or quality of life (QOL). This paper assesses the QOL of landless peasants in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD) region, analyzes gender differences, and explores health inequity. Data are derived from household samples in six resettlement residential areas of three cities (Nanjing, Hangzhou, and Yangzhou) in the YRD region (N = 1,500; the effective rate = 82.4%). This study uses the short version of World Health Organization Quality of Life questionnaire (WHOQOL-BREF) scale to measure the QOL of landless peasants, and performs confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and analyze gender differences in QOL on the basis of CFA. First, we use Analysis of Variance and Non-parametric Tests to test if the differences of mean value of testing generals have statistical significances. Results shows significant differences occur between the impacts of different genders on the four domains of QOL (physical health, psychological health, social relationships, and environment). The internal reliability of the WHOQOL-BREF scale is good (Cronbach's alpha > 0.8), and the four domains of QOL are connected with each other. Second, scores in each QOL domain are commonly low, whereas the scores of females are much lower, indicating a poorer QOL than that of males. Third, results of the CFA of the QOL domains and their related observed variables indicate a good model fit. Fourth, results imply that the order of importance of the four domains (psychological health (males = 26.74%, females = 27.17%); social relationships (males = 26.23%, females = 25.35%); environment (males = 25

  9. CFD simulation of a fire in the living area of three storey residential house to evaluate life safety in houses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bounagui, A.; Benichou, N.; Kashef, A.; McCartney, C.

    2004-01-01

    Over time there have been changes in construction practices, building designs and materials and construction technologies. The Institute for Research in Construction (IRC) at the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) is undertaking research project to determine the impact of innovative residential construction products and systems on the fire safety of houses. The research study includes two phases: experimental and numerical. A new three-level full-scale experimental facility, representing a typical single-family house, has been built to study the structural fire performance, smoke movement and tenability conditions in the event of a fire. In the event of a fire in the first storey of a house, fire and smoke can move up to the main and second floors either through an open door or any openings in the floor structure between the basement and the main floor rendering the upper floor untenable for the occupants. Using CFD simulations this paper investigates the effect of the state of a stairwell door (opened or closed) on the fire development as well as on the moving up of the toxic gases to the upper floors. Simulation results were then used to estimate the time when conditions would become untenable, based on criteria found in the literature. (author)

  10. Impact of energy efficiency measures on the CO{sub 2} emissions in the residential sector, a large scale analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hens, H.; Verbeeck, G.; Verdonck, B. [Department of Civil Engineering, Laboratory for Building Physics, Leuven (Belgium)

    2000-07-01

    Like all industrialised countries, Belgium accepted to diminish its greenhouse gas emissions in the frame of the Kyoto agreement. On top of the list figures CO{sub 2}. A major emission source for CO{sub 2} is burning fossil fuels. As the residential sector accounts for 28% of the country's annual energy consumption and as this consumption mainly concerns fossil fuels, it has an equally important share in the CO{sub 2} release. Hence, at first sight, the best policy for a decrease is by improving the energy efficiency. The question to be solved, however, is which improvement could generate the reduction needed? This study discusses a methodology and comments simulations that help in answering that question. The results are not as simple as one should like. The housing stock in fact acts as a conservatory system. For the case being, the impact of energy efficient new construction on the CO{sub 2} release remains quite marginal if the period considered does not extend beyond a decade. The effect becomes significant only over a longer period, on condition that more stringent energy efficiency measures are combined with a shift from new construction to retrofit and reconstruction. Also a diminishing increase in the number of households may help in reducing energy consumption and CO{sub 2} release. (author)

  11. Measurement Properties of the Motivation for Youth Treatment Scale with a Residential Group Home Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Matthew C.; Hurley, Kristin Duppong; Tomlinson, M. Michele Athay; Stevens, Amy L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: A client's motivation to receive services is significantly related to seeking services, remaining in services, and improved outcomes. The Motivation for Youth Treatment Scale (MYTS) is one of the few brief measures used to assess motivation for mental health treatment. Objective: To investigate if the psychometric properties of the…

  12. Sustainable stormwater management at Fornebu--from an airport to an industrial and residential area of the city of Oslo, Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Astebøl, Svein Ole; Hvitved-Jacobsen, Thorkild; Simonsen, Oyvind

    2004-12-01

    The Oslo Airport at Fornebu was closed in 1998 after 60 years of operation. An area of 3.1 km(2) was made available for one of Norway's biggest property development projects. Plans include 6000 residences and 20,000 workplaces. Fornebu is situated on a peninsula in the Oslo Fjord just outside the city of Oslo and is regarded as a very attractive area for both urbanisation and recreation. The residential area located centrally at Fornebu surrounds a centrally located park area. In the planning process, there was an expressed interest in using water as a life-giving element within the vegetation structure of the park. In Norway, stormwater in urban areas has traditionally been collected and transported in pipe systems to adjacent watercourses. However, there is an increasing interest in alternative "green" solutions for the management of stormwater. The paper presents a concept for sustainable stormwater management at Fornebu. A main objective is to improve the recreational and ecological value of stormwater while achieving a cost-effective solution. This objective is reached by replacing conventional urban drainage pipes with swales, filter strips, wetlands and ponds as collection, storage and treatment systems designed for natural processes. The paper thereby addresses integrated systems for stormwater management by approaching nature's way and sustainable development principles.

  13. Health assessment of children and adolescents living in a residential area of production for the disposal of rocket fuel: according to the results of the medical examination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uiba V.V.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: to determine the real prevalence separate nosological forms in the child population living in residential zone installations for the disposal of rocket fuel. Materials and methods. By mobile teams of pediatric physicians there was conducted a comprehensive medical examination of 1621 children in the area of the site location for disposal of rocket engines solid fuel. Results. The surveyed contingent of the most common diseases of the endocrine system, disorders of nutrition and metabolism (21.2% of diagnoses, diseases of the musculoskeletal and connective tissue (19.2 percent, as well as individual symptoms, signs and deviations from the norm by 14.4%. Conclusion. Data indicating the pronounced impact of adverse environmental factors, not identified.

  14. Photovoltaics (PV) as an Eligible Measure in Residential PACE Programs: Benefits and Challenges (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, J.

    2010-06-01

    Property Assessed Clean Energy (PACE) financing is one of several new financial models broadening access to clean energy by addressing the barrier of initial capital cost. The majority of the PACE programs in the market today include PV as an eligible measure. PV appeals to homeowners as a way to reduce utility bills, self-generate sustainable power, increase energy independence and demonstrate a commitment to the environment. If substantial state incentives for PV exist, PV projects can be economic under PACE, especially when partnered with good net metering policies. At the same time, PV is expensive relative to other eligible measures with a return on investment horizon that might exceed program targets. This fact sheet reviews the benefits and potential challenges of including PV in PACE programs.

  15. Children's residential exposure to chlorpyrifos: Application of CPPAES field measurements of chlorpyrifos and TCPy within MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hore, Paromita; Zartarian, Valerie; Xue Jianping; Ozkaynak, Haluk; Wang, S.-W.; Yang, Y.-C.; Chu, P.-Ling; Sheldon, Linda; Robson, Mark; Needham, Larry; Barr, Dana; Freeman, Natalie; Georgopoulos, Panos; Lioy, Paul J.

    2006-01-01

    The comprehensive individual field-measurements on non-dietary exposure collected in the Children's-Post-Pesticide-Application-Exposure-Study (CPPAES) were used within MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides, a physically based stochastic human exposure and dose model. In this application, however, the model was run deterministically. The MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides employed the CPPAES as input variables to simulate the exposure and the dose profiles for seven children over a 2-week post-application period following a routine residential and professional indoor crack-and-crevice chlorpyrifos application. The input variables were obtained from a personal activity diary, microenvironmental measurements and personal biomonitoring data obtained from CPPAES samples collected from the individual children and in their homes. Simulation results were compared with CPPAES field measured values obtained from the children's homes to assess the utility of the different microenvironmental data collected in CPPAES, i.e. indicator toys and wipe samplers to estimate aggregate exposures that can be result from one or more exposure pathways and routes. The final analyses of the database involved comparisons of the actual data obtained from the individual biomarker samples of a urinary metabolite of chlorpyrifos (TCPy) and the values predicted by MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides using the CPPAES-derived variables. Because duplicate diet samples were not part of the CPPAES study design, SHEDs-Pesticides simulated dose profiles did not account for the dietary route. The research provided more confidence in the types of data that can be used in the inhalation and dermal contact modules of MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides to predict the pesticide dose received by a child. It was determined that we still need additional understanding about: (1) the types of activities and durations of activities that result in non-dietary ingestion of pesticides and (2) the influence of dietary exposures on the levels of TCPy found in the

  16. Indoor air-quality measurements in energy-efficient residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berk, J.V.; Hollowell, C.D.; Pepper, J.H.; Young, R.

    1980-05-01

    The potential impact on indoor air quality of energy-conserving measures that reduce ventilation is being assessed in a field-monitoring program conducted by the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory. Using a mobile laboratory, on-site monitoring of infiltration rate, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide, nitric oxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide, formaldehyde, total aldehydes, and particulates was conducted in three houses designed to be energy-efficient. Preliminary results show that energy-conserving design features that reduce air-exchange rates compromise indoor air quality; specifically, indoor levels of several pollutants were found to exceed levels detected outdoors. Although the indoor levels of most pollutants are within limits established by present outdoor air-quality standards, considerable work remains to be accomplished before health-risk effects can be accurately assessed and broad-scale regulatory guidelines revised to comply with energy-conservation goals.

  17. Spatial cluster detection for repeatedly measured outcomes while accounting for residential history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Andrea J; Gold, Diane R; Li, Yi

    2009-10-01

    Spatial cluster detection has become an important methodology in quantifying the effect of hazardous exposures. Previous methods have focused on cross-sectional outcomes that are binary or continuous. There are virtually no spatial cluster detection methods proposed for longitudinal outcomes. This paper proposes a new spatial cluster detection method for repeated outcomes using cumulative geographic residuals. A major advantage of this method is its ability to readily incorporate information on study participants relocation, which most cluster detection statistics cannot. Application of these methods will be illustrated by the Home Allergens and Asthma prospective cohort study analyzing the relationship between environmental exposures and repeated measured outcome, occurrence of wheeze in the last 6 months, while taking into account mobile locations.

  18. Measure Guideline. Steam System Balancing and Tuning for Multifamily Residential Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jayne [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Chicago, IL (United States); Ludwig, Peter [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Chicago, IL (United States); Brand, Larry [Partnership for Advanced Residential Retrofit (PARR), Chicago, IL (United States)

    2013-04-01

    This guideline provides building owners, professionals involved in multifamily audits, and contractors insights for improving the balance and tuning of steam systems. It provides readers an overview of one-pipe steam heating systems, guidelines for evaluating steam systems, typical costs and savings, and guidelines for ensuring quality installations. It also directs readers to additional resources for details not included here. Measures for balancing a distribution system that are covered include replacing main line vents and upgrading radiator vents. Also included is a discussion on upgrading boiler controls and the importance of tuning the settings on new or existing boiler controls. The guideline focuses on one-pipe steam systems, though many of the assessment methods can be generalized to two-pipe steam systems.

  19. Social isolation and loneliness in later life: A parallel convergent mixed-methods case study of older adults and their residential contexts in the Minneapolis metropolitan area, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finlay, Jessica M; Kobayashi, Lindsay C

    2018-07-01

    Social isolation and loneliness are increasingly prevalent among older adults in the United States, with implications for morbidity and mortality risk. Little research to date has examined the complex person-place transactions that contribute to social well-being in later life. This study aimed to characterize personal and neighborhood contextual influences on social isolation and loneliness among older adults. Interviews were conducted with independent-dwelling men and women (n = 124; mean age 71 years) in the Minneapolis metropolitan area (USA) from June to October, 2015. A convergent mixed-methods design was applied, whereby quantitative and qualitative approaches were used in parallel to gain simultaneous insights into statistical associations and in-depth individual perspectives. Logistic regression models predicted self-reported social isolation and loneliness, adjusted for age, gender, past occupation, race/ethnicity, living alone, street type, residential location, and residential density. Qualitative thematic analyses of interview transcripts probed individual experiences with social isolation and loneliness. The quantitative results suggested that African American adults, those with a higher socioeconomic status, those who did not live alone, and those who lived closer to the city center were less likely to report feeling socially isolated or lonely. The qualitative results identified and explained variation in outcomes within each of these factors. They provided insight on those who lived alone but did not report feeling lonely, finding that solitude was sought after and enjoyed by a portion of participants. Poor physical and mental health often resulted in reporting social isolation, particularly when coupled with poor weather or low-density neighborhoods. At the same time, poor health sometimes provided opportunities for valued social engagement with caregivers, family, and friends. The combination of group-level risk factors and in-depth personal

  20. Measuring accessibility of sustainable transportation using space syntax in Bojonggede area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryawinata, B. A.; Mariana, Y.; Wijaksono, S.

    2017-12-01

    Changes in the physical structure of regional space as a result of the increase of planned and unplanned settlements in the Bojonggede area have an impact on the road network pattern system. Changes in road network patterns will have an impact on the permeability of the area. Permeability measures the extent to which road network patterns provide an option in traveling. If the permeability increases the travel distance decreases and the route of travel choice increases, permeability like this can create an easy access system and physically integrated. This study aims to identify the relationship of physical characteristics of residential area and road network pattern to the level of space permeability in Bojonggede area. By conducting this research can be a reference for the arrangement of circulation, accessibility, and land use in the vicinity of Bojonggede. This research uses quantitative method and space syntax method to see global integration and local integration on the region which become the parameter of permeability level. The results showed that the level of permeability globally and locally high in Bojonggede physical area is the physical characteristics of the area that has a grid pattern of road network grid.

  1. Measurement of trace elements in drinking water of Rawalpindi and Islamabad areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhter, P.; Mohammad, D.; Khan, K.; Orfi, S.D.

    2005-01-01

    Concentrations of calcium, magnesium, sodium, zinc and iron were determined in potable water, supplied from Rawal Lake and Simly Dam to residential areas of Rawalpindi and Islamabad, using AAS and ICP-AES techniques. Average measured concentration of these elements were 56.58 plus minus 15.21,18.02 plus minus 4.62, 24.27 plus minus 15.01, 0.15 plus minus 0.105 and 0.34 plus minus 0.11 ppm, respectively. Median contributions of Ca, Mg, Na, Fe and Zn were 13.29%, 12.13%, 1.14%, 5.38% and 2% to our daily intake and were found to be in the safe range for human consumption as per WHO standards. A comparison with previous estimates shows no significant change in trace element contents over the years. (author)

  2. Areas of residential development in the southern Appalachian Mountains are characterized by low riparian zone nitrogen cycling and no increase in soil greenhouse gas emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter Baas; Jennifer D. Knoepp; Daniel Markewitz; Jacqueline E. Mohan

    2017-01-01

    The critical role streamside riparian zones play in mitigating the movement of nitrogen (N) and other elements from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems could be threatened by residential development in the southern Appalachian Mountains. Many studies have investigated the influence of agriculture on N loading to streams but less is known about the impacts of residential...

  3. Chapter 6: Residential Lighting Evaluation Protocol. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Dimetrosky, Scott [Apex Analytics, LLC, Boulder, CO (United States); Parkinson, Katie [Apex Analytics, LLC, Boulder, CO (United States); Lieb, Noah [Apex Analytics, LLC, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2017-10-19

    Given new regulations, increased complexity in the market, and the general shift from CFLs to LEDs, this evaluation protocol was updated in 2017 to shift the focus of the protocols toward LEDs and away from CFLs and to resolve evaluation uncertainties affecting residential lighting incentive programs.

  4. The quality of life in residential areas : an introduction to a film made by the Foundation for Film and Science, in co-operation with the Institute for Road Safety Research SWOV, supported by the Royal Dutch Touring Club ANWB. Paper presented at the 13th AIT/FIA/PIARC International Study Week on Traffic Engineering and Safety, Montreux, 11-16 September 1978.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    1978-01-01

    The films purpose is to review what is known about housing-quality social activities and road safety. These aspects constitute the so-called quality of life in residential areas. The possible influence is examined of several principles of urban planning on the quality of life in residential areas.

  5. Analysis and proposal of implementation effects of heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit of existing residential buildings in northern heating areas of China in “the 11th Five-Year Plan” period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Lingling; Zhao Jing; Zhu Neng

    2012-01-01

    In China, northern heating region contains approximately 6.5 billion m 2 residential building areas accounting for 15% of the total residential living areas of urban and rural. About 70% of the urban residential buildings in north China are high energy consumption buildings. The task of heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit of 0.15 billion m 2 existing residential buildings in northern heating areas of China in “the 11th Five-Year Plan” period was proposed by the Ministry of Housing and Urban–Rural Development (MOHURD) in 2007 and completed in 2010. This paper introduced both central and local governments' efforts on organization, implementation and finance, etc. Then several retrofitting effects involving improving the people's livelihood, mobilizing the enthusiasm of residents for the retrofit and driving the development of relevant industries were presented. Finally, on the basis of analyzing the issues encountered in the progress of the retrofit in the past 4 years, the paper gave some policy proposals on organization system, financing models, reward mechanism, and heating system reformation to help to promote the energy efficiency retrofit in “the 12th Five-Year Plan” period. - Highlights: ► Specific approaches of heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit (HMEER) at central and local level are introduced. ► Main HMEER effects are presented. ► Analyzing several issues encountered in the progress of the HMEER. ► Corresponding proposals are provided.

  6. Check and evaluation system on heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit of existing residential buildings in northern heating areas of china based on multi-index comprehensive evaluation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jing; Wu Yong; Zhu Neng

    2009-01-01

    Heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit of existing residential buildings in northern heating areas of China is organized and implemented in a large scale by local government in 15 provinces of North China with the unified guidance and control of central government. Firstly, this paper introduced the target of energy-saving reformation of existing residential buildings in North China and the importance of check and evaluation on this target, then pointed out the necessity of building up an evaluation system for energy-saving retrofit. According to the analytical hierarchy process (AHP), three-grade evaluation system was built up for heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit of existing residential buildings in northern heating areas of China. Also, based on multi-index comprehensive evaluation method combined with life cycle assessment (LCA) theory, post-evaluation thought and successful degree evaluation method, a mathematical model was established. Finally, a set of scientific method for evaluating heat metering and energy efficiency retrofit of existing residential buildings in northern heating areas of China systematically, scientifically, comprehensively and objectively was created.

  7. Easy Leaf Area: Automated digital image analysis for rapid and accurate measurement of leaf area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Easlon, Hsien Ming; Bloom, Arnold J

    2014-07-01

    Measurement of leaf areas from digital photographs has traditionally required significant user input unless backgrounds are carefully masked. Easy Leaf Area was developed to batch process hundreds of Arabidopsis rosette images in minutes, removing background artifacts and saving results to a spreadsheet-ready CSV file. • Easy Leaf Area uses the color ratios of each pixel to distinguish leaves and calibration areas from their background and compares leaf pixel counts to a red calibration area to eliminate the need for camera distance calculations or manual ruler scale measurement that other software methods typically require. Leaf areas estimated by this software from images taken with a camera phone were more accurate than ImageJ estimates from flatbed scanner images. • Easy Leaf Area provides an easy-to-use method for rapid measurement of leaf area and nondestructive estimation of canopy area from digital images.

  8. Easy Leaf Area: Automated Digital Image Analysis for Rapid and Accurate Measurement of Leaf Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsien Ming Easlon

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Measurement of leaf areas from digital photographs has traditionally required significant user input unless backgrounds are carefully masked. Easy Leaf Area was developed to batch process hundreds of Arabidopsis rosette images in minutes, removing background artifacts and saving results to a spreadsheet-ready CSV file. Methods and Results: Easy Leaf Area uses the color ratios of each pixel to distinguish leaves and calibration areas from their background and compares leaf pixel counts to a red calibration area to eliminate the need for camera distance calculations or manual ruler scale measurement that other software methods typically require. Leaf areas estimated by this software from images taken with a camera phone were more accurate than ImageJ estimates from flatbed scanner images. Conclusions: Easy Leaf Area provides an easy-to-use method for rapid measurement of leaf area and nondestructive estimation of canopy area from digital images.

  9. Radiation distribution measurement using plastic scintillating optical fibers for survey of radioactive contamination in wide area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Chikara; Ito, Keisuke; Ishikawa, Takashi; Yoshida, Akihiro; Sanada, Yukihisa; Torii, Tatsuo; Nohtomi, Akihiro; Wakabayashi, Genichiro; Miyazaki, Nobuyuki

    2013-01-01

    It is important to examine distribution of environmental contamination due to the accident of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station and to confirm the effect of decontamination works. We have applied radiation distribution measurement using plastic scintillating optical fibers (PSFs) in the survey of contamination in wide area including residential, farmland, forests, etc. In the measurements system, two scintillation lights that emitted at an incidence of a radiation transmit to photomultiplier tubes at the both end of PSFs. The position where scintillation light emitted is obtained from the detection time difference of each photomultiplier tube. The distribution of light emission quantity indicates the distribution of radiation incident in a PSF which is corresponds to the distribution of dose-rate. The radiation detection system using the PSFs has been applied to the radiation distribution measurement on grounds, trees, etc. The results show a good agreement with point data measured by survey meters using sodium iodide scintillators. As the PSFs which have water resistance, they have been successfully applied to the radiation distribution measurement in the river. We have also succeeded in measuring two-dimensional distribution of radiation by measuring the count rate while moving to the fiber at a constant speed. (author)

  10. Measurements and statistical analyses of indoor radon concentrations in Tokyo and surrounding areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugiura, Shiroharu; Suzuki, Takashi; Inokoshi, Yukio

    1995-01-01

    Since the UNSCEAR report published in 1982, radiation exposure to the respiratory tract due to radon and its progeny has been regarded as the single largest contributor to the natural radiation exposure of the general public. In Japan, the measurement of radon gas concentrations in many types of buildings have been surveyed by national and private institutes. We also carried out the measurement of radon gas concentrations in different types of residential buildings in Tokyo and its adjoining prefectures from October 1988 to September 1991, to evaluate the potential radiation risk of the people living there. One or two simplified passive radon monitors were set up in each of the 34 residential buildings located in the above-mentioned area for an exposure period of 3 months each. Comparing the average concentrations in the buildings of different materials and structures, those in the concrete steel buildings were always higher than those in the wooden and the prefabricated mortared buildings. The radon concentrations were proved to become higher in autumn and winter, and lower in spring and summer. Radon concentrations in an underground room of a concrete steel building showed the highest value throughout our investigation, and statistically significant seasonal variation was detected by the X-11 method developed by the U.S. Bureau of Census. The values measured in a room at the first floor of the same concrete steel building also showed seasonal variation, but the phase of variation was different. Another multivariate analysis suggested that the building material and structure are the most important factors concerning the levels of radon concentration among other factors such as the age of the building and the use of ventilators. (author)

  11. Field Measurement and Evaluation of the Passive and Active Solar Heating Systems for Residential Building Based on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau Case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijian Liu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Passive and active solar heating systems have drawn much attention and are widely used in residence buildings in the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau due to its high radiation intensity. In fact, there is still lack of quantitative evaluation of the passive and active heating effect, especially for residential building in the Qinghai-Tibetan plateau areas. In this study, three kinds of heating strategies, including reference condition, passive solar heating condition and active solar heating condition, were tested in one demonstration residential building. The hourly air temperatures of each room under different conditions were obtained and analyzed. The results show the indoor air temperature in the living room and bedrooms (core zones was much higher than that of other rooms under both passive and active solar heating conditions. In addition, the heating effect with different strategies for core zones of the building was evaluated by the ratio of indoor and outdoor degree hour, which indicates that solar heating could effectively reduce the traditional energy consumption and improve the indoor thermal environment. The passive solar heating could undertake 49.8% degree hours for heating under an evaluation criterion of 14 °C and the active solar heating could undertake 75% degree hours for heating under evaluation criterion of 18 °C, which indicated that solar heating could effectively reduce the traditional energy consumption and improve the indoor thermal environment in this area. These findings could provide reference for the design and application of solar heating in similar climate areas.

  12. Towards socially and economically sustainable urban developments : impacts of toll pricing on residential developments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The goal of this research is to investigate the effects of road pricing on residential land use choices and to : help select pricing policies that foster socially and economically sustainable residential development in : urbanized residential areas. ...

  13. Knowledge and practices towards influenza A (H1N1) among adults in three residential areas in Tampin Negeri Sembilan: a cross sectional survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zairina, A R; Nooriah, M S; Yunus, A Mohd

    2011-08-01

    A cross-sectional survey was conducted with the objective to explore a community's knowledge and practices towards prevention of Influenza A (H1N1) in three residential areas in Tampin. Respondents were randomly selected from a list of residences and interviewed face-to-face using a structured questionnaire. A total of 221 respondents (80.9%) were involved with the majority (64.7%) comprising female and who had attained secondary level of education (86.0%). The main source of information was from television/radio. The total score for knowledge questions was 15 and practice questions were 25. A total of 60.2% attained "adequate knowledge" and 52.0% "good practice". Mean (SD) for knowledge score was 11.6 (2.3) and practice was 18.1 (4.1). Ethnicity, education, income and practice score were identified as predictors for knowledge score. Income and knowledge scores were predictors for practice score. There was positive correlation between knowledge and practice scores.

  14. Nature of unresolved complex mixture in size-distributed emissions from residential wood combustion as measured by thermal desorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hays, Michael D.; Smith, N. Dean; Dong, Yuanji

    2004-08-01

    Unresolved complex mixture (UCM) is an analytical artifact of gas chromatographs of combustion source-related fine aerosol extracts. In this study the UCM is examined in size-resolved fine aerosol emissions from residential wood combustion. The aerosols are sorted by size in an electrical low-pressure impactor (ELPI) and subsequently analyzed by thermal desorption/gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (TD/GC/MS). A semiquantitative system for predicting the branched alkane, cycloalkane, alkylbenzene, C3-, C4-, C5-alkylbenzene, methylnaphthalene, C3-, C4-, C5-alkylnaphthalene, methylphenanthrene C2-, C3-alkylphenanthrene, and dibenzothiophene concentrations in the UCM is introduced. Analysis by TD/GS/MS detects UCM on each ELPI stage for all six combustion tests. The UCM baseline among the different fuel types is variable. In particular, the UCM of Pseudotsuga sp. is enriched in later-eluting compounds of lower volatility. A high level of reproducibility is achieved in determining UCM areas. UCM fractions (UCM ion area/total extracted ion chromatograph area) by individual ELPI stage return a mean relative standard deviation of 19.1% over the entire combustion test set, indicating a highly consistent UCM fraction across the ELPI size boundaries. Among the molecular ions investigated, branched alkane (m/z 57) and dibenzothiophene (m/z 212 and 226) constituents are most abundant in UCM emissions from RWC, collectively accounting for 64-95% of the targeted chemical species. The total UCM emissions span 446-756 mg/kg of dry biomass burned and correspond to an upper limit of 7.1% of the PM2.5 mass. The UCM emissions are primarily accumulation mode (0.1 μm ≤ aerodynamic diameter (da) ≤ 1 μm), with a geometric mean diameter (dg) range of 120.3-518.4 nm. UCM in PM2.5 is chemically asymmetric (shifted to finer da), typically clustering at da ≤ 1 μm. Measurable shifts in dg and changes in distribution widths (σg) on an intratest basis suggest that the particle density

  15. Survival of Legionella in earthquake-induced soil disturbance (liquefaction) in residential areas, Christchurch, New Zealand: implications for disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Frances F; Harte, David Jg

    2017-05-12

    To investigate a possible link between liquefaction dust exposure and the noticeable increase in legionellosis cases in response to major earthquakes in 2010 and 2011 that resulted in widespread soil disturbance (liquefaction) in parts of Christchurch, New Zealand. We culture tested liquefaction-affected soil for Legionella spp. in the six months following the first earthquake in 2010. Thirty silt samples were collected randomly from locations within Christchurch's metropolitan area that were affected by liquefaction. The samples were tested to determine the presence of Legionella using qualitative and quantitative methods. Liquefaction-affected soil samples from three sites were further subjected to particle size distribution analysis and determination of major oxides. A controlled field study was established using six silt samples and one control (commercial compost), seeded with a wild-type strain of Legionella bozemanae serogroup (sg) 1 and persistence monitored over a 60-day period by culturing for the presence of Legionella. Dry matter determinations were undertaken so that total Legionella could be calculated on a dry weight basis. Legionella bacteria were undetectable after day one in the silt samples. However, L. bozemanae sg1 was detected in the control sample for the entire study period. This study showed that the liquefaction-affected soil could not contribute directly to the observed increase in legionellosis cases after the earthquakes due to its inability to support growth and survival of the Legionella bacteria.

  16. Models to support students’ understanding of measuring area of circles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rejeki, S.; Putri, R. I. I.

    2018-01-01

    Many studies showed that enormous students got confused about the concepts of measuring area of circles. The main reason is because mathematics classroom practices emphasized on memorizing formulas rather than understanding concepts. Therefore, in this study, a set of learning activities were designed as an innovation in learning area measurement of circles. The activities involved two models namely grid paper and reshaping which are respectively as a means and a strategy to support students’ learning of area measurement of circles. Design research was used as the research approach to achieve the aim. Thirty-eight of 8th graders in Indonesia were involved in this study. In this study, together with the contextual problems, the grid paper and reshaping sectors, which used as the models in this learning, helped the students to gradually develop their understanding of the area measurement of circles. The grid papers plays important role in comparing and estimating areas. Whereas, the reshaping sectors might support students’ understanding of the circumference and the area measurement of circles. Those two models could be the tool for promoting the informal theory of area measurement. Besides, the whole activities gave important role on distinguishing the area and perimeter of circles.

  17. A new way to measure the world's protected area coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barr, Lissa M; Pressey, Robert L; Fuller, Richard A; Segan, Daniel B; McDonald-Madden, Eve; Possingham, Hugh P

    2011-01-01

    Protected areas are effective at stopping biodiversity loss, but their placement is constrained by the needs of people. Consequently protected areas are often biased toward areas that are unattractive for other human uses. Current reporting metrics that emphasise the total area protected do not account for this bias. To address this problem we propose that the distribution of protected areas be evaluated with an economic metric used to quantify inequality in income--the Gini coefficient. Using a modified version of this measure we discover that 73% of countries have inequitably protected their biodiversity and that common measures of protected area coverage do not adequately reveal this bias. Used in combination with total percentage protection, the Gini coefficient will improve the effectiveness of reporting on the growth of protected area coverage, paving the way for better representation of the world's biodiversity.

  18. Leaf-IT: An Android application for measuring leaf area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schrader, Julian; Pillar, Giso; Kreft, Holger

    2017-11-01

    The use of plant functional traits has become increasingly popular in ecological studies because plant functional traits help to understand key ecological processes in plant species and communities. This also includes changes in diversity, inter- and intraspecific interactions, and relationships of species at different spatiotemporal scales. Leaf traits are among the most important traits as they describe key dimensions of a plant's life history strategy. Further, leaf area is a key parameter with relevance for other traits such as specific leaf area, which in turn correlates with leaf chemical composition, photosynthetic rate, leaf longevity, and carbon investment. Measuring leaf area usually involves the use of scanners and commercial software and can be difficult under field conditions. We present Leaf-IT, a new smartphone application for measuring leaf area and other trait-related areas. Leaf-IT is free, designed for scientific purposes, and runs on Android 4 or higher. We tested the precision and accuracy using objects with standardized area and compared the area measurements of real leaves with the well-established, commercial software WinFOLIA using the Altman-Bland method. Area measurements of standardized objects show that Leaf-IT measures area with high accuracy and precision. Area measurements with Leaf-IT of real leaves are comparable to those of WinFOLIA. Leaf-IT is an easy-to-use application running on a wide range of smartphones. That increases the portability and use of Leaf-IT and makes it possible to measure leaf area under field conditions typical for remote locations. Its high accuracy and precision are similar to WinFOLIA. Currently, its main limitation is margin detection of damaged leaves or complex leaf morphologies.

  19. Interfacial area measurements in two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veteau, J.-M.

    1979-08-01

    A thorough understanding of two-phase flow requires the accurate measurement of the time-averaged interfacial area per unit volume (also called the time-averaged integral specific area). The so-called 'specific area' can be estimated by several techniques described in the literature. These different methods are reviewed and the flow conditions which lead to a rigourous determination of the time-averaged integral specific area are clearly established. The probe technique, involving local measurements seems very attractive because of its large range of application [fr

  20. Evaluating the effects of parking policy measures in nature areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beunen, R.; Jaarsma, C.F.; Regnerus, H.D.

    2006-01-01

    Parking policy measures are widely used to manage cars in nature areas. Only with data from long-term monitoring projects is it possible to separate ¿normal¿ fluctuation in the number of cars from fluctuation caused by trends or caused by the effects of these measures. An evaluation of measures

  1. [Comparision of Different Methods of Area Measurement in Irregular Scar].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ran, D; Li, W J; Sun, Q G; Li, J Q; Xia, Q

    2016-10-01

    To determine a measurement standard of irregular scar area by comparing the advantages and disadvantages of different measurement methods in measuring same irregular scar area. Irregular scar area was scanned by digital scanning and measured by coordinate reading method, AutoCAD pixel method, Photoshop lasso pixel method, Photoshop magic bar filled pixel method and Foxit PDF reading software, and some aspects of these methods such as measurement time, repeatability, whether could be recorded and whether could be traced were compared and analyzed. There was no significant difference in the scar areas by the measurement methods above. However, there was statistical difference in the measurement time and repeatability by one or multi performers and only Foxit PDF reading software could be traced back. The methods above can be used for measuring scar area, but each one has its advantages and disadvantages. It is necessary to develop new measurement software for forensic identification. Copyright© by the Editorial Department of Journal of Forensic Medicine

  2. Flexible Residential Test Facility: Impact of Infiltration and Ventilation on Measured Cooling Season Energy and Moisture Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, Danny S. [BA-PIRC/Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Cummings, Jamie E. [BA-PIRC/Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Vieira, Robin K. [BA-PIRC/Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Fairey, III, Phillip W. [BA-PIRC/Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Sherwin, John S. [BA-PIRC/Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Withers, Jr., Charles [BA-PIRC/Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Hoak, David [BA-PIRC/Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States); Beal, David [BA-PIRC/Florida Solar Energy Center, Cocoa, FL (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Air infiltration and ventilation in residential buildings is a very large part of the heating loads, but empirical data regarding the impact on space cooling has been lacking. Moreover, there has been little data on how building tightness might relate to building interior moisture levels in homes in a hot and humid climate. To address this need, BA-PIRC has conducted research to assess the moisture and cooling load impacts of airtightness and mechanical ventilation in two identical laboratory homes in the hot-humid climate over the cooling season.

  3. Flexible Residential Test Facility: Impact of Infiltration and Ventilation on Measured Cooling Season Energy and Moisture Levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parker, D.; Kono, J.; Vieira, R.; Fairey, P.; Sherwin, J.; Withers, C.; Hoak, D.; Beal, D.

    2014-05-01

    Air infiltration and ventilation in residential buildings is a very large part of the heating loads, but empirical data regarding the impact on space cooling has been lacking. Moreover, there has been little data on how building tightness might relate to building interior moisture levels in homes in a hot and humid climate. To address this need, BA-PIRC has conducted research to assess the moisture and cooling load impacts of airtightness and mechanical ventilation in two identical laboratory homes in the hot-humid climate over the cooling season.

  4. Estimation of bias with the single-zone assumption in measurement of residential air exchange using the perfluorocarbon tracer gas method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ryswyk, K; Wallace, L; Fugler, D; MacNeill, M; Héroux, M È; Gibson, M D; Guernsey, J R; Kindzierski, W; Wheeler, A J

    2015-12-01

    Residential air exchange rates (AERs) are vital in understanding the temporal and spatial drivers of indoor air quality (IAQ). Several methods to quantify AERs have been used in IAQ research, often with the assumption that the home is a single, well-mixed air zone. Since 2005, Health Canada has conducted IAQ studies across Canada in which AERs were measured using the perfluorocarbon tracer (PFT) gas method. Emitters and detectors of a single PFT gas were placed on the main floor to estimate a single-zone AER (AER(1z)). In three of these studies, a second set of emitters and detectors were deployed in the basement or second floor in approximately 10% of homes for a two-zone AER estimate (AER(2z)). In total, 287 daily pairs of AER(2z) and AER(1z) estimates were made from 35 homes across three cities. In 87% of the cases, AER(2z) was higher than AER(1z). Overall, the AER(1z) estimates underestimated AER(2z) by approximately 16% (IQR: 5-32%). This underestimate occurred in all cities and seasons and varied in magnitude seasonally, between homes, and daily, indicating that when measuring residential air exchange using a single PFT gas, the assumption of a single well-mixed air zone very likely results in an under prediction of the AER. The results of this study suggest that the long-standing assumption that a home represents a single well-mixed air zone may result in a substantial negative bias in air exchange estimates. Indoor air quality professionals should take this finding into consideration when developing study designs or making decisions related to the recommendation and installation of residential ventilation systems. © 2014 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Canada. Indoor Air published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd Reproduced with the permission of the Minister of Health Canada.

  5. Evaluation of the impact of environmental public policy measures on energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in the French residential sector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlier, Dorothée; Risch, Anna

    2012-01-01

    A cut in energy consumption by 2050 to reach 50 kWh pe /m 2 /year and reduce GHG emissions by 75% are important objectives of environmental policy in France. The residential sector represents a significant potential source of energy savings. In this paper, our main objective is to construct a simulation model and to evaluate the impact of environmental public policy measures. We model energy consumption and GHG emissions, the decision to invest in energy saving renovations and the dynamics of the housing stock. Particular attention is paid to household investment decisions regarding home renovation. To generate the dynamics and the structure of the housing stock through 2050, we introduce socioeconomic variables that alter the number of renovations and new constructions. This study has three major outputs. First, we estimate the energy consumption and GHG emissions of the residential sector in France through 2050. Second, we study the impact of environmental public policy measures. Lastly, we propose different means to reach the objectives. The results show that while current policies are effective, they are not sufficient to reach the objectives. - Highlights: ► We model the decision to invest in energy saving renovations and dynamics of the housing stock. ► We model and estimate the energy consumption and GHG emissions. ► We study the impact of current environmental public policy measures ► We simulate different public policies to reach the French objectives ► Results show that current policies are effective but not sufficient.

  6. Ground motion measurement at Sefuri and Esashi area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugahara, R.; Takeda, S.; Nozaki, M.; Yamaoka, H.; Yamashita, S.; Nakayama, Y.

    2008-02-01

    It is indispensable for the construction of the next-generation super high-energy accelerator to investigate the ground fluctuation and to get the information on the characteristics of ground vibration. KEK, ICEPP, and J-Power have cooperatively measured the usual tremor of various grounds. This report describes the results of the measurements carried out at the tunnel in Mise Expressway penetrating the Sefuri Mountains forming the boundary between Fukuoka and Saga prefectures and at the facility of Esashi earth tide measurement, National Astronomical Observatory. The comparison with past measurements on other area and the characteristics of wide band usual tremor of each area are also mentioned. (M.H.)

  7. On $L_p$ Affine Surface Area and Curvature Measures

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Yiming

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between $L_p$ affine surface area and curvature measures is investigated. As a result, a new representation of the existing notion of $L_p$ affine surface area depending only on curvature measures is derived. Direct proofs of the equivalence between this new representation and those previously known are provided. The proofs show that the new representation is, in a sense, "polar" to that of Lutwak's and "dual" to that of Sch\\"utt & Werner's.

  8. Can foot anthropometric measurements predict dynamic plantar surface contact area?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collins Natalie

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous studies have suggested that increased plantar surface area, associated with pes planus, is a risk factor for the development of lower extremity overuse injuries. The intent of this study was to determine if a single or combination of foot anthropometric measures could be used to predict plantar surface area. Methods Six foot measurements were collected on 155 subjects (97 females, 58 males, mean age 24.5 ± 3.5 years. The measurements as well as one ratio were entered into a stepwise regression analysis to determine the optimal set of measurements associated with total plantar contact area either including or excluding the toe region. The predicted values were used to calculate plantar surface area and were compared to the actual values obtained dynamically using a pressure sensor platform. Results A three variable model was found to describe the relationship between the foot measures/ratio and total plantar contact area (R2 = 0.77, p R2 = 0.76, p Conclusion The results of this study indicate that the clinician can use a combination of simple, reliable, and time efficient foot anthropometric measurements to explain over 75% of the plantar surface contact area, either including or excluding the toe region.

  9. Intra-abdominal fat area measurement using chest CT data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriya, Hiroshi; Midorikawa, Shigeo; Hashimoto, Kouji; Ishii, Akira; Saitou, Kumi; Andou, Tomonori; Kitamura, Naoko; Sakuma, Koutarou

    2007-01-01

    Intra-abdominal fat obesity, which is linked with the metabolic syndrome, is usually characterized by measuring intra-abdominal fat area at the umbilical level of abdominal CT scan. In recent year, the chances of chest CT scanning are increased, as lung cancer screening survey or individual medical examination. Thus, we presented a method of measuring the areas of intra-abdominal fat and subcutaneous fat at the lower slice of chest CT scan. Fat areas found with this method were significantly correlated with those obtained at the umbilical level. (author)

  10. VT Potential Residential Wind Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — (Link to Metadata) The Renewable Energy Atlas of Vermont and this dataset were created to assist town energy committees, the Clean Energy Development Fund and other...

  11. Older People’s External Residential Assessment Tool (OPERAT: a complementary participatory and metric approach to the development of an observational environmental measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Burholt

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The potential for environmental interventions to improve health and wellbeing has assumed particular importance in the face of unprecedented population ageing. However, presently observational environmental assessment tools are unsuitable for ‘all ages’. This article describes the development of the Older People’s External Residential Assessment Tool (OPERAT. Methods Potential items were identified through review and consultation with an Expert Advisory Group. Items were ranked according the importance ascribed to them by older people who responded to a survey distributed by 50+ forum in Wales (N = 545. 40 highly ranked items were selected for the OPERAT pilot. An observational assessment was conducted in 405 postcodes in Wales. Items validated with data from a survey of older residents (N = 500 in the postcode areas were selected for statistical modelling (Kendall’s Tau-b, p < .05. Data reduction techniques (exploratory factor analysis with Geomin rotation identified the underlying factor structure of OPERAT. Items were weighted (Thurstone scaling approach and scores calculated for each domain. Internal consistency: all items were tested for scale-domain total correlation (Spearman’s rank. Construct validity: correlation analysis examined the associations between domains and the extent to which participants enjoyed living in the area, felt that it was a desirable place to live, or felt safe at night or during the day (Spearman’s rank. Usability: analysis of variance compared mean OPERAT domain scores between neighbourhoods that were homogenous in terms of (a deprivation (quintiles of the Townsend Index and (b geographic settlement type. Inter-rater reliability: Krippendorff’s alpha was used to evaluate inter-rater consistency in ten postcode areas. Results A four factor model was selected as the best interpretable fit to the data. The domains were named Natural Elements, Incivilities and Nuisance

  12. Measuring and heat losses for district heating systems in detached house areas; Maet- och vaermefoerluster foer fjaerrvaermesystem i smaahusomraaden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cederborg, Frederick; Nordgren, Ola [FVB Sverige ab, Vaesteraas (Sweden)

    2005-07-01

    Within 'low heat load' areas e.g. residential areas, with low energy consumption per individual customer, the resulting relationship between the heat loss and the energy sales is big. For these customers with low energy consumption, in particular during the summer season, concerns have been raised regarding the ability of the heat volume meters to register the true energy consumption. In order to determine the magnitude of the losses, the Swedish District Heating Association, has initiated a measuring project where measurements have been made in two separate residential areas with different system configurations and different temperature control programs. The measurements were performed from May 15, 2003 to September 23, 2004. The main objective for the project was to gather data and to analyse the magnitude of the total losses in the building systems. The relation between the heat losses and the measuring losses was also studied briefly. Two types of systems have been studied, on one hand a conventional district heating area with primary connected houses and on the other hand an area with secondary connected houses with PEX-pipes in Enkoeping. The heat and measuring losses at the area Munksundet in Enkoeping is 17 % at a 'load density' of 0,84. This value is somewhat lower than the accounted annual relative loss of 22-23 % stated in the report 'FVF 1997:11 Fjaerrvaerme till smaahus'. The results show that a secondary connected low temperature system with PEX-pipes is an interesting connection alternative for small houses. Also at the residential area Rotskaer in Skutskaer, the heat and measuring losses are lower than the accounted annual relative loss, about 24 % at a 'load density' of 0,49,which is to be compared with about 33 % annual relative loss according to the report 'FVF 1997:11'. Within this assignment there are difficulties to divide the measuring losses in short circuit flows and errors in the heat

  13. A new approach to measuring the rebound effect associated to energy efficiency improvements: An application to the US residential energy demand

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orea, Luis; Llorca, Manuel; Filippini, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    This paper brings attention to the fact that the energy demand frontier model introduced by Filippini and Hunt (2011, 2012) is closely connected to the measurement of the so-called rebound effect associated with improvements in energy efficiency. In particular, we show that their model implicitly imposes a zero rebound effect, which contradicts most of the available empirical evidence on this issue. We relax this restrictive assumption through the modelling of a rebound-effect function that mitigates or intensifies the effect of an efficiency improvement on energy consumption. We illustrate our model with an empirical application that aims to estimate a US frontier residential aggregate energy demand function using panel data for 48 states over the period 1995 to 2011. Average values of the rebound effect in the range of 56–80% are found. Therefore, policymakers should be aware that most of the expected energy reduction from efficiency improvements may not be achieved. - Highlights: • A new approach to measuring rebound effects in energy consumption is presented. • We illustrate our proposal with an application to US residential energy demand. • Relatively large rebound effects in the range of 56–80% are found. • Energy-inefficient states tend to exhibit low rebound effects. • We identify states where energy-saving policies should be more effective

  14. Renewables in residential development. An integrated GIS-based multicriteria approach for decentralized micro renewable energy production in new settlement development. A case study of the eastern metropolitan area of Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmas, Claudia [Cagliari Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Land Engineering; Abis, Emanuela [Cagliari Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Architecture; Haaren, Christina von [Leibniz Univ. of Hannover (Germany). Dept. of Environmental Planning; Lovett, Andrew [East Anglia Univ., Norwich (United Kingdom). School of Environmental Sciences

    2011-07-01

    In recent years there has been an increasing interest in using micro renewable energy sources to heat and power homes. However, planning has not yet developed methodological approaches for integrating such objectives of optimized energy efficiency with other environmental requirements and concerns of sustainable residential development. This study addresses such integration by first presenting an approach to assess the different potentials of the landscape for generating renewable energy (solar, wind, geothermic, biomass). Subsequently, optimized locations for residential development according to other sustainability criteria are identified and the two sets of results integrated by systematic GIS operations. The methodological approach for evaluating spatial variations in energy potential and producing the energy potential maps was based on existing methods for assessing the energy potential of the landscape which were adapted to the local scale and data availability. In the case of bioenergy potential a new method was developed. Other environmental criteria for deciding about sustainable locations for residential areas with different types of micro generation were identified through a survey of more than 100 expert respondents. This survey involved pairwise comparisons of relevant factors, which were then translated using the Analytical Hierarchy Process into relative weights. Subsequently these weights were applied to factor maps in a GIS via a weighted linear combination method to obtain suitable areas for new settlements and preferred locations for micro renewable technologies in the eastern metropolitan area of Cagliari, Sardinia. (orig.)

  15. Do dose area product meter measurements reflect radiation doses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    SA JOURNAL OF RADIOLOGY • August 2004. Abstract. This study determined the correlation between radiation doses absorbed by health care workers and dose area product meter (DAP) measurements at Universitas Hospital, Bloemfontein. The DAP is an instrument which accurately measures the radiation emitted from ...

  16. Do dose area product meter measurements reflect radiation doses ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study determined the correlation between radiation doses absorbed by health care workers and dose area product meter (DAP) measurements at Universitas Hospital, Bloemfontein. The DAP is an instrument which accurately measures the radiation emitted from the source. The study included the interventional ...

  17. Measurements of area and the (island) species-area relationship: new directions for an old pattern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Triantis, K.A.; Nogues-Bravo, D.; Hortal, J.

    2008-01-01

    show that increasing the accuracy of the estimation of area has negligible impact on the fit and form of the species-area relationship, even though our analyses included some of the most topographically diverse island groups in the world. In addition, we show that the inclusion of general measurements...

  18. Development of a computational technique to measure cartilage contact area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willing, Ryan; Lapner, Michael; Lalone, Emily A; King, Graham J W; Johnson, James A

    2014-03-21

    Computational measurement of joint contact distributions offers the benefit of non-invasive measurements of joint contact without the use of interpositional sensors or casting materials. This paper describes a technique for indirectly measuring joint contact based on overlapping of articular cartilage computer models derived from CT images and positioned using in vitro motion capture data. The accuracy of this technique when using the physiological nonuniform cartilage thickness distribution, or simplified uniform cartilage thickness distributions, is quantified through comparison with direct measurements of contact area made using a casting technique. The efficacy of using indirect contact measurement techniques for measuring the changes in contact area resulting from hemiarthroplasty at the elbow is also quantified. Using the physiological nonuniform cartilage thickness distribution reliably measured contact area (ICC=0.727), but not better than the assumed bone specific uniform cartilage thicknesses (ICC=0.673). When a contact pattern agreement score (s(agree)) was used to assess the accuracy of cartilage contact measurements made using physiological nonuniform or simplified uniform cartilage thickness distributions in terms of size, shape and location, their accuracies were not significantly different (p>0.05). The results of this study demonstrate that cartilage contact can be measured indirectly based on the overlapping of cartilage contact models. However, the results also suggest that in some situations, inter-bone distance measurement and an assumed cartilage thickness may suffice for predicting joint contact patterns. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. 16 CFR 500.13 - Measurement of commodities by area measure only, how expressed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... commodities by area measure only, how expressed. For commodities measured in terms of area measure only declaration of net quantity in terms of square yards, square feet, and square inches shall be expressed in the... only, how expressed. 500.13 Section 500.13 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION RULES...

  20. Internal Combustion Engines as the Main Source of Ultrafine Particles in Residential Neighborhoods: Field Measurements in the Czech Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitka Stolcpartova

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafine particles (UFP, diameter < 100 nm exposure has already been associated with adverse effects on human health. Spatial distribution of UFP is non-uniform; they concentrate in the vicinity of the source, e.g. traffic, because of their short lifespan. This work investigates spatial distribution of UFP in three areas in the Czech Republic with different traffic load: High traffic (Prague neighborhood—Sporilov, commuter road vicinity (Libeznice, and a small city with only local traffic (Celakovice. Size-resolved measurements of particles in the 5–500 nm range were taken with a particle classifier mounted, along with batteries, GPS and other accessories, on a handcart and pushed around the areas, making one-minute or longer stops at places of interest. Concentrations along main roads were elevated in comparison with places farther from the road; this pattern was observed in all sites, while particle number distributions both close and away from main roads had similar patterns. The absence of larger particles, the relative absence of higher concentrations of particles away from the main roads, and similar number distributions suggest that high particle number concentrations cannot be readily attributed to sources other than internal combustion engines in vehicles and mobile machinery (i.e., mowers and construction machines.

  1. Radon-222 measurement in a uranium prospecting area in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binns, D.A.; Melo, V.P.; Gouvea, V.A.

    1996-01-01

    Rn-222 concentrations were determined in about 100 measuring points in an uranium prospecting area in the eastern part of Brazil. The single measurement results in open areas, identified as environmental points, present values between 4 ± 2 Bq/m -3 and 404 ± 16 Bq/m -3 with a mean value of 62 ± 10 Bq/m -3 . Comparing the mean values for each measuring point, the values obtained are between 15 ± 2 Bq/m -3 in the deposit for mineral samples and 245 ±7 Bq/m -3 for the central point, AN08, of the prospective mine. Makrofol SSNTD were used for the measurements and exposed for 120 days alternated periods from May 1992 to May 1994. (authors). 8 refs., 1 tab

  2. Logistics and supply chain effectiveness measure areas in lng companies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the issues of logistics and supply chain measures in companies. It considers different management systems in the area of production, which evolved from isolated production activities to business connected systems. There are performed three case studies - three examples of systems proposed and implemented in the LNG industry: I-MAC, ICIMS and PMS. Data gained from these systems are the basis to create effectiveness measures for LNG companies and LNG supply chains.

  3. Prediction of residential radon exposure of the whole Swiss population: comparison of model-based predictions with measurement-based predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauri, D D; Huss, A; Zimmermann, F; Kuehni, C E; Röösli, M

    2013-10-01

    Radon plays an important role for human exposure to natural sources of ionizing radiation. The aim of this article is to compare two approaches to estimate mean radon exposure in the Swiss population: model-based predictions at individual level and measurement-based predictions based on measurements aggregated at municipality level. A nationwide model was used to predict radon levels in each household and for each individual based on the corresponding tectonic unit, building age, building type, soil texture, degree of urbanization, and floor. Measurement-based predictions were carried out within a health impact assessment on residential radon and lung cancer. Mean measured radon levels were corrected for the average floor distribution and weighted with population size of each municipality. Model-based predictions yielded a mean radon exposure of the Swiss population of 84.1 Bq/m(3) . Measurement-based predictions yielded an average exposure of 78 Bq/m(3) . This study demonstrates that the model- and the measurement-based predictions provided similar results. The advantage of the measurement-based approach is its simplicity, which is sufficient for assessing exposure distribution in a population. The model-based approach allows predicting radon levels at specific sites, which is needed in an epidemiological study, and the results do not depend on how the measurement sites have been selected. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Development Of Economic Techniques For Residential Thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Lee R.; Allen, Sharon

    1983-03-01

    Infrared thermography has proven to be a valuable tool in the detection of heat loss in both commercial and residential buildings. The field of residential thermography has needed a simple method with which to report the deficiencies found during an infrared scan. Two major obstacles hindering the cost effectiveness of residential thermography have been 1) the ability to quickly transport some high resolution imaging system equipment from job site to job site without having to totally dismount the instruments at each area, and 2) the lack of a standard form with which to report the findings of the survey to the customer. Since the industry has yet to provide us with either, we believed it necessary to develop our own. Through trial and error, we have come up with a system that makes interior residential thermography a profitable venture at a price the homeowner can afford. Insulation voids, or defects can be instantly spotted with the use of a thermal imaging system under the proper conditions. A special hand-held device was developed that enables the thermographer to carry the equipment from house to house without the need to dismantle and set up at each stop. All the necessary components are attached for a total weight of about 40 pounds. The findings are then conveyed to a form we have developed. The form is simple enough that the client without special training in thermography can understand. The client is then able to locate the problems and take corrective measures or give it to a con-tractor to do the work.

  5. Kidney size in infants and children assessed by area measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jorulf, H.; Nordmark, J.; Jonsson, A.

    1978-01-01

    A method for assessment of the kidney size in infants and children is described based on measurement of the renal parenchymal area determined planimetrically, using for reference the height of the column of the upper three lumbar vertebrae or the body weight. The kidney size is expressed in standard deviation in the appropriate nomograms. (Auth.)

  6. Measurement of magnetic fields in the Area Metropolitana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masis Mesen, Juan Pablo

    2007-01-01

    The operation and proper handling of equipment for measuring EMR-300 electromagnetic waves are studied and apply that knowledge to determine which areas of the metropolitan area are mostly affected by exposure to the emission of radiation. This team is able to measure magnetic field strength, electric field strength and power density, also can measure the most important parameters in a simple manner. International standards provide maximum values for these parameters that limit human exposure to such radiation. These standards are based on epidemiological several and laboratory that have been carried out in order to determine in which circumstances a biological entity is exposed to a level of radiation that can cause harm to their health. It focuses on measuring the level of radiation in certain areas of interest, which were chosen because are areas with high population density and also in proximity to antennas that emit electromagnetic waves. Before carrying out the data collection was performed a detailed study of which are the recommendations to measure and avoid as far as possible sources of error, once that those recommendations are implemented the making data was started. Data obtained show that these areas do not present any health risk and that levels of magnetic field strength and power density are well below the limits set by both the International Commission on Non-Ionizing Radiation Protection and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers. On the other hand, based on the obtained results and the study already done before by the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad, it was concluded that the power density conditions for plane wave is the parameter most effective to quantize the associated risk with different levels of radiation of radio frequency electromagnetic fields. (author) [es

  7. Methods of Measuring and Mapping of Landslide Areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skrzypczak, Izabela; Kokoszka, Wanda; Kogut, Janusz; Oleniacz, Grzegorz

    2017-12-01

    The problem of attracting new investment areas and the inability of current zoning areas, allows us to understand why it is impossible to completely rule out building on landslide areas. Therefore, it becomes important issue of monitoring areas at risk of landslides. Only through appropriate monitoring and proper development of measurements resulting as maps of areas at risk of landslides enables us to estimate the risk and the relevant economic calculation for the realization of the anticipated investment in such areas. The results of monitoring of the surface and in-depth of the landslides are supplemented with constant observation of precipitation. The previous analyses and monitoring of landslides show that some of them are continuously active. GPS measurements, especially with laser scanning provide a unique activity data acquired on the surface of each individual landslide. The development of high resolution numerical models of terrain and the creation of differential models based on subsequent measurements, informs us about the size of deformation, both in units of distance (displacements) and volume. The compatibility of the data with information from in-depth monitoring allows the generation of a very reliable in-depth model of landslide, and as a result proper calculation of the volume of colluvium. Programs presented in the article are a very effective tool to generate in-depth model of landslide. In Poland, the steps taken under the SOPO project i.e. the monitoring and description of landslides are absolutely necessary for social and economic reasons and they may have a significant impact on the economy and finances of individual municipalities and also a whole country economy.

  8. Overview of Socio-economic Transformations Based on Residential Architecture in a Suburban Area - Case Study of Villages in the Polish Region of Warmia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Źróbek-Różańska, Alina; Zysk, Elżbieta; Źróbek, Sabina

    2017-10-01

    Poland has a turbulent and rich history. Partitions, wars, a centrally planned economy of the socialist era and the rapid transition to a market economy left visible marks on the Polish landscape. The changes that took place in the 20th century and the early 21st century have vastly influenced the country’s architecture. Residential buildings in rural suburbs bear witness to turbulent historical events and change processes. This study analyzed residential buildings in two villages situated in the historical district of Warmia (north-eastern Poland) which is now a part of the Region of Warmia and Mazury. The results of the observations were used to review the social, economic, legal and planning factors that influenced residential architecture between 1900 and 2017. The traditional layout of Warmian villages is well preserved in the analyzed locations where pre-war architectural design mingles with buildings erected in the socialist era when construction materials were scarce. Many buildings in the surveyed villages are reminiscent of collective farms, the prescribed architectural style of the 1970s as well as the stylistic diversity of the early transformation period when customized building plans and construction materials became available. The local landscape also features buildings erected in successive decades which brought a significant increase in the price of land and maintenance costs.

  9. Bayesian importance parameter modeling of misaligned predictors: soil metal measures related to residential history and intellectual disability in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onicescu, Georgiana; Lawson, Andrew B; McDermott, Suzanne; Aelion, C Marjorie; Cai, Bo

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, we propose a novel spatial importance parameter hierarchical logistic regression modeling approach that includes measurement error from misalignment. We apply this model to study the relationship between the estimated concentration of soil metals at the residence of mothers and the development of intellectual disability (ID) in their children. The data consist of monthly computerized claims data about the prenatal experience of pregnant women living in nine areas within South Carolina and insured by Medicaid during January 1, 1996 and December 31, 2001 and the outcome of ID in their children during early childhood. We excluded mother-child pairs if the mother moved to an unknown location during pregnancy. We identified an association of the ID outcome with arsenic (As) and mercury (Hg) concentration in soil during pregnancy, controlling for infant sex, maternal race, mother's age, and gestational weeks at delivery. There is some indication that Hg has a slightly higher importance in the third and fourth months of pregnancy, while As has a more uniform effect over all the months with a suggestion of a slight increase in risk in later months.

  10. ASHRAE and residential ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max H.

    2003-10-01

    In the last quarter of a century, the western world has become increasingly aware of environmental threats to health and safety. During this period, people psychologically retreated away from outdoors hazards such as pesticides, smog, lead, oil spills, and dioxin to the seeming security of their homes. However, the indoor environment may not be healthier than the outdoor environment, as has become more apparent over the past few years with issues such as mold, formaldehyde, and sick-building syndrome. While the built human environment has changed substantially over the past 10,000 years, human biology has not; poor indoor air quality creates health risks and can be uncomfortable. The human race has found, over time, that it is essential to manage the indoor environments of their homes. ASHRAE has long been in the business of ventilation, but most of the focus of that effort has been in the area of commercial and institutional buildings. Residential ventilation was traditionally not a major concern because it was felt that, between operable windows and envelope leakage, people were getting enough outside air in their homes. In the quarter of a century since the first oil shock, houses have gotten much more energy efficient. At the same time, the kinds of materials and functions in houses changed in character in response to people's needs. People became more environmentally conscious and aware not only about the resources they were consuming but about the environment in which they lived. All of these factors contributed to an increasing level of public concern about residential indoor air quality and ventilation. Where once there was an easy feeling about the residential indoor environment, there is now a desire to define levels of acceptability and performance. Many institutions--both public and private--have interests in Indoor Air Quality (IAQ), but ASHRAE, as the professional society that has had ventilation as part of its mission for over 100 years, is the

  11. Canada's residential school system: measuring the intergenerational impact of familial attendance on health and mental health outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackett, Christina; Feeny, David; Tompa, Emile

    2016-11-01

    We estimate the intergenerational relationship between the residential school (RS) attendance of an older generation family member and the physical and mental health of a younger generation. Data from the 2012 Aboriginal Peoples Survey (APS) is used to examine the relationship between previous generational family RS attendance and the current physical and mental health of off-reserve First Nations, Métis and Inuit Canadians. Five outcomes are considered (self-perceived health, mental health, distress, suicidal ideation and suicide attempt). Direct (univariate) and indirect (multivariate) effects of family RS attendance are examined for each dependent variable. We draw from the general and indigenous-specific social determinants of health literature to inform the construction of our models. Familial RS attendance is shown to affect directly all five health and mental health outcomes, and is associated with lower self-perceived health and mental health, and a higher risk for distress and suicidal behaviours. Background, mediating and structural-level variables influence the strength of association. Odds of being in lower self-perceived health remain statistically significantly higher with the presence of familial attendance of RS when controlling for all covariates. The odds of having had a suicide attempt within the past 12 months remain twice as high for those with familial attendance of RS. Health disparities exist between indigenous and non-indigenous Canadians, an important source of which is a family history of RS attendance. This has implications for clinical practice and Canadian public health, as well as countries with similar historical legacies. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. Citizen Science as a Tool for Conservation in Residential Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caren B. Cooper

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Human activities, such as mining, forestry, and agriculture, strongly influence processes in natural systems. Because conservation has focused on managing and protecting wildlands, research has focused on understanding the indirect influence of these human activities on wildlands. Although a conservation focus on wildlands is critically important, the concept of residential area as an ecosystem is relatively new, and little is known about the potential of such areas to contribute to the conservation of biodiversity. As urban sprawl increases, it becomes urgent to construct a method to research and improve the impacts of management strategies for residential landscapes. If the cumulative activities of individual property owners could help conserve biodiversity, then residential matrix management could become a critical piece of the conservation puzzle. "Citizen science" is a method of integrating public outreach and scientific data collection locally, regionally, and across large geographic scales. By involving citizen participants directly in monitoring and active management of residential lands, citizen science can generate powerful matrix management efforts, defying the "tyranny of small decisions" and leading to positive, cumulative, and measurable impacts on biodiversity.

  13. Automated System of Area Radiation Measurement (ASARM); Sistema Automatizado de Medicion de Radiacion de Area (SAMRA)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez G, J., E-mail: jaime.hernandez@inin.gob.mx [ININ, Carretera Mexico-Toluca s/n, 52750 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    The realized activities in nuclear facilities involve the determination of the presence of ionizing radiation fields in the workspaces. The instruments designed to detect and to measure these radiation fields provide useful information (specific type of radiation, intensity, etc.) to take the appropriate radiological protection measures, with the purpose of reducing to the minimum the workers exposition and the people in general. The radiological protection program of Reactor TRIGA Mark III contains the instructions and procedures to implement a periodic radiological monitoring, surveillance, rising of contamination levels, type and number of the instruments required for the radiological monitoring of areas and personal. The ana logical monitoring system model Rms II used to detect and measuring exposition speed and neutron radiation fields in several areas of the installation, provides the information in a logarithmic scale measurer of 4 or 5 decades located in a shelf where the previously mentioned measurement channels are centralized. Also inside the reactor monitoring system are two monitors of radioactive material concentration in the air: The particles continuous monitor and the gaseous effluents monitor which present the referred information of the diverse detectors through ana logical readers. These monitors when operating with an ana logical indication does not present the possibility to generate historical files electronically of each monitor previously mentioned neither to generate visual and audible indications of the alarms. This work presents the Automated System of Area Radiation Measurement which potentiated the functionality of the area monitors for gamma and neutron radiation, as well as of the particles continuous monitor and the gaseous effluents of reactor TRIGA Mark III, when being developed a computer system that captures in real time the information of all the monitors, generating this way an electronic binnacle, a visual and audible alarm

  14. Optimal Load Control via Frequency Measurement and Neighborhood Area Communication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, CH; Topcu, U; Low, SH

    2013-11-01

    We propose a decentralized optimal load control scheme that provides contingency reserve in the presence of sudden generation drop. The scheme takes advantage of flexibility of frequency responsive loads and neighborhood area communication to solve an optimal load control problem that balances load and generation while minimizing end-use disutility of participating in load control. Local frequency measurements enable individual loads to estimate the total mismatch between load and generation. Neighborhood area communication helps mitigate effects of inconsistencies in the local estimates due to frequency measurement noise. Case studies show that the proposed scheme can balance load with generation and restore the frequency within seconds of time after a generation drop, even when the loads use a highly simplified power system model in their algorithms. We also investigate tradeoffs between the amount of communication and the performance of the proposed scheme through simulation-based experiments.

  15. Measuring multiple nano-textured areas simultaneously with imaging scatterometry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jonas Skovlund; Hansen, Poul Erik; Bilenberg, Brian

    2017-01-01

    and areas with defects can be avoided. These advantages make imaging scatterometry a very effective and user-friendly characterization method and allow us to determine the homogeneity of a nano- Textured surface by performing pixel-wise analyses. In the analysis an inverse modelling approach is used, where...... measured diffraction efficiencies are compared to simulated diffraction efficiencies using a least-square fitting approach. We demonstrate an imaging scatterometry setup built into an optical microscope. The setup is capable of measuring multiple 2D gratings with pitches of 200 nm simultaneously...

  16. Corrective measures evaluation report for technical area-v groundwater.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witt, Johnathan L (North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID); Orr, Brennon R. (North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID); Dettmers, Dana L. (North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID); Hall, Kevin A. (North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID); Howard, Hope (North Wind, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID)

    2005-07-01

    This Corrective Measures Evaluation Report was prepared as directed by the Compliance Order on Consent issued by the New Mexico Environment Department to document the process of selecting the preferred remedial alternative for contaminated groundwater at Technical Area V. Supporting information includes background information about the site conditions and potential receptors and an overview of work performed during the Corrective Measures Evaluation. Evaluation of remedial alternatives included identification and description of four remedial alternatives, an overview of the evaluation criteria and approach, qualitative and quantitative evaluation of remedial alternatives, and selection of the preferred remedial alternative. As a result of the Corrective Measures Evaluation, it was determined that monitored natural attenuation of all contaminants of concern (trichloroethene, tetrachloroethene, and nitrate) was the preferred remedial alternative for implementation as the corrective measure to remediate contaminated groundwater at Technical Area V of Sandia National Laboratories/New Mexico. Finally, design criteria to meet cleanup goals and objectives and the corrective measures implementation schedule for the preferred remedial alternative are presented.

  17. Measuring the effectiveness of protected area networks in reducing deforestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andam, Kwaw S; Ferraro, Paul J; Pfaff, Alexander; Sanchez-Azofeifa, G Arturo; Robalino, Juan A

    2008-10-21

    Global efforts to reduce tropical deforestation rely heavily on the establishment of protected areas. Measuring the effectiveness of these areas is difficult because the amount of deforestation that would have occurred in the absence of legal protection cannot be directly observed. Conventional methods of evaluating the effectiveness of protected areas can be biased because protection is not randomly assigned and because protection can induce deforestation spillovers (displacement) to neighboring forests. We demonstrate that estimates of effectiveness can be substantially improved by controlling for biases along dimensions that are observable, measuring spatial spillovers, and testing the sensitivity of estimates to potential hidden biases. We apply matching methods to evaluate the impact on deforestation of Costa Rica's renowned protected-area system between 1960 and 1997. We find that protection reduced deforestation: approximately 10% of the protected forests would have been deforested had they not been protected. Conventional approaches to evaluating conservation impact, which fail to control for observable covariates correlated with both protection and deforestation, substantially overestimate avoided deforestation (by over 65%, based on our estimates). We also find that deforestation spillovers from protected to unprotected forests are negligible. Our conclusions are robust to potential hidden bias, as well as to changes in modeling assumptions. Our results show that, with appropriate empirical methods, conservation scientists and policy makers can better understand the relationships between human and natural systems and can use this to guide their attempts to protect critical ecosystem services.

  18. Early measurements in urban areas after the Chernobyl accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Likhtarev, I.

    2000-01-01

    This paper summarises the experience on the radioactive monitoring of the environment and population dose assessment provided in urban areas, mainly in Kiev, after the Chernobyl accident. It emphasises the need of several radiological teams, of the support from several institutions and of preparedness for a consistent database, dose assessment and criteria for decision making. Main results of measurements of gamma exposure rates, air, grass and food radioactive contamination are presented. (author)

  19. Air pollution, land price development and assessment of immission control needs in urban development plans. The impact of immission pollution by sulphur dioxide and dust precipitation on property prices in residential areas of Dortmund and Duisburg

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee Chenjai.

    1993-01-01

    Air pollution, land price development and assessment of immission control needs in urban development plans. The impact of immission pollution by sulphur dioxide and dust precipitation on property prices in residential areas of Dortmund and Duisburg. The focus of this thesis is on studying the links between property prices and air pollution. The ground rent theory which goes back to the 16th century provides the theoretical basis for this work. RICARDO put forward the theory, that air may, under certain circumstances, - as for instance different local air pollution levels or sensitivity of locals to air quality -, which did not apply 200 years ago actually produce rent. These circumstances do indeed apply widely today - different air pollution levels in urban areas are just a case in point. Various empiricial studies in the U.S. proved that air pollution with different substances does actually influence the value of property. The ground rent influenced by air pollution is called ''air rent''. This study contains empirical studies on the influence of air pollution by sulphur dioxide SO 2 and dust precipitation on general property prices in residential areas of Dortmund between 1979 and 1989 and Duisburg between 1981 and 1989. (orig./UA) [de

  20. Residential Energy Performance Metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Wright

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Techniques for residential energy monitoring are an emerging field that is currently drawing significant attention. This paper is a description of the current efforts to monitor and compare the performance of three solar powered homes built at Missouri University of Science and Technology. The homes are outfitted with an array of sensors and a data logger system to measure and record electricity production, system energy use, internal home temperature and humidity, hot water production, and exterior ambient conditions the houses are experiencing. Data is being collected to measure the performance of the houses, compare to energy modeling programs, design and develop cost effective sensor systems for energy monitoring, and produce a cost effective home control system.

  1. Contestation in the Use of Residential space: House Typologies and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need to accommodate the populace creates competition for space; the outcome of this competition has produced differently zoned areas such as residential areas, shopping centres, parks and office towers. Bulawayo's residential areas are dominated by one-household units or detached one-storey houses in the ...

  2. Temporal and Other Exposure Aspects of Residential Magnetic Fields Measurement in Relation to Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia in Children: The National Cancer Institute Children's Cancer Group Study (invited paper)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baris, D.; Linet, M.; Auvinen, A.; Kaune, W.T.; Wacholder, S.; Kleinerman, R.; Hatch, E.; Robison, L.; Niwa, S.; Haines, C.; Tarone, R.E.

    1999-01-01

    Case-control studies have used a variety of measurements to evaluate the relationship of children's exposure to magnetic fields (50 or 60 Hz) with childhood leukaemia and other childhood cancers. In the absence of knowledge about which exposure metrics may be biologically meaningful, studies during the past 10 years have often used time-weighted average (TWA) summaries of home measurements. Recently, other exposure metrics have been suggested, usually based on theoretical considerations or limited laboratory data. In this paper, the rationale and associated preliminary studies undertaken are described as well as feasibility and validity issues governing the choice of the primary magnetic field exposure assessment methods and summary metric used to estimate children's exposure in the National Cancer Institute/Children's Cancer Group (NCI/CCG) case-control study. Also provided are definitions and discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of the various exposure metrics used in exploratory analyses of the NCI/CCG measurement data. Exposure metrics evaluated include measures of central tendency (mean, median, 30th to 70th percentiles), peak exposures (90th and higher percentiles, peak values of the 24 h measurements), and measurements of short-term temporal variability (rate of change). This report describes correlations of the various metrics with the time-weighted average for the 24 h period (TWA-24-h). Most of the metrics were found to be positively and highly correlated with TWA-24-h, but lower correlations of TWA-24-h with peak exposure and with rate of change were observed. To examine further the relation between TWA and alternative metrics, similar exploratory analysis should be considered for existing data sets and for forthcoming measurement investigations of residential magnetic fields and childhood leukaemia. (author)

  3. Comparison between predicted duct effectiveness from proposed ASHRAE Standard 152P and measured field data for residential forced air cooling systems; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siegel, Jeffrey A.; McWilliams, Jennifer A.; Walker, Iain S.

    2002-01-01

    The proposed ASHRAE Standard 152P ''Method of Test for Determining the Design and Seasonal Efficiencies of Residential Thermal Distribution Systems'' (ASHRAE 2002) has recently completed its second public review. As part of the standard development process, this study compares the forced air distribution system ratings provided by the public review draft of Standard 152P to measured field results. 58 field tests were performed on cooling systems in 11 homes in the summers of 1998 and 1999. Seven of these houses had standard attics with insulation on the attic floor and a well-vented attic space. The other four houses had unvented attics where the insulation is placed directly under the roof deck and the attic space is not deliberately vented. Each house was tested under a range of summer weather conditions at each particular site, and in some cases the amount of duct leakage was intentionally varied. The comparison between 152P predicted efficiencies and the measured results includes evaluation of the effects of weather, duct location, thermal conditions, duct leakage, and system capacity. The results showed that the difference between measured delivery effectiveness and that calculated using proposed Standard 152P is about 5 percentage points if weather data, duct leakage and air handler flow are well known. However, the accuracy of the standard is strongly dependent on having good measurements of duct leakage and system airflow. Given that the uncertainty in the measured delivery effectiveness is typically also about 5 percentage points, the Standard 152P results are acceptably close to the measured data

  4. Differences between out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in residential and public locations and implications for public-access defibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folke, Fredrik; Gislason, Gunnar H; Lippert, Freddy

    2010-01-01

    The majority of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs) occur in residential locations, but knowledge about strategic placement of automated external defibrillators in residential areas is lacking. We examined whether residential OHCA areas suitable for placement of automated external defibrillat...... defibrillators could be identified on the basis of demographic characteristics and characterized individuals with OHCA in residential locations....

  5. Gas-heating alternatives to the residential electric heat pump. Gas Appliance Technology Center 1987 program. Topical report for Work Area 1.1, October 1989-March 1990

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, C.

    1990-05-01

    The characteristics of electric heat pumps are described. Options are defined and assessed for utilizing gas heating in conjunction with existing residential electric heat pumps. These options include gas heat introduced into the refrigeration circuit, a flue gas-heated tube bank in the air supply duct, and a hot-water-to-air coil in the supply duct. Economics are presented for conversion of a residence's total space and water heating from electric to gas in New York City and Atlanta. Potential marketing strategies are discussed, and potential gas sales volumes from conversions are estimated. The study concludes that the use of gas water heating coupled with a hydronic coil in the supply ductwork from the air handler is the most advantageous option for the gas industry

  6. Measurement and comparison of remotely derived leaf area index predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Ryan Russell

    Environmental change occurs in response to both natural and anthropogenic causes. As the world's human population continues to increase, anthropogenic change will also increase. These changes affect the health and vigor of forests throughout the world, including those in north central Florida. Leaf Area Index (LAI), the amount of leaf area per unit ground area, is an important biophysical variable that is directly related to rates of atmospheric gas exchange, biomass partitioning, and productivity. While global and local models that map biophysical parameters are prevalent in the literature, landscape to regional scale models are less common. Therefore, the ability to map and monitor LAI over landscape to regional scale areas is essential for understanding medium scale biophysical properties and how these properties affect biogeochemical cycling, biomass accumulation, and primary productivity. This study develops and verifies several new models to estimate LAI using in situ field measurements throughout north central Florida, Landsat Thematic Mapper remotely sensed imagery, remotely derived vegetation indices, simple and multiple regression, and artificial neural networks (ANNs). This study concludes that while multiple band regression and regression with individual vegetation indices (Normalized Difference Vegetation Index, Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index, Simple Ratio, and Greenness Vegetation Index) can estimate LAI, the most accurate way to estimate regional scale LAI is to train an ANN using in situ LAI data and remote sensing brightness values measured from six different portions of the electromagnetic spectrum. The new ANN method of estimating LAI is then applied to two forest ecology studies. The first study analyzes LAI in longleaf pine/turkey oak sandhills as a function of time since last burn. It concludes that in the absence of fire, sandhill LAI increases, and this may be useful for identifying where prescribed burns need to be done. The second study

  7. CHILDREN'S RESIDENTIAL EXPOSURE TO CHLORPYRIFOS: APPLICATION OF CPPAES FIELD MEASUREMENTS OF CHLORPYRIFOS AND TCPY WITHIN MENTOR/SHEDS PESTICIDES MODEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    The comprehensive individual field-measurements on non-dietary exposure collected in the Children's-Post-Pesticide-Application-Exposure-Study (CPPAES) were used within MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides, a physically based stochastic human exposure and dose model. In this application, howev...

  8. 33 CFR 106.265 - Security measures for restricted areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Protect stores and industrial supplies from tampering. (b) Designation of restricted areas. The OCS... stores and industrial supplies; and (vii) Areas containing hazardous materials. (c) The OCS facility...

  9. Children's residential exposure to chlorpyrifos: Application of CPPAES field measurements of chlorpyrifos and TCPy within MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hore, Paromita [Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Rutgers University and the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (UMDNJ), Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08855 (United States)]|[New York City Department of Health, 253 Broadway New York, New York 10007 (United States); Zartarian, Valerie; Xue Jianping; Ozkaynak, Haluk [National Exposure Research Laboratory, U.S. EPA, 109 TW Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Wang, S.-W.; Yang, Y.-C.; Chu, P.-Ling; Robson, Mark; Georgopoulos, Panos [Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Rutgers University and the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (UMDNJ), Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08855 (United States); Sheldon, Linda [National Exposure Research Laboratory, U.S. EPA, 109 TW Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Needham, Larry Barr, Dana [Contemporary Pesticide Laboratory, Centers for Disease Control, 4770 Buford Highway, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Freeman, Natalie [Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Rutgers University and the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (UMDNJ), Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08855 (United States)]|[University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Lioy, Paul J. [Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Rutgers University and the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (UMDNJ), Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08855 (United States)]. E-mail: plioy@eohsi.rutgers.edu

    2006-08-01

    The comprehensive individual field-measurements on non-dietary exposure collected in the Children's-Post-Pesticide-Application-Exposure-Study (CPPAES) were used within MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides, a physically based stochastic human exposure and dose model. In this application, however, the model was run deterministically. The MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides employed the CPPAES as input variables to simulate the exposure and the dose profiles for seven children over a 2-week post-application period following a routine residential and professional indoor crack-and-crevice chlorpyrifos application. The input variables were obtained from a personal activity diary, microenvironmental measurements and personal biomonitoring data obtained from CPPAES samples collected from the individual children and in their homes. Simulation results were compared with CPPAES field measured values obtained from the children's homes to assess the utility of the different microenvironmental data collected in CPPAES, i.e. indicator toys and wipe samplers to estimate aggregate exposures that can be result from one or more exposure pathways and routes. The final analyses of the database involved comparisons of the actual data obtained from the individual biomarker samples of a urinary metabolite of chlorpyrifos (TCPy) and the values predicted by MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides using the CPPAES-derived variables. Because duplicate diet samples were not part of the CPPAES study design, SHEDs-Pesticides simulated dose profiles did not account for the dietary route. The research provided more confidence in the types of data that can be used in the inhalation and dermal contact modules of MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides to predict the pesticide dose received by a child. It was determined that we still need additional understanding about: (1) the types of activities and durations of activities that result in non-dietary ingestion of pesticides and (2) the influence of dietary exposures on the levels of TCPy found

  10. A Voltage Instability Predictor Using Local Area Measurements. VIP++

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warland, Leif

    2002-07-01

    There has been a pressure to operate power systems closer to their security limits. This has partially been due to financial imperatives following the deregulating of markets. Other practical difficulties have been obtaining authorization from regulatory bodies to build power plants and transmission lines. In this situation it is essential to monitor the system and to have tools that can predict the distance to the point of collapse (PoC). Much effort has been put into research of the phenomenon voltage collapse, and many approaches have been explored. Both dynamic and steady-state behavior have been studied thoroughly, though very few protection and control schemes have been implemented. In this dissertation the possibility of an index based on local area measurements have been explored. Voltage stability can be classified as either a transient or a long-term stability problem, and the index proposed in this dissertation is based on long-term dynamics. The VIP algorithm is a method that uses the maximum load ability of a transmission network as the PoC, thus by estimating a Thevenin equivalent the method can track the distance to the PoC as this occurs when the two impedances are equal in absolute value. The problem of the VIP algorithm is that it is based on a system with two equations and four unknowns, thus it is not observable. In order to make it observable the assumption of constant Thevenin equivalent between two sets of measurements is made. When this is not the case the method will estimate a Thevenin impedance of the same size as the measured load impedance, but with a negative sign. Changes in the Thevenin equivalent can be traced to both angle variation in a remote generator area or to variations in load impedances on nearby buses. The problem of angle variations can be mitigated by the selection of an appropriate reference bus. A method to solve the second problem, of variation in load admittances, has been proposed in this dissertation and given the

  11. Dose-area product measurement for patients in diagnostic radiography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alkhawad, Safaa Ibrahim Awad Elkarim

    2001-09-01

    There is a wide spread of the utilization of medical diagnostic x-ray in Sudan upon the last years, in private clinics as well as in public hospitals. The aim of this study was to measure the doses to patients from x-ray in radiography departments in Khartoum State. Use was made of ionization chamber that measures the product of dose times the exposed area of the patient in units of Gy cm 2 . The work was performed in 7 hospitals over 250 patients. 71.2% of the patients were males and 28.8% females. From this work, it appears that the chest radiography represent 42% of the total exposure of human body organs to radiography, there was also a clear variation in doses resulting from this exposure for different x-ray machines. The results of this study were compared with similar from Germany, Finland, New Zealand and Norway; which are recently available studies. The comparison showed those investigation of abdomen, spine and pelvis result in higher radiation doses. No data for limb exposure were obtained from these countries, in Sudan exposure of the limb carry radiation doses compared to the rest of the human body.(Author)

  12. Enact legislation supporting residential property assessed clean energy financing (PACE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Devashree

    2012-11-15

    Congress should enact legislation that supports residential property assessed clean energy (PACE) programs in the nation’s states and metropolitan areas. Such legislation should require the Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) to allow Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac to purchase residential mortgages with PACE assessments while at the same time providing responsible underwriting standards and a set of benchmarks for residential PACE assessments in order to minimize financial risks to mortgage holders. Congressional support of residential PACE financing will improve energy efficiency, encourage job creation, and foster economic growth in the nation’s state and metropolitan areas.

  13. Measurement of air quality within storage domes in technical area 54, areas G and L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, E.

    1994-01-01

    The concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and tritium inside of storage domes at TA-54 were measured to assess worker exposure and support the Area G site characterization, including the Radioactive Air Emissions Management (RAEM) program. Samples were collected at 2-3 locations within Domes 48, 49, and 153 on up to six days during the summer of 1994. Samples were collected to evaluate three scenarios: (1) normal working activities with the domes open; (2) after domes were closed overnight; and (3) after domes were closed for three days. Eight-hour integrated samples were collected and analyzed in Radian's Austin laboratories. Tritium activities from 17.1 to 69,900 pCi/m 3 were measured. About two dozen individual VOCs were identified in each sample, but most of the concentration levels were very low (e.g.; 20%) than when the domes were closed only overnight. The data were used to generate estimated annual dome emission rates of 0.3 Ci/yr of tritium and less than 100 lbs/yr of VOCs. The measured VOC concentrations were collected during the warmest months of the year and therefore should represent worst-case air impacts

  14. Measured and modeled dry deposition velocities over the ESCOMPTE area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michou, M.; Laville, P.; Serça, D.; Fotiadi, A.; Bouchou, P.; Peuch, V.-H.

    2005-03-01

    Measurements of the dry deposition velocity of ozone have been made by the eddy correlation method during ESCOMPTE (Etude sur Site pour COntraindre les Modèles de Pollution atmosphérique et de Transport d'Emissions). The strong local variability of natural ecosystems was sampled over several weeks in May, June and July 2001 for four sites with varying surface characteristics. The sites included a maize field, a Mediterranean forest, a Mediterranean shrub-land, and an almost bare soil. Measurements of nitrogen oxide deposition fluxes by the relaxed eddy correlation method have also been carried out at the same bare soil site. An evaluation of the deposition velocities computed by the surface module of the multi-scale Chemistry and Transport Model MOCAGE is presented. This module relies on a resistance approach, with a detailed treatment of the stomatal contribution to the surface resistance. Simulations at the finest model horizontal resolution (around 10 km) are compared to observations. If the seasonal variations are in agreement with the literature, comparisons between raw model outputs and observations, at the different measurement sites and for the specific observing periods, are contrasted. As the simulated meteorology at the scale of 10 km nicely captures the observed situations, the default set of surface characteristics (averaged at the resolution of a grid cell) appears to be one of the main reasons for the discrepancies found with observations. For each case, sensitivity studies have been performed in order to see the impact of adjusting the surface characteristics to the observed ones, when available. Generally, a correct agreement with the observations of deposition velocities is obtained. This advocates for a sub-grid scale representation of surface characteristics for the simulation of dry deposition velocities over such a complex area. Two other aspects appear in the discussion. Firstly, the strong influence of the soil water content to the plant

  15. 77 FR 28519 - Test Procedure Guidance for Room Air Conditioners, Residential Dishwashers, and Residential...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ... Guidance for Room Air Conditioners, Residential Dishwashers, and Residential Clothes Washers: Public... procedures for room air conditioners, residential dishwashers, and residential clothes washers. DATES: DOE...'s existing test procedures for residential room air conditioners, residential dishwashers, and...

  16. Optimisation of a Swedish district heating system with reduced heat demand due to energy efficiency measures in residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Åberg, M.; Henning, D.

    2011-01-01

    The development towards more energy efficient buildings, as well as the expansion of district heating (DH) networks, is generally considered to reduce environmental impact. But the combined effect of these two progressions is more controversial. A reduced heat demand (HD) due to higher energy efficiency in buildings might hamper co-production of electricity and DH. In Sweden, co-produced electricity is normally considered to displace electricity from less efficient European condensing power plants. In this study, a potential HD reduction due to energy efficiency measures in the existing building stock in the Swedish city Linköping is calculated. The impact of HD reduction on heat and electricity production in the Linköping DH system is investigated by using the energy system optimisation model MODEST. Energy efficiency measures in buildings reduce seasonal HD variations. Model results show that HD reductions primarily decrease heat-only production. The electricity-to-heat output ratio for the system is increased for HD reductions up to 30%. Local and global CO 2 emissions are reduced. If co-produced electricity replaces electricity from coal-fired condensing power plants, a 20% HD reduction is optimal for decreasing global CO 2 emissions in the analysed DH system. - Highlights: ► A MODEST optimisation model of the Linköping district heating system is used. ► The impact of heat demand reduction on heat and electricity production is examined. ► Model results show that heat demand reductions decrease heat-only production. ► Local and global CO 2 emissions are reduced. ► The system electricity-to-heat output increases for reduced heat demand up to 30%.

  17. E-Area Performance Assessment Interim Measures Assessment FY2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stallings, M

    2006-01-31

    After major changes to the limits for various disposal units of the E-Area Low Level Waste Facility (ELLWF) last year, no major changes have been made during FY2005. A Special Analysis was completed which removes the air pathway {sup 14}C limit from the Intermediate Level Vault (ILV). This analysis will allow the disposal of reactor moderator deionizers which previously had no pathway to disposal. Several studies have also been completed providing groundwater transport input for future special analyses. During the past year, since Slit Trenches No.1 and No.2 were nearing volumetric capacity, they were operationally closed under a preliminary closure analysis. This analysis was performed using as-disposed conditions and data and showed that concrete rubble from the demolition of 232-F was acceptable for disposal in the STs even though the latest special analysis for the STs had reduced the tritium limits so that the inventory in the rubble exceeded limits. A number of special studies are planned during the next years; perhaps the largest of these will be revision of the Performance Assessment (PA) for the ELLWF. The revision will be accomplished by incorporating special analyses performed since the last PA revision as well as revising analyses to include new data. Projected impacts on disposal limits of more recent studies have been estimated. No interim measures will be applied during this year. However, it is being recommended that tritium disposals to the Components-in-Grout (CIG) Trenches be suspended until a limited Special Analysis (SA) currently in progress is completed. This SA will give recommendations for optimum placement of tritiated D-Area tower waste. Further recommendations for tritiated waste placement in the CIG Trenches will be given in the upcoming PA revision.

  18. Morphodynamics of Wadden Sea Areas – Field Measurements and Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thorsten Albers

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The Wadden Sea areas of the German North Sea coast are affected by intense morphodynamics. Especially in the mouths of the estuaries sedimentation and erosion occur on different temporal and spatial scales and therefore challenge the decision-makers. To satisfy the requirements, which modern maritime traffic demands, a sustainable concept for sediment management has to be developed to grant an economic and ecologic balanced system. To evaluate different actions and their effects, e.g. by means of numerical models, an improved knowledge of morphodynamic processes on tidal flats is required. The Institute of River and Coastal Engineering at the Hamburg University of Technology runs detailed measurements to collect hydrodynamic and morphodynamic data of tidal flats in the estuary Elbe, that is the approach to the port of Hamburg. Water levels, flow and wave parameters and concentrations of suspended sediments are recorded in high resolution. Furthermore, the bathymetry is determined in frequent intervals with a multi-beam echo sounder.

  19. Determination of water quality of ground water in selected Payatas residential areas using ion-selective electrodes (ISE) and atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) (determination of NO3, Cl, Pb, Cd, Zn)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tahir, Samsudin A.; Roque, Willie P.; Arididon, Bonifacio D. Jr.; Gardon, Ruel W.

    2003-01-01

    This study aims to determine the water-soluble ions using ion-selective electrodes (ISE) and trace metals using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Seven water samples were chosen from the thirteen sites, which were gathered from the selected Payatas residential areas in Quezon City. For the trace metals the lowest detection of AAS in lead was obtained in La Brea site and was found to be -0.5 ppm. Lead content has a value of -0.04 ppm and was found to be below the detection limit of 0.1 ppm. The remaining sites obtained high value of lead concentrations in AAS reading. The range of concentration for lead was from 0.5 ppm for La Brea site to 1.4 ppm for Velasco site. The cadmium as trace metal in groundwater samples from Payatas residential area was found to be below the lowest limit of detection ( 3 which is 15.6 ppm and it was obtained by the used of ion selective electrodes (ISE) Horiba model type. Second to it was the La Brea site, which is 10.04 ppm All the other samples do not exceeds to the maximum allowable concentration of nitrate (50.0 ppm), and it ranged from 4.10 ppm for open-well site to 15.6 ppm for Lopez site. In chloride determination, Lagro High School obtained a reading of 57.6 ppm using ISE and it was the highest concentration amount present in seven samples. Next to it was the Ungrin site (36.8 ppm), samples ranged from 6.7 ppm for La Brea site to 57.6 ppm for Lagro high school site. All the samples do not exceeds to the maximum allowable concentration for chloride, which is 250 ppm. (Authors)

  20. Measurement of local interfacial area concentration in boiling loop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kyoung, Ho Kang; Byong, Jo Yun; Goon, Cherl Park

    1995-01-01

    An accurate prediction of two-phase flow is essential to many energy systems, including nuclear reactors. To model the two-phase flow, detailed information on the internal flow structure is required. The void fraction and interfacial area concentration are important fundamental parameters characterizing the internal structure of two-phase flow. The interfacial area concentration is defined as the available interfacial area per unit volume of the two-phase mixture in calculations of the interfacial transport of mass, momentum, and energy. Although a number of studies have been made in this area, the interfacial area concentration in two-phase flow has not been sufficiently investigated either experimentally or analytically. Most existing models for interfacial area concentration are limited to area-averaged interfacial area concentration in a flow channel. And the studies on local interfacial area concentration are limited to the case of air-water two-phase flow. However, the internal flow structure of steam-water two-phase flow having various bubble sizes could be quite different from that of air-water two-phase flow, the reliability of which weak in practical applications. In this study, the local interfacial area concentration steam-water two-phase flow has been investigated experimentally in a circular boiling tube having a heating rod in the center, and for the low flow with liquid superficial velocity <1 m/s

  1. Residentialization of Public Spaces: Bratislava Example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacová, Andrea; Puškár, Branislav; Vráblová, Edita

    2017-10-01

    The housing estates in Bratislava saturated the housing needs of a large number of inhabitants who come after World War II to the city. Design of public spaces often did not have priority in the process of designing. The solutions for mentioned exterior spaces had been planned after blocks of flat realization, but many of them are not realized to this day. The article analyzes the example of the unrealized public spaces in existing housing estates Devinska Nova Ves and Petržalka (city districts of Bratislava) and offer practical solutions in relation to residencialization method. Residencialization of missing public places is an effective method of adding identities to settlements. It improves the quality of residential environment and public spaces. The main aim is to create better conditions for social activities in public areas, which are missing on the present. The research will be focused on the examination of the urban, cultural and construction potential of the existing residential enviroment in Bratislava. The main aim of residentialization is not only to enhance the quality of spatial and building structures in the selected residential area and maintain long-term sustainability in the pertinent programme area, but mainly to improve the quality of living for the residents. The outputs of the project are proposals and practical procedures developed with regard to planning documents for local municipal authorities and regional organizations. The solutions will have a positive impact on the enhancement of the quality of public spaces, attractive social activities and of a conceptual link - residentialization.

  2. Measuring the size of an airport's catchment area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lieshout, R.

    2012-01-01

    Although much empirical research exists on the factors that drive passenger airport choice, not much is known about the related topic of airport catchment area size. This paper presents a novel methodology to assess the size of airport catchment areas and the airport’s market shares therein using a

  3. Measuring the extent of overlaps in protected area designations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deguignet, Marine; Arnell, Andy; Juffe-Bignoli, Diego; Shi, Yichuan; Bingham, Heather; MacSharry, Brian; Kingston, Naomi

    2017-01-01

    Over the past decades, a number of national policies and international conventions have been implemented to promote the expansion of the world's protected area network, leading to a diversification of protected area strategies, types and designations. As a result, many areas are protected by more than one convention, legal instrument, or other effective means which may result in a lack of clarity around the governance and management regimes of particular locations. We assess the degree to which different designations overlap at global, regional and national levels to understand the extent of this phenomenon at different scales. We then compare the distribution and coverage of these multi-designated areas in the terrestrial and marine realms at the global level and among different regions, and we present the percentage of each county's protected area extent that is under more than one designation. Our findings show that almost a quarter of the world's protected area network is protected through more than one designation. In fact, we have documented up to eight overlapping designations. These overlaps in protected area designations occur in every region of the world, both in the terrestrial and marine realms, but are more common in the terrestrial realm and in some regions, notably Europe. In the terrestrial realm, the most common overlap is between one national and one international designation. In the marine realm, the most common overlap is between any two national designations. Multi-designations are therefore a widespread phenomenon but its implications are not well understood. This analysis identifies, for the first time, multi-designated areas across all designation types. This is a key step to understand how these areas are managed and governed to then move towards integrated and collaborative approaches that consider the different management and conservation objectives of each designation.

  4. Residential mobility and childhood leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amoon, A T; Oksuzyan, S; Crespi, C M; Arah, O A; Cockburn, M; Vergara, X; Kheifets, L

    2018-07-01

    Studies of environmental exposures and childhood leukemia studies do not usually account for residential mobility. Yet, in addition to being a potential risk factor, mobility can induce selection bias, confounding, or measurement error in such studies. Using data collected for California Powerline Study (CAPS), we attempt to disentangle the effect of mobility. We analyzed data from a population-based case-control study of childhood leukemia using cases who were born in California and diagnosed between 1988 and 2008 and birth certificate controls. We used stratified logistic regression, case-only analysis, and propensity-score adjustments to assess predictors of residential mobility between birth and diagnosis, and account for potential confounding due to residential mobility. Children who moved tended to be older, lived in housing other than single-family homes, had younger mothers and fewer siblings, and were of lower socioeconomic status. Odds ratios for leukemia among non-movers living mobility, including dwelling type, increased odds ratios for leukemia to 2.61 (95% CI: 1.76-3.86) for living mobility of childhood leukemia cases varied by several sociodemographic characteristics, but not by the distance to the nearest power line or calculated magnetic fields. Mobility appears to be an unlikely explanation for the associations observed between power lines exposure and childhood leukemia. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Residential land values and their determinants in high density ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study identified that residential segregation exists in Nigerian cities and the study area. Among urbanization and residential land use problems identified by the study are poor level of social and technical infrastructure, poor land and city management system capacity, paucity of planning laws, funding, poor institutional ...

  6. Residential neighbourhoods in Kathmandu: Key design guidelines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bijaya K. Shrestha

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Residential neighbourhoods developed using various techniques in Kathmandu by both the public and private sectors have not only provided a poor urban setting and failed to address socio-cultural needs, but are also poor at building a community and creating links to the built environment, with the result that the planned areas lack a sense of place and the inhabitants lack a feeling of home. Although traditional neighbourhoods in the historic core area had many features of a good residential neighbourhood in the past, they are currently undergoing rapid destruction. The residents of these neighbourhoods have little awareness of these issues. The existing legal and institutional frameworks are inadequate and ineffective and cannot address these problems, and so the formulation of design guidelines, their strict implementation, and enhancement of socio-cultural events including social networking are recommended for future residential neighbourhood development.

  7. Factor Structure, Reliability and Measurement Invariance of the Alberta Context Tool and the Conceptual Research Utilization Scale, for German Residential Long Term Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoben, Matthias; Estabrooks, Carole A.; Squires, Janet E.; Behrens, Johann

    2016-01-01

    We translated the Canadian residential long term care versions of the Alberta Context Tool (ACT) and the Conceptual Research Utilization (CRU) Scale into German, to study the association between organizational context factors and research utilization in German nursing homes. The rigorous translation process was based on best practice guidelines for tool translation, and we previously published methods and results of this process in two papers. Both instruments are self-report questionnaires used with care providers working in nursing homes. The aim of this study was to assess the factor structure, reliability, and measurement invariance (MI) between care provider groups responding to these instruments. In a stratified random sample of 38 nursing homes in one German region (Metropolregion Rhein-Neckar), we collected questionnaires from 273 care aides, 196 regulated nurses, 152 allied health providers, 6 quality improvement specialists, 129 clinical leaders, and 65 nursing students. The factor structure was assessed using confirmatory factor models. The first model included all 10 ACT concepts. We also decided a priori to run two separate models for the scale-based and the count-based ACT concepts as suggested by the instrument developers. The fourth model included the five CRU Scale items. Reliability scores were calculated based on the parameters of the best-fitting factor models. Multiple-group confirmatory factor models were used to assess MI between provider groups. Rather than the hypothesized ten-factor structure of the ACT, confirmatory factor models suggested 13 factors. The one-factor solution of the CRU Scale was confirmed. The reliability was acceptable (>0.7 in the entire sample and in all provider groups) for 10 of 13 ACT concepts, and high (0.90–0.96) for the CRU Scale. We could demonstrate partial strong MI for both ACT models and partial strict MI for the CRU Scale. Our results suggest that the scores of the German ACT and the CRU Scale for nursing

  8. The energy-related services are the major sales promotion. Customized electricity and district heat supply technology and services for the newly developed residential area Boerkhauser Feld at Solingen-Aufderhoehe; Die Dienstleistung bringt den (Verkaufs-)Erfolg. Strom- und Waermeversorgung fuer Wohngebiet Boerkhauser Feld in Solingen-Aufderhoehe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2001-06-01

    The firm COMUNA-metall, Herford, is the contractor and service provider for installation and operation of the electricity and district heat supply systems based on a modular cogeneration plant (CHP system). The residential area will eventually encompass about 450 residential units, all buildings are low-energy houses. The article explains the systems and gives an initial performance report covering 100 existing residential units. (orig./CB) [German] Die Firma COMUNA-metall, Herford, hat als Dienstleister die Erstellung und den Betrieb einer Strom- und Nahwaermeversorgung mit Kraft-Waerme-Kopplung fuer das Wohngebiet uebernommen, das nach Fertigstellung ca. 450 Wohneinheiten in Niedrigenergiebauweise umfassen wird. Der Beitrag schildert die technischen Einrichtungen und eine erste Leistungsbilanz im Bauabschnitt mit 100 Wohneinheiten. (orig./CB)

  9. Preliminary measures of tritium content in the Hague (Cotentin) area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umezu, T.

    1971-01-01

    Tritium content of about thirty samples (seawater, algae and rainwater) taken during April-July 1973 in La Hague (Cotentin) area was determined with a liquid scintillation detector after electrolytic enrichment. Tritium content was 15 to 130 tritium units not much higher than concentration generally observed in environment nowadays [fr

  10. Measurement of Interfacial Area Production and Permeability within Porous Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crandall, Dustin; Ahmadi, Goodarz; Smith, Duane H.

    2010-01-01

    An understanding of the pore-level interactions that affect multi-phase flow in porous media is important in many subsurface engineering applications, including enhanced oil recovery, remediation of dense non-aqueous liquid contaminated sites, and geologic CO 2 sequestration. Standard models of two-phase flow in porous media have been shown to have several shortcomings, which might partially be overcome using a recently developed model based on thermodynamic principles that includes interfacial area as an additional parameter. A few static experimental studies have been previously performed, which allowed the determination of static parameters of the model, but no information exists concerning the interfacial area dynamic parameters. A new experimental porous flow cell that was constructed using stereolithography for two-phase gas-liquid flow studies was used in conjunction with an in-house analysis code to provide information on dynamic evolution of both fluid phases and gas-liquid interfaces. In this paper, we give a brief introduction to the new generalized model of two-phase flow model and describe how the stereolithography flow cell experimental setup was used to obtain the dynamic parameters for the interfacial area numerical model. In particular, the methods used to determine the interfacial area permeability and production terms are shown.

  11. A torque-measuring micromotor provides operator independent measurements marking four different density areas in maxillae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Stefano, Danilo Alessio; Arosio, Paolo; Piattelli, Adriano; Perrotti, Vittoria; Iezzi, Giovanna

    2015-02-01

    Bone density at implant placement site is a key factor to obtain the primary stability of the fixture, which, in turn, is a prognostic factor for osseointegration and long-term success of an implant supported rehabilitation. Recently, an implant motor with a bone density measurement probe has been introduced. The aim of the present study was to test the objectiveness of the bone densities registered by the implant motor regardless of the operator performing them. A total of 3704 bone density measurements, performed by means of the implant motor, were registered by 39 operators at different implant sites during routine activity. Bone density measurements were grouped according to their distribution across the jaws. Specifically, four different areas were distinguished: a pre-antral (between teeth from first right maxillary premolar to first left maxillary premolar) and a sub-antral (more distally) zone in the maxilla, and an interforaminal (between and including teeth from first left mandibular premolar to first right mandibular premolar) and a retroforaminal (more distally) zone in the lower one. A statistical comparison was performed to check the inter-operators variability of the collected data. The device produced consistent and operator-independent bone density values at each tooth position, showing a reliable bone-density measurement. The implant motor demonstrated to be a helpful tool to properly plan implant placement and loading irrespective of the operator using it.

  12. Renewables in residential development. An integrated GIS-based multicriteria approach for decentralized micro-renewable energy production in new settlement development. A case study of the eastern metropolitan area of Cagliari, Sardinia, Italy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palmas, Claudia; Haaren, Christina von [Hannover Univ. (Germany). Dept. of Environmental Planning; Abis, Emanuela [Cagliari Univ. (Italy). Dept. of Civil, Environmental Engineering and Architecture; Lovett, Andrew [East Anglia Univ., Norwich (United Kingdom). School of Environmental Sciences

    2012-12-15

    In recent years, there has been an increasing interest in using micro-renewable energy sources. However, planning has not yet developed methodological approaches (1) for spatially optimizing residential development according to the different renewable energy potentials and (2) for integrating objectives of optimized energy efficiency with other environmental requirements and concerns. This study addresses these topics by firstly presenting a new concept for the regional planning. The methodological approach for the evaluation of spatial variations in the available energy potential was based on the combination of existing methods adapted to the local scale and data availability. For assessing the bioenergy potential, a new method was developed. Other environmental criteria for deciding about sustainable locations were identified through a survey of more than 100 expert respondents. This survey involved pairwise comparisons of relevant factors, which were then translated into relative weights using the Analytical Hierarchy Process. Subsequently, these weights were applied to factor maps in a Geographical Information System using a weighted linear combination method. In the test region, the eastern metropolitan area of Cagliari, Sardinia, this analysis resulted in the designation of suitable areas for new settlements and preferred locations for microrenewable technologies. Based on expert preferences, a number of alternatives for future housing development were identified, which can be integrated in the early stages of land use or development plans. The method proposed can be an effective tool for planners to assess changes and to identify the best solution in terms of sustainable development. (orig.)

  13. Bayesian statistical evaluation of peak area measurements in gamma spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, L.; Turkman, A.; Paulino, C.D.

    2010-01-01

    We analyze results from determinations of peak areas for a radioactive source containing several radionuclides. The statistical analysis was performed using Bayesian methods based on the usual Poisson model for observed counts. This model does not appear to be a very good assumption for the counting system under investigation, even though it is not questioned as a whole by the inferential procedures adopted. We conclude that, in order to avoid incorrect inferences on relevant quantities, one must proceed to a further study that allows us to include missing influence parameters and to select a model explaining the observed data much better.

  14. Low income homebuyers, low housing infrastructure quality, and disaster threat (Case study: Landslide in Trangkil Sejahtera and Trangkil Baru Residential Area, Semarang)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indrianingrum, Lulut; Andiyarto, Hanggoro Tri Cahyo

    2018-03-01

    The Housing of Trangkil Sejahtera and Trangkil Baru are two housing areas located in the Village of Sukorejo, Gunungpati District, Semarang Municipality. In 2014, these housing areas were experienced landslide triggered by heavy rains that continued to fall across Semarang for several days. Successive landslides occurred on January 23, 2014 early in the morning until 07.30 am. Seven houses in Trangkil Sejahtera Housing were damaged by landslide, while in Trangkil Baru Housing there were 32 homes that severely damaged. The housing was located in a zone with high degree of susceptibility to landslide and stated as landslide prone areas by the Directorate of Environmental Geology. The objective of this article is to analyze the facts that the low income homebuyers basically do not understand the importance of accessing the information of land, infrastructure quality and specifications of the house. The analysis is conducted by comparing the landslide background and the homebuyer's condition background at the time the housing was purchased. The results showed that people who occupied the housing were victims of evictions and in low-income condition. A low-income homeowner has a low bargaining position in obtaining adequate housing infrastructure quality. Developers did not prepare proper infrastructure system to anticipate landslides and fulfill legal aspects of the real estate development. Low income homeowners should be educated about legal aspect of land purchased as well as their rights when buying a home.

  15. Contactless Opto-electronic Area and Their Attainable Measuring Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Ricny

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the problems of the contactless areameasurement on the principle of video signal processing. This videosignal generates TV camera, which scans the measured object. Basicprinciple of these meters is explained and attainable measurementaccuracy and factors influencing this accuracy are analyzed.

  16. Exploring the Relationship between Conduct Disorder and Residential Treatment Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabat, Julia Cathcart; Lyons, John S.; Martinovich, Zoran

    2008-01-01

    We examined the differential outcomes in residential treatment for youths with conduct disorder (CD)--with special attention paid to interactions with age and gender--in a sample of children and adolescents in 50 residential treatment centers and group homes across Illinois. Multi-disciplinary teams rated youths ages 6-20 (N = 457) on measures of…

  17. Effect of Organizational Climate on Youth Outcomes in Residential Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Neil; Leon, Scott C.; Epstein, Richard A.; Durkin, Elizabeth; Helgerson, Jena; Lakin-Starr, Brittany L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the association between organizational climate and changes in internalizing and externalizing behavior for youth in residential treatment centers (RTCs). The sample included 407 youth and 349 front-line residential treatment staff from 17 RTCs in Illinois. Youth behavior was measured using the Child Functional Assessment Rating…

  18. Some problem areas in capture cross-section measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moxon, M.C.; Gayther, D.B.; Sowerby, M.G.

    1975-01-01

    This paper outlines some of the problems that have been encountered and are envisaged in the measurement and evaluation of capture cross-sections. Particular emphasis is placed on the cross-sections of the structural materials (Fe, Ni, Cr) used in fast reactors. The topics considered are the influence of scattered neutrons in capture detectors, the determination of background, sample thickness corrections, and the theoretical representation of resonance parameters. (author)

  19. FIRST REPORT ON Cryptococcus neoformans IN PIGEON EXCRETA FROM PUBLIC AND RESIDENTIAL LOCATIONS IN THE METROPOLITAN AREA OF CUIABÁ, STATE OF MATO GROSSO, BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doracilde Terumi Takahara

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY Cryptococcosis is a severe systemic mycosis caused by two species of Cryptococcus that affect humans and animals: C. neoformans and C. gattii. Cosmopolitan and emergent, the mycosis results from the interaction between a susceptible host and the environment. The occurrence of C. neoformans was evaluated in 122 samples of dried pigeon excreta collected in 49 locations in the City of Cuiabá, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil, including public squares (n = 5, churches (n = 4, educational institutions (n = 3, health units (n = 8, open areas covered with asbestos (n = 4, residences (n = 23, factory (n = 1 and a prison (n = 1. Samples collected from July to December of 2010 were seeded on Niger seed agar (NSA. Dark brown colonies were identified by urease test, carbon source assimilation tests and canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue medium. Polymerase chain reaction primer pairs specific for C. neoformans were also used for identification. Cryptococcus neoformans associated to pigeon excreta was isolated from eight (6.6% samples corresponding to six (12.2% locations. Cryptococcus neoformans was isolated from urban areas, predominantly in residences, constituting a risk of acquiring the disease by immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals.

  20. First report on Cryptococcus neoformans in pigeon excreta from public and residential locations in the metropolitan area of Cuiabá, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahara, Doracilde Terumi; Lazéra, Márcia dos Santos; Wanke, Bodo; Trilles, Luciana; Dutra, Valéria; Paula, Daphine Ariadne Jesus de; Nakazato, Luciano; Anzai, Mariana Caselli; Leite Júnior, Diniz Pereira; Paula, Claudete Rodrigues; Hahn, Rosane Christine

    2013-01-01

    Cryptococcosis is a severe systemic mycosis caused by two species of Cryptococcus that affect humans and animals: C. neoformans and C. gattii. Cosmopolitan and emergent, the mycosis results from the interaction between a susceptible host and the environment. The occurrence of C. neoformans was evaluated in 122 samples of dried pigeon excreta collected in 49 locations in the City of Cuiabá, State of Mato Grosso, Brazil, including public squares (n = 5), churches (n = 4), educational institutions (n = 3), health units (n = 8), open areas covered with asbestos (n = 4), residences (n = 23), factory (n = 1) and a prison (n = 1). Samples collected from July to December of 2010 were seeded on Niger seed agar (NSA). Dark brown colonies were identified by urease test, carbon source assimilation tests and canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue medium. Polymerase chain reaction primer pairs specific for C. neoformans were also used for identification. Cryptococcus neoformans associated to pigeon excreta was isolated from eight (6.6%) samples corresponding to six (12.2%) locations. Cryptococcus neoformans was isolated from urban areas, predominantly in residences, constituting a risk of acquiring the disease by immunocompromised and immunocompetent individuals.

  1. Family ties and residential locations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, C.H.; Cooke, T.J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, and in the Special Issue it introduces, the focus is on the role of family ties in residential location choice and, conversely, the role of residential locations in maintaining family ties. Not only do events in the nuclear family trigger residential relocations, but nearby family

  2. Surface albedo measurements in Mexico City metropolitan area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, T; Mar, B; Longoria, R; Ruiz Suarez, L. G [Centro de Ciencias de la Atmosfera, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Morales, L [Instituto de Geografia, UNAM, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2001-04-01

    Optical and thermal properties of soils are important input data for the meteorological and photochemical modules of air quality models. As development of these models increase on spatial resolution good albedo data become more important. In this paper measurements of surface albedo of UV (295-385 nm) and visible (450-550 nm) radiation are reported for different urban and rural surfaces in the vicinity of Mexico City. It was found for the downtown zone and average albedo value of 0.05 which is in very good agreement with reported values for urban surfaces. Our albedo values measured in UV region for grey cement and green grass are of 0.10 and 0.009, respectively, and quite similar to those found at the literature of 0.11 and 0.008 for those type of surfaces. [Spanish] Las propiedades opticas y termicas de suelos son datos importantes para los modulos meteorologicos y fotoquimicos de los modelos de calidad del aire. Conforme aumenta la resolucion espacial del modelo se vuelve mas importante contar con buenos datos de albedo. En este articulo se presentan mediciones de albedo superficial de radiacion Ultravioleta (295-385 nm) y visible (450-550 nm) para diferentes superficies urbanas. Los valores medidos de albedo en la region UV para cemento gris y pasto verde son de 0.10 y 0.009, respectivamente, y son muy similares a los reportados en la literatura, 0.11 y 0.008 para este tipo de superficies.

  3. Geospatial analysis of residential proximity to open-pit coal mining areas in relation to micronuclei frequency, particulate matter concentration, and elemental enrichment factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espitia-Pérez, Lyda; Arteaga-Pertuz, Marcia; Soto, José Salvador; Espitia-Pérez, Pedro; Salcedo-Arteaga, Shirley; Pastor-Sierra, Karina; Galeano-Páez, Claudia; Brango, Hugo; da Silva, Juliana; Henriques, João A P

    2018-05-03

    During coal surface mining, several activities such as drilling, blasting, loading, and transport produce large quantities of particulate matter (PM) that is directly emitted into the atmosphere. Occupational exposure to this PM has been associated with an increase of DNA damage, but there is a scarcity of data examining the impact of these industrial operations in cytogenetic endpoints frequency and cancer risk of potentially exposed surrounding populations. In this study, we used a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) approach and Inverse Distance Weighting (IDW) methods to perform a spatial and statistical analysis to explore whether exposure to PM 2.5 and PM 10 pollution, and additional factors, including the enrichment of the PM with inorganic elements, contribute to cytogenetic damage in residents living in proximity to an open-pit coal mining area. Results showed a spatial relationship between exposure to elevated concentrations of PM 2.5, PM 10 and micronuclei frequency in binucleated (MNBN) and mononucleated (MNMONO) cells. Active pits, disposal, and storage areas could be identified as the possible emission sources of combustion elements. Mining activities were also correlated with increased concentrations of highly enriched elements like S, Cu and Cr in the atmosphere, corroborating its role in the inorganic elements pollution around coal mines. Elements enriched in the PM 2.5 fraction contributed to increasing of MNBN but seems to be more related to increased MNMONO frequencies and DNA damage accumulated in vivo. The combined use of GIS and IDW methods could represent an important tool for monitoring potential cancer risk associated to dynamically distributed variables like the PM. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Energy saving innovations in residential buildings. Energiesparende Innovationen im Eigenheim

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gruber, E; Meyer, T

    1983-01-01

    Socio-economic studies have been carried out in the course of the ''Landstuhl demonstration project'' with the aim of evaluating supporting and hampering factors for the realization of energy saving measures, especially for the use of innovation techniques and the use of passive solar energy in residential buildings. The results of two opinion polls have been presented by means of standardized personal interviews with building-owners (in the whole Federal Republic and in the demonstration area) and with building experts (264 persons questioned). The evaluations of the results of the opinion poll show that energy conservation plays an important but not a dominant part in the planning of residential buildings. In the ''Landstuhl area'' energy saving investments took an above-average high position (large impact of the demonstration project). The building-owners and experts most frequently wanted and recommended increased conventional measures. It could be shown that the imagination of the building-owners was asked too much when taking measures for the use of passive solar energy.

  5. Catchment-scale evaluation of pollution potential of urban snow at two residential catchments in southern Finland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sillanpää, Nora; Koivusalo, Harri

    2013-01-01

    Despite the crucial role of snow in the hydrological cycle in cold climate conditions, monitoring studies of urban snow quality often lack discussions about the relevance of snow in the catchment-scale runoff management. In this study, measurements of snow quality were conducted at two residential catchments in Espoo, Finland, simultaneously with continuous runoff measurements. The results of the snow quality were used to produce catchment-scale estimates of areal snow mass loads (SML). Based on the results, urbanization reduced areal snow water equivalent but increased pollutant accumulation in snow: SMLs in a medium-density residential catchment were two- to four-fold higher in comparison with a low-density residential catchment. The main sources of pollutants were related to vehicular traffic and road maintenance, but also pet excrement increased concentrations to a high level. Ploughed snow can contain 50% of the areal pollutant mass stored in snow despite its small surface area within a catchment.

  6. GREEN RETROFITTING RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS

    Science.gov (United States)

    When compared with the rest of the world, the United States consumes a disproportionately large amount of energy and is a major source of greenhouse gases from fossil fuel combustion. As much as two thirds of U.S. electricity production is consumed by residential and commerci...

  7. Residential Mechanical Precooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, a. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This research conducted by the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team evaluated mechanical air conditioner pre-cooling strategies in homes throughout the United States. EnergyPlus modeling evaluated two homes with different performance characteristics in seven climates. Results are applicable to new construction homes and most existing homes built in the last 10 years, as well as fairly efficient retrofitted homes.

  8. Integration of fuel cells into residential buildings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, J.M.; Entchev, E.; Gusdorf, J.; Szadkowski, F.; Swinton, M.; Kalbfleisch, W.; Marchand, R.

    2004-01-01

    Integration of small combined heat and power systems (CHP) into residential buildings is challenging as the loads are small, the load diversity is limited and there are a number of unresolved issues concerning sizing, control, peak loads, emergency operation, grid connection and export, etc. Natural Resources Canada has undertaken an initiative to investigate and develop techniques for the integration of small CHP systems into residential buildings using a highly instrumented house modified to allow quick installation and thorough monitoring of CHP integration techniques as well determining the performance of the CHP systems themselves when operating in a house. The first CHP system installed was a Stirling engine residential CHP system. It was used to examine the completeness of the CHP modifications to the house, to evaluate various building integration techniques and to measure the performance of the CHP system itself. The testing demonstrated the modified house to be an excellent facility for the development of CHP building integration techniques and the testing of residential CHP systems. The Stirling engine CHP system was found to operate well and produce meaningful input to the house. A second system (residential fuel cell) is presently being installed and building integration techniques and the performance of the fuel cell will be tested over the coming year. (author)

  9. Risk factors for posttraumatic stress disorder following an industrial disaster in a residential area: A note on the origin of observed gender differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spindler, Helle; Elklit, Ask; Christiansen, Dorte

    2010-04-01

    Studies indicate that differences in trait anxiety and trauma-related distress may mediate the gender differences observed in posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). We examined the contributions of gender, trait anxiety, and trauma-related distress to the development of PTSD after an industrial disaster. Three months after a massive explosion in a fireworks factory in Kolding, Denmark, in November 2004, residents in the surrounding area were asked to complete the Harvard Trauma Questionnaire, the General Health Questionnaire, and a questionaire designed for the present study. Using multivariable logistic regression with PTSD as the dependent variable, we examined 4 explanatory models: (1) gender; (2) gender and trait anxiety; (3) gender, trait anxiety, and perceived danger; and (4) gender, trait anxiety, perceived danger, perceived hostility, feeling isolated, depersonalization, and behavioral self-blame. Fifty-one percent (N = 516; 265 women and 251 men) of the area residents participated in the study. The female-to-male ratio of PTSD was 2.4:1. Women experienced significantly more trait anxiety (P < 0.001), feelings of isolation (P < 0.005), and behavioral self-blame (P = 0.018), and less perceived danger (P = 0.034) than did men. In multivariable logistic regression analysis, gender alone predicted 3.7% of the variance in PTSD status (odds ratio [OR] = 2.40; 95% CI, 1.35-4.27; P < 0.005); however, in all other models, gender was not significant. The final model comprised trait anxiety (OR = 1.20; 95% CI, 1.11-1.30; P < 0.001), perceived danger (OR = 4.62; 95% Cl, 2.24-9.50; P < 0.001), perceived hostility (OR = 5.21; 95% CI, 1.93-14.09; P < 0.001), feeling isolated (OR = 3.34; 95% CI, 1.55-7.16; P < 0.002), depersonalization (OR = 2.49; 95% CI, 1.42-4.37; P < 0.001), and behavioral self-blame (OR = 0.46; 95% CI, 0.24-0.86; P = 0.015), explaining 48.9% of the variance in PTSD severity. This cross-sectional study found that gender was no longer associated with PTSD

  10. Design and engineering of a gas-engine driven heat pump heating station including heat distribution system and utilization of waste heat from an ice rink for the residential area Dorsten - Maria Lindenhof. Planung eines Gasmotor-Waermepumpenheizwerkes mit angeschlossenem Waermeverteilungsnetz und Abwaermenutzung einer Eisenbahn fuer das zentralstaedtische Gebiet 'Maria-Lindenhof' in Dorsten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huelsemann, R.

    1984-05-01

    A gas-engine driven heat pump heating station including the required heat destribution system and utilization of waste heat from an ice rink to be realized in the residential area Dorsten - Maria Lindenhof. The total heat capacity was to be reached in two stages, corresponding to the progress of the building and housing structure in this specific area: First stage of construction 5,6 MW, final stage of construction 7,6 MW. With regard to the final stage of construction only a relatively small part of the buildings is provided with heating systems designed for supply and return temperatures of 90/70/sup 0/C respectively. The old people's home built in 1980 was already equipped with low temperature heating systems and all buildings still to be built shall be provided with low-temperature systems. As far as old heating systems are concerned, the required measures must be taken to reduce the temperature in the return lines.

  11. Residential heat pumps in the future Danish energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrovic, Stefan; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard

    2016-01-01

    for politically agreed targets which include: at least 50% of electricity consumption from wind power starting from 2020, fossil fuel free heat and power sector from 2035 and 100% renewable energy system starting from 2050. Residential heat pumps supply around 25% of total residential heating demand after 2035......Denmark is striving towards 100% renewable energy system in 2050. Residential heat pumps are expected to be a part of that system.We propose two novel approaches to improve the representation of residential heat pumps: Coefficients of performance (COPs) are modelled as dependent on air and ground...... temperature while installation of ground-source heat pumps is constrained by available ground area. In this study, TIMES-DK model is utilised to test the effects of improved modelling of residential heat pumps on the Danish energy system until 2050.The analysis of the Danish energy system was done...

  12. Energy savings in Danish residential building stock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tommerup, Henrik M.; Svendsen, Svend

    2006-01-01

    a short account of the technical energy-saving possibilities that are present in existing dwellings and presents a financial methodology used for assessing energy-saving measures. In order to estimate the total savings potential detailed calculations have been performed in a case with two typical...... buildings representing the residential building stock and based on these calculations an assessment of the energy-saving potential is performed. A profitable savings potential of energy used for space heating of about 80% is identified over 45 years (until 2050) within the residential building stock......A large potential for energy savings exists in the Danish residential building stock due to the fact that 75% of the buildings were constructed before 1979 when the first important demands for energy performance of building were introduced. It is also a fact that many buildings in Denmark face...

  13. Sediment contamination of residential streams in the metropolitan kansas city area, USA: Part II. whole-sediment toxicity to the amphipod hyalella azteca

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, J.; Ingersoll, C.G.; Kemble, N.E.; Dias, J.R.; Murowchick, J.B.; Welker, G.; Huggins, D.

    2010-01-01

    This is the second part of a study that evaluates the influence of nonpoint sources on the sediment quality of five adjacent streams within the metropolitan Kansas City area, central United States. Physical, chemical, and toxicity data (Hyalella azteca 28-day whole-sediment toxicity test) for 29 samples collected in 2003 were used for this evaluation, and the potential causes for the toxic effects were explored. The sediments exhibited a low to moderate toxicity, with five samples identified as toxic to H. azteca. Metals did not likely cause the toxicity based on low concentrations of metals in the pore water and elevated concentrations of acid volatile sulfide in the sediments. Although individual polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) frequently exceeded effect-based sediment quality guidelines [probable effect concentrations (PECs)], only four of the samples had a PEC quotient (PEC-Q) for total PAHs over 1.0 and only one of these four samples was identified as toxic. For the mean PEC-Q for organochlorine compounds (chlordane, dieldrin, sum DDEs), 4 of the 12 samples with a mean PEC-Q above 1.0 were toxic and 4 of the 8 samples with a mean PEC-Q above 3.0 were toxic. Additionally, four of eight samples were toxic, with a mean PEC-Q above 1.0 based on metals, PAHs, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and organochlorine pesticides. The increase in the incidence of toxicity with the increase in the mean PEC-Q based on organochlorine pesticides or based on metals, PAHs, PCBs, and organochlorine pesticides suggests that organochlorine pesticides might have contributed to the observed toxicity and that the use of a mean PEC-Q, rather than PEC-Qs for individual compounds, might be more informative in predicting toxic effects. Our study shows that stream sediments subject to predominant nonpoint sources contamination can be toxic and that many factors, including analysis of a full suite of PAHs and pesticides of both past and present urban applications and the origins of

  14. Rainwater Quality Measurements in the Area of Bricks Manufacturing at Kajhu Aceh Besar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarina .

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The study of rainwater quality measurement has been done in brick manufacturing area of Kajhu, Aceh Besar. The measurements are taking place in the three different places when the rain fall from the sky in Kajhu area. The physical parameters that will be measured are pH, TDS, conductivity and potential of electricity.

  15. Staged residential post-acute rehabilitation for adults following acquired brain injury: A comparison of functional gains rated on the UK Functional Assessment Measure (UK FIM+FAM) and the Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory (MPAI-4).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Diana; Seaman, Karla; Sharp, Kristylee; Singer, Rachel; Wagland, Janet; Turner-Stokes, Lynne

    2017-01-01

    To compare the UK Functional Assessment Measure (UK FIM+FAM) and Mayo-Portland Adaptability Inventory (MPAI-4) as measures of functional change in patients with brain injury receiving a staged residential post-acute community-based rehabilitation programme. Longitudinal cohort study of consecutive admissions (N = 42) over 3 years. Patients were assessed at admission and discharge/annual review. We examined groups according to stage of independence on admission: Maximum support (stages 1 and 2: N = 17); moderate/maximum self-care/household support (stage 3: N = 15); minimal self-care and moderate household/community support (stages 4-6: N = 10). Median (IQR) age: 50 (37-56) years. Male:female ratio: (71%:29%). Aetiology: stroke (50%), traumatic (36%) and other brain injuries (14%). Both tools demonstrated significant gains in overall scores and all subscales (p MPAI-4 was more sensitive to changes in adjustment and participation for clients admitted in the later stages (4-6). The UK FIM+FAM and MPAI-4 provide complementary evaluation across functional tasks ranging from self-care to participation. This study supports their use for longitudinal outcome evaluation in community residential rehabilitation services that take patients at different stages of recovery.

  16. Radioactive contamination on land and external radiation dose in residential areas around the former Soviet Union's Semipalatinsk nuclear test site: a review of our studies since 1995

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoshi, M.; Yamamoto, M.; Sakaguchi, A.; Takada, J.; Apsalikov, K.N.; Gusev, B.I.

    2004-01-01

    A review is presented on our studies about radioactive contamination on land and external radiation doses to residents by the thermoluminescence technique, performed around the former Soviet Union's Semipalatinsk nuclear test site (SNTS) in Kazakhstan since 1995. Surface and core soil samples have been collected from different sites around the SNTS and long-lived radionuclides such as 137 Cs and Pu isotopes were measured. Unlike 137 Cs, the inventories of 239,240 Pu for most of the sites we visited were several to a few hundred times higher than those (40-120 Bq/m 2 ) for global fallout observed in Japan. Pu in soil around the SNTS was found to be tightly incorporated into various sizes of particles formed in the course of the condensation of melting materials, such as vaporized soil and bomb components. Lower atomic ratios of 240 Pu/ 239 Pu (0.03-0.05) for samples indicated that the nuclear tests conducted at the SNTS resulted in a relatively large amount of close-in fallout Pu even in the outside regions. External radiation doses to residents near the SNTS were evaluated by the thermoluminescence technique for brick samples collected from several settlements: Dolon, Semipalatinsk and Ust'-Kamenogorsk cities. The external radiation doses to population were estimated to be up to 1.0 Gy for resident in Dolon settlement. The doses in other two cities were evaluated to be several hundreds mGy. The present doses in Ust'-Kamenogorsk City were consistent with the human acute health effect on the citizens just after 1956 fallout. (author)

  17. Metal contamination in environmental media in residential ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hard-rock mining for metals, such as gold, silver, copper, zinc, iron and others, is recognized to have a significant impact on the environmental media, soil and water, in particular. Toxic contaminants released from mine waste to surface water and groundwater is the primary concern, but human exposure to soil contaminants either directly, via inhalation of airborne dust particles, or indirectly, via food chain (ingestion of animal products and/or vegetables grown in contaminated areas), is also, significant. In this research, we analyzed data collected in 2007, as part of a larger environmental study performed in the Rosia Montana area in Transylvania, to provide the Romanian governmental authorities with data on the levels of metal contamination in environmental media from this historical mining area. The data were also considered in policy decision to address mining-related environmental concerns in the area. We examined soil and water data collected from residential areas near the mining sites to determine relationships among metals analyzed in these different environmental media, using the correlation procedure in SAS statistical software. Results for residential soil and water analysis indicate that the average values for arsenic (As) (85 mg/kg), cadmium (Cd) (3.2 mg/kg), mercury (Hg) (2.3 mg/kg) and lead (Pb) (92 mg/kg) exceeded the Romanian regulatory exposure levels [the intervention thresholds for residential soil in case of As (25 mg/kg) and Hg

  18. Guidelines for residential commissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wray, Craig P.; Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.

    2003-01-31

    Currently, houses do not perform optimally or even as many codes and forecasts predict, largely because they are field assembled and there is no consistent process to identify problems or to correct them. Residential commissioning is a solution to this problem. This guide is the culmination of a 30-month project that began in September 1999. The ultimate objective of the project is to increase the number of houses that undergo commissioning, which will improve the quality, comfort, and safety of homes for California citizens. The project goal is to lay the groundwork for a residential commissioning industry in California focused on end-use energy and non-energy issues. As such, we intend this guide to be a beginning and not an end. Our intent is that the guide will lead to the programmatic integration of commissioning with other building industry processes, which in turn will provide more value to a single site visit for people such as home energy auditors and raters, home inspectors, and building performance contractors. Project work to support the development of this guide includes: a literature review and annotated bibliography, which facilitates access to 469 documents related to residential commissioning published over the past 20 years (Wray et al. 2000), an analysis of the potential benefits one can realistically expect from commissioning new and existing California houses (Matson et al. 2002), and an assessment of 107 diagnostic tools for evaluating residential commissioning metrics (Wray et al. 2002). In this guide, we describe the issues that non-experts should consider in developing a commissioning program to achieve the benefits we have identified. We do this by providing specific recommendations about: how to structure the commissioning process, which diagnostics to use, and how to use them to commission new and existing houses. Using examples, we also demonstrate the potential benefits of applying the recommended whole-house commissioning approach to

  19. Residential radon survey in Finland

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arvela, H.; Maekelaeinen, I.; Castren, O.

    1993-02-01

    The study measured the indoor radon concentration in the dwellings of 3074 persons, selected randomly from the central population register of Finland. Alpha track detectors and two consecutive half year measuring periods were used. The national mean of indoor radon concentration for persons living in low-rise residential buildings as well as blocks of flats was 145 and 82 Bq/m 3 , respectively. The mean for the total population was 123 Bq/m 3 . Based on the decision of the Ministry of Social Affairs and Health in 1992, the indoor radon concentration should not exceed 400 Bq/m 3 in already existing houses, the target for new construction being less than 200 Bq/m 3 . According to the study, the percentage of the Finnish population living in houses with an indoor radon concentration exceeding 200, 400 and 800 Bq/m 3 was 12.3 %, 3.6 % and 1.0 %

  20. The Role of Context in Third Graders’ Learning of Area Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denny Haris

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many researches showed that the most of students find the difficulty in measuring area. The formula of area tends to be taught directly without involving the conceptual basis and the area measurement are separated from children’s daily experiences. For this reason, the teaching and learning of area measurement was designed and link to a set of students’ experience-based activities. The context of this research is Indonesian traditional handicraft namely anyaman. The study is situated in the context of implementing an Indonesian version of Realistic Mathematics Education, labeled as PMRI in Indonesia. Design Research methodology comprising preliminary design, teaching experiment, and retrospective analysis is applied. This research described the investigation of the context as preliminary of teaching and learning about area measurement held in 3th grade of primary school SDN 119 Palembang. The result of the teaching experiment showed that problem embedded in a context could encourage the students to develop the idea of area measurement concept. The strategies through emergent modeling showed how students’ contribution could be used to develop gradually their reasoning of area measurement concept. In the experience-based activities for learning area measurement, emergent modeling played an important role in the shift of students’ reasoning from informal level towards formal mathematical concepts of area measurement.

  1. Measurement of spontaneous DNA damage and DNA repair capacity in healthy adult individuals from high and normal level natural radiation areas of Kerala, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vivek Kumar, P.R.; Jaikrishan, G.; Das, Birajalaxmi

    2014-01-01

    Inhabitants of the south west coastal areas of Kerala receive high level natural radiation due to the presence of monazite ( 232 Th) in the beach sand. This provides a unique opportunity to investigate the biological effects of high level natural radiation on humans. This study evaluate basal DNA damage in 149 healthy adult male subjects (104 from high level natural radiation areas (HLNRA, > 1mSv year -1 ) and 45 from normal level natural radiation area (NLNRA, d''1mSv year -1 ) by the alkaline comet assay. Oxidative DNA damage (ENDO III, FPG and hOGG1-sensitive sites) was measured by the enzyme modified comet assay. Induction and rejoining of DNA strand breaks was measured after irradiating peripheral blood lymphocytes with 2 Gy or 4 Gy gamma radiation. Basal damage due to age and residential area of the donors showed significant interaction (P=0.001), when all subjects were analyzed using a general linear model (GLM). In subgroup analysis, basal damage increased with age in subjects from the NLNRA (P=0.007), while a significant negative correlation (P=0.01) was observed in subjects from HLNRA. Oxidative DNA damage was not influenced by age, smoking habit or residential area in the entire sample. Subjects of high dose group from HLNRA (>5.75 mSv/y, N=34) showed a significant reduction in the induction of DNA damage after 2 Gy (P=0.03) and 4 Gy (P=0.05) compared to subjects form NLNRA. The study showed increased rejoining of DNA strand breaks in subjects from HLNRA when measured at 7 minutes after irradiation (P=0.04). In this pilot study, a low basal damage in elderly subjects from HLNRA and a reduced induction of DNA damage after 2 Gy and 4 Gy irradiation in high dose group subjects from HLNRA might suggest a possible role of chronic low dose natural radiation on the induction of an in vivo radio adaptive response. However, our findings need more validation in a larger study population. (author)

  2. A combined analysis of North American case-control studies of residential radon and lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krewski, Daniel; Lubin, Jay H; Zielinski, Jan M; Alavanja, Michael; Catalan, Vanessa S; Field, R William; Klotz, Judith B; Létourneau, Ernest G; Lynch, Charles F; Lyon, Joseph L; Sandler, Dale P; Schoenberg, Janet B; Steck, Daniel J; Stolwijk, Jan A; Weinberg, Clarice; Wilcox, Homer B

    2006-04-01

    Cohort studies have consistently shown underground miners exposed to high levels of radon to be at excess risk of lung cancer, and extrapolations based on those results indicate that residential radon may be responsible for nearly 10-15% of all lung cancer deaths per year in the United States. However, case-control studies of residential radon and lung cancer have provided ambiguous evidence of radon lung cancer risks. Regardless, alpha-particle emissions from the short-lived radioactive radon decay products can damage cellular DNA. The possibility that a demonstrated lung carcinogen may be present in large numbers of homes raises a serious public health concern. Thus, a systematic analysis of pooled data from all North American residential radon studies was undertaken to provide a more direct characterization of the public health risk posed by prolonged radon exposure. To evaluate the risk associated with prolonged residential radon exposure, a combined analysis of the primary data from seven large scale case-control studies of residential radon and lung cancer risk was conducted. The combined data set included a total of 4081 cases and 5281 controls, representing the largest aggregation of data on residential radon and lung cancer conducted to date. Residential radon concentrations were determined primarily by a-track detectors placed in the living areas of homes of the study subjects in order to obtain an integrated 1-yr average radon concentration in indoor air. Conditional likelihood regression was used to estimate the excess risk of lung cancer due to residential radon exposure, with adjustment for attained age, sex, study, smoking factors, residential mobility, and completeness of radon measurements. Although the main analyses were based on the combined data set as a whole, we also considered subsets of the data considered to have more accurate radon dosimetry. This included a subset of the data involving 3662 cases and 4966 controls with a-track radon

  3. Comparison of diffusion charging and mobility-based methods for measurement of aerosol agglomerate surface area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Bon Ki; Kulkarni, Pramod

    2012-05-01

    We compare different approaches to measure surface area of aerosol agglomerates. The objective was to compare field methods, such as mobility and diffusion charging based approaches, with laboratory approach, such as Brunauer, Emmett, Teller (BET) method used for bulk powder samples. To allow intercomparison of various surface area measurements, we defined 'geometric surface area' of agglomerates (assuming agglomerates are made up of ideal spheres), and compared various surface area measurements to the geometric surface area. Four different approaches for measuring surface area of agglomerate particles in the size range of 60-350 nm were compared using (i) diffusion charging-based sensors from three different manufacturers, (ii) mobility diameter of an agglomerate, (iii) mobility diameter of an agglomerate assuming a linear chain morphology with uniform primary particle size, and (iv) surface area estimation based on tandem mobility-mass measurement and microscopy. Our results indicate that the tandem mobility-mass measurement, which can be applied directly to airborne particles unlike the BET method, agrees well with the BET method. It was also shown that the three diffusion charging-based surface area measurements of silver agglomerates were similar within a factor of 2 and were lower than those obtained from the tandem mobility-mass and microscopy method by a factor of 3-10 in the size range studied. Surface area estimated using the mobility diameter depended on the structure or morphology of the agglomerate with significant underestimation at high fractal dimensions approaching 3.

  4. 50 CFR 300.63 - Catch sharing plan and domestic management measures in Area 2A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Federal Register the final rule governing sport fishing in area 2A. Annual management measures may be...) Flexible Inseason Management Provisions for Sport Halibut Fisheries in Area 2A. (1) The Regional... result in exceeding the catch limit for the area. (iii) If any of the sport fishery subareas north of...

  5. Do textbooks address known learning challenges in area measurement? A comparative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Dae S.; Choi, Kyong Mi; Runnalls, Cristina; Hwang, Jihyun

    2018-02-01

    This study compared area lessons from Korean textbooks and US standard-based textbooks to understand differences and similarities among these textbooks, as well as how these textbooks address known learning challenges in area measurement. Several well-known challenges have been identified in previous studies, such as covering, array structure, and linking array structure to area formula. We were interested in knowing if textbooks addressed these issues in their treatments of area measurement and, in doing so, provided students with opportunities to overcome or become familiar with known challenges. The results show that both countries' textbooks demonstrated similar limitations; only few area and area-related lessons are covered and three important learning challenges in area measurement are not covered well, which need to be informed to practicing teachers.

  6. Residential green space and birth outcomes in a coastal setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glazer, Kimberly B; Eliot, Melissa N; Danilack, Valery A; Carlson, Lynn; Phipps, Maureen G; Dadvand, Payam; Savitz, David A; Wellenius, Gregory A

    2018-05-01

    Residential green space may improve birth outcomes, with prior studies reporting higher birthweight among infants of women living in greener areas. However, results from studies evaluating associations between green space and preterm birth have been mixed. Further, the potential influence of residential proximity to water, or 'blue space', on health has not previously been evaluated. To evaluate associations between green and blue space and birth outcomes in a coastal area of the northeastern United States. Using residential surrounding greenness (measured by Normalized Difference Vegetation Index [NDVI]) and proximity to recreational facilities, coastline, and freshwater as measures of green and blue space, we examined associations with preterm birth (PTB), term birthweight, and term small for gestational age (SGA) among 61,640 births in Rhode Island. We evaluated incremental adjustment for socioeconomic and environmental metrics. In models adjusted for individual - and neighborhood-level markers of socioeconomic status (SES), an interquartile range (IQR) increase in NDVI was associated with a 12% higher (95% CI: 4, 20%) odds of PTB and, conversely, living within 500 m of a recreational facility was associated with a 7% lower (95% CI: 1, 13%) odds of PTB. These associations were eliminated after further adjustment for town of residence. NDVI was associated with higher birthweight (7.4 g, 95% CI: 0.4-14.4 g) and lower odds of SGA (OR = 0.92, 95% CI: 0.87-0.98) when adjusted for individual-level markers of SES, but not when further adjusted for neighborhood SES or town. Living within 500 m of a freshwater body was associated with a higher birthweight of 10.1 g (95% CI: 2.0, 18.2) in fully adjusted models. Findings from this study do not support the hypothesis that residential green space is associated with reduced risk of preterm birth or higher birthweight after adjustment for individual and contextual socioeconomic factors, but variation in results with

  7. SHORT COMMUNICATION: Status of Physical Fitness Index (PFI % and Anthropometric Parameters in Residential School Children Compared to Nonresidential School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti P Khodnapur

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physical fitness is the prime criterion for survival, to achieve any goal and to lead a healthy life. Effect of exercise to have a good physical fitness is well known since ancient Vedas. Physical fitness can be recorded by cardiopulmonary efficiency test like Physical Fitness Index (PFI % which is a powerful indicator of cardiopulmonary efficiency. Regular exercise increases PFI by increasing oxygen consumption. Residential school children are exposed to regular exercise and nutritious food under the guidance. Aims and Objectives: Our study is aimed to compare the physical fitness index status and anthropometric parameters in Residential Sainik (n=100 school children compared to Non-Residential (n=100 school children (aged between 12-16 years of Bijapur. Material and Methods: PFI was measured by Harvard Step Test [1]. TheAnthropometrical parameters like Height (cms, Weight (Kg, Body Surface Area (BSA in sq.mts, Body Mass Index (BMI in Kg/m2, Mid Arm Circumference (cms, Chest Circumference (cms and Abdominal Circumference (cms were recorded. Results: Mean score of PFI(%, Height(cms, Weight(Kg, BSA(sq.mts, BMI(Kg/m2, Mid Arm Circumference(cms, Chest Circumference (cms and Abdominal Circumference (cms were significantly higher (p=0.000 in Residential school children compared to Non Residential school children. In conclusion regular exercise and nutritious diet under the guidance increases the physical fitness and growth in growing children.

  8. FACTOR ANALYSIS OF MULTISTOREY RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Петр Матвеевич Мазуркин

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available According to the UN classification of 11 classes of soil cover, the first three are grass, trees and shrubs and forests. In the city they correspond to the three elements of vegetation: lawns, tree plantings (trees and shrubs. We have adopted zoning for city-building to identify statistical regularities. Map dimensions in GIS "Map 2011" Yoshkar-Ola was allocated to "residential zone" and "Area of construction of multi-storey residential buildings (cadastral 58 quart crystals". The parameters of the elements of the vegetation cover have been considered: the number of elements of different levels, area and perimeter, the absolute and relative form, and activity of vegetation. As the result, we have obtained equations of binomial rank distributions, conducted the ratings and selected the best of cadastral quarter on environmental conditions.

  9. Measuring benefits of protected area management: trends across realms and research gaps for freshwater systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Vanessa M; Setterfield, Samantha A; Douglas, Michael M; Kennard, Mark J; Ferdinands, Keith

    2015-11-05

    Protected areas remain a cornerstone for global conservation. However, their effectiveness at halting biodiversity decline is not fully understood. Studies of protected area benefits have largely focused on measuring their impact on halting deforestation and have neglected to measure the impacts of protected areas on other threats. Evaluations that measure the impact of protected area management require more complex evaluation designs and datasets. This is the case across realms (terrestrial, freshwater, marine), but measuring the impact of protected area management in freshwater systems may be even more difficult owing to the high level of connectivity and potential for threat propagation within systems (e.g. downstream flow of pollution). We review the potential barriers to conducting impact evaluation for protected area management in freshwater systems. We contrast the barriers identified for freshwater systems to terrestrial systems and discuss potential measurable outcomes and confounders associated with protected area management across the two realms. We identify key research gaps in conducting impact evaluation in freshwater systems that relate to three of their major characteristics: variability, connectivity and time lags in outcomes. Lastly, we use Kakadu National Park world heritage area, the largest national park in Australia, as a case study to illustrate the challenges of measuring impacts of protected area management programmes for environmental outcomes in freshwater systems. © 2015 The Author(s).

  10. Comparative Analysis of a MOOC and a Residential Community Using Introductory College Physics: Documenting How Learning Environments Are Created, Lessons Learned in the Process, and Measurable Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, Jack Ryan

    Higher education institutions, such as the University of Colorado Boulder (CU-Boulder), have as a core mission to advance their students' academic performance. On the frontier of education technologies that hold the promise to address our educational mission are Massively Open Online Courses (MOOCs) which are new enough to not be fully understood or well-researched. MOOCs, in theory, have vast potential for being cost-effective and for reaching diverse audiences across the world. This thesis examines the implementation of one MOOC, Physics 1 for Physical Science Majors, implemented in the augural round of institutionally sanctioned MOOCs in Fall 2013. While comparatively inexpensive to a brick-and-mortar course and while it initially enrolled audience of nearly 16,000 students, this MOOC was found to be time-consuming to implement, and only roughly 1.5% of those who enrolled completed the course---approximately 1/4 of those who completed the standard brick and mortar course that the MOOC was designed around. An established education technology, residential communities, contrast the MOOCs by being high-touch and highly humanized, but by being expensive and locally-based. The Andrews Hall Residential College (AHRC) on the CU campus fosters academic success and retention by engaging and networking students outside of the standard brick and mortar courses and enculturating students into an environment with vertical integration through the different classes: freshman, sophomore, junior, etc. The physics MOOC and the AHRC were studied to determine how the environments were made and what lessons were learned in the process. Also, student performance was compared for the physics MOOC, a subset of the AHRC students enrolled in a special physics course, and the standard CU Physics 1 brick and mortar course. All yielded similar learning gains for physics 1 performance, for those who completed the courses. These environments are presented together to compare and contrast their

  11. Re-thinking residential mobility

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Ham, Maarten; Findlay, Allan M.

    2015-01-01

    While researchers are increasingly re-conceptualizing international migration, far less attention has been devoted to re-thinking short-distance residential mobility and immobility. In this paper we harness the life course approach to propose a new conceptual framework for residential mobility research. We contend that residential mobility and immobility should be re-conceptualized as relational practices that link lives through time and space while connecting people to structural conditions. Re-thinking and re-assessing residential mobility by exploiting new developments in longitudinal analysis will allow geographers to understand, critique and address pressing societal challenges. PMID:27330243

  12. Large-Scale Residential Demolition

    Science.gov (United States)

    The EPA provides resources for handling residential demolitions or renovations. This includes planning, handling harmful materials, recycling, funding, compliance assistance, good practices and regulations.

  13. Measuring impact of protected area management interventions: current and future use of the Global Database of Protected Area Management Effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coad, Lauren; Leverington, Fiona; Knights, Kathryn; Geldmann, Jonas; Eassom, April; Kapos, Valerie; Kingston, Naomi; de Lima, Marcelo; Zamora, Camilo; Cuardros, Ivon; Nolte, Christoph; Burgess, Neil D; Hockings, Marc

    2015-11-05

    Protected areas (PAs) are at the forefront of conservation efforts, and yet despite considerable progress towards the global target of having 17% of the world's land area within protected areas by 2020, biodiversity continues to decline. The discrepancy between increasing PA coverage and negative biodiversity trends has resulted in renewed efforts to enhance PA effectiveness. The global conservation community has conducted thousands of assessments of protected area management effectiveness (PAME), and interest in the use of these data to help measure the conservation impact of PA management interventions is high. Here, we summarize the status of PAME assessment, review the published evidence for a link between PAME assessment results and the conservation impacts of PAs, and discuss the limitations and future use of PAME data in measuring the impact of PA management interventions on conservation outcomes. We conclude that PAME data, while designed as a tool for local adaptive management, may also help to provide insights into the impact of PA management interventions from the local-to-global scale. However, the subjective and ordinal characteristics of the data present significant limitations for their application in rigorous scientific impact evaluations, a problem that should be recognized and mitigated where possible. © 2015 The Authors.

  14. Moisture availability constraints on the leaf area to sapwood area ratio: analysis of measurements on Australian evergreen angiosperm trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togashi, Henrique; Prentice, Colin; Evans, Bradley; Forrester, David; Drake, Paul; Feikema, Paul; Brooksbank, Kim; Eamus, Derek; Taylor, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    The leaf area to sapwood area ratio (LA:SA) is a key plant trait that links photosynthesis to transpiration. Pipe model theory states that the sapwood cross-sectional area of a stem or branch at any point should scale isometrically with the area of leaves distal to that point. Optimization theory further suggests that LA:SA should decrease towards drier climates. Although acclimation of LA:SA to climate has been reported within species, much less is known about the scaling of this trait with climate among species. We compiled LA:SA measurements from 184 species of Australian evergreen angiosperm trees. The pipe model was broadly confirmed, based on measurements on branches and trunks of trees from one to 27 years old. We found considerable scatter in LA:SA among species. However quantile regression showed strong (0.2

  15. Morphological and moisture availability controls of the leaf area-to-sapwood area ratio: analysis of measurements on Australian trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Togashi, Henrique Furstenau; Prentice, Iain Colin; Evans, Bradley John; Forrester, David Ian; Drake, Paul; Feikema, Paul; Brooksbank, Kim; Eamus, Derek; Taylor, Daniel

    2015-03-01

    The leaf area-to-sapwood area ratio (LA:SA) is a key plant trait that links photosynthesis to transpiration. The pipe model theory states that the sapwood cross-sectional area of a stem or branch at any point should scale isometrically with the area of leaves distal to that point. Optimization theory further suggests that LA:SA should decrease toward drier climates. Although acclimation of LA:SA to climate has been reported within species, much less is known about the scaling of this trait with climate among species. We compiled LA:SA measurements from 184 species of Australian evergreen angiosperm trees. The pipe model was broadly confirmed, based on measurements on branches and trunks of trees from one to 27 years old. Despite considerable scatter in LA:SA among species, quantile regression showed strong (0.2 < R1 < 0.65) positive relationships between two climatic moisture indices and the lowermost (5%) and uppermost (5-15%) quantiles of log LA:SA, suggesting that moisture availability constrains the envelope of minimum and maximum values of LA:SA typical for any given climate. Interspecific differences in plant hydraulic conductivity are probably responsible for the large scatter of values in the mid-quantile range and may be an important determinant of tree morphology.

  16. Maximum Regional Emission Reduction Potential in Residential Sector Based on Spatial Distribution of Population and Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winijkul, E.; Bond, T. C.

    2011-12-01

    In the residential sector, major activities that generate emissions are cooking and heating, and fuels ranging from traditional (wood) to modern (natural gas, or electricity) are used. Direct air pollutant emissions from this sector are low when natural gas or electricity are the dominant energy sources, as is the case in developed countries. However, in developing countries, people may rely on solid fuels and this sector can contribute a large fraction of emissions. The magnitude of the health loss associated with exposure to indoor smoke as well as its concentration among rural population in developing countries have recently put preventive measures high on the agenda of international development and public health organizations. This study focuses on these developing regions: Central America, Africa, and Asia. Current and future emissions from the residential sector depend on both fuel and cooking device (stove) type. Availability of fuels, stoves, and interventions depends strongly on spatial distribution. However, regional emission calculations do not consider this spatial dependence. Fuel consumption data is presented at country level, without information about where different types of fuel are used. Moreover, information about stove types that are currently used and can be used in the future is not available. In this study, we first spatially allocate current emissions within residential sector. We use Geographic Information System maps of temperature, electricity availability, forest area, and population to determine the distribution of fuel types and availability of stoves. Within each country, consumption of different fuel types, such as fuelwood, coal, and LPG is distributed among different area types (urban, peri-urban, and rural area). Then, the cleanest stove technologies which could be used in the area are selected based on the constraints of each area, i.e. availability of resources. Using this map, the maximum emission reduction compared with

  17. The Role of Context in Third Graders’ Learning of Area Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denny Haris

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Many researches showed that the most of students find the difficulty in measuring area. The formula of area tends to be taught directly without involving the conceptual basis and the area measurement are separated from children’s daily experiences. For this reason, the teaching and learning of area measurement was designed and link to a set of students’  experience-based activities. The context of this research is Indonesian traditional handicraft namely anyaman. The study is situated in the context of implementing an Indonesian version of Realistic Mathematics Education, labeled as PMRI in Indonesia. Design Research methodology comprising preliminary design, teaching experiment, and retrospective analysis is  applied. This research described  the investigation of the context as preliminary of teaching and learning about area measurement held in  3th grade of primary school  SDN 119 Palembang. The result of the teaching experiment showed that problem embedded in a context could encourage the students to develop the idea of area measurement concept. The strategies through emergent modeling showed how students’ contribution could be used to develop gradually their reasoning of area measurement concept. In the experience-based activities for learning area measurement, emergent modeling played an important role in the shift of students’ reasoning from informal level towards formal mathematical concepts of area measurement.Keywords: Area measurement, Anyaman, design research, PMRI DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22342/jme.2.1.778.55-66

  18. Defining Primary Care Shortage Areas: Do GIS-based Measures Yield Different Results?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, Michael R; Mellor, Jennifer M; Millones, Marco

    2018-02-12

    To examine whether geographic information systems (GIS)-based physician-to-population ratios (PPRs) yield determinations of geographic primary care shortage areas that differ from those based on bounded-area PPRs like those used in the Health Professional Shortage Area (HPSA) designation process. We used geocoded data on primary care physician (PCP) locations and census block population counts from 1 US state to construct 2 shortage area indicators. The first is a bounded-area shortage indicator defined without GIS methods; the second is a GIS-based measure that measures the populations' spatial proximity to PCP locations. We examined agreement and disagreement between bounded shortage areas and GIS-based shortage areas. Bounded shortage area indicators and GIS-based shortage area indicators agree for the census blocks where the vast majority of our study populations reside. Specifically, 95% and 98% of the populations in our full and urban samples, respectively, reside in census blocks where the 2 indicators agree. Although agreement is generally high in rural areas (ie, 87% of the rural population reside in census blocks where the 2 indicators agree), agreement is significantly lower compared to urban areas. One source of disagreement suggests that bounded-area measures may "overlook" some shortages in rural areas; however, other aspects of the HPSA designation process likely mitigate this concern. Another source of disagreement arises from the border-crossing problem, and it is more prevalent. The GIS-based PPRs we employed would yield shortage area determinations that are similar to those based on bounded-area PPRs defined for Primary Care Service Areas. Disagreement rates were lower than previous studies have found. © 2018 National Rural Health Association.

  19. Accessibility of green space in urban areas: an examination of various approaches to measure it

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Xin

    2007-01-01

    In the present research, we attempt to improve the methods used for measuring accessibility of green spaces by combining two components of accessibility-distance and demand relative to supply. Three modified approaches (Joseph and Bantock gravity model measure, the two-step floating catchment area measure and a measure based on kernel densities) will be applied for measuring accessibility to green spaces. We select parks and public open spaces (metropolitan open land) of south London as a cas...

  20. Survey of residential magnetic field sources interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunlap, J.H.; Zaffanella, L.E.; Johnson, G.B.

    1993-01-01

    The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has conducted a nationwide survey to collect engineering data on the sources and the levels of power frequency magnetic fields that exist in residences. The survey involves measurements at approximately 1,000 residences randomly selected in the service area of 25 utilities. The information in this paper contains data from approximately 700 homes measured. The goals of the survey are to identify all significant sources of 60 Hz magnetic field in residences, estimate with sufficient accuracy the fraction of residences in which magnetic field exceeds any specified level, determine the relation between field and source parameters, and characterize spatial and temporal variations and harmonic content of the field. The data obtained relate to the level of the 60 Hz magnetic field and the source of the field, and not to personal exposure to magnetic fields, which is likely to be different due to the activity patterns of people. Magnetic fields from electrical appliances were measured intentionally away from the influence of appliance fields, which is limited to an area close to the appliance. Special measuring techniques were used to determine how the field varied within the living space of the house and over a twenty-four hour period. The field from each source is expressed in terms of how frequently a given field level is exceeded. The following sources of 60 Hz residential magnetic fields were identified: electrical appliances, grounding system of residences, overhead and underground power distribution lines, overhead power transmission lines, ground connections at electrical subpanels, and special wiring situations. Data from the appliance measurements is in a report published by EPRI, open-quotes Survey of Residential Magnetic Field Sources - Interim Reportclose quotes, TR-100194, which also provides much more detailed information on all subjects outlined in this paper

  1. Modelling carbonaceous aerosol from residential solid fuel burning with different assumptions for emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Ots

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Evidence is accumulating that emissions of primary particulate matter (PM from residential wood and coal combustion in the UK may be underestimated and/or spatially misclassified. In this study, different assumptions for the spatial distribution and total emission of PM from solid fuel (wood and coal burning in the UK were tested using an atmospheric chemical transport model. Modelled concentrations of the PM components were compared with measurements from aerosol mass spectrometers at four sites in central and Greater London (ClearfLo campaign, 2012, as well as with measurements from the UK black carbon network.The two main alternative emission scenarios modelled were Base4x and combRedist. For Base4x, officially reported PM2.5 from the residential and other non-industrial combustion source sector were increased by a factor of four. For the combRedist experiment, half of the baseline emissions from this same source were redistributed by residential population density to simulate the effect of allocating some emissions to the smoke control areas (that are assumed in the national inventory to have no emissions from this source. The Base4x scenario yielded better daily and hourly correlations with measurements than the combRedist scenario for year-long comparisons of the solid fuel organic aerosol (SFOA component at the two London sites. However, the latter scenario better captured mean measured concentrations across all four sites. A third experiment, Redist – all emissions redistributed linearly to population density, is also presented as an indicator of the maximum concentrations an assumption like this could yield.The modelled elemental carbon (EC concentrations derived from the combRedist experiments also compared well with seasonal average concentrations of black carbon observed across the network of UK sites. Together, the two model scenario simulations of SFOA and EC suggest both that residential solid fuel emissions may be higher than

  2. Modelling carbonaceous aerosol from residential solid fuel burning with different assumptions for emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ots, Riinu; Heal, Mathew R.; Young, Dominique E.; Williams, Leah R.; Allan, James D.; Nemitz, Eiko; Di Marco, Chiara; Detournay, Anais; Xu, Lu; Ng, Nga L.; Coe, Hugh; Herndon, Scott C.; Mackenzie, Ian A.; Green, David C.; Kuenen, Jeroen J. P.; Reis, Stefan; Vieno, Massimo

    2018-04-01

    Evidence is accumulating that emissions of primary particulate matter (PM) from residential wood and coal combustion in the UK may be underestimated and/or spatially misclassified. In this study, different assumptions for the spatial distribution and total emission of PM from solid fuel (wood and coal) burning in the UK were tested using an atmospheric chemical transport model. Modelled concentrations of the PM components were compared with measurements from aerosol mass spectrometers at four sites in central and Greater London (ClearfLo campaign, 2012), as well as with measurements from the UK black carbon network.The two main alternative emission scenarios modelled were Base4x and combRedist. For Base4x, officially reported PM2.5 from the residential and other non-industrial combustion source sector were increased by a factor of four. For the combRedist experiment, half of the baseline emissions from this same source were redistributed by residential population density to simulate the effect of allocating some emissions to the smoke control areas (that are assumed in the national inventory to have no emissions from this source). The Base4x scenario yielded better daily and hourly correlations with measurements than the combRedist scenario for year-long comparisons of the solid fuel organic aerosol (SFOA) component at the two London sites. However, the latter scenario better captured mean measured concentrations across all four sites. A third experiment, Redist - all emissions redistributed linearly to population density, is also presented as an indicator of the maximum concentrations an assumption like this could yield.The modelled elemental carbon (EC) concentrations derived from the combRedist experiments also compared well with seasonal average concentrations of black carbon observed across the network of UK sites. Together, the two model scenario simulations of SFOA and EC suggest both that residential solid fuel emissions may be higher than inventory

  3. Effects of the accident at Three Mile Island on residential property values and sales. Final report, April 1980-January 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gamble, H.B.; Downing, R.H.

    1981-04-01

    The study examined the effects of the accident at Three Mile Island on residential property values and number of sales within a 25-mile radius of the plant. Regression analyses, using data on 583 actual market sales of single family homes from 1977 through 1979, examined the effects before and after the accident on the basis of distance and direction from the plant and on three different property value classes. All valid single family property sales between 1975 and 1979 within the 25-mile area were examined in a time series analysis. Interviews were conducted with realtors, financial institution officials and building contractors in the area. The accident had no measurable effects, positive or negative, on the value of single family residential properties within a 25-mile radius of the plant, or in any direction from the plant, or on low, medium, or high value properties. The plant had no measurable effects on residential property values for the 2 years prior to the accident. Immediately following the accident there was a sharp decline in the number of residential sales within 10 miles of the plant, but the real estate market returned to near normal conditions within 4-8 weeks. The interviews basically confirmed the above findings

  4. Open Space between Residential Buildings as a Factor of Sustainable Development - Case Studies in Brno (Czech Republic) and Vienna (Austria)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kilnarová, Pavla; Wittmann, Maxmilian

    2017-12-01

    The characteristics of open spaces between residential buildings have, as authors suppose, an impact on the sustainable development of urban areas. Spatial arrangement and accessibility of these spaces, the type and height of surrounding buildings, the quantity and character of greenery, and many more characteristics influence the quality of environment, and the quality of life of local residents. These and further characteristics of the open spaces between residential buildings influence the ecological stability of the area, its hygienic qualities, the intensity and way of using by various social groups, and also the prices of real estates. These qualities indicate the environmental, social and economic sustainability of the urban area. The proposed research methodology assessed specific indicators of sustainability within a range from 0 to 10 points. 5 points correspond to the general standard in the area, 0 points indicate degradation, and 10 points indicate the highest contribution to sustainable development. Observation methods, questionnaire survey, statistical analyses, and methods of measurement were used to determine the values of the given indicators. The paper analyses the impact of the open spaces between residential buildings on sustainability via the case studies performed in the Central European cities of Brno, Czech Republic and Vienna, Austria. Two forms of residential urban structures in the City of Brno in the Czech Republic were selected for the analysis: the closed courtyards in the urban block from the 19th century and the open spaces in the housing estates constructed under socialism in the 20th century. The question is, if the different forms of spaces between residential buildings influence the sustainability of urban area and satisfaction of inhabitants in different ways. A complementary case study in Vienna indicates that inhabitants of a housing estate in Vienna, as well as inhabitants of housing estates in Brno, highly appreciate the

  5. State of the art and trends of radiometric methods for measuring the mass per unit area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernhardt, R.

    1984-01-01

    The determination of the mass per unit area by means of transmission or backscattering methods is one of the traditional radioisotope applications. Microelectronics have essentially contributed to the noticeable progress achieved in the development of radiometric instruments for mass per unit area measurements. The use of microcomputers led to both a reliable solution of the main problem of processing the measured data - the correlation of the mass per unit area value with the detector signal under nonlinear calibration conditions - and a considerable increase in the efficiency of the measuring equipment

  6. Residential Mechanical Precooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, Alea [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States). Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI); Hoeschele, Marc [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States). Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI)

    2014-12-01

    Residential air conditioning (AC) represents a challenging load for many electric utilities with poor load factors. Mechanical precooling improves the load factor by shifting cooling operation from on-peak to off-peak hours. This provides benefits to utilities and the electricity grid, as well as to occupants who can take advantage of time-of-use (TOU) electricity rates. Performance benefits stem from reduced compressor cycling, and shifting condensing unit operation to earlier periods of the day when outdoor temperatures are more favorable to operational efficiency. Finding solutions that save energy and reduce demand on the electricity grid is an important national objective and supports key Building America goals. The Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team evaluated mechanical AC precooling strategies in homes throughout the United States. EnergyPlus modeling was used to evaluate two homes with different performance characteristics in seven climates. Results are applicable to new construction homes and most existing homes built in the last 10 years, as well as fairly efficient retrofitted homes. A successful off-peak AC strategy offers the potential for increased efficiency and improved occupant comfort, and promotes a more reliable and robust electricity grid. Demand response capabilities and further integration with photovoltaic TOU generation patterns provide additional opportunities to flatten loads and optimize grid impacts.

  7. Residential energy demand in Brazil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arouca, M.; Gomes, F.M.; Rosa, L.P.

    1981-01-01

    The energy demand in Brazilian residential sector is studied, discussing the methodology for analyzing this demand from some ideas suggested, for developing an adequate method to brazilian characteristics. The residential energy consumption of several fuels in Brazil is also presented, including a comparative evaluation with the United States and France. (author)

  8. A Model of Clean Water Supply and Improvement of Enviromental Sanitary Conditions in Residential Clusters in The Mekong Delta, Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi Nguyen Thuy Lan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In accordance with Decision 99/TTg dated 9/2/1996 and Decision 173/TTg dated 6/11/2001 of the Prime Minister regarding the construction program of residential clusters (residential flood free areas, these residential areas as constructed would be fully equipped with critical infrastructures and services such as water supply and drainage works, toilets with sanitary appropriateness, etc. to ensure environmental sanitary conditions in the residential clusters. However, the actual surveys done in residential clusters in the Mekong Delta show that many arising problems must be addressed to enable the local communities to have better living conditions and ensure the sanitary conditions and environmental safety.

  9. Dynamic modeling of potentially conflicting energy reduction strategies for residential structures in semi-arid climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hester, Nathan; Li, Ke; Schramski, John R; Crittenden, John

    2012-04-30

    Globally, residential energy consumption continues to rise due to a variety of trends such as increasing access to modern appliances, overall population growth, and the overall increase of electricity distribution. Currently, residential energy consumption accounts for approximately one-fifth of total U.S. energy consumption. This research analyzes the effectiveness of a range of energy-saving measures for residential houses in semi-arid climates. These energy-saving measures include: structural insulated panels (SIP) for exterior wall construction, daylight control, increased window area, efficient window glass suitable for the local weather, and several combinations of these. Our model determined that energy consumption is reduced by up to 6.1% when multiple energy savings technologies are combined. In addition, pre-construction technologies (structural insulated panels (SIPs), daylight control, and increased window area) provide roughly 4 times the energy savings when compared to post-construction technologies (window blinds and efficient window glass). The model also illuminated the importance variations in local climate and building configuration; highlighting the site-specific nature of this type of energy consumption quantification for policy and building code considerations. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Systematic measurement of fast neutron background fluctuations in an urban area using a mobile detection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyengar, A.; Beach, M.; Newby, R. J.; Fabris, L.; Heilbronn, L. H.; Hayward, J. P.

    2015-02-01

    Neutron background measurements using a mobile trailer-based system were conducted in Knoxville, Tennessee, USA. The 0.5 m2 system, consisting of eight EJ-301 liquid scintillation detectors, was used to collect neutron background measurements in order to better understand the systematic variations in background that depend solely on the street-level measurement position in a downtown area. Data was collected along 5 different streets, and the measurements were found to be repeatable. Using 10-min measurements, the fractional uncertainty in each measured data point was rates measured away from downtown Knoxville, a reduction in background count rates ranging from 10% to 50% was observed in the downtown area, sometimes varying substantially over distances of tens of meters. These reductions are attributed to the net shielding of the cosmic ray neutron flux by adjacent buildings. For reference, the building structure as observed at street level is quantified in part here by a measured angle-of-open-sky metric.

  11. Measurement of the specific surface area of loose copper deposit by electrochemical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Dolmatova

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available In the work the surface area of the electrode with dispersed copper deposit obtained within 30 seconds was evaluated by techniques of chronopotentiometry (CPM and impedance spectroscopy. In method CPM the electrode surface available for measurement depends on the value of the polarizing current. At high currents during the transition time there is a change of surface relief that can not determine the full surface of loose deposit. The electrochemical impedance method is devoid of this shortcoming since the measurements are carried out in indifferent electrolyte in the absence of current. The area measured by the impedance is tens of times higher than the value obtained by chronopotentiometry. It is found that from a solution containing sulfuric acid the deposits form with a high specific surface area. Based on these data it was concluded that the method of impedance spectroscopy can be used to measure in situ the surface area of the dispersed copper deposits.

  12. Pressure/cross-sectional area probe in the assessment of urethral closure function. Reproducibility of measurement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lose, G; Schroeder, T

    1990-01-01

    A probe, which enables measurement of related values of pressure and cross-sectional area, was used for in vitro studies and in vivo measurements in the female urethra. Six healthy females underwent two successive investigations. Measurements were performed at the bladder neck, in the high......-pressure zone and distally in the urethra. The in vitro study showed that cross sectional areas of 13-79 mm2 were determined with a SD of 1.4 mm2. In vivo measurements revealed that the urethral parameters: elastance, hysteresis, pressure and power of contraction during coughing and squeezing were fairly...

  13. Measurement and Reproducibility of Preserved Ellipsoid Zone Area and Preserved Retinal Pigment Epithelium Area in Eyes With Choroideremia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hariri, Amir H; Velaga, Swetha B; Girach, Aniz

    2017-01-01

    PURPOSE: To identify valid and reproducible methods for quantifying anatomic outcome measures for eyes with choroideremia (CHM) in clinical trials. DESIGN: Reliability analysis study. METHODS: In this multicenter study, patients with confirmed genetic diagnosis of CHM were enrolled. All cases...... of both FAF and OCT images were compared to assess the reproducibility of the grading methods. RESULTS: A total of 148 eyes from 75 cases were included. In 21% of eyes PAF and in 43% of eyes preserved EZ had extended beyond the image capture area. After exclusion of these eyes and low-quality images, 114...

  14. Measuring Students' Self-Perceived Competence in Home Economics Core Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Frances M.

    1990-01-01

    Using the self-efficacy concept from Bandura's social learning theory, researchers developed an instrument to measure students' self-perceived competence in home economics core areas. Administration to all graduate students at a midwestern university during 1982-88 verified eight original competence areas and added a ninth. (SK)

  15. Panethnicity, Ethnic Diversity and Residential Segregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ann H.; White, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    We consider the theoretical and empirical implications of the structural basis of panethnicity and of the layering of ethnic boundaries in residential patterns while simultaneously evaluating the ‘panethnic hypothesis’, that is, the extent to which homogeneity within panethnic categories can be assumed. Our results do show a panethnic effect – greater residential proximity is evident within panethnic boundaries than between, net of ethnic group size and metropolitan area, but this association clearly depends on immigration. While findings generally show a lower degree of social distance between panethnic subgroups, particularly for blacks, whites and Latinos and less for Asians, ethno-national groups continue to maintain some degree of distinctiveness within a racialized context. PMID:20503650

  16. Preliminary indoor thoron measurements in high radiation background area of southeastern coastal Orissa (India)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ramola, R. C.; Prasad, G.; Gusain, G. S.; Rautela, B. S.; Choubey, V. M.; Vidya Sagar, D.; Tokonami, S.; Sorimachi, A.; Sahoo, S. K.; Janik, M.; Ishikawa, T.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary results of radon and thoron measurements in the houses of Chhatrapur area of southeastern coast of Orissa (India). This area is one of the high radiation background radiation areas in India, which consists of monazite sand as the source of thoron. Both active and passive methods were employed for the measurements. Radon and thoron concentrations were measured in the houses of Chhatrapur area using twin cup radon dosemeters, RAD7 and radon-thoron discriminative detector (Raduet). Thoron progeny concentration was also measured in the houses using deposition rate measurements. Radon and thoron concentrations in the houses of study area were found to vary from 8 to 47 Bq m -3 and the below detection level to 77 Bq m -3 , respectively. While thoron progeny concentration in these houses ranges between 0.17 and 4.24 Bq m -3 , preliminary investigation shows that the thoron concentration is higher than radon concentration in the houses of the study area. The thoron progeny concentration was found to be comparatively higher, which forms a base for further study in the area. The comparison between the results of various techniques is presented in this paper. (authors)

  17. Preliminary indoor thoron measurements in high radiation background area of southeastern coastal Orissa (India)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramola, R C; Prasad, G; Gusain, G S; Rautela, B S [Dept. of Physics, H.N.B. Garhwal Univ., Badshahi Thaul, Tehri Garhwal 249 199 (India); Choubey, V M [Wadia Inst. of Himalayan Geology, Dehradun 248 001 (India); Vidya Sagar, D [Health Physics Unit (EAD, BARC), IRE, OSCOM, Matikhalo, Dt. Ganjam, Orissa 761 045 (India); Tokonami, S; Sorimachi, A; Sahoo, S K; Janik, M; Ishikawa, T [National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Anagawa 4-9-1, Inage-ku, Chiba 263 8555 (Japan)

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents the preliminary results of radon and thoron measurements in the houses of Chhatrapur area of southeastern coast of Orissa (India). This area is one of the high radiation background radiation areas in India, which consists of monazite sand as the source of thoron. Both active and passive methods were employed for the measurements. Radon and thoron concentrations were measured in the houses of Chhatrapur area using twin cup radon dosemeters, RAD7 and radon-thoron discriminative detector (Raduet). Thoron progeny concentration was also measured in the houses using deposition rate measurements. Radon and thoron concentrations in the houses of study area were found to vary from 8 to 47 Bq m{sup -3} and the below detection level to 77 Bq m{sup -3}, respectively. While thoron progeny concentration in these houses ranges between 0.17 and 4.24 Bq m{sup -3}, preliminary investigation shows that the thoron concentration is higher than radon concentration in the houses of the study area. The thoron progeny concentration was found to be comparatively higher, which forms a base for further study in the area. The comparison between the results of various techniques is presented in this paper. (authors)

  18. Investigating the factors affecting the investment decision in residential development.

    OpenAIRE

    Narang, Somil

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this project is to provide a rare insight into the motivation behind residential property investors when looking to purchase an apartment. The factors driving demand preferences for housing are constantly changing, difficult to measure, and often deemed to be a complex bundle of attributes. The project attempts to answer the following questions: What are the factors affecting the investment decision in a Residential Development? To identify the significance and weight of su...

  19. Estimating the Determinants of Residential Water Demand in Italy

    OpenAIRE

    Giulia Romano; Nicola Salvati; Andrea Guerrini

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the determinants of residential water demand for chief towns of every Italian province, in the period 2007–2009, using the linear mixed-effects model estimated with the restricted-maximum-likelihood method. Results confirmed that the applied tariff had a negative effect on residential water consumption and that it was a relevant driver of domestic water consumption. Moreover, income per capita had a positive effect on water consumption. Among measured cli...

  20. Novel approaches for an enhanced geothermal development of residential sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schelenz, Sophie; Firmbach, Linda; Shao, Haibing; Dietrich, Peter; Vienken, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    An ongoing technological enhancement drives an increasing use of shallow geothermal systems for heating and cooling applications. However, even in areas with intensive shallow geothermal use, planning of geothermal systems is in many cases solely based on geological maps, drilling databases, and literature references. Thus, relevant heat transport parameters are rather approximated than measured for the specific site. To increase the planning safety and promote the use of renewable energies in the domestic sector, this study investigates a novel concept for an enhanced geothermal development of residential neighbourhoods. This concept is based on a site-specific characterization of subsurface conditions and the implementation of demand-oriented geothermal usage options. Therefore, an investigation approach has been tested that combines non-invasive with minimum-invasive exploration methods. While electrical resistivity tomography has been applied to characterize the geological subsurface structure, Direct Push soundings enable a detailed, vertical high-resolution characterization of the subsurface surrounding the borehole heat exchangers. The benefit of this site-specific subsurface investigation is highlighted for 1) a more precise design of shallow geothermal systems and 2) a reliable prediction of induced long-term changes in groundwater temperatures. To guarantee the financial feasibility and practicability of the novel geothermal development, three different options for its implementation in residential neighbourhoods were consequently deduced.

  1. Modeled effects on permittivity measurements of water content in high surface area porous media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, S.B.; Or, Dani

    2003-01-01

    Time domain reflectometry (TDR) has become an important measurement technique for determination of porous media water content and electrical conductivity due to its accuracy, fast response and automation capability. Water content is inferred from the measured bulk dielectric constant based on travel time analysis along simple transmission lines. TDR measurements in low surface area porous media accurately describe water content using an empirical relationship. Measurement discrepancies arise from dominating influences such as bound water due to high surface area, extreme aspect ratio particles or atypical water phase configuration. Our objectives were to highlight primary factors affecting dielectric permittivity measurements for water content determination in porous mixtures, and demonstrate the influence of these factors on mixture permittivity as predicted by a three-phase dielectric mixture model. Modeled results considering water binding, higher porosity, constituent geometry or phase configuration suggest any of these effects individually are capable of causing permittivity reduction, though all likely contribute in high surface area porous media

  2. Comparing alternative approaches to measuring the geographical accessibility of urban health services: Distance types and aggregation-error issues

    OpenAIRE

    Riva Mylène; Abdelmajid Mohamed; Apparicio Philippe; Shearmur Richard

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Background Over the past two decades, geographical accessibility of urban resources for population living in residential areas has received an increased focus in urban health studies. Operationalising and computing geographical accessibility measures depend on a set of four parameters, namely definition of residential areas, a method of aggregation, a measure of accessibility, and a type of distance. Yet, the choice of these parameters may potentially generate different results leadi...

  3. [Regulation of sexual expression in residential aged care facilities: A professional point of view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villar, Feliciano; Fabà, Josep; Celdrán, Montserrat; Serrat, Rodrigo

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the opinion of professionals working in residential aged care facilities on the regulation of sexuality in these settings. Fifty-three professionals from five residential aged care facilities located in the metropolitan area of Barcelona answered several questions regarding the advisability of establishing measures for the regulation of sexuality in RACFs, the elements that could contribute to this, and the aspects that such regulations should consider. Around 50% of the participants recognized the advisability of having some type of measures for sexuality regulation in residential aged care facilities. According to their responses this should be developed taking into account professional opinions, but also the points of view of the residents and their relatives. The most frequently mentioned regulations were those that ensured that any kind of sexually charged situation occurred in a private environment. The development of strategies are suggested to distinguish those people with dementia that are competent to consent to sexual acts from those who are not. The opinion of professionals working in RACFs regarding the advisability of establishing measures for sexuality regulation seems to be considerably divided. Thus, whilst around 50% of them recognize their potential usefulness, the other half consider them unnecessary or even counterproductive for the sexual freedom of residents. Associating regulation with prohibition and sexuality with sexual activity was not uncommon among the responses of the participants. Copyright © 2014 SEGG. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  4. Residential energy consumption: A convergence analysis across Chinese regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herrerias, M.J.; Aller, Carlos; Ordóñez, Javier

    2017-01-01

    The process of urbanization and the raise of living standards in China have led an increasing trend in the patterns of residential consumption. Projections for the population growth rate in urban areas do not paint a very optimistic picture for energy conservation policies. In addition, the concentration of economic activities around coastal areas calls for new prospects to be formulated for energy policy. In this context, the objective of this paper is twofold. First, we analyse the effect of the urbanization process of the Chinese economy in terms of the long-run patterns of residential energy consumption at national level. By using the concept of club convergence, we examine whether electricity and coal consumption in rural and urban areas converge to the same long-run equilibrium or whether in fact they diverge. Second, the impact of the regional concentration of the economic activity on energy consumption patterns is also assessed by source of energy across Chinese regions from 1995 to 2011. Our results suggest that the process of urbanization has led to coal being replaced by electricity in urban residential energy consumption. In rural areas, the evidence is mixed. The club convergence analysis confirms that rural and urban residential energy consumption converge to different steady-states. At the regional level, we also confirm the effect of the regional concentration of economic activity on residential energy consumption. The existence of these regional clusters converging to different equilibrium levels is indicative of the need of regional-tailored set of energy policies in China.

  5. Aggregate surface areas quantified through laser measurements for South African asphalt mixtures

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Anochie-Boateng, Joseph

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available design. This paper introduces the use of a three-dimensional (3D) laser scanning method to directly measure the surface area of aggregates used in road pavements in South Africa. As an application of the laser-based measurements, the asphalt film...

  6. Using the SIMGRO regional hydrological model to evaluate salinity control measures in an irrigation area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kupper, E.; Querner, E.P.; Morábito, J.A.; Menenti, M.

    2002-01-01

    In irrigated areas with drainage and an important interaction with the groundwater system, it is often difficult to predict effects of measures to control salinity. Therefore, in order to evaluate measures to control salinity the SIMGRO integrated regional hydrological model was extended with a

  7. Study of measurement methods of ultrafine aerosols surface-area for characterizing occupational exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bau, S.

    2008-12-01

    This work aims at improving knowledge on ultrafine aerosols surface-area measurement. Indeed, the development of nano-technologies may lead to occupational exposure to airborne nano-structured particles, which involves a new prevention issue. There is currently no consensus concerning what parameter (mass, surface-area, number) should be measured. However, surface-area could be a relevant metric, since it leads to a satisfying correlation with biological effects when nano-structured particles are inhaled. Hence, an original theoretical work was performed to position the parameter of surface-area in relation to other aerosol characteristics. To investigate measurement techniques of nano-structured aerosols surface-area, the experimental facility CAIMAN (Characterization of Instruments for the Measurement of Aerosols of Nano-particles) was designed and built. Within CAIMAN, it is possible to produce nano-structured aerosols with varying and controlled properties (size, concentration, chemical nature, morphology, state-of-charge), stable and reproducible in time. The generated aerosols were used to experimentally characterize the response of the instruments in study (NSAM and AeroTrak 9000 TSI, LQ1-DC Matter Engineering). The response functions measured with monodisperse aerosols show a good agreement with the corresponding theoretical curves in a large size range, from 15 to 520 nm. Furthermore, hypotheses have been formulated to explain the reasonable biases observed when measuring poly-disperse aerosols. (author)

  8. Quantum efficiency measurement system for large area CsI photodetectors

    CERN Document Server

    Cusanno, F; Colilli, S; Crateri, R; Fratoni, R; Frullani, S; Garibaldi, F; Giuliani, F; Gricia, M; Lucentini, M; Mostarda, A; Santavenere, F; Veneroni, P; Breuer, H; Iodice, M; Urciuoli, G M; De Cataldo, G; De Leo, R; Lagamba, L; Braem, André

    2003-01-01

    A proximity focusing freon/CsI RICH detector has been built for kaon physics at Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility (TJNAF or Jefferson Lab), Hall A. The Cherenkov photons are detected by a UV photosensitive CsI film which has been obtained by vacuum evaporation. A dedicated evaporation facility for large area photocathodes has been built for this task. A measuring system has been built to allow the evaluation of the absolute quantum efficiency (QE) just after the evaporation. The evaporation facility is described here, as well as the quantum efficiency measurement device. Results of the QE on-line measurements, for the first time on large area photocathodes, are reported.

  9. Costs of day hospital and community residential chemical dependency treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaskutas, Lee Ann; Zavala, Silvana K; Parthasarathy, Sujaya; Witbrodt, Jane

    2008-03-01

    Patient placement criteria developed by the American Society of Addiction Medicine (ASAM) have identified a need for low-intensity residential treatment as an alternative to day hospital for patients with higher levels of severity. A recent clinical trial found similar outcomes at social model residential treatment and clinically-oriented day hospital programs, but did not report on costs. This paper addresses whether the similar outcomes in the recent trial were delivered with comparable costs, overall and within gender and ethnicity stratum. This paper reports on clients not at environmental risk who participated in a randomized trial conducted in three metropolitan areas served by a large pre-paid health plan. Cost data were collected using the Drug Abuse Treatment Cost Analysis Program (DATCAP). Costs per episode were calculated by multiplying DATCAP-derived program-specific costs by each client's length of stay. Differences in length of stay, and in per-episode costs, were compared between residential and day hospital subjects. Lengths of stay at residential treatment were significantly longer than at day hospital, in the sample overall and in disaggregated analyses. This difference was especially marked among non-Whites. The average cost per week was USD 575 per week at day hospital, versus USD 370 per week at the residential programs. However, because of the longer stays in residential, per-episode costs were significantly higher in the sample overall and among non-Whites (and marginally higher for men). These cost results must be considered in light of the null findings comparing outcomes between subjects randomized to residential versus day hospital programs. The longer stays in the sample overall and for non-White clients at residential programs came at higher costs but did not lead to better rates of abstinence. The short stays in day hospital among non-Whites call into question the attractiveness of day hospital for minority clients. Outcomes and costs

  10. The Value of Green Infrastructure on Vacant and Residential Land in Roanoke, Virginia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunwoo Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Using the City of Roanoke, Virginia as a study site, this paper quantifies the forest structure, ecosystem services and values of vacant and residential land. Single family residential land had more trees (1,683,000 than vacant land (210,000 due largely to the differences in land area (32.44 km2 of vacant land vs. 57.94 km2 residential. While the percentage of tree coverage was almost identical across land uses (30.6% in vacant to 32.3% in residential, the number of trees per ha is greater on residential land (290.3 than on vacant land (63.4. The average healthy leaf surface area on individual trees growing on vacant land was greater than that of individual trees on residential land. The fact that trees in vacant land were found to provide more ecosystem services per tree than residential trees was attributed to this leaf area difference. Trees on vacant land are growing in more natural conditions and there are more large trees per ha. Assessing the forest structure and ecosystem services of Roanoke’s vacant and residential land provides a picture of the current extent and condition of the vacant and residential land. Understanding these characteristics provides the information needed for improved management and utilization of urban vacant land and estimating green infrastructure value.

  11. Monitoring of Landslide Areas with the Use of Contemporary Methods of Measuring and Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrzypczak Izabela

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, there is an increase of landslide risk observed, which is associated with intensive anthropogenic activities and extreme weather conditions. Appropriate monitoring and proper development of measurements resulting as maps of areas at risk of landslides enables us to estimate the risk in the social and economic aspect. Landslide monitoring in the framework of SOPO project is performed by several methods of measurements: monitoring of surface (GNSS measurement and laser scanning, monitoring in-deepth (inclinometer measurements and monitoring of the hydrological changes and precipitation (measuring changes in water-table and rainfall.

  12. Temporal and Other Exposure Aspects of Residential Magnetic Fields Measurement in Relation to Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia in Children: The National Cancer Institute Children's Cancer Group Study (invited paper)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baris, D.; Linet, M.; Auvinen, A.; Kaune, W.T.; Wacholder, S.; Kleinerman, R.; Hatch, E.; Robison, L.; Niwa, S.; Haines, C.; Tarone, R.E

    1999-07-01

    Case-control studies have used a variety of measurements to evaluate the relationship of children's exposure to magnetic fields (50 or 60 Hz) with childhood leukaemia and other childhood cancers. In the absence of knowledge about which exposure metrics may be biologically meaningful, studies during the past 10 years have often used time-weighted average (TWA) summaries of home measurements. Recently, other exposure metrics have been suggested, usually based on theoretical considerations or limited laboratory data. In this paper, the rationale and associated preliminary studies undertaken are described as well as feasibility andvalidity issues governing the choice of the primary magnetic field exposure assessment methods and summary metric used to estimate children's exposure in the National Cancer Institute/Children's Cancer Group (NCI/CCG) case-control study. Also provided are definitions and discussion of the strengths and weaknesses of the various exposure metrics used in exploratory analyses of the NCI/CCG measurement data. Exposure metrics evaluated include measures of central tendency (mean, median, 30th to 70th percentiles), peak exposures (90th and higher percentiles, peak values of the 24 h measurements), and measurements of short-term temporal variability (rate of change). This report describes correlations of the various metrics with the time-weighted average for the 24 h period (TWA-24-h). Most of the metrics were found to be positively and highly correlated with TWA-24-h, but lower correlations of TWA-24-h with peak exposure and with rate of change were observed. To examine further the relation between TWA and alternative metrics, similar exploratory analysis should be considered for existing data sets and for forthcoming measurement investigations of residential magnetic fields and childhood leukaemia. (author)

  13. Assessing effects of military aircraft noise on residential property values near airbases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidell, Sanford; Tabachnick, Barbara; Silvati, Laura; Cook, Brenda

    The question, 'Does military aircraft noise exposure affect residential property values in the vicinity of Air Force bases?', can be asked and answered with varying degrees of generality and tolerable errors of inference. Definitive answers are difficult to develop because the question itself may not be meaningful in some circumstances: property values are affected by many factors other than aircraft noise which can fluctuate greatly in different areas and during different time periods; credible attribution of causality for changes in property values uniquely to aircraft noise requires many costly study design measures; and prior findings suggest that if a relationship exists, it is not a large or especially strong one. Thus, evidence of a simple geographic association between aircraft noise exposure and residential property values does not provide a conclusive answer to the question. In an effort to develop more compelling evidence, the US Air Force is planning to compare historical records of sale prices of properties in areas of differential aircraft noise exposure during specific time periods with predictions of sale prices derived from a validated statistical model of residential property values.

  14. Residential Treatment Centers for Child Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhat Nasiroglu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Every year millions of reports are being held and cases regarding those reports in courts are carrying on about abusement and omission against children . Abusement against children has been seen throughout of the history. Significant and permanent impacts can occur upon child abusement and neglect on victim children. It is important to know the psychological dynamics which have been lived by the children by the mental health professionalsto protect the children after the abusement report has been written. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy and medications are being used commonly in the treatment of abusement cases. However in some cases it is necessary to send away the victims from environment, enable them to continue their education life, make sure that they are treated by the professional individuals in safe area. For this end there are many Residential Treatment Centers around the world. and ldquo;Oguz Kagan Koksal Social Care and Rehabilitation Center and rdquo; was established in Adana as the first Residential Treatment Center in Turkey. In this report the historical dimensions of the child abusement, the definition of it, its psychological dynamics, the psychological disorders caused by it, treatment approaches and residential treatment centers have been reviewed. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(1.000: 67-78

  15. Energy efficient residential house wall system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aldawi, Fayez; Date, Abhijit; Alam, Firoz; Khan, Iftekhar; Alghamdi, Mohammed

    2013-01-01

    The energy consumption and greenhouse gas emission by the residential housing sector are considered to be one of the largest in economically developed countries. The larger energy consumption and greenhouse gas emission not only put additional pressure on finite fossil fuel resources but also cause global warming and climate change. Additionally, the residential housing sector will be consuming more energy as the house demand and average house floor area are progressively increasing. With currently used residential house wall systems, it is hard to reduce energy consumption for ongoing house space heating and cooling. A smart house wall envelope with optimal thermal masses and insulation materials is vital for reducing our increasing energy consumption. The major aim of this study is to investigate thermal performance and energy saving potential of a new house wall system for variable climate conditions. The thermal performance modelling was carried out using commercially developed software AccuRate ® . The findings indicate that a notable energy savings can be accomplished if a smart house wall system is used. -- Highlights: • Smart house wall system. • Thermal performance modelling and star energy rating. • Energy savings and greenhouse gas reduction

  16. Clinical measurement of the height of the interproximal contact area in maxillary anterior teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sghaireen, Mohd G; Al-Zarea, Bader K; Al-Shorman, Hisham M; Al-Omiri, Mahmoud K

    2013-11-01

    To clinically quantify the apicoincisal height of interproximal areas directly in patients' mouths. Thirty participants (11 females and 9 males, mean age=26±1.5 years) were recruited into this study. Measurement of interproximal contact areas was carried out directly in patients' mouths using digital caliper (TERENSA, USA) with measuring accuracy of 0.01 mm. The interproximal contact areas that were measured are: central incisor to central incisor, central incisor to lateral incisor, lateral incisor to canine, and canine to first premolar on both sides of the jaw. Statistical significance was based on probability values less than 0.05 (pcontact point was the one present between central incisors and it ranged from 2.9 to 6.5 mm. On the other hand, the contact point between canine and first premolar was the smallest on both sides of the arch and ranged from 0.6 to 2.5 mm. The dimensions of the contact points declined as we move from anterior area backwards. Statistical analysis using t-test showed that there were significant differences between the measurements of interproximal points of each tooth (Pcontact point decreased as we moved from anterior to posterior teeth. The contact area between the central incisors was largest and the one between canine and premolar was the smallest. This study is the first to report direct intra-oral clinical measurement of contact points. Clinical evaluation of contact point dimensions using digital caliber is a viable, quick and accurate method to use.

  17. Measurement of local dose rates in controlled areas of nuclear power plants. Version 6/85

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    Local dose rate measurements according to this regulation, serve the following purposes: Development of preventive measures for radiation protection with respect to maintenance and modifications in controlled areas, e.g. determination of individual measures for personnel protection, development of flow charts and dose rate estimates; monitoring of the personnel's location of activity within the controlled area, including determination of time-dependence of local dose rates and determination of immediate radiation protection measures required; limitation and identification of controlled areas. Such measurements are performed to ensure that the principles of radiation protection as stated in Art. 28 (1) of the Radiation Protection Ordinance with respect to external radiation exposure of the personnel, and the requirements of Art. 61 (1) of the Radiation Protection Ordinance relating to controlled areas are met and the limitation and identification of controlled areas as prescribed in Art 57 (1) of the Radiation Protection Ordinance can be performed. They are not used to determine body doses as per Art. 63 of the Radiation Protection Ordinance. (orig./HP) [de

  18. Measurement of environmental radiation exposure rates from Vernita, Hanford Reach, and Richland area shores. Addendum 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cooper, A.T.

    1995-02-01

    Environmental radiation exposure rate measurements are taken on and around the Hanford Site for Pacific Northwest Laboratory's Hanford Site Surface Environmental Surveillance Project. In 1992, environmental radiation exposure rate measurements were taken from shoreline and island areas ranging from Vernita, along the Hanford Reach, down to the Richland Pumphouse. Measurements were taken primarily at locations known or expected to have elevated exposure rates as determined by examination of aerial photographs depicting radiation exposure measurements. Results from the 1992 survey indicated radiation exposure rates taken from the Hanford Reach area were elevated in comparison to the measurements taken from the Vernita area with ranges of 8 to 28 μR/hr and 4 to 11 μR/hr, respectively. In January 1994, additional shoreline radiation exposure rate measurements were taken from the Vernita, Hanford Reach, and Richland areas to determine the relationship of radiation exposure rates along the Richland area shores when compared to Vernita and Hanford Reach area exposure rates (measurements along the Richland area were not collected during the 1992 survey). This report discusses the 1994 results and is an addendum to the report that discussed the 1992 survey. An analysis of variance indicated a significant location interaction at a p-value of 0.0014. To determine differences between paried locations a post-hoc comparison of location means was performed on log transformed data using the Scheffacute e's F-test. This test indicated a significant difference between Hanford Reach and Richland area means with a mean difference of 0.075 /μR/hr and a p-value of 0.0014. No significant difference was found between Hanford Reach and Vernita area means: The mean difference was 0.031 μR/hr and the p-value was 0.3138. No significant difference was found between Vernita and Richland area means with a mean difference of 0.044 μR/hr and a p-value of 0.1155

  19. The measuring of real state of the residential complex Vlčince II in Žilina by using of TLS technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarína Pukanská

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Construction of blocks of flats Vlčince II in Žilina, realized by the building company Doprastav a.s., consists from two blocksA and B. For measuring of real status construction was used terrestrial laser scanner Leica ScanStation. Processing of measured datawas applicated in software Cyclone Scan, Register and Cloudworx for Microstation. Through measured objects was created horizontalsections in more high levels. Founded deviations are presented in attached tables.

  20. ENERGY STAR Certified Residential Dishwashers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 6.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Residential Dishwashers that are effective as of...

  1. ENERGY STAR Certified Residential Freezers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 5.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Residential Refrigerators and Freezers that are...

  2. ENERGY STAR Certified Residential Refrigerators

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 5.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Residential Refrigerators and Freezers that are...

  3. Actions Environmental Sustainability Measures for Producers and Local Communities in a Coastal Area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Elena Zequeira-Álvarez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the area of study is defined as the producers and communities of the northern coastal zone, up to the 5-meter level curve of the province of Camagüey, Cuba. It is composed of four municipalities and is very rich in natural values but also identifies itself as a very fragile ecosystem. The methodological procedure consists of three stages that respond to their respective objectives: General characteristics of the study area, environmental problems in the area of study and general measures of sustainability for producers and coastal communities, The general objective of the work is to propose general measures of Environmental sustainability for producers and local communities in the northern coastal zone of Camagüey, Cuba in order to contribute to the use and conservation of the ecosystem. These are aimed at the producers and settlers of the study area but may be interesting for other ecosystems.

  4. Single-slice epicardial fat area measurement. Do we need to measure the total epicardial fat volume?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyama, Noriko; Goto, Daisuke; Ito, Yoichi M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess a method for measuring epicardial fat volume (EFV) by means of a single-slice area measurement. We investigated the relation between a single-slice fat area measurement and total EFV. A series of 72 consecutive patients (ages 65±11 years; 36 men) who had undergone cardiac computed tomography (CT) on a 64-slice multidetector scanner with prospective electrocardiographic triggering were retrospectively reviewed. Pixels in the pericardium with a density range from -230 to -30 Hounsfield units were considered fat, giving the per-slice epicardial fat area (EFA). The EFV was estimated by the summation of EFAs multiplied by the slice thickness. We investigated the relation between total EFV and each EFA. EFAs measured at several anatomical landmarks - right pulmonary artery, origins of the left main coronary artery, right coronary artery, coronary sinus - all correlated with the EFV (r=0.77-0.92). The EFA at the LMCA level was highly reproducible and showed an excellent correlation with the EFV (r=0.92). The EFA is significantly correlated with the EFV. The EFA is a simple, quick method for representing the time-consuming EFV, which has been used as a predictive indicator of cardiovascular diseases. (author)

  5. Measurement of high natural background radiation levels by TLD at Cox's Bazar coastal areas in Bangladesh

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mollah, A.S.; Rahman, M.M.; Koddus, M.A.; Husain, S.R.; Malek, M.A.

    1987-01-01

    High natural background radiation levels at the Cox's Bazar coastal areas in Bangladesh were measured by LiF (TLD-100) dosemeters. The dose rates varied from 2621 to 35391 μGy.y -1 with a mean of 11968 μGy.y -1 . The average dose rate is found to significantly higher than the world average value. In order to formulate appropriate guidelines for radiation protection of the population in this area, the necessary recommendations are described. (author)

  6. Assessment of Runoff Contributing Catchment Areas in Rainfall Runoff Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Johansen, C.; Schaarup-Jensen, Kjeld

    2005-01-01

    to determine with significant precision the hydrological reduction factor is implemented to account all hydrological losses except the initial loss. This paper presents an inconsistency between calculations of the hydrological reduction factor, based on measurements of rainfall and runoff, and till now...... recommended literary values for residential areas. It is proven by comparing rainfall-runoff measurements from four different residential catchments that the literary values of the hydrological reduction factor are over-estimated for this type of catchments. In addition, different catchment descriptions...

  7. Emergency lighting for industrial, commercial and residential premises

    CERN Document Server

    Lyons, X

    2013-01-01

    Emergency Lighting: For Industrial, Commercial and Residential Premises concerns itself with the provision of emergency lighting to facilitate exit routes for people in industrial, commercial, and residential areas. The book covers important topics such as the objectives of emergency lighting systems; the identification of safe routes under low lighting in different areas; and related devices such as luminaires, emergency signs, and way-guidance. Also discussed are the applications of emergency lighting; factors to consider in the design of emergency lighting; electrical installations; and tes

  8. Digital photography and transparency-based methods for measuring wound surface area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhedi, Amul; Saxena, Atul K; Gadani, Ravi; Patel, Ritesh

    2013-04-01

    To compare and determine a credible method of measurement of wound surface area by linear, transparency, and photographic methods for monitoring progress of wound healing accurately and ascertaining whether these methods are significantly different. From April 2005 to December 2006, 40 patients (30 men, 5 women, 5 children) admitted to the surgical ward of Shree Sayaji General Hospital, Baroda, had clean as well as infected wound following trauma, debridement, pressure sore, venous ulcer, and incision and drainage. Wound surface areas were measured by these three methods (linear, transparency, and photographic methods) simultaneously on alternate days. The linear method is statistically and significantly different from transparency and photographic methods (P value transparency and photographic methods (P value >0.05). Photographic and transparency methods provided measurements of wound surface area with equivalent result and there was no statistically significant difference between these two methods.

  9. Measuring contact area in a sliding human finger-pad contact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X; Carré, M J; Zhang, Q; Lu, Z; Matcher, S J; Lewis, R

    2018-02-01

    The work outlined in this paper was aimed at achieving further understanding of skin frictional behaviour by investigating the contact area between human finger-pads and flat surfaces. Both the static and the dynamic contact areas (in macro- and micro-scales) were measured using various techniques, including ink printing, optical coherence tomography (OCT) and Digital Image Correlation (DIC). In the studies of the static measurements using ink printing, the experimental results showed that the apparent and the real contact area increased with load following a piecewise linear correlation function for a finger-pad in contact with paper sheets. Comparisons indicated that the OCT method is a reliable and effective method to investigate the real contact area of a finger-pad and allow micro-scale analysis. The apparent contact area (from the DIC measurements) was found to reduce with time in the transition from the static phase to the dynamic phase while the real area of contact (from OCT) increased. The results from this study enable the interaction between finger-pads and contact object surface to be better analysed, and hence improve the understanding of skin friction. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Chapter 9: Experimental measurements of the diffusion area of neutrons in graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, G.; McCulloch, D.B.

    1963-01-01

    This report describes measurements of the diffusion area of neutrons in a solid graphite exponential stack, and in a stack containing cylindrical air channels of 4.5 in. diameter, arranged on a square lattice of 8 in. pitch. The resulting diffusion area ratios are compared with the theoretical predictions of a number of authors. The diffusion area ratios deduced from a pair of experiments in which the orientation of the air channels with respect to the source-plane is changed are found to be in agreement with those deduced from experiments in which the stack size is changed but a constant air channel orientation maintained. (author)

  11. Computational area measurement of orbital floor fractures: Reliability, accuracy and rapidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schouman, Thomas; Courvoisier, Delphine S.; Imholz, Benoit; Van Issum, Christopher; Scolozzi, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the reliability, accuracy and rapidity of a specific computational method for assessing the orbital floor fracture area on a CT scan. Method: A computer assessment of the area of the fracture, as well as that of the total orbital floor, was determined on CT scans taken from ten patients. The ratio of the fracture's area to the orbital floor area was also calculated. The test–retest precision of measurement calculations was estimated using the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) and Dahlberg's formula to assess the agreement across observers and across measures. The time needed for the complete assessment was also evaluated. Results: The Intraclass Correlation Coefficient across observers was 0.92 [0.85;0.96], and the precision of the measures across observers was 4.9%, according to Dahlberg's formula .The mean time needed to make one measurement was 2 min and 39 s (range, 1 min and 32 s to 4 min and 37 s). Conclusion: This study demonstrated that (1) the area of the orbital floor fracture can be rapidly and reliably assessed by using a specific computer system directly on CT scan images; (2) this method has the potential of being routinely used to standardize the post-traumatic evaluation of orbital fractures

  12. Simple area-based measurement for multidetector computed tomography to predict left ventricular size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlett, Christopher L.; Kwait, Dylan C.; Mahabadi, Amir A.; Hoffmann, Udo; Bamberg, Fabian; O'Donnell, Christopher J.; Fox, Caroline S.

    2010-01-01

    Measures of left ventricular (LV) mass and dimensions are independent predictors of morbidity and mortality. We determined whether an axial area-based method by computed tomography (CT) provides an accurate estimate of LV mass and volume. A total of 45 subjects (49% female, 56.0 ± 12 years) with a wide range of LV geometry underwent contrast-enhanced 64-slice CT. LV mass and volume were derived from 3D data. 2D images were analysed to determine LV area, the direct transverse cardiac diameter (dTCD) and the cardiothoracic ratio (CTR). Furthermore, feasibility was confirmed in 100 Framingham Offspring Cohort subjects. 2D measures of LV area, dTCD and CTR were 47.3 ± 8 cm 2 , 14.7 ± 1.5 cm and 0.54 ± 0.05, respectively. 3D-derived LV volume (end-diastolic) and mass were 148.9 ± 45 cm 3 and 124.2 ± 34 g, respectively. Excellent inter- and intra-observer agreement were shown for 2D LV area measurements (both intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) = 0.99, p 0.27). Compared with traditionally used CTR, LV size can be accurately predicted based on a simple and highly reproducible axial LV area-based measurement. (orig.)

  13. A study of x-ray microbeam stress measurement for local area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natsume, Yoshitaka; Miyakawa, Susumu

    1987-01-01

    A new type X-ray microbeam equipment which is capable of three-dimensional oscillation at an X-ray radiation position was used to measure the residual stress of pure iron powder and bending plate specimens as well as that in the vicinity of fatigue crack tip of 1/2 CT specimen. The results obtained are summerized as follows. (1) Diffraction profiles of pure iron powder with diameter 0.02 ∼ 0.03 μm particle size obtained by the present microbeam technique in the beam area of 80 μm in diamether and measuring time more than 800 sec showed Kα 1 and Kα 2 peaks clearly, so that these profiles are good enough for stress measurement. (2) The measured stress of pure iron powder with diameter 10 ∼ 25 μm particle size in the beam area of 80 μm in diameter was not equal to 0 MPa. The measured stress varied greatly and was independent of measuring time. (3) The measured stress of pure iron powder with diameter 0.02 ∼ 0.03 μm particle size in the beam area of 80 μm in diameter was almost 1 MPa, which shows the good accuracy of this X-ray micro-beam equipment. (4) The relation between the X-ray measured stress and the mechanically applied stress showed good agreement. (5) The distribution of residual stress at the vicinity of fatigue crack tip showed that the residual stress at the fatigue crack tip was compression and the residual stress in front of crack tip was tension. This tensile residual stress in front of crack tip existed in the area from 0.02 mm to 2 mm. (6) The above results show that the present equipment is advantageous in the investigation of local stress, shortening the measuring time without sacrificing the accuracy. (author)

  14. Change Processes in Residential Cognitive and Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Social Phobia: A Process-Outcome Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffart, Asle; Borge, Finn-Magnus; Sexton, Harold; Clark, David M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test cognitive and interpersonal models for improving social phobia. Eighty patients with social phobia were randomized to 10-week residential cognitive (RCT) or residential interpersonal psychotherapy (RIPT). They completed process measures every Thursday and a sub-outcome measure every Monday. The ratings were…

  15. Simultaneous measurement of eye stiffness and contact area for living human eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurita, Yuichi; Iida, Yoshichika; Kaneko, Makoto; Mishima, Hiromu K; Katakura, Seiki; Kiuchi, Yoshiaki

    2007-01-01

    Goldmann applanation tonometry is commonly used for measuring IOP (IntraOcular Pressure) to diagnose glaucoma. However, the measured IOP by the applanation tonometry is valid only under the assumption that all the subjects have the same structural eye stiffness. Abnormal eye stiffness makes abnormal corneal deformation and thus the current applanation tonometer misestimates the IOP. This study challenges to measure the eye stiffness in vivo with a non-invasive approach for detecting the abnormal deformation. The deformation of the cornea and the contact area between the probe and the cornea are simultaneously captured by cameras during the experiment. Experimental results show that some subjects have different relationship among the force, the displacement and the contact area even with same IOP. The proposed eye stiffness measurement can help detecting the abnormal deformation and the eyes with misestimated IOP.

  16. Different social drivers, including perceptions of urban wildlife, explain the ecological resources in residential landscapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    J. Amy Belaire; Lynne M. Westphal; Emily S. Minor

    2016-01-01

    The conservation value of residential landscapes is becoming increasingly apparent in our urbanizing world. The ecological characteristics of residential areas are largely determined by the decisions of many individual "managers." In these complex socio-ecological systems, it is important to understand the factors that motivate human decision-making. Our...

  17. Survey of residential magnetic field sources

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaffanella, L.E.

    1992-09-01

    A nationwide survey of 1000 residences is underway to determine the sources and characteristics of magnetic fields in the home. This report describes the goals, statistical sampling methods, measurement protocols, and experiences in measuring the first 707 residences of the survey. Some preliminary analysis of the data is also included. Investigators designed a sampling method to randomly select the participating utilities as well as the residential customers for the study. As a first step in the project, 18 utility employee residences were chosen to validate a relatively simple measurement protocol against the results of a more complete and intrusive method. Using the less intrusive measurement protocol, researchers worked closely with representatives from EPRI member utilities to enter customer residences and measure the magnetic fields found there. Magnetic field data were collected in different locations inside and around the residences. Twenty-four-hour recorders were left in the homes overnight. Tests showed that the simplified measurement protocol is adequate for achieving the goals of the study. Methods were developed for analyzing the field caused by a residence's ground current, the lateral field profiles of field lines, and the field measured around the periphery of the residences. Methods of residential source detection were developed that allow identification of sources such as ground connections at an electrical subpanel, two-wire multiple-way switches, and underground or overhead net currents exiting the periphery of a residence

  18. Residual strain in the Nb-H system measured by selected area diffraction (SAD)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bulhoes, I.A.M.; Akune, K.; Pinatti, Dyonisio G.

    1981-07-01

    Various specimens of Nb were annealed in vacuum of 10 -3 torr for four hours at 1770 0 K. These speciments were doped with hydrogen up to 1000 ppm by weight and then were analyzed selected area diffraction. The line resolution of the electron channelling pattern was meassured for the specimens with different hydrogen content. These measurements, combined with the measurement of density, permitted one to estimate the residual strain caused by hydrogen. (Author) [pt

  19. Identifying critical success factors (CSFs) of Facilities Management (FM) in non-low cost high-rise residential buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahlan, F. M.; Zainuddin, A.

    2018-02-01

    Critical success factors (CSFs) are important key areas of activity that must be performed well in any Facilities Management (FM) organisation to achieve its missions, objectives or goals. Before implementing CSFs, an FM organisation must identify the key areas where things must be done properly to enable the business to flourish. Although many performance measurements in FM organisation have been discussed in previous research, not much research has been done on CSFs from the perspective of FM business in non-low cost high-rise residential buildings. The purpose of this study is to develop a methodology in developing the CSFs group and CSFs for FM organisation in non-low cost residential buildings. This research will involve three (3) phases of research strategy to achieve the objective of this research.

  20. Interdisciplinary Residential Treatment of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Traumatic Brain Injury: Effects on Symptom Severity and Occupational Performance and Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Speicher, Sarah M.; Walter, Kristen H.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This study examined outcomes of an 8-wk residential treatment program for veterans with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and a history of traumatic brain injury (TBI). METHOD. Twenty-six veterans completed the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure, Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale, Beck Depression Inventory–2nd Edition, and PTSD Checklist before and after treatment. RESULTS. Veterans demonstrated significant improvements in occupational performance and satisfaction with their performance, as well as in PTSD and depression symptom severity after residential PTSD/TBI treatment. Additionally, improvements in occupational performance and satisfaction were associated with decreases in depression symptom severity. CONCLUSION. Although preliminary, results suggest that veterans with PTSD and a history of TBI experienced significant decreases in PTSD and depression symptom severity and improvement in self-perception of performance and satisfaction in problematic occupational areas. Changes in occupational areas and depression symptom severity were related, highlighting the importance of interdisciplinary treatment. PMID:25005504

  1. Local measurement of interfacial area, interfacial velocity and liquid turbulence in two-phase flow

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibiki, T.; Hogsett, S.; Ishii, M.

    1998-01-01

    Double sensor probe and hotfilm anemometry methods were developed for measuring local flow characteristics in bubbly flow. The formulation for the interfacial area concentration measurement was obtained by improving the formulation derived by Kataoka and Ishii. The assumptions used in the derivation of the equation were verified experimentally. The interfacial area concentration measured by the double sensor probe agreed well with one by the photographic method. The filter to validate the hotfilm anemometry for measuring the liquid velocity and turbulent intensity in bubbly flow was developed based on removing the signal due to the passing bubbles. The local void fraction, interfacial area concentration, interfacial velocity, Sauter mean diameter, liquid velocity, and turbulent intensity of vertical upward air-water flow in a round tube with inner diameter of 50.8 mm were measured by using these methods. A total of 54 data sets were acquired consisting of three superficial gas flow rates, 0.039, 0.067, and 0.147 m/s, and three superficial liquid flow rates, 0.60, 1.00, and 1.30 m/s. The measurements were performed at the three locations: L/D=2, 32, and 62. This data is expected to be used for the development of reliable constitutive relations which reflect the true transfer mechanisms in two-phase flow. (author)

  2. Measurement of the area of venous ulcers using two software programs 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberhardt, Thaís Dresch; de Lima, Suzinara Beatriz Soares; Lopes, Luis Felipe Dias; Borges, Eline de Lima; Weiller, Teresinha Heck; da Fonseca, Graziele Gorete Portella

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective: to compare the measurement area of venous ulcers using AutoCAD(r) and Image Tool software. Method: this was an assessment of reproducibility tests conducted in a angiology clinic of a university hospital. Data were collected from 21 patients with venous ulcers, in the period from March to July of 2015, using a collection form and photograph of wounds. Five nurses (evaluators) of the hospital skin wound study group participated. The wounds were measured using both software programs. Data were analyzed using intraclass correlation coefficient, concordance correlation coefficient and Bland-Altman analysis. The study met the ethical aspects in accordance with current legislation. Results: the size of ulcers varied widely, however, without significant difference between the measurements; an excellent intraclass and concordance correlation was found between both software programs, which seem to be more accurate when measuring a wound area >10 cm². Conclusion: the use of both software programs is appropriate for measurement of venous ulcers, appearing to be more accurate when used to measure a wound area > 10 cm². PMID:27992028

  3. Energy literacy, awareness, and conservation behavior of residential households

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brounen, Dirk; Kok, Nils; Quigley, John M.

    2013-01-01

    The residential sector accounts for one-fifth of global energy consumption, resulting from the requirements to heat, cool, and light residential dwellings. It is therefore not surprising that energy efficiency in the residential market has gained importance in recent years. In this paper, we examine awareness, literacy and behavior of households with respect to their residential energy expenditures. Using a detailed survey of 1721 Dutch households, we measure the extent to which consumers are aware of their energy consumption and whether they have taken measures to reduce their energy costs. Our results show that “energy literacy” and awareness among respondents is low: just 56% of the respondents are aware of their monthly charges for energy consumption, and 40% do not appropriately evaluate investment decisions in energy efficient equipment. We document that demographics and consumer attitudes towards energy conservation, but not energy literacy and awareness, have direct effects on behavior regarding heating and cooling of the home. The impact of a moderating factor, measured by thermostat settings, ultimately results in strong variation in the energy consumption of private consumers. - Highlights: • We use a detailed survey of 1,721 Dutch households to measure awareness and conservation behavior in energy consumption. • Energy literacy and awareness among residential households is low. • 40 percent of the sample does not appropriately evaluate investment decisions in energy efficient equipment • Demographics and consumer attitudes affect behavior regarding heating and cooling of a home

  4. Investigation of the impact of low cost traffic engineering measures on road safety in urban areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yannis, George; Kondyli, Alexandra; Georgopoulou, Xenia

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the impact of low cost traffic engineering measures (LCTEMs) on the improvement of road safety in urban areas. A number of such measures were considered, such as speed humps, woonerfs, raised intersections and other traffic calming measures, which have been implemented on one-way, one-lane roads in the Municipality of Neo Psychiko in the Greater Athens Area. Data were analysed using the before-and-after safety analysis methodology with large control group. The selected control group comprised of two Municipalities in the Athens Greater Area, which present similar road network and land use characteristics with the area considered. The application of the methodology showed that the total number of crashes presented a statistically significant reduction, which can be possibly attributed to the introduction of LCTEMs. This reduction concerns passenger cars and single-vehicle crashes and is possibly due to the behavioural improvement of drivers of 25 years old or more. The results of this research are very useful for the identification of the appropriate low cost traffic engineering countermeasures for road safety problems in urban areas.

  5. Residential firewood use in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lipfert, F W; Dungan, J L

    1983-03-25

    An empirical relation between residential firewood use and population density was developed from survey data for 64 counties in New England and was corroborated by data from other states. The results indicate that usage is concentrated in urbanized areas of the Northeast and north central states and that about 9.0 to 11.0 percent of U.S. space heating input is from firewood. No constraints due to the supply of wood were apparent in 1978-1979. These findings have implications for effects on air quality.

  6. Systematic measurement of fast neutron background fluctuations in an urban area using a mobile detection system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iyengar, A.; Beach, M.; Newby, R.J.; Fabris, L.; Heilbronn, L.H.; Hayward, J.P.

    2015-01-01

    Neutron background measurements using a mobile trailer-based system were conducted in Knoxville, Tennessee, USA. The 0.5 m 2 system, consisting of eight EJ-301 liquid scintillation detectors, was used to collect neutron background measurements in order to better understand the systematic variations in background that depend solely on the street-level measurement position in a downtown area. Data was collected along 5 different streets, and the measurements were found to be repeatable. Using 10-min measurements, the fractional uncertainty in each measured data point was <2%. Compared with fast neutron background count rates measured away from downtown Knoxville, a reduction in background count rates ranging from 10% to 50% was observed in the downtown area, sometimes varying substantially over distances of tens of meters. These reductions are attributed to the net shielding of the cosmic ray neutron flux by adjacent buildings. For reference, the building structure as observed at street level is quantified in part here by a measured angle-of-open-sky metric

  7. Systematic measurement of fast neutron background fluctuations in an urban area using a mobile detection system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iyengar, A., E-mail: aiyengar@utk.edu [Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Beach, M. [Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Newby, R.J.; Fabris, L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Heilbronn, L.H. [Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Hayward, J.P. [Department of Nuclear and Radiological Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-02-11

    Neutron background measurements using a mobile trailer-based system were conducted in Knoxville, Tennessee, USA. The 0.5 m{sup 2} system, consisting of eight EJ-301 liquid scintillation detectors, was used to collect neutron background measurements in order to better understand the systematic variations in background that depend solely on the street-level measurement position in a downtown area. Data was collected along 5 different streets, and the measurements were found to be repeatable. Using 10-min measurements, the fractional uncertainty in each measured data point was <2%. Compared with fast neutron background count rates measured away from downtown Knoxville, a reduction in background count rates ranging from 10% to 50% was observed in the downtown area, sometimes varying substantially over distances of tens of meters. These reductions are attributed to the net shielding of the cosmic ray neutron flux by adjacent buildings. For reference, the building structure as observed at street level is quantified in part here by a measured angle-of-open-sky metric.

  8. Using the area under the curve to reduce measurement error in predicting young adult blood pressure from childhood measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Nancy R; Rosner, Bernard A; Chen, Wei; Srinivasan, Sathanur R; Berenson, Gerald S

    2004-11-30

    Tracking correlations of blood pressure, particularly childhood measures, may be attenuated by within-person variability. Combining multiple measurements can reduce this error substantially. The area under the curve (AUC) computed from longitudinal growth curve models can be used to improve the prediction of young adult blood pressure from childhood measures. Quadratic random-effects models over unequally spaced repeated measures were used to compute the area under the curve separately within the age periods 5-14 and 20-34 years in the Bogalusa Heart Study. This method adjusts for the uneven age distribution and captures the underlying or average blood pressure, leading to improved estimates of correlation and risk prediction. Tracking correlations were computed by race and gender, and were approximately 0.6 for systolic, 0.5-0.6 for K4 diastolic, and 0.4-0.6 for K5 diastolic blood pressure. The AUC can also be used to regress young adult blood pressure on childhood blood pressure and childhood and young adult body mass index (BMI). In these data, while childhood blood pressure and young adult BMI were generally directly predictive of young adult blood pressure, childhood BMI was negatively correlated with young adult blood pressure when childhood blood pressure was in the model. In addition, racial differences in young adult blood pressure were reduced, but not eliminated, after controlling for childhood blood pressure, childhood BMI, and young adult BMI, suggesting that other genetic or lifestyle factors contribute to this difference. 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. Increasing access to health workers in underserved areas: a conceptual framework for measuring results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huicho, L.; Dieleman, M.; Campbell, J.; Codjia, L.; Balabanova, D.; Dussault, G.; Dolea, C.

    2010-01-01

    Many countries have developed strategies to attract and retain qualified health workers in underserved areas, but there is only scarce and weak evidence on their successes or failures. It is difficult to compare lessons and measure results from the few evaluations that are available. Evaluation

  10. Increasing access to health workers in underserved areas : a conceptual framework for measuring results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huicho, Luis; Dieleman, Marjolein; Campbell, James; Codjia, Laurence; Balabanova, Dina; Dussault, Gilles; Dolea, Carmen

    Many countries have developed strategies to attract and retain qualified health workers in underserved areas, but there is only scarce and weak evidence on their successes or failures. It is difficult to compare lessons and measure results from the few evaluations that are available. Evaluation

  11. Measuring the reasons that discourage medical students from working in rural areas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goel, Sonu; Angeli, F.; Singla, Neetu; Ruwaard, Dirk

    2018-01-01

    The sharply uneven distribution of human resources for health care across urban and rural areas has been a long-standing concern globally. The present study aims to develop and validate an instrument measuring the factors deterring final year students of Bachelor of Medicine and Bachelor of Surgery

  12. Measurement methods and variability assessment of the Norway spruce total leaf area: Implications for remote sensing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Homolova, L.; Lukes, P.; Malenovsky, Z.; Lhotakova, Z.; Kaplan, V.; Hanus, J.

    2013-01-01

    Estimation of total leaf area (LAT) is important to express biochemical properties in plant ecology and remote sensing studies. A measurement of LAT is easy in broadleaf species, but it remains challenging in coniferous canopies. We proposed a new geometrical model to estimate Norway spruce LAT and

  13. Ventilation area measured with eit in order to optimize peep settings in mechanically ventilated patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blankman, P; Groot Jebbink, E; Preis, C; Bikker, I.; Gommers, D.

    2012-01-01

    INTRODUCTION. Electrical Impedance Tomography (EIT) is a non-invasive imaging technique, which can be used to visualize ventilation. Ventilation will be measured by impedance changes due to ventilation. OBJECTIVES. The aim of this study was to optimize PEEP settings based on the ventilation area of

  14. [Level of microwave radiation from mobile phone base stations built in residential districts].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ji; Lu, Yiyang; Zhang, Huacheng; Xie, Hebing; Yang, Xinwen

    2009-11-01

    To investigate the condition of microwave radiation pollution from mobile phone base station built in populated area. Random selected 18 residential districts where had base station and 10 residential districts where had no base stations. A TES-92 electromagnetic radiation monitor were used to measure the intensity of microwave radiation in external and internal living environment. The intensities of microwave radiation in the exposure residential districts were more higher than those of the control residential districts (p station, it would gradually weaken with the increase of the distance. The level of microwave radiation in antenna main lobe region is not certainly more higher than the side lobe direction, and the side lobe direction also is not more lower. At the same district, where there were two base stations, the electromagnetic field nestification would take place in someplace. The intensities of microwave radiation outside the exposure windows in the resident room not only changed with distance but also with the height of the floor. The intensities of microwave radiation inside the aluminum alloys security net were more lower than those of outside the aluminum alloys security net (p 0.05). Although all the measure dates on the ground around the base station could be below the primary standard in "environment electromagnetic wave hygienic standard" (GB9175-88), there were still a minorities of windows which exposed to the base station were higher, and the outside or inside of a few window was even higher beyond the primary safe level defined standard. The aluminum alloys security net can partly shield the microwave radiation from the mobile phone base station.

  15. A Cost-Effective Transparency-Based Digital Imaging for Efficient and Accurate Wound Area Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pei-Nan; Li, Hong; Wu, Mo-Li; Wang, Shou-Yu; Kong, Qing-You; Zhang, Zhen; Sun, Yuan; Liu, Jia; Lv, De-Cheng

    2012-01-01

    Wound measurement is an objective and direct way to trace the course of wound healing and to evaluate therapeutic efficacy. Nevertheless, the accuracy and efficiency of the current measurement methods need to be improved. Taking the advantages of reliability of transparency tracing and the accuracy of computer-aided digital imaging, a transparency-based digital imaging approach is established, by which data from 340 wound tracing were collected from 6 experimental groups (8 rats/group) at 8 experimental time points (Day 1, 3, 5, 7, 10, 12, 14 and 16) and orderly archived onto a transparency model sheet. This sheet was scanned and its image was saved in JPG form. Since a set of standard area units from 1 mm2 to 1 cm2 was integrated into the sheet, the tracing areas in JPG image were measured directly, using the “Magnetic lasso tool” in Adobe Photoshop program. The pixel values/PVs of individual outlined regions were obtained and recorded in an average speed of 27 second/region. All PV data were saved in an excel form and their corresponding areas were calculated simultaneously by the formula of Y (PV of the outlined region)/X (PV of standard area unit) × Z (area of standard unit). It took a researcher less than 3 hours to finish area calculation of 340 regions. In contrast, over 3 hours were expended by three skillful researchers to accomplish the above work with traditional transparency-based method. Moreover, unlike the results obtained traditionally, little variation was found among the data calculated by different persons and the standard area units in different sizes and shapes. Given its accurate, reproductive and efficient properties, this transparency-based digital imaging approach would be of significant values in basic wound healing research and clinical practice. PMID:22666449

  16. Characterisation of large area THGEMs and experimental measurement of the Townsend coefficients for CF4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burns, J.; Crane, T.; Ezeribe, A. C.; Grove, C. L.; Lynch, W.; Scarff, A.; Spooner, N. J. C.; Steer, C.

    2017-10-01

    Whilst the performance of small THGEMs is well known, here we consider the challenges in scaling these up to large area charge readouts. We first verify the expected gain of larger THGEMs by reporting experimental Townsend coefficients for a 10 cm diameter THGEM in low-pressure CF4. Large area 50 cm by 50 cm THGEMs were sourced from a commercial PCB supplier and geometrical imperfections were observed which we quantified using an optical camera setup. The large area THGEMs were experimentally characterised at Boulby Underground Laboratory through a series of gain calibrations and alpha spectrum measurements. ANSYS, Magboltz and Garfield++ simulations of the design of a TPC based on the large area THGEMs are presented. We also consider their implications for directional dark matter research and potential applications within nuclear security.

  17. Objectively measured differences in physical activity in five types of schoolyard area

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Henriette Bondo; Klinker, Charlotte Demant; Toftager, Mette

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Physical activity (PA) in childhood is related to a multitude of short- and long-term health consequences. School recess can contribute with up to 40% of the recommended 60 min of daily moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA). This paper aims to investigate how schoolchildren use...... positioning system (GPS) and the level of activity was measured using accelerometers. Total time spent and proportions of time spent sedentary and in MVPA were calculated per area type. Significant differences in PA levels were found. Grass and playground areas had the highest proportion of time in MVPA...... and solid surface areas had the highest proportion of time spent sedentary. Boys and children spent a higher proportion of time in MVPA. Girls accumulated more sedentary time in all area types compared to boys. This finding emphasizes the importance of investigating various settings and features...

  18. The importance of engaging residential energy customers' hearts and minds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olaniyan, Monisola J.; Evans, Joanne

    2014-01-01

    In an attempt to reduce the contribution of residential greenhouse gas emissions the EU has implemented a variety of policy measures. The focus has been to promote domestic energy efficiency and ultimately a reduction in residential energy demand. In this study we estimate residential energy demand using Underlying Energy Demand Trend (UEDT) and Asymmetric Price Responses for 14 European OECD countries between 1978 and 2008. Our results support the conclusion that policies to reduce residential energy consumption and the consequent emissions need to account for behavioural, lifestyle and cultural factors in order to be effective. - Highlights: • Residential energy demand is estimated for 14 European OECD countries between 1978 and 2008. • Investigate the relative contributions of Underlying Energy Demand Trend (UEDT) which captures exogenous technical progress. • The most effective policies target behavioural, lifestyle and cultural factors to reduce residential energy consumption

  19. Measurement of wetted area fraction in subcooled pool boiling of water using infrared thermography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyungdae; Park, Youngjae; Buongiorno, Jacopo

    2013-01-01

    The wetted area fraction in subcooled pool boiling of water at atmospheric pressure is measured using the DEPIcT (DEtection of Phase by Infrared Thermography) technique. DEPIcT exploits the contrast in infrared (IR) light emissions between wet and dry areas on the surface of an IR-transparent heater to visualize the instantaneous distribution of the liquid and gas phases in contact with the heater surface. In this paper time-averaged wetted area fraction data in nucleate boiling are reported as functions of heat flux (from 30% up to 100% of the Critical Heat Flux) and subcooling (ΔT sub = 0, 5, 10, 30 and 50 °C). The results show that the wetted area fraction monotonically decreases with increasing heat flux and increases with increasing subcooling: both trends are expected. The range of time-averaged wetted area fractions is from 90%, at low heat flux and high subcooling, to 50% at high heat flux (right before CHF) and low subcooling. It is also shown that the dry areas are periodically rewetted by liquid sloshing on the surface at any subcooling and heat flux; however, the dry areas expand irreversibly at CHF

  20. MAP Fault Localization Based on Wide Area Synchronous Phasor Measurement Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yagang; Wang, Zengping

    2015-02-01

    In the research of complicated electrical engineering, the emergence of phasor measurement units (PMU) is a landmark event. The establishment and application of wide area measurement system (WAMS) in power system has made widespread and profound influence on the safe and stable operation of complicated power system. In this paper, taking full advantage of wide area synchronous phasor measurement information provided by PMUs, we have carried out precise fault localization based on the principles of maximum posteriori probability (MAP). Large numbers of simulation experiments have confirmed that the results of MAP fault localization are accurate and reliable. Even if there are interferences from white Gaussian stochastic noise, the results from MAP classification are also identical to the actual real situation.

  1. Stroke Volume estimation using aortic pressure measurements and aortic cross sectional area: Proof of concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamoi, S; Pretty, C G; Chiew, Y S; Pironet, A; Davidson, S; Desaive, T; Shaw, G M; Chase, J G

    2015-08-01

    Accurate Stroke Volume (SV) monitoring is essential for patient with cardiovascular dysfunction patients. However, direct SV measurements are not clinically feasible due to the highly invasive nature of measurement devices. Current devices for indirect monitoring of SV are shown to be inaccurate during sudden hemodynamic changes. This paper presents a novel SV estimation using readily available aortic pressure measurements and aortic cross sectional area, using data from a porcine experiment where medical interventions such as fluid replacement, dobutamine infusions, and recruitment maneuvers induced SV changes in a pig with circulatory shock. Measurement of left ventricular volume, proximal aortic pressure, and descending aortic pressure waveforms were made simultaneously during the experiment. From measured data, proximal aortic pressure was separated into reservoir and excess pressures. Beat-to-beat aortic characteristic impedance values were calculated using both aortic pressure measurements and an estimate of the aortic cross sectional area. SV was estimated using the calculated aortic characteristic impedance and excess component of the proximal aorta. The median difference between directly measured SV and estimated SV was -1.4ml with 95% limit of agreement +/- 6.6ml. This method demonstrates that SV can be accurately captured beat-to-beat during sudden changes in hemodynamic state. This novel SV estimation could enable improved cardiac and circulatory treatment in the critical care environment by titrating treatment to the effect on SV.

  2. Interim Measures Report for the Headquarters Building Area Location of Concern (LOC) 2E East SWMU 104 John F. Kennedy Space Center, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, Eric D.

    2016-01-01

    The Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendment portion of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Permit issued by the Florida Department of Environmental Protection (FDEP), requires identification and evaluation of all known Solid Waste Management Units (SWMUs) and Locations of Concern (LOCs) located on Kennedy Space Center (KSC) property. The KSC Headquarters Building Area (KHQA) has been identified as SWMU 104 under KSC's RCRA Program. This report summarizes the Interim Measure (IM) conducted by Geosyntec Consultants (Geosyntec) for NASA under Indefinite Delivery Indefinite Quantity Contract NNK12CA13B at the KHQA to mitigate potential exposure to polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-affected media at the eastern side of LOC 2E. The IM activities were conducted in June and July 2015 to remediate PCBs above the FDEP Residential Direct-Exposure (R-) Soil Cleanup Target Level (SCTL) of 0.5 milligram per kilogram (mg/kg) established by Chapter 62-777, Florida Administrative Code. The IM was performed in accordance with the IM Work Plan (IMWP) approved by the FDEP, dated August 2012. IM activities were conducted in accordance with the KSC Generic PCB Work Plan (NASA 2007).

  3. Argos: Residential end-use simulation model for load management strategy analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capasso, A.; Lamedica, R.; Prudenzi, A.

    1992-01-01

    In recent years, load management (LM) strategies, aimed at the optimization of available energy resources, as well as, the reduction of investments for new power plants, have been applied worldwide in residential end-use assessments. However, the forecasting of LM strategy impacts on the residential sector is very complex because it is based on a preliminary evaluation of the customers' proclivity to adapt their load characteristics to utility aims. In order to reduce load analysis requirements, which are substantial due to the need for thorough statistical analyses, complex field tests and measurements, the availability of models taking into account customer behavioural aspects is of paramount importance. This paper illustrates a simulation model which allows the performance of numerical evaluations concerning the effectiveness of some LM strategies applied to a residential end-use area load profile as previously determined by the aggregation of the contributions of individual households. This model enabled the evaluation of the impact, on the load profile, of a time-of-day tariff such as that recently introduced in Italy

  4. Monitoring an outdoor smoking area by means of PM2.5 measurement and vegetal biomonitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silveira Fleck, Alan; Carneiro, Maria Fernanda Hornos; Barbosa, Fernando; Thiesen, Flavia Valladão; Amantea, Sergio Luis; Rhoden, Claudia Ramos

    2016-11-01

    The extension of pollutant accumulation in plant leaves associated with its genotoxicity is a common approach to predict the quality of outdoor environments. However, this approach has not been used to evaluate the environmental quality of outdoor smoking areas. This study aims to evaluate the effects of environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) by assessing particulate matter 2.5 μm (PM 2.5 ) levels, the pollen abortion assay, and trace elements accumulated in plant leaves in an outdoor smoking area of a hospital. For this, PM 2.5 was measured by active monitoring with a real time aerosol monitor for 10 days. Eugenia uniflora trees were used for pollen abortion and accumulated element assays. Accumulated elements were also assessed in Tradescantia pallida leaves. The median concentration of PM 2.5 in the smoking area in all days of monitoring was 66 versus 34 μg/m 3 in the control area (P Eugenia uniflora were in higher concentration in the smoking area when compared to control area. Smoking area also showed higher rate of aborted grains (26.1 ± 10.7 %) compared with control (17.6 ± 4.5 %) (P = 0.003). Under the study conditions, vegetal biomonitoring proved to be an effective tool for assessing ETS exposure in outdoor areas. Therefore, vegetal biomonitoring of ETS could be a complement to conventional analyses and also proved to be a cheap and easy-handling tool to assess the risk of ETS exposure in outdoor areas.

  5. Enabling multi-faceted measures of success for protected area management in Trinidad and Tobago.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granderson, Ainka A

    2011-08-01

    A key challenge has been to define and measure "success" in managing protected areas. A case study was conducted of efforts to evaluate the new protected area management system in Trinidad and Tobago using a participatory approach. The aim of the case study was to (1) examine whether stakeholder involvement better captures the multi-faceted nature of success and (2) identify the role and influence of various stakeholder groups in this process. An holistic and systematic framework was developed with stakeholder input that facilitated the integration of expert and lay knowledge, a broad emphasis on ecological, socio-economic, and institutional aspects, and the use of both quantitative and qualitative data allowing the evaluation to capture the multi-faceted nature and impacts of protected area management. Input from primary stakeholders, such as local communities, was critical as they have a high stake in protected area outcomes. Secondary and external stakeholders, including government agencies, non-governmental organizations, academia and the private sector, were also important in providing valuable technical assistance and serving as mediators. However, a lack of consensus over priorities, politics, and limited stakeholder capacity and data access pose significant barriers to engaging stakeholders to effectively measure the management success of protected areas. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Chapter 5: Residential Furnaces and Boilers Evaluation Protocol. The Uniform Methods Project: Methods for Determining Energy Efficiency Savings for Specific Measures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurnik, Charles W. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jacobson, David [Jacobson Energy Research, Providence, RI (United States)

    2017-09-01

    The high-efficiency boiler and furnace measure produces gas heating savings resulting from installation of more energy-efficient heating equipment in a residence. Such equipment, which ranges in size from 60 kBtu/hr to 300 kBtu/hr, is installed primarily in single-family homes and multifamily buildings with individual heating systems for each dwelling unit. This protocol does not cover integrated heating and water heating units which can be used in lieu of space heating only equipment.

  7. Establishment of national emission measurement activity in neighbouring areas of Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aunela, L.; Larjava, K.; Jormanainen, P. [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland). Environmental Technology; Muurinen, M. [Enemi Ltd, Lahti (Finland); Hietamaeki, M. [Ministry of the Environment, Helsinki (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania (the Baltic countries) and the Republic State of Carelia, Russia belong to the so-called nearby areas of Finland. All being part of the former Soviet Union, they are now undergoing the establishment of their own environment- managing systems. Finland has shown a great amount of interest in supporting the efforts of these areas to solve their environmental problems. In 1993 VTT started, at the request of the East European Project of the Finnish Ministry of the Environment, a four year project aiming at the establishment of national atmospheric emission measurement systems in the Baltic countries and the Republic state of Carelia (later: the counterpart countries). Proper national emission measurement systems were regarded important in order to provide reliable data on the emission situation for national and international use. The main target of the work is to raise the level of the emission measurements in the counterpart countries to the international level. Two aspects were considered to be required to achieve this goal; (1) delivery of proper emission measurement equipment, (2) training of the emission measurement personnel. It was estimated that within three to four years these counterpart countries could join the Finnish quality assurance system in emission measurements if desired. (author)

  8. Atmospheric aerosol in an urban area: Comparison of measurement instruments and methodologies and pulmonary deposition assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berico, M.; Luciani, A.; Formignani, M.

    1996-07-01

    In March 1995 a measurement campaign of atmospheric aerosol in the Bologna urban area (Italy) was carried out. A transportable laboratory, set up by ENEA (Italian national Agency for New Technologies, Energy and the Environment) Environmental Department (Bologna), was utilized with instruments for measurement of atmospheric aerosol and meteorological parameters. The aim of this campaign was of dual purpose: to characterize aerosol in urban area and to compare different instruments and methodologies of measurements. Mass concentrations measurements, evaluated on a 23-hour period with total filter, PM10 dichotomous sampler and low pressure impactor (LPI Berner), have provided information respectively about total suspended particles, respirable fraction and granulometric parameters of aerosol. Eight meteorologic parameters, number concentration of submicromic fraction of aerosol and mass concentration of micromic fraction have been continually measured. Then, in a daytime period, several number granulometries of atmospheric aerosol have also been estimated by means of diffusion battery system. Results related to different measurement methodologies and granulometric characteristics of aerosol are presented here. Pulmonary deposition of atmospheric aerosol is finally calculated, using granulometries provided by LPI Brener and ICRP 66 human respiratory tract model

  9. Method for 3D noncontact measurements of cut trees package area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knyaz, Vladimir A.; Vizilter, Yuri V.

    2001-02-01

    Progress in imaging sensors and computers create the background for numerous 3D imaging application for wide variety of manufacturing activity. Many demands for automated precise measurements are in wood branch of industry. One of them is the accurate volume definition for cut trees carried on the truck. The key point for volume estimation is determination of the front area of the cut tree package. To eliminate slow and inaccurate manual measurements being now in practice the experimental system for automated non-contact wood measurements is developed. The system includes two non-metric CCD video cameras, PC as central processing unit, frame grabbers and original software for image processing and 3D measurements. The proposed method of measurement is based on capturing the stereo pair of front of trees package and performing the image orthotranformation into the front plane. This technique allows to process transformed image for circle shapes recognition and calculating their area. The metric characteristics of the system are provided by special camera calibration procedure. The paper presents the developed method of 3D measurements, describes the hardware used for image acquisition and the software realized the developed algorithms, gives the productivity and precision characteristics of the system.

  10. Establishment of national emission measurement activity in neighbouring areas of Finland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aunela, L; Larjava, K; Jormanainen, P [VTT Chemical Technology, Espoo (Finland). Environmental Technology; Muurinen, M [Enemi Ltd, Lahti (Finland); Hietamaeki, M [Ministry of the Environment, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania (the Baltic countries) and the Republic State of Carelia, Russia belong to the so-called nearby areas of Finland. All being part of the former Soviet Union, they are now undergoing the establishment of their own environment- managing systems. Finland has shown a great amount of interest in supporting the efforts of these areas to solve their environmental problems. In 1993 VTT started, at the request of the East European Project of the Finnish Ministry of the Environment, a four year project aiming at the establishment of national atmospheric emission measurement systems in the Baltic countries and the Republic state of Carelia (later: the counterpart countries). Proper national emission measurement systems were regarded important in order to provide reliable data on the emission situation for national and international use. The main target of the work is to raise the level of the emission measurements in the counterpart countries to the international level. Two aspects were considered to be required to achieve this goal; (1) delivery of proper emission measurement equipment, (2) training of the emission measurement personnel. It was estimated that within three to four years these counterpart countries could join the Finnish quality assurance system in emission measurements if desired. (author)

  11. Assessment of nanoparticle surface area by measuring unattached fraction of radon progeny

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruzer, Lev S. [Ernest Orlando Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Indoor Environment Department (United States)], E-mail: LSRuzer@lbl.gov

    2008-05-15

    A number of studies on the exposure of nanometer aerosols have indicated that health effects associated with low-solubility inhaled particles in the range of 1-100 nm may be more appropriately associated with particulate surface area than mass concentration. Such data on correlation between number, surface area and mass concentration are needed for exposure investigations, but the means for measuring aerosol surface area are not readily available. In this paper we propose a method for particle surface area assessment based on a new approach, deposition of the 'unattached fraction of radon progeny' onto nanometer aerosols.The proposed approach represents a synthesis of:(1) Derived direct analytical correlation between the 'unattached fraction' of radon progeny and surface area particle concentration in the range of 1-100 nm particle diameter;(2) Experimental data on correlation between the unattached fraction of radon progeny and particle surface area for particles with diameter in the range of 44 nm-2.1 {mu}m.

  12. Evaluation of Malaria Infection In Relation to Age and Residential ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: To investigate malaria infection in relation to age and residential area. Design: A cross sectional study. Setting: Kipsamoite Dispensary of Nandi County in Kenya. Subjects: The demographic details and medical history for all consenting patients was taken by the clinical officer/nurse. Intervention: Clinical ...

  13. The Transition Status of Youth Departing Residential Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Kathryn J.; Reid, Robert; Trout, Alexandra L.; Hurley, Kristin Duppong; Chmelka, M. Beth; Thompson, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the characteristics related to a successful reintegration among youth from a residential facility. Specifically, this study describes the transition skills of youth at departure in five areas: (a) education and employment goals, (b) self-determination skills, (c) social support, (d) life skills, and (e) hopefulness. Further,…

  14. Modular Energy Management System Applicable to Residential Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernández, Adriana Carolina Luna; Aldana, Nelson Leonardo Diaz; Graells, Moises

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an energy management system is defined as a flexible architecture. This proposal can be applied to home and residential areas when they include generation units. The system has been integrated and tested in a grid-connected microgrid prototype, where optimal power generation profiles...

  15. New trajectories of post-socialist residential mobility in Bucharest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Suditu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Over the post-socialist period, residential mobility processes were very intense and took place on large areas. Flow intensity led to the emergence of new spatial and functional realities and created new relationships within the affected areas. During all this period, Bucharest’s metropolitan area was shaped by the spatial mobility of the city dwellers, as well as by the change of their social and residential aspirations. The majority of those who were registered as movers in Bucharest were actually residents of Bucharest (they only changed their domicile and the share of people coming to the city from elsewhere has increased constantly over the last decade. Except for the early 1990s, a period when residential legal status was pending clarification, migrations from peri-urban area, especially from Ilfov County, to Bucharest had a low intensity. Situation is quite different in terms of moving out of Bucharest, to the communes and towns of Ilfov County, located in close proximity, which have been continuously increasing values. The correlation between housing stock features (real estate supply and the demand of new dwellings (emphasized by the residential trajectories prove both that current mobility flows taking place at this time in Bucharest are segmented based on economic-spatial criteria and that Markov chains are functional.

  16. Challenge: Getting Residential Users to Shift Their Electricity Usage Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brewer, Robert S.; Verdezoto, Nervo; Rasmussen, Mia Kruse

    2015-01-01

    electricity use from the less desirable times to more desirable times, including: feedback technology, pricing incentives, smart appliances, and energy storage. Based on our experience in this area, we present three challenges for residential shifting: getting users to understand the concept of shifting...

  17. Peripouch Fat Area Measured on MRI Image and Its Association With Adverse Pouch Outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xian Hua; Chouhan, Hanumant; Liu, Gang Lei; Lan, Nan; Remer, Erick; Stocchi, Luca; Ashburn, Jean; Hull, Tracy L; Shen, Bo

    2018-03-19

    There are no published studies on the impact of peripouch fat on pouch outcomes in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. Patients with pelvic MRI-DIXON scans from our prospectively maintained Pouch Database between 2002 and 2016 were evaluated. Peripouch fat area was measured on MRI-DIXON-F images at the middle height level of the pouch (area M) and the highest level of the pouch (area H). Of all 1863 patients in the database, 197 eligible patients were included in this study. The median of area M was 52.4 cm2, so the 197 patients were classified into 2 groups: group 1 (Area-M Area-M ≥52.4 cm2). Compared with group 1, group 2 was found to have thicker perianal fat, more Caucasian and more males. Group 2 also had a higher Area-H, more weight, height, and body mass index, along with greater age at IBD diagnosis, age at pouch construction and pouch age, and a higher frequency of total pouch complication (86.7% versus 66.7%, P = 0.001), chronic pouch complication (68.4% versus 51.5%, P = 0.016), and chronic antibiotic-refractory pouchitis (16.3% versus 7.1%, P = 0.043). Multivariate logistic analysis showed that Area-M was an independent risk factor for chronic antibiotic-refractory pouchitis (odds ratio [OR]: 1.025; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.007-1.042, P = 0.005). The 22 patients with 2 or more pelvic MRI-DIXON scans were further classified into 2 groups by the change from the initial to latest MRI-DIXON scans. Patients with Area-M increase ≥10% and Area-M/height increase ≥10% were found to have shorter pouch survivals than those with increase <10%. A new method was established for measuring peripouch fat using pelvic MRI-DIXON-F image. Our study suggests that accumulation of peripouch fat may be associated with poor outcomes in selected IBD patients suspected of inflammatory or mechanical disorders of the pouch. Whether this association is causal warrants further investigation.

  18. Risks from Radon: Reconciling Miner and Residential Epidemiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, Douglas B.; Harley, Naomi H.

    2008-01-01

    Everyone is exposed to radon, an inert radioactive gas that occurs naturally and is present everywhere in the atmosphere. The annual dose from radon and its (short-lived) decay products is typically about one-half of the dose received by members of the public from all natural sources of ionizing radiation. Data on exposures and consequent effects have recently been reviewed by the National Council on Radiation Protection and Measurements (NCRP) and the United Nations Scientific Committee on the Effects of Atomic Radiation (UNSCEAR). Studies of underground miners provides a well-established basis for estimating risks from occupational exposures to radon and for studying factors that may affect the dose response relationship such as the reduction of risk (coefficients) with increasing time since exposure. Miners' studies previously formed the basis for estimating risks to people exposed to radon at home, with downward extrapolation from exposures in mines to residential levels of radon. Presently, the risk estimates from residential studies are adequate to estimate radon risks in homes. Although there are major uncertainties in extrapolating the risks of exposure to radon from the miner studies to assessing risks in the home, there is remarkably good agreement between the average of risk factors derived from miner studies and those from pooled residential case-control studies. There are now over 20 analytical studies of residential radon and lung cancer. These studies typically assess the relative risk from exposure to radon based on estimates of residential exposure over a period of 25 to 30 years prior to diagnosis of lung cancer. Recent pooled analyses of residential case-control studies support a small but detectable lung cancer risk from residential exposure, and this risk increases with increasing concentrations. The excess relative risk of lung cancer from long-term residential exposure is about the same for both smokers and non-smokers; however, because the

  19. Contribution to the study of techniques of measurement of interface surface area in bubble flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Veteau, Jean-Michel

    1981-01-01

    This research thesis addresses problems raised by the measurement of the interface area per volume unit in duct bubble flows. The author first reports a literature survey of existing methods (photographic, chemical and optical methods) which give access to the value of the parameter which is commonly named 'specific surface area'. He analyses under which conditions these methods lead to a rigorous determination of the SVIM (mean integral volume surface). The author highlights the theoretical contributions of models related to each of these methods which are indeed global methods as they allow the interface surface area to be directly obtained in a given volume of a two-phase mixture. Then, the author reports the development of an original technique based on the use of phase detecting local probes. In the next part, the author compares photographic and optical methods, on the one hand, and optical and local methods, on the other hand. Recommendations are made for the development of local methods [fr

  20. Canadian energy standards : residential energy code requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, K. [SAR Engineering Ltd., Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2006-09-15

    A survey of residential energy code requirements was discussed. New housing is approximately 13 per cent more efficient than housing built 15 years ago, and more stringent energy efficiency requirements in building codes have contributed to decreased energy use and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, a survey of residential energy codes across Canada has determined that explicit demands for energy efficiency are currently only present in British Columbia (BC), Manitoba, Ontario and Quebec. The survey evaluated more than 4300 single-detached homes built between 2000 and 2005 using data from the EnerGuide for Houses (EGH) database. House area, volume, airtightness and construction characteristics were reviewed to create archetypes for 8 geographic areas. The survey indicated that in Quebec and the Maritimes, 90 per cent of houses comply with ventilation system requirements of the National Building Code, while compliance in the rest of Canada is much lower. Heat recovery ventilation use is predominant in the Atlantic provinces. Direct-vent or condensing furnaces constitute the majority of installed systems in provinces where natural gas is the primary space heating fuel. Details of Insulation levels for walls, double-glazed windows, and building code insulation standards were also reviewed. It was concluded that if R-2000 levels of energy efficiency were applied, total average energy consumption would be reduced by 36 per cent in Canada. 2 tabs.

  1. Effect of land area on average annual suburban water demand ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AADD) in South Africa are based on residential plot size. This paper presents a novel, robust method for estimating suburban water demand as a function of the suburb area. Seventy suburbs, identified as being predominantly residential, were ...

  2. Integrating sphere based reflectance measurements for small-area semiconductor samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saylan, S.; Howells, C. T.; Dahlem, M. S.

    2018-05-01

    This article describes a method that enables reflectance spectroscopy of small semiconductor samples using an integrating sphere, without the use of additional optical elements. We employed an inexpensive sample holder to measure the reflectance of different samples through 2-, 3-, and 4.5-mm-diameter apertures and applied a mathematical formulation to remove the bias from the measured spectra caused by illumination of the holder. Using the proposed method, the reflectance of samples fabricated using expensive or rare materials and/or low-throughput processes can be measured. It can also be incorporated to infer the internal quantum efficiency of small-area, research-level solar cells. Moreover, small samples that reflect light at large angles and develop scattering may also be measured reliably, by virtue of an integrating sphere insensitive to directionalities.

  3. Midterm Stability Evaluation of Wide-area Power System by using Synchronized Phasor Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ota, Yutaka; Ukai, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Koichi; Fujita, Hideki

    In recent years, the PMU (Phasor Measurement Unit) receives a great deal of attention as a synchronized measurement system of power systems. Synchronized phasor angles obtained by the PMU provide the effective information for evaluating the stability of a bulk power system. The aspect of instability phenomena during midterm tends to be more complicated, and the stability analysis using the synchronized phasor measurements is significant in order to keep a complicated power system stable. This paper proposes a midterm stability evaluation method of the wide-area power system by using the synchronized phasor measurements. By clustering and aggregating the power system to some coherent groups, the step-out is effectively predicted on the basis of the two-machine equivalent power system model. The midterm stability of a longitudinal power system model of Japanese 60Hz systems constructed by the PSA, which is a hybrid-type power system simulator, is practically evaluated using the proposed method.

  4. Secondary Aerosol Formation over the ESCOMPTE Area: Results from airborne Aerosol and Trace Gas Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Dingenen, R.; Martins-Dos Santos, S.; Putaud, J. P.; Allet, C.; Bretton, E.; Perros, P.

    2003-04-01

    From June 10th to July 14th 2001, the ESCOMPTE campaign took place in the Marseille-Berre area in Southern France. The goal of the campaign was to produce a high quality 3-D data base from emissions, transport and air composition measurements during urban photochemical pollution episodes at the meso-scale. The CAATER AEROPLUM project was embedded within this international field campaign. AEROPLUM aimed at mapping size distributions of aerosols and photo-oxidants in the mixed layer over the ESCOMPTE domain, using the ARAT Fokker 27 as measurement platform. Aircraft sub-micrometer aerosol measurements are validated during overpasses against ground-based measurements, carried out with similar instrumentation. We will present and discuss data during periods of seabreeze, transporting coastal industrial and urban pollution land-inwards. This leads to intense photochemical activity, evidenced by elevated O_3 concentrations and aerosol levels.

  5. Measurement and properties of the dose-area product ratio in external small-beam radiotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemelä, Jarkko; Partanen, Mari; Ojala, Jarkko; Sipilä, Petri; Björkqvist, Mikko; Kapanen, Mika; Keyriläinen, Jani

    2017-06-21

    In small-beam radiation therapy (RT) the measurement of the beam quality parameter, i.e. the tissue-phantom ratio or TPR 20,10 , using a conventional point detector is a challenge. To obtain reliable results, one has to consider potential sources of error, including volume averaging and adjustment of the point detector into the narrow beam. To overcome these challenges, a different type of beam quality parameter in small beams was studied, namely the dose-area product ratio, or DAPR 20,10 . With this method, the measurement of a dose-area product (DAP) using a large-area plane-parallel chamber (LAC) eliminates the uncertainties in detector positioning and volume averaging that are present when using a point detector. In this study, the properties of the DAPR 20,10 of a cone-collimated 6 MV photon beam were investigated using Monte Carlo (MC) calculations and the obtained values were compared to measurements obtained using two LAC detectors, PTW Type 34073 and PTW Type 34070. In addition, the possibility of determining the DAP using EBT3 film and a Razor diode detector was studied. The determination of the DAPR 20,10 value was found to be feasible in external small-beam radiotherapy using cone-collimated beams with diameters from 4-40 mm, based on the results of the two LACs, the MC calculations and the Razor diode. The measurements indicated a constant DAPR 20,10 value for fields 20-40 mm in diameter, with a maximum relative change of 0.6%, but an increase of 7.0% for fields from 20-4 mm in diameter for the PTW Type 34070 chamber. Simulations and measurements showed an increase of DAPR 20,10 with increasing LAC size or dose integral area for the studied 4-40 mm cone-collimated 6 MV photon beams. This has the consequence that there should be a reference to the size of the used LAC active area or the DAP integration area with the reported DAPR 20,10 value.

  6. Measurement and properties of the dose-area product ratio in external small-beam radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemelä, Jarkko; Partanen, Mari; Ojala, Jarkko; Sipilä, Petri; Björkqvist, Mikko; Kapanen, Mika; Keyriläinen, Jani

    2017-06-01

    In small-beam radiation therapy (RT) the measurement of the beam quality parameter, i.e. the tissue-phantom ratio or TPR20,10, using a conventional point detector is a challenge. To obtain reliable results, one has to consider potential sources of error, including volume averaging and adjustment of the point detector into the narrow beam. To overcome these challenges, a different type of beam quality parameter in small beams was studied, namely the dose-area product ratio, or DAPR20,10. With this method, the measurement of a dose-area product (DAP) using a large-area plane-parallel chamber (LAC) eliminates the uncertainties in detector positioning and volume averaging that are present when using a point detector. In this study, the properties of the DAPR20,10 of a cone-collimated 6 MV photon beam were investigated using Monte Carlo (MC) calculations and the obtained values were compared to measurements obtained using two LAC detectors, PTW Type 34073 and PTW Type 34070. In addition, the possibility of determining the DAP using EBT3 film and a Razor diode detector was studied. The determination of the DAPR20,10 value was found to be feasible in external small-beam radiotherapy using cone-collimated beams with diameters from 4-40 mm, based on the results of the two LACs, the MC calculations and the Razor diode. The measurements indicated a constant DAPR20,10 value for fields 20-40 mm in diameter, with a maximum relative change of 0.6%, but an increase of 7.0% for fields from 20-4 mm in diameter for the PTW Type 34070 chamber. Simulations and measurements showed an increase of DAPR20,10 with increasing LAC size or dose integral area for the studied 4-40 mm cone-collimated 6 MV photon beams. This has the consequence that there should be a reference to the size of the used LAC active area or the DAP integration area with the reported DAPR20,10 value.

  7. Measures of social segregation in the context of Warsaw, Berlin and Paris metropolitan areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorczyk Anna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Social segregation is a subject common in contemporary studies of metropolitan areas. Until recently, studies of segregation focused on the distribution of ethnic groups, immigrants, and the poor. Today, they also cover additional indicators such as demographic properties, education, and affiliation with social and professional categories, which can also serve to determine the causes of the segregation (including the self-segregation of the rich. This article aims to point out the measures of segregation that present the segregation levels in the most complete manner, along with their application in the context of three European metropolitan areas: Warsaw, Berlin, and Paris. The first part of the article is a review of the existing approaches to segregation measures, followed by the selection of research method, presentation of the analysis’ results, and evaluation of the applied methods; presenting the opportunities and limitations in research of the social segregation phenomenon.

  8. Measurement of radon exhalation rate and soil gas radon concentration in areas of southern Punjab (Pakistan)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mujahid, S. A.; Hussain, S.; Ramzan, M.

    2010-01-01

    Plastic track detectors were used to measure the radon concentration and exhalation rate from the soil samples. The samples were collected from areas of southern Punjab (Pakistan). In a laboratory experiment, passive alpha dosemeters were installed inside cylindrical bottles containing the soil samples. The radon concentrations and the radon exhalation rate were found in the ranges of 34±7 to 260±42 Bq m -3 and 38±8 to 288±46 mBq m -2 h -1 , respectively. The on-site measurements of radon in the soil gas were also carried out in these areas using a scintillation alpha counter. The concentration of radon in the soil gas was found in the range of 423±82-3565±438 Bq m -3 . (authors)

  9. Residential energy use and conservation in Venezuela: Results and implications of a household survey in Caracas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, M.J.; Ketoff, A.; Masera, O.

    1992-10-01

    This document presents the final report of a study of residential energy use in Caracas, the capital of Venezuela. It contains the findings of a household energy-use survey held in Caracas in 1988 and examines options for introducing energy conservation measures in the Venezuelan residential sector. Oil exports form the backbone of the Venezuelan economy. Improving energy efficiency in Venezuela will help free domestic oil resources that can be sold to the rest of the world. Energy conservation will also contribute to a faster recovery of the economy by reducing the need for major investments in new energy facilities, allowing the Venezuelan government to direct its financial investments towards other areas of development. Local environmental benefits will constitute an important additional by-product of implementing energy-efficiency policies in Venezuela. Caracas`s residential sector shows great potential for energy conservation. The sector is characterized by high saturation levels of major appliances, inefficiency of appliances available in the market, and by careless patterns of energy use. Household energy use per capita average 6.5 GJ/per year which is higher than most cities in developing countries; most of this energy is used for cooking. Electricity accounts for 41% of all energy use, while LPG and natural gas constitute the remainder. Specific options for inducing energy conservation and energy efficiency in Caracas`s residential sector include energy-pricing policies, fuel switching, particularly from electricity to gas, improving the energy performance of new appliances and customer information. To ensure the accomplishment of an energy-efficiency strategy, a concerted effort by energy users, manufacturers, utility companies, government agencies, and research institutions will be needed.

  10. Green infrastructure retrofits on residential parcels: Ecohydrologic modeling for stormwater design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, B.; Band, L. E.

    2014-12-01

    To meet water quality goals stormwater utilities and not-for-profit watershed organizations in the U.S. are working with citizens to design and implement green infrastructure on residential land. Green infrastructure, as an alternative and complement to traditional (grey) stormwater infrastructure, has the potential to contribute to multiple ecosystem benefits including stormwater volume reduction, carbon sequestration, urban heat island mitigation, and to provide amenities to residents. However, in small (1-10-km2) medium-density urban watersheds with heterogeneous land cover it is unclear whether stormwater retrofits on residential parcels significantly contributes to reduce stormwater volume at the watershed scale. In this paper, we seek to improve understanding of how small-scale redistribution of water at the parcel scale as part of green infrastructure implementation affects urban water budgets and stormwater volume across spatial scales. As study sites we use two medium-density headwater watersheds in Baltimore, MD and Durham, NC. We develop ecohydrology modeling experiments to evaluate the effectiveness of redirecting residential rooftop runoff to un-altered pervious surfaces and to engineered rain gardens to reduce stormwater runoff. As baselines for these experiments, we performed field surveys of residential rooftop hydrologic connectivity to adjacent impervious surfaces, and found low rates of connectivity. Through simulations of pervasive adoption of downspout disconnection to un-altered pervious areas or to rain garden stormwater control measures (SCM) in these catchments, we find that most parcel-scale changes in stormwater fate are attenuated at larger spatial scales and that neither SCM alone is likely to provide significant changes in streamflow at the watershed scale.

  11. Using Photogrammetric UAV Measurements as Support for Classical Topographical Measurements in Order to Obtain the Topographic Plan for Urban Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elemer Emanuel SUBA

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to highlight the benefits of UAV photogrammetric measurements in addition to classical ones. It will also deal with the processing and integration of the point cloud, respectively the digital elevation model in topo-cadastral works. The main purpose of this paper is to compare the results obtained using the UAV photogrammetric measurements with the results obtained by classical methods. It will briefly present the classical measurements made with the total station. In the present project, the closed-circuit traverse and the supported on the endings traverse were made using known coordinate points. Determining the coordinates of the points used for the traverses was done by GNSS methods. The area on which the measurements were made is 67942m2 and is covered by 31 determined station points. From these points, 13 were used as ground control points, respectively components of the aero-triangulation network and 17 points were used to control the obtained results by comparing their coordinates obtained by classical methods with those obtained by the UAV photogrammetric method. It was intended that the constraint points of the aero triangulation to be uniformly distributed on the studied surface.

  12. Hypergol Maintenance Facility Hazardous Waste South Staging Areas, SWMU 070 Corrective Measures Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ralinda R.

    2016-01-01

    This document presents the Corrective Measures Implementation (CMI) Year 10 Annual Report for implementation of corrective measures at the Hypergol Maintenance Facility (HMF) Hazardous Waste South Staging Areas at Kennedy Space Center, Florida. The work is being performed by Tetra Tech, Inc., for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) under Indefinite Delivery Indefinite Quantity (IDIQ) NNK12CA15B, Task Order (TO) 07. Mr. Harry Plaza, P.E., of NASA's Environmental Assurance Branch is the Remediation Project Manager for John F. Kennedy Space Center. The Tetra Tech Program Manager is Mr. Mark Speranza, P.E., and the Tetra Tech Project Manager is Robert Simcik, P.E.

  13. Contractors Road Heavy Equipment Area SWMU 055 Corrective Measures Implementation Progress Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorman, Lane

    2015-01-01

    This Corrective Measures Implementation (CMI) Progress Report, Revision 1, for Contractor's Road Heavy Equipment (CRHE) Area Solid Waste Management Unit (SWMU) Number 055 was prepared by Geosyntec Consultants (Geosyntec) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) under contract number NNK09CA02B, Delivery Order NNK09CA62D and Project Number PCN ENV-2324. This CMI Progress Report documents: (i) activities conducted as part of supplemental assessment activities completed from June 2009 through November 2014; (ii) Engineering Evaluation (EE) Advanced Data Packages (ADPs); and (iii) recommendations for future activities related to corrective measures at the Site.

  14. Development of the interfacial area concentration measurement method using a five sensor conductivity probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Euh, Dong Jin; Yun, Byong Jo; Song, Chul Hwa; Kwon, Tae Soon; Chung, Moon Ki; Lee, Un Chul

    2000-01-01

    The interfacial area concentration(IAC) is one of the most important parameters in the two-fluid model for two-phase flow analysis. The IAE can be measured by a local conductivity probe method that uses the difference of conductivity between water and air/steam. The number of sensors in the conductivity probe may be differently chosen by considering the flow regime of two-phase flow. The four sensor conductivity probe method predicts the IAC without any assumptions of the bubble shape. The local IAC can be obtained by measuring the three dimensional velocity vector elements at the measuring point, and the directional cosines of the sensors. The five sensor conductivity probe method proposed in this study is based on the four sensor probe method. With the five sensor probe, the local IAC for a given referred measuring area of the probe can be predicted more exactly than the four sensor prober. In this paper, the mathematical approach of the five sensor probe method for measuring the IAC is described, and a numerical simulation is carried out for ideal cap bubbles of which the sizes and locations are determined by a random number generator

  15. Intraoral versus extraoral measurement of the height of the interproximal contact area in maxillary anterior teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sghaireen, Mohd G; Albhiran, Heyam Mobark; Alzoubi, Ibrahim A; Lynch, Edward; Al-Omiri, Mahmoud K

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to clinically quantify the apicoincisal height of the upper interproximal areas directly in patients' mouths compared to measurements on stone models. One hundred and fifty participants (75 females and 75 males, age range 20-45 years) were recruited for this study. A digital caliper was used to measure the anterior maxillary interproximal contact areas directly in patients' mouths and on stone models. The digital caliper accuracy was up to 0.01. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences software (SPSS, version 19.0, Chicago, Ill., USA) was used for statistical analysis. Statistical significance was based on probability values contacts as well as the measurement on stone models showed that the dimensions of interproximal contacts on both sides of each tooth were significantly different (p contact point was larger than that of the distal contact point of each tooth. The largest contact point was the one between the central incisors (direct intraoral measurement = 2.9-6.49 mm; model measurement = 3.31-6.91 mm). On the other hand, the contact point between the canine and first premolar was the smallest on both sides of the arch (0.63-2.52 mm intraorally, 0.98-2.88 mm on models). The intraoral measurement of contact points was more accurate than model measurements, and the differences were statistically significant (p contact point dimensions using a digital caliper was more precise than measuring contact points on stone models; hence, it is a viable, quick and adequate method to be used routinely. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. THE STRUCTURAL DEFICIT – A NEW MEASURE FOR FISCAL DISCIPLINE IN THE EURO AREA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina PUIU

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to assess the importance of the new limit for the government deficit in order to improve fiscal discipline in the Economic and Monetary Union in Europe. Since the introduction of the single currency there have been debates regarding the lack of fiscal integration. The monetary integration process triggered the centralization of monetary policies while the fiscal policies remained at national level. Although the member states of the euro area were subject to restrictions imposed by the Stability and Growth Pact in order to provide an assurance against asymmetric shocks, the recent financial crisis revealed high levels of public deficits. Thus, the measures were not enough to establish an environment of fiscal discipline in the currency area and the currency area proved to be suboptimal. Therefore, new limits were imposed through the Treaty of Stability, Coordination and Governance in the Economic and Monetary Union. This study will provide a clear understanding of the concept of structural deficit, measures used to quantify it and the shortcomings of this indicator. Furthermore, it will show that, despite the limits of the indicator, it represents an improvement in achieving stability in the euro area.

  17. Conservation in the residential sector: two alternatives as strategies for ordering the market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lins, M.E.

    1990-01-01

    This work purposes an economic flow analysis in order to be driven conservation strategies by the electric sector. Two strategies for three conservation measures are considered here in the residential sector. The results obtained increase the reliability of an action plan to be elaborated for the electric energy conservation in the residential sector. (author)

  18. 77 FR 49063 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Residential Dishwashers and Cooking Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Residential Dishwashers and Cooking Products; Proposed...-AC01 Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Residential Dishwashers and Cooking Products... procedures for both dishwashers and conventional cooking products for the measurement of energy use in fan...

  19. Post-Retrofit Residential Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lancaster, Ross; lutzenhiser, Loren; Moezzi, Mithra; Widder, Sarah H.; Chandra, Subrato; Baechler, Michael C.

    2012-04-30

    This study examined a range of factors influencing energy consumption in households that had participated in residential energy-efficiency upgrades. The study was funded by a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and was conducted by faculty and staff of Portland State University Center for Urban Studies and Department of Economics. This work was made possible through the assistance and support of the Energy Trust of Oregon (ETO), whose residential energy-efficiency programs provided the population from which the sample cases were drawn. All households in the study had participated in the ETO Home Performance with Energy Star (HPwES) program. A number of these had concurrently pursued measures through other ETO programs. Post-retrofit energy outcomes are rarely investigated on a house-by-house basis. Rather, aggregate changes are ordinarily the focus of program impact evaluations, with deviation from aggregate expectations chalked up to measurement error, the vagaries of weather and idiosyncrasies of occupants. However, understanding how homes perform post-retrofit on an individual basis can give important insights to increase energy savings at the participant and the programmatic level. Taking a more disaggregated approach, this study analyzed energy consumption data from before and after the retrofit activity and made comparisons with engineering estimates for the upgrades, to identify households that performed differently from what may have been expected based on the estimates. A statistical analysis using hierarchal linear models, which accounted for weather variations, was performed looking separately at gas and electrical use during the periods before and after upgrades took place. A more straightforward comparison of billing data for 12-month periods before and after the intervention was also performed, yielding the majority of the cases examined. The later approach allowed total energy use and costs to be

  20. Indirect Field Measurement of Wine-Grape Vineyard Canopy Leaf Area Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Lee F.; Pierce, Lars L.; Skiles, J. W. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Leaf area index (LAI) indirect measurements were made at 12 study plots in California's Napa Valley commercial wine-grape vineyards with a LI-COR LI-2000 Plant Canopy Analyzer (PCA). The plots encompassed different trellis systems, biological varieties, and planting densities. LAI ranged from 0.5 - 2.25 sq m leaf area/ sq m ground area according to direct (defoliation) measurements. Indirect LAI reported by the PCA was significantly related to direct LAI (r(exp 2) = 0.78, p less than 001). However, the PCA tended to underestimate direct LAI by about a factor of two. Narrowing the instrument's conical field of view from 148 deg to 56 deg served to increase readings by approximately 30%. The PCA offers a convenient way to discern relative differences in vineyard canopy density. Calibration by direct measurement (defoliation) is recommended in cases where absolute LAI is desired. Calibration equations provided herein may be inverted to retrieve actual vineyard LAI from PCA readings.

  1. Blood pressure in young adulthood and residential greenness in the early-life environment of twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijnens, Esmée M; Nawrot, Tim S; Loos, Ruth Jf; Gielen, Marij; Vlietinck, Robert; Derom, Catherine; Zeegers, Maurice P

    2017-06-05

    Previous research shows that, besides risk factors in adult life, the early-life environment can influence blood pressure and hypertension in adults. However, the effects of residential traffic exposure and residential greenness in the early-life on blood pressure in young adulthood are currently unknown. Ambulatory (24-h) blood pressures of 278 twins (132 pairs) of the East Flanders Prospective Twins Study were obtained at the age of 18 to 25 years. Prenatal and adulthood residential addresses were geocoded and used to assign prenatal and postnatal traffic and greenness indicators. Mixed modelling was performed to investigate blood pressure in association with greenness while adjusting for potential confounding factors. Night-time systolic blood pressure was inversely associated with greenness at the residential address in twins living at the same address their entire life (non-movers, n = 97, 34.9%). An interquartile increase in residential greenness exposure (1000 m radius) was associated with a 3.59 mmHg (95% CI: -6.0 to -1.23; p = 0.005) lower adult night systolic blood pressure. Among twins who were living at a different address than their birth address at time of the measurement (n = 181, 65.1%), night-time blood pressure was inversely associated with residential surrounding greenness at adult age as well as with residential greenness in early-life. However after additional adjustment for residential greenness exposure in adulthood, only residential greenness exposure in early-life was significantly associated with night systolic blood pressure. While no significant effect of adult residential greenness with adult blood pressure was observed, while accounting for the early-life greenness exposure. Lower residential greenness in the early-life environment was independently associated with a higher adult blood pressure. This indicates that residential greenness has persistent effects on blood pressure.

  2. Normal development of brainstem in childhood. Measurement of the area on mid-sagittal MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kutomi, Kimiko [Teikyo Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Medicine

    2005-05-01

    Developmental abnormality of brainstem is shown in pediatric patients with mental retardation, autism, periventricular leukomalacia, neurodegenerative disease, and so on. Our purpose here is to clarify the normal developmental pattern of the brainstem. We measured the area of tectum, midbrain tegmentum, pons, basis pontis and pontine tegmentum on mid-sagittal MR images in 111 children (newborn to 20 year old). Different growth patterns were shown in all parts of the brainstem. Tectum showed a subtle increase in area from the newborn to adult period, while midbrain tegmentum and pontine tegmenturn showed a mild and gradual increase in area. Pons and pontine tegmentum showed a rapid and prominent increase in area from newborn to infant period and gradual increase in area until the adult period. These different growth patterns seemed to be consistent with differences in the myelination cycles of the neuronal fibers, maturation of the nuclei and proliferation of glial cells in each part of the brainstem. Mid-sagittal MR imaging of the head is accurate and reproducible and is used conveniently in routine head MR study, making it very useful for the diagnosis of many central nervous diseases and anomalies. We believe that this new milestone provided in this study will be helpful in distinguishing normal children from those that have neurodegenerative disorders. (author)

  3. Normal development of brainstem in childhood. Measurement of the area on mid-sagittal MR imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kutomi, Kimiko

    2005-01-01

    Developmental abnormality of brainstem is shown in pediatric patients with mental retardation, autism, periventricular leukomalacia, neurodegenerative disease, and so on. Our purpose here is to clarify the normal developmental pattern of the brainstem. We measured the area of tectum, midbrain tegmentum, pons, basis pontis and pontine tegmentum on mid-sagittal MR images in 111 children (newborn to 20 year old). Different growth patterns were shown in all parts of the brainstem. Tectum showed a subtle increase in area from the newborn to adult period, while midbrain tegmentum and pontine tegmenturn showed a mild and gradual increase in area. Pons and pontine tegmentum showed a rapid and prominent increase in area from newborn to infant period and gradual increase in area until the adult period. These different growth patterns seemed to be consistent with differences in the myelination cycles of the neuronal fibers, maturation of the nuclei and proliferation of glial cells in each part of the brainstem. Mid-sagittal MR imaging of the head is accurate and reproducible and is used conveniently in routine head MR study, making it very useful for the diagnosis of many central nervous diseases and anomalies. We believe that this new milestone provided in this study will be helpful in distinguishing normal children from those that have neurodegenerative disorders. (author)

  4. US Findings of Biceps Tendinitis: Cross Sectional Area Measurements of Long Head of Biceps Brachii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Jong Soo; Seo, Kyung Mook; Lee, Hwa Yeon; Song, In Sup [ChungAng University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Seung Min [Bundang Cha Hospital, Bundang (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to describe typical sonographic findings in patients with biceps tendinitis. Seventy five patients who had been clinically diagnosed with biceps tendinitis were included. Of the 75, 37 were male, 38 were female, and their mean age was 56 {+-} 9.74. The patients complained of shoulder pain and ultrasonography was performed for bilateral shoulders in all patients. The cross sectional area of the biceps tendon was measured. The status of fluid collection around the biceps tendon and accompanying rotator cuff disease were also investigated. The cross sectional areas of the diseased biceps tendon were 0.18 {+-} 0.09 cm2 (range: 0.07-0.42), and the areas of the normal side was 0.11 {+-} 0.05 cm2 (0.03-0.24). The cross sectional area of the diseased biceps tendon was 0.075 {+-} 0.062 cm2 greater, on average, than the uninvolved site (p < 0.01). Thirty six patients(48%) had fluid collection around the inflamed biceps tendon, and 30 patients had accompanied rotator cuff disease. During US examination of the shoulder in patients complaining of shoulder pain, if the cross sectional area of the biceps tendon in the painful shoulder is asymmetrically and larger than the contralateral tendon, biceps tendonitis is suggested

  5. US Findings of Biceps Tendinitis: Cross Sectional Area Measurements of Long Head of Biceps Brachii

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Jong Soo; Seo, Kyung Mook; Lee, Hwa Yeon; Song, In Sup; Yoo, Seung Min

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe typical sonographic findings in patients with biceps tendinitis. Seventy five patients who had been clinically diagnosed with biceps tendinitis were included. Of the 75, 37 were male, 38 were female, and their mean age was 56 ± 9.74. The patients complained of shoulder pain and ultrasonography was performed for bilateral shoulders in all patients. The cross sectional area of the biceps tendon was measured. The status of fluid collection around the biceps tendon and accompanying rotator cuff disease were also investigated. The cross sectional areas of the diseased biceps tendon were 0.18 ± 0.09 cm2 (range: 0.07-0.42), and the areas of the normal side was 0.11 ± 0.05 cm2 (0.03-0.24). The cross sectional area of the diseased biceps tendon was 0.075 ± 0.062 cm2 greater, on average, than the uninvolved site (p < 0.01). Thirty six patients(48%) had fluid collection around the inflamed biceps tendon, and 30 patients had accompanied rotator cuff disease. During US examination of the shoulder in patients complaining of shoulder pain, if the cross sectional area of the biceps tendon in the painful shoulder is asymmetrically and larger than the contralateral tendon, biceps tendonitis is suggested

  6. Coping with radiation measurement in Hippo area of Marumori Town, Miyagi Prefecture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshizawa, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    The series is to report how general people, who are not at all radiological experts, have faced and understood the problems and tasks of radiation given by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident (Mar. 2011). The section 1 reports the process of its title and present status of the Hippo area. The area localizes at the most southern zone of Miyagi prefecture, borders on Fukushima and is 50 km distant from the Plant. Rapidly after the Accident, they required the precise measurement of ambient dose in the area, but it was 2 months later that it was conducted by Marumori Town office. The dose was found to much exceed 1 mc-Sv/h, being far higher than the dose reported by Miyagi prefecture. The monitoring was restricted at ten-odd fixed sites in the area as large as 75 km 2 , which was unsatisfactory for all residents who lived in houses scattered among hills. Accordingly, the author's area association bought GM-counters through internet, lent them, and also made a map of dose distribution at 137 spots along the roads covering the whole area to be passed out to all houses in July. This conceivably helped for them to learn their positioning in the radiation environment and how to live. In addition, the association could get (July 2012) an instrument (ATOMTEX, AT1320A, made in Belarus) for food monitoring on donations from past and present residents as the Town office, where the monitoring had been done, was too far from the area and had refused the economical assistance. The use of the machine was (still, is) difficult, and the speculation of data, sometimes more: however, the food monitoring is now essential for residents to live safely and easily. The author thinks that self-help is not desirable and hopes the wider means should be taken beyond the administrative border. (T.T.)

  7. Residential segregation and the health of African-American infants: does the effect vary by prevalence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyarko, Kwame A; Wehby, George L

    2012-10-01

    Segregation effects may vary between areas (e.g., counties) of low and high low birth weight (LBW; birth (PTB; rates due to interactions with area differences in risks and resources. We assess whether the effects of residential segregation on county-level LBW and PTB rates for African-American infants vary by the prevalence of these conditions. The study sample includes 368 counties of 100,000 or more residents and at least 50 African-American live births in 2000. Residentially segregated counties are identified alternatively by county-level dissimilarity and isolation indices. Quantile regression is used to assess how residential segregation affects the entire distributions of county-level LBW and PTB rates (i.e. by prevalence). Residential segregation increases LBW and PTB rates significantly in areas of low prevalence, but has no such effects for areas of high prevalence. As a sensitivity analysis, we use metropolitan statistical area level data and obtain similar results. Our findings suggest that residential segregation has adverse effects mainly in areas of low prevalence of LBW and preterm birth, which are expected overall to have fewer risk factors and more resources for infant health, but not in high prevalence areas, which are expected to have more risk factors and fewer resources. Residential policies aimed at area resource improvements may be more effective.

  8. Fertility expectations and residential mobility in Britain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Ermisch

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: It is plausible that people take into account anticipated changes in family size in choosing where to live. But estimation of the impact of anticipated events on current transitions in an event history framework is challenging because expectations must be measured in some way and, like indicators of past childbearing, expected future childbearing may be endogenous with respect to housing decisions. Objective: The objective of the study is to estimate how expected changes in family size affect residential movement in Great Britain in a way which addresses these challenges. Methods: We use longitudinal data from a mature 18-wave panel survey, the British Household Panel Survey, which incorporates a direct measure of fertility expectations. The statistical methods allow for the potential endogeneity of expectations in our estimation and testing framework. Results: We produce evidence consistent with the idea that past childbearing mainly affects residential mobility through expectations of future childbearing, not directly through the number of children in the household. But there is heterogeneity in response. In particular, fertility expectations have a much greater effect on mobility among women who face lower costs of mobility, such as private tenants. Conclusions: Our estimates indicate that expecting to have a(nother child in the future increases the probability of moving by about 0.036 on average, relative to an average mobility rate of 0.14 per annum in our sample. Contribution: Our contribution is to incorporate anticipation of future events into an empirical model of residential mobility. We also shed light on how childbearing affects mobility.

  9. Field-measured drag area is a key correlate of level cycling time trial performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James E. Peterman

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Drag area (Ad is a primary factor determining aerodynamic resistance during level cycling and is therefore a key determinant of level time trial performance. However, Ad has traditionally been difficult to measure. Our purpose was to determine the value of adding field-measured Ad as a correlate of level cycling time trial performance. In the field, 19 male cyclists performed a level (22.1 km time trial. Separately, field-determined Ad and rolling resistance were calculated for subjects along with projected frontal area assessed directly (AP and indirectly (Est AP. Also, a graded exercise test was performed to determine $\\dot {V}{O}_{2}$V̇O2 peak, lactate threshold (LT, and economy. $\\dot {V}{O}_{2}$V̇O2 peak ($\\mathrm{l}~\\min ^{-1}$lmin−1 and power at LT were significantly correlated to power measured during the time trial (r = 0.83 and 0.69, respectively but were not significantly correlated to performance time (r = − 0.42 and −0.45. The correlation with performance time improved significantly (p < 0.05 when these variables were normalized to Ad. Of note, Ad alone was better correlated to performance time (r = 0.85, p < 0.001 than any combination of non-normalized physiological measure. The best correlate with performance time was field-measured power output during the time trial normalized to Ad (r = − 0.92. AP only accounted for 54% of the variability in Ad. Accordingly, the correlation to performance time was significantly lower using power normalized to AP (r = − 0.75 or Est AP (r = − 0.71. In conclusion, unless normalized to Ad, level time trial performance in the field was not highly correlated to common laboratory measures. Furthermore, our field-measured Ad is easy to determine and was the single best predictor of level time trial performance.

  10. Data on European non-residential buildings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agostino, Delia; Cuniberti, Barbara; Bertoldi, Paolo

    2017-10-01

    This data article relates to the research paper Energy consumption and efficiency technology measures in European non-residential buildings (D'Agostino et al., 2017) [1]. The reported data have been collected in the framework of the Green Building Programme that ran from 2006 to 2014. The project has encouraged the adoption of efficiency measures to boost energy savings in European non-residential buildings. Data focus on the one-thousand buildings that joined the Programme allowing to save around 985 GWh/year. The main requirement to join the Programme was the reduction of at least 25% primary energy consumption in a new or retrofitted building. Energy consumption before and after the renovation are provided for retrofitted buildings while, in new constructions, a building had to be designed using at least 25% less energy than requested by the country's building codes. The following data are linked within this article: energy consumption, absolute and relative savings related to primary energy, saving percentages, implemented efficiency measures and renewables. Further information is given about each building in relation to geometry, envelope, materials, lighting and systems.

  11. Residential segregation and overweight/obesity among African-American adults: A critical review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irma eCorral

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between residential segregation and overweight/obesity among African-American adults remains unclear. Elucidating that relationship is relevant to efforts to prevent and to reduce racial disparities in obesity. This article provides a critical review of the 11 empirical studies of segregation and overweight/obesity among African-American adults. Results revealed that most studies did not use a valid measure of segregation, many did not use a valid measure of overweight/obesity, and many did not control for neighborhood poverty. Only four (36% of the studies used valid measures of both segregation and overweight/obesity and also controlled for area-poverty. Those four studies suggest that segregation contributes to overweight and obesity among African-American adults, but that conclusion cannot be drawn with any certainty in light of the considerable methodological problems in this area of research. Suggestions for improving research on this topic are provided.

  12. Measurement of Seaward Ground Displacements on Coastal Landfill Area Using Radar Interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baek, W.-K.; Jung, H.-S.

    2018-04-01

    In order to understand the mechanism of subsidence and help reducing damage, researchers has been observed the line-of-sight subsidence on the Noksan industrial complex using SAR Interferometry(InSAR) and suggested subsidence prediction models. Although these researches explained a spatially uneven ground subsidence near the seaside, they could not have been explained the occurrence of the newly proposed seaward horizontal, especially nearly north-ward, displacement because of the geometric limitation of InSAR measurements. In this study, we measured the seaward ground displacements trend on the coastal landfill area, Noksan Industrial Complex. We set the interferometric pairs from an ascending and a descending orbits strip map data of ALOS PALSAR2. We employed InSAR and MAI stacking approaches for the both orbits respectively in order to improve the measurement. Finally, seaward deformation was estimated by retrieving three-dimensional displacements from multi-geometric displacements. As a results, maximally 3.3 and 0.7 cm/year of ground displacements for the vertical and seaward directions. In further study, we plan to generate InSAR and MAI stacking measurements with additional SAR data to mitigate tropospheric effect and noise well. Such a seaward observation approach using spaceborne radar is expected to be effective in observing the long-term movements on coastal landfill area.

  13. MEASUREMENT OF SEAWARD GROUND DISPLACEMENTS ON COASTAL LANDFILL AREA USING RADAR INTERFEROMETRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.-K. Baek

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the mechanism of subsidence and help reducing damage, researchers has been observed the line-of-sight subsidence on the Noksan industrial complex using SAR Interferometry(InSAR and suggested subsidence prediction models. Although these researches explained a spatially uneven ground subsidence near the seaside, they could not have been explained the occurrence of the newly proposed seaward horizontal, especially nearly north-ward, displacement because of the geometric limitation of InSAR measurements. In this study, we measured the seaward ground displacements trend on the coastal landfill area, Noksan Industrial Complex. We set the interferometric pairs from an ascending and a descending orbits strip map data of ALOS PALSAR2. We employed InSAR and MAI stacking approaches for the both orbits respectively in order to improve the measurement. Finally, seaward deformation was estimated by retrieving three-dimensional displacements from multi-geometric displacements. As a results, maximally 3.3 and 0.7 cm/year of ground displacements for the vertical and seaward directions. In further study, we plan to generate InSAR and MAI stacking measurements with additional SAR data to mitigate tropospheric effect and noise well. Such a seaward observation approach using spaceborne radar is expected to be effective in observing the long-term movements on coastal landfill area.

  14. Technical Problems of Residential Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowogońska, Beata; Cibis, Jerzy

    2017-10-01

    Beauty, utility, durability - these are the features of good architecture and should also be the distinguishing qualities of every residential building. But do beauty and utility remain along with the passing of time? Performance characteristics are an indicator of both, the technical as well as aesthetic state of buildings. Aesthetic needs are in disagreement with the merciless aging process. The beauty of a city is formed not only by the original forms of new residential buildings, but also by existing tenement housing; thus preserving their aesthetics becomes a necessity. Time is continuously passing and along with it, aging intensifies. The aging process is a natural phenomenon for every material. The life expectancy of building materials is also limited. Along with the passing of time, the technical state of residential buildings continuously deteriorates. With the passing of time, the aesthetic values and preferences of users of flats change and the usability of the building decreases. The permanence of buildings, including residential buildings, is shaped not only by the forces of nature but also by activities of humans. A long lifespan is ensured by carrying out ongoing, systematic renovation-repair works. It is thanks to them that buildings derived from past centuries are still being used, and their market attractiveness is not decreasing.

  15. Residential solar-heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Complete residential solar-heating and hot-water system, when installed in highly-insulated energy-saver home, can supply large percentage of total energy demand for space heating and domestic hot water. System which uses water-heating energy storage can be scaled to meet requirements of building in which it is installed.

  16. Convergence of Residential Gateway Technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, F.T.H. den; Balm, M.; Jong, C.M. de; Kwaaitaal, J.J.B.

    2004-01-01

    A new OSI-based model is described that can be used for the classification of residential gateways. It is applied to analyze current gateway solutions and draw evolutionary paths for the medium to long term. From this it is concluded that particularly set-top boxes and broadband modems, as opposed

  17. Convergence of residential gateway technology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartog, den F.T.H.; Balm, M.; Jong, de C.M.; Kwaaitaal, J.J.B.

    2004-01-01

    A new OSI-based model is described that can be used for the classification of residential gateways. It is applied to analyze current gateway solutions and draw evolutionary paths for the medium to long term. From this it is concluded that particularly set-top boxes and broadband modems, as opposed

  18. Trends of Sustainable Residential Architecture

    OpenAIRE

    Narvydas, A

    2014-01-01

    The article is based on Master’s research conducted during Scottish Housing Expo 2010. The aim of the research was to determine the prevailing trends in sustainable residential architecture. Each trend can be described by features detected during visual and technical observation of project data. Based on that architects may predict possible problems related to a specific trend.

  19. Reduce tax on residential mobility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ewijk, C.; van Leuvensteijn, M.

    2010-01-01

    How can Europe increase structural growth? This column argues that labour market flexibility is key. As a major barrier to labour movement is rigidity in the housing market, abolishing transfer taxes on residential property could result in gains of up to 0.4% of GDP.

  20. Development of Standardized Mobile Tracer Correlation Approach for Large Area Emission Measurements (DRAFT UNDER EPA REVIEW)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster-wittig, T. A.; Thoma, E.; Green, R.; Hater, G.; Swan, N.; Chanton, J.

    2013-12-01

    Improved understanding of air emissions from large area sources such as landfills, waste water ponds, open-source processing, and agricultural operations is a topic of increasing environmental importance. In many cases, the size of the area source, coupled with spatial-heterogeneity, make direct (on-site) emission assessment difficult; methane emissions, from landfills for example, can be particularly complex [Thoma et al, 2009]. Recently, whole-facility (remote) measurement approaches based on tracer correlation have been utilized [Scheutz et al, 2011]. The approach uses a mobile platform to simultaneously measure a metered-release of a conservative gas (the tracer) along with the target compound (methane in the case of landfills). The known-rate tracer release provides a measure of atmospheric dispersion at the downwind observing location allowing the area source emission to be determined by a ratio calculation [Green et al, 2010]. Although powerful in concept, the approach has been somewhat limited to research applications due to the complexities and cost of the high-sensitivity measurement equipment required to quantify the part-per billion levels of tracer and target gas at kilometer-scale distances. The advent of compact, robust, and easy to use near-infrared optical measurement systems (such as cavity ring down spectroscopy) allow the tracer correlation approach to be investigated for wider use. Over the last several years, Waste Management Inc., the U.S. EPA, and collaborators have conducted method evaluation activities to determine the viability of a standardized approach through execution of a large number of field measurement trials at U.S. landfills. As opposed to previous studies [Scheutz et al, 2011] conducted at night (optimal plume transport conditions), the current work evaluated realistic use-scenarios; these scenarios include execution by non-scientist personnel, daylight operation, and full range of atmospheric condition (all plume transport

  1. The choice of nuclear material measurement strategy in bulk-form in material balance area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smirnov, V.M.; Sergeev, S.A.; Kirsanov, V.S.

    1999-01-01

    Concepts have been defined such as Shipment batch, Technological batch, and Accounting batch, it has been found that Shipment and Technological batches should be formed through the arrangement of group of measured Accounting batches. The strategy for nuclear material (NM) measurement based on the Accounting batch is shown to give a possibility to use the advantages for the accounting purposes: ensure safeguards of non-diversion of NM at quantitative (numerical) level, which is a higher grade of safeguards compared to the systems of accounting and control now in force of the US and EURATOM; ensure a guaranteed accuracy and reliability (confidence level) when making up NM balance in Material Balance Area (MBA) and at Federal level, which has been realized only in part in the NM control and accounting systems. Strategy of NM measurement for MBAs counting NM in bulk form has been proposed [ru

  2. MEASUREMENT OF INTANGIBLE ASSETS IN RECOVERY AREAS AND OPERATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan I. Gâf-Deac

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper shows that to date, intangible assets are considered "goods" and as such, the practice of classical accounting consider intellectual capital in the same category of "goods equivalent / similar to those visible / tangible". From research that literature on measuring knowledge assets / intellectual capital, both in Romania and worldwide, is not large enough and does not provide finite significant "strong" on classifications semantic of the content and quality issues in the field. The book titled New Economy between knowledge and risk – Infomin Ed., Deva, 2010 (www.infomindeva.ro (ISBN 978-973-7646-11-8, (Ioan I. Gâf-Deac  presents systematization and classification of original models and methodologies for measuring knowledge assets, intellectual capital in socio-economic sciences, and as such, in this present article resorting to the extension applied to formalizing measurement of intangible assets in areas operation and exploitation of natural resources.

  3. Energy statistics for non-residential premises 2012; Energistatistik foer lokaler 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2013-07-01

    This report presents data on a number of non-residential premises, heated floor area, use of energy (totals and averages) and use of fuels (totals and averages) for the total population and for various subDivs.

  4. Three-dimensional measurement of periodontal surface area for quantifying inflammatory burden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sa-Beom; An, So-Youn; Han, Won-Jeong; Park, Jong-Tae

    2017-06-01

    Measurement of the root surface area (RSA) is important in periodontal treatment and for the evaluation of periodontal disease as a risk factor for systemic disease. The aim of this study was to measure the RSA at 6 mm below the cementoenamel junction (CEJ) using the Mimics software (Materialise, Leuven, Belgium). We obtained cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) data from 33 patients who had visited the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology of Dankook University Dental Hospital. The patients comprised 17 men and 16 women aged from 20 to 35 years, with a mean age of 24.4 years. Only morphologically intact teeth were included in our data. Because the third molars of the maxilla and mandible have a high deformation rate and were absent in some participants, they were not included in our research material. The CBCT data were reconstructed into 3-dimensional (3D) teeth models using the Mimics software, and the RSA at 6 mm below the CEJ was separated and measured using 3-Matic (Materialise). In total, 924 3D teeth models were created, and the area at 6 mm below the CEJ could be isolated in all the models. The area at 6 mm below the CEJ was measured in all teeth from the 33 patients and compared based on sex and position (maxilla vs. mandible). In this study, we demonstrated that it was feasible to generate 3D data and to evaluate RSA values using CBCT and the Mimics software. These results provide deeper insights into the relationship between periodontal inflammatory burden and systemic diseases.

  5. Toronto area ozone: Long-term measurements and modeled sources of poor air quality events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whaley, C. H.; Strong, K.; Jones, D. B. A.; Walker, T. W.; Jiang, Z.; Henze, D. K.; Cooke, M. A.; McLinden, C. A.; Mittermeier, R. L.; Pommier, M.; Fogal, P. F.

    2015-11-01

    The University of Toronto Atmospheric Observatory and Environment Canada's Centre for Atmospheric Research Experiments each has over a decade of ground-based Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy measurements in southern Ontario. We present the Toronto area FTIR time series from 2002 to 2013 of two tropospheric trace gases—ozone and carbon monoxide—along with surface in situ measurements taken by government monitoring programs. We interpret their variability with the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model and determine the atmospheric conditions that cause pollution events in the time series. Our analysis includes a regionally tagged O3 model of the 2004-2007 time period, which quantifies the geographical contributions to Toronto area O3. The important emission types for 15 pollution events are then determined with a high-resolution adjoint model. Toronto O3, during pollution events, is most sensitive to southern Ontario and U.S. fossil fuel NOx emissions and natural isoprene emissions. The sources of Toronto pollution events are found to be highly variable, and this is demonstrated in four case studies representing local, short-, middle-, and long-range transport scenarios. This suggests that continental-scale emission reductions could improve air quality in the Toronto region. We also find that abnormally high temperatures and high-pressure systems are common to all pollution events studied, suggesting that climate change may impact Toronto O3. Finally, we quantitatively compare the sensitivity of the surface and column measurements to anthropogenic NOx emissions and show that they are remarkably similar. This work thus demonstrates the usefulness of FTIR measurements in an urban area to assess air quality.

  6. Upstream structural management measures for an urban area flooding in Turkey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akyurek, Z.; Bozoğlu, B.; Sürer, S.; Mumcu, H.

    2015-06-01

    In recent years, flooding has become an increasing concern across many parts of the world of both the general public and their governments. The climate change inducing more intense rainfall events occurring in short period of time lead flooding in rural and urban areas. In this study the flood modelling in an urbanized area, namely Samsun-Terme in Blacksea region of Turkey is performed. MIKE21 with flexible grid is used in 2-dimensional shallow water flow modelling. 1 × 1000-1 scaled maps with the buildings for the urbanized area and 1 × 5000-1 scaled maps for the rural parts are used to obtain DTM needed in the flood modelling. The bathymetry of the river is obtained from additional surveys. The main river passing through the urbanized area has a capacity of 500 m3 s-1 according to the design discharge obtained by simple ungauged discharge estimation depending on catchment area only. The upstream structural base precautions against flooding are modelled. The effect of four main upstream catchments on the flooding in the downstream urban area are modelled as different scenarios. It is observed that if the flow from the upstream catchments can be retarded through a detention pond constructed in one of the upstream catchments, estimated Q100 flood can be conveyed by the river without overtopping from the river channel. The operation of the upstream detention ponds and the scenarios to convey Q500 without causing flooding are also presented. Structural management measures to address changes in flood characteristics in water management planning are discussed.

  7. Measurement of skeletal muscle area: Comparison of CT and MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sinelnikov, Andrey, E-mail: sinelnikovas@upmc.edu [Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Qu, Chuanxing [Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Fetzer, David T. [Department of Radiology, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, TX (United States); Pelletier, Jean-Sébastien [Department of Surgery, Jewish General Hospital, McGill University, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Dunn, Michael A. [Department of Medicine, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Tsung, Allan [Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Furlan, Alessandro [Department of Radiology, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-10-15

    Objective: To investigate the intra- and inter-observer agreement and correlation between CT and MR measurements of skeletal muscle area (SMA) in the abdomen. Methods: CT and MR images from twelve patients were analyzed by two blinded observers using segmentation software (MITK-3M3, Mint Medical and Slice-O-Matic, Tomovision) to quantify SMA. MR images included T1w “in-phase”, T1w “out-of-phase”, and T2w sequences. Inter- and intra-observer agreement was assessed using the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC). Pearson correlation coefficient (r) was used to correlate measurements obtained on MR with CT. CT and MR measurements were compared with Bland-Altman plots. Results: Intra- and inter-observer agreement for SMA was high for CT and MR. For MR, the measurements on T2w images showed the highest inter-observer agreement (ICC = 0.96). CT SMA correlated closely with MR, with T2w images showing the highest correlation (r = 0.98; P < 0.01). Bland-Altman plots showed a 1.7%–3.9% bias between CT and MR measurements, lowest for T2w images. Conclusions: MR SMA measurements are reproducible and correlate closely with CT. The T2w sequence is recommended to quantify SMA on MR images.

  8. The Periodic Measurement of the Airborne Radioactivity In Controlled Area of KOMAC

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jeong-Min; Park, Sung-Kyun; Min, Yi-Sub; Cho, Yong-Sub [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    Korea Multipurpose Accelerator Complex (KOMAC) to start the performance operation in the second half of 2013, is currently operated in each beamline 20-MeV and 100-MeV. The accelerator operation period is simply divided by three operation cycles which are the maintenance checks period for accelerator device, the performance test period before driving accelerator and the operation period. During this operation period, beam is irradiated to target. At this time, the proton beams collide with the target material and a high dose of radiations such as gamma ray and neutron occurred. Radiation controlled area at the accelerator facility is divided into accelerator tunnel and beam utilization zone. As a result of measuring the airborne radioactivity in the controlled area in accordance with the operating cycle of the proton accelerator KOMAC, It was confirmed that the value of the airborne radioactivity does not significantly differ according to each accelerator operating cycles. And alpha and beta values measured inside the area that workers primarily work is very low indoor radon level than the value of the recommendations in multiple facilities.

  9. Associations of neighborhood-level racial residential segregation with adverse pregnancy outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salow, Arturo D; Pool, Lindsay R; Grobman, William A; Kershaw, Kiarri N

    2018-03-01

    Previous analyses utilizing birth certificate data have shown environmental factors such as racial residential segregation may contribute to disparities in adverse pregnancy outcomes. However, birth certificate data are ill equipped to reliably differentiate among small for gestational age, spontaneous preterm birth, and medically indicated preterm birth. We sought to utilize data from electronic medical records to determine whether residential segregation among Black women is associated with an increased risk of adverse pregnancy outcomes. The study population was composed of 4770 non-Hispanic Black women who delivered during the years 2009 through 2013 at a single urban medical center. Addresses were geocoded at the level of census tract, and this tract was used to determine the degree of residential segregation for an individual's neighborhood. Residential segregation was measured using the Gi* statistic, a z-score that measures the extent to which the neighborhood racial composition deviates from the composition of the larger surrounding area. The Gi* statistic z-scores were categorized as follows: low (z  1.96). Adverse pregnancy outcomes included overall preterm birth, spontaneous preterm birth, medically indicated preterm birth, and small for gestational age. Hierarchical logistic regression models accounting for clustering by census tract and repeated births among mothers were used to estimate odds ratios of adverse pregnancy outcomes associated with segregation. In high segregation areas, the prevalence of overall preterm birth was significantly higher than that in low segregation areas (15.5% vs 10.7%, respectively; P < .001). Likewise, the prevalence of spontaneous preterm birth and medically indicated preterm birth were higher in high (9.5% and 6.0%) vs low (6.2% and 4.6%) segregation neighborhoods (P < .001 and P = .046, respectively). The associations of high segregation with overall preterm birth (odds ratio, 1.31; 95% confidence interval, 1

  10. Environmental studies in Khartoum area using x-ray fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel Elmagid, Suliman Alamin

    1996-06-01

    In the present work an attempt has been made for the analysis of some soil, plant, sediments and fish samples of relevance to environmental pollution in Khartoum area. These samples have been collected from different places in residential areas, so as to cover industrial areas, agricultural and residential areas, as well as Tuti Island as control area. Special attention has been dedicated to the analysis of lead concentrations resulting from automobile-emissions in soils and to other toxic metals such as Cr in some industries. The samples were analysed by x-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique. The results obtained using XRF measurements and computer software called QXAS for data analysis. The concentrations of lead and some heavy metals such as Cr in soils from certain locations were alarming and may create pollution problems in the near future. The results obtained from different countries. The results are generally lower than the international limits. (Author)

  11. WHERE HAS THE COMPASSION GONE FROM THE RESIDENTIAL AGED CARE ENVIRONMENT?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Kim

    2017-02-01

    Would working in residential aged care be your dream job as a newly qualified nurse, probably not, but why not? Montayre (2015) suggests that although nurses don't like to talk about it, or even less, what the real problem is perceived to be with this practice area, residential aged care nursing is thought to be less exciting, monotonous, and requiring less skill than other areas such as emergency nursing, or medical nursing.

  12. Mobile Launch Platform Vehicle Assembly Area (SWMU 056) Biosparge Expansion Interim Measures Work Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burcham, Michael S.; Daprato, Rebecca C.

    2016-01-01

    This document presents the design details for an Interim Measure (IM) Work Plan (IMWP) for the Mobile Launch Platform/Vehicle Assembly Building (MLPV) Area, located at the John F. Kennedy Space Center (KSC), Florida. The MLPV Area has been designated Solid Waste Management Unit Number 056 (SWMU 056) under KSC's Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Corrective Action Program. This report was prepared by Geosyntec Consultants (Geosyntec) for the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) under contract number NNK09CA02B and NNK12CA13B, project control number ENV1642. The Advanced Data Package (ADP) presentation covering the elements of this IMWP report received KSC Remediation Team (KSCRT) approval at the December 2015 Team Meeting; the meeting minutes are included in Appendix A.

  13. A method of surface area measurement of fuel materials by fission gas release at low temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaimal, K.N.G.; Naik, M.C.; Paul, A.R.; Venkateswarlu, K.S.

    1989-01-01

    The present report deals with the development of a method for surface area measurement of nuclear fuel as well as fissile doped materials by fission gas release study at low temperature.