WorldWideScience

Sample records for residential 3-ton absorption

  1. Design, evaluation and recommedation effort relating to the modification of a residential 3-ton absorption cycle cooling unit for operation with solar energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrick, R. H.; Anderson, P. P.

    1973-01-01

    The possible use of solar energy powered absorption units to provide cooling and heating of residential buildings is studied. Both, the ammonia-water and the water-lithium bromide cycles, are considered. It is shown that the air cooled ammonia water unit does not meet the criteria for COP and pump power on the cooling cycle and the heat obtained from it acting as a heat pump is at too low a temperature. If the ammonia machine is water cooled it will meet the design criteria for cooling but can not supply the heating needs. The water cooled lithium bromide unit meets the specified performance for cooling with appreciably lower generator temperatures and without a mechanical solution pump. It is recommeded that in the demonstration project a direct expansion lithium bromide unit be used for cooling and an auxiliary duct coil using the solar heated water be employed for heating.

  2. Measured performance of a 3-ton LiBr absorption water chiller and its effect on cooling system operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkoong, D.

    1976-01-01

    A 3-ton lithium bromide absorption water chiller was tested for a number of conditions involving hot-water input, chilled water, and the cooling water. The primary influences on chiller capacity were the hot water inlet temperature and the cooling water inlet temperature. One combination of these two parameters extended the output to as much as 125% of design capacity, but no combination could lower the capacity to below 60% of design. A cooling system was conceptually designed so that it could provide several modes of operation. Such flexibility is needed for any solar cooling system to be able to accommodate the varying solar energy collection and the varying building demand. It is concluded that a 3-ton absorption water chiller with the kind of performance that was measured can be incorporated into a cooling system such as that proposed, to provide efficient cooling over the specified ranges of operating conditions.

  3. Measured performance of a 3 ton LiBr absorption water chiller and its effect on cooling system operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namkoong, D.

    1976-01-01

    A three ton lithium bromide absorption water chiller was tested for a number of conditions involving hot water input, chilled water, and the cooling water. The primary influences on chiller capacity were the hot water inlet temperature and the cooling water inlet temperature. One combination of these two parameters extended the output to as much as 125% of design capacity, but no combination could lower the capacity to below 60% of design. A cooling system was conceptually designed so that it could provide several modes of operation. Such flexibility is needed for any solar cooling system to be able to accommodate the varying solar energy collection and the varying building demand. It was concluded that a three-ton absorption water chiller with the kind of performance that was measured can be incorporated into a cooling system such as that proposed, to provide efficient cooling over the specified ranges of operating conditions.

  4. Residential Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde; Matsufuji, Y.

    2011-01-01

    are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing residential waste is faced with the problem that many residences already divert some waste away from the official collection systems, for example performing home composting of vegetable waste and garden waste, having their bundled newspaper picked up by the scouts...... twice a year or bringing their used furniture to the flea markets organized by charity clubs. Thus, much of the data available on residential waste represents collected waste and not necessarily all generated waste. The latter can only be characterized by careful studies directly at the source......Residential waste comes from residential areas with multi-family and single-family housing and includes four types of waste: household waste, garden waste, bulky waste and household hazardous waste. Typical unit generation rates, material composition, chemical composition and determining factors...

  5. Residential Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde; Matsufuji, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Residential waste comes from residential areas with multi-family and single-family housing and includes four types of waste: household waste, garden waste, bulky waste and household hazardous waste. Typical unit generation rates, material composition, chemical composition and determining factors...... are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing residential waste is faced with the problem that many residences already divert some waste away from the official collection systems, for example performing home composting of vegetable waste and garden waste, having their bundled newspaper picked up by the scouts...... twice a year or bringing their used furniture to the flea markets organized by charity clubs. Thus, much of the data available on residential waste represents collected waste and not necessarily all generated waste. The latter can only be characterized by careful studies directly at the source...

  6. Residential Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Last name: Email: * Zip: * *required We will not sell or share your name. Residential Care Tweet Bookmark ... for the future. Use Alzheimer's Navigator ™ - our free online tool - to guide you as you map out ...

  7. Optimal Design of 3-ton Fork-lift Horizontal Style Turning Bridge%三吨叉车横置式转向桥的优化设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王彩芹; 何秀彬

    2001-01-01

    叙述了3 t平衡重式叉车横置油缸转向桥的结构设计,主要包括横置油缸式转向桥的结构参数的确定及其转角精度的核定,从而实现转向系统的技术参数的要求。%The paper describes the structure design of horizontal style oil cylinder turnin g bridge of 3-ton balance weight type fork-lift, which mainly includes the det ermining of structural parameters of oil cylinder type turning bridge and of th e rotary angle precision checking. Thus, the technical parameters' requ irements are met with the turning system.

  8. Residential mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morris, Tim; Manley, David; Sabel, Clive

    2016-01-01

    lacks the detail and temporal perspectives now seen as critical to understanding residential mobility decisions. Through a critical re-think of mobility processes with respect to health outcomes and an exploitation of longitudinal analytical techniques we argue that health geographers have the potential...

  9. Preliminary design package for residential heating/cooling system--Rankine air conditioner redesign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-12-01

    This report contains a summary of the preliminary redesign and development of a marketable single-family heating and cooling system. The objectives discussed are the interim design and schedule status of the Residential (3-ton) redesign, problem areas and solutions, and the definition of plans for future design and development activities. The proposed system for a single-family residential heating and cooling system is a single-loop, solar-assisted, hydronic-to-warm-air heating subsystem with solar-assisted domestic water heating and a Rankine-driven expansion air-conditioning subsystem.

  10. Preliminary design package for residential heating/cooling system: Rankine air conditioner redesign

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    A summary of the preliminary redesign and development of a marketable single family heating and cooling system is presented. The interim design and schedule status of the residential (3-ton) redesign, problem areas and solutions, and the definition of plans for future design and development activities were discussed. The proposed system for a single-family residential heating and cooling system is a single-loop, solar-assisted, hydronic-to-warm-air heating subsystem with solar-assisted domestic water heating and a Rankine-driven expansion air-conditioning subsystem.

  11. Filter-based measurements of UV-vis mass absorption cross sections of organic carbon aerosol from residential biomass combustion: Preliminary findings and sources of uncertainty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Apoorva; Pervez, Shamsh; Chakrabarty, Rajan K.

    2016-10-01

    Combustion of solid biomass fuels is a major source of household energy in developing nations. Black (BC) and organic carbon (OC) aerosols are the major PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter smaller than 2.5 μm) pollutants co-emitted during burning of these fuels. While the optical nature of BC is well characterized, very little is known about the properties of light-absorbing OC (LAOC). Here, we report our preliminary findings on the mass-based optical properties of LAOC emitted from the combustion of four commonly used solid biomass fuels - fuel-wood, agricultural residue, dung-cake, and mixed - in traditional Indian cookstoves. As part of a pilot field study conducted in central India, PM2.5 samples were collected on Teflon filters and analyzed for their absorbance spectra in the 300-900 nm wavelengths at 1 nm resolution using a UV-Visible spectrophotometer equipped with an integrating sphere. The mean mass absorption cross-sections (MAC) of the emitted PM2.5 and OC, at 550 nm, were 0.8 and 0.2 m2 g-1, respectively, each with a factor of ~2.3 uncertainty. The mean absorption Ångström exponent (AǺE) values for PM2.5 were 3±1 between 350 and 550 nm, and 1.2±0.1 between 550 and 880 nm. In the 350-550 nm range, OC had an AǺE of 6.3±1.8. The emitted OC mass, which was on average 25 times of the BC mass, contributed over 50% of the aerosol absorbance at wavelengths smaller than 450 nm. The overall OC contribution to visible solar light (300-900 nm) absorption by the emitted particles was 26-45%. Our results highlight the need to comprehensively and accurately address: (i) the climatic impacts of light absorption by OC from cookstove emissions, and (ii) the uncertainties and biases associated with variability in biomass fuel types and combustion conditions, and filter-based measurement artifacts during determination of MAC values.

  12. High Efficiency Water Heating Technology Development Final Report, Part II: CO2 and Absorption-Based Residential Heat Pump Water Heater Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gluesenkamp, Kyle R. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Abdelaziz, Omar [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Patel, Viral K. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mandel, Bracha T. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); de Almeida, Valmor F. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2017-05-01

    The two objectives of this project were to 1.demonstrate an affordable path to an ENERGY STAR qualified electric heat pump water heater (HPWH) based on low-global warming potential (GWP) CO2 refrigerant, and 2.demonstrate an affordable path to a gas-fired absorption-based heat pump water heater with a gas energy factor (EF) greater than 1.0. The first objective has been met, and the project has identified a promising low-cost option capable of meeting the second objective. This report documents the process followed and results obtained in addressing these objectives.

  13. Development of hardware simulators for tests of solar cooling/heating subsystems and systems. Phase II. Unsteady state hardware simulation of residential absorption chiller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Auh, P.C.

    1979-09-01

    The main work involves the experimental study to determine transient and cycling performance characteristics of an advanced solar absorption chiller. Laboratory tests of the second generation Arkla chiller (Solaire 36, model WF36), using the BNL simulator, have been performed. Chiller performance has also been measured against fast and slow cycling periods under both the conventional and modified control modes. The degree of performance improvement under the modified control mode, as a function of the cycle period and such effects on the integrated chiller performance, have been thoroughly investigated.

  14. Residential Energy Management Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecca, Stephen J.; Robertshaw, Joseph E.

    1980-01-01

    Describes two formal programs in the area of energy management education: a Residential Energy Management Summer Institute (part of a faculty development program funded by the Department of Energy), and a Residential Energy Management curriculum for Energy Auditors. (CS)

  15. Residential mobility microsimulation models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifei; Wu, Lun

    2010-09-01

    Residential mobility refers to the spatial movement of individuals and households between dwellings within an urban area. This considerable amount of intra-urban movement affects the urban structure and has significant repercussions for urban transportation. In order to understand and project related impacts, a considerable number of residential mobility models has been developed and used in the regional planning process. Within this context, the history and state-of-art residential mobility models are discussed and indicated. Meanwhile, a residential mobility Microsimulation model, called URM-Microsim (Urban Residential Mobility Microsimulation), is introduced and discussed.

  16. Marketing of residential realestate

    OpenAIRE

    Taradi, Danijel

    2013-01-01

    When Slovenia joined the European Union the marketing of real estate has expended over the country's borders. The thesis discusses the marketing of residential real estates in the municipality of Gorizia and municipality of Nova Gorica in the time period from January 2013 to February 2013. We assume that the prices of residential real estates in the municipality of Gorizia are lower than the prices in the municipality of Nova Gorica. Based on this, we analyse the residential real estate mark...

  17. Residential use of photovoltaics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, E.C. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Residential electricity demand data and forecasts for France, Japan and the United States are presented as background information pertinent to the market for solar photovoltaic power systems. Current residential photovoltaic system development activities in the United States are reviewed. Issues related to the eventual adoption of such systems are discussed.

  18. Mobility, Fertility, and Residential Crowding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Earl W.

    1977-01-01

    Regression analyses predicting fertility and mobility in a sample of a metropolitan county in New York State indicate that residential mobility serves to release the negative pressure that residential crowding might exert on fertility behavior. (Author)

  19. Family ties and residential locations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, C.H.; Cooke, T.J.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, and in the Special Issue it introduces, the focus is on the role of family ties in residential location choice and, conversely, the role of residential locations in maintaining family ties. Not only do events in the nuclear family trigger residential relocations, but nearby family mem

  20. Residential Mechanical Precooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, a. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Hoeschele, M. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2014-12-01

    This research conducted by the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team evaluated mechanical air conditioner pre-cooling strategies in homes throughout the United States. EnergyPlus modeling evaluated two homes with different performance characteristics in seven climates. Results are applicable to new construction homes and most existing homes built in the last 10 years, as well as fairly efficient retrofitted homes.

  1. Residential Continuing Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houle, Cyril O.

    The theme of this discursive essay is residential continuing education: its definition, its development along somewhat different lines in Europe and in America, and its practice in university centers in the United States. Continuing education includes any learning or teaching program that is based on the assumptions that the learners have studied…

  2. Photovoltaics for residential applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-02-01

    Information is given about the parts of a residential photovoltaic system and considerations relevant to photovoltaic power use in homes that are also tied to utility lines. In addition, factors are discussed that influence implementation, including legal and environmental factors such as solar access and building codes, insurance, utility buyback, and system longevity. (LEW)

  3. Photovoltaics for residential applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1984-02-01

    Information is given about the parts of a residential photovoltaic system and considerations relevant to photovoltaic power use in homes that are also tied to utility lines. In addition, factors are discussed that influence implementation, including legal and environmental factors such as solar access and building codes, insurance, utility buyback, and system longevity. (LEW)

  4. Guidelines for residential commissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wray, Craig P.; Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max H.

    2003-01-31

    Currently, houses do not perform optimally or even as many codes and forecasts predict, largely because they are field assembled and there is no consistent process to identify problems or to correct them. Residential commissioning is a solution to this problem. This guide is the culmination of a 30-month project that began in September 1999. The ultimate objective of the project is to increase the number of houses that undergo commissioning, which will improve the quality, comfort, and safety of homes for California citizens. The project goal is to lay the groundwork for a residential commissioning industry in California focused on end-use energy and non-energy issues. As such, we intend this guide to be a beginning and not an end. Our intent is that the guide will lead to the programmatic integration of commissioning with other building industry processes, which in turn will provide more value to a single site visit for people such as home energy auditors and raters, home inspectors, and building performance contractors. Project work to support the development of this guide includes: a literature review and annotated bibliography, which facilitates access to 469 documents related to residential commissioning published over the past 20 years (Wray et al. 2000), an analysis of the potential benefits one can realistically expect from commissioning new and existing California houses (Matson et al. 2002), and an assessment of 107 diagnostic tools for evaluating residential commissioning metrics (Wray et al. 2002). In this guide, we describe the issues that non-experts should consider in developing a commissioning program to achieve the benefits we have identified. We do this by providing specific recommendations about: how to structure the commissioning process, which diagnostics to use, and how to use them to commission new and existing houses. Using examples, we also demonstrate the potential benefits of applying the recommended whole-house commissioning approach to

  5. 'Nothing works' in secure residential youth care?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Souverein, F.A.; van der Helm, G.H.P.; Stams, G.J.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    A debate about the effectiveness of secure residential youth care is currently going on. While some continue to support secure residential youth care, others conclude that ‘nothing works’ in secure residential youth care, and argue that non-residential treatment is superior to secure residential tre

  6. ASHRAE and residential ventilation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max H.

    2003-10-01

    In the last quarter of a century, the western world has become increasingly aware of environmental threats to health and safety. During this period, people psychologically retreated away from outdoors hazards such as pesticides, smog, lead, oil spills, and dioxin to the seeming security of their homes. However, the indoor environment may not be healthier than the outdoor environment, as has become more apparent over the past few years with issues such as mold, formaldehyde, and sick-building syndrome. While the built human environment has changed substantially over the past 10,000 years, human biology has not; poor indoor air quality creates health risks and can be uncomfortable. The human race has found, over time, that it is essential to manage the indoor environments of their homes. ASHRAE has long been in the business of ventilation, but most of the focus of that effort has been in the area of commercial and institutional buildings. Residential ventilation was traditionally not a major concern because it was felt that, between operable windows and envelope leakage, people were getting enough outside air in their homes. In the quarter of a century since the first oil shock, houses have gotten much more energy efficient. At the same time, the kinds of materials and functions in houses changed in character in response to people's needs. People became more environmentally conscious and aware not only about the resources they were consuming but about the environment in which they lived. All of these factors contributed to an increasing level of public concern about residential indoor air quality and ventilation. Where once there was an easy feeling about the residential indoor environment, there is now a desire to define levels of acceptability and performance. Many institutions--both public and private--have interests in Indoor Air Quality (IAQ), but ASHRAE, as the professional society that has had ventilation as part of its mission for over 100 years, is the

  7. Performance Analysis of Solution Transportation Absorption Chiller

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiani, Behdad; Hamamoto, Yoshinori; Akisawa, Atsushi; Kashiwagi, Takao

    Thermally activated advanced absorption cycles are considered promising candidates to replace CFCs, HCFCs and HFCs for residential and commercial applications. In such absorption systems, it is desirable to utilize the waste heat from industries for heating and cooling applications in commercial and residential sectors. For this purpose, it is necessary to transport energy over some distance because the waste heat source and demand are generally located apart from each other. Transportation of steam, hot water or chilled water requires high construction costs for insulation. There is an efficient method of energy transportation using absorption system called “ Solution Transportation Absorption System (STA)”. The solution is transported at an ambient temperature so that tube-insulations not required. This paper shows the simulation of the abovementioned system and the optimal result, using mathematical optimization. The optimum system with industry‧s waste heat utilization is obtained. At the end, the effect on the pollution emission and energy conservation is obtained.

  8. Congestion and residential moving behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Morten Marott; Pilegaard, Ninette; Van Ommeren, Jos

    2008-01-01

    we study how congestion and residential moving behaviour are interrelated, using a two-region job search model. Workers choose between interregional commuting and residential moving, in order to live closer to their place of work. This choice affects the external costs of commuting, due...

  9. Residential fuel quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santa, T. [Santa Fuel, Inc., Bridgeport, CT (United States)

    1997-09-01

    This report details progress made in improving the performance of No. 2 heating oil in residential applications. Previous research in this area is documented in papers published in the Brookhaven Oil Heat Technology Conference Proceedings in 1993, 1994 and 1996. By way of review we have investigated a number of variables in the search for improved fuel system performance. These include the effect of various additives designed to address stability, dispersion, biotics, corrosion and reaction with metals. We have also investigated delivery methods, filtration, piping arrangements and the influence of storage tank size and location. As a result of this work Santa Fuel Inc. in conjunction with Mobile Oil Corporation have identified an additive package which shows strong evidence of dramatically reducing the occurrence of fuel system failures in residential oil burners. In a broad market roll-out of the additized product we have experienced a 29% reduction in fuel related service calls when comparing the 5 months ending January 1997 to the same period ending January 1996.

  10. Residential Mechanical Precooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    German, Alea [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States). Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI); Hoeschele, Marc [Davis Energy Group, Davis, CA (United States). Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI)

    2014-12-01

    Residential air conditioning (AC) represents a challenging load for many electric utilities with poor load factors. Mechanical precooling improves the load factor by shifting cooling operation from on-peak to off-peak hours. This provides benefits to utilities and the electricity grid, as well as to occupants who can take advantage of time-of-use (TOU) electricity rates. Performance benefits stem from reduced compressor cycling, and shifting condensing unit operation to earlier periods of the day when outdoor temperatures are more favorable to operational efficiency. Finding solutions that save energy and reduce demand on the electricity grid is an important national objective and supports key Building America goals. The Alliance for Residential Building Innovation team evaluated mechanical AC precooling strategies in homes throughout the United States. EnergyPlus modeling was used to evaluate two homes with different performance characteristics in seven climates. Results are applicable to new construction homes and most existing homes built in the last 10 years, as well as fairly efficient retrofitted homes. A successful off-peak AC strategy offers the potential for increased efficiency and improved occupant comfort, and promotes a more reliable and robust electricity grid. Demand response capabilities and further integration with photovoltaic TOU generation patterns provide additional opportunities to flatten loads and optimize grid impacts.

  11. The economics of solar powered absorption cooling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartlett, J. C.

    1978-01-01

    Analytic procedure evaluates cost of combining absorption-cycle chiller with solar-energy system in residential or commercial application. Procedure assumes that solar-energy system already exists to heat building and that cooling system must be added. Decision is whether to cool building with conventional vapor-compression-cycle chiller or to use solar-energy system to provide heat input to absorption chiller.

  12. Residential Energy Performance Metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher Wright

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Techniques for residential energy monitoring are an emerging field that is currently drawing significant attention. This paper is a description of the current efforts to monitor and compare the performance of three solar powered homes built at Missouri University of Science and Technology. The homes are outfitted with an array of sensors and a data logger system to measure and record electricity production, system energy use, internal home temperature and humidity, hot water production, and exterior ambient conditions the houses are experiencing. Data is being collected to measure the performance of the houses, compare to energy modeling programs, design and develop cost effective sensor systems for energy monitoring, and produce a cost effective home control system.

  13. Review of Residential Ventilation Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Armin Rudd

    2005-08-30

    This paper reviews current and potential ventilation technologies for residential buildings, including a variety of mechanical systems, natural ventilation, and passive ventilation. with particular emphasis on North American climates and construction.

  14. ENERGY STAR Certified Residential Dishwashers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 6.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Residential Dishwashers that are effective as of...

  15. Residual residential space as commons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dan Rabinowitz

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Research on common pool resources (CPR, which began with a focus on rural communities and their defining agricultural practices, shifted recently also to the urban context, looking at community gardens, city parks and other recreational facilities. This article extends the use of CPR theory to residential complexes. Courtyards, lawns, lobbies, cellars, stairwells and other parts that fall outside individual apartments are aggregated as a new sub-set of CPR, defined herewith as Residual Residential Space (RRS. Based on findings from three main types of RRS in Israel, the article evaluates some of the mechanisms designed to regulate such space. In line with earlier work on CPR, the article suggests that legal instruments, important as they are for general guidance, do not suffice. To be effective they need to echo popular framings of Residual Residential Space, to be congruent with local sensibilities regarding micro-history, and to concur with expectations stake-holders might have from their own community.

  16. Housing tenure, residential moves and children's educational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Housing tenure, residential moves and children's educational performance in Accra, Ghana. ... Journal of Science and Technology (Ghana) ... a positive home ownership effect and a negative residential moves effect remain with significant ...

  17. 24 CFR 203.672 - Residential areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Residential areas. 203.672 Section... FAMILY MORTGAGE INSURANCE Servicing Responsibilities Occupied Conveyance § 203.672 Residential areas. (a) For the purposes of occupied conveyance considerations, a residential area is any area...

  18. Understanding Residential Polarization in a Globalizing City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibrahim Rotimi Aliu

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study examines the spatial polarization that characterizes the dwellings in the African leading megacity of Lagos. Data were collected through an extensive housing survey carried out on 1,485 household residences in 56 wards within 12 administrative units in Lagos megacity. The spatial dimension of residential density in the city generates three unique residential patterns which are low residential density (LRD, medium residential density (MRD, and high residential density (HRD areas. Descriptive and multivariate inferential statistics were used to render explanations for the spatial variations in the residential quality variables in the study area. Findings indicated that a clear difference exists in the residential quality within the three residential density areas of Lagos. High correlations exist among the residential quality indicators and housing type. The principal component analysis shows that residential polarizations that occur in the LRD, MRD, and HRD are based on the location, dwelling facility, interior and exterior quality, neighborhood integrity, social bond, barrier to entry, and security. The practical implications of residential polarizations along the residential density areas are explicitly expressed.

  19. Residential solar-heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    Complete residential solar-heating and hot-water system, when installed in highly-insulated energy-saver home, can supply large percentage of total energy demand for space heating and domestic hot water. System which uses water-heating energy storage can be scaled to meet requirements of building in which it is installed.

  20. Rebound effects in residential heating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aydin, Erdal; Brounen, Dirk; Kok, N.

    2016-01-01

    Over the years, various efficiency policies have been designed and implemented to reduce residential energy consumption. However, it is very common that the policy expectations that are based upon engineering calculations do not come true. The widely accepted explanation for the gap between expectat

  1. The lighting of residential yards.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    The "woonerf" is conceived in order to enhance the amenity in residential districts. It is put into effect by a series of legal measures, road construction and traffic management measures, planning measures and social measures. The quality requirements for the public lighting include apart of

  2. Main challenges of residential areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oana Luca

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The present article is a position paper aiming to initiate a professional debate related to the aspects related to the urban dysfunctions leading to the wear of the residential areas. The paper proposes a definition of the wear process, identify the main causes leading to its occurrence and propose a number of solutions to neutralise the dysfunctions. The three wearing phases of residential areas components are emphasized, exploring their lifecycle. In order to perform the study of urban wear, the status of the residential areas components can be established and monitored, and also the variables of the function that can mathematically model the specific wear process may be considered. The paper is considered a first step for the model adjustment, to be tested and validated in the following steps. Based on the mathematical method and model, there can be created, in a potential future research, the possibility of determining the precarity degree for residential areas/neighbourhoods and cities, by minimising the subjective component of the analyses preceding the decision for renovation or regeneration.

  3. Residual residential space as commons

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Research on common pool resources (CPR), which began with a focus on rural communities and their defining agricultural practices, shifted recently also to the urban context, looking at community gardens, city parks and other recreational facilities. This article extends the use of CPR theory to residential complexes. Courtyards, lawns, lobbies, cellars, stairwells and other parts that fall outside individual apartments are aggregated as a new sub-set of CPR, defined herewith as Residual Resid...

  4. Air cooled absorption chillers for solar cooling applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biermann, W. J.; Reimann, R. C.

    1982-03-01

    The chemical composition of a 'best' absorption refrigerant system is identified, and those properties of the system necessary to design hot water operated, air cooled chilling equipment are determined. Air cooled chillers from single family residential sizes into the commercial rooftop size range are designed and operated.

  5. Residential mobility, well-being, and mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oishi, Shigehiro; Schimmack, Ulrich

    2010-06-01

    We tested the relation between residential mobility and well-being in a sample of 7,108 American adults who were followed for 10 years. The more residential moves participants had experienced as children, the lower the levels of well-being as adults. As predicted, however, the negative association between the number of residential moves and well-being was observed among introverts but not among extraverts. We further demonstrated that the negative association between residential mobility and well-being among introverts was explained by the relative lack of close social relationships. Finally, we found that introverts who had moved frequently as children were more likely to have died during the 10-year follow-up. Among extraverts, childhood residential mobility was unrelated to their mortality risk as adults. These findings indicate that residential moves can be a risk factor for introverts and that extraversion can be an interpersonal resource for social relationships and well-being in mobile societies.

  6. The relation between residential property and its surroundings and day- and night-time residential burglary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Montoya, Lorena; Junger, Marianne; Ongena, Yfke

    2016-01-01

    This article examines how residential property and its surroundings influence day- and night-time residential burglary. Crime Prevention Through Environmental Design (CPTED) principles of territoriality, surveillance, access control, target hardening, image maintenance, and activity support underpin

  7. Residential care : Dutch and Italian residents of residential care facilities compared

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Heer-Wunderink, Charlotte; Caro-Nienhuis, Annemarie D.; Sytema, Sjoerd; Wiersma, Durk

    2008-01-01

    Aims - Characteristics of patients living in residential care facilities and the availability of mental hospital- and residential beds in Italy and The Netherlands were compared to assess whether differences in the process of deinstitutionalisation have influenced the composition of their

  8. Therapeutic Residential Care for Children and Youth:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whittaker, James K.; Holmes, Lisa; del Valle, Jorge F.

    2016-01-01

    so in closer collaboration with their families and in closer proximity to their home communities; and, (3) with the hope of reducing the high costs often associated with group residential provision. In some jurisdictions, efforts to reduce residential care resources in the absence of sufficient...... for Child and Family Research, Loughborough University in the U.K. for a Summit meeting on therapeutic residential care for children and youth funded by the Sir Halley Stewart Trust (UK). The focus centered on what is known about therapeutic residential care and what key questions should inform a priority...

  9. Health risks of residential wood heat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travis, Curtis C.; Etnier, Elizabeth L.; Meyer, H. Robert

    1985-05-01

    The resurgence in the use of wood in the United States for residential heating has been accompanied by a dramatic increase in deaths and injuries from residential fires. Toxic materials present in woodsmoke also appear to present a significant public health hazard. As a result of these factors, production of residential wood heat can be up to two orders of magnitude more hazardous than generation of an equivalent amount of electric energy at a coal-fired power plant. Proper care in installation and operation of wood stoves, as well as technological innovations that control wood-stove emissions, can greatly reduce the health and safety hazards of residential heating with wood.

  10. Residential experience and residential environment choice over the life-course

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Feijten; P. Hooimeijer; C.H. Mulder

    2008-01-01

    The study reported in this article answers the question: how does experience with a certain type of residential environment contribute to the explanation of residential environment choice? The issues under investigation are whether residential experience with cities, suburbs and rural areas increase

  11. Residential experience and residential environment choice over the life-course

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Feijten, P.; Hooimeijer, P.; Mulder, C.H.

    2008-01-01

    The study reported in this article answers the question: how does experience with a certain type of residential environment contribute to the explanation of residential environment choice? The issues under investigation are whether residential experience with cities, suburbs and rural areas

  12. Residential RF Exposures (invited paper)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahme, M

    1999-07-01

    In many areas of the world there are publications on Governmental Regulations, Standards or Guidelines to protect workers and the general public against harmful effects of exposure to electromagnetic fields. Against this background, information is given about different radiation sources of electromagnetic fields in the RF part of the spectrum, which may be typical for residential exposure. Relevant radiation characteristics of the sources and field strength numbers and distributions are given. In addition some general aspects of field structure in the near- and far-field of RF radiation sources are described. On this basis principles of measurement and calculation of RF fields are explained. (author)

  13. Chapter 17: Residential Behavior Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stewart, James [Cadmus Group, Waltham, MA (United States); Todd, Annika [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Residential behavior-based (BB) programs use strategies grounded in the behavioral social sciences to influence household energy use. Strategies may include providing households with real-time or delayed feedback about their energy use; supplying energy-efficiency education and tips; rewarding households for reducing their energy use; comparing households to their peers; and establishing games, tournaments, and competitions. BB programs often target multiple energy end uses and encourage energy savings, demand savings, or both. Savings from BB programs are usually a small percentage of energy use, typically less than 5%.

  14. Residential house stake-out

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In my seminar work I focused on a practical example of residential house stake-out. First, I presented all the geodetic work that takes place before the construction starts. Prior to start of work ISO 4463-1 control of geodetic network was completed. The stake-out which presents the transfer of designed object in nature was performed using polar method. Description of stake –out is presented in the work as well as procedure of the transfer, protection of stake-out axis and characteristical ob...

  15. Integration of motor traffic in residential areas.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    In stead of banning the cars from residential areas, the plan is to integrate them in such a way that they can still be used, but that they will loose their predominant position. The areas where this integration is to take place are called residential yards. This paper concentrates on the lighting r

  16. Credit Scores, Race, and Residential Sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Ashlyn Aiko

    2010-01-01

    Credit scores have a profound impact on home purchasing power and mortgage pricing, yet little is known about how credit scores influence households' residential location decisions. This study estimates the effects of credit scores on residential sorting behavior using a novel mortgage industry data set combining household demographic, credit, and…

  17. Credit Scores, Race, and Residential Sorting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Ashlyn Aiko

    2010-01-01

    Credit scores have a profound impact on home purchasing power and mortgage pricing, yet little is known about how credit scores influence households' residential location decisions. This study estimates the effects of credit scores on residential sorting behavior using a novel mortgage industry data set combining household demographic, credit, and…

  18. Integration of motor traffic in residential areas.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1977-01-01

    In stead of banning the cars from residential areas, the plan is to integrate them in such a way that they can still be used, but that they will loose their predominant position. The areas where this integration is to take place are called residential yards. This paper concentrates on the lighting r

  19. Therapeutic Residential Care for Children and Youth:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whittaker, James K.; Holmes, Lisa; del Valle, Jorge F.

    2016-01-01

    for Child and Family Research, Loughborough University in the U.K. for a Summit meeting on therapeutic residential care for children and youth funded by the Sir Halley Stewart Trust (UK). The focus centered on what is known about therapeutic residential care and what key questions should inform a priority...

  20. Residential ventilation standards scoping study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, Thomas E.; Sherman, Max H.

    2003-10-01

    The goals of this scoping study are to identify research needed to develop improved ventilation standards for California's Title 24 Building Energy Efficiency Standards. The 2008 Title 24 Standards are the primary target for the outcome of this research, but this scoping study is not limited to that timeframe. We prepared this scoping study to provide the California Energy Commission with broad and flexible options for developing a research plan to advance the standards. This document presents the findings of a scoping study commissioned by the Public Interest Energy Research (PIER) program of the California Energy Commission to determine what research is necessary to develop new residential ventilation requirements for California. This study is one of three companion efforts needed to complete the job of determining the ventilation needs of California residences, determining the bases for setting residential ventilation requirements, and determining appropriate ventilation technologies to meet these needs and requirements in an energy efficient manner. Rather than providing research results, this scoping study identifies important research questions along with the level of effort necessary to address these questions and the costs, risks, and benefits of pursuing alternative research questions. In approaching these questions and corresponding levels of effort, feasibility and timing were important considerations. The Commission has specified Summer 2005 as the latest date for completing this research in time to update the 2008 version of California's Energy Code (Title 24).

  1. Residential care for the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alber, J

    1992-01-01

    This article maps variations in a standardized way in residential care for elderly people in three Western nations. Measured by the number of available places per person aged sixty-five and over and by the number of staff members per bed in nursing homes, the United Kingdom has the most highly developed standards. The United States ranks second, with Germany lagging considerably behind. The variations are explained by four variables: the pressure of the problem, as defined by the percentage of the population aged sixty-five and over; the caretaker potential in the family system, which alleviates this pressure; the structure and financing of the supply of residential care; and decision-making procedures in health care policy-making. My analysis emphasizes the last two variables. In the United Kingdom and the United States, the public and private providers who supply care have either political or market incentives to expand their services. Germany's mix of public and private, by contrast, is dominated by voluntary associations that are neither responsible to an electorate nor allowed to make profits. Thus, their clients do not have opportunities to articulate their needs. Health care decision making in Germany takes place through a collective bargaining process between the sickness funds and the providers. In such a system, the interests of groups who are not represented at the negotiation table--such as the elderly--tend to be neglected. A national health system of the British type links political decision makers via the election mechanism more closely to the concerns of the public. As older people represent growing proportions of the electorate, their needs find more adequate consideration in the policy process. In the United States, political officeholders also have to pay attention to the needs of increasingly organized older people, since the tax-financed and federally regulated Medicaid system is largely responsible for financing long-term care for the elderly.

  2. 12 CFR 541.16 - Improved residential real estate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Improved residential real estate. 541.16... REGULATIONS AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 541.16 Improved residential real estate. The term improved residential real estate means residential real estate containing offsite or other improvements...

  3. 12 CFR 541.23 - Residential real estate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Residential real estate. 541.23 Section 541.23... AFFECTING FEDERAL SAVINGS ASSOCIATIONS § 541.23 Residential real estate. The terms residential real estate... home used in part for business); (c) Other real estate used for primarily residential purposes other...

  4. Evaluation of Multi Residential House Renovation Efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daiva Rapcevičienė

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Analyzed multi residential house renovation investment projects efficiency evaluation methods: economic-social, and environmental, as well as key financial valuation methods: simple pay-back period, the energy cost savings, the net present value, internal rate of return. Building walls condition regenerative rate which is used to evaluate investments in energy-saving measures is also discussed. According to reconstruction investments of multi residential house, three government financing programs of multi residential house are evaluated and selected the most effective program by comparing financial valuation methods taking and without taking into account building walls condition regenerative rate. Article in Lithuanian

  5. Evaluation of evolving residential electricity tariffs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, Judy; DeForest, Nicholas; Kiliccote, Sila; Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Donadee, Jon

    2011-05-15

    Residential customers in California's Pacific Gas and Electric (PG&E) territory have seen several electricity rate structure changes in the past decade. This poster: examines the history of the residential pricing structure and key milestones; summarizes and analyzes the usage between 2006 and 2009 for different baseline/climate areas; discusses the residential electricity Smart Meter roll out; and compares sample bills for customers in two climates under the current pricing structure and also the future time of use (TOU) structure.

  6. The Value Impact of New Residential Construction and Neighborhood Disinvestment on Residential Sales Price

    OpenAIRE

    Robert A. Simons; Quercia, Roberto G.; Ivan Maric

    1998-01-01

    The topic of neighborhood redevelopment is central to residential appraisal and the lending process. We examine both the effect of neighborhood upgrading and decline, captured by subsidized new residential construction and sustained property tax delinquency respectively, on the sales price of one-to-two family homes. The research uses a two stage hedonic price model of 12,100 individual residential sales in Cleveland, Ohio during 1992-94. Results show a significant positive effect of $670 on ...

  7. A fugacity-based indoor residential pesticide fate model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, Deborah H.; Furtaw, Edward J.; McKone, Thomas E.

    2002-06-01

    Dermal and non-dietary pathways are potentially significant exposure pathways to pesticides used in residences. Exposure pathways include dermal contact with residues on surfaces, ingestion from hand- and object-to-mouth activities, and absorption of pesticides into food. A limited amount of data has been collected on pesticide concentrations in various residential compartments following an application. But models are needed to interpret this data and make predictions about other pesticides based on chemical properties. In this paper, we propose a mass-balance compartment model based on fugacity principles. We include air (both gas phase and aerosols), carpet, smooth flooring, and walls as model compartments. Pesticide concentrations on furniture and toys, and in food, are being added to the model as data becomes available. We determine the compartmental fugacity capacity and mass transfer-rate coefficient for wallboard as an example. We also present the framework and equations needed for a dynamic mass-balance model.

  8. Development of Residential SOFC Cogeneration System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Takashi; Miyachi, Itaru; Suzuki, Minoru; Higaki, Katsuki

    2011-06-01

    Since 2001 Kyocera has been developing 1kW class Solid Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) for power generation system. We have developed a cell, stack, module and system. Since 2004, Kyocera and Osaka Gas Co., Ltd. have been developed SOFC residential co-generation system. From 2007, we took part in the "Demonstrative Research on Solid Oxide Fuel Cells" Project conducted by New Energy Foundation (NEF). Total 57 units of 0.7kW class SOFC cogeneration systems had been installed at residential houses. In spite of residential small power demand, the actual electric efficiency was about 40%(netAC,LHV), and high CO2 reduction performance was achieved by these systems. Hereafter, new joint development, Osaka Gas, Toyota Motors, Kyocera and Aisin Seiki, aims early commercialization of residential SOFC CHP system.

  9. Chamberless residential warm air furnace design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Godfree, J. [Product Design consultant, Pugwash (Canada)

    1996-07-01

    This brief paper is an introduction to the concept of designing residential warm air furnaces without combustion chambers. This is possible since some small burners do not require the thermal support of a combustion chamber to complete the combustion process.

  10. Community Services and Residential Institutions for Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gula, Martin

    1974-01-01

    Describes constructive "deinstitutionalization", the movement away from the establishment of large, custodial public residential institutions for dependent, delinquent, retarded or emotionally disturbed children, to more decentralized, informal community services. (CS)

  11. Forecasting residential electricity demand in provincial China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Hua; Liu, Yanan; Gao, Yixuan; Hao, Yu; Ma, Xiao-Wei; Wang, Kan

    2017-03-01

    In China, more than 80% electricity comes from coal which dominates the CO2 emissions. Residential electricity demand forecasting plays a significant role in electricity infrastructure planning and energy policy designing, but it is challenging to make an accurate forecast for developing countries. This paper forecasts the provincial residential electricity consumption of China in the 13th Five-Year-Plan (2016-2020) period using panel data. To overcome the limitations of widely used predication models with unreliably prior knowledge on function forms, a robust piecewise linear model in reduced form is utilized to capture the non-deterministic relationship between income and residential electricity consumption. The forecast results suggest that the growth rates of developed provinces will slow down, while the less developed will be still in fast growing. The national residential electricity demand will increase at 6.6% annually during 2016-2020, and populous provinces such as Guangdong will be the main contributors to the increments.

  12. Public and vehicle lighting in residential areas.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, D.A.

    1979-01-01

    Requirements for the lighting of various types of roads and streets in residential areas are discussed. Emphasis in placed on the "woonerf" concept. The lighting of motor vehicles is discussed. The interaction between the two lighting modes is briefly indicated.

  13. housing tenure, residential moves and children's educational ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    User

    2Faculty of Renewable Natural Resources, KNUST, Kumasi. ABSTRACT ... ing of parents and whether residential moves experienced during ... prisingly large advantage of home ownership in .... completed over the weekend and returned the.

  14. Residential market transformation: National and regional indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Wie McGrory, Laura L.; McNamara, Maureen; Suozzo, Margaret

    2000-06-01

    A variety of programs are underway to address market barriers to the adoption of energy-efficient residential technologies and practices. Most are administered by utilities, states, or regions that rely on the Energy Star as a consistent platform for program marketing and messaging. This paper reviews regional and national market transformation activities for three key residential end-uses -- air conditioning, clothes washing, and lighting -- characterizing current and ongoing programs; reporting on progress; identifying market indicators; and discussing implications.

  15. Residential photovoltaic system simulation: Thermal aspects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, G. W.; Raghuraman, P.

    1982-04-01

    A TRNSYS simulation was developed to simulate the performance of utility interactive residential photovoltaic energy systems. The PV system is divided into its major functional components, which are individually described with computer models. These models are described in detail. The results of simulation and actual measured data obtained a MIT Lincoln Laboratory's Northeast Residential Station are compared. The thermal influences on the design of such photovoltaic energy systems are given particular attention.

  16. Micro-CHP Systems for Residential Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy DeValve; Benoit Olsommer

    2007-09-30

    homeowner. In its proposed embodiment, the system has a 2kW prime mover integrated to a furnace platform. The second version is a Micro-Trigen system with heating, cooling and power. It has the same Micro-Cogen platform integrated with a 14kW thermally activated chiller. A Stirling engine is suggested as a promising path for the prime mover. A LiBr absorption chiller is today's best technology in term of readiness level. Paybacks are acceptable for the Micro-Cogen version. However, there is no clear economically viable path for a Micro-Trigen version with today's available technology. This illustrates the importance of financial incentives to home owners in the initial stage of micro-CHP commercialization. It will help create the necessary conditions of volume demand to start transitioning to mass-production and cost reduction. Incentives to the manufacturers will help improve efficiency, enhance reliability, and lower cost, making micro-CHP products more attractive. Successful development of a micro-CHP system for residential applications has the potential to provide significant benefits to users, customers, manufacturers, and suppliers of such systems and, in general, to the nation as a whole. The benefits to the ultimate user are a comfortable and healthy home environment at an affordable cost, potential utility savings, and a reliable supply of energy. Manufacturers, component suppliers, and system integrators will see growth of a new market segment for integrated energy products. The benefits to the nation include significantly increased energy efficiency, reduced consumption of fossil fuels, pollutant and CO{sub 2} emissions from power generation, enhanced security from power interruptions as well as enhanced economic activity and job creation. An integrated micro-CHP energy system provides advantages over conventional power generation, since the energy is used more efficiently by means of efficient heat recovery. Foreign companies are readily selling

  17. The 1986 residential occupant survey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivey, D.L.; Alley, P.K.

    1987-04-01

    In 1986, Pacific Northwest Laboratory developed the Residential Occupant Survey-Spring '86, which was implemented. The overall purpose of the study was to collect demographic, attitudinal, and behavioral data related to the use and conservation of electricity in dwellings participating in the Bonneville Power Administration's End-Use Load and Conservation Assessment Program (ELCAP). Information was collected on the respondents' perceptions of the energy efficiency of their dwelling, temperature the dwelling was kept when people were at home and awake during the last heating season, which rooms, if any, were not heated during the last heating season, number of times the dwelling was unoccupied for at least one week, number of times pets were let out of the dwelling per day, attitudes toward energy use and conservation and several socio-demographic variables such as age, sex, and total household income. The results of the data analyses showed age to be an important factor for reported indoor temperature and perceived energy efficiency of the dwelling. The results also showed that almost 60% of the ELCAP occupants do not heat one or more rooms during the heating season, and almost 45% of the ELCAP dwellings were unoccupied for at least one week during the reporting period. In terms of the reported allocation of household income for household energy expenses, the results showed that the reported dollar amount spent for the expenses remained relatively constant over income levels.

  18. Physical Restraint in Residential Childcare: The Experiences of Young People and Residential Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steckley, Laura; Kendrick, Andrew

    2008-01-01

    There have long been concerns about the use of physical restraint in residential care. This article presents the findings of a qualitative study that explores the experiences of children, young people and residential workers of physical restraint. The research identifies the dilemmas and ambiguities for both staff and young people, and…

  19. Residential care : Dutch and Italian residents of residential care facilities compared

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Heer-Wunderink, Charlotte; Caro-Nienhuis, Annemarie D.; Sytema, Sjoerd; Wiersma, Durk

    2008-01-01

    Aims - Characteristics of patients living in residential care facilities and the availability of mental hospital- and residential beds in Italy and The Netherlands were compared to assess whether differences in the process of deinstitutionalisation have influenced the composition of their residentia

  20. Micro-CHP Systems for Residential Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timothy DeValve; Benoit Olsommer

    2007-09-30

    homeowner. In its proposed embodiment, the system has a 2kW prime mover integrated to a furnace platform. The second version is a Micro-Trigen system with heating, cooling and power. It has the same Micro-Cogen platform integrated with a 14kW thermally activated chiller. A Stirling engine is suggested as a promising path for the prime mover. A LiBr absorption chiller is today's best technology in term of readiness level. Paybacks are acceptable for the Micro-Cogen version. However, there is no clear economically viable path for a Micro-Trigen version with today's available technology. This illustrates the importance of financial incentives to home owners in the initial stage of micro-CHP commercialization. It will help create the necessary conditions of volume demand to start transitioning to mass-production and cost reduction. Incentives to the manufacturers will help improve efficiency, enhance reliability, and lower cost, making micro-CHP products more attractive. Successful development of a micro-CHP system for residential applications has the potential to provide significant benefits to users, customers, manufacturers, and suppliers of such systems and, in general, to the nation as a whole. The benefits to the ultimate user are a comfortable and healthy home environment at an affordable cost, potential utility savings, and a reliable supply of energy. Manufacturers, component suppliers, and system integrators will see growth of a new market segment for integrated energy products. The benefits to the nation include significantly increased energy efficiency, reduced consumption of fossil fuels, pollutant and CO{sub 2} emissions from power generation, enhanced security from power interruptions as well as enhanced economic activity and job creation. An integrated micro-CHP energy system provides advantages over conventional power generation, since the energy is used more efficiently by means of efficient heat recovery. Foreign companies are readily selling

  1. Post-Retrofit Residential Assessments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lancaster, Ross; lutzenhiser, Loren; Moezzi, Mithra; Widder, Sarah H.; Chandra, Subrato; Baechler, Michael C.

    2012-04-30

    This study examined a range of factors influencing energy consumption in households that had participated in residential energy-efficiency upgrades. The study was funded by a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and was conducted by faculty and staff of Portland State University Center for Urban Studies and Department of Economics. This work was made possible through the assistance and support of the Energy Trust of Oregon (ETO), whose residential energy-efficiency programs provided the population from which the sample cases were drawn. All households in the study had participated in the ETO Home Performance with Energy Star (HPwES) program. A number of these had concurrently pursued measures through other ETO programs. Post-retrofit energy outcomes are rarely investigated on a house-by-house basis. Rather, aggregate changes are ordinarily the focus of program impact evaluations, with deviation from aggregate expectations chalked up to measurement error, the vagaries of weather and idiosyncrasies of occupants. However, understanding how homes perform post-retrofit on an individual basis can give important insights to increase energy savings at the participant and the programmatic level. Taking a more disaggregated approach, this study analyzed energy consumption data from before and after the retrofit activity and made comparisons with engineering estimates for the upgrades, to identify households that performed differently from what may have been expected based on the estimates. A statistical analysis using hierarchal linear models, which accounted for weather variations, was performed looking separately at gas and electrical use during the periods before and after upgrades took place. A more straightforward comparison of billing data for 12-month periods before and after the intervention was also performed, yielding the majority of the cases examined. The later approach allowed total energy use and costs to be

  2. Communicating with residential electrical devices via a vehicle telematics unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, Rebecca C.; Pebbles, Paul H.

    2016-11-15

    A method of communicating with residential electrical devices using a vehicle telematics unit includes receiving information identifying a residential electrical device to control; displaying in a vehicle one or more controlled features of the identified residential electrical device; receiving from a vehicle occupant a selection of the displayed controlled features of the residential electrical device; sending an instruction from the vehicle telematics unit to the residential electrical device via a wireless carrier system in response to the received selection; and controlling the residential electrical device using the sent instruction.

  3. Suggestions on Strengthening Greening Construction of Ecological Residential Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng; LI

    2013-01-01

    Greening construction is an important part of the construction of ecological residential areas,but there exist some misunderstandings in greening construction of ecological residential districts at present.Based on the description of functions of green space in ecological residential areas,the summarization of principles of greening design,and the discussion of questions in greening construction of ecological residential districts,some suggestions as well as specific measures for strengthening greening construction of ecological residential areas were proposed to promote the healthy development of greening construction in ecological residential areas.

  4. Solar Photovoltaic Financing: Residential Sector Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, J.; Cory, K.

    2009-03-01

    This report presents the information that homeowners and policy makers need to facilitate PV financing at the residential level. The full range of cash payments, bill savings, and tax incentives is covered, as well as potentially available solar attribute payments. Traditional financing is also compared to innovative solutions, many of which are borrowed from the commercial sector. Together, these mechanisms are critical for making the economic case for a residential PV installation, given its high upfront costs. Unfortunately, these programs are presently limited to select locations around the country. By calling attention to these innovative initiatives, this report aims to help policy makers consider greater adoption of these models to benefit homeowners interested installing a residential PV system.

  5. Service Differentiation in Residential Broadband Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdsson, Halldór Matthias

    2004-01-01

    As broadband gains widespread adoption with residential users, revenue generating voice- and video-services have not yet taken off. This slow uptake is often attributed to lack of Quality of Service management in residential broadband networks. To resolve this and induce service variety, network...... access providers are implementing service differentiation in their networks where voice and video gets prioritised before data. This paper discusses the role of network access providers in multipurpose packet based networks and the available migration strategies for supporting multimedia services...... in digital subscriber line (DSL) based residential broadband networks. Four possible implementation scenarios and their technical characteristics and effects are described. To conclude, the paper discusses how network access providers can be induced to open their networks for third party service providers....

  6. Modelling and forecasting Turkish residential electricity demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dilaver, Zafer, E-mail: Z.dilaver@surrey.ac.uk [Surrey Energy Economics Centre (SEEC), Department of Economics, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH United Kingdom (United Kingdom); The Republic of Turkey Prime Ministry, PK 06573, Ankara (Turkey); Hunt, Lester C [Surrey Energy Economics Centre (SEEC), Department of Economics, University of Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH United Kingdom (United Kingdom)

    2011-06-15

    This research investigates the relationship between Turkish residential electricity consumption, household total final consumption expenditure and residential electricity prices by applying the structural time series model to annual data over the period from 1960 to 2008. Household total final consumption expenditure, real energy prices and an underlying energy demand trend are found to be important drivers of Turkish residential electricity demand with the estimated short run and the long run total final consumption expenditure elasticities being 0.38 and 1.57, respectively, and the estimated short run and long run price elasticities being -0.09 and -0.38, respectively. Moreover, the estimated underlying energy demand trend, (which, as far as is known, has not been investigated before for the Turkish residential sector) should be of some benefit to Turkish decision makers in terms of energy planning. It provides information about the impact of past policies, the influence of technical progress, the impacts of changes in consumer behaviour and the effects of changes in economic structure. Furthermore, based on the estimated equation, and different forecast assumptions, it is predicted that Turkish residential electricity demand will be somewhere between 48 and 80 TWh by 2020 compared to 40 TWh in 2008. - Research Highlights: > Estimated short run and long run expenditure elasticities of 0.38 and 1.57, respectively. > Estimated short run and long run price elasticities of -0.09 and -0.38, respectively. > Estimated UEDT has increasing (i.e. energy using) and decreasing (i.e. energy saving) periods. > Predicted Turkish residential electricity demand between 48 and 80 TWh in 2020.

  7. Use of Electronic Health Records in Residential Care Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the National Technical Information Service NCHS Use of Electronic Health Records in Residential Care Communities Recommend on ... Facilities Most residential care communities did not use electronic health records in 2010, and use varied by ...

  8. Testing a residential fuel cell for combined heat and power

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bell, M; Swinton, Michael C (Mike); Armstrong, Marianne M; Entchev, E; Gusdorf, J; Szadkowski, F

    2006-01-01

    ... the grid. This project demonstrated the performance of a residential FC combined heat and power (CHP) system, and examined residential CHP integration issues such as thermal storage, grid connection, and optimal FC size...

  9. PRN 2011-1: Residential Exposure Joint Venture

    Science.gov (United States)

    This PR Notice is to advise registrants of an industry-wide joint venture, titled the Residential Exposure Joint Venture (REJV), which has developed a national survey regarding residential consumer use/usage data for pesticides.

  10. Strategy Guideline: High Performance Residential Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holton, J.

    2012-02-01

    The Strategy Guideline: High Performance Residential Lighting has been developed to provide a tool for the understanding and application of high performance lighting in the home. The high performance lighting strategies featured in this guide are drawn from recent advances in commercial lighting for application to typical spaces found in residential buildings. This guide offers strategies to greatly reduce lighting energy use through the application of high quality fluorescent and light emitting diode (LED) technologies. It is important to note that these strategies not only save energy in the home but also serve to satisfy the homeowner's expectations for high quality lighting.

  11. New Characteristics of Residential Housing Construction Quality in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Gang; SUN Gang-zhu

    2008-01-01

    Base on the investigation results of residential housing construction quality recent years in China, this research first analyzes the general quality condition of residential housing construction, then demonstrates the quality condition in different regions in our country, finds out main quality problems in the residential housing construction and studies the new characteristics of quality problems, finally provides the construction industry positive foundation to solve the quality problems objectively for residential housing construction.

  12. CFD MODELING OF SOLAR COLLECTOR WITH NANO-FLUID DIRECT ABSORPTION FOR CIVIL APPLICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Simonetti, Marco; Chiavazzo, Eliodoro; Asinari, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    Direct solar absorption has been considered often in the past as a possible configuration of solar thermal collectors for residential and small commercial applications. Of course, a direct absorption could improve the performance of solar collectors by skipping one step of the heat transfer mechanism of standard devices and by modifying the temperature distribution inside the collector. In fact, classical solar thermal collectors have a metal sheet as absorber, designed such that water has th...

  13. Benefits of Residential and Nonresidential Youth Summer Camps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, David M.; Driver, B. L.

    1988-01-01

    Describes survey made as part of Youth Conservation Corps evaluation. Compares personal benefits of residential camping with benefits of nonresidential camps. Concludes residential participants benefited in different ways and to greater extent than nonresidential campers. Residential camping benefits measurable at least nine months after…

  14. 26 CFR 1.23-1 - Residential energy credit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Residential energy credit. 1.23-1 Section 1.23-1... Rates During A Taxable Year § 1.23-1 Residential energy credit. (a) General rule. Section 23 or former section 44C provides a residential energy credit against the tax imposed by chapter 1 of the...

  15. Analysis and design of residential load centers. Volume 2: Appendices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehalick, E. M.; Lamders, R.; Obrien, G.; Tully, G. F.; Parker, J.

    1982-03-01

    These three appendices present information on residential load center classification information. Emphasis is given to: residential development trends and residential housing classifications; detached house site layout alternatives; and legal and institional issues, including condominium ownership, commercial ownership of photovoltaic systems in mobile homes, and utility ownership of photovoltaic systems.

  16. Chapter 6: Residential Lighting Evaluation Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimetrosky, Scott [Apex Analytics LLC, Boulder, CO (United States); Parkinson, Katie [Apex Analytics LLC, Boulder, CO (United States); Lieb, Noah [Apex Analytics LLC, Boulder, CO (United States)

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, residential lighting has represented a significant share of ratepayer-funded energy-efficiency electricity savings. Utilities have achieved the majority of these savings by promoting the purchase and installation of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs), both standard 'twister' bulbs and specialty CFLs such as reflectors, A-Lamps, globes, and dimmable lights.

  17. Fear of Crime and Residential Location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belyea, Michael J.; Zingraff, Matthew T.

    1988-01-01

    Explores relationship between fear of crime and residential location. Studies sample of more than 3,000 North Carolina residents. Results indicate that rural residents have significantly lower fear of crime than urban counterparts when known correlates are controlled. Discusses implications for future research. (Author/TES)

  18. Development of a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staff Scientist; Walker, Iain; Sherman, Max; Dickerhoff, Darryl

    2011-12-01

    The goal of this study was to develop a Residential Integrated Ventilation Controller (RIVEC) to reduce the energy impact of required mechanical ventilation by 20percent, maintain or improve indoor air quality and provide demand response benefits. This represents potential energy savings of about 140 GWh of electricity and 83 million therms of natural gas as well as proportional peak savings in California. The RIVEC controller is intended to meet the 2008 Title 24 requirements for residential ventilation as well as taking into account the issues of outdoor conditions, other ventilation devices (including economizers), peak demand concerns and occupant preferences. The controller is designed to manage all the residential ventilation systems that are currently available. A key innovation in this controller is the ability to implement the concept of efficacy and intermittent ventilation which allows time shifting of ventilation. Using this approach ventilation can be shifted away from times of high cost or high outdoor pollution towards times when it is cheaper and more effective. Simulations, based on the ones used to develop the new residential ventilation requirements for the California Buildings Energy code, were used to further define the specific criteria and strategies needed for the controller. These simulations provide estimates of the energy, peak power and contaminant improvement possible for different California climates for the various ventilation systems. Results from a field test of the prototype controller corroborate the predicted performance.

  19. Forecasting residential solar photovoltaic deployment in California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dong, Changgui; Sigrin, Benjamin; Brinkman, Gregory

    2017-04-01

    Residential distributed photovoltaic (PV) deployment in the United States has experienced robust growth, and policy changes impacting the value of solar are likely to occur at the federal and state levels. To establish a credible baseline and evaluate impacts of potential new policies, this analysis employs multiple methods to forecast residential PV deployment in California, including a time-series forecasting model, a threshold heterogeneity diffusion model, a Bass diffusion model, and National Renewable Energy Laboratory's dSolar model. As a baseline, the residential PV market in California is modeled to peak in the early 2020s, with a peak annual installation of 1.5-2 GW across models. We then use the baseline results from the dSolar model and the threshold model to gauge the impact of the recent federal investment tax credit (ITC) extension, the newly approved California net energy metering (NEM) policy, and a hypothetical value-of-solar (VOS) compensation scheme. We find that the recent ITC extension may increase annual PV installations by 12%-18% (roughly 500 MW, MW) for the California residential sector in 2019-2020. The new NEM policy only has a negligible effect in California due to the relatively small new charges (< 100 MW in 2019-2020). Furthermore, impacts of the VOS compensation scheme ($0.12 per kilowatt-hour) are larger, reducing annual PV adoption by 32% (or 900-1300 MW) in 2019-2020.

  20. Enhancing Residential Treatment for Drug Court Participants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koob, Jeff; Brocato, Jo; Kleinpeter, Christine

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the authors describe and evaluate the impact of increased access to residential treatment added to traditional drug court services in Orange County, California, with a goal of increasing program retention, successful completion, and graduation rates for a high-risk drug offender population participating in drug court between January…

  1. Risk indicators of depression in residential homes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisses, AMH; Kluiter, H; Jongenelis, K; Beekman, ATF; Ormel, J

    2004-01-01

    Objectives To assess risk indicators of depressive symptoms in social and personal domains of residents of residential homes. Methods In a cross-sectional study risk indicators for depressive symptoms (Geriatric Depression Scale) were examined in bivariate and multivariate analyses, four hundred and

  2. A sense of home in residential care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falk, Hanna; Wijk, Helle; Persson, Lars-Olof; Falk, Kristin

    2013-12-01

    Moving into a residential care facility requires a great deal of adjustment to an environment and lifestyle entirely different from that of one's previous life. Attachment to place is believed to help create a sense of home and maintain self-identity, supporting successful adjustment to contingencies of ageing. The purpose of this study was to deepen our understanding of processes and strategies by which older people create a sense of home in residential care. Our findings show that a sense of home in residential care involves strategies related to three dimensions of the environment - attachment to place, to space and attachment beyond the institution - and that the circumstances under which older people manage or fail in creating attachment, consist of psychosocial processes involving both individual and shared attitudes and beliefs. Assuming that attachment is important to human existence regardless of age, attention must be paid to optimize the circumstances under which attachment is created in residential care, and how nursing interventions can help speed up this process due to the frail and vulnerable state of most older residents.

  3. Risk indicators of depression in residential homes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisses, AMH; Kluiter, H; Jongenelis, K; Beekman, ATF; Ormel, J

    Objectives To assess risk indicators of depressive symptoms in social and personal domains of residents of residential homes. Methods In a cross-sectional study risk indicators for depressive symptoms (Geriatric Depression Scale) were examined in bivariate and multivariate analyses, four hundred and

  4. Residential and Light Commercial HVAC. Teacher Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, David; Fulkerson, Dan, Ed.

    This curriculum guide contains 18 units of instruction for a competency-based course in residential and light commercial heating, ventilating, and air conditioning (HVAC). Introductory materials include a competency profile and an instructional/task analysis that correlates job training with related information for this course. Each instructional…

  5. Chapter 21: Residential Lighting Evaluation Protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dimetrosky, S.; Parkinson, K.; Lieb, N.

    2015-02-01

    In recent years, residential lighting has represented a significant share of ratepayer-funded energy-efficiency electricity savings. Utilities have achieved the majority of these savings by promoting the purchase and installation of compact fluorescent lamps (CFLs), both standard 'twister' bulbs and specialty CFLs such as reflectors, A-Lamps, globes, and dimmable lights.

  6. ASTM residential green building standard guide development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, B.D. [Building Environmental Science and Technology, Upper Marlboro, MD (United States); Reed, W. [Hillier Group, Washington, DC (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The authors have led development of a Standard Guide for Residential Green Buildings through the consensus process of the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM). The voluntary guidance document has been processed through two public peer reviews in ASTM`s E-50.06 sub-committee on the environment. The guide`s purpose is to present general criteria for home builders, residential designers and developers on how to systematically approach the creation of a green home--from the design phase on through to eventual de-commissioning of residential structures. This paper briefly reviews the standards process, includes an overview of the Standard Guides` principal criteria, and provides a robust resource listing for further investigation by readers. During development of the Standard Guide, authors emphasized thorough review of the available literature on sustainable residential development. This was then reflected in the technical contents of the Standard Guide to provide criteria useful to builders to: provide a standardized framework for evaluating whether homes (new or remodeled) meet minimum consensus guidelines on resource efficiency; reduce environmental impact of new-home developments and major remodeling projects; improve long tern sustainability of the nation`s new and existing housing; and help to effectively recognize and promote the benefit of efficiency and renewable energy.

  7. Guidelines for Transferring Residential Courses into Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tüzün, Hakan; Çinar, Murat

    2016-01-01

    This study shared unique design experiences by examining the process of transferring residential courses to the Web, and proposed a design model for individuals who want to transfer their courses into this environment. The formative research method was used in the study, and two project teams' processes of putting courses, which were being taught…

  8. D-xylose absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003606.htm D-xylose absorption To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. D-xylose absorption is a laboratory test to determine ...

  9. Information Processing and Creative Thinking Abilities of Residential and Non-Residential School Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atasi Mohanty

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This study attempts to assess and compare the residential and non-residential schoolchildren in information-processing skills and creative thinking abilities. A sample of 80 children from Classes 5 and 7 were selected from two types of schools, residential/ashram (02 and non-residential/formal schools (02 in Bolpur subdivision of West Bengal in India where the medium of instruction is Bengali language/mother-tongue. All the children were individually administered the PASS (Planning, Attention, Simultaneous, Successive, Stroop, Matching Familiar Figure Test (MFFT-20, and creative thinking tasks. The residential school children were found to perform better both in information processing and creative thinking tasks. The developmental trend could not be clearly observed due to small sample size, but with increasing age, children were using better processing strategies. Due to ashram environment, creative pedagogy, and various co-curricular activities, the residential school children were found to be more creative than their formal school counterparts. Moreover, some significant positive correlations were found among information processing skills and creative thinking dimensions.

  10. The development of a solar-powered residential heating and cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1974-01-01

    Efforts to demonstrate the engineering feasibility of utilizing solar power for residential heating and cooling are described. These efforts were concentrated on the analysis, design, and test of a full-scale demonstration system which is currently under construction at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Marshall Space Flight Center, Huntsville, Alabama. The basic solar heating and cooling system under development utilizes a flat plate solar energy collector, a large water tank for thermal energy storage, heat exchangers for space heating and water heating, and an absorption cycle air conditioner for space cooling.

  11. Residential environmental evaluation of local cities considering regional characteristic and personal residential preference-a case study of Saga City,Japan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Jian; HOKAO Kazunori

    2004-01-01

    Questionnaire surveys and subjective evaluations on residential environment were performed in order to grasp the main factors of residential environment of small local cities. The suitable evaluation index system was established, and the regional residential environment characteristics and personal residential preference types were analyzed, so that their influence on residential environment evaluation could be grasped. The results can be applied to the residential environment planning, construction and monitoring of local cities.

  12. Dynamic management of integrated residential energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muratori, Matteo

    This study combines principles of energy systems engineering and statistics to develop integrated models of residential energy use in the United States, to include residential recharging of electric vehicles. These models can be used by government, policymakers, and the utility industry to provide answers and guidance regarding the future of the U.S. energy system. Currently, electric power generation must match the total demand at each instant, following seasonal patterns and instantaneous fluctuations. Thus, one of the biggest drivers of costs and capacity requirement is the electricity demand that occurs during peak periods. These peak periods require utility companies to maintain operational capacity that often is underutilized, outdated, expensive, and inefficient. In light of this, flattening the demand curve has long been recognized as an effective way of cutting the cost of producing electricity and increasing overall efficiency. The problem is exacerbated by expected widespread adoption of non-dispatchable renewable power generation. The intermittent nature of renewable resources and their non-dispatchability substantially limit the ability of electric power generation of adapting to the fluctuating demand. Smart grid technologies and demand response programs are proposed as a technical solution to make the electric power demand more flexible and able to adapt to power generation. Residential demand response programs offer different incentives and benefits to consumers in response to their flexibility in the timing of their electricity consumption. Understanding interactions between new and existing energy technologies, and policy impacts therein, is key to driving sustainable energy use and economic growth. Comprehensive and accurate models of the next-generation power system allow for understanding the effects of new energy technologies on the power system infrastructure, and can be used to guide policy, technology, and economic decisions. This

  13. [Study on lead absorption in pumpkin by atomic absorption spectrophotometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen-Xia; Sun, Yong-Dong; Chen, Bi-Hua; Li, Xin-Zheng

    2008-07-01

    A study was carried out on the characteristic of lead absorption in pumpkin via atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results showed that lead absorption amount in pumpkin increased with time, but the absorption rate decreased with time; And the lead absorption amount reached the peak in pH 7. Lead and cadmium have similar characteristic of absorption in pumpkin.

  14. Residential indoor air quality guideline : moulds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-03-15

    Mould growth in residential buildings can pose a health hazard. This guide was developed to describe the physical and chemical properties of mould, as well as discuss the causes of mould growth. The results of literature reviews have demonstrated that exposure to indoor mould can increase the prevalence of asthma-related symptoms. The instillation of fungal antigens and fungal cell components in laboratory animals has resulted in inflammatory responses in the lungs of rodents. The instillation of Stachybotrys chartarum spores results in severe biochemical and histological changes. Significant associations in several studies have demonstrated links between dampness in the home and the risk of developing asthma. However, it is currently not possible to derive exposure limits for mould species and strains. It was concluded that humidity in houses should be controlled, and water damage in residences should be repaired in order to prevent mould growth. All visible or concealed mould growing in residential buildings should be thoroughly cleaned. 8 refs.

  15. MICRO-CHP System for Residential Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joseph Gerstmann

    2009-01-31

    This is the final report of progress under Phase I of a project to develop and commercialize a micro-CHP system for residential applications that provides electrical power, heating, and cooling for the home. This is the first phase of a three-phase effort in which the residential micro-CHP system will be designed (Phase I), developed and tested in the laboratory (Phase II); and further developed and field tested (Phase III). The project team consists of Advanced Mechanical Technology, Inc. (AMTI), responsible for system design and integration; Marathon Engine Systems, Inc. (MES), responsible for design of the engine-generator subsystem; AO Smith, responsible for design of the thermal storage and water heating subsystems; Trane, a business of American Standard Companies, responsible for design of the HVAC subsystem; and AirXchange, Inc., responsible for design of the mechanical ventilation and dehumidification subsystem.

  16. Adjustment problems and residential care environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Sebastian Novotný

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem: Residential care environment represents a specific social space that is associated with a number of negative consequences, covering most aspects of children and youth functioning. The paper analyzes of the presence of adjustment problems among adolescents from institutional care environment and compares this results with a population of adolescents who grew up in a family. Methods: The sample consisted of two groups of adolescents. The first group included 285 adolescents currently growing up in an residential care environment, aged 13 to 21 (M = 16.23, SD = 1.643. The second group consisted of 214 adolescents growing up in a family, aged 15 to 20 (M = 17.07, SD = 1.070. We used a questionnaire Youth Self Report. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and MANOVA. Results: Results showed that adolescents in residential care exhibit higher average values in all adjustment problems. Also, in the context of diagnostic categories are the residential care adolescents more frequently in non-normal range (borderline and clinical, primarily in the border range. The greatest differences were reflected in the Thought problems and Rule-breaking behavior. MANOVA showed a significant multivariate effect between groups of adolescents, Hotelling's T = .803, F(8, 490 = 49.202, p <.001, d = .445 (large effect. Univariate analysis further showed a significant effect for Withdrawn/depressed (p = .044, d = .089, small effect, Somatic complaints (p = .002, d = .139, medium effect, Social problems (p = 004, d = .127, a small effect, Thought problems (p <.001, d = .633, strong effect, Attention problems (p <.001, d = .320,strong effect, Rule-breaking behavior (p <.001 , d = .383, strong effect, and Aggressive behavior (p = 015, d = .110, small effect. Results for the dimension of Anxious/depressed were not significant (p = .159. Discussion: The results didn’t confirmed the assumption that more than 30% of residential care adolescents have adjustment

  17. FACTOR ANALYSIS OF MULTISTOREY RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS ZONE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Петр Матвеевич Мазуркин

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available According to the UN classification of 11 classes of soil cover, the first three are grass, trees and shrubs and forests. In the city they correspond to the three elements of vegetation: lawns, tree plantings (trees and shrubs. We have adopted zoning for city-building to identify statistical regularities. Map dimensions in GIS "Map 2011" Yoshkar-Ola was allocated to "residential zone" and "Area of construction of multi-storey residential buildings (cadastral 58 quart crystals". The parameters of the elements of the vegetation cover have been considered: the number of elements of different levels, area and perimeter, the absolute and relative form, and activity of vegetation. As the result, we have obtained equations of binomial rank distributions, conducted the ratings and selected the best of cadastral quarter on environmental conditions.

  18. Electricity demand for South Korean residential sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sa' ad, Suleiman, E-mail: suleimansaad@gmail.co [Surrey Energy Economics Centre (SEEC), Department of Economics, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-15

    This study estimates the electricity demand function for the residential sector of South Korea with the aim of examining the effects of improved energy efficiency, structural factors and household lifestyles on electricity consumption. In the study, time series data for the period from 1973 to 2007 is used in a structural time series model to estimate the long-term price and income elasticities and annual growth of underlying energy demand trend (UEDT) at the end of the estimation period. The result shows a long-term income elasticity of 1.33 and a long-term price elasticity of -0.27% with -0.93% as the percentage growth of UEDT at the end of the estimation period. This result suggests that, in order to encourage energy efficiency in the residential sector, the government should complement the market based pricing policies with non-market policies such as minimum energy efficiency standards and public enlightenment.

  19. Electricity demand for South Korean residential sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sa' ad, Suleiman [Surrey Energy Economics Centre (SEEC), Department of Economics, University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH (United Kingdom)

    2009-12-15

    This study estimates the electricity demand function for the residential sector of South Korea with the aim of examining the effects of improved energy efficiency, structural factors and household lifestyles on electricity consumption. In the study, time series data for the period from 1973 to 2007 is used in a structural time series model to estimate the long-term price and income elasticities and annual growth of underlying energy demand trend (UEDT) at the end of the estimation period. The result shows a long-term income elasticity of 1.33 and a long-term price elasticity of -0.27% with -0.93% as the percentage growth of UEDT at the end of the estimation period. This result suggests that, in order to encourage energy efficiency in the residential sector, the government should complement the market based pricing policies with non-market policies such as minimum energy efficiency standards and public enlightenment. (author)

  20. The Spatial Context of Residential Segregation

    CERN Document Server

    Roberto, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Scholars have engaged in a longstanding debate about how best to measure residential segregation, and scores of indexes have been developed in response. However, the methods commonly employed are aspatial -- they summarize the characteristics of segregation patterns, such as concentration or clustering, but ignore their spatial features, such as how neighborhoods are spatially arranged. As a consequence, many studies find the same level of segregation whether a city has a patchwork of racial and ethnic enclaves, or is divided into large areas with little or no diversity. New methods have been developed to capture the spatial proximity of neighborhoods and the geographic scale of clustering. However, they lack a realistic measure of distance and do not accurately represent how segregation varies within cities. In this paper, I introduce a new method for studying the spatial context of residential segregation. I measure the distance between locations along city roads rather than in a straight line. Road distanc...

  1. Relating attitudes to residential energy use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Becker, L.J.; Seligman, C.; Fazio, R.H.; Darley, J.M.

    1981-09-01

    Along with technological advances, part of the solution to the energy problem will come from a change in the public's attitudes that will place a higher value on energy conservation. The authors examine the results of surveys designed to identify consumer attitudes on a seasonal basis in terms of comfort, family finances, optimism, legitimacy of the energy crisis, savings, individual responsibility, and health. They find a positive correlation between the summer and winter comfort factors, which suggests that the large energy users are people with narrow ranges of acceptable temperatures. The best predictor of residential energy consumption is the one involving attitudes about thermal comfort and energy use. Residential energy consumption, however, is not behavior; it is a consequence of behavior, primarily thermostat setting. 15 references.

  2. Residential aged care nurses: portraits of resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cope, Vicki Catherine; Jones, Bronwyn; Hendricks, Joyce

    2016-12-01

    To explore residential aged care nurses working in interim, rehabilitation and residential aged care perceptions of resilience. Qualitative Portraiture methodology. Inclusion criteria were that all participants were English speaking, registered with the Australian Health Practitioners Registration Authority and had more than five years' experience working in an aged care environment. Three participants were interviewed and employed within a metropolitan interim, rehabilitation and aged care setting. Eight themes were identified: valuing social support; leadership, managing 'self'; 'paying it forward'; passion for the profession; focusing on the positive and the taking on of challenge. This paper focuses on the impact of aged care nursing work on nurses and in particular how the nurses remain resilient in their work environment. Resilience can be developed through education and can sustain professional longevity. Workload stress can be alleviated through the provision of resilience training.

  3. Analysis of Micro Thermal Environment for Residential District Planning

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wei-jie; QI Jing; JIN Wen

    2009-01-01

    This paper focused on residential district planning process. Using GIS and SketehUp software, a common digital relief map model of a residential district was created, and the air distribution (both velocity and temperature) within this residential district was established by CFD simulation. So, the velocity and tempera-ture of the air at any location within the residential district, as well as the worse flow area and overheat area can be clearly presented. An index of micro thermal environment for the air distribution evaluation was established.Depending on a certain residential district planning model, from the air parameters of the micro environment at any location within the residential district, such as air velocity and air temperature, the index of micro thermal environment was obtained by certain principles and data processing process. By this index, the residential dis-trict planning scheme was evaluated corresponding to the thermal characteristics of the residential district. If this index is not good enough or unsatisfied, the residential district planning idea and process can be changed or im-proved accordingly in order to get a better thermal characteristics of the residential district judged by the estab-lished evaluation index system.

  4. Procedures for Calculating Residential Dehumidification Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, Jon [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Booten, Chuck [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2016-06-01

    Residential building codes and voluntary labeling programs are continually increasing the energy efficiency requirements of residential buildings. Improving a building's thermal enclosure and installing energy-efficient appliances and lighting can result in significant reductions in sensible cooling loads leading to smaller air conditioners and shorter cooling seasons. However due to fresh air ventilation requirements and internal gains, latent cooling loads are not reduced by the same proportion. Thus, it's becoming more challenging for conventional cooling equipment to control indoor humidity at part-load cooling conditions and using conventional cooling equipment in a non-conventional building poses the potential risk of high indoor humidity. The objective of this project was to investigate the impact the chosen design condition has on the calculated part-load cooling moisture load, and compare calculated moisture loads and the required dehumidification capacity to whole-building simulations. Procedures for sizing whole-house supplemental dehumidification equipment have yet to be formalized; however minor modifications to current Air-Conditioner Contractors of America (ACCA) Manual J load calculation procedures are appropriate for calculating residential part-load cooling moisture loads. Though ASHRAE 1% DP design conditions are commonly used to determine the dehumidification requirements for commercial buildings, an appropriate DP design condition for residential buildings has not been investigated. Two methods for sizing supplemental dehumidification equipment were developed and tested. The first method closely followed Manual J cooling load calculations; whereas the second method made more conservative assumptions impacting both sensible and latent loads.

  5. Women Reclaim Wasted Lands in Residential Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JENNIFER LIM

    1994-01-01

    Five years ago, Granny Bi and her family moved out of the two rooms where they had lived for most of Granny Bi’s life, and moved into a three-room flat in an apartment building in Panjiayuan, a newly built residential area in southeast Beijing. Life in their new home was easy and convenient. Granny Bi was extremely happy. But a few days later, she found that she could not open the windows;

  6. Residential Building Envelope Alternatives with Equivalent Cost

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Selecting the optimum envelope alternative in buildings is one of the most important factors in ensuring thermal comfort. This study calculated the heating costs, construction and lifecycle costs for a residential building in Istanbul with different envelope alternatives created by changing the type and thickness of the body and insulation materials used in the walls and roof, which are the structural components forming the building envelope. Envelope alternatives with equivalent costs were d...

  7. Development Of Economic Techniques For Residential Thermography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Lee R.; Allen, Sharon

    1983-03-01

    Infrared thermography has proven to be a valuable tool in the detection of heat loss in both commercial and residential buildings. The field of residential thermography has needed a simple method with which to report the deficiencies found during an infrared scan. Two major obstacles hindering the cost effectiveness of residential thermography have been 1) the ability to quickly transport some high resolution imaging system equipment from job site to job site without having to totally dismount the instruments at each area, and 2) the lack of a standard form with which to report the findings of the survey to the customer. Since the industry has yet to provide us with either, we believed it necessary to develop our own. Through trial and error, we have come up with a system that makes interior residential thermography a profitable venture at a price the homeowner can afford. Insulation voids, or defects can be instantly spotted with the use of a thermal imaging system under the proper conditions. A special hand-held device was developed that enables the thermographer to carry the equipment from house to house without the need to dismantle and set up at each stop. All the necessary components are attached for a total weight of about 40 pounds. The findings are then conveyed to a form we have developed. The form is simple enough that the client without special training in thermography can understand. The client is then able to locate the problems and take corrective measures or give it to a con-tractor to do the work.

  8. Subsidizing purchase of apartments and residential construction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baturan Luka

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available During last few years, Republic of Serbia has been allowing significant resources for subsidizing purchase of apartments and residential construction. Explanation for this is desire to help construction sector to overcome consequences of economic crisis, as well as social categories to solve housing issue. The paper analyzes economic consequences, benefits and costs of conducting this economic policy, as well as reasons leading to its establishment.

  9. Metal contamination in environmental media in residential ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hard-rock mining for metals, such as gold, silver, copper, zinc, iron and others, is recognized to have a significant impact on the environmental media, soil and water, in particular. Toxic contaminants released from mine waste to surface water and groundwater is the primary concern, but human exposure to soil contaminants either directly, via inhalation of airborne dust particles, or indirectly, via food chain (ingestion of animal products and/or vegetables grown in contaminated areas), is also, significant. In this research, we analyzed data collected in 2007, as part of a larger environmental study performed in the Rosia Montana area in Transylvania, to provide the Romanian governmental authorities with data on the levels of metal contamination in environmental media from this historical mining area. The data were also considered in policy decision to address mining-related environmental concerns in the area. We examined soil and water data collected from residential areas near the mining sites to determine relationships among metals analyzed in these different environmental media, using the correlation procedure in SAS statistical software. Results for residential soil and water analysis indicate that the average values for arsenic (As) (85 mg/kg), cadmium (Cd) (3.2 mg/kg), mercury (Hg) (2.3 mg/kg) and lead (Pb) (92 mg/kg) exceeded the Romanian regulatory exposure levels [the intervention thresholds for residential soil in case of As (25 mg/kg) and Hg

  10. Residential Treatment Centers for Child Abuse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serhat Nasiroglu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Every year millions of reports are being held and cases regarding those reports in courts are carrying on about abusement and omission against children . Abusement against children has been seen throughout of the history. Significant and permanent impacts can occur upon child abusement and neglect on victim children. It is important to know the psychological dynamics which have been lived by the children by the mental health professionalsto protect the children after the abusement report has been written. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy and medications are being used commonly in the treatment of abusement cases. However in some cases it is necessary to send away the victims from environment, enable them to continue their education life, make sure that they are treated by the professional individuals in safe area. For this end there are many Residential Treatment Centers around the world. and ldquo;Oguz Kagan Koksal Social Care and Rehabilitation Center and rdquo; was established in Adana as the first Residential Treatment Center in Turkey. In this report the historical dimensions of the child abusement, the definition of it, its psychological dynamics, the psychological disorders caused by it, treatment approaches and residential treatment centers have been reviewed. [Psikiyatride Guncel Yaklasimlar - Current Approaches in Psychiatry 2014; 6(1.000: 67-78

  11. Residential solar photovoltaic systems: Final report for the Northeast Residential Experiment Station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kern, E.C. Jr.

    1986-06-01

    This report covers research and development work conducted by the MIT Energy Lab. from July 1982 through June 1986. This Energy Lab. work in the field of solar photovoltaic systems followed six years of similar work at the MIT Lincoln Lab. under the same contract with the US DOE. The final report from the Lincoln Lab. period was published by Lincoln Lab. in 1983. During the period of Energy Lab. involvement, the project focused on the refinement of residential scale, roof-mounted photovoltaic systems for application in the northeastern US. Concurrent with the conclusion of MIT`s involvement, the New England Electric Co. is building a major field test of residential photovoltaics in Gardner, Massachusetts to determine experimentally the effects of photovoltaics on electric power company operations. Using systems designs and technology developed at MIT, the long-term performance of these thirty residential systems in Gardner will provide a measure of our success.

  12. An Assessment of the U.S. Residential Lighting Market

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, Judy; Brown, Rich; Moezzi, Mithra; Mills, Evan; Sardinsky, Robert

    1995-10-01

    This report provides background data upon which residential lighting fixture energy conservation programs can be built. The current stock of residential lighting is described by usage level, lamp wattage, fixture type, and location within the house. Data are discussed that indicate that 25% of residential fixtures are responsible for 80% of residential lighting energy use, and that justify targeting these fixtures as candidates for retrofit with energy-efficient fixtures. Fixtures determined to have the highest energy use are hardwired ceiling fixtures in kitchens, living/family rooms, dining rooms, and outdoors. An assessment of the market for residential fixtures shows that nearly half of new residential fixtures are imported, 61% of new fixtures sold are hardwired, and about half of all new fixtures sold are for ceiling installation.

  13. Development and operation of the prototype photovoltaic residential systems at the Southeast Residential Experiment station

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atmaram, G.H.; Kilfoyle, D.; Ventre, G.G.; Wedekind, D.

    1984-05-01

    The Photovoltaic Southeast Residential Experiment station (SE RES) project, sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy, began operation in September 1982. As a major part of this project, three prototype utility-interactive photovoltaic residential systems were constructed at the Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC) in Cape Canaveral, Florida. They became operational in November 1983. Primary consideration was given to investigating a variety of state-of-the-art subsystems (arrays and power conditioners), simplifying array installation and reducing cost. This paper will delineate the development and operational experience gained to date.

  14. Envelope Thermal Design Optimization for Urban Residential Buildings in Malawi

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    This study sought to optimize the envelope thermal design of free-running urban residential buildings in Malawi. It specifically set out to improve the urban residential buildings’ thermal comfort and suggest optimal envelope thermal design features for these buildings. The research study was primarily dependent on computer simulations in EnergyPlus to replicate the typical Malawian urban residential building’s thermal behaviour and then study the impacts of various envelope configurations on...

  15. Market and economic analysis of residential photovoltaic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabors, R. D.

    1982-06-01

    The overall structure of a project to evaluate the U.S. residential photovoltaic market or markets is reviewed and experience obtained before cuts in federal funding for the project were reduced is summarized. Topics covered include residential worth analysis, (including retrofit applications); evaluation of presently available regional, econometric models which could be used to project housing stocks; and the analysis of retrofit potential for residential photovoltaic power systems given available roof area.

  16. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Residential Dust: Sources of Variability

    OpenAIRE

    Whitehead, Todd P; Metayer, Catherine; Petreas, Myrto; Does, Monique; Buffler, Patricia A.; Rappaport, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is interest in using residential dust to estimate human exposure to environmental contaminants. Objectives: We aimed to characterize the sources of variability for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in residential dust and provide guidance for investigators who plan to use residential dust to assess exposure to PAHs. Methods: We collected repeat dust samples from 293 households in the Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study during two sampling rounds (from 2001 thr...

  17. The Use of Art Therapy within Residential Care

    OpenAIRE

    Lyons, Denise

    2017-01-01

    Denise Lyons is a Social Care Lecturer in the Department of Humanities, Institute of Technology, Blanchardstown. Prior to becoming a lecturer, Denise worked with children in residential care, both as a social care worker, and later, as an art therapist. This paper describes the practice of providing art therapy as a support for one teenage boy, living within a residential group home. This paper begins with an introduction to the history of residential care, describing the role of art therapy ...

  18. Optimal residential smart appliances scheduling considering distribution network constraints

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kim, Yu-Ree; Kim, Min-Jeong; Park, Yong-Gi; Roh, Jae-Hyung; Park, Jong-Bae; Son, Sung-Yong

    2016-01-01

    As smart appliances (SAs) are more widely adopted within distribution networks, residential consumers can contribute to electricity market operations with demand response resources and reduce their electricity bill...

  19. Enact legislation supporting residential property assessed clean energy financing (PACE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saha, Devashree

    2012-11-15

    Congress should enact legislation that supports residential property assessed clean energy (PACE) programs in the nation’s states and metropolitan areas. Such legislation should require the Federal Housing Finance Agency (FHFA) to allow Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac to purchase residential mortgages with PACE assessments while at the same time providing responsible underwriting standards and a set of benchmarks for residential PACE assessments in order to minimize financial risks to mortgage holders. Congressional support of residential PACE financing will improve energy efficiency, encourage job creation, and foster economic growth in the nation’s state and metropolitan areas.

  20. The drivers to adopt renewable energy among residential users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Zahari Abdul; Elinda, Esa

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to examine the drivers to adopt renewable energy (RE) among residential users in Malaysia. Based on the theoretical framework of a consumer’s decision making process, an empirical study of the adoption of RE was conducted. A total of 501 residential users were used in this study. This study proved that perceived utility of new technology, perceived utility of new service, and perceived benefit of new technology are the drivers to adopt RE among residential users. These factors are knowing crucial to RE suppliers and producers because it will generates more demand from the residential users and the percentage of energy mix from RE sources can be increase.

  1. The HI absorption "Zoo"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geréb, K.; Maccagni, F. M.; Morganti, R.; Oosterloo, T. A.

    2015-01-01

    We present an analysis of the H I 21 cm absorption in a sample of 101 flux-selected radio AGN (S1.4 GHz> 50 mJy) observed with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT). We detect H I absorption in 32 objects (30% of the sample). In a previous paper, we performed a spectral stacking analysis o

  2. Bioacoustic Absorption Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    frequencies (Ching and Weston, 1971). RESULTS Measured resonance frequencies of absorption lines, which were attributed to adult (~ 1.3 khz) and juvenile ...of adult and juvenile sardines. These results suggest that bioacoustic absorption spectroscopy measurements permit isolation of juvenile from adult...from broadband tomographic transmission loss measurements over large areas . 2. Depths of sardines and contours of phytoplankton concentrations vs. time

  3. Nutrition and magnesium absorption.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, E.J.

    1992-01-01

    The influence of various nutrients present in dairy products and soybean-based products on absorption of magnesium has been investigated. The studies demonstrate that soybean protein versus casein lowers apparent magnesium absorption in rats through its phytate component. However, true magnesium abs

  4. [Study on cadmium absorption in pumpkin by atomic absorption spectrophotometry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen-Xia; Jing, Rui-Jun; Dong, Wei-Hua; Li, Xin-Zheng; Liu, Hong

    2006-08-01

    A study was carried out on the characteristic of cadmium absorption in pumpkin by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The results show that the cadmium absorption amount in pumpkin increased with the increase in cadmium concentration. Meanwhile the cadmium absorption amount in pumpkin increased with time. Eight hours after being cultured in the liquid, the cadmium absorption amount became saturated. The cadmium absorption rate reached the peak after 2 hours, then the absorption rate gradually reduced. The cadmium absorption amount in pumpkin is less in acid or alkali compared with neutral condition. And the absorption amount became minimum in pH 3, while maximum in pH 7.

  5. Residential lighting: Use and potential savings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    The 1993 Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) was the first to permit the estimation of annual kilowatt hours (kWh) used for lighting. The survey contained more detailed questions about the number of indoor lights used for specific amounts of time and more detailed questions about the use of outdoor lights than did previous surveys. In addition to these basic questions on the Household Questionnaire, the 1993 RECS also included a supplementary questionnaire, administered to a subset of households, that contained more detailed information about the types of lights used in the household, the rooms in which they were located, and the amount of time they were used.

  6. Residential Energy Consumption Survey: Quality Profile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-03-01

    The Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS) is a periodic national survey that provides timely information about energy consumption and expenditures of U.S. households and about energy-related characteristics of housing units. The survey was first conducted in 1978 as the National Interim Energy Consumption Survey (NIECS), and the 1979 survey was called the Household Screener Survey. From 1980 through 1982 RECS was conducted annually. The next RECS was fielded in 1984, and since then, the survey has been undertaken at 3-year intervals. The most recent RECS was conducted in 1993.

  7. NAT Usage in Residential Broadband Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maier, Gregor; Schneider, Fabian; Feldmann, Anja

    Many Internet customers use network address translation (NAT) when connecting to the Internet. To understand the extend of NAT usage and its implications, we explore NAT usage in residential broadband networks based on observations from more than 20,000 DSL lines. We present a unique approach for detecting the presence of NAT and for estimating the number of hosts connected behind a NAT gateway using IP TTLs and HTTP user-agent strings. Furthermore, we study when each of the multiple hosts behind a single NAT gateway is active. This enables us to detect simultaneous use. In addition, we evaluate the accuracy of NAT analysis techniques when fewer information is available.

  8. Practical Diagnostics for Evaluating Residential Commissioning Metrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wray, Craig; Walker, Iain; Siegel, Jeff; Sherman, Max

    2002-06-11

    In this report, we identify and describe 24 practical diagnostics that are ready now to evaluate residential commissioning metrics, and that we expect to include in the commissioning guide. Our discussion in the main body of this report is limited to existing diagnostics in areas of particular concern with significant interactions: envelope and HVAC systems. These areas include insulation quality, windows, airtightness, envelope moisture, fan and duct system airflows, duct leakage, cooling equipment charge, and combustion appliance backdrafting with spillage. Appendix C describes the 83 other diagnostics that we have examined in the course of this project, but that are not ready or are inappropriate for residential commissioning. Combined with Appendix B, Table 1 in the main body of the report summarizes the advantages and disadvantages of all 107 diagnostics. We first describe what residential commissioning is, its characteristic elements, and how one might structure its process. Our intent in this discussion is to formulate and clarify these issues, but is largely preliminary because such a practice does not yet exist. Subsequent sections of the report describe metrics one can use in residential commissioning, along with the consolidated set of 24 practical diagnostics that the building industry can use now to evaluate them. Where possible, we also discuss the accuracy and usability of diagnostics, based on recent laboratory work and field studies by LBNL staff and others in more than 100 houses. These studies concentrate on evaluating diagnostics in the following four areas: the DeltaQ duct leakage test, air-handler airflow tests, supply and return grille airflow tests, and refrigerant charge tests. Appendix A describes those efforts in detail. In addition, where possible, we identify the costs to purchase diagnostic equipment and the amount of time required to conduct the diagnostics. Table 1 summarizes these data. Individual equipment costs for the 24

  9. Strategy Guideline. High Performance Residential Lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holton, J. [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2012-02-01

    This report has been developed to provide a tool for the understanding and application of high performance lighting in the home. The strategies featured in this guide are drawn from recent advances in commercial lighting for application to typical spaces found in residential buildings. This guide offers strategies to greatly reduce lighting energy use through the application of high quality fluorescent and light emitting diode (LED) technologies. It is important to note that these strategies not only save energy in the home but also serve to satisfy the homeowner’s expectations for high quality lighting.

  10. Quasar Absorption Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushotzky, Richard (Technical Monitor); Elvis, Martin

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the proposal is to investigate the absorption properties of a sample of inter-mediate redshift quasars. The main goals of the project are: Measure the redshift and the column density of the X-ray absorbers; test the correlation between absorption and redshift suggested by ROSAT and ASCA data; constrain the absorber ionization status and metallicity; constrain the absorber dust content and composition through the comparison between the amount of X-ray absorption and optical dust extinction. Unanticipated low energy cut-offs where discovered in ROSAT spectra of quasars and confirmed by ASCA, BeppoSAX and Chandra. In most cases it was not possible to constrain adequately the redshift of the absorber from the X-ray data alone. Two possibilities remain open: a) absorption at the quasar redshift; and b) intervening absorption. The evidences in favour of intrinsic absorption are all indirect. Sensitive XMM observations can discriminate between these different scenarios. If the absorption is at the quasar redshift we can study whether the quasar environment evolves with the Cosmic time.

  11. Residential Mobility, Inhibitory Control, and Academic Achievement in Preschool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, Sara A.; Finders, Jennifer K.; McClelland, Megan M.

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The present study investigated the direct effects of residential mobility on children's inhibitory control and academic achievement during the preschool year. It also explored fall inhibitory control and academic skills as mediators linking residential mobility and spring achievement. Participants included 359 preschool…

  12. 2011 Residential Energy Efficiency Technical Update Meeting Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2011-11-01

    This report provides an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy Building America program's Summer 2011 Residential Energy Efficiency Technical Update Meeting. This meeting was held on August 9-11, 2011, in Denver, Colorado, and brought together more than 290 professionals representing organizations with a vested interest in energy efficiency improvements in residential buildings.

  13. Demand of elderly people for residential care: an exploratory study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bilsen, P.; Hamers, J.; Groot, W.; Spreeuwenberg, C.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Because of the rapid aging population, the demand for residential care exceeds availability. This paper presents the results of a study that focuses on the demand of elderly people for residential care and determinants (elderly people's personal characteristics, needs and resources) that

  14. 38 CFR 36.4357 - Combination residential and business property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Combination residential and business property. 36.4357 Section 36.4357 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) LOAN GUARANTY Guaranty or Insurance of Loans to Veterans With Electronic Reporting § 36.4357 Combination residential...

  15. 77 FR 51569 - Large Residential Washers From Korea and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-24

    ... amendments took effect on November 7, 2011. See 76 FR 61937 (Oct. 6, 2011) and the newly revised Commission's... COMMISSION Large Residential Washers From Korea and Mexico Scheduling of the final phase of countervailing...-fair-value imports from Korea and Mexico of large residential washers, provided for in subheading...

  16. 78 FR 10636 - Large Residential Washers From Korea and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-14

    ... Commission, Washington, DC, and by publishing the notice in the Federal Register on August 24, 2012 (77 FR... COMMISSION Large Residential Washers From Korea and Mexico Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... imports from Mexico of large residential washers that the Commerce has determined are sold in the...

  17. Effect of Organizational Climate on Youth Outcomes in Residential Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Neil; Leon, Scott C.; Epstein, Richard A.; Durkin, Elizabeth; Helgerson, Jena; Lakin-Starr, Brittany L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the association between organizational climate and changes in internalizing and externalizing behavior for youth in residential treatment centers (RTCs). The sample included 407 youth and 349 front-line residential treatment staff from 17 RTCs in Illinois. Youth behavior was measured using the Child Functional Assessment Rating…

  18. Engineering economic assessment of residential wood heating in NY

    Science.gov (United States)

    We provide insight into the recent resurgence in residential wood heating in New York by: (i) examining the lifetime costs of outdoor wood hydronic heaters (OWHHs) and other whole-house residential wood heat devices,(ii) comparing these lifetime costs with those of competing tech...

  19. Study on Rural Residential Land in Chizhou City

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lulu; HUANG; Zhongxiang; YU

    2013-01-01

    On the basis of the analysis of current situation and problems of rural residential land in Chizhou City, we offer rewarding thinking for improving the effective use of rural residential land and building a better countryside, in view of the characteristics of the topography and socio-economic development in different regions of this city.

  20. The economic drivers behind residential conversion in the oak woodlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    William Stewart; James Spero; Shawn Saving

    2008-01-01

    Acre for acre, oak woodlands provide habitats for a greater range of wildlife species than grasslands and irrigated agricultural lands. Oak woodlands also are highly valued as open space around residential development. The rich habitat diversity and the physical attractiveness drives residential interest in living in or adjacent to oak woodlands as well as preservation...

  1. Student Preference for Residential or Online Project Work in Psychology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, Helen; Barrett, Jane P.; Knightley, Wendy M.

    2013-01-01

    Psychology students at the Open University (OU) can choose whether to complete their project work at residential school or by participating in an online equivalent. This study identifies different factors governing module choice and student experience: When choosing residential school, social aspects are important, whereas for online, students are…

  2. 76 FR 64924 - Updating State Residential Building Energy Efficiency Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-19

    ... with low-emissivity coatings that have an SHGC of 0.4 or below even in the absence of a specific SHGC... achieve greater energy efficiency in low-rise residential buildings than the 2009 IECC. Upon publication... buildings for energy code purposes. Low-rise residential buildings include one- and two-family detached and...

  3. 77 FR 29322 - Updating State Residential Building Energy Efficiency Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-17

    ... and 2012 IECC usually implies the use of windows with low-emissivity coatings that have an SHGC of 0.4... greater energy efficiency in low-rise residential buildings than the 2009 IECC. Upon publication of this... height as commercial buildings for energy code purposes. Low-rise residential buildings include one- and...

  4. Family-centred residential care : the new reality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geurts, Esther M. W.; Boddy, Janet; Noom, Marc J.; Knorth, Erik J.

    2012-01-01

    This paper considers therapeutic approaches to residential care with specific attention to the question of family involvement. It builds on a body of literature indicating the potential of residential care as a positive intervention for young people, and examines the contention that even when family

  5. Effect of Organizational Climate on Youth Outcomes in Residential Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jordan, Neil; Leon, Scott C.; Epstein, Richard A.; Durkin, Elizabeth; Helgerson, Jena; Lakin-Starr, Brittany L.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the association between organizational climate and changes in internalizing and externalizing behavior for youth in residential treatment centers (RTCs). The sample included 407 youth and 349 front-line residential treatment staff from 17 RTCs in Illinois. Youth behavior was measured using the Child Functional Assessment Rating…

  6. Measured Rattle Threshold of Residential House Windows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sizov, Natalia; Schultz, Troy; Hobbs, Christopher; Klos, Jacob

    2008-01-01

    Window rattle is a common indoor noise effect in houses exposed to low frequency noise from such sources as railroads, blast noise and sonic boom. Human perception of rattle can be negative that is a motivating factor of the current research effort to study sonic boom induced window rattle. A rattle study has been conducted on residential houses containing windows of different construction at a variety of geographic locations within the United States. Windows in these houses were excited by a portable, high-powered loudspeaker and enclosure specifically designed to be mounted on the house exterior to cover an entire window. Window vibration was measured with accelerometers placed on different window components. Reference microphones were also placed inside the house and inside of the loudspeaker box. Swept sine excitation was used to identify the vibration threshold at which the response of the structure becomes non-linear and begins to rattle. Initial results from this study are presented and discussed. Future efforts will continue to explore the rattle occurrence in windows of residential houses exposed to sonic booms.

  7. Residential fuel choice in the Pacific Northwest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, A.D.; Englin, J.E.; Harkreader, S.A.

    1989-02-01

    In 1983, the Northwest Power Planning Council (Council) issued Model Conservation Standards (MCS) designed to improve the efficiency of electrically heated buildings. Since then, the standards have been adopted by numerous local governments and utilities. The Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) has played an active role in marketing residential energy efficiency improvements through the Super Good Cents Program (SGCP) and encouraging the adoption and implementation of the MCS as local codes through the Early Adopter Program (EAP). Since the inception of the MCS, however, questions have arisen about the effect of the code and programs on the selection of heating fuels for new homes. Recently, Bonneville has proposed a gradual reduction in the incentive levels under these two programs prior to 1995 based on several assumptions about the market for MCS homes: builder costs will decline as builders gain experience building them; buyers will seek out MCS homes as their appreciation for their lower energy costs and greater comfort increases; and the resale market will increasingly reflect the greater quality of MCS homes. The growing availability of data from several jurisdictions where the MCS have been implemented has recently made it possible to begin assessing the effect of the MCS programs on residential fuel choice and evaluating assumptions underlying the programs and Bonneville's plans to revise them. This study is the first such assessment conducted for Bonneville.

  8. Economic aspects of possible residential heating conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hopkowicz, M.; Szul, A. [Technical Univ., Cracow (Poland)

    1995-12-31

    The paper presents methods of evaluation of energy and economy related effects of different actions aimed at conservation in residential buildings. It identifies also the method of selecting the most effective way of distribution funds assigned to weatherization as well as necessary improvements to be implemented within the heating node and the internal heating system of the building. The analysis of data gathered for four 11-stories high residential buildings of {open_quotes}Zeran{close_quotes} type being subject of the Conservation Demonstrative Project, included a differentiated scope of weatherization efforts and various actions aimed at system upgrading. Basing upon the discussion of the split of heat losses in a building as well as the established energy savings for numerous options of upgrading works, the main problem has been defined. It consists in optimal distribution of financial means for the discussed measures if the total amount of funds assigned for modifications is defined. The method based upon the principle of relative increments has been suggested. The economical and energy specifications of the building and its components, required for this method have also been elaborated. The application of this method allowed to define the suggested optimal scope of actions within the entire fund assigned for the comprehensive weatherization.

  9. Solar Energy Systems for Ohioan Residential Homeowners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luckett, Rickey D.

    Dwindling nonrenewable energy resources and rising energy costs have forced the United States to develop alternative renewable energy sources. The United States' solar energy industry has seen an upsurge in recent years, and photovoltaic holds considerable promise as a renewable energy technology. The purpose of this case study was to explore homeowner's awareness of the benefits of solar energy. Disruptive-innovation theory was used to explore marketing strategies for conveying information to homeowners about access to new solar energy products and services. Twenty residential homeowners were interviewed face-to-face to explore (a) perceived benefits of solar energy in their county in Ohio, and (b) perceptions on the rationale behind the marketing strategy of solar energy systems sold for residential use. The study findings used inductive analyses and coding interpretation to explore the participants' responses that revealed 3 themes: the existence of environmental benefits for using solar energy systems, the expensive cost of equipment associated with government incentives, and the lack of marketing information that is available for consumer use. The implications for positive social change include the potential to enable corporate leaders, small business owners, and entrepreneurs to develop marketing strategies for renewable energy systems. These strategies may promote use of solar energy systems as a clean, renewable, and affordable alternative electricity energy source for the 21st century.

  10. Particulate emissions from residential wood combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luis Teles de Carvalho, Ricardo; Jensen, Ole Michael; Tarelho, Luis A. C.

    Residential wood combustion (RWC) in fireplaces and conventional appliances is the main contributor to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions in Denmark and Portugal representing more than 30% of the total emissions [1;2]. Such estimations are uncertain concerning the wood consumption and offi......Residential wood combustion (RWC) in fireplaces and conventional appliances is the main contributor to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) emissions in Denmark and Portugal representing more than 30% of the total emissions [1;2]. Such estimations are uncertain concerning the wood consumption.......5 emissions within a specific “wood burning living area”, but one Danish study exists [4]. In previous inventories distinct combustion air operation modes and the growing penetration of automate wood-burning stoves have not been considered. The present work aims to discuss opportunities for improving...... Portuguese combustion practices in laboratory tests. This study highlights that the previous PM2.5 emission inventories in Denmark and Portugal did not consider the possible variations on fuel moisture, dimensions of wood-logs and air-inlet operation patterns, although they are very important, especially...

  11. Thermal Profiling of Residential Energy Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albert, A; Rajagopal, R

    2015-03-01

    This work describes a methodology for informing targeted demand-response (DR) and marketing programs that focus on the temperature-sensitive part of residential electricity demand. Our methodology uses data that is becoming readily available at utility companies-hourly energy consumption readings collected from "smart" electricity meters, as well as hourly temperature readings. To decompose individual consumption into a thermal-sensitive part and a base load (non-thermally-sensitive), we propose a model of temperature response that is based on thermal regimes, i.e., unobserved decisions of consumers to use their heating or cooling appliances. We use this model to extract useful benchmarks that compose thermal profiles of individual users, i.e., terse characterizations of the statistics of these users' temperature-sensitive consumption. We present example profiles generated using our model on real consumers, and show its performance on a large sample of residential users. This knowledge may, in turn, inform the DR program by allowing scarce operational and marketing budgets to be spent on the right users-those whose influencing will yield highest energy reductions-at the right time. We show that such segmentation and targeting of users may offer savings exceeding 100% of a random strategy.

  12. Soliton absorption spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Kalashnikov, V L

    2010-01-01

    We analyze optical soliton propagation in the presence of weak absorption lines with much narrower linewidths as compared to the soliton spectrum width using the novel perturbation analysis technique based on an integral representation in the spectral domain. The stable soliton acquires spectral modulation that follows the associated index of refraction of the absorber. The model can be applied to ordinary soliton propagation and to an absorber inside a passively modelocked laser. In the latter case, a comparison with water vapor absorption in a femtosecond Cr:ZnSe laser yields a very good agreement with experiment. Compared to the conventional absorption measurement in a cell of the same length, the signal is increased by an order of magnitude. The obtained analytical expressions allow further improving of the sensitivity and spectroscopic accuracy making the soliton absorption spectroscopy a promising novel measurement technique.

  13. Absorption heat pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, G.

    1982-06-16

    The efficiency of an absorption heat pump system is improved by conducting liquid from a second stage evaporator thereof to an auxiliary heat exchanger positioned downstream of a primary heat exchanger in the desorber of the system.

  14. Zeeman atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadeishi, T.; McLaughlin, R.

    1978-08-01

    The design and development of a Zeeman atomic absorption spectrometer for trace element analysis are described. An instruction manual is included which details the operation, adjustment, and maintenance. Specifications and circuit diagrams are given. (WHK)

  15. Residential heat pumps in the future Danish energy system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petrovic, Stefan; Karlsson, Kenneth Bernard

    2016-01-01

    Denmark is striving towards 100% renewable energy system in 2050. Residential heat pumps are expected to be a part of that system.We propose two novel approaches to improve the representation of residential heat pumps: Coefficients of performance (COPs) are modelled as dependent on air and ground...... temperature while installation of ground-source heat pumps is constrained by available ground area. In this study, TIMES-DK model is utilised to test the effects of improved modelling of residential heat pumps on the Danish energy system until 2050.The analysis of the Danish energy system was done...... for politically agreed targets which include: at least 50% of electricity consumption from wind power starting from 2020, fossil fuel free heat and power sector from 2035 and 100% renewable energy system starting from 2050. Residential heat pumps supply around 25% of total residential heating demand after 2035...

  16. Revisiting Absorptive Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Araújo, Ana Luiza Lara; Ulhøi, John Parm; Lettl, Christopher

    Absorptive capacity has mostly been perceived as a 'passive' outcome of R&D investments. Recently, however, a growing interest into its 'proactive' potentials has emerged. This paper taps into this development and proposes a dynamic model for conceptualizing the determinants of the complementary...... learning processes of absorptive capacity, which comprise combinative and adaptive capabilities. Drawing on survey data (n=169), the study concludes that combinative capabilities primarily enhance transformative and exploratory learning processes, while adaptive capabilities strengthen all three learning...

  17. Revisiting Absorptive Capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Araújo, Ana Luiza Lara; Ulhøi, John Parm; Lettl, Christopher

    Absorptive capacity has mostly been perceived as a 'passive' outcome of R&D investments. Recently, however, a growing interest into its 'proactive' potentials has emerged. This paper taps into this development and proposes a dynamic model for conceptualizing the determinants of the complementary...... learning processes of absorptive capacity, which comprise combinative and adaptive capabilities. Drawing on survey data (n=169), the study concludes that combinative capabilities primarily enhance transformative and exploratory learning processes, while adaptive capabilities strengthen all three learning...

  18. Children and Residential Experiences: A Comprehensive Strategy for Implementing a Research-Informed Program Model for Residential Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Martha J.; Izzo, Charles; Nunno, Michael; Smith, Elliott G.; Endres, Thomas; Holden, Jack C.; Kuhn, Frank

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes an effort to bridge research and practice in residential care through implementing a program model titled Children and Residential Experiences (CARE). The strategy involves consulting at all levels of the organization to guide personnel to incorporate CARE evidence-based principles into daily practice, and fostering an…

  19. Evaluation of advanced technologies for residential appliances and residential and commercial lighting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turiel, I.; Atkinson, B.; Boghosian, S.; Chan, P.; Jennings, J.; Lutz, J.; McMahon, J.; Rosenquist, G.

    1995-01-01

    Section 127 of the Energy Policy Act requires that the Department of Energy (DOE) prepare a report to Congress on the potential for the development and commercialization of appliances that substantially exceed the present federal or state efficiency standards. Candidate high-efficiency appliances must meet several criteria including: the potential exists for substantial improvement (beyond the minimum established in law) of the appliance`s energy efficiency; electric, water, or gas utilities are prepared to support and promote the commercialization of such appliances; manufacturers are unlikely to undertake development and commercialization of such appliances on their own, or development and production would be substantially accelerated by support to manufacturers. This report describes options to improve the efficiency of residential appliances, including water heaters, clothes washers and dryers, refrigerator/freezers, dishwashers, space heating and cooling devices, as well as residential and commercial lighting products. Data from this report (particularly Appendix 1)were used to prepare the report to Congress mentioned previously. For the residential sector, national energy savings are calculated using the LBL Residential Energy Model. This model projects the number of households and appliance saturations over time. First, end-use consumption is calculated for a base case where models that only meet the standard replace existing models as these reach the end of their lifetime. Second, models with efficiencies equal to the technology under consideration replace existing models that reach the end of their lifetime. For the commercial sector, the COMMEND model was utilized to project national energy savings from new technologies. In this report, energy savings are shown for the period 1988 to 2015.

  20. Air leakage in residential solar heating systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shingleton, J. G.; Cassel, D. E.; Overton, R. L.

    1981-02-01

    A series of computer simulations was performed to evaluate the effects of component air leakage on system thermal performance for a typical residential solar heating system, located in Madison, Wisconsin. Auxiliary energy required to supplement solar energy for space heating was determined using the TRNSYS computer program, for a range of air leakage rates at the solar collector and pebble bed storage unit. The effects of heat transfer and mass transfer between the solar equipment room and the heated building were investigated. The effect of reduced air infiltration into the building due to pressurized by the solar air heating system were determined. A simple method of estimating the effect of collector array air leakage on system thermal performance was evaluated, using the f CHART method.

  1. Competitive solar heating systems for residential buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Thür, Alexander; Fiedler, Frank

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes the ongoing research project “Competitive solar heating systems for residential buildings”. The aim of the project is to develop competitive solar combisystems which are attractive to buyers. The solar combisystems must be attractive compared to traditional energy systems, both....... In Denmark and Norway the focus is on solar heating/natural gas systems, and in Sweden and Latvia the focus is on solar heating/pellet systems. Additionally, Lund Institute of Technology and University of Oslo are studying solar collectors of various types being integrated into the roof and facade......, are the universities: Technical University of Denmark, Dalarna University, University of Oslo, Riga Technical University and Lund Institute of Technology, as well as the companies: Metro Therm A/S (Denmark), Velux A/S (Denmark), Solentek AB (Sweden) and SolarNor (Norway). The project consists of a number of Ph...

  2. Probabilistic Quantification of Potentially Flexible Residential Demand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kouzelis, Konstantinos; Mendaza, Iker Diaz de Cerio; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte

    2014-01-01

    of residential consumers. The procedure is based on non-flexible consumer clustering and subsequent statistical analysis. Consequently, the power consumption pattern of a flexible consumer is compared to a 3D probability distribution created by the previously referred methodology. The results show a strong......The balancing of power systems with high penetration of renewable energy is a serious challenge to be faced in the near future. One of the possible solutions, recently capturing a lot of attention, is demand response. Demand response can only be achieved by power consumers holding loads which allow...... them to modify their normal power consumption pattern, namely flexible consumers. However flexibility, despite being constantly mentioned, is usually not properly defined and even rarer quantified. This manuscript introduces a methodology to identify and quantify potentially flexible demand...

  3. [Burnout in Residential Drug- and Alcohol Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Härtel, Roland; Limmer, Uwe; Schiller, Martin; Wolfersdorf, Manfred

    2003-05-01

    OBJECTIVE: The study aimed at comparing burnout in staff members at residential drug and alcohol detoxification wards with and without teamsupervision. METHOD: 4 times in a period of 18 month all staff members (n = 44) were assessed for burnout using a german version (Checkliste Burnoutmerkmale) of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI, Maslach u. Jackson 1986) to asses the severity and the CBE (Checkliste Burnoutentstehungsmerkmale) for associated burnout risc-factors. RESULT: There was no statistical differences between the mean scores of the 3 different wards due to extreme SDs. The interpersonal differences among staff on the 4 occasions were remarkably. On repeated measurements the intraindividual changes were high. Higher scores were correlated with high workload (seen as frequent admissions). CONCLUSION: Work-related variables (admissions) turned out to be of more importance than supervision in times of chronic staff-shortage.

  4. Flexible Residential Smart Grid Simulation Framework

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiang, Wang

    Different scheduling and coordination algorithms controlling household appliances' operations can potentially lead to energy consumption reduction and/or load balancing in conjunction with different electricity pricing methods used in smart grid programs. In order to easily implement different algorithms and evaluate their efficiency against other ideas, a flexible simulation framework is desirable in both research and business fields. However, such a platform is currently lacking or underdeveloped. In this thesis, we provide a simulation framework to focus on demand side residential energy consumption coordination in response to different pricing methods. This simulation framework, equipped with an appliance consumption library using realistic values, aims to closely represent the average usage of different types of appliances. The simulation results of traditional usage yield close matching values compared to surveyed real life consumption records. Several sample coordination algorithms, pricing schemes, and communication scenarios are also implemented to illustrate the use of the simulation framework.

  5. Residential mobility and migration of the separated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten van Ham

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Separation is known to have a disruptive effect on the housing careers of those involved, mainly because a decrease in resources causes (temporary downward moves on the housing ladder. Little is known about the geographies of the residential mobility behaviour of the separated. Applying a hazard analysis to retrospective life-course data for the Netherlands, we investigate three hypotheses: individuals who experienced separation move more often than do steady singles and people in intact couple relationships, they are less likely to move over long distances, and they move more often to cities than people in intact couple relationships. The results show that separation leads to an increase in mobility, to moves over short distance for men with children, and to a prevalence of the city as a destination of moves.

  6. Economic analysis of residential solar water heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1980-09-23

    A typical residential solar water heater, and typical cost and performance information are described briefly. The monthly costs and savings of the typical system are discussed. Economic evaluations of solar water heaters are presented in increasingly complex levels of detail. Utilizing a typical system, the effective interest rate that the purchaser of a system would receive on money invested is shown for all regions of the country. The importance of numerous variables that can make a significant difference on the economics of the system is described. Methods for calculating the Payback Period for any non-typical solar water heater are described. This calculated Payback Period is then shown to be related to the effective interest rate that the puchaser of the system would receive for a typical set of economic conditions. A method is presented to calculate the effective interest rate that the solar system would provide. (MHR)

  7. Competitive solar heating systems for residential buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Furbo, Simon; Thür, Alexander; Fiedler, Frank;

    2005-01-01

    The paper describes the ongoing research project “Competitive solar heating systems for residential buildings”. The aim of the project is to develop competitive solar combisystems which are attractive to buyers. The solar combisystems must be attractive compared to traditional energy systems, both...... from an economical and architectural point of view. The project includes education, research, development and demonstration. The project started in 2003 and will be finished by the end of 2006. The participants of the project, which is financed by Nordic Energy Research and the participants themselves.......D. studies in Denmark, Sweden and Latvia, and a post-doc. study in Norway. Close cooperation between the researchers and the industry partners ensures that the results of the project can be utilized. By the end of the project the industry partners will be able to bring the developed systems onto the market...

  8. Central cooling: absorptive chillers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Christian, J.E.

    1977-08-01

    This technology evaluation covers commercially available single-effect, lithium-bromide absorption chillers ranging in nominal cooling capacities of 3 to 1,660 tons and double-effect lithium-bromide chillers from 385 to 1,060 tons. The nominal COP measured at operating conditions of 12 psig input steam for the single-effect machine, 85/sup 0/ entering condenser water, and 44/sup 0/F exiting chilled-water, ranges from 0.6 to 0.65. The nominal COP for the double-effect machine varies from 1.0 to 1.15 with 144 psig entering steam. Data are provided to estimate absorption-chiller performance at off-nominal operating conditions. The part-load performance curves along with cost estimating functions help the system design engineer select absorption equipment for a particular application based on life-cycle costs. Several suggestions are offered which may be useful for interfacing an absorption chiller with the remaining Integrated Community Energy System. The ammonia-water absorption chillers are not considered to be readily available technology for ICES application; therefore, performance and cost data on them are not included in this evaluation.

  9. Residential environment impact scale: Utilization of the Swedish version.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Elise; Kåhlin, Ida; Kjellberg, Anette

    2017-08-28

    The Residential Environment Impact Scale (REIS) is an assessment and consulting instrument designed to examine the impact of the residential environment on its residents and to develop recommendations for adapting this environment. Since REIS is new for occupational therapists in Sweden it is important to evaluate its utilization potential. The aim was to examine the utility of the Swedish version of the Residential Environment Impact Scale (REIS-S) for adults living in residential settings. Twenty-two occupational therapists conducted 28 REIS-S assessments in residential settings including 92 older persons and persons with disabilities. In total, 44 questionnaires were answered before and after conduction of the assessment. The data was analyzed using qualitative methods of analysis. The REIS-S showed both positive and negative dimensions of utility among occupational therapists working in residential settings. It provided support for making recommendations and contributed to effective assessments but was found time-consuming. The clinical relevance with REIS-S was positive since it met the needs expressed by the occupational therapists. REIS-S seems promising according to utility in Swedish residential settings for adults. However, psychometrically testing is required for further establishing the utilization of the instrument.

  10. Evidence for Environmental Contamination in Residential Neighborhoods Surrounding the Defense Depot of Memphis, Tennessee

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Warrick

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available An interdisciplinary environmental assessment team from the Howard University Environmental Justice Partnership (HUEJP conducted a site visit and assessment of the Defense Depot of Memphis, Tennessee in February of 2000. This depot was built in the late 1940’s for storage of numerous chemicals and munitions. As the years progressed, many Memphis citizens have grown to believe that the activities and chemical stockpile located at this site have negatively affected the health environment of their residents. There is anecdotal evidence and documentation of numerous cancers and other illnesses in those local territories, and specifically, at the Memphis Depot site. Currently, this depot is closed and in remediation by the local government. Particularly, citizens of the Rozelle community have started a campaign to investigate any signs of exposure pathways to noted health risks. The HUEJP was contacted and asked to investigate the community concerns. Obliging to the request, we aimed to sample at three drainage sites and a residential site, talk to local citizens, and gain any additional information that would be helpful in relieving anxiety in the Rozelle community. Soil, sediment, and water samples were collected and analyzed for total organic carbon, inorganic anions, and heavy metals. These data show that for the four sites sampled, the highest concentrations of organic compounds and heavy metals were located either within a residential area or in an area with a direct transport pathway to the community. Atomic absorption analysis revealed detectable amounts of cadmium, lead and chromium metals at all sites with direct transport pathways into the residential community, with chromium concentrations being far in excess of the EPA standard limits.

  11. Residential photovoltaic power conditioning technology for grid connected applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Key, T. S.; Klein, J. W.

    Major advances in photovoltaic (PV) Power Conditioning (PC) with respect to performance and low-cost potential have been made. Solutions have been obtained to interface and control problems related to adapting available inverter designs to the grid-connected, residential photovoltaic experiments. A description is presented to contributing research and development activities. Attention is given to aspects of residential systems experience, conceptual design studies, questions of optimum topology development, and promising advanced designs for residential PV provided by development efforts of the private sector.

  12. Small towns resisting urban decay through residential attractiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fertner, Christian; Groth, Niels Boje; Herslund, Lise Byskov;

    2015-01-01

    composition, residential migration, social organisation and community engagement form and affect small town (1000–5000 inhabitants) development patterns in Denmark and specific place-based endowments. The study is carried out with mixed methods, comprising a quantitative analysis of development trends...... of ‘residential urbanism’, the paper discusses the extent to which a residentially driven urban development can compensate for the generally unfavourable regional development context......Small towns are often considered as losing out in the current trend towards urban development. However, research from around Europe shows a great diversity of small town development, including successful development trajectories despite geographical disadvantages. Investigations...

  13. Key Residential Building Equipment Technologies for Control and Grid Support PART I (Residential)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Onar, Omer C [ORNL; DeVault, Robert C [ORNL

    2011-09-01

    Electrical energy consumption of the residential sector is a crucial area of research that has in the past primarily focused on increasing the efficiency of household devices such as water heaters, dishwashers, air conditioners, and clothes washer and dryer units. However, the focus of this research is shifting as objectives such as developing the smart grid and ensuring that the power system remains reliable come to the fore, along with the increasing need to reduce energy use and costs. Load research has started to focus on mechanisms to support the power system through demand reduction and/or reliability services. The power system relies on matching generation and load, and day-ahead and real-time energy markets capture most of this need. However, a separate set of grid services exist to address the discrepancies in load and generation arising from contingencies and operational mismatches, and to ensure that the transmission system is available for delivery of power from generation to load. Currently, these grid services are mostly provided by generation resources. The addition of renewable resources with their inherent variability can complicate the issue of power system reliability and lead to the increased need for grid services. Using load as a resource, through demand response programs, can fill the additional need for flexible resources and even reduce costly energy peaks. Loads have been shown to have response that is equal to or better than generation in some cases. Furthermore, price-incentivized demand response programs have been shown to reduce the peak energy requirements, thereby affecting the wholesale market efficiency and overall energy prices. The residential sector is not only the largest consumer of electrical energy in the United States, but also has the highest potential to provide demand reduction and power system support, as technological advancements in load control, sensor technologies, and communication are made. The prevailing loads

  14. Chemical Absorption Materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Kaj

    2011-01-01

    Chemical absorption materials that potentially can be used for post combustion carbon dioxide capture are discussed. They fall into five groups, alkanolamines, alkali carbonates, ammonia, amino acid salts, and ionic liquids. The chemistry of the materials is discussed and advantages and drawbacks...... are mentioned. References to review papers, papers with experimental data, and papers describing the thermodynamic modelling of the systems are given....

  15. Invisible Elderly in Danish and Swedish Residential Care Home Architecture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    E Andersson, Jonas; Grangaard, Sidse

    2015-01-01

    This study of two architectural competitions suggests that the fit between architectural design and older users, who depend on regular caregiving due to cognitive or functional disabilities, requires a particular consideration when designing new residential care homes....

  16. Residential Energy Efficiency Research Planning Meeting Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    none,

    2012-02-01

    This report summarizes key findings and outcomes from the U.S. Department of Energy's Building America Residential Energy Efficiency Research Planning meeting, held on October 28-29, 2011, in Washington, D.C.

  17. Residential Radon Exposure and Risk of Lung Cancer in Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    A case-control study of lung cancer and residential radon exposure in which investigators carried out both standard year-long air measurements and CR-39 alpha detector measurements (call surface monitors)

  18. Spatial Variations of Values of Residential Land Use in Lagos ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    The paper suggests the need to improve both physical and economic access to residential ... They are research works on land values on cities in developed and developing regions cities of ...... to clean the drainage channels. Noise pollution ...

  19. Assessment of ground water pollution in the residential areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... in the residential areas of Ewekoro and Shagamu due to cement production. ... as well as potentially toxic metals such as copper, lead, zinc, iron and cadmium. ... It was also observed that the levels of sulphate was higher that the WHO ...

  20. Psychological Disorders of Blind Persons and Success in Residential Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Needham, W. E.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Comparison of residential rehabilitation outcomes of blind clients with (n=45) or without (n=67) previous psychiatric diagnosis found no intergroup differences after rehabilitation in skill, attitude, and overall adjustment. All clients improved significantly during rehabilitation. (DB)

  1. spatial variations in residential property development in birnin

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2015-02-17

    Feb 17, 2015 ... residential property development, while proximity to work place is the most influential factor for 50% of Gesse ..... work force in the civil service, thus such people choose to live in .... maintenance of same, particularly in areas.

  2. The 2001 Residential Finance Survey - Rental Property File

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The 2001 Residential Finance Survey (RFS) was sponsored by the Department of Housing and Urban Development and conducted by the Census Bureau. The RFS is a follow-on...

  3. The 2001 Residential Finance Survey - Owners Property File

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — The 2001 Residential Finance Survey (RFS) was sponsored by the Department of Housing and Urban Development and conducted by the Census Bureau. The RFS is a follow-on...

  4. Data report for the Southwest Residential Experiment Station, November 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lieberman, M.; Hai, O.Y.; Hocking, G.; Whitaker, C.

    1981-12-18

    The Southwest Residential Experiment Station (SW RES) is operated in Las Cruces, New Mexico. Physical performance data obtained from the photovoltaic energy systems under test at the SW RES for the month of November 1981, are tabulated.

  5. Estimated United States Residential Energy Use in 2005

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C A; Johnson, D M; Simon, A J; Belles, R D

    2011-12-12

    A flow chart depicting energy flow in the residential sector of the United States economy in 2005 has been constructed from publicly available data and estimates of national energy use patterns. Approximately 11,000 trillion British Thermal Units (trBTUs) of electricity and fuels were used throughout the United States residential sector in lighting, electronics, air conditioning, space heating, water heating, washing appliances, cooking appliances, refrigerators, and other appliances. The residential sector is powered mainly by electricity and natural gas. Other fuels used include petroleum products (fuel oil, liquefied petroleum gas and kerosene), biomass (wood), and on-premises solar, wind, and geothermal energy. The flow patterns represent a comprehensive systems view of energy used within the residential sector.

  6. Residents Living in Residential Care Facilities: United States, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Residential Care Facilities. National Center for Health Statistics. Vital Health Stat 1(54). 2011. SUDAAN, release 10.0 [computer software]. Research Triangle Park, NC: RTI International. 2008. Suggested ...

  7. Assessment of ground water pollution in the residential areas of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Assessment of ground water pollution in the residential areas of Ewekoro and Shagamu ... of the ground water distribution of the settlements around cement factories in ... The concentrations of lead and cadmium are above the World Health ...

  8. Environmental impacts during the operational phase of residential buildings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blom, I.S.

    2010-01-01

    To date, the focus in the field of sustainable building has been on new building design. However, existing residential buildings inflict great environmental burden through three causes: continuous energy consumption, regular building maintenance and replacements. This publication analyses and compa

  9. Cooperative Management for a Cluster of Residential Prosumers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernández, Adriana Carolina Luna; Aldana, Nelson Leonardo Diaz; Graells, Moises

    2016-01-01

    This paper proposes an energy management system for coordinating distributed prosumers. The prosumers are residential microgrids which internally produce and consume energy for autonomous operation. However, better performance is achieved by cooperative operation with other prosumers neighbors...

  10. Residential energy-efficiency retrofit projects at two universities, overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wendt, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Lipscumb, L. [Morgan State Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Bosworth, F. [Southern Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    1998-03-01

    Two recent US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Buildings Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) projects are investigating high-performance, residential energy-efficiency retrofit measures in indigenous housing types. These projects are studying and testing high-performance, energy-efficiency retrofits that will optimize envelope improvements, equipment improvements, and operational improvements to the cost-effective level (not just code minimums). They will provide an opportunity to design, implement, and evaluate energy efficiency improvements related to the rehabilitation of culturally significant residential units under real world conditions. Each project will establish a cooperative venture between the individual University, a community development organization, home builders/remodelers, and utilities and other governmental agencies to accomplish the rehabilitation of residential units. Three residential units will be rehabilitated in each location.

  11. Prototype residential solar-energy system-design package

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Compilation includes documents and drawings for complete solar-heating system. It discussed system installed in residential building at Veterns' Administration Hospital in Togus, Maine. System can be adapted to other buildings without changing design.

  12. Objectively measured activity patterns among adults in residential aged care

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Reid, Natasha; Eakin, Elizabeth; Henwood, Timothy; Keogh, Justin W L; Senior, Hugh E; Gardiner, Paul A; Winkler, Elisabeth; Healy, Genevieve N

    2013-01-01

    .... Ambulatory, older (≥60 years) residential aged care adults without cognitive impairment. Feasibility was assessed by consent rate, sleep/wear diary completion, and through interviews with staff/participants. Activity patterns...

  13. Residential Radon Exposure and Risk of Lung Cancer in Missouri

    Science.gov (United States)

    A case-control study of lung cancer and residential radon exposure in which investigators carried out both standard year-long air measurements and CR-39 alpha detector measurements (call surface monitors)

  14. Residential Solar Photovoltaics: Comparison of Financing Benefits, Innovations, and Options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Speer, B.

    2012-10-01

    This report examines relatively new, innovative financing methods for residential photovoltaics (PV) and compares them to traditional self-financing. It provides policymakers with an overview of the residential PV financing mechanisms, describes relative advantages and challenges, and analyzes differences between them where data is available. Because these innovative financing mechanisms have only been implemented in a few locations, this report can inform their wider adoption.

  15. Human response to vibration in residential environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddington, David C; Woodcock, James; Peris, Eulalia; Condie, Jenna; Sica, Gennaro; Moorhouse, Andrew T; Steele, Andy

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the main findings of a field survey conducted in the United Kingdom into the human response to vibration in residential environments. The main aim of this study was to derive exposure-response relationships for annoyance due to vibration from environmental sources. The sources of vibration considered in this paper are railway and construction activity. Annoyance data were collected using questionnaires conducted face-to-face with residents in their own homes. Questionnaires were completed with residents exposed to railway induced vibration (N = 931) and vibration from the construction of a light rail system (N = 350). Measurements of vibration were conducted at internal and external positions from which estimates of 24-h vibration exposure were derived for 1073 of the case studies. Sixty different vibration exposure descriptors along with 6 different frequency weightings were assessed as potential predictors of annoyance. Of the exposure descriptors considered, none were found to be a better predictor of annoyance than any other. However, use of relevant frequency weightings was found to improve correlation between vibration exposure and annoyance. A unified exposure-response relationship could not be derived due to differences in response to the two sources so separate relationships are presented for each source.

  16. Optimizing Hydronic System Performance in Residential Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arena, L.; Faakye, O.

    2013-10-01

    Even though new homes constructed with hydronic heat comprise only 3% of the market (US Census Bureau 2009), of the 115 million existing homes in the United States, almost 14 million of those homes (11%) are heated with steam or hot water systems according to 2009 US Census data. Therefore, improvements in hydronic system performance could result in significant energy savings in the US. When operating properly, the combination of a gas-fired condensing boiler with baseboard convectors and an indirect water heater is a viable option for high-efficiency residential space heating in cold climates. Based on previous research efforts, however, it is apparent that these types of systems are typically not designed and installed to achieve maximum efficiency. Furthermore, guidance on proper design and commissioning for heating contractors and energy consultants is hard to find and is not comprehensive. Through modeling and monitoring, CARB sought to determine the optimal combination(s) of components - pumps, high efficiency heat sources, plumbing configurations and controls - that result in the highest overall efficiency for a hydronic system when baseboard convectors are used as the heat emitter. The impact of variable-speed pumps on energy use and system performance was also investigated along with the effects of various control strategies and the introduction of thermal mass.

  17. LED Context Lighting System in Residential Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sook-Youn Kwon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available As issues of environment and energy draw keen interest around the globe due to such problems as global warming and the energy crisis, LED with high optical efficiency is brought to the fore as the next generation lighting. In addition, as the national income level gets higher and life expectancy is extended, interest in the enhancement of life quality is increasing. Accordingly, the trend of lightings is changing from mere adjustment of light intensity to system lighting in order to enhance the quality of one’s life as well as reduce energy consumption. Thus, this study aims to design LED context lighting system that automatically recognizes the location and acts of a user in residential areas and creates an appropriate lighting environment. The proposed system designed in this study includes three types of processing: first, the creation of a lighting environment index suitable for the user’s surroundings and lighting control scenarios and second, it measures and analyzes the optical characteristics that change depending on the dimming control of lighting and applies them to the index. Lastly, it adopts PIR, piezoelectric, and power sensor to grasp the location and acts of the user and create a lighting environment suitable for the current context.

  18. LED context lighting system in residential areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Sook-Youn; Im, Kyoung-Mi; Lim, Jae-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    As issues of environment and energy draw keen interest around the globe due to such problems as global warming and the energy crisis, LED with high optical efficiency is brought to the fore as the next generation lighting. In addition, as the national income level gets higher and life expectancy is extended, interest in the enhancement of life quality is increasing. Accordingly, the trend of lightings is changing from mere adjustment of light intensity to system lighting in order to enhance the quality of one's life as well as reduce energy consumption. Thus, this study aims to design LED context lighting system that automatically recognizes the location and acts of a user in residential areas and creates an appropriate lighting environment. The proposed system designed in this study includes three types of processing: first, the creation of a lighting environment index suitable for the user's surroundings and lighting control scenarios and second, it measures and analyzes the optical characteristics that change depending on the dimming control of lighting and applies them to the index. Lastly, it adopts PIR, piezoelectric, and power sensor to grasp the location and acts of the user and create a lighting environment suitable for the current context.

  19. Ozone Reductions Using Residential Building Envelopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain S.; Sherman, Max; Nazaroff, William W.

    2009-02-01

    Ozone is an air pollutant with that can have significant health effects and a significant source of ozone in some regions of California is outdoor air. Because people spend the vast majority of their time indoors, reduction in indoor levels of ozone could lead to improved health for many California residents. Ozone is removed from indoor air by surface reactions and can also be filtered by building envelopes. The magnitude of the envelope impact depends on the specific building materials that the air flows over and the geometry of the air flow paths through the envelope that can be changes by mechanical ventilation operation. The 2008 Residential Building Standards in California include minimum requirements for mechanical ventilation by referencing ASHRAE Standard 62.2. This study examines the changes in indoor ozone depending on the mechanical ventilation system selected to meet these requirements. This study used detailed simulations of ventilation in a house to examine the impacts of different ventilation systems on indoor ozone concentrations. The simulation results showed that staying indoors reduces exposure to ozone by 80percent to 90percent, that exhaust ventilation systems lead to lower indoor ozone concentrations, that opening of windows should be avoided at times of high outdoor ozone, and that changing the time at which mechanical ventilation occurs has the ability to halve exposure to ozone. Future work should focus on the products of ozone reactions in the building envelope and the fate of these products with respect to indoor exposures.

  20. Residential construction cost: An Italian survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canesi, Rubina; Marella, Giuliano

    2017-04-01

    This paper reports data describing development projects for new buildings according to construction costs in North-East Italy. A survey was carried out on local companies undertaking new residential development projects in two Italian regions (Veneto and Lombardy). The aim of this survey was to record new real estate construction projects, collecting both technical and socio-economic cost features. It is extremely difficult to collect such data for the Italian real estate construction sector, due to its lack of transparency, so that the novelty for the Italian scenario is the dataset itself. Another interest perspective of this survey is that socio-economic characteristics were also recorded; they are often studied in urban economics, but are usually related to property purchase prices and values, not to construction costs. The data come from an analysis of Canesi and Marella regarding the relationship between the trend of construction costs and the socio-economic conditions of the reference setting, such as the mean years of schooling of the workforce, housing market trends, and average per capita income.

  1. Definition study for photovoltaic residential prototype system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imamura, M. S.; Hulstrom, R. L.; Cookson, C.; Waldman, B. H.; Lane, R. A.

    1976-01-01

    A parametric sensitivity study and definition of the conceptual design is presented. A computer program containing the solar irradiance, solar array, and energy balance models was developed to determine the sensitivities of solar insolation and the corresponding solar array output at five sites selected for this study as well as the performance of several solar array/battery systems. A baseline electrical configuration was chosen, and three design options were recommended. The study indicates that the most sensitive parameters are the solar insolation and the inverter efficiency. The baseline PST selected is comprised of a 133 sg m solar array, 250 ampere hour battery, one to three inverters, and a full shunt regulator to limit the upper solar array voltage. A minicomputer controlled system is recommended to provide the overall control, display, and data acquisition requirements. Architectural renderings of two photovoltaic residential concepts, one above ground and the other underground, are presented. The institutional problems were defined in the areas of legal liabilities during and after installation of the PST, labor practices, building restrictions and architectural guides, and land use.

  2. Acoustic absorption by sunspots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, D. C.; Labonte, B. J.; Duvall, T. L., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    The paper presents the initial results of a series of observations designed to probe the nature of sunspots by detecting their influence on high-degree p-mode oscillations in the surrounding photosphere. The analysis decomposes the observed oscillations into radially propagating waves described by Hankel functions in a cylindrical coordinate system centered on the sunspot. From measurements of the differences in power between waves traveling outward and inward, it is demonstrated that sunspots appear to absorb as much as 50 percent of the incoming acoustic waves. It is found that for all three sunspots observed, the amount of absorption increases linearly with horizontal wavenumber. The effect is present in p-mode oscillations with wavelengths both significantly larger and smaller than the diameter of the sunspot umbrae. Actual absorption of acoustic energy of the magnitude observed may produce measurable decreases in the power and lifetimes of high-degree p-mode oscillations during periods of high solar activity.

  3. Chaotic systems with absorption

    CERN Document Server

    Altmann, Eduardo G; Tél, Tamás

    2013-01-01

    Motivated by applications in optics and acoustics we develop a dynamical-system approach to describe absorption in chaotic systems. We introduce an operator formalism from which we obtain (i) a general formula for the escape rate $\\kappa$ in terms of the natural conditionally-invariant measure of the system; (ii) an increased multifractality when compared to the spectrum of dimensions $D_q$ obtained without taking absorption and return times into account; and (iii) a generalization of the Kantz-Grassberger formula that expresses $D_1$ in terms of $\\kappa$, the positive Lyapunov exponent, the average return time, and a new quantity, the reflection rate. Simulations in the cardioid billiard confirm these results.

  4. [Therapeutic Residential Care for Children and Youth: A Consensus Statement of the International Work Group on Therapeutic Residential Care].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, James K; Holmes, Lisa; Del Valle, Jorge F; Ainsworth, Frank; Andreassen, Tore; Anglin, James; Bellonci, Christopher; Berridge, David; Bravo, Amaia; Canali, Cinzia; Courtney, Mark; Currey, Laurah; Daly, Daniel; Gilligan, Robbie; Grietens, Hans; Harder, Annemiek; Holden, Martha; James, Sigrid; Kendrick, Andrew; Knorth, Erick; Lausten, Mette; Lyons, John; Martin, Eduardo; McDermid, Samantha; McNamara, Patricia; Palareti, Laura; Ramsey, Susan; Sisson, Kari; Small, Richard; Thoburn, June; Thompson, Ronald; Zeira, Anat

    2017-08-01

    Therapeutic Residential Care for Children and Youth: A Consensus Statement of the International Work Group on Therapeutic Residential Care. In many developed countries around the world residential care interventions for children and adolescents have come under increasing scrutiny. Against this background an international summit was organised in England (spring 2016) with experts from 13 countries to reflect on therapeutic residential care (TRC). The following working definition of TRC was leading: “Therapeutic residential care involves the planful use of a purposefully constructed, multi-dimensional living environment designed to enhance or provide treatment, education, socialization, support, and protection to children and youth with identified mental health or behavioral needs in partnership with their families and in collaboration with a full spectrum of community based formal and informal helping resources”. The meeting was characterised by exchange of information and evidence, and by preparing an international research agenda. In addition, the outlines of a consensus statement on TRC were discussed. This statement, originally published in English and now reproduced in a Spanish translation, comprises inter alia five basic principles of care that according to the Work Group on Therapeutic Residental Care should be guiding for residential youth care provided at any time.

  5. Photoinduced absorption of polyalkylthienylenevinylenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botta, C. (Ist. di Chimica delle Macromolecole (CNR), Milano (Italy)); Bradley, D.D.C. (Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Cavendish Lab.); Friend, R.H. (Cambridge Univ. (United Kingdom). Cavendish Lab.); Musco, A. (Ist. di Scienze Chimiche, Univ. di Urbino (Italy))

    1993-03-15

    We present a photoinduced absorption study of alkyl substituted poly(2,5-thienylenevinylene)s. Three photoinduced states are detected in both the solid state and in solution. The two low-energy bands are assigned to bipolarons, while a third band peaked near the band edge has a different origin. In solution photoexcitated states are very long-lived and we propose that photoexcitation recombine via a solvent-assisted photo-doping mechanism. (orig.)

  6. Hydrogen Absorption by Niobium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-04-13

    incorporate an independent means for ascertaining surface cleanliness (e.g. AES). The form of the absorption curve in Fig. 7 appears to agree with that...very interesting study and is well within the capabilities of the systen designed, if the surface cleanliness can be assured. Wire specimens have a...assessing surface cleanliness would be an important supporting technique for understanding the results of these measurements. The simple kinetic

  7. Financing Non-Residential Photovoltaic Projects: Options and Implications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolinger, Mark

    2009-01-09

    Installations of grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States have increased dramatically in recent years, growing from less than 20 MW in 2000 to nearly 500 MW at the end of 2007, a compound average annual growth rate of 59%. Of particular note is the increasing contribution of 'non-residential' grid-connected PV systems--defined here as those systems installed on the customer (rather than utility) side of the meter at commercial, institutional, non-profit, or governmental properties--to the overall growth trend. Although there is some uncertainty in the numbers, non-residential PV capacity grew from less than half of aggregate annual capacity installations in 2000-2002 to nearly two-thirds in 2007. This relative growth trend is expected to have continued through 2008. The non-residential sector's commanding lead in terms of installed capacity in recent years primarily reflects two important differences between the non-residential and residential markets: (1) the greater federal 'Tax Benefits'--including the 30% investment tax credit (ITC) and accelerated tax depreciation--provided to commercial (relative to residential) PV systems, at least historically (this relative tax advantage has largely disappeared starting in 2009) and (2) larger non-residential project size. These two attributes have attracted to the market a number of institutional investors (referred to in this report as 'Tax Investors') seeking to invest in PV projects primarily to capture their Tax Benefits. The presence of these Tax Investors, in turn, has fostered a variety of innovative approaches to financing non-residential PV systems. This financial innovation--which is the topic of this report--has helped to overcome some of the largest barriers to the adoption of non-residential PV, and is therefore partly responsible (along with the policy changes that have driven this innovation) for the rapid growth in the market seen in recent years

  8. Key Residential Building Equipment Technologies for Control and Grid Support PART I (Residential)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Starke, Michael R [ORNL; Onar, Omer C [ORNL; DeVault, Robert C [ORNL

    2011-09-01

    Electrical energy consumption of the residential sector is a crucial area of research that has in the past primarily focused on increasing the efficiency of household devices such as water heaters, dishwashers, air conditioners, and clothes washer and dryer units. However, the focus of this research is shifting as objectives such as developing the smart grid and ensuring that the power system remains reliable come to the fore, along with the increasing need to reduce energy use and costs. Load research has started to focus on mechanisms to support the power system through demand reduction and/or reliability services. The power system relies on matching generation and load, and day-ahead and real-time energy markets capture most of this need. However, a separate set of grid services exist to address the discrepancies in load and generation arising from contingencies and operational mismatches, and to ensure that the transmission system is available for delivery of power from generation to load. Currently, these grid services are mostly provided by generation resources. The addition of renewable resources with their inherent variability can complicate the issue of power system reliability and lead to the increased need for grid services. Using load as a resource, through demand response programs, can fill the additional need for flexible resources and even reduce costly energy peaks. Loads have been shown to have response that is equal to or better than generation in some cases. Furthermore, price-incentivized demand response programs have been shown to reduce the peak energy requirements, thereby affecting the wholesale market efficiency and overall energy prices. The residential sector is not only the largest consumer of electrical energy in the United States, but also has the highest potential to provide demand reduction and power system support, as technological advancements in load control, sensor technologies, and communication are made. The prevailing loads

  9. Corrosion Problems in Absorption Chillers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stetson, Bruce

    1978-01-01

    Absorption chillers use a lithium bromide solution as the medium of absorption and water as the refrigerant. Discussed are corrosion and related problems, tests and remedies, and cleaning procedures. (Author/MLF)

  10. Converting Sabine absorption coefficients to random incidence absorption coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2013-01-01

    Absorption coefficients measured by the chamber method are referred to as Sabine absorption coefficients, which sometimes exceed unity due to the finite size of a sample and non-uniform intensity in the reverberation chambers under test. In this study, conversion methods from Sabine absorption...... coefficients to random incidence absorption coefficients are proposed. The overestimations of the Sabine absorption coefficient are investigated theoretically based on Miki's model for porous absorbers backed by a rigid wall or an air cavity, resulting in conversion factors. Additionally, three optimizations...

  11. Acoustic Absorption Characteristics of People.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kingsbury, H. F.; Wallace, W. J.

    1968-01-01

    The acoustic absorption characteristics of informally dressed college students in typical classroom seating are shown to differ substantially from data for formally dressed audiences in upholstered seating. Absorption data, expressed as sabins per person or absorption coefficient per square foot, shows that there is considerable variation between…

  12. Residential landfill remedial action construction case history

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creamer, P.D.; Martin, K.E. [RMT, Inc., Madison, WI (United States); Fahrney, J.S. [City of Madison, WI (United States)

    1995-12-31

    The City of Madison - Mineral Point Park is located on Madison`s west side within a well-established neighborhood on approximately 11 acres of open green space, which was formerly the Mineral Point Landfill. In 1994, a comprehensive remedial action construction project was implemented to more effectively extract methane gas and control gas migration, to minimize potential groundwater contamination, and to improve surface water run-off controls. This was accomplished by installing two new gas extraction systems, constructing a 4-foot-thick composite final cover with a geosynthetic subsurface drainage system, and adding 12 feet of relief and a storm sewer system to promote positive surface water drainage. While these features alone are not uncommon to many other landfills, the challenging aspect of this project was to install them in extreme proximity to homes, condominiums, and a school that were quickly developed shortly after the landfill closed. Some of the issues unique to this project due to the residential setting included strict noise, dust, and odor controls, easement negotiations, limited hours of operation, limited material storage areas, utility relocations and crossings, continuous operation of the existing gas extraction system, limited construction access, and increased health and safety concerns for the general public. The need to keep the neighboring residents informed, as well as to address their concerns and requests, was also a critical requirement in both the design and construction phases. This paper will review the design of the remedial action plan and present the construction process, highlighting the constructability issues encountered and the innovative means to overcome them. The program for communication with the neighbors throughout the design and construction phases will also be addressed.

  13. Social obstacles in curbing residential energy demand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anker-Nilssen, Per [Norwegian School of Management BI, Sandvika (Norway). Centre for Energy and Environment

    2003-07-01

    The continuing growth in residential energy-use does not comply with policy targets for curbing end-user demand. Households are steadily increasing their energy-use, offsetting energy efficiency improvements, to gain time, convenience, comfort and mobility. If sustainable development presupposes lowering demand, it conflicts with present energy-driven changes in life-styles. Environmental degradation due to energy-use gives incentives to raise taxes and duties. The Norwegian experience is that rising income increase households' energy consumption while decreasing its share of total expense. Consequently, higher prices hit low-income households that account for a minor share of total household demand. Since energy represents a purchased input factor to accomplish tasks, the burden is twofold. Energy consumption losses also represent the loss of time and thus money. Additionally, these households have less financial reserves to invest in energy saving. Hence, impact of price hikes (e.g. cold weather) has a regressive social effect. This paper argues that heavy taxation of end-user energy within current practices including tax recycling or deduction, is neither advisable nor politically viable to obtain set targets. Panel data of individual households' electricity use in Oslo suggests that low-income households can not counteract sudden price-hikes but adjust long-term, while the opposite applies to high-income households. In the discussion on environmental policy towards energy-use, the socio-economic effect of measures must be emphasised. New conceptualisations of the world-wide problems in energy and mobility that transforms into agreements on e.g. emission control, can result in added burdens on the poor in industrialised countries rather than the developing countries at large.

  14. Discover the benefits of residential wood heating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This publication described how residential wood-heating systems are being used to reduce energy costs and increase home comfort. Biomass energy refers to all forms are renewable energy that is derived from plant materials. The source of fuel may include sawmills, woodworking shops, forest operations and farms. The combustion of biomass is also considered to be carbon dioxide neutral, and is not considered to be a major producer of greenhouse gases (GHG) linked to global climate change. Wood burning does, however, release air pollutants, particularly if they are incompletely burned. Incomplete combustion of wood results in dense smoke consisting of toxic gases. Natural Resources Canada helped create new safety standards and the development of the Wood Energy Technical Training Program to ensure that all types of wood-burning appliances are installed correctly and safely to reduce the risk of fire and for effective wood heating. In Canada, more than 3 million families heat with wood as a primary or secondary heating source in homes and cottages. Wood heating offers security from energy price fluctuations and electrical power failures. This paper described the benefits of fireplace inserts that can transform old fireplaces into modern heating systems. It also demonstrated how an add-on wood furnace can be installed next to oil furnaces to convert an oil-only heating system to a wood-oil combination system, thereby saving thousands of dollars in heating costs. Wood pellet stoves are another wood burning option. The fuel for the stoves is produced from dried, finely ground wood waste that is compressed into hard pellets that are loaded into a hopper. The stove can run automatically for up to 24 hours. New high-efficiency advanced fireplaces also offer an alternative heating system that can reduce heating costs while preserving Canada's limited supply of fossil fuels such as oil and gas. 13 figs.

  15. Vibration Analysis of a Residential Building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sampaio Regina Augusta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to present the results of a study regarding vibration problems in a 17 storey residential building during pile driving in its vicinity. The structural design of the building was checked according to the Brazilian standards NBR6118 and NBR6123, and using commercial finite element software. An experimental analysis was also carried out using low frequency piezo-accelerometers attached to the building structure. Structure vibrations were recorded under ambient conditions. Four monitoring tests were performed on different days. The objective of the first monitoring test was an experimental modal analysis. To obtain de modal parameters, data was processed in the commercial software ARTEMIS employing two methods: the Stochastic Subspace Identification and the Frequency Domain Decomposition. Human comfort was investigated considering the International Standard ISO 2631. The Portuguese standard, NP2074, was also used as a reference, since it aims to limit the adverse effects of vibrations in structures caused by pile driving in the vicinity of the structure. The carried out experimental tests have shown that, according to ISO2301, the measure vibration levels are above the acceptance limits. However, velocity peaks are below the limits established by NP2074. It was concluded that, although the structure has adequate capacity to resist internal forces according to normative criteria, it has low horizontal stiffness, which could be verified by observing the vibration frequencies and mode shapes obtained with the finite element models, and its similarity with the experimental results. Thus, the analyses indicate the occurrence of discomfort by the residents.

  16. A Neo-Rawlsian Approach to Residential Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin J. Brown

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 40 years, the United States has engaged in various policies to integrate otherwise segregated black and white households within a shared space. However, little work has been done to fully articulate a moral argument for residential integration among black and white households. This paper offers what I refer to as the normative argument, which possesses two morally-impelled arguments for residential integration. Since the ethical appeal to integrate is often couched in the language of justice, I begin with a framework—based upon the work of the late philosopher John Rawls—for considering the moral aspects of residential integration. However, I go on to point out intractable problems related to the Rawlsian framework that would fail to flesh out all ethical considerations of the normative argument. From here, I provide a revised, or neo-Rawlsian, framework for understanding residential integration which addresses the aforementioned problems. This exercise is both important and necessary for the future of residential mixing, as better understanding the moral and ethical attributes of this discussion is, perhaps, the best means to lubricate the fundamental shift from 'spatial' to 'social' integration.

  17. A Neo-Rawlsian Approach to Residential Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin J. Brown

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Over the past 40 years, the United States has engaged in various policies to integrate otherwise segregated black and white households within a shared space. However, little work has been done to fully articulate a moral argument for residential integration among black and white households. This paper offers what I refer to as the normative argument, which possesses two morally-impelled arguments for residential integration. Since the ethical appeal to integrate is often couched in the language of justice, I begin with a framework—based upon the work of the late philosopher John Rawls—for considering the moral aspects of residential integration. However, I go on to point out intractable problems related to the Rawlsian framework that would fail to flesh out all ethical considerations of the normative argument. From here, I provide a revised, or neo-Rawlsian, framework for understanding residential integration which addresses the aforementioned problems. This exercise is both important and necessary for the future of residential mixing, as better understanding the moral and ethical attributes of this discussion is, perhaps, the best means to lubricate the fundamental shift from 'spatial' to 'social' integration.

  18. The value of residential photovoltaic systems: A comprehensive assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borden, C. S.

    1983-01-01

    Utility-interactive photovoltaic (PV) arrays on residential rooftops appear to be a potentially attractive, large-scale application of PV technology. Results of a comprehensive assessment of the value (i.e., break-even cost) of utility-grid connected residential photovoltaic power systems under a variety of technological and economic assumptions are presented. A wide range of allowable PV system costs are calculated for small (4.34 kW (p) sub ac) residential PV systems in various locales across the United States. Primary factor in this variation are differences in local weather conditions, utility-specific electric generation capacity, fuel types, and customer-load profiles that effect purchase and sell-back rates, and non-uniform state tax considerations. Additional results from this analysis are: locations having the highest insolation values are not necessary the most economically attractive sites; residential PV systems connected in parallel to the utility demonstrate high percentages of energy sold back to the grid, and owner financial and tax assumptions cause large variations in break-even costs. Significant cost reduction and aggressive resolution of potential institutional impediments (e.g., liability, standards, metering, and technical integration) are required for a residential PV marker to become a major electric-grid-connected energy-generation source.

  19. Absorption in dielectric models

    CERN Document Server

    Churchill, R J

    2015-01-01

    We develop a classical microscopic model of a dielectric. The model features nonlinear interaction terms between polarizable dipoles and lattice vibrations. The lattice vibrations are found to act as a pseudo-reservoir, giving broadband absorption of electromagnetic radiation without the addition of damping terms in the dynamics. The effective permittivity is calculated using a perturbative iteration method and is found to have the form associated with real dielectrics. Spatial dispersion is naturally included in the model and we also calculate the wavevector dependence of the permittivity.

  20. Differences between out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in residential and public locations and implications for public-access defibrillation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Folke, Fredrik; Gislason, Gunnar H; Lippert, Freddy

    2010-01-01

    The majority of out-of-hospital cardiac arrests (OHCAs) occur in residential locations, but knowledge about strategic placement of automated external defibrillators in residential areas is lacking. We examined whether residential OHCA areas suitable for placement of automated external...

  1. Geospatial Absorption and Regional Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    IOAN MAC

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The geospatial absorptions are characterized by a specific complexity both in content and in their phenomenological and spatial manifestation fields. Such processes are differentiated according to their specificity to pre-absorption, absorption or post-absorption. The mechanisms that contribute to absorption are extremely numerous: aggregation, extension, diffusion, substitution, resistivity (resilience, stratification, borrowings, etc. Between these mechanisms frequent relations are established determining an amplification of the process and of its regional effects. The installation of the geographic osmosis phenomenon in a given territory (a place for example leads to a homogenization of the geospatial state and to the installation of the regional homogeneity.

  2. Absorption Spectra of Astaxanthin Aggregates

    CERN Document Server

    Olsina, Jan; Minofar, Babak; Polivka, Tomas; Mancal, Tomas

    2012-01-01

    Carotenoids in hydrated polar solvents form aggregates characterized by dramatic changes in their absorption spectra with respect to monomers. Here we analyze absorption spectra of aggregates of the carotenoid astaxanthin in hydrated dimethylsulfoxide. Depending on water content, two types of aggregates were produced: H-aggregates with absorption maximum around 390 nm, and J-aggregates with red-shifted absorption band peaking at wavelengths >550 nm. The large shifts with respect to absorption maximum of monomeric astaxanthin (470-495 nm depending on solvent) are caused by excitonic interaction between aggregated molecules. We applied molecular dynamics simulations to elucidate structure of astaxanthin dimer in water, and the resulting structure was used as a basis for calculations of absorption spectra. Absorption spectra of astaxanthin aggregates in hydrated dimethylsulfoxide were calculated using molecular exciton model with the resonance interaction energy between astaxanthin monomers constrained by semi-e...

  3. The HI absorption 'Zoo'

    CERN Document Server

    Gereb, K; Morganti, R; Oosterloo, T A

    2014-01-01

    We present an analysis of the HI absorption in a sample of 101 flux-selected radio AGN (S_1.4 GHz > 50 mJy) observed with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT). HI absorption is detected in 32 galaxies, showing a broad variety of widths, shapes and kinematical properties. We characterize the HI spectra of the individual detections using the busy function (Westmeier et al. 2014). With the goal of identifying different morphological structures of HI, we study the kinematical and radio source properties of the detections as function of their width. Narrow lines (FWHM = 500 km/s). These detections are good candidates for being HI outflows. The detection rate of HI outflows is 5 percent in the total radio AGN sample. This fraction represents a lower limit, however it could suggests that, if outflows are a characteristic phenomenon of all radio sources, they would have a short depletion timescale compared to the lifetime of the AGN. Blueshifted and broad/asymmetric lines are more often present among young...

  4. Absorptivity of brown carbon in fresh and photo-chemically aged biomass-burning emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Saleh

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were conducted to investigate light absorption of organic aerosol (OA in fresh and photo-chemically aged biomass-burning emissions. The experiments considered residential hardwood fuel (oak and fuels commonly consumed in wild-land and prescribed fires in the United States (pocosin pine and gallberry. Photo-chemical aging was performed in an environmental chamber. We constrained the light-absorption properties of the OA using conservative limiting assumptions, and found that both primary organic aerosol (POA in the fresh emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA produced by photo-chemical aging absorb light to a significant extent, and are categorized as brown carbon. This work presents the first direct evidence that SOA produced in aged biomass-burning emissions is absorptive. For the investigated fuels, SOA is less absorptive than POA in the long visible, but exhibits steeper wavelength-dependence (larger Absorption Ångström Exponent and is more absorptive in the short visible and near-UV. Light absorption by SOA in biomass-burning emissions might be an important contributor to the global radiative forcing budget.

  5. Development of two Danish building typologies for residential buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Jesper; Wittchen, Kim Bjarne

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present two Danish typologies for residential buildings developed in the EU-financed project TABULA. The building typologies focus on energy performance and can be used in the analyses of, e.g., political strategies for planning the future upgrading of the energy...... performance of the residential building stock. Overall, the typologies consist of two types of building models—real example models and average designed models. The main purpose of developing the building typologies was to establish a tool able to calculate different energy-saving scenarios for the entire...... residential building stock. To make such calculations of scenarios, similar average designed building models were established based on extracted average values from the Danish Energy Performance Certification Scheme database. The two building typologies had the same overall composition, i.e., three main...

  6. Measured Performance of Residential Dehumidifiers Under Cyclic Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Tomerlin, J. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Residential construction practices are progressing toward higher levels of energy efficiency. A proven strategy to save energy is to simultaneously increase building insulation levels and reduce outdoor air infiltration. Overall, this strategy results in a shift in the mix of latent and sensible space conditioning loads, requiring proportionally more moisture to be removed compared to standard homes. In this project, researchers at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) developed steady state performance maps to predict dehumidifier performance at a variety of indoor conditions. However, installed heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment rarely operates at steady state. Part load performance testing of residential dehumidifiers is not mandated by current test standards. Therefore, the team tested the part load performance of four residential dehumidifiers in NREL’s Advanced HVAC Systems Laboratory . The part load efficiency of each dehumidifier was measured under 13 cycling scenarios, and combined with NREL field data to develop part load fraction (PLF) performance curves under realistic cycling scenarios.

  7. Residential Forced Air System Cabinet Leakage and Blower Performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Iain S.; Dickerhoff, Darryl J.; Delp, William W.

    2010-03-01

    This project evaluated the air leakage and electric power consumption of Residential HVAC components, with a particular focus on air leakage of furnace cabinets. Laboratory testing of HVAC components indicated that air leakage can be significant and highly variable from unit to unit ? indicating the need for a standard test method and specifying maximum allowable air leakage in California State energy codes. To further this effort, this project provided technical assistance for the development of a national standard for Residential HVAC equipment air leakage. This standard is being developed by ASHRAE and is called"ASHRAE Standard 193P - Method of test for Determining the Air Leakage Rate of HVAC Equipment". The final part of this project evaluated techniques for measurement of furnace blower power consumption. A draft test procedure for power consumption was developed in collaboration with the Canadian General Standards Board: CSA 823"Performance Standard for air handlers in residential space conditioning systems".

  8. Residential water demand with endogenous pricing: The Canadian Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynaud, Arnaud; Renzetti, Steven; Villeneuve, Michel

    2005-11-01

    In this paper, we show that the rate structure endogeneity may result in a misspecification of the residential water demand function. We propose to solve this endogeneity problem by estimating a probabilistic model describing how water rates are chosen by local communities. This model is estimated on a sample of Canadian local communities. We first show that the pricing structure choice reflects efficiency considerations, equity concerns, and, in some cases, a strategy of price discrimination across consumers by Canadian communities. Hence estimating the residential water demand without taking into account the pricing structures' endogeneity leads to a biased estimation of price and income elasticities. We also demonstrate that the pricing structure per se plays a significant role in influencing price responsiveness of Canadian residential consumers.

  9. A Model of Induction for Specialised Residential Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann McWilliams

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The Social Care Education and Training Project at the Dublin Institute of Technology is a four year project funded by the Department of Health and Children. The project has increased the number of students enrolled in social care courses at the Institute and delivers Continued Professional Development courses for workers in the specialised residential units. The article describes an induction model developed and delivered by the project team to new workers in the specialised residential units in the Dublin region although the course is suitable for all residential care settings. The evaluation suggests that the majority of participants found the induction module worthwhile because it had a positive effect on their professional practice and increased their self confidence. This supports the need for formal induction training for all new workers to ensure they perform their professional duties effectively as possible in their new working environment.

  10. Integrated Urban System and Energy Consumption Model: Residential Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocco Papa

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a segment of research conducted within the project PON 04a2_E Smart Energy Master for the energetic government of the territory conducted by the Department of Civil, Architectural and Environment Engineering, University of Naples "Federico II".  In particular, this article is part of the study carried out for the definition of the comprehension/interpretation model that correlates buildings, city’s activities and users’ behaviour in order to promote energy savings. In detail, this segment of the research wants to define the residential variables to be used in the model. For this purpose a knowledge framework at international level has been defined, to estimate the energy requirements of residential buildings and the identification of a set of parameters, whose variation has a significant influence on the energy consumption of residential buildings.

  11. Fine particle emissions from residential wood combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tissari, J.

    2008-07-01

    Residential wood combustion (RWC) appliances have the high probability of incomplete combustion, producing e.g. fine particles and hazardous organic compounds. In this thesis, the fine particle number and mass emissions, particle composition and morphology, and gas emissions were investigated from the modern (MMH) and conventional masonry heaters (CMH), sauna stoves (SS) and pellet burner. The investigation was based on laboratory and field experiments applying extensive and unique particle sampling methods. The appliance type, fuel and operational practices were found to affect clearly the fine particle emissions. In good combustion conditions (e.g. in pellet combustion), the fine particle mass (PM{sub 1}) emission factors were low, typically below 0.3 g kg-1, and over 90% of the PM{sub 1} consisted of inorganic compounds (i.e fine ash). From the CMH the typical PM{sub 1} values were 1.6-1.8 g kg-1, and from the SS 2.7-5.0 g kg-1, but were strongly dependent on operational practices. The smouldering combustion in CMH increased PM{sub 1} emission up to 10 g kg-1. The good secondary combustion in the MMH reduced the particle organic matter (POM) and gaseous emissions, but not substantially the elemental carbon (EC, i.e. soot) emission, and the typical PM{sub 1} values were 0.7-0.8 g kg-1. The particle number emissions were high, and did not correspond with the completition of combustion. The particle number distributions were mainly dominated by ultrafine (<100 nm) particles, but varied dependent on combustion conditions. The electronmicroscopy analyses showed that ultrafine particles were composed mainly of K, S and Zn. From the smouldering combustion, particles were composed mainly of carbon compounds and they had a closed sinteredlike structure, due to organic matter on the particles. Controlling the gasification rate via the primary air supply, log and batch size, as well as fuel moisture content, is important for the reduction of emissions in batch combustion

  12. Psychotherapy in residential treatment: historical development and critical issues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmerman, D Patrick

    2004-04-01

    In a time of concern with policies of managed care, more limited financial resources, and reduced lengths of residential treatment for troubled children and adolescents in the United States, we seem to be confronted ironically with an ever larger number of children who are growing up in circumstances of social dis-organization and personal despair. Faced with this dilemma, considerations of issues related to the provision of therapeutic services within residential treatment were provided by an examination of the historical development of the concepts of the milieu and residential care in the United States. The historical review revealed how the emergence of differing theories of psychotherapy has influenced the creation of various models of residential care. Several tensions have persisted over the years in the effort to provide therapy services within the broader residential setting. Behavioral and cognitive-behavioral methodologies currently have come to the forefront in many aspects of milieu treatment in group care for children and adolescents in the United States. This article concluded with a critique of some potential impacts associated with those perspectives on individual and group treatment and on our views of the individual and culture in general. This discussion did not attempt to provide answers to all the stresses that can emerge in a residential setting that strives to provide a range of mental health services, nor was it intended to present an exclusively rejecting, strident criticism of the medical model or behaviorally oriented therapies. The intent was to point out some of the limitations of relying exclusively on those perspectives and to show that an amalgamation of treatment models can have real consequences for children in group care. A continued awareness of those potential consequences is essential to mitigate their potentially antitherapeutic effects.

  13. Environmental assessment in support of proposed voluntary energy conservation standard for new residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadley, D.L.; Parker, G.B.; Callaway, J.W.; Marsh, S.J.; Roop, J.M.; Taylor, Z.T.

    1989-06-01

    The objective of this environmental assessment (EA) is to identify the potential environmental impacts that could result from the proposed voluntary residential standard (VOLRES) on private sector construction of new residential buildings. 49 refs., 15 tabs.

  14. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Wyoming

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Wyoming. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Wyoming.

  15. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for South Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in South Dakota. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in South Dakota.

  16. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for West Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in West Virginia. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in West Virginia.

  17. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Texas. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Texas.

  18. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Wisconsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Wisconsin. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2006 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Wisconsin.

  19. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Utah. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 Utah State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Utah.

  20. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Tennessee. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2006 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Tennessee.

  1. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Rhode Island

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Rhode Island. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Rhode Island.

  2. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Oklahoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Oklahoma. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Oklahoma.

  3. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Vermont

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Vermont. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Vermont.

  4. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Pennsylvania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Pennsylvania. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Pennsylvania.

  5. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for South Carolina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in South Carolina. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in South Carolina.

  6. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Virginia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Virginia. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Virginia.

  7. EnviroAtlas - Population and Residential Activity in the Conterminous U.S. Web Service

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas web service includes maps that illustrate population and residential activity in each census block group as well as residential-location-based...

  8. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Illinois

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Illinois. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Illinois.

  9. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Mississippi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Mississippi. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Mississippi.

  10. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Colorado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Colorado. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Colorado.

  11. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Missouri

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Missouri. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Missouri.

  12. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Nevada. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Nevada.

  13. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Idaho. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2015 Idaho State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Idaho.

  14. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Montana. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2014 Montana State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Montana.

  15. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Delaware

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Delaware. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Delaware.

  16. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Louisiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Louisiana. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Louisiana.

  17. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Kansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Kansas. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Kansas.

  18. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Minnesota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Minnesota. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Minnesota.

  19. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in New Mexico. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in New Mexico.

  20. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V.; Zhao, Mingjie; Taylor, Zachary T.; Poehlman, Eric A.

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Indiana. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Indiana.

  1. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Arkansas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Arkansas. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Arkansas.

  2. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Michigan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Michigan. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Michigan.

  3. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Kentucky

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Kentucky. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Kentucky.

  4. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Hawaii

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Hawaii. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2006 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Hawaii.

  5. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Nebraska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Nebraska. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Nebraska.

  6. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Massachusetts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Massachusetts. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Massachusetts.

  7. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Florida

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Florida. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Florida.

  8. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Connecticut

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Connecticut. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Connecticut.

  9. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Alaska

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Alaska. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Alaska.

  10. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Georgia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Georgia. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2011 Georgia State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Georgia.

  11. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Arizona

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Arizona. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Arizona.

  12. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for New York

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in New York. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in New York.

  13. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for North Dakota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in North Dakota. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in North Dakota.

  14. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Maine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Maine. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Maine.

  15. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Ohio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Ohio. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Ohio.

  16. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Iowa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Iowa. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2014 Iowa State Code base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Iowa.

  17. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Maryland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Maryland. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2012 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Maryland.

  18. Cost-Effectiveness Analysis of the Residential Provisions of the 2015 IECC for Alabama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mendon, Vrushali V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhao, Mingjie [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Zachary T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Poehlman, Eric A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The 2015 IECC provides cost-effective savings for residential buildings in Alabama. Moving to the 2015 IECC from the 2009 IECC base code is cost-effective for residential buildings in all climate zones in Alabama.

  19. 75 FR 59469 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Refrigerators...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-27

    ... Energy 10 CFR Part 430 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential... Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Refrigerators, Refrigerator... Conservation Act (EPCA) prescribes energy conservation standards for various consumer products and......

  20. 78 FR 42389 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and Room Air.... SUMMARY: This final rule corrects the energy conservation standards for room air conditioners. In the direct final rule establishing amended energy conservation standards for residential clothes dryers...

  1. Parental perceptions of residential location: Impacts on children's health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, Fiona J

    2010-03-01

    This study explored families' views and experiences of their residential location in relation to their children's health. Thematic analysis of interviews with mothers revealed that decisions to live in an outer Melbourne municipality were strongly influenced by ideals around children however; all spoke of experiencing difficulties in raising children in terms of accessing services, recreation facilities, transport and work. Analysis of these findings using Bronfenbrenner's Social Ecology Model revealed how factors could interact to affect children's health and wellbeing. The study findings highlight the importance of parental perceptions of residential location in understanding the relationship between children's health and place. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Unbalanced Voltage Compensation in Low Voltage Residential AC Grids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trintis, Ionut; Douglass, Philip; Munk-Nielsen, Stig

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design and test of a control algorithm for active front-end rectifiers that draw power from a residential AC grid to feed heat pump loads. The control algorithm is able to control the phase to neutral or phase to phase RMS voltages at the point of common coupling....... The voltage control was evaluated with either active or reactive independent phase load current control. The control performance in field operation in a residential grid situated in Bornholm, Denmark was investigated for different use cases....

  3. Residential and commercial buildings data book: Third edition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amols, G.R.; Howard, K.B.; Nicholls, A.K.; Guerra, T.D.

    1988-02-01

    This Data Book updates and expands the previous Data Book originally published by the Department of Energy in September, 1986 (DOE/RL/01830/16). Energy-related information is provided under the following headings: Characteristics of Residential Buildings in the US; Characteristics of New Single Family Construction in the US; Characteristics of New Multi-Family Construction in the US; Household Appliances; Residential Sector Energy Consumption, Prices, and Expenditures; Characteristics of US Commercial Buildings; Commercial Buildings Energy Consumption, Prices, and Expenditures; and Additional Buildings and Community Systems Information. 12 refs., 59 figs., 118 tabs.

  4. Energy efficient design for residential buildings in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R.YAO; K.STEEMERS; B.LI

    2003-01-01

    This paper illustrates an integrated energy design model based on the energy balance of a single zone. The results of energy efficient residential building design for the different climate zones of China by implementing an integrated energy model have been presented. Optimum measures of building design for typical Chinese residential buildings are introduced, with the objective of minimizingannual energy consumption for those buildings and improving thermal comfort. One overriding conclusion is that significant energy savings and thermal comfort can be achieved though optimum design.

  5. Energy and IAQ Implications of Residential Ventilation Cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turner, William [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2014-08-01

    This study evaluates the energy, humidity and indoor air quality (IAQ) implications of residential ventilation cooling in all U.S. IECC climate zones. A computer modeling approach was adopted, using an advanced residential building simulation tool with airflow, energy and humidity models. An economizer (large supply fan) was simulated to provide ventilation cooling while outdoor air temperatures were lower than indoor air temperatures (typically at night). The simulations were performed for a full year using one-minute time steps to allow for scheduling of ventilation systems and to account for interactions between ventilation and heating/cooling systems.

  6. Thermal Insulation for Naturally Ventilated Residential Houses in Malaysia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimann, Gregers Peter; Jensen, Kasper Lynge; Nielsen, Tryggvi

    Temperature logging for three Malaysian residential houses is used to validate the Malaysian weather data year (hourly values) and to validate the simulation software Bsim for use in Malaysia. The fit between simulated and measured data is satisfactory, as only a maximum difference of 0.5°C...... is observed. Using the Bsim software it is concluded that roof insulation and night ventilation are the two most significant measures for improvement of the thermal performance of residential houses. The building simulation software Energy10 is found to underestimate the indoor temperatures slightly....

  7. Data report for the Southwest Residential Experiment Station, January 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lieberman, M.; Hai, O. Y.; Hocking, G.; Whitaker, C.

    1982-02-23

    Physical performance data obtained from the photovoltaic energy systems under test at the Southwest Residential Experiment Station in Las Cruces, New Mexico are tabulated and graphed for the month of January, 1982. Data drawn from the Residential Data System (RDS) appears in several formats. A one-page summary is provided as well as a more detailed hour-by-hour tabulation for an average day of the month. Energy histograms are provided, based on RDS data and recording kilowatt hour meters. The histograms also present horizontal and plane-of-array insolation data as well as comments that explain data and/or energy production anomalies. (LEW)

  8. Architecture and craftsmanship: Residential building "Kaldera", Banjaluka, architect Branislav Stojanovic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marić-Milašinović Dijana

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The subjects of analysis were the multi-layered expressions applied by the author in designing the residential building in Banjaluka. These are foremost the site, the location, and the corner motif, as the building’s outstanding formal accents. Next is the analysis of the applied materials their treatment and the accomplished effects. The craftsmanship has been emphasised since it demanded a close cooperation of the architect and the craftsman. Furthermore, the interior organisation of this non-standard residential building has been elucidated.

  9. Emergency lighting for industrial, commercial and residential premises

    CERN Document Server

    Lyons, X

    2013-01-01

    Emergency Lighting: For Industrial, Commercial and Residential Premises concerns itself with the provision of emergency lighting to facilitate exit routes for people in industrial, commercial, and residential areas. The book covers important topics such as the objectives of emergency lighting systems; the identification of safe routes under low lighting in different areas; and related devices such as luminaires, emergency signs, and way-guidance. Also discussed are the applications of emergency lighting; factors to consider in the design of emergency lighting; electrical installations; and tes

  10. Solar ejector refrigerant system in China’s residential buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Hui-Fan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A simulation program describing the performance of solar ejector refrigerant system for air conditioning of China’s residential buildings was established. Hourly performance of the system under different operate conditions, the collector efficiency, coefficient of performance, cooling capacity and cooling load were analyzed. It is found that the collector efficiency and the overall coefficient of performance increase first and then decline, and it can be concluded that the application of solar ejector refrigerant system will have a better developmental prospect in China’s residential buildings.

  11. Thermal comfort in residential buildings by the millions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergård, Torben; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Maagaard, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    In Danish building code and many design briefings, criteria regarding thermal comfort are defined for “critical” rooms in residential buildings. Identifying the critical room is both difficult and time-consuming for large, multistory buildings. To reduce costs and time, such requirement often...... in most residential buildings. For each room variation, we perform 100.000 simulations while varying important design inputs such as window-floor-ratio, ventilation rates, glazing properties, and shading properties. Prior to this, the Morris method was used to identify and fixate insignificant inputs...

  12. Waste removal systems and recycling participation in residential environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John

    2002-01-01

    form of recycling (Ackerman, 1997; Pieters, 1989). Therefore, residential environments in developed countries increasingly contain separate collection systems for that fraction of waste that can be recycled, and hence re-utilized, in the production of new goods. These collection systemsare in addition......Systems for the removal of waste are important although often overlooked elements of any residential environment. It is an old insight that when these systems are ineffective (and this is globally and historically the rule rather than the exception), human living conditions and often even human...

  13. High Efficient Bidirectional Battery Converter for residential PV Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pham, Cam; Kerekes, Tamas; Teodorescu, Remus

    2012-01-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) installation is suited for the residential environment and the generation pattern follows the distribution of residential power consumption in daylight hours. In the cases of unbalance between generation and demand, the Smart PV with its battery storage can absorb or inject...... the power to balance it. High efficient bidirectional converter for the battery storage is required due high system cost and because the power is processed twice. A 1.5kW prototype is designed and built with CoolMOS and SiC diodes, >;95% efficiency has been obtained with 200 kHz hard switching....

  14. Prioritizing Residential Land Value Determinants in Onitsha, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fidelis Ifeanyi Emoh

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available This study was undertaken to analyze the various determinants of residential land values and the strength of the different factors contributing to land value variations in Onitsha, Nigeria. The factor analysis and the principal component techniques were applied in the analysis of spatial variations and the relationship between 31 identifiable factors influencing residential land values in Onitsha, Anambra State of Nigeria. By using regression analysis, the 13 main factors shaping land values in Onitsha were established, prioritized and ranked as accessibility, neighborhood quality, land title, zoning regulations, transportation, rent, improvement tax, environmental quality, view of amenities, travel time to the city centre and irrevocable power of attorney.

  15. Sabine absorption coefficients to random incidence absorption coefficients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho

    2014-01-01

    Absorption coefficients measured by the chamber method are referred to as Sabine absorption coefficients, which sometimes exceed unity due to the finite size of a specimen and non-uniform intensity in the test chamber. In this study, several methods that convert Sabine absorption coefficients...... into random incidence absorption coefficients for porous absorbers are investigated. Two optimization-based conversion methods are suggested: the surface impedance estimation for locally reacting absorbers and the flow resistivity estimation for extendedly reacting absorbers. The suggested conversion methods...

  16. Diffuse interstellar absorption bands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG FuYuan; LIANG ShunLin; LI AiGen

    2009-01-01

    The diffuse interstellar bands (DIBs) are a large number of absorption bands that are superposed on the interstellar extinction curve and are of interstellar origin. Since the discovery of the first two DIBs in the 1920s, the exact nature of DIBs still remains unclear. This article reviews the history of the detec-tions of DIBs in the Milky Way and external galaxies, the major observational characteristics of DIBs, the correlations or anti-correlations among DIBs or between DIBs and other interstellar features (e.g. the prominent 2175 Angstrom extinction bump and the far-ultraviolet extinction rise), and the proposed candidate carriers. Whether they are also present in circumstellar environments is also discussed.

  17. Diffuse interstellar absorption bands

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The diffuse interstellar bands(DIBs) are a large number of absorption bands that are superposed on the interstellar extinction curve and are of interstellar origin. Since the discovery of the first two DIBs in the 1920s,the exact nature of DIBs still remains unclear. This article reviews the history of the detections of DIBs in the Milky Way and external galaxies,the major observational characteristics of DIBs,the correlations or anti-correlations among DIBs or between DIBs and other interstellar features(e.g. the prominent 2175 Angstrom extinction bump and the far-ultraviolet extinction rise),and the proposed candidate carriers. Whether they are also present in circumstellar environments is also discussed.

  18. The HI absorption "Zoo"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geréb, K.; Maccagni, F. M.; Morganti, R.; Oosterloo, T. A.

    2015-03-01

    We present an analysis of the H I 21 cm absorption in a sample of 101 flux-selected radio AGN (S1.4 GHz> 50 mJy) observed with the Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope (WSRT). We detect H I absorption in 32 objects (30% of the sample). In a previous paper, we performed a spectral stacking analysis on the radio sources, while here we characterize the absorption spectra of the individual detections using the recently presented busy function. The H I absorption spectra show a broad variety of widths, shapes, and kinematical properties. The full width half maximum (FWHM) of the busy function fits of the detected H I lines lies in the range 32 km s-1 200 km s-1). We study the kinematical and radio source properties of each group, with the goal of identifying different morphological structures of H I. Narrow lines mostly lie at the systemic velocity and are likely produced by regularly rotating H I disks or gas clouds. More H I disks can be present among galaxies with lines of intermediate widths; however, the H I in these sources is more unsettled. We study the asymmetry parameter and blueshift/redshift distribution of the lines as a function of their width. We find a trend for which narrow profiles are also symmetric, while broad lines are the most asymmetric. Among the broadest lines, more lines appear blueshifted than redshifted, similarly to what was found by previous studies. Interestingly, symmetric broad lines are absent from the sample. We argue that if a profile is broad, it is also asymmetric and shifted relative to the systemic velocity because it is tracing unsettled H I gas. In particular, besides three of the broadest (up to FW20 = 825 km s-1) detections, which are associated with gas-rich mergers, we find three new cases of profiles with blueshifted broad wings (with FW20 ≳ 500 km s-1) in high radio power AGN. These detections are good candidates for being HI outflows. Together with the known cases of outflows already included in the sample (3C 293 and

  19. 24 CFR 100.115 - Residential real estate-related transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Residential real estate-related... Estate-Related Transactions § 100.115 Residential real estate-related transactions. The term residential real estate-related transactions means: (a) The making or purchasing of loans or providing other...

  20. 12 CFR 32.7 - Residential real estate loans, small business loans, and small farm loans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Residential real estate loans, small business... OF THE TREASURY LENDING LIMITS § 32.7 Residential real estate loans, small business loans, and small farm loans. (a) Residential real estate, small business, and small farm loans. (1) In addition to the...

  1. 24 CFR 100.110 - Discriminatory practices in residential real estate-related transactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... residential real estate-related transactions. 100.110 Section 100.110 Housing and Urban Development... Discrimination in Residential Real Estate-Related Transactions § 100.110 Discriminatory practices in residential real estate-related transactions. (a) This subpart provides the Department's interpretation of the...

  2. 25 CFR 39.216 - How does ISEF fund residential programs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How does ISEF fund residential programs? 39.216 Section 39.216 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION THE INDIAN SCHOOL... How does ISEF fund residential programs? Residential programs are funded on a WSU basis using...

  3. 28 CFR 550.52 - Non-residential drug abuse treatment services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Non-residential drug abuse treatment... INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.52 Non-residential drug abuse treatment services. All institutions must have non-residential drug abuse treatment services,...

  4. 76 FR 52852 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... Part 430 RIN 1904-AA89 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential....S. Department of Energy (DOE) adopted amended energy conservation standards for residential clothes dryers and room air conditioners. As required by the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA), DOE...

  5. Analysis of advanced conceptual designs for single-family-sized absorption chillers. Semi-annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1978-04-05

    The objective of the research program is to develop and analyze new concepts for absorption cycles to improve the performance or reduce the cost (or both) of a 3-ton absorption chiller that can be used with solar-collected heat. New refrigerant-absorbent pairs, additives to currently used refrigerant-absorbent pairs, and modifications to the cycle are being investigated. For the initial analyses the use of a fluid at 160 to 230/sup 0/F from a solar collector as a heating source is assumed. In the initial analyses the chiller is to provide chilled water at 45/sup 0/F at full load; alternatively, if a new refrigerant-absorbent pair appears to be amenable for direct cooling of the occupied space, the temperature of the evaporator is to be 45/sup 0/F. Both water cooling and air cooling of the absorber and the condenser are being studied. The use of ambient air at 95/sup 0/F dry bulb and 75/sup 0/F wet bulb temperatures is assumed. With the water-cooled cycles, the initial and operating costs of a properly sized cooling tower will be included. The research consists of five principal tasks: (a) acquisition of information for analysis, (b) definition of criteria for selection of promising refrigerant-absorbent pairs, additives for currently used pairs, or cycle modifications, (c) preparation and analysis of conceptual designs, (d) comparison and selection of the promising new systems that warrant further study, and (e) recommendations for further research for each promising new system. Progress on each of these tasks is described. (WHK)

  6. Absorption intestinale des vitamines liposolubles

    OpenAIRE

    Reboul Emmanuelle

    2011-01-01

    The molecular mechanisms of fat-soluble vitamin intestinal absorption remain partly unknown, despite the fact that a better understanding of this process would certainly allow to improve their bioavailability. If their digestion-absorption process follows the fate of lipids globally, the recent discovery of membranes proteins involved in their absorption questioned the established dogmas. These new data should be taken into account to avoid dietary or drug interactions that may limit some fat...

  7. High optical absorption in graphene

    CERN Document Server

    Apell, S P; Hägglund, C

    2012-01-01

    A simple analysis is performed for the absorption properties of graphene; sandwiched between two media. For a proper choice of media and graphene doping/gating one can approach 50-100% absorption in the GHz-THz range for the one atom thick material. This absorption is controlled by a characteristic chemical potential which depends only on carrier life-time and the indexes of refraction of the dielectric embedding.

  8. Absorption intestinale des vitamines liposolubles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reboul Emmanuelle

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanisms of fat-soluble vitamin intestinal absorption remain partly unknown, despite the fact that a better understanding of this process would certainly allow to improve their bioavailability. If their digestion-absorption process follows the fate of lipids globally, the recent discovery of membranes proteins involved in their absorption questioned the established dogmas. These new data should be taken into account to avoid dietary or drug interactions that may limit some fatsoluble vitamin bioavailability.

  9. U.S. Residential Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products: Results from Amazon Mechanical Turk Surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenblatt, Jeffery B. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Young, Scott J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Yang, Hung-Chia [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Long, Timothy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Beraki, Bereket [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Price, Sarah K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Pratt, Stacy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Willem, Henry [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Desroches, Louis-Benoit [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-04-01

    Amazon Mechanical Turk was used, for the first time, to collect statistically representative survey data from U.S. households on the presence, number, type and usage of refrigerators, freezers, and various “miscellaneous” refrigeration products (wine/beverage coolers, residential icemakers and non-vapor compression refrigerators and freezers), along with household and demographic information. Such products have been poorly studied to date, with almost no information available about shipments, stocks, capacities, energy use, etc. A total of 9,820 clean survey responses were obtained from four distinct surveys deployed in 2012. General refrigeration product survey responses were weighted to demographics in the U.S. Energy Information Administration’s Residential Energy Consumption Survey 2009 dataset. Miscellaneous refrigeration product survey responses were weighted according to demographics of product ownership found in the general refrigeration product surveys. Model number matching for a portion of miscellaneous refrigeration product responses allowed validation of refrigeration product characteristics, which enabled more accurate estimates of the penetrations of these products in U.S. households. We estimated that there were 12.3±1.0 million wine/beverage coolers, 5.5(–3.5,+3.2) million residential icemakers and 2.9(–2.5,+4.5) million non-vapor compression refrigerators in U.S. households in 2012. (All numerical results are expressed with ranges indicating the 95% confidence interval.) No evidence was found for the existence of non-vapor compression freezers. Moreover, we found that 15% of wine/beverage coolers used vapor compression cooling technology, while 85% used thermoelectric cooling technology, with the vast majority of thermoelectric units having capacities of less than 30 wine bottles (approximately 3.5 cubic feet). No evidence was found for the existence of wine/beverage coolers with absorption cooling technology. Additionally, we estimated

  10. Residential gas-fired sorption heat pumps. Test and technology evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naeslund, M.

    2008-12-15

    Heat pumps may be the next step in gas-fired residential space heating. Together with solar energy it is an option to combine natural gas and renewable energy. Heat pumps for residential space heating are likely to be based on the absorption or adsorption process, i.e. sorption heat pumps. Manufacturers claim that the efficiency could reach 140-160%. The annual efficiency will be lower but it is clear that gas-fired heat pumps can involve an efficiency and technology step equal to the transition from non-condensing gas boilers with atmospheric burners to condensing boilers. This report contains a review of the current sorption gas-fired heat pumps for residential space heating and also the visible development trends. A prototype heat pump has been laboratory tested. Field test results from Germany and the Netherlands are also used for a technology evaluation. The tested heat pump unit combines a small heat pump and a supplementary condensing gas boiler. Field tests show an average annual efficiency of 120% for this prototype design. The manufacturer abandoned the tested design during the project period and the current development concentrates on a heat pump design only comprising the heat pump, although larger. The heat pump development at three manufacturers in Germany indicates a commercial stage around 2010-2011. A fairly high electricity consumption compared to traditional condensing boilers was observed in the tested heat pump. Based on current prices for natural gas and electricity the cost savings were estimated to 12% and 27% for heat pumps with 120% and 150% annual efficiency respectively. There is currently no widespread performance testing procedure useful for annual efficiency calculations of gas-fired heat pumps. The situation seems to be clearer for electric compression heat pumps regarding proposed testing and calculation procedures. A German environmental label exists and gasfired sorption heat pumps are also slightly treated in the Eco-design work

  11. U.S. Residential Miscellaneous Refrigeration Products: Results from Amazon Mechanical Turk Surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenblatt, Jeffery B.; Young, Scott J.; Yang, Hung-Chia; Long, Timothy; Beraki, Bereket; Price, Sarah K.; Pratt, Stacy; Willem, Henry; Desroches, Louis-Benoit

    2013-11-14

    Amazon Mechanical Turk was used, for the first time, to collect statistically representative survey data from U.S. households on the presence, number, type and usage of refrigerators, freezers, and various “miscellaneous” refrigeration products (wine/beverage coolers, residential icemakers and non-vapor compression refrigerators and freezers), along with household and demographic information. Such products have been poorly studied to date, with almost no information available about shipments, stocks, capacities, energy use, etc. A total of 9,981 clean survey responses were obtained from five distinct surveys deployed in 2012. General refrigeration product survey responses were weighted to demographics in the U.S. Energy Information Administration’s Residential Energy Consumption Survey 2009 dataset. Miscellaneous refrigeration product survey responses were weighted according to demographics of product ownership found in the general refrigeration product surveys. Model number matching for a portion of miscellaneous refrigeration product responses allowed validation of refrigeration product characteristics, which enabled more accurate estimates of the penetrations of these products in U.S. households. We estimated that there were 12.3±1.0 million wine/beverage coolers, 5.5(–3.5,+3.2) million residential icemakers and 4.4(–2.7,+2.3) million non-vapor compression refrigerators in U.S. households in 2012. (All numerical results are expressed with ranges indicating the 95% confidence interval.) No evidence was found for the existence of non-vapor compression freezers. Moreover, we found that 15% of wine/beverage coolers used vapor compression cooling technology, while 85% used thermoelectric cooling technology, with the vast majority of thermoelectric units having capacities of less than 30 wine bottles (approximately 3.5 cubic feet). No evidence was found for the existence of wine/beverage coolers with absorption cooling technology. Additionally, we estimated

  12. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yano, Junko; Yachandra, Vittal K.

    2009-07-09

    This review gives a brief description of the theory and application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy, both X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS), especially, pertaining to photosynthesis. The advantages and limitations of the methods are discussed. Recent advances in extended EXAFS and polarized EXAFS using oriented membranes and single crystals are explained. Developments in theory in understanding the XANES spectra are described. The application of X-ray absorption spectroscopy to the study of the Mn4Ca cluster in Photosystem II is presented.

  13. Deep Residential Retrofits in East Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boudreaux, Philip R [ORNL; Hendrick, Timothy P [ORNL; Christian, Jeffrey E [ORNL; Jackson, Roderick K [ORNL

    2012-04-01

    Executive Summary Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is furthering residential energy retrofit research in the mixed-humid climate of East Tennessee by selecting 10 homes and guiding the homeowners in the energy retrofit process. The homeowners pay for the retrofits, and ORNL advises which retrofits to complete and collects post-retrofit data. This effort is in accordance with the Department of Energy s Building America program research goal of demonstrating market-ready energy retrofit packages that reduce home energy use by 30 50%. Through this research, ORNL researchers hope to understand why homeowners decide to partake in energy retrofits, the payback of home energy retrofits, and which retrofit packages most economically reduce energy use. Homeowner interviews help the researchers understand the homeowners experience. Information gathered during the interviews will aid in extending market penetration of home energy retrofits by helping researchers and the retrofit industry understand what drives homeowners in making positive decisions regarding these retrofits. This report summarizes the selection process, the pre-retrofit condition, the recommended retrofits, the actual cost of the retrofits (when available), and an estimated energy savings of the retrofit package using EnergyGauge . Of the 10 households selected to participate in the study, only five completed the recommended retrofits, three completed at least one but no more than three of the recommended retrofits, and two households did not complete any of the recommended retrofits. In the case of the two homes that did none of the recommended work, the pre-retrofit condition of the homes and the recommended retrofits are reported. The five homes that completed the recommended retrofits are monitored for energy consumption of the whole house, appliances, space conditioning equipment, water heater, and most of the other circuits with miscellaneous electric loads (MELs) and lighting. Thermal comfort is

  14. Challenge: Getting Residential Users to Shift Their Electricity Usage Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brewer, Robert S.; Verdezoto, Nervo; Rasmussen, Mia Kruse

    2015-01-01

    electricity use from the less desirable times to more desirable times, including: feedback technology, pricing incentives, smart appliances, and energy storage. Based on our experience in this area, we present three challenges for residential shifting: getting users to understand the concept of shifting...

  15. West Virginia's Lost Youth: Appalachian Stereotypes and Residential Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towers, George

    2005-01-01

    This study uses a cognitive mapping survey to examine the effect of Appalachian stereotypes on West Virginia high school students' residential preferences. The research addresses the popularly held hypothesis that West Virginia is suffering out-migration of its young people in part because of negative regional imagery. Survey results provide some…

  16. Residential Environmental Education Center Program Evaluation: An Ongoing Challenge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourke, Nicholas; Buskist, Connie; Herron, Julie

    2014-01-01

    Residential environmental education centers (REECs) have been criticized for their lack of quality program evaluation. However, the last national study done on the practices of REECs was Chenery and Hammerman's (1985) research. This article presents the results of a national survey of directors of REECs (n = 114) that gives insight into the…

  17. TESTING OF REFRIGERANT MIXTURES IN RESIDENTIAL HEAT PUMPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The report gives results of an investigation of four possibilities for replacing Hydrochlorofluorocarbon-22 (HCFC-22) with the non-ozone-depleting new refrigerants R-407D and R-407C in residential heat pumps. The first and simplest scenario was a retrofit with no hardware modific...

  18. IMPACT OF SUBMERSIBLE PUMPS ON PB CONSTITUENTS IN RESIDENTIAL WELLS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dissolved lead in 51 domestic wells screened from 18 m to 48 m in glacial tills and outwash deposits were examined, from archived samples collected during 2001-2004, in conjunction with respective submersible pump characteristics. Pb concentrations of these residential water supp...

  19. Capitalization of Charter Schools into Residential Property Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehm, Margaret; Imberman, Scott A.; Naretta, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Although prior research has found clear impacts of schools and school quality on property values, little is known about whether charter schools have similar effects. Using sale price data for residential properties in Los Angeles County from 2008 to 2011 we estimate the neighborhood level impact of charter schools on housing prices. Using an…

  20. Associations between residential greenness and birth outcomes across Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cusack, Leanne; Larkin, Andrew; Carozza, Sue; Hystad, Perry

    2017-01-01

    The amount of greenness around mothers' residences has been associated with positive birth outcomes; however, findings are inconclusive. Here we examine residential greenness and birth outcomes in a population-based birth cohort in Texas, a state with large regional variation in greenness levels, several distinct cities, and a diverse population. We used Vital Statistics data to create a birth cohort (n=3,026,603) in Texas from 2000 to 2009. Greenness exposure measures were estimated from full residential addresses across nine months of pregnancy, and each trimester specifically, using the mean of corresponding MODIS satellite 16-day normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) surfaces at a 250m resolution, which have not been previously used. Logistic and linear mixed models were used to determine associations with preterm birth, small for gestational age (SGA) and term birth weight, controlling for individual and neighborhood factors. Unadjusted results demonstrated consistent protective effects of residential greenness on adverse birth outcomes for all of Texas and the four largest cities (Houston, San Antonio, Dallas, and Austin). However, in fully adjusted models these effects almost completely disappeared. For example, mothers with the highest (>0.52) compared to the lowest (Texas and diverse populations, we did not observe consistent associations between residential greenness and birth outcomes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Citizen Science as a Tool for Conservation in Residential Ecosystems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caren B. Cooper

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Human activities, such as mining, forestry, and agriculture, strongly influence processes in natural systems. Because conservation has focused on managing and protecting wildlands, research has focused on understanding the indirect influence of these human activities on wildlands. Although a conservation focus on wildlands is critically important, the concept of residential area as an ecosystem is relatively new, and little is known about the potential of such areas to contribute to the conservation of biodiversity. As urban sprawl increases, it becomes urgent to construct a method to research and improve the impacts of management strategies for residential landscapes. If the cumulative activities of individual property owners could help conserve biodiversity, then residential matrix management could become a critical piece of the conservation puzzle. "Citizen science" is a method of integrating public outreach and scientific data collection locally, regionally, and across large geographic scales. By involving citizen participants directly in monitoring and active management of residential lands, citizen science can generate powerful matrix management efforts, defying the "tyranny of small decisions" and leading to positive, cumulative, and measurable impacts on biodiversity.

  2. Space-time clusters of breast cancer using residential histories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordsborg, Rikke Baastrup; Meliker, Jaymie R; Ersbøll, Annette Kjær

    2014-01-01

    selected from the Civil Registration System. Residential addresses of cases and controls from 1971 to 2003 were collected from the Civil Registration System and geo-coded. Q-statistics were used to identify space-time clusters of breast cancer. All analyses were carried out with both control groups...

  3. Integrated Strip Foundation Systems for Small Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Torben Valdbjørn

    2010-01-01

    A prefabricated lightweight element was designed for a strip foundation that was used on site as the bases of two small residential buildings, in this case single-family houses; one was built with a double-brick exterior wall separated by mineral fiber insulation and the other was built with a wood...

  4. Forecasting Length of Stay in Child Residential Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, David L.; Guo, Shenyang

    2005-01-01

    A sample of 126 consecutively admitted residential treatment children (mean age = 9.86, SD=1.84; 70.6% male; 42.1% African American; 50% Caucasian) were studied over a five-year period to identify predictors of length-of-stay. Cox regression was the primary statistical method used to analyze psychiatric and behavioral rating data for children…

  5. The Transition Status of Youth Departing Residential Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Kathryn J.; Reid, Robert; Trout, Alexandra L.; Hurley, Kristin Duppong; Chmelka, M. Beth; Thompson, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the characteristics related to a successful reintegration among youth from a residential facility. Specifically, this study describes the transition skills of youth at departure in five areas: (a) education and employment goals, (b) self-determination skills, (c) social support, (d) life skills, and (e) hopefulness. Further,…

  6. 75 FR 54131 - Updating State Residential Building Energy Efficiency Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ...The Department of Energy (DOE or Department) has preliminarily determined that the 2009 version of the International Code Council (ICC) International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) would achieve greater energy efficiency in low-rise residential buildings than the 2006 IECC. Also, DOE has preliminarily determined that the 2006 version of the IECC would achieve greater energy efficiency than......

  7. CHARACTERIZATION OF MANAGEMENT IN RESIDENTIAL AREAS WITHIN THE VENEZUELAN ENVIRONMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Roselia Aira

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research is to characterize the management of residential development in a Venezuelan environment. This study is documentary, supported on observation, data collection and analysis; guiding the reflection of reality. The results showed the advisability of implementing a management consider the theory of systems, contingencial view, appropriate to each particular situation management systems, and consider Latin American culture.

  8. A Decentralized Storage Strategy for Residential Feeders with Photovoltaics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marra, Francesco; Yang, Guangya; Træholt, Chresten

    2014-01-01

    This paper proposes a decentralized voltage support strategy for LV residential feeders with high roof-top PV capacity installed. The proposed strategy is capable of increasing the local consumption at private households with PV during high generation periods, by the use of locally controlled...

  9. Development of a thermoelectric self-powered residential heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, K.; Hayden, A. C. S.

    Self-powered heating equipment has the potential for high overall energy efficiency and can provide an effective means of providing on site power and energy security in residential homes. It is also attractive for remote communities where connection to the grid is not cost effective. Self-powered residential heating systems operate entirely on fuel combustion and do not need externally generated electricity. Excess power can be provided for other electrical loads. To realize this concept, one must develop a reliable and low maintenance means of generating electricity and integrate it into fuel-fired heating equipment. In the present work, a self-powered residential heating system was developed using thermoelectric power generation technology. A thermoelectric module with a power generation capacity of 550 W was integrated into a fuel-fired furnace. The thermoelectric module has a radial configuration that fits well with the heating equipment. The electricity generated is adequate to power all electrical components for a residential central heating system. The performance of the thermoelectric module was examined under various operating conditions. The effects of heat transfer conditions were studied in order to maximize electric power output. A mathematical model was established and used to look into the influence of heat transfer coefficients and other parameters on electric power output and efficiency.

  10. Gender Differences among Israeli Adolescents in Residential Drug Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isralowitz, Richard; Reznik, Alex

    2007-01-01

    Aims: The use of licit and illicit drugs is considered to be primarily a male problem. Numerous studies, however, question the extent of gender differences. This article reports on last 30 day drug use and related problem behaviour among male and female youth prior to residential treatment. Methods: Self-report data were collected from 95 male and…

  11. Presence of water in residential environments - value for money?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kauko, T.J.; Goetgeluk, R.W.; Straub, A.; Priemus, H.

    2003-01-01

    The role of water in the locational bundle of residential value and choice determinants is multiple. Relevant attributes pertain to water quality, proximity and length of water frontage, view, size of water body, coastal development costs, and costs caused by flooding. They also pertain to different

  12. Memories as Useful Outcomes of Residential Outdoor Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, Kendra R.; Krasny, Marianne E.

    2014-01-01

    Residential outdoor environmental education (ROEE) programs for youth have been shown to yield lasting autobiographical episodic memories. This article explores how past program participants have used such memories, and draws on the memory psychology literature to offer a new perspective on the long-term impacts of environmental education.…

  13. Sexual abuse of children in residential care : an international review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, Margaretha; Schreuder, Pauline

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an international review of academic literature on sexual abuse in residential child and youth care, 1945-2011. The review focusses on questions related to the nature and scope of sexual abuse, on personal and institutional factors providing either protection or risk

  14. A review of residential computer oriented energy control systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    North, Greg

    2000-07-01

    The purpose of this report is to bring together as much information on Residential Computer Oriented Energy Control Systems as possible within a single document. This report identifies the main elements of the system and is intended to provide many technical options for the design and implementation of various energy related services.

  15. Empirically Derived Strength of Residential Roof Structures for Solar Installations.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dwyer, Stephen F.; Sanchez, Alfred; Campos, Ivan A.; Gerstle, Walter H.

    2014-12-01

    Engineering certification for the installation of solar photovoltaic (PV) modules on wood roofs is often denied because existing wood roofs do not meet structural design codes. This work is intended to show that many roofs are actually sufficiently strong given the conservatism in codes, documented allowable strengths, roof structure system effects, and beam composite action produced by joist-sheathing interaction. This report provides results from a testing program to provide actual load carrying capacity of residential rooftops. The results reveal that the actual load carrying capacity of structural members and systems tested are significantly stronger than allowable loads provided by the International Residential Code (IRC 2009) and the national structural code found in Minimum Design Loads for Buildings and Other Structures (ASCE 7-10). Engineering analysis of residential rooftops typically ignores the system affects and beam composite action in determining rooftop stresses given a potential PV installation. This extreme conservatism combined with conservatism in codes and published allowable stress values for roof building materials (NDS 2012) lead to the perception that well built homes may not have adequate load bearing capacity to enable a rooftop PV installation. However, based on the test results presented in this report of residential rooftop structural systems, the actual load bearing capacity is several times higher than published values (NDS 2012).

  16. Stress and Burnout among Superintendents of Public Residential Facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sluyter, Gary V.

    1985-01-01

    Investigated burnout levels and coping strategies of 162 superintendents of public residential facilities for mentally retarded persons. Results indicated that mean overall burnout scores tended to be lower than those reported for other human service employees. Superintendents tended to favor direct/active strategies for coping with stressors.…

  17. Facade Refurbishment Toolbox: Supporting the Design of Residential Energy Upgrades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Konstantinou, T.

    2014-01-01

    The starting point of the research is the need to refurbish existing residential building stock, in order to reduce its energy demand, which is a necessary step to reach the ambitious energy and decarbonisation targets for 2020 and 2050 that require an eventual reduction up to 90% in CO2 emissions.

  18. On Models of Racial Prejudice and Urban Residential Structure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courant, Paul N.; Yinger, John

    Economists have studied the effects of racial prejudice on urban residential structure using a set of models that focus on conditions at the border between the black and white areas. This paper reviews the theoretical literature on these border models and investigates their generality. Section 1 considers the border model developed by Bailey in…

  19. The post-evaluation of green residential building in Ningxia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yunna; Wang, Zhen

    2017-06-01

    Green residential buildings are concerned by more and more people. However, the development of green residential buildings has been limited due to the single-standard requirements and lack of the multi-objective performance. At same time, the evaluation criteria system of green residential building is not comprehensive enough. So first of all, using SPSS software, residents questionnaire surveys are figured and found that the judge of experts and residents about the green elements is inconsistent, so the owners’ satisfaction is included in the post-evaluation criterial systems of green residential building from five aspects-the preliminary work of construction, construction process, economic, social benefits and owners satisfaction in Ningxia area, combined with expert interviews. Secondly, in the post-evaluation, it is difficult for many experts judgment matrix to meet the requirement of consistency, in this paper using MATLAB program, judgment matrix consistency is adjusted. And the weights of the criteria and sub-criteria and experts weights using group AHP method are determined. Finally, the grey clustering method is used to establish the post-evaluation model and the real case of Sai-shang project is carried out. It shows that the result obtained by using the improved criteria system and method in this paper is in a high degree of agreement with the actual result.

  20. Local Residential Sorting and Public Goods Provision: A Classroom Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouhle, Keith; Corrigan, Jay; Croson, Rachel; Farnham, Martin; Garip, Selhan; Habodaszova, Luba; Johnson, Laurie Tipton; Johnson, Martin; Reiley, David

    2005-01-01

    This classroom exercise illustrates the Tiebout (1956) hypothesis that residential sorting across multiple jurisdictions leads to a more efficient allocation of local public goods. The exercise places students with heterogeneous preferences over a public good into a single classroom community. A simple voting mechanism determines the level of…

  1. Communication Supports in Congregate Residential Care Settings in Ohio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Pamela R.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Communication skills are important to the pursuit of increased self-determination in individuals with disabilities. The aim of this investigation was to gather information about communication supports in state-run residential care facilities in Ohio, and to compare findings with a previous investigation on this topic examining such…

  2. Sensorless PV Array Diagnostic Method for Residential PV Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sera, Dezso; Spataru, Sergiu; Mathe, Laszlo

    2011-01-01

    This work proposes a temperature and irradiance sensorless diagnostic method suitable for small residential PV installations, focusing on detection of partial shadows. The method works by detection of failures in crystalline silicone PV arrays by concomitant monitoring of some of their key parame...

  3. Capitalization of Charter Schools into Residential Property Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brehm, Margaret; Imberman, Scott A.; Naretta, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Although prior research has found clear impacts of schools and school quality on property values, little is known about whether charter schools have similar effects. Using sale price data for residential properties in Los Angeles County from 2008 to 2011 we estimate the neighborhood level impact of charter schools on housing prices. Using an…

  4. Challenges in assessing air pollution from residential wood combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Helge Rørdam

    2016-01-01

    The paper highlights a number of important challenges in quantifying the impact of residential wood combustion on air quality. The fact that real life emissions are controlled by the behaviour of the users makes it a challenge to determine representative emission factors. Further, in respect...

  5. determinants of residential per capita water demand of makurdi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    explains 43% of the variation in residential per capital water demand of Makurdi. The F test (F= 14.236 ... safe drinking water. Today, a large .... and so resort to the use of sachet water for drinking ..... Water Supply Facilities Maintenance held at.

  6. 77 FR 9700 - Large Residential Washers From Korea and Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-17

    ... Register of January 9, 2012 (77 FR 1082). The conference was held in Washington, DC, on January, 20, 2012... COMMISSION Large Residential Washers From Korea and Mexico Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... reasonable indication that an industry is materially injured by reason of imports from Mexico of...

  7. Performance-based potential for residential energy efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Performance-based potential for residential energy efficiency

    2013-01-15

    Energy performance contracts (EPCs) have proven an effective mechanism for increasing energy efficiency in nearly all sectors of the economy since their introduction nearly 30 years ago. In the modern form, activities undertaken as part of an EPC are scoped and implemented by experts with specialized technical knowledge, financed by commercial lenders, and enable a facility owner to limit risk and investment of time and resources while receiving the rewards of improved energy performance. This report provides a review of the experiences of the US with EPCs and discusses the possibilities for the residential sector to utilize EPCs. Notably absent from the EPC market is the residential segment. Historically, research has shown that the residential sector varies in several key ways from markets segments where EPCs have proven successful, including: high degree of heterogeneity of energy use characteristics among and within households, comparatively small quantity of energy consumed per residence, limited access to information about energy consumption and savings potential, and market inefficiencies that constrain the value of efficiency measures. However, the combination of recent technological advances in automated metering infrastructure, flexible financing options, and the expansion of competitive wholesale electricity markets to include energy efficiency as a biddable supply-side resource present an opportunity for EPC-like efforts to successfully engage the residential sector, albeit following a different model than has been used in EPCs traditionally.(Author)

  8. Modular Energy Management System Applicable to Residential Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hernández, Adriana Carolina Luna; Aldana, Nelson Leonardo Diaz; Graells, Moises;

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, an energy management system is defined as a flexible architecture. This proposal can be applied to home and residential areas when they include generation units. The system has been integrated and tested in a grid-connected microgrid prototype, where optimal power generation profiles...

  9. Sexual abuse of children in residential care : an international review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, Margaretha; Schreuder, Pauline

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an international review of academic literature on sexual abuse in residential child and youth care, 1945-2011. The review focusses on questions related to the nature and scope of sexual abuse, on personal and institutional factors providing either protection or

  10. Residential mental health assessment within Dutch criminal cases : A discussion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Leij, JBJ; Jackson, JL; Malsch, M; Nijboer, JF

    2001-01-01

    In Dutch criminal cases in which doubts arise about the defendant's mental health, a forensic assessment will be requested. This is provided either by the multidisciplinary staff of residential clinics who conduct forensic evaluations for the court, or by mental health professionals contracted on a

  11. Memories as Useful Outcomes of Residential Outdoor Environmental Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liddicoat, Kendra R.; Krasny, Marianne E.

    2014-01-01

    Residential outdoor environmental education (ROEE) programs for youth have been shown to yield lasting autobiographical episodic memories. This article explores how past program participants have used such memories, and draws on the memory psychology literature to offer a new perspective on the long-term impacts of environmental education.…

  12. Parametric Design Strategy Aiming at Environmentally Sustainable Residential Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Hanne Tine Ring; Knudstrup, Mary-Ann; Heiselberg, Per

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the preliminary conclusions from a PhD study about methodical approaches to environmentally sustainable architecture. The presented results are from a local sensitivity analysis focused on the energy consumption of a typical residential reference building, when it is subjected...

  13. Using Self-Determination Theory in Residential Settings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Christian; Snyder, Chad; McGuffin, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Traumatized youngsters are frequently admitted to psychiatric hospitals and residential treatment facilities (RFTs; Lawson, 1998). Institutionalization can be a traumatic event that involves an assault on personal autonomy and self-direction (Mohr, Mahon, & Noone, 1998). According to Visalli, McNasser, Johnstone, and Lazzaro, (1997) external…

  14. Resident Satisfaction and Its Components in Residential Aged Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Shu-Chiung; Boldy, Duncan P.; Lee, Andy H.

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to assess the direction and magnitude of the effects among the components of resident satisfaction in residential aged care and to examine if the relationships among satisfaction components vary according to facility type (i.e., nursing home and hostel). Briefly, a hostel is a low-care facility in which…

  15. West Virginia's Lost Youth: Appalachian Stereotypes and Residential Preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towers, George

    2005-01-01

    This study uses a cognitive mapping survey to examine the effect of Appalachian stereotypes on West Virginia high school students' residential preferences. The research addresses the popularly held hypothesis that West Virginia is suffering out-migration of its young people in part because of negative regional imagery. Survey results provide some…

  16. A prediction model for assessing residential radon concentration in Switzerland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hauri, D.D.; Huss, A.; Zimmermann, F.; Kuehni, C.E.; Roosli, M.

    2012-01-01

    Indoor radon is regularly measured in Switzerland. However, a nationwide model to predict residential radon levels has not been developed. The aim of this study was to develop a prediction model to assess indoor radon concentrations in Switzerland. The model was based on 44,631 measurements from the

  17. Objectivity in needs assessment practice : admission to a residential home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jörg, F; Boeije, H R; Huijsman, R; de Weert, G H; Schrijvers, A J P; Jorg, Frederike

    2002-01-01

    In 1997, the Dutch government installed independent agencies to assess the long-term care needs of individual clients and to give advice on the allocation of appropriate services. Needs assessors assess, among other things, the eligibility of clients requesting admission to a residential home. Accor

  18. The Transition Status of Youth Departing Residential Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Kathryn J.; Reid, Robert; Trout, Alexandra L.; Hurley, Kristin Duppong; Chmelka, M. Beth; Thompson, Ronald

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluated the characteristics related to a successful reintegration among youth from a residential facility. Specifically, this study describes the transition skills of youth at departure in five areas: (a) education and employment goals, (b) self-determination skills, (c) social support, (d) life skills, and (e) hopefulness. Further,…

  19. Thermal comfort in residential buildings by the millions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergård, Torben; Jensen, Rasmus Lund; Maagaard, Steffen

    2016-01-01

    In Danish building code and many design briefings, criteria regarding thermal comfort are defined for “critical” rooms in residential buildings. Identifying the critical room is both difficult and time-consuming for large, multistory buildings. To reduce costs and time, such requirement often cau...

  20. Installation of Ceramic Tile: Residential Thin-Set Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Short, Sam

    This curriculum guide contains materials for use in teaching a course on residential thin-set methods of tile installation. Covered in the individual units are the following topics: the tile industry; basic math; tools; measurement; safety in tile setting; installation materials and guidelines for their use; floors; counter tops and backsplashes;…

  1. Promoting Residential Renewable Energy via Peer-to-Peer Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiskanen, Eva; Nissilä, Heli; Tainio, Pasi

    2017-01-01

    Peer-to-peer learning is gaining increasing attention in nonformal community-based environmental education. This article evaluates a novel modification of a concept for peer-to-peer learning about residential energy solutions (Open Homes). We organized collective "Energy Walks" visiting several homes with novel energy solutions and…

  2. Risk Profiles of Children Entering Residential Care: A Cluster Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagaman, Jessica L.; Trout, Alexandra L.; Chmelka, M. Beth; Thompson, Ronald W.; Reid, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Children in residential care are a heterogeneous population, presenting various combinations of risks. Existing studies on these children suggest high variability across multiple domains (e.g., academics, behavior). Given this heterogeneity, it is important to begin to identify the combinations and patterns of multiple risks, or risk profiles,…

  3. Psychotropic Medication Management in a Residential Group Care Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spellman, Douglas F.; Griffith, Annette K.; Huefner, Jonathan C.; Wise, Neil, III; McElderry, Ellen; Leslie, Laurel K.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents a psychotropic medication management approach that is used within a residential care program. The approach is used to assess medications at youths' times of entry and to facilitate decision making during care. Data from a typical case study have indicated that by making medication management decisions slowly, systematically,…

  4. Analysis of Bright Harvest Remote Analysis for Residential Solar Installations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nangle, John [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Simon, Joseph [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-06-17

    Bright Harvest provides remote shading analysis and design products for residential PV system installers. The National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) through the NREL Commercialization Assistance Program, completed comparative assessments between on-site measurements and remotely calculated values to validate the accuracy of Bright Harvest’s remote shading and power generation.

  5. Training Residential Staff to Conduct Trial-Based Functional Analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Joseph M.; Bloom, Sarah E.; Kunnavatana, S. Shanun; Collins, Shawnee D.; Clay, Casey J.

    2013-01-01

    We taught 6 supervisors of a residential service provider for adults with developmental disabilities to train 9 house managers to conduct trial-based functional analyses. Effects of the training were evaluated with a nonconcurrent multiple baseline. Results suggest that house managers can be trained to conduct trial-based functional analyses with…

  6. Integrated urban water management for residential areas: a reuse model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, A B; Argue, J R

    2009-01-01

    Global concern over growing urban water demand in the face of limited water resources has focussed attention on the need for better management of available water resources. This paper takes the "fit for purpose" concept and applies it in the development of a model aimed at changing current practices with respect to residential planning by integrating reuse systems into the design layout. This residential reuse model provides an approach to the design of residential developments seeking to maximise water reuse. Water balance modelling is used to assess the extent to which local water resources can satisfy residential demands with conditions based on the city of Adelaide, Australia. Physical conditions include a relatively flat topography and a temperate climate, with annual rainfall being around 500 mm. The level of water-self-sufficiency that may be achieved within a reuse development in this environment is estimated at around 60%. A case study is also presented in which a conventional development is re-designed on the basis of the reuse model. Costing of the two developments indicates the reuse scenario is only marginally more expensive. Such costings however do not include the benefit to upstream and downstream environments resulting from reduced demand and discharges. As governments look to developers to recover system augmentation and environmental costs the economics of such approaches will increase.

  7. Sexual abuse of children in residential care : an international review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmerman, Margaretha; Schreuder, Pauline

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the results of an international review of academic literature on sexual abuse in residential child and youth care, 1945-2011. The review focusses on questions related to the nature and scope of sexual abuse, on personal and institutional factors providing either protection or risk

  8. Student Learning Networks on Residential Field Courses: Does Size Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langan, A. Mark; Cullen, W. Rod; Shuker, David M.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes learner and tutor reports of a learning network that formed during the completion of investigative projects on a residential field course. Staff and students recorded project-related interactions, who they were with and how long they lasted over four phases during the field course. An enquiry based learning format challenged…

  9. Challenges in assessing air pollution from residential wood combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Helge Rørdam

    2016-01-01

    The paper highlights a number of important challenges in quantifying the impact of residential wood combustion on air quality. The fact that real life emissions are controlled by the behaviour of the users makes it a challenge to determine representative emission factors. Further, in respect to d...

  10. Compliance Verification Paths for Residential and Commercial Energy Codes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conover, David R.; Makela, Eric J.; Fannin, Jerica D.; Sullivan, Robin S.

    2011-10-10

    This report looks at different ways to verify energy code compliance and to ensure that the energy efficiency goals of an adopted document are achieved. Conformity assessment is the body of work that ensures compliance, including activities that can ensure residential and commercial buildings satisfy energy codes and standards. This report identifies and discusses conformity-assessment activities and provides guidance for conducting assessments.

  11. Residential Location, Job Location, and Wages: Theory and Empirics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vejlin, Rune Majlund

    I develop a stylized partial on-the-job equilibrium search model which incorporate a spatial dimension. Workers reside on a circle and can move at a cost. Each point on the circle has a wage distribution. Implications about wages and job mobility are drawn from the model and tested on Danish...... residential moves....

  12. On the prediction of residential loads in India

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuchs, P.S.; Lele, A.; Venkatesha-Prasad, R.R.

    2015-01-01

    The Indian Energy grid is growing rapidly and there is a large simulation to improve not only the grid reliability, but also provide power for all by 2027. To this aim the Government of India has launched the Restructured Accelerated Power Development Program (RAPDRP). In India, residential loads co

  13. Transition of Development Modes of Residential Areas in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the transition of development modes of residential areas in Shanghai in the last 30 years.It focuses on four major development modes,which are government-controlled development,government-guided development,enterprise-oriented development,and foreign investment-oriented development,as well as their impacts on Shanghai’s urban morphology.

  14. Fast and Accurate Residential Fire Detection Using Wireless Sensor Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bahrepour, M.; Meratnia, Nirvana; Havinga, Paul J.M.

    2010-01-01

    Prompt and accurate residential fire detection is important for on-time fire extinguishing and consequently reducing damages and life losses. To detect fire sensors are needed to measure the environmental parameters and algorithms are required to decide about occurrence of fire. Recently, wireless

  15. Presence of water in residential environments - value for money?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kauko, T.J.; Goetgeluk, R.W.; Straub, A.; Priemus, H.

    2003-01-01

    The role of water in the locational bundle of residential value and choice determinants is multiple. Relevant attributes pertain to water quality, proximity and length of water frontage, view, size of water body, coastal development costs, and costs caused by flooding. They also pertain to different

  16. Computer support system for residential environment evaluation for citizen participation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Jian; TEKNOMO Kardi; LU Jiang; HOKAO Kazunori

    2005-01-01

    Though the method of citizen participation in urban planning is quite well established, for a specific segment of residential environment, however, existing participation system has not coped adequately with the issue. The specific residential environment has detailed aspects that need positive and high level involvement of the citizens in participating in all stages and every field of the plan. One of the best and systematic methods to obtain a more involved citizen is through a citizen workshop. To get a more "educated" citizen who participates in the workshop, a special session to inform the citizen on what was previously gathered through a survey was revealed to be prerequisite before the workshop. The computer support system is one of the best tools for this purpose. This paper describes the development of the computer support system for residential environment evaluation system, which is an essential tool to give more information to the citizens before their participation in public workshop. The significant contribution of this paper is the educational system framework involved in the workshop on the public participation system through computer support, especially for residential environment. The framework, development and application of the computer support system are described. The application of a workshop on the computer support system was commented on as very valuable and helpful by the audience as it resulted in greater benefit to have wider range of participation, and deeper level of citizen understanding.

  17. Envelope Thermal Design Optimization for Urban Residential Buildings in Malawi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amos Kalua

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study sought to optimize the envelope thermal design of free-running urban residential buildings in Malawi. It specifically set out to improve the urban residential buildings’ thermal comfort and suggest optimal envelope thermal design features for these buildings. The research study was primarily dependent on computer simulations in EnergyPlus to replicate the typical Malawian urban residential building’s thermal behaviour and then study the impacts of various envelope configurations on the thermal comfort conditions registered in the building. The simulation model was experimentally validated to check its appropriateness to the climatic design conditions prevalent in Malawi and out of the three major cities that were considered, the model was found to be appropriate for use in the two cities of Mzuzu and Lilongwe leaving out the city of Blantyre. The optimization methodology that was employed involved the use of orthogonal arrays, statistical analyses and the listing method. It was found that the optimal envelope thermal design, which registered up to 18% lower discomfort hours than that of the typical urban residential building, consists of a 50 mm concrete floor slab, 230 mm burnt brick walls with an external layer of 19 mm EPS, tiled roof with an internal layer of sarking and 50 mm EPS, double Low-E Glazing with a transparency ratio of 45% and 0.2408 m2 of adaptable operational surface area for the air bricks. Out of all the envelope features that were studied, air infiltration registered the most significant contribution towards the ultimate residential building thermal performance. It was demonstrated that controlled air infiltration through the use of operable air bricks whose operational surface area is adaptable can be very effective in enhancing the building’s comfort levels. It was further observed that excessive insulation of the building envelope generally has a detrimental effect on the indoor space thermal comfort

  18. Residential radon and brain tumour incidence in a Danish cohort.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elvira V Bräuner

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Increased brain tumour incidence over recent decades may reflect improved diagnostic methods and clinical practice, but remain unexplained. Although estimated doses are low a relationship between radon and brain tumours may exist. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the long-term effect of exposure to residential radon on the risk of primary brain tumour in a prospective Danish cohort. METHODS: During 1993-1997 we recruited 57,053 persons. We followed each cohort member for cancer occurrence from enrolment until 31 December 2009, identifying 121 primary brain tumour cases. We traced residential addresses from 1 January 1971 until 31 December 2009 and calculated radon concentrations at each address using information from central databases regarding geology and house construction. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate incidence rate-ratios (IRR and 95% confidence intervals (CI for the risk of primary brain tumours associated with residential radon exposure with adjustment for age, sex, occupation, fruit and vegetable consumption and traffic-related air pollution. Effect modification by air pollution was assessed. RESULTS: Median estimated radon was 40.5 Bq/m(3. The adjusted IRR for primary brain tumour associated with each 100 Bq/m(3 increment in average residential radon levels was 1.96 (95% CI: 1.07; 3.58 and this was exposure-dependently higher over the four radon exposure quartiles. This association was not modified by air pollution. CONCLUSIONS: We found significant associations and exposure-response patterns between long-term residential radon exposure radon in a general population and risk of primary brain tumours, adding new knowledge to this field. This finding could be chance and needs to be challenged in future studies.

  19. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in Residential Dust: Sources of Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metayer, Catherine; Petreas, Myrto; Does, Monique; Buffler, Patricia A.; Rappaport, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: There is interest in using residential dust to estimate human exposure to environmental contaminants. Objectives: We aimed to characterize the sources of variability for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in residential dust and provide guidance for investigators who plan to use residential dust to assess exposure to PAHs. Methods: We collected repeat dust samples from 293 households in the Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study during two sampling rounds (from 2001 through 2007 and during 2010) using household vacuum cleaners, and measured 12 PAHs using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry. We used a random- and a mixed-effects model for each PAH to apportion observed variance into four components and to identify sources of variability. Results: Median concentrations for individual PAHs ranged from 10 to 190 ng/g of dust. For each PAH, total variance was apportioned into regional variability (1–9%), intraregional between-household variability (24–48%), within-household variability over time (41–57%), and within-sample analytical variability (2–33%). Regional differences in PAH dust levels were associated with estimated ambient air concentrations of PAH. Intraregional differences between households were associated with the residential construction date and the smoking habits of residents. For some PAHs, a decreasing time trend explained a modest fraction of the within-household variability; however, most of the within-household variability was unaccounted for by our mixed-effects models. Within-household differences between sampling rounds were largest when the interval between dust sample collections was at least 6 years in duration. Conclusions: Our findings indicate that it may be feasible to use residential dust for retrospective assessment of PAH exposures in studies of health effects. PMID:23461863

  20. Community Design Parameters and the Performance of Residential Cogeneration Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hazem Rashed-Ali

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The integration of cogeneration systems in residential and mixed-use communities has the potential of reducing their energy demand and harmful emissions and can thus play asignificant role in increasing their environmental sustainability. This study investigated the impact of selected planning and architectural design parameters on the environmental and economic performances of centralized cogeneration systems integrated into residential communities in U.S.cold climates. Parameters investigated include: 1 density, 2 use mix, 3 street configuration, 4 housing typology, 5 envelope and building systems’ efficiencies, and 6 passive solar energyutilization. The study integrated several simulation tools into a procedure to assess the impact of each design parameter on the cogeneration system performance. This assessment procedure included: developing a base-line model representing typical design characteristics of U.S. residential communities; assessing the cogeneration system’s performance within this model using three performance indicators: percentage of reduction in primary energy use, percentage of reduction in CO2 emissions; and internal rate of return; assessing the impact of each parameter on the system performance through developing 46 design variations of the base-line model representing potential changes in each parameter and calculating the three indicators for each variation; and finally, using a multi-attribute decision analysis methodology to evaluate the relative impact of each parameter on the cogeneration system performance. The study results show that planning parameters had a higher impact on the cogeneration system performance than architectural ones. Also, a significant correlation was found between design characteristics identified as favorable for the cogeneration system performance and those of sustainable residential communities. These include high densities, high use mix, interconnected street networks, and mixing of

  1. Absorptivity of brown carbon in fresh and photo-chemically aged biomass-burning emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Saleh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Experiments were conducted to investigate light absorption of organic aerosol (OA in fresh and photo-chemically aged biomass-burning emissions. The experiments considered residential hardwood fuel (oak and fuels commonly consumed in wild-land and prescribed fires in the United States (pocosin pine and gallberry. Photo-chemical aging was performed in an environmental chamber. We constrained the effective light-absorption properties of the OA using conservative limiting assumptions, and found that both primary organic aerosol (POA in the fresh emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA produced by photo-chemical aging contain brown carbon, and absorb light to a significant extent. This work presents the first direct evidence that SOA produced in aged biomass-burning emissions is absorptive. For the investigated fuels, SOA is less absorptive than POA in the long visible, but exhibits stronger wavelength-dependence and is more absorptive in the short visible and near-UV. Light absorption by SOA in biomass-burning emissions might be an important contributor to the global radiative forcing budget.

  2. Multifunctional hybrids for electromagnetic absorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huynen, I. [Research Center in Micro and Nanoscopic Materials and Electronic Devices, CeRMiN, Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Information and Communications Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics (ICTEAM), Microwave Laboratory, Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Quievy, N. [Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences (IMCN), Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Bailly, C. [Research Center in Micro and Nanoscopic Materials and Electronic Devices, CeRMiN, Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences (IMCN), Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Institute of Mechanics, Materials and Civil Engineering (iMMC), Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Bollen, P. [Information and Communications Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics (ICTEAM), Microwave Laboratory, Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Institute of Condensed Matter and Nanosciences (IMCN), Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Institute of Mechanics, Materials and Civil Engineering (iMMC), Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Detrembleur, C. [Center for Education and Research on Macromolecules (CERM), University of Liege, Sart-Tilman B6a, 4000 Liege (Belgium); Eggermont, S.; Molenberg, I. [Information and Communications Technologies, Electronics and Applied Mathematics (ICTEAM), Microwave Laboratory, Universite catholique de Louvain, B-1348 Louvain-la-Neuve (Belgium); Thomassin, J.M.; Urbanczyk, L. [Center for Education and Research on Macromolecules (CERM), University of Liege, Sart-Tilman B6a, 4000 Liege (Belgium)

    2011-05-15

    Highlights: > EM absorption requires low dielectric constant and {approx}1 S/m electrical conductivity. > New hybrids were processed with CNT-filled polymer foam inserted in Al honeycomb. > The EM absorption in the GHz range is superior to any known material. > A closed form model is used to guide the design of the hybrid. > The architectured material is light with potential for thermal management. - Abstract: Electromagnetic (EM) interferences are ubiquitous in modern technologies and impact on the reliability of electronic devices and on living cells. Shielding by EM absorption, which is preferable over reflection in certain instances, requires combining a low dielectric constant with high electrical conductivity, which are antagonist properties in the world of materials. A novel class of hybrid materials for EM absorption in the gigahertz range has been developed based on a hierarchical architecture involving a metallic honeycomb filled with a carbon nanotube-reinforced polymer foam. The waveguide characteristics of the honeycomb combined with the performance of the foam lead to unexpectedly large EM power absorption over a wide frequency range, superior to any known material. The peak absorption frequency can be tuned by varying the shape of the honeycomb unit cell. A closed form model of the EM reflection and absorption provides a tool for the optimization of the hybrid. This designed material sets the stage for a new class of sandwich panels combining high EM absorption with mass efficiency, stiffness and thermal management.

  3. Water absorption in brick masonry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brocken, H.J.P.; Smolders, H.R.

    1996-01-01

    The water absorption in brick, mortar that was cured separately, and masonry samples was studied using NMR. Models of the moisture transport are usually formulated on the basis of a diffusion equation. In the case of water absorption in separate brick and mortar samples, the moisture diffusivity in

  4. Phytases for improved iron absorption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anne Veller Friis; Meyer, Anne S.

    2016-01-01

    Phytase enzymes present an alternative to iron supplements, because they have been shown to improve iron absorption by means of catalysing the degradation of a potent iron absorption inhibitor: phytic acid. Phytic acid is a hexaphosphate of inositol and is particularly prevalent in cereal grains...

  5. Tracking the Sun IX: The Installed Price of Residential and Non-Residential Photovoltaic Systems in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area; Darghouth, Naïm [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area; Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Cates, Sarah [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); DiSanti, Nicholas [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Widiss, Rebecca [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States)

    2016-08-16

    Now in its ninth edition, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)’s Tracking the Sun report series is dedicated to summarizing trends in the installed price of grid-connected solar photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States. The present report focuses on residential and non-residential systems installed through year-end 2015, with preliminary trends for the first half of 2016. An accompanying LBNL report, Utility-Scale Solar, addresses trends in the utility-scale sector. This year’s report incorporates a number of important changes and enhancements from prior editions. Among those changes, LBNL has made available a public data file containing all non-confidential project-level data underlying the analysis in this report. Installed pricing trends presented within this report derive primarily from project-level data reported to state agencies and utilities that administer PV incentive programs, solar renewable energy credit (SREC) registration systems, or interconnection processes. Refer to the text box to the right for several key notes about these data. In total, data were collected and cleaned for more than 820,000 individual PV systems, representing 85% of U.S. residential and non-residential PV systems installed cumulatively through 2015 and 82% of systems installed in 2015. The analysis in this report is based on a subset of this sample, consisting of roughly 450,000 systems with available installed price data.

  6. Role of exercise and nutrition on cardiopulmonary fitness and pulmonary functions on residential and non-residential school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodnapur, Jyoti P; Dhanakshirur, Gopal B; Aithala, Manjunatha

    2012-01-01

    Physical fitness is the prime criterion for survival and to lead a healthy life. Our aim is to find out effect of exercise and nutrition on physical fitness on growing children with scientific records. The present study was designed on healthy school children of a Residential-Sainik (100) and Non-Residential (100) school children (12-16 yrs) of Bijapur. To evaluate cardiopulmonary fitness parameters included are VO2Max (ml/kg/min) and Physical Fitness Index (PFI %). Harvard Step Test determined VO2 Max and PFI. Also recorded pulmonary function parameters like Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 sec (FEV1 in %) by recording spirometry. Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR in L/Min) by Peak flow meter and Maximal Expiratory Pressure (MEP in mmHg) by modified Black's apparatus. We found statistically significant higher values (p = 0.000) of VO2Max, PFI, FEV1, PEFR and MEP in residential school children compared to nonresidential school children higher. So, our study shows that regular exercise and nutritious food increase the cardiopulmonary fitness values and pulmonary functions in Residential school children.

  7. Therapeutic Residential Care for Children and Youth : A Consensus Statement of the International Work Group on Therapeutic Residential Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whittaker, James K.; Holmes, Lisa; del Valle, Jorge F.; Ainsworth, Frank; Andreassen, Tore; Anglin, James P.; Bellonci, Christopher; Berridge, David; Bravo, Amaia; Canali, Cinzia; Courtney, Mark; Currey, Laura; Daly, Daniel L.; Gilligan, Robbie; Grietens, Hans; Harder, Annemiek T.; Holden, Martha J.; James, Sigrid; Kendrick, Andrew; Knorth, Erik J.; Lausten, Mette; Lyons, John S.; Martin, Eduardo; McDermid, Samantha; McNamara, Patricia; Palareti, Laura; Ramsey, Susan; Sisson, Kari M.; Small, Richard W.; Thoburn, June; Thompson, Ronald; Zeira, Anat

    While the focus of this consensus statement and the review volume that preceded it (Whittaker, Del Valle, & Holmes, 2014) is on therapeutic residential care (TRC), a specialized form of group care, we view our work as supportive of a much wider effort internationally concerned with the quality of

  8. Tracking the Sun VIII. The Installed Price of Residential and Non-Residential Photovoltaic Systems in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbose, Galen L. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Darghouth, Naïm R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Millstein, Dev [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Spears, Mike [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wiser, Ryan H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Buckley, Michael [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Widiss, Rebecca [Exeter Associates, Columbia, MD (United States); Grue, Nick [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Now in its eighth edition, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)’s Tracking the Sun report series is dedicated to summarizing trends in the installed price of grid-connected solar photovoltaic (PV) systems in the United States. The present report focuses on residential and nonresidential systems installed through year-end 2014, with preliminary trends for the first half of 2015. As noted in the text box below, this year’s report incorporates a number of important changes and enhancements. Among those changes, this year's report focuses solely on residential and nonresidential PV systems; data on utility-scale PV are reported in LBNL’s companion Utility-Scale Solar report series. Installed pricing trends presented within this report derive primarily from project-level data reported to state agencies and utilities that administer PV incentive programs, solar renewable energy credit (SREC) registration systems, or interconnection processes. In total, data were collected for roughly 400,000 individual PV systems, representing 81% of all U.S. residential and non-residential PV capacity installed through 2014 and 62% of capacity installed in 2014, though a smaller subset of this data were used in analysis.

  9. Residential magnetic field: Accounting for external sources and residential grounding circuits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barrow, D.A.

    1989-06-14

    A project to characterize the sources of magnetic fields in residential locations was established as part of Ontario Hydro's program to assess the risks, if any, posed by fields due to the electric power system. In this report, a simple model for the strength of the magnetic field at 60 Hz found inside houses is developed to account for the house wiring, and for sources external to the house. In the model the house wiring is reduced to a single circuit carrying the net current on the service drop to the house and the service grounding current. All sources external to the house are combined and represented as a single ambient field assumed to be spatially uniform throughout the volume of the house. This model and a measurmement procedure were tested on 5 houses in locations inside the houses remote from appliances, which were not included in the model. In the main, good agreement was found between actual measured field strengths and those predicted by the model. 4 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.

  10. Light absorption of silicon nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gondorf, Andreas; Meier, Cedrik; Luettjohann, Stephan; Offer, Matthias; Lorke, Axel [Experimental Physics, University of Duisburg-Essen (Germany); Wiggers, Hartmut [Combustion and Gas Dynamics, University of Duisburg-Essen (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    We have studied silicon nanoparticles fabricated by gas-phase condensation and in-flight sintering using absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. We observe a quantum size effect in PL as well as in absorption spectroscopy. From an analysis of the absorption spectra we are able to identify the character of the band gap of the nanoparticles as indirect. This result is supported by measurements of the decay time of the photoluminescence of excitons. The decay time is four orders of magnitude larger than in direct semiconductors. Moreover, we are able to observe the influence of the particle size distribution in the absorption spectra. The size distribution follows the lognormal distribution. In order to explain the surprisingly small dependence of the absorption edge on the mean particle diameter, we discuss a model which takes into acount the lognormal size distribution.

  11. Gastrointestinal citrate absorption in nephrolithiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fegan, J.; Khan, R.; Poindexter, J.; Pak, C. Y.

    1992-01-01

    Gastrointestinal absorption of citrate was measured in stone patients with idiopathic hypocitraturia to determine if citrate malabsorption could account for low urinary citrate. Citrate absorption was measured directly from recovery of orally administered potassium citrate (40 mEq.) in the intestinal lavage fluid, using an intestinal washout technique. In 7 stone patients citrate absorption, serum citrate levels, peak citrate concentration in serum and area under the curve were not significantly different from those of 7 normal subjects. Citrate absorption was rapid and efficient in both groups, with 96 to 98% absorbed within 3 hours. The absorption of citrate was less efficient from a tablet preparation of potassium citrate than from a liquid preparation, probably due to a delayed release of citrate from wax matrix. However, citrate absorption from solid potassium citrate was still high at 91%, compared to 98% for a liquid preparation. Thus, hypocitraturia is unlikely to be due to an impaired gastrointestinal absorption of citrate in stone patients without overt bowel disease.

  12. Total light absorption in graphene

    CERN Document Server

    Thongrattanasiri, Sukosin; de Abajo, F Javier Garcia

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that 100% light absorption can take place in a single patterned sheet of doped graphene. General analysis shows that a planar array of small lossy particles exhibits full absorption under critical-coupling conditions provided the cross section of each individual particle is comparable to the area of the lattice unit-cell. Specifically, arrays of doped graphene nanodisks display full absorption when supported on a substrate under total internal reflection, and also when lying on a dielectric layer coating a metal. Our results are relevant for infrared light detectors and sources, which can be made tunable via electrostatic doping of graphene.

  13. Therapeutische residentiële hulp voor kinderen en jongeren : Een consensus verklaring van de Internationale Werkgroep Therapeutische Residentiële Zorg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whittaker, James K.; Holmes, Lisa; del Valle, Jorge F.; Ainsworth, Frank; Andreassen, Tore; Anglin, James P.; Bellonci, Christopher; Berridge, David; Bravo, Amaia; Canali, Cinzia; Courtney, Mark E.; Currey, Laura; Daly, Daniel L.; Gilligan, Robbie; Grietens, Hans; Harder, Annemiek T.; Holden, Martha J.; James, Sigrid; Kendrick, Andrew; Knorth, Erik J.; Lausten, Mette; Lyons, John S.; Martín, Eduardo; McDermid, Samantha; McNamara, Patricia; Palareti, Laura; Ramsey, Susan; Sisson, Kari M.; Small, Richard W.; Thoburn, June; Thompson, Ronald W.; Zeira, Anat

    2017-01-01

    In veel ontwikkelde landen wordt in toenemende mate kritiek geleverd op residentiële interventies bij kinderen en jongeren. Tegen de achtergrond hiervan vond in het voorjaar 2016 in Engeland een internationale conferentie plaats van experts uit 13 landen op het gebied van therapeutische residentiële

  14. Therapeutische residentiële hulp voor kinderen en jongeren : Een consensus verklaring van de Internationale Werkgroep Therapeutische Residentiële Zorg

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Whittaker, James K.; Holmes, Lisa; del Valle, Jorge F.; Ainsworth, Frank; Andreassen, Tore; Anglin, James P.; Bellonci, Christopher; Berridge, David; Bravo, Amaia; Canali, Cinzia; Courtney, Mark E.; Currey, Laura; Daly, Daniel L.; Gilligan, Robbie; Grietens, Hans; Harder, Annemiek T.; Holden, Martha J.; James, Sigrid; Kendrick, Andrew; Knorth, Erik J.; Lausten, Mette; Lyons, John S.; Martín, Eduardo; McDermid, Samantha; McNamara, Patricia; Palareti, Laura; Ramsey, Susan; Sisson, Kari M.; Small, Richard W.; Thoburn, June; Thompson, Ronald W.; Zeira, Anat

    2017-01-01

    In veel ontwikkelde landen wordt in toenemende mate kritiek geleverd op residentiële interventies bij kinderen en jongeren. Tegen de achtergrond hiervan vond in het voorjaar 2016 in Engeland een internationale conferentie plaats van experts uit 13 landen op het gebied van therapeutische residentiële

  15. Costs of Residential Solar PV Plants in Distribution Grid Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Søren Bækhøj; Yang, Guangya; Ipsen, Hans Henrik

    2015-01-01

    In this article we investigate the impact of residential solar PV plants on energy losses in distribution networks and their impact on distribution transformers lifetime. Current guidelines in Denmark states that distribution transformers should not be loaded with more than 67% solar PV power...... to avoid accelerated loss of life. If a solar PV plant causes this limit to be exceeded, the particular owner has to pay for upgrading the transformer. Distribution Network Operators also charge an annual tariff from the solar PV plants to cover the expenses to keep the grid capacity available, the so...... called “Availability Tariff”. According to the Danish Energy Regulatory Authority, the Availability Tariff must cover the exact expenses, with energy savings etc. from the solar PV plants taken into consideration. Our conclusion is that a distribution network, which represents a typical residential...

  16. Residential radon and lung cancer incidence in a Danish cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira Vaclavik; Andersen, Claus Erik; Sørensen, Mette

    2012-01-01

    non-smokers. We found no evidence of effect modification.We find a positive association between radon and lung cancer risk consistent with previous studies but the role of chance cannot be excluded as these associations were not statistically significant. Our results provide valuable information......High-level occupational radon exposure is an established risk factor for lung cancer. We assessed the long-term association between residential radon and lung cancer risk using a prospective Danish cohort using 57,053 persons recruited during 1993–1997. We followed each cohort member for cancer...... occurrence until 27 June 2006, identifying 589 lung cancer cases. We traced residential addresses from 1 January 1971 until 27 June 2006 and calculated radon at each of these addresses using information from central databases regarding geology and house construction. Cox proportional hazards models were used...

  17. Residential radon-222 exposure and lung cancer: exposure assessment methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, R W; Steck, D J; Lynch, C F; Brus, C P; Neuberger, J S; Kross, B C

    1996-01-01

    Although occupational epidemiological studies and animal experimentation provide strong evidence that radon-222 (222Rn) progeny exposure causes lung cancer, residential epidemiological studies have not confirmed this association. Past residential epidemiological studies have yielded contradictory findings. Exposure misclassification has seriously compromised the ability of these studies to detect whether an association exists between 222Rn exposure and lung cancer. Misclassification of 222Rn exposure has arisen primarily from: 1) detector measurement error; 2) failure to consider temporal and spatial 222Rn variations within a home; 3) missing data from previously occupied homes that currently are inaccessible; 4) failure to link 222Rn concentrations with subject mobility; and 5) measuring 222Rn gas concentration as a surrogate for 222Rn progeny exposure. This paper examines these methodological dosimetry problems and addresses how we are accounting for them in an ongoing, population-based, case-control study of 222Rn and lung cancer in Iowa.

  18. Technology change and energy consumption: A comparison of residential subdivisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieves, L. A.; Nieves, A. L.

    The energy savings in residential buildings likely to result from implementation of the building energy performance standards (BEPS) were assessed. The goals were to: compare energy use in new homes designed to meet or exceed BEPS levels of energy efficiency with that in similar but older homes designed to meet conventional building codes, and to survey the home owners regarding their energy conservation attitudes and behaviors and to ascertain the degree to which conservation attitudes and behaviors are related to residential energy use. The consumer demand theory which provides the framework for the empirical analysis is presented. The sample residences are described and the data collection method discussed. The definition and measurement of major variables are presented.

  19. A Statistical Survey of the UK Residential Sector Electrical Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsagarakis, George; Collin, Adam; Kiprakis, Aristides

    2013-09-01

    This article presents a comprehensive statistical analysis of data obtained from a wide range of literature on the most widely used appliances in the UK residential load sector, as well as a comprehensive technology and market survey conducted by the authors. The article focuses on the individual appliances and begins by consideration of the electrical operations performed by the load. This approach allows for the loads to be categorised based on the electrical characteristics, which is particularly important for implementing load-use statistics in power system analysis. In addition to this, device ownership statistics and probability density functions of power demand are presented for the main residential loads. Although the data presented is primarily intended as a resource for the development of load profiles for power system analysis, it contains a large volume of information that provides a useful database for the wider research community.

  20. Residential ozone and lung function in the elderly

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Braeuner, Elvira V.; Karottki, Dorina Gabriela; Frederiksen, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Ground level ozone arises primarily from traffic, it is a powerful oxidant and its primary target organ is the lung. Most epidemiological studies reporting the health effects of ozone have estimated individual exposure from measurements obtained from outdoor monitors but surrogates of personal...... exposure may not adequately reflect personal exposures. Also, the main focus has been on infants and children. Our purpose was to assess associations between urban background ozone and indoor residential ozone levels as well as to investigate the effects of indoor residential ozone on lung function in 51...... elderly non-smokers. Indoor ozone was measured passively in homes, while urban background outdoor ozone was monitored continuously at a fixed monitoring station located on the roof of the 20-m high university H.C. Ørsteds campus building in a park area. Lung function was measured at baseline as well...

  1. Maximizing Information from Residential Measurements of Volatile Organic Compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddalena, Randy [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Li, Na [Berkeley Analytical Associates, Richmond, CA (United States); Hodgson, Alfred [Berkeley Analytical Associates, Richmond, CA (United States); Offermann, Francis [Indoor Environmental Engineering, San Francisco, CA (United States); Singer, Brett [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2013-02-01

    Continually changing materials used in home construction and finishing can introduce new chemicals or changes in the VOC profile in residential air and the trend towards tighter homes can lead to higher exposure concentrations for many indoor sources. However, the complex mixture of VOCs in residential air makes it difficult to discover emerging contaminants and/or trends in pollutant profiles. The purpose of this study is to prepare a comprehensive library of chemicals found in homes, along with a semi-quantitative approach to maximize the information gained from VOC measurements. We carefully reviewed data from 108 new California homes and identified 238 individual compounds. The majority of the identified VOCs originated indoors. Only 31% were found to have relevant health based exposure guidelines and less than 10% had a chronic reference exposure level (CREL). The finding highlights the importance of extending IAQ studies to include a wider range of VOCs

  2. Interprofessional student teams augmenting service provision in residential aged care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kent, Fiona; Lai, Francis; Beovich, Bronwyn; Dodic, Miodrag

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the usefulness of student-led interprofessional consultations within residential aged care in augmenting patient care and enhancing student education. Volunteer fourth and final year health-care students conducted interprofessional consultations. In a mixed methods design, residents' health-care changes and perspectives were collected prospectively, and student and educator perceptions were measured by survey and interview. Sixteen aged care residents were consulted by interprofessional teams. Students identified two new health issues and proposed 17 recommendations for referrals and five changes to medication management. At six-weeks follow-up, two recommendations had been acted upon clinically, and two medication changes had been implemented. Reasons for the low uptake of recommendations were determined. Residents, students and educators reported high levels of satisfaction. Residential care facilities offer a useful interprofessional learning environment. Student consultations are positively regarded by patients, students and educators and may augment existing health services. © 2016 AJA Inc.

  3. Data report for the Southwest Residential Experiment Station, February 1982

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lieberman, M.; Hai, O. Y.; Hocking, G.; Whitaker, C.

    1982-04-01

    Tabulated are physical performance data obtained from the photovoltaic energy systems under test at the Southwest Residential Experiment Station (SW RES) in Las Cruces, New Mexico for the month of February 1982. A one-page data summary is included as well as a more detailed hourly tabulation for an average day of the month. Energy histograms are provided for each prototype system. The histograms also present horizontal and plane-of-array insolation data as well as comments that explain data and/or energy production anomalies. Eight prototype residential PV systems are under test, each consisting of a roof-mounted PV array sized to meet at least 50% of the annual electric demand of an energy-conserving house, and an enclosed structure to house the remainder of the PV system equipment, test instrumentation, and work space. All systems are grid-connected.

  4. Residential Radon and Brain Tumour Incidence in a Danish Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira V.; Andersen, Zorana J.; Andersen, Claus Erik;

    2013-01-01

    (CI) for the risk of primary brain tumours associated with residential radon exposure with adjustment for age, sex, occupation, fruit and vegetable consumption and traffic-related air pollution. Effect modification by air pollution was assessed. Results: Median estimated radon was 40.5 Bq/m3......Background: Increased brain tumour incidence over recent decades may reflect improved diagnostic methods and clinical practice, but remain unexplained. Although estimated doses are low a relationship between radon and brain tumours may exist. Objective: To investigate the long-term effect...... of exposure to residential radon on the risk of primary brain tumour in a prospective Danish cohort. Methods: During 1993–1997 we recruited 57,053 persons. We followed each cohort member for cancer occurrence from enrolment until 31 December 2009, identifying 121 primary brain tumour cases. We traced...

  5. Spatial Boundaries and the Local Context of Residential Segregation

    CERN Document Server

    Roberto, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Spatial boundaries are a defining feature of a city's social and spatial organization. Rivers, highways, and train tracks create excess distance between nearby locations and often mark social separation -- they become dividing lines that are well known to residents. Qualitative studies are rich with insight about the local significance of boundaries, but they have been largely ignored in the quantitative segregation literature. I advance existing scholarship by integrating spatial boundaries into the way we measure residential segregation for city populations. I introduce a new method that measures the proximity of residential locations and the reach of local environments around each location using road distance. This is more realistic than straight line ("as the crow flies") distance, because it captures the connectivity of roads and the distance imposed by physical boundaries. I measure segregation using the Divergence Index, which evaluates how surprising the composition of each local environment is given ...

  6. Estimating elasticity for residential electricity demand in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, G; Zheng, X; Song, F

    2012-01-01

    Residential demand for electricity is estimated for China using a unique household level dataset. Household electricity demand is specified as a function of local electricity price, household income, and a number of social-economic variables at household level. We find that the residential demand for electricity responds rather sensitively to its own price in China, which implies that there is significant potential to use the price instrument to conserve electricity consumption. Electricity elasticities across different heterogeneous household groups (e.g., rich versus poor and rural versus urban) are also estimated. The results show that the high income group is more price elastic than the low income group, while rural families are more price elastic than urban families. These results have important policy implications for designing an increasing block tariff.

  7. Costs of Residential Solar PV Plants in Distribution Grid Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Søren Bækhøj; Yang, Guangya; Ipsen, Hans Henrik

    2015-01-01

    In this article we investigate the impact of residential solar PV plants on energy losses in distribution networks and their impact on distribution transformers lifetime. Current guidelines in Denmark states that distribution transformers should not be loaded with more than 67% solar PV power...... called “Availability Tariff”. According to the Danish Energy Regulatory Authority, the Availability Tariff must cover the exact expenses, with energy savings etc. from the solar PV plants taken into consideration. Our conclusion is that a distribution network, which represents a typical residential...... to avoid accelerated loss of life. If a solar PV plant causes this limit to be exceeded, the particular owner has to pay for upgrading the transformer. Distribution Network Operators also charge an annual tariff from the solar PV plants to cover the expenses to keep the grid capacity available, the so...

  8. Residential Radon and Brain Tumour Incidence in a Danish Cohort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bräuner, Elvira V.; Andersen, Zorana J.; Andersen, Claus Erik;

    2013-01-01

    Background: Increased brain tumour incidence over recent decades may reflect improved diagnostic methods and clinical practice, but remain unexplained. Although estimated doses are low a relationship between radon and brain tumours may exist. Objective: To investigate the long-term effect...... of exposure to residential radon on the risk of primary brain tumour in a prospective Danish cohort. Methods: During 1993–1997 we recruited 57,053 persons. We followed each cohort member for cancer occurrence from enrolment until 31 December 2009, identifying 121 primary brain tumour cases. We traced...... residential addresses from 1 January 1971 until 31 December 2009 and calculated radon concentrations at each address using information from central databases regarding geology and house construction. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate incidence rate-ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals...

  9. Resource handbook for low-income residential retrofits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Callaway, J.W.; Brenchley, D.L.; Davis, L.J.; Ivey, D.L.; Smith, S.A.; Westergard, E.J.

    1987-04-01

    The purpose of the handbook is to provide technical assistance to state grantees participating in the Partnerships in Low-Income Residential Retrofit (PILIRR) Program. PILIRR is a demonstration program aimed at identifying innovative, successful approaches to developing public and private support for weatherization of low-income households. The program reflects the basic concept that responsibility for financial support for conservation activities such as low-income residential retrofitting is likely to gradually shift from the DOE to the states and the private sector. In preparing the handbook, PNL staff surveyed over 50 programs that provide assistance to low-income residents. The survey provided information on factors that contribute to successful programs. PNL also studied the winning PILIRR proposals (from the states of Florida, Iowa, Kentucky, Oklahoma and Washington) and identified the approaches proposed and the type of information that would be most helpful in implementing these approaches.

  10. Identifying fall-protection training needs for residential roofing subcontractors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Yu-Hsiu; Winchester, Woodrow W; Smith-Jackson, Tonya L; Kleiner, Brian M; Babski-Reeves, Kari L; Mills, Thomas H

    2013-05-01

    Falls remain the leading cause of injuries and fatalities in the small residential roofing industry and analogous investigations are underrepresented in the literature. To address this issue, fall-protection training needs were explored through 29 semi-structured interviews among residential roofing subcontractors with respect to recommendations for the design of fall-protection training. Content analysis using grounded theory was conducted to analyze participants' responses. Results of the analysis revealed six themes related to the design of current fall-protection training: (1) barriers to safety training; (2) problems of formal safety-training programs; (3) recommendations for training implementation; (4) important areas for fall-protection training; (5) training delivery means; and (6) design features of training materials. Results of the study suggest the need for informal jobsite safety training to complement what had been covered in formalized safety training. This work also provides recommendations for the design of a more likely adopted fall-protection training program.

  11. A Method for Determining Optimal Residential Energy Efficiency Packages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Polly, B. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Gestwick, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Bianchi, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Anderson, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Horowitz, S. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Christensen, C. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Judkoff, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2011-04-01

    This report describes an analysis method for determining optimal residential energy efficiency retrofit packages and, as an illustrative example, applies the analysis method to a 1960s-era home in eight U.S. cities covering a range of International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) climate regions. The method uses an optimization scheme that considers average energy use (determined from building energy simulations) and equivalent annual cost to recommend optimal retrofit packages specific to the building, occupants, and location.

  12. 76 FR 42688 - Updating State Residential Building Energy Efficiency Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-19

    ...The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE or Department) has determined that the 2009 edition of the International Code Council (ICC) International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) (2009 IECC or 2009 edition) would achieve greater energy efficiency in low-rise residential buildings than the 2006 IECC, with site energy savings estimated at 14%. Also, DOE has determined that the 2006 edition of the ICC......

  13. Greenhouse Gas Emissions from Excavation on Residential Construction Sites

    OpenAIRE

    Perry Forsythe; Grace Ding

    2014-01-01

    Despite considerable research concerning the manifestation of greenhouse gases in the usage of buildings, little has been done concerning emissions arising from the construction process itself. This paper specifically examines emissions arising from cut and fill excavation on residential construction sites. Even though such excavation is often seen as being economical in terms of providing a flat base for concrete raft slab construction, the environmental consequences of this approach need to...

  14. Demand Flexibility Time Intervals for Aggregate Residential Load Patterns

    OpenAIRE

    Sajjad, Intisar A.; CHICCO Gianfranco; Napoli, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the definition of demand flexibility time intervals. These intervals are extracted from the binomial probability model of load variation patterns with the two possible categories of increase and non-increase in demand. These intervals along with the information on the coefficient of variation of the aggregate demand are used to assess the potential of demand flexibility exhibited by the aggregate residential demand in different periods of the day. The results of the prop...

  15. Reviewing Green roof design approaches: Case study of residential buildings

    OpenAIRE

    Özarısoy, Bertuğ

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT: High density of the residential areas and steep land value in the cities have driven people to maximize liveable and productive spaces in urban settings. This includes the reinvention of roof functions extending merely as a protection from the elements to a platform of housing green building technologies such as green roofs. Increased interest in green roofs have led to advances in technology. An entire industry has sprung up which specializes in lightweight growing materials, ro...

  16. LITIGATIONS, DAMAGES AND SOLUTIONS IN RESIDENTIAL MORTGAGE-BACKED SECURITIES

    OpenAIRE

    Jomadar, Dinesh

    2009-01-01

    Mortgage-backed securities (MBS) are debt obligations whose cash flows are backed by the principal and interest payments of pools of mortgage loans, most commonly on residential property (Riddiough, 2001). Lenders establish underwriting guidelines, evaluate prospective homeowners’ credit, and make loans. Having done so, lenders generally hold only a fraction of the loans they make in their own portfolios. Most are sold to the secondary market, where they are pooled and become the underlying a...

  17. Positional error in automated geocoding of residential addresses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talbot Thomas O

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Public health applications using geographic information system (GIS technology are steadily increasing. Many of these rely on the ability to locate where people live with respect to areas of exposure from environmental contaminants. Automated geocoding is a method used to assign geographic coordinates to an individual based on their street address. This method often relies on street centerline files as a geographic reference. Such a process introduces positional error in the geocoded point. Our study evaluated the positional error caused during automated geocoding of residential addresses and how this error varies between population densities. We also evaluated an alternative method of geocoding using residential property parcel data. Results Positional error was determined for 3,000 residential addresses using the distance between each geocoded point and its true location as determined with aerial imagery. Error was found to increase as population density decreased. In rural areas of an upstate New York study area, 95 percent of the addresses geocoded to within 2,872 m of their true location. Suburban areas revealed less error where 95 percent of the addresses geocoded to within 421 m. Urban areas demonstrated the least error where 95 percent of the addresses geocoded to within 152 m of their true location. As an alternative to using street centerline files for geocoding, we used residential property parcel points to locate the addresses. In the rural areas, 95 percent of the parcel points were within 195 m of the true location. In suburban areas, this distance was 39 m while in urban areas 95 percent of the parcel points were within 21 m of the true location. Conclusion Researchers need to determine if the level of error caused by a chosen method of geocoding may affect the results of their project. As an alternative method, property data can be used for geocoding addresses if the error caused by traditional methods is

  18. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Residential Dust: Sources of Variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehead, Todd P.; Brown, F. Reber; Metayer, Catherine; Park, June-Soo; Does, Monique; Petreas, Myrto X.; Buffler, Patricia A.; Rappaport, Stephen M.

    2013-01-01

    We characterized the sources of variability for polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in residential dust and provided guidance for investigators who plan to use residential dust to assess exposure to PBDEs. We collected repeat dust samples from 292 households in the Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study during two sampling rounds (from 2001–2007 and during 2010) using household vacuum cleaners and measured 22 PBDEs using high resolution gas chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry. Median concentrations for individual PBDEs ranged from <0.1–2,500 ng per g of dust. For each of eight representative PBDEs, we used a random-effects model to apportion total variance into regional variability (0–11%), intra-regional between-household variability (17–50%), within-household variability over time (38–74%), and within-sample variability (0–23%) and we used a mixed-effects model to identify determinants of PBDE levels. Regional differences in PBDE dust levels were associated with residential characteristics that differed by region, including the presence of furniture with exposed or crumbling foam and the recent installation of carpets in the residence. Intra-regional differences between households were associated with neighborhood urban density, racial and ethnic characteristics, and to a lesser extent, income. For some PBDEs, a decreasing time trend explained a modest fraction of the within-household variability; however, most of the within-household variability was unaccounted for by our mixed-effects models. Our findings indicate that it may be feasible to use residential dust for retrospective assessment of PBDE exposures in studies of children’s health (e.g., the Northern California Childhood Leukemia Study). PMID:23628589

  19. PERSONALITY TRAITS IN ADOLESCENTS ASSISTED IN RESIDENTIAL CARE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conţiu Tiberiu Şoitu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The article aims to describe motivational and affective personality traits of adolescents assisted in residential care. The analysis is based on comparing the results of psychological testing among adolescents and teens in foster care and in families of origin. Data analysis has confirmed the existence of multiple sources ofinfluence. There were differences determined by both urban and rural, by adolescent gender and young institutionalized status or raised in the family home.

  20. Potentials and Economics of Residential Thermal Loads Providing Regulation Reserve

    OpenAIRE

    Hao, He; Sanandaji, Borhan M.; Poolla, Kameshwar; Vincent, Tyrone L.

    2014-01-01

    Residential Thermostatically Controlled Loads (TCLs) such as Air Conditioners (ACs), heat pumps, water heaters, and refrigerators have an enormous thermal storage potential for providing regulation reserve to the grid. In this paper, we study the potential resource and economic analysis of TCLs providing frequency regulation service. In particular, we show that the potential resource of TCLs in California is more than enough for both current and predicted near-future regulation requirements f...

  1. Compliance with Washington State's requirement for residential carbon monoxide alarms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil B. Hampson

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO poisoning is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in the US. In response, a majority of states have passed legislation in recent years requiring the installation of residential CO alarms. There is, however, no published information evaluating compliance with such laws. Employees of a Seattle medical center were surveyed in 2008 regarding home use of CO and smoke alarms. Washington State enacted legislation requiring residential CO alarms by all residences by January 1, 2013. The survey was repeated in mid-2016 to evaluate compliance. In 2016, a total of 354 employees completed the survey and their responses were compared to an equal number of 2008 survey respondents matched by home ownership and ZIP code. Residential CO alarm use rose from 37% to 78% (p < 0.0001. Among homeowners, 78% had alarms while 80% of renters had them. Homeowners with the highest compliance (96% had purchased their homes since January 1, 2013 while those with the lowest compliance (73% had purchased them earlier. A majority (79% of renters without alarms reported the reason was that their landlord did not provide one, a violation of the law. Only one-half to two-thirds of all equipped homes had the required number of either CO or smoke alarms. Use of residential CO alarms increased significantly in this study population three years after law required them. Areas for further improvement include education of landlords, tenants, and longtime homeowners about the law, as well as public education regarding the number of CO and smoke alarms needed.

  2. Optimal load scheduling in commercial and residential microgrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganji Tanha, Mohammad Mahdi

    Residential and commercial electricity customers use more than two third of the total energy consumed in the United States, representing a significant resource of demand response. Price-based demand response, which is in response to changes in electricity prices, represents the adjustments in load through optimal load scheduling (OLS). In this study, an efficient model for OLS is developed for residential and commercial microgrids which include aggregated loads in single-units and communal loads. Single unit loads which include fixed, adjustable and shiftable loads are controllable by the unit occupants. Communal loads which include pool pumps, elevators and central heating/cooling systems are shared among the units. In order to optimally schedule residential and commercial loads, a community-based optimal load scheduling (CBOLS) is proposed in this thesis. The CBOLS schedule considers hourly market prices, occupants' comfort level, and microgrid operation constraints. The CBOLS' objective in residential and commercial microgrids is the constrained minimization of the total cost of supplying the aggregator load, defined as the microgrid load minus the microgrid generation. This problem is represented by a large-scale mixed-integer optimization for supplying single-unit and communal loads. The Lagrangian relaxation methodology is used to relax the linking communal load constraint and decompose the independent single-unit functions into subproblems which can be solved in parallel. The optimal solution is acceptable if the aggregator load limit and the duality gap are within the bounds. If any of the proposed criteria is not satisfied, the Lagrangian multiplier will be updated and a new optimal load schedule will be regenerated until both constraints are satisfied. The proposed method is applied to several case studies and the results are presented for the Galvin Center load on the 16th floor of the IIT Tower in Chicago.

  3. Circadian Regulation of Macronutrient Absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, M Mahmood; Pan, Xiaoyue

    2015-12-01

    Various intestinal functions exhibit circadian rhythmicity. Disruptions in these rhythms as in shift workers and transcontinental travelers are associated with intestinal discomfort. Circadian rhythms are controlled at the molecular level by core clock and clock-controlled genes. These clock genes are expressed in intestinal cells, suggesting that they might participate in the circadian regulation of intestinal functions. A major function of the intestine is nutrient absorption. Here, we will review absorption of proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids and circadian regulation of various transporters involved in their absorption. A better understanding of circadian regulation of intestinal absorption might help control several metabolic disorders and attenuate intestinal discomfort associated with disruptions in sleep-wake cycles.

  4. Bent Electro-Absorption Modulator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2002-01-01

    components and the applied electric field in relation to the frequency of the modulated radiation, the bending losses (and possibly coupling losses) will provide extinction of light guided by the bent waveguide section. The refractive index contract may be modulated while keeping the absorption coefficient...... substantially constant and small, whereby the guided light can be modulated only by bending losses. Alternatively, the invention may be applied to enhance the extinction ratio of existing absorption modulators such as Electro-Absorption Modulators (EAMs) in which case extinction by absorption and extinction......The present invention relates to a method and a device for modulating optical signals based on modulating bending losses in bend, quantum well semiconductor waveguide sections. The complex refractive index of the optical active semiconducting components of the waveguide section is modulated...

  5. Reproducibility of The Random Incidence Absorption Coefficient Converted From the Sabine Absorption Coefficient

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeong, Cheol-Ho; Chang, Ji-ho

    2015-01-01

    Absorption coefficients measured in reverberation chambers, Sabine absorption coefficients, suffer from two major problems. Firstly, they sometimes exceed unity. Secondly, the reproducibility of the Sabine absorption coefficients is quite poor, meaning that the Sabine absorption coefficients vary...

  6. Absorption Of Dietary Lipid Components

    OpenAIRE

    Abdulkadir Hurşit

    2015-01-01

    Although the digestion and absorption of lipids that are necessary for the survival of living organisms are well known in general terms, nevertheless how different lipids to be digested, how it is distributed into the bloodstream, and how to be used by the cells, are unknown issues by most non specialist people. In recent years, knowledge of lipid digestion and absorption has expanded considerably. More insight has been gained in the mechanism of action of H + pump as a transport system in fa...

  7. OZONE ABSORPTION IN RAW WATERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LJILJANA TAKIĆ

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The ozone absorption in raw water entering the main ozonization step at the Belgrade drinking water supply plant was investigated in a continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR. A slow chemical reaction rate of dissolved ozone and pollutants present in raw water have been experimentally determined. The modified Hatta number was defined and calculated as a criterion which determines whether and to which extent the reactions of ozone and pollutants influence the rate of the pure physical ozone absorption.

  8. Residential Mobility and Breast Cancer in Marin County, California, USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geoffrey M. Jacquez

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Marin County (California, USA has among the highest incidences of breast cancer in the U.S. A previously conducted case-control study found eight significant risk factors in participants enrolled from 1997–1999. These included being premenopausal, never using birth control pills, lower highest lifetime body mass index, having four or more mammograms from 1990–1994, beginning drinking alcohol after age 21, drinking an average two or more alcoholic drinks per day, being in the highest quartile of pack-years of cigarette smoking, and being raised in an organized religion. Previously conducted surveys provided residential histories; while  statistic accounted for participants’ residential mobility, and assessed clustering of breast cancer cases relative to controls based on the known risk factors. These identified specific cases, places, and times of excess breast cancer risk. Analysis found significant global clustering of cases localized to specific residential histories and times. Much of the observed clustering occurred among participants who immigrated to Marin County. However, persistent case-clustering of greater than fifteen years duration was also detected. Significant case-clustering among long-term residents may indicate geographically localized risk factors not accounted for in the study design, as well as uncertainty and incompleteness in the acquired addresses. Other plausible explanations include environmental risk factors and cases tending to settle in specific areas. A biologically plausible exposure or risk factor has yet to be identified.

  9. Urban BIPV in the new residential construction industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elzinga, D.

    2008-03-15

    This report for the International Energy Agency (IEA) made by Task 10 of the Photovoltaic Power Systems (PVPS) programme takes a look at urban building-integrated photovoltaics (BIPV) in the new residential construction industry. The mission of the Photovoltaic Power Systems Programme is to enhance the international collaboration efforts which accelerate the development and deployment of photovoltaic solar energy. The aim of Task 10 is stated as being to enhance the opportunities for wide-scale, solution-oriented application of photovoltaics in the urban environment. The report states that different types of building require different approaches to BIPV due to their associated varying dimensions and geometry. Several solutions are proposed to encourage the adoption and diffusion of BIPV by the new home residential building industry. These are divided into PV industry-based approaches and policy-based solutions. The former include end-customer focused policies, the identification of early adopters, the creation of product solutions that meet the needs of the building industry and standards and that the construction industry must be engaged in the design and planning stage of residential developments. Policy questions discussed include the provision of incentives, a planned approach to the demonstration of BIPV and the development of BIPV-specific policy.

  10. Electricity end-uses in the residential sector of Brazil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghisi, Enedir; Gosch, Samuel; Lamberts, Roberto [Federal University of Santa Catarina, Florianopolis (Brazil). Laboratory of Energy Efficiency in Buildings, Department of Civil Engineering

    2007-08-15

    The residential energy consumption has been studied in many countries as it usually accounts for a large percentage of the total energy consumption. Energy end-uses have also been a matter of concern as they can assist energy system planning. The objective of this paper is to assess the actual scenario of electricity consumption and estimate electricity end-uses in the residential sector of Brazil for different bioclimatic zones. The analysis is based on a survey performed by 17 energy utilities enclosing a total of 17,643 houses or flats over 12 states in Brazil. The survey was performed to obtain electricity consumption data for all household appliances found in houses and flats. The electricity end-uses were estimated by performing weighted averages according to the location of the dwellings in each bioclimatic zone. Results indicate that the largest end-uses are for refrigerator and freezer together, which account for about 38-49% of the electricity consumption in dwellings in Brazil. Air-conditioning and electric shower are the end-uses that are more dependent on the climatic conditions. The main conclusion that can be made from the analysis is that air-conditioning should be a major concern in the residential sector of Brazil in the near future as its ownership is still low, but its electricity consumption is already significant mainly over summer. (author)

  11. Ten new and emerging trends in residential group living environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regnier, Victor; Denton, Alexis

    2009-01-01

    Residential styled environments for physically challenged people with neuro disabilities are rapidly replacing the standard institutional skilled nursing home. Ten trends are described that utilize residential design approaches to the physical environment while relying on home-care style methods for service delivery. Combined these two forces create powerful differentiators which make group residential settings more friendly and humane. Northern European, as well as, US best practices and prototypes are described that combine housing with services in a range of contexts. The success of northern Europeans in promulgating models of aging-in-place that keep those at risk more independent in the community or within family settings are remarkable. Topics like the impact of small group living clusters, interior design treatments, access to landscape gardens, life skill management methods, movement systems for circulation and exercise, shared space priorities, unit design trends and innovative care giving techniques are introduced. The focus of the article is on specific practices gleaned from cultures and exemplars that appear to increase autonomy, independence and privacy for those who are threatened because of their disabilities with the loss of these lifestyle attributes. Promising concepts of service organization and community outreach are combined with detailed recommendations that address the need for lift technology and safety features in bathrooms and kitchens.

  12. PowerChoice Residential Customer Response to TOU Rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, Jane S.; Moezzi, Mithra; Lutzenhiser, Susan; Woods, James; Dethman, Linda; Kunkle, Rick

    2009-10-01

    Research Into Action, Inc. and the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) worked together to conduct research on the behaviors and energy use patterns of SMUD residential customers who voluntarily signed on to a Time-of-Use rate pilot launched under the PowerChoice label. The project was designed to consider the how and why of residential customers ability and willingness to engage in demand reduction behaviors, and to link social and behavioral factors to observed changes in demand. The research drew on a combination of load interval data and three successive surveys of participating households. Two experimental treatments were applied to test the effects of increased information on households ability to respond to the Time-of-Use rates. Survey results indicated that participants understood the purpose of the Time-of-Use rate and undertook substantial appropriate actions to shift load and conserve. Statistical tests revealed minor initial price effects and more marked, but still modest, adjustments to seasonal rate changes. Tests of the two information interventions indicated that neither made much difference to consumption patterns. Despite the lackluster statistical evidence for load shifting, the analysis points to key issues for critical analysis and development of residential Time-of-Use rates, especially pertinent as California sets the stage for demand response in more California residences.

  13. Alcohol perceptions and behavior in a residential peer social network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Shannon R; Ott, Miles; Meisel, Matthew K; Barnett, Nancy P

    2017-01-01

    Personalized normative feedback is a recommended component of alcohol interventions targeting college students. However, normative data are commonly collected through campus-based surveys, not through actual participant-referent relationships. In the present investigation, we examined how misperceptions of residence hall peers, both overall using a global question and those designated as important peers using person-specific questions, were related to students' personal drinking behaviors. Participants were 108 students (88% freshman, 54% White, 51% female) residing in a single campus residence hall. Participants completed an online baseline survey in which they reported their own alcohol use and perceptions of peer alcohol use using both an individual peer network measure and a global peer perception measure of their residential peers. We employed network autocorrelation models, which account for the inherent correlation between observations, to test hypotheses. Overall, participants accurately perceived the drinking of nominated friends but overestimated the drinking of residential peers. Consistent with hypotheses, overestimating nominated friend and global residential peer drinking predicted higher personal drinking, although perception of nominated peers was a stronger predictor. Interaction analyses showed that the relationship between global misperception and participant self-reported drinking was significant for heavy drinkers, but not non-heavy drinkers. The current findings explicate how student perceptions of peer drinking within an established social network influence drinking behaviors, which may be used to enhance the effectiveness of normative feedback interventions.

  14. Prevalence of physical health problems among youth entering residential treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Timothy D; Smith, Tori R; Thompson, Ronald W; Epstein, Michael H; Griffith, Annette K; Hurley, Kristin Duppong; Tonniges, Thomas F

    2011-11-01

    To examine the prevalence of physical health problems among youth entering residential treatment. The sample included 1744 youth (mean age: 14.6 ± 1.8 years) entering a large residential treatment program between 2000 and 2010. Youth received an intake medical evaluation, including a review of available records, detailed medical history, and physical examination. Medical conditions present at the time of the evaluation were recorded by the examining physician and later coded by the research team. Only diagnoses recognized by the International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision, were included in the analyses. To maintain the focus on physical health problems, behavioral and emotional disorders listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision were excluded. Obesity, acne, and allergies were also excluded. Approximately one-third (33.7%) of youth had a physical health diagnosis at the time of intake. Asthma was the most prevalent condition diagnosed (15.3% of the sample). Girls were significantly more likely to have a diagnosis than were boys (37.1% vs 31.5%). Age was not associated with diagnostic status. Rates of physical health conditions differed significantly by ethnicity: black (36.4%) and white (35.4%) youth had the highest rates, and Hispanic youth (23.2%) had the lowest. Youth who enter residential treatment have high rates of physical health conditions. These problems could complicate mental health treatment and should be considered in multidisciplinary treatment planning.

  15. Seismic capacity evaluation of unreinforced masonry residential buildings in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Bilgin

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluates seismic capacity of the unreinforced masonry buildings with the selected template designs constructed per pre-modern code in Albania considering nonlinear behaviour of masonry. Three residential buildings with template designs were selected to represent an important percentage of residential buildings in medium-size cities located in seismic regions of Albania. Selection of template designed buildings and material properties were based on archive and site survey in several cities of Albania. Capacity curves of investigated buildings were determined by pushover analyses conducted in two principal directions. The seismic performances of these buildings have been determined for various earthquake levels. Seismic capacity evaluation was carried out in accordance with FEMA (Federal Emergency Management Agency 440 guidelines. Reasons for building damages in past earthquakes are examined using the results of capacity assessment of investigated buildings. It is concluded that of the residential buildings with the template design, with the exception of one, are far from satisfying required performance criteria. Furthermore, deficiencies and possible solutions to improve the capacity of investigated buildings are discussed.

  16. Residential mobility, neighbourhood deprivation and children's behaviour in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flouri, Eirini; Mavroveli, Stella; Midouhas, Emily

    2013-03-01

    Using data from the first two waves (in 2001/02 and 2004) of the UK's Millennium Cohort Study (MCS), we attempted to separate the effect of residential mobility from the effect of neighbourhood deprivation on children's emotional and behavioural problems. Our sample was 23,162 children (aged 3-16 years) clustered in 12,692 families. We measured neighbourhood deprivation with the Index of Multiple Deprivation, a measure of neighbourhood-level socio-economic disadvantage, and residential mobility as household move between waves. Being in a lower deprivation neighbourhood at Wave 1 was related to lower scores of both emotional and behavioural problems 2 years later, even after adjustment for child's age and sex, family adversity, family structure and maternal psychological distress. However, children whose families subsequently moved-even within or between lower deprivation neighbourhoods-were at higher risk of emotional and behavioural problems. Adjusting for family socio-economic disadvantage at Wave 1 explained the association of residential mobility with emotional but not with behavioural problems, which remained significant even after accounting for change in family's socio-economic disadvantage between waves.

  17. The residential segregation of mixed-nativity married couples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iceland, John; Nelson, Kyle Anne

    2010-11-01

    This article examines the ways in which mixed-nativity marriage is related to spatial assimilation in metropolitan areas of the United States. Specifically, we examine the residential patterns of households with a mixed-nativity-and, in some cases, interracial-marriage to determine whether they are less segregated from the native-born than entirely foreign-born households. Using restricted-use data from the 2000 census, we find that compared with couples in which both spouses are foreign-born, mixed-nativity couples tend to be less segregated from various native-born racial and ethnic groups. Further, among both foreign-born Asians and Hispanics, those with a native-born non-Hispanic white spouse are considerably less segregated from native-born white households than from other foreign-born Asian and Hispanic households. We also find that even though nativity status matters for black couples in a manner consistent with assimilation theory, foreign-born and mixed-nativity black households still each display very high levels of segregation from all other native-born racial/ethnic groups, reaffirming the power of race in determining residential patterns. Overall, our findings provide moderate support for spatial assimilation theory and suggest that cross-nativity marriages often facilitate the residential integration of the foreign-born.

  18. Evaluating Temporal Analysis Methods Using Residential Burglary Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Boldt

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Law enforcement agencies, as well as researchers rely on temporal analysis methods in many crime analyses, e.g., spatio-temporal analyses. A number of temporal analysis methods are being used, but a structured comparison in different configurations is yet to be done. This study aims to fill this research gap by comparing the accuracy of five existing, and one novel, temporal analysis methods in approximating offense times for residential burglaries that often lack precise time information. The temporal analysis methods are evaluated in eight different configurations with varying temporal resolution, as well as the amount of data (number of crimes available during analysis. A dataset of all Swedish residential burglaries reported between 2010 and 2014 is used (N = 103,029. From that dataset, a subset of burglaries with known precise offense times is used for evaluation. The accuracy of the temporal analysis methods in approximating the distribution of burglaries with known precise offense times is investigated. The aoristic and the novel aoristic e x t method perform significantly better than three of the traditional methods. Experiments show that the novel aoristic e x t method was most suitable for estimating crime frequencies in the day-of-the-year temporal resolution when reduced numbers of crimes were available during analysis. In the other configurations investigated, the aoristic method showed the best results. The results also show the potential from temporal analysis methods in approximating the temporal distributions of residential burglaries in situations when limited data are available.

  19. Calculation program for design of windows in residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, I.P.; Svendsen, Svend

    2009-07-01

    Windows have a high influence on the energy performance and indoor thermal environment of residential buildings. Standard energy calculation programs do not permit an easy comparison of different window designs in a house. A user-friendly calculation program based on simple input data was developed with the purpose of assisting engineers and architects during the process of designing windows in residential buildings. The program is suitable for the early design phase of new residential buildings or when renovating existing ones. Different types of analyses may be performed: net energy gain of individual windows, energy consumption of windows when used in a specific house on a seasonal basis, indoor thermal environment of critical rooms on an hourly basis and also a simple economic evaluation. The thermal calculation method is according to the European standard EN ISO 13790. An example of use of the calculation program for redesigning an existing type house to a higher energy performance based on use of improved windows and an optimized use of windows in the building is presented. (au)

  20. Occurrence, Distribution, and Accumulation of Pesticides in Exterior Residential Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Weiying; Conkle, Jeremy L; Luo, Yuzhou; Li, Juying; Xu, Karen; Gan, Jay

    2016-12-06

    Pesticides are commonly applied around residential homes, but their occurrence on exterior surfaces (e.g., pavement) has not been thoroughly evaluated. We collected 360 dust samples from curbside gutters, sidewalks, and street surfaces at 40 houses in southern California to evaluate pesticide occurrence on urban paved surfaces as well as their spatial and temporal distributions. Pesticides and select degradates were ubiquitously detected in dust, with the median concentration of total target analytes at 85 μg kg(-1). A total of 75% of samples contained at least five pesticides. As a result of recurring pesticide applications, concentrations increased throughout the summer. The pyrethroids bifenthrin and permethrin accounted for 55% of total pesticides detected in the dust. The highest concentrations in dust were found on the sidewalk and in the gutter. Relative to indoor environments, human exposure risk to pesticides on paved surfaces was estimated to be lower, with the highest potential oral and dermal exposure predicted to be 38 ng day(-1) for permethrin. The ubiquitous detection of pesticides on residential outdoor surfaces and the fact that the exterior concentrations did not correlate to the indoor areas highlight the necessity to measure pesticides in both indoor and outdoor areas for complete residential pesticide risk assessment.

  1. Residential implementation of critical-peak pricing ofelectricity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herter, Karen

    2006-06-29

    This paper investigates how critical-peak pricing (CPP)affects households with different usage and income levels, with the goalof informing policy makers who are considering the implementation of CPPtariffs in the residential sector. Using a subset of data from theCalifornia Statewide Pricing Pilot of 2003-2004, average load changeduring summer events, annual percent bill change, and post-experimentsatisfaction ratings are calculated across six customer segments,categorized by historical usage and income levels. Findings show thathigh-use customers respond significantly more in kW reduction than dolow-use customers, while low-use customers save significantly more inpercentage reduction of annual electricity bills than do high-usecustomers results that challenge the strategy of targeting only high-usecustomers for CPP tariffs. Across income levels, average load and billchanges were statistically indistinguishable, as were satisfaction ratesresults that are compatible with a strategy of full-scale implementationof CPP rates in the residential sector. Finally, the high-use customersearning less than $50,000 annually were the most likely of the groups tosee bill increases about 5 percent saw bill increases of 10 percent ormore suggesting that any residential CPP implementation might considertargeting this customer group for increased energy efficiencyefforts.

  2. Measured Performance of Residential Dehumidifiers Under Cyclic Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winkler, J.; Christensen, D.; Tomerlin, J.

    2014-01-01

    Residential construction practices are progressing toward higher levels of energy efficiency. A proven strategy to save energy is to simultaneously increase building insulation levels and reduce outdoor air infiltration. Tight homes require intentional mechanical ventilation to ensure healthy indoor air. Overall, this strategy results in a shift in the mix of latent and sensible space conditioning loads, requiring proportionally more moisture to be removed compared to standard homes. There is currently not sufficient information available at a wide enough range of operating points to design dehumidification systems for high performance homes in hot-humid climates. The only industry information available on dehumidifier moisture removal and energy consumption are performance ratings conducted at a single test condition, which does not provide a full representation of dehumidifier operation under real-world conditions. Winkler et al. (2011) developed steady state performance maps to predict dehumidifier performance at a variety of indoor conditions. However, installed heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment rarely operates at steady state. Part load performance testing of residential dehumidifiers is not mandated by current test standards. Therefore, we tested the part load performance of four residential dehumidifiers in the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Advanced HVAC Systems Laboratory . The part load efficiency of each dehumidifier was measured under 13 cycling scenarios, and combined with NREL field data to develop part load fraction (PLF) performance curves under realistic cycling scenarios.

  3. An innovative educational program for residential energy efficiency. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laquatra, J.; Chi, P.S.K.

    1996-09-01

    Recognizing the importance of energy conservation, under sponsorship of the US Department of Energy, Cornell University conducted a research and demonstration project entitled An Innovative Educational Program for Residential Energy Efficiency. The research project examined the amount of residential energy that can be saved through changes in behavior and practices of household members. To encourage these changes, a workshop was offered to randomly-selected households in New York State. Two surveys were administered to household participants (Survey 1 and Survey 2, Appendix A) and a control group; and a manual was developed to convey many easy but effective ways to make a house more energy efficient (see Residential Manual, Appendix B). Implementing methods of energy efficiency will help reduce this country`s dependence on foreign energy sources and will also reduce the amount of money that is lost on inefficient energy use. Because Cornell Cooperative Extension operates as a component of the land-grant university system throughout the US, the results of this research project have been used to develop a program that can be implemented by the Cooperative Extension Service nationwide. The specific goals and objectives for this project will be outlined, the population and sample for the research will be described, and the instruments utilized for the survey will be explained. A description of the workshop and manual will also be discussed. This report will end with a summary of the results from this project and any observed changes and/or recommendations for future surveys pertaining to energy efficiency.

  4. Demand of elderly people for residential care: an exploratory study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Groot W

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Because of the rapid aging population, the demand for residential care exceeds availability. This paper presents the results of a study that focuses on the demand of elderly people for residential care and determinants (elderly people's personal characteristics, needs and resources that are associated with this demand. Furthermore, the accuracy of the waiting list as a reflection of this demand has been examined. Methods 67 elderly people waiting for admission into a home for the elderly, are subjected to semi-structured interviews. The data are analyzed by using multivariate statistics. Results Elderly people who indicate that they would refuse an offer of admission into a home for the elderly feel healthier (p = 0.02, have greater self-care agency (p = 0.02 and perceive less necessity of admission (p Conclusion The results contribute to the understanding of waiting lists and the demand for residential care. It became apparent that not everybody who asks for admission into a home for the elderly, really needed it. The importance of elderly people's resources like social networks and the ability to manage everyday activities in relation to the demand for care became clear. These findings are important because they indicate that resources also play a role in predicting elderly people's demand and as a result can guide the development and the (redesign of adequate health care services.

  5. Modeling operation mode of pellet boilers for residential heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrocelli, D.; Lezzi, A. M.

    2014-11-01

    In recent years the consumption of wood pellets as energy source for residential heating lias increased, not only as fuel for stoves, but also for small-scale residential boilers that, produce hot water used for both space heating and domestic hot water. Reduction of fuel consumption and pollutant emissions (CO, dust., HC) is an obvious target of wood pellet boiler manufacturers, however they are also quite interested in producing low- maintenance appliances. The need of frequent maintenance turns in higher operating costs and inconvenience for the user, and in lower boiler efficiency and higher emissions also. The aim of this paper is to present a theoretical model able to simulate the dynamic behavior of a pellet boiler. The model takes into account many features of real pellet boilers. Furthermore, with this model, it is possible to pay more attention to the influence of the boiler control strategy. Control strategy evaluation is based not only on pellet consumption and on total emissions, but also on critical operating conditions such as start-up and stop or prolonged operation at substantially reduced power level. Results are obtained for a residential heating system based on a wood pellet boiler coupled with a thermal energy storage. Results obtained so far show a weak dependence of performance in terms of fuel consumption and total emissions on control strategy, however some control strategies present some critical issues regarding maintenance frequency.

  6. Analysis of institutional mechanisms affecting residential and commercial buildings retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-09-01

    Barriers to energy conservation in the residential and commercial sectors influence (1) the willingness of building occupants to modify their energy usage habits, and (2) the willingness of building owners/occupants to upgrade the thermal characteristics of the structures within which they live or work and the appliances which they use. The barriers that influence the willingness of building owners/occupants to modify the thermal efficiency characteristics of building structures and heating/cooling systems are discussed. This focus is further narrowed to include only those barriers that impede modifications to existing buildings, i.e., energy conservation retrofit activity. Eight barriers selected for their suitability for Federal action in the residential and commercial sectors and examined are: fuel pricing policies that in the short term do not provide enough incentive to invest in energy conservation; high finance cost; inability to evaluate contractor performance; inability to evaluate retrofit products; lack of well-integrated or one-stop marketing systems (referred to as lack of delivery systems); lack of precise or customized information; lack of sociological/psychological incentives; and use of the first-cost decision criterion (expanded to include short-term payback criterion for the commercial sector). The impacts of these barriers on energy conservation are separately assessed for the residential and commercial sectors.

  7. Carbon content of atmospheric aerosols in a residential area during the wood combustion season in Sweden

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krecl, Patricia; Ström, Johan; Johansson, Christer

    Carbonaceous aerosol particles were observed in a residential area with wood combustion during wintertime in Northern Sweden. Filter samples were analyzed for elemental carbon (EC) and organic carbon (OC) content by using a thermo-optical transmittance method. The light-absorbing carbon (LAC) content was determined by employing a commercial Aethalometer and a custom-built particle soot absorption photometer. Filter samples were used to convert the optical signals to LAC mass concentrations. Additional total PM 10 mass concentrations and meteorological parameters were measured. The mean and standard deviation mass concentrations were 4.4±3.6 μg m -3 for OC, and 1.4±1.2 μg m -3 for EC. On average, EC accounted for 10.7% of the total PM 10 and the contribution of OC to the total PM 10 was 35.4%. Aethalometer and custom-built PSAP measurements were highly correlated ( R2=0.92). The hourly mean value of LAC mass concentration was 1.76 μg m -3 (median 0.88 μg m -3) for the winter 2005-2006. This study shows that the custom-built PSAP is a reliable alternative for the commercial Aethalometer with the advantage of being a low-cost instrument.

  8. Subgap Absorption in Conjugated Polymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, M.; Seager, C. H.; McBranch, D.; Heeger, A. J; Baker, G. L.

    1991-01-01

    Along with X{sup (3)}, the magnitude of the optical absorption in the transparent window below the principal absorption edge is an important parameter which will ultimately determine the utility of conjugated polymers in active integrated optical devices. With an absorptance sensitivity of conjugated polymers poly(1,4-phenylene-vinylene) (and derivitives) and polydiacetylene-4BCMU in the spectral region from 0.55 eV to 3 eV. Our spectra show that the shape of the absorption edge varies considerably from polymer to polymer, with polydiacetylene-4BCMU having the steepest absorption edge. The minimum absorption coefficients measured varied somewhat with sample age and quality, but were typically in the range 1 cm{sup {minus}1} to 10 cm{sup {minus}1}. In the region below 1 eV, overtones of C-H stretching modes were observed, indicating that further improvements in transparency in this spectral region might be achieved via deuteration of fluorination.

  9. Thermal Analysis of a Solar Powered Absorption Cooling System with Fully Mixed Thermal Storage at Startup

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camelia Stanciu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple effect one stage ammonia-water absorption cooling system fueled by solar energy is analyzed. The considered system is composed by a parabolic trough collector concentrating solar energy into a tubular receiver for heating water. This is stored in a fully mixed thermal storage tank and used in the vapor generator of the absorption cooling system. Time dependent cooling load is considered for the air conditioning of a residential two-storey house. A parametric study is performed to analyze the operation stability of the cooling system with respect to solar collector and storage tank dimensions. The results emphasized that there is a specific storage tank dimension associated to a specific solar collector dimension that could ensure the longest continuous startup operation of the cooling system when constant mass flow rates inside the system are assumed.

  10. The Effectiveness of Group Cognitive Hypnotherapy on Major Depression Referred to Residential and Semi-residential Addiction Recovery Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Haghighi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and aim: Psychological consequences of addiction, such as major depression regardless of physical problems, economic, cultural and social is cause problems for both families and society. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of group cognitive hypnotherapy on major depression in residential and semi-residential addiction recovery centers in the city of Yasuj. Methods: The present quasi-experimental study was conducted using a pre-test, post-test and control group. The population included all patients drug dependent as residential and semi-residential referred to Yasuj addiction recovery centers. 40 patients were selected by convenience sampling and randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. The instrument used in this study included Beck Depression Inventory which depressed patients diagnosed and according to clinical interview they entered the study. Group cognitive Hypnotherapy intervention model was carried out on the experimental group for 8 sessions for one hour once a week, but there was no intervention on control group. After the intervention both experimental and control groups were assessed. Collected   data was analyzed using covariance analysis. Results: The results revealed that the cognitive hypnotherapy treatment of group, leading to depression reduced significantly in the experimental group compared control group significantly (p <0.001. The mean pre-test score of major depression in the experimental group and in control group was 39/5 ± 10/54 and 61/4 ± 20/52 respectively.  Whereas the mean and standard deviation of major depression and post-test scores in the experimental group 55/2 ± 05/25 and in the control group was 50/3 ± 55/51. Conclusion: Cognitive hypnotherapy can be used as adjunctive therapy in reducing major depression or used in addiction recovery centers.

  11. Fat-soluble vitamin intestinal absorption: absorption sites in the intestine and interactions for absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goncalves, Aurélie; Roi, Stéphanie; Nowicki, Marion; Dhaussy, Amélie; Huertas, Alain; Amiot, Marie-Josèphe; Reboul, Emmanuelle

    2015-04-01

    The interactions occurring at the intestinal level between the fat-soluble vitamins A, D, E and K (FSVs) are poorly documented. We first determined each FSV absorption profile along the duodenal-colonic axis of mouse intestine to clarify their respective absorption sites. We then investigated the interactions between FSVs during their uptake by Caco-2 cells. Our data show that vitamin A was mostly absorbed in the mouse proximal intestine, while vitamin D was absorbed in the median intestine, and vitamin E and K in the distal intestine. Significant competitive interactions for uptake were then elucidated among vitamin D, E and K, supporting the hypothesis of common absorption pathways. Vitamin A also significantly decreased the uptake of the other FSVs but, conversely, its uptake was not impaired by vitamins D and K and even promoted by vitamin E. These results should be taken into account, especially for supplement formulation, to optimise FSV absorption.

  12. Occupational safety issues in residential construction surveyed in Wisconsin, United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sang D; Carlson, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    Residential construction is a high-risk industry in the U.S. due to the exposure to work-related safety hazards and fall injuries. This study aimed to examine the safety training and safe work practices of construction workers within the small residential construction industry. In order to achieve the study objectives, a survey was designed and sent to approximately 200 Wisconsin based residential construction contractors. About one third of the respondents stated that they did not have any form of safety programs. The study indicated that the most common types of work-related injuries in residential construction were slips/trips/falls and cuts/lacerations. The survey findings also suggested that the residential construction contractors needed to increase the utilization of fall protection safety equipment. Further education and subject matter expert training could provide benefits to improve occupational safety and health of the small business workforce in the residential construction industry.

  13. Blood pressure in young adulthood and residential greenness in the early-life environment of twins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijnens, Esmée M; Nawrot, Tim S; Loos, Ruth Jf; Gielen, Marij; Vlietinck, Robert; Derom, Catherine; Zeegers, Maurice P

    2017-06-05

    Previous research shows that, besides risk factors in adult life, the early-life environment can influence blood pressure and hypertension in adults. However, the effects of residential traffic exposure and residential greenness in the early-life on blood pressure in young adulthood are currently unknown. Ambulatory (24-h) blood pressures of 278 twins (132 pairs) of the East Flanders Prospective Twins Study were obtained at the age of 18 to 25 years. Prenatal and adulthood residential addresses were geocoded and used to assign prenatal and postnatal traffic and greenness indicators. Mixed modelling was performed to investigate blood pressure in association with greenness while adjusting for potential confounding factors. Night-time systolic blood pressure was inversely associated with greenness at the residential address in twins living at the same address their entire life (non-movers, n = 97, 34.9%). An interquartile increase in residential greenness exposure (1000 m radius) was associated with a 3.59 mmHg (95% CI: -6.0 to -1.23; p = 0.005) lower adult night systolic blood pressure. Among twins who were living at a different address than their birth address at time of the measurement (n = 181, 65.1%), night-time blood pressure was inversely associated with residential surrounding greenness at adult age as well as with residential greenness in early-life. However after additional adjustment for residential greenness exposure in adulthood, only residential greenness exposure in early-life was significantly associated with night systolic blood pressure. While no significant effect of adult residential greenness with adult blood pressure was observed, while accounting for the early-life greenness exposure. Lower residential greenness in the early-life environment was independently associated with a higher adult blood pressure. This indicates that residential greenness has persistent effects on blood pressure.

  14. Re-thinking residential mobility : linking lives through time and space

    OpenAIRE

    Coulter, R; van Ham, M; Findlay, A.M.

    2015-01-01

    This is the final version of the article. It first appeared from SAGE via http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0309132515575417 While researchers are increasingly re-conceptualizing international migration, far less attention has been devoted to re-thinking short-distance residential mobility and immobility. In this paper we harness the life course approach to propose a new conceptual framework for residential mobility research. We contend that residential mobility and immobility should be re-concept...

  15. Medication administration errors for older people in long-term residential care

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Older people in long-term residential care are at increased risk of medication prescribing and administration errors. The main aim of this study was to measure the incidence of medication administration errors in nursing and residential homes using a barcode medication administration (BCMA) system. Methods A prospective study was conducted in 13 care homes (9 residential and 4 nursing). Data on all medication administrations for a cohort of 345 older residents were recorde...

  16. Cost benefit analysis and energy savings of using compression and absorption chillers for air conditioners in hot and humid climates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekarchian, M.; Moghavvemi, M.; Motasemi, F.; Mahlia, T. M. I.

    2012-06-01

    The electricity consumption growth has increased steadily in the recent decade which is a great concern for the environment. Increasing the number of high-rise air-conditioned buildings and the rapid use of electrical appliances in residential and commercial sectors are two important factors for high electricity consumption. This paper investigates the annual energy required for cooling per unit area and the total energy cost per unit area for each type of air conditioning systems in hot and humid climates. The effects of changing the coefficient of performance (COP) of absorption chillers on cost saving was also investigated in this study. The results showed that using absorption chillers for cooling will increase the amount of energy consumption per unit area; however the energy cost per unit area will decrease. In addition this research indicates that for each 0.1 increment in COP of absorption chillers, there is about 500 USD/m2 saved cost.

  17. The Value of Green Infrastructure on Vacant and Residential Land in Roanoke, Virginia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunwoo Kim

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Using the City of Roanoke, Virginia as a study site, this paper quantifies the forest structure, ecosystem services and values of vacant and residential land. Single family residential land had more trees (1,683,000 than vacant land (210,000 due largely to the differences in land area (32.44 km2 of vacant land vs. 57.94 km2 residential. While the percentage of tree coverage was almost identical across land uses (30.6% in vacant to 32.3% in residential, the number of trees per ha is greater on residential land (290.3 than on vacant land (63.4. The average healthy leaf surface area on individual trees growing on vacant land was greater than that of individual trees on residential land. The fact that trees in vacant land were found to provide more ecosystem services per tree than residential trees was attributed to this leaf area difference. Trees on vacant land are growing in more natural conditions and there are more large trees per ha. Assessing the forest structure and ecosystem services of Roanoke’s vacant and residential land provides a picture of the current extent and condition of the vacant and residential land. Understanding these characteristics provides the information needed for improved management and utilization of urban vacant land and estimating green infrastructure value.

  18. Helping Students Understand Intersectionality: Reflections from a Dialogue Project in Residential Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claros, Sharon Chia; Garcia, Gina A.; Johnston-Guerrero, Marc P.; Mata, Christine

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, the authors share insights from a dialogue project focused on intersectionality within a residential life setting and discuss additional strategies for helping students understand intersectionality.

  19. Residential hospice environments: evidence-based architectural and landscape design considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verderber, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The residential hospice care movement is increasingly accepted and supported globally, and yet, unfortunately, the amount of literature on best practices in the planning and design of residential hospice facilities and adjacent outdoor spaces remains relatively small. This paper reports on a compendium of architectural and landscape design considerations that reflect the fundamental dimensions of the residential hospice experience: site and context, arrival spaces, communal and private spaces of the residential milieu, transitional spaces, and nature connectivity. Additionally, key staffing and administrative ramifications of this built-environment compendium are addressed, as are prognostications and challenges for the future.

  20. Analyzing Residential End-Use Energy Consumption Data to Inform Residential Consumer Decisions and Enable Energy Efficiency Improvements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Derrick R.

    While renewable energy is in the process of maturing, energy efficiency improvements may provide an opportunity to reduce energy consumption and consequent greenhouse gas emissions to bridge the gap between current emissions and the reductions necessary to prevent serious effects of climate change and will continue to be an integral part of greenhouse gas emissions policy moving forward. Residential energy is a largely untapped source of energy reductions as consumers, who wish to reduce energy consumption for monetary, environmental, and other reasons, face barriers. One such barrier is a lack of knowledge or understanding of how energy is consumed in a home and how to reduce this consumption effectively through behavioral and technological changes. One way to improve understanding of residential energy consumption is through the creation of a model to predict which appliances and electronics will be present and significantly contribute to the electricity consumption of a home on the basis of various characteristics of that home. The basis of this model is publically available survey data from the Residential Energy Consumption Survey (RECS). By predicting how households are likely to consume energy, homeowners, policy makers, and other stakeholders have access to valuable data that enables reductions in energy consumption in the residential sector. This model can be used to select homes that may be ripe for energy reductions and to predict the appliances that are the basis of these potential reductions. This work suggests that most homes in the U.S. have about eight appliances that are responsible for about 80% of the electricity consumption in that home. Characteristics such as census region, floor space, income, and total electricity consumption affect which appliances are likely to be in a home, however the number of appliances is generally around 8. Generally it takes around 4 appliances to reach the 50% threshold and 12 appliances to reach 90% of electricity

  1. Absorption characteristics of bacteriorhodopsin molecules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    H K T Kumar; K Appaji Gowda

    2000-03-01

    The bacteriorhodopsin molecule absorbs light and undergoes a series of structural transformation following a well-defined photocycle. The complex photocycle is transformed to an equivalent level diagram by considering the lifetime of the intermediate states. Assuming that only and states are appreciably populated at any instant of time, the level diagram is further simplified to two-level system. Based on the rate equations for two-level system, an analytic expression for the absorption coefficient of bacteriorhodopsin molecule is derived. It is applied to study the behaviour of absorption coefficient of bacteriorhodopsin film in the visible wavelength region of 514 nm. The dependence of absorption coefficient of bacteriorhodopsin film on the thickness of the film, total number density of active molecules and initial number density of molecules in -state is presented in the graphical form.

  2. Diabetic lipohypertrophy delays insulin absorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, R J; Hannan, W J; Frier, B M; Steel, J M; Duncan, L J

    1984-01-01

    The effect of lipohypertrophy at injection sites on insulin absorption has been studied in 12 insulin-dependent diabetic patients. The clearance of 125I-insulin from sites with lipohypertrophy was significantly slower than from complementary nonhypertrophied sites (% clearance in 3 h, 43.8 +/- 3.5 +/- SEM) control; 35.3 +/- 3.9 lipohypertrophy, P less than 0.05). The degree of the effect was variable but sufficient in several patients to be of clinical importance. Injection-site lipohypertrophy is another factor that modifies the absorption of subcutaneously injected insulin.

  3. Quasistellar Objects Intervening Absorption Lines

    CERN Document Server

    Charlton, J C; Charlton, Jane C.; Churchill, Christopher W.

    2000-01-01

    We briefly review, at a level appropriate for graduate students and non-specialists, the field of quasar absorption lines (QALs). Emphasis is on the intervening absorbers. We present the anatomy of a quasar spectrum due to various classes of intervening absorption systems, and a brief historical review of each absorber class (Lyman-alpha forest and Lyman limit systems, and metal-line and damped Lyman-alpha absorbers). We also provide several heuristic examples on how the physical properties of both the intergalactic medium and the gaseous environments associated with earlier epoch galaxies can be inferred from QALs. The evolution of these environments from z=4 are discussed.

  4. Absorption-heat-pump system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossman, G.; Perez-Blanco, H.

    1983-06-16

    An improvement in an absorption heat pump cycle is obtained by adding adiabatic absorption and desorption steps to the absorber and desorber of the system. The adiabatic processes make it possible to obtain the highest temperature in the absorber before any heat is removed from it and the lowest temperature in the desorber before heat is added to it, allowing for efficient utilization of the thermodynamic availability of the heat supply stream. The improved system can operate with a larger difference between high and low working fluid concentrations, less circulation losses, and more efficient heat exchange than a conventional system.

  5. Objectively Measured Activity Patterns among Adults in Residential Aged Care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natasha Reid

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: To determine the feasibility of using the activPAL3TM activity monitor, and, to describe the activity patterns of residential aged care residents. Design: Cross-sectional. Setting: Randomly selected aged care facilities within 100 km of the Gold Coast, Queensland, Australia. Participants: Ambulatory, older (≥60 years residential aged care adults without cognitive impairment. Measurements: Feasibility was assessed by consent rate, sleep/wear diary completion, and through interviews with staff/participants. Activity patterns (sitting/lying, standing, and stepping were measured via activPAL3TM monitors worn continuously for seven days. Times spent in each activity were described and then compared across days of the week and hours of the day using linear mixed models. Results: Consent rate was 48% (n = 41. Activity patterns are described for the 31 participants (mean age 84.2 years who provided at least one day of valid monitor data. In total, 14 (45% completed the sleep/wear diary. Participants spent a median (interquartile range of 12.4 (1.7 h sitting/lying (with 73% of this accumulated in unbroken bouts of ≥30 min, 1.9 (1.3 h standing, and 21.4 (36.7 min stepping during their monitored waking hours per day. Activity did not vary significantly by day of the week (p ≥ 0.05; stepping showed significant hourly variation (p = 0.018. Conclusions: Older adults in residential aged care were consistently highly sedentary. Feasibility considerations for objective activity monitoring identified for this population include poor diary completion and lost monitors.

  6. Residential radon and lung cancer incidence in a Danish cohort

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Braeuner, Elvira V., E-mail: ole@cancer.dk [Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark); Danish Building Research Institute, Aalborg University (Denmark); Andersen, Claus E. [Center for Nuclear Technologies, Radiation Research Division, Riso National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical University of Denmark, Roskilde (Denmark); Sorensen, Mette [Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark); Jovanovic Andersen, Zorana [Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark); Center for Epidemiology Screening, Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen (Denmark); Gravesen, Peter [Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, Copenhagen (Denmark); Ulbak, Kaare [National Institute of Radiation Protection, Herlev (Denmark); Hertel, Ole [Department of Environmental Science, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Pedersen, Camilla [Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark); Overvad, Kim [Department of Epidemiology, School of Public Health, Aarhus University, Aarhus (Denmark); Tjonneland, Anne; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole [Diet, Genes and Environment, Danish Cancer Society Research Centre, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2012-10-15

    High-level occupational radon exposure is an established risk factor for lung cancer. We assessed the long-term association between residential radon and lung cancer risk using a prospective Danish cohort using 57,053 persons recruited during 1993-1997. We followed each cohort member for cancer occurrence until 27 June 2006, identifying 589 lung cancer cases. We traced residential addresses from 1 January 1971 until 27 June 2006 and calculated radon at each of these addresses using information from central databases regarding geology and house construction. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for lung cancer risk associated with residential radon exposure with and without adjustment for sex, smoking variables, education, socio-economic status, occupation, body mass index, air pollution and consumption of fruit and alcohol. Potential effect modification by sex, traffic-related air pollution and environmental tobacco smoke was assessed. Median estimated radon was 35.8 Bq/m{sup 3}. The adjusted IRR for lung cancer was 1.04 (95% CI: 0.69-1.56) in association with a 100 Bq/m{sup 3} higher radon concentration and 1.67 (95% CI: 0.69-4.04) among non-smokers. We found no evidence of effect modification. We find a positive association between radon and lung cancer risk consistent with previous studies but the role of chance cannot be excluded as these associations were not statistically significant. Our results provide valuable information at the low-level radon dose range.

  7. Residential architecture of George Pavlovic Kovalevsky in interwar Belgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vuksanović-Macura Zlata

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available George Pavlovic Kovalevsky, architect and urban planner, belongs to the most significant authors who created in the period between the Two World Wars in Belgrade. Yet, his work and life have rarely been the subject of scholarly literature, while the study of his housing projects has been overlooked. This paper discusses housing projects designed by Kovalevsky mainly in collaboration with another Russian architect Vladimir Bilinski. The analysis of the projects is based on original archival plans, documents and photographs. Residential buildings designed during 1921-1923 by these two architects include small single-storey houses, multi-storey building and spacious villas. Although of different surface, volume and shape, they have some common characteristics such as: classical construction, equable aesthetic quality that followed the spirit of the late Secession or the modernized Academicism, and were designed in line with the requirements of the property-owners. Buildings created by Kovalevsky and Bilinski cannot be considered among the most important achievements of the interwar Belgrade residential architecture, but their study is important because it contributes to a better understanding and evaluation of the work of these authors, as well as the overall architectural production of that period. In a broader sense, this paper builds upon general rise in interest in the revaluation of cultural, social and historical values of residential architecture in Belgrade that was created in the late 19th and the first half of the 20th century, as an important segment of the material and immaterial cultural heritage and the identity of the city and contributes to its more adequate interpretation and preservation.

  8. Simulation of Thermal Comfort of a Residential House

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masine Md. Tap

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In hot and humid climates thermal comfort can become a problem to the occupants of many residential buildings especially when they are not equipped with air-conditioning system. This paper presents outcomes of an ongoing research work to investigate thermal comfort level in a naturally ventilated residential house in Malaysia using computational fluid dynamics (CFD method. Actual measurements of the temperature distribution, relative humidity and air flow pattern were conducted. CFD simulations on the model of the house allow us to visualize the temperature distribution and air flow pattern and velocity in the house. The thermal comfort in the house was found to be well outside the limits specified by ASHRAE standards. CFD simulation was used to investigate the effects of using a ceiling fan installed in the middle of the hall section and rotating at 150 RPM. It was found that the fan produced swirling flow pattern in the hall section resulting in a more uniform temperature distribution inside the house. However, there is no significant improvement in the thermal comfort level in the house. Results of CFD simulations also show that the use of small extractor fans installed on the front and back walls has no significant effects on the thermal comfort level in the house. Although the mechanical ventilation devices did not help improve the thermal comfort in the house being studied, the CFD simulation results can be used by building designers and engineers to further improved the level of thermal comfort in residential houses in hot and humid climates that are naturally ventilated.

  9. Residential radon and lung cancer incidence in a Danish cohort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bräuner, Elvira V; Andersen, Claus E; Sørensen, Mette; Andersen, Zorana Jovanovic; Gravesen, Peter; Ulbak, Kaare; Hertel, Ole; Pedersen, Camilla; Overvad, Kim; Tjønneland, Anne; Raaschou-Nielsen, Ole

    2012-10-01

    High-level occupational radon exposure is an established risk factor for lung cancer. We assessed the long-term association between residential radon and lung cancer risk using a prospective Danish cohort using 57,053 persons recruited during 1993-1997. We followed each cohort member for cancer occurrence until 27 June 2006, identifying 589 lung cancer cases. We traced residential addresses from 1 January 1971 until 27 June 2006 and calculated radon at each of these addresses using information from central databases regarding geology and house construction. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate incidence rate ratios (IRR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for lung cancer risk associated with residential radon exposure with and without adjustment for sex, smoking variables, education, socio-economic status, occupation, body mass index, air pollution and consumption of fruit and alcohol. Potential effect modification by sex, traffic-related air pollution and environmental tobacco smoke was assessed. Median estimated radon was 35.8 Bq/m(3). The adjusted IRR for lung cancer was 1.04 (95% CI: 0.69-1.56) in association with a 100 Bq/m(3) higher radon concentration and 1.67 (95% CI: 0.69-4.04) among non-smokers. We found no evidence of effect modification. We find a positive association between radon and lung cancer risk consistent with previous studies but the role of chance cannot be excluded as these associations were not statistically significant. Our results provide valuable information at the low-level radon dose range.

  10. Residential behavioural energy savings : a meta-regression analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiedemann, K.H. [BC Hydro, Burnaby, BC (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    Increasing attention is being given to opportunities for residential energy behavioural savings, as developed countries attempt to reduce energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. Several utility companies have undertaken pilot programs geared at understanding which interventions are most effective in reducing residential energy consumption through behavioural change. This paper presented the first metaregression analysis of residential energy behavioural savings. This study focused on interventions which affected household energy-related behaviours and as a result, affected household energy use. The paper described rational choice theory, the theory of planned behaviour, and the integration of rational choice theory and the adjusted expectancy values theory in a simple framework. The paper also discussed the review of various social, psychological and economics journals and databases. The results of the studies were presented. A basic concept in meta-regression analysis is the effects size which is defined as the program effect divided by the standard error of the program effect. A lengthy review of the literature found twenty-eight treatments from ten experiments for which an effect size could be calculated. The experiments involved classifying treatments according to whether the interventions were information, goal setting, feedback, rewards or combinations of these interventions. The impact of these alternative interventions on the effect size was then modelled using White's robust regression. Five regression models were compared on the basis of the Akaike's information criterion. It was found that model 5, which used all of the regressors, was the preferred model. It was concluded that the theory of planned behaviour is more appropriate in the context of analysis of behavioural change and energy use. 21 refs., 4 tabs.

  11. Evaluating Defect Reporting in New Residential Buildings in New Zealand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funmilayo Ebun Rotimi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for defect reporting is becoming increasingly difficult to ignore at handover of new residential buildings. A general review in defect studies has consistently shown that newly built properties can be found to have a significant number of defects. Very often the responsibility for rectifying these common defects is borne by the new homeowner even though house developers are liable. In the current study, survey data is obtained from 216 recent home purchasers/owners across New Zealand urban cities. The intent of the investigation is to show that opportunities exist for defect reporting that will act as a mechanism to measure performance and thus improve the quality of finished construction products in New Zealand. The study found that a significant number (81% of the participants were involved in the construction of their homes and could influence quality performance if they were proactive enough. The results show that (64.7% did not engage the service of independent building inspectors for defect reporting on their new homes. Seventy-four percent now agree that independent building inspection was important in hindsight. The study findings are in line with literature on defects and the poor use of defect reporting in new residential buildings. The current challenge for defect rectification by house developers after handover is real and this could increase the confidence that new home owners can have in their developers. Defect reporting could confer benefits to new residential building quality in New Zealand and should be embraced as part of a wider best practice.

  12. Benchmarking Hong Kong and China energy codes for residential buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, W.L.; Chen, Hua [The Department of Building Services Engineering, Hong Kong Polytechnic University, Hung Hom (China)

    2008-07-01

    Mandatory energy codes to curb energy use of residential buildings have been formally launched in China for more than two decades but little has been publicized in literature. Similar codes are not available for residential buildings in Hong Kong, but most residential buildings in Hong Kong, especially public housing estates, are HK-BEAM certified to demonstrate their compliance with regulatory and basic design requirements. Given HK-BEAM is internationally recognized and there are doubts about the effectiveness of the China codes, how the energy efficiency of the HK-BEAM certified buildings compare with buildings in compliance with the China codes is of interest to most building designers and policy makers. This paper describes how the energy efficiency of a case study building in compliance with the China codes compare with the one in compliance with HK-BEAM. The energy simulation by HTB2 and BECRES reveal that the case study building in compliance with the China codes is 51.1% better in energy use. In the study, the relative impact of each compliance criterion on energy use and cooling load has been quantified by sensitivity analysis. The sensitivity values indicate that energy use is most sensitive to air-conditioning operation hours, indoor design temperature, coefficient of performance (COP) of the room air-conditioners (RAC) units, and the envelop characteristics. The results of this study indicate that a HK-BEAM certified building cannot satisfy the China codes requirements. This provides good reference to the policy makers, the building owners, and to the China and Hong Kong Governments when considering reciprocal recognition of building energy codes. (author)

  13. Aerosol Absorption Measurements in MILAGRO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.; Arnott, W. P.; Paredes-Miranda, L.; Barnard, J. C.

    2007-12-01

    During the month of March 2006, a number of instruments were used to determine the absorption characteristics of aerosols found in the Mexico City Megacity and nearby Valley of Mexico. These measurements were taken as part of the Department of Energy's Megacity Aerosol Experiment - Mexico City (MAX-Mex) that was carried out in collaboration with the Megacity Interactions: Local and Global Research Observations (MILAGRO) campaign. MILAGRO was a joint effort between the DOE, NSF, NASA, and Mexican agencies aimed at understanding the impacts of a megacity on the urban and regional scale. A super-site was operated at the Instituto Mexicano de Petroleo in Mexico City (designated T-0) and at the Universidad Technologica de Tecamac (designated T-1) that was located about 35 km to the north east of the T-0 site in the State of Mexico. A third site was located at a private rancho in the State of Hidalgo approximately another 35 km to the northeast (designated T-2). Aerosol absorption measurements were taken in real time using a number of instruments at the T-0 and T-1 sites. These included a seven wavelength aethalometer, a multi-angle absorption photometer (MAAP), and a photo-acoustic spectrometer. Aerosol absorption was also derived from spectral radiometers including a multi-filter rotating band spectral radiometer (MFRSR). The results clearly indicate that there is significant aerosol absorption by the aerosols in the Mexico City megacity region. The absorption can lead to single scattering albedo reduction leading to values below 0.5 under some circumstances. The absorption is also found to deviate from that expected for a "well-behaved" soot anticipated from diesel engine emissions, i.e. from a simple 1/lambda wavelength dependence for absorption. Indeed, enhanced absorption is seen in the region of 300-450 nm in many cases, particularly in the afternoon periods indicating that secondary organic aerosols are contributing to the aerosol absorption. This is likely due

  14. Residential radon in Finland: sources, variation, modelling and dose comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arvela, H.

    1995-09-01

    The study deals with sources of indoor radon in Finland, seasonal variations in radon concentration, the effect of house construction and ventilation and also with the radiation dose from indoor radon and terrestrial gamma radiation. The results are based on radon measurements in approximately 4000 dwellings and on air exchange measurements in 250 dwellings as well as on model calculations. The results confirm that convective soil air flow is by far the most important source of indoor radon in Finnish low-rise residential housing. (97 refs., 61 figs., 30 tabs.).

  15. Team work of care workers in residential care institutions

    OpenAIRE

    Mišković, Svjetlana

    2014-01-01

    In my diploma thesis special attention is given to care workers that work with a group of youth in extrafamilial residential institutions. They are defined as a team or work group, depending on the work structure. I am aware of the difficulty of educational team work and that is why I want to define and research their experiencing team or group work. At the beginning of the theoretical part I define educational work in educational institutions and youth homes, then continue with the definitio...

  16. Impact of Rooftop Solar PV on Residential Distribution Network

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhattarai, Bishnu Prasad; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte; Pillai, Jayakrishnan Radhakrishna

    Increased environmental awareness in recent years has encouraged rapid growth of renewable energy sources especially solar PV and wind. Among them, small scale solar PV has been gaining more momentum especially at residential level. Even today moderate penetration of grid tied rooftop solar PV has...... become reality in many countries. In spite of various benefits, higher penetration of rooftop PVs might come up with number of detrimental effects, with power quality and overcurrent protection being the major ones. Therefore, it is reasonable to quantify both drawback and benefits of rooftop PV...

  17. An energy used model of the residential sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oneal, D. L.; Hirst, E.

    1980-11-01

    An energy simulation model for residential energy uses and costs from 1970 through 2000 estimates annual consumption of four fuels, eight end uses, and three housing types. The model also evaluates annual equipment installation, ownership, and equipment costs including charges for improving thermal performance of new and existing housing. An example of the model application is given by estimating the energy and economic factors of alternate water heating conservation options; they show the advantages of heat pump water heaters over conventional and solar units.

  18. Emotion regulation promotes persistence in a residential substance abuse treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopwood, Christopher J; Schade, Nick; Matusiewicz, Alexis; Daughters, Stacey B; Lejuez, Carl W

    2015-01-01

    Emotion regulation at treatment entry was evaluated among 115 patients in an inner-city substance use residential facility who either persisted (N = 94) or discontinued treatment (N = 21). Emotion regulation capacity including emotional clarity and the ability to engage in goal-directed behavior despite emotional distress, as well as lower scores on a measure of trait-negative emotionality, were associated with treatment persistence, whereas motivational variables were not. Findings indicate the importance of regulating negative emotions for treatment engagement among substance abusers.

  19. Residential building thermal performance energy efficiency in Yangtze River basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王厚华; 庄燕燕; 吴伟伟

    2009-01-01

    Using energy consumption software VisualDOE4.0,simulation was carried out on the energy consumption of a typical residential building in Yangtze River basin,with a focus on thermal performance of envelope each component and application of total heating recovery equipment. The effects of thermal performance of building envelope each component on energy efficiency ratio were analyzed. Comprehensive measures schemes of energy saving were designed by the orthogonal experiment. The energy efficiency ratios of different envelopes combination schemes were gained. Finally,the optimize combination scheme was confirmed. With the measurement dates,the correctness of the simulation dates was completely verified.

  20. Stochastic analysis of residential micro combined heat and power system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karami, H.; Sanjari, M. J.; Gooi, H. B.

    2017-01-01

    algorithm. The optimized scheduling of different energy resources is listed in an efficient look-up table for all time intervals. The effects of time of use and the battery efficiency and its size are investigated on the operating cost of the hybrid energy system. The results of this paper are expected......In this paper the combined heat and power functionality of a fuel-cell in a residential hybrid energy system, including a battery, is studied. The demand uncertainties are modeled by investigating the stochastic load behavior by applying Monte Carlo simulation. The colonial competitive algorithm...