WorldWideScience

Sample records for resident-defined neighborhood mapping

  1. Neighborhood Mapping Tool

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — This tool assists the public and Choice Neighborhoods applicants to prepare data to submit with their grant application by allowing applicants to draw the exact...

  2. Neighborhood-preserving mapping between trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baumbach, Jan; Ibragimov, R.; Guo, Jian-Ying

    2013-01-01

    (v)). Here, for a graph G and a vertex v, we use N(v) to denote the set of vertices which have distance at most i to v in G. We call this problem Neighborhood-Preserving Mapping (NPM). The main result of this paper is a complete dichotomy of the classical complexity of NPM on trees with respect to different...... values of l,d,k. Additionally, we present two dynamic programming algorithms for the case that one of the input trees is a path....

  3. Mapping neighborhood scale survey responses with uncertainty metrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles Robert Ehlschlaeger

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a methodology of mapping population-centric social, infrastructural, and environmental metrics at neighborhood scale. This methodology extends traditional survey analysis methods to create cartographic products useful in agent-based modeling and geographic information analysis. It utilizes and synthesizes survey microdata, sub-upazila attributes, land use information, and ground truth locations of attributes to create neighborhood scale multi-attribute maps. Monte Carlo methods are employed to combine any number of survey responses to stochastically weight survey cases and to simulate survey cases' locations in a study area. Through such Monte Carlo methods, known errors from each of the input sources can be retained. By keeping individual survey cases as the atomic unit of data representation, this methodology ensures that important covariates are retained and that ecological inference fallacy is eliminated. These techniques are demonstrated with a case study from the Chittagong Division in Bangladesh. The results provide a population-centric understanding of many social, infrastructural, and environmental metrics desired in humanitarian aid and disaster relief planning and operations wherever long term familiarity is lacking. Of critical importance is that the resulting products have easy to use explicit representation of the errors and uncertainties of each of the input sources via the automatically generated summary statistics created at the application's geographic scale.

  4. Ecocity mapping using GIS: introducing a planning method for assessing and improving neighborhood vitality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard; Miller, Kirstin

    2013-01-01

    Assessing neighborhood vitality is important to understanding how to improve quality of life and health outcomes. The ecocity model recognizes that cities are part of natural systems and favors walkable neighborhoods. This article introduces ecocity mapping, an innovative planning method, to the public health literature on community engagement by describing a pilot project with a new affordable housing development in Oakland, California between 2007 and 2009. Although ecocity mapping began as a paper technology, advances in geographic information systems (GIS) moved it forward. This article describes how Ecocity Builders used GIS to conduct ecocity mapping to (1) assess vitality of neighborhoods and urban centers to prioritize community health intervention pilot sites and (2) create scenario maps for use in community health planning. From fall 2007 to summer 2008, Ecocity Builders assessed neighborhood vitality using walking distance from parks, schools, rapid transit stops, grocery stores, and retail outlets. In 2008, ecocity maps were shared with residents to create a neighborhood health and sustainability plan. In 2009, Ecocity Builders developed scenario maps to show how changes to the built environment would improve air quality by reducing greenhouse gas emissions from vehicles, while increasing access to basic services and natural amenities. Community organizing with GIS was more useful than GIS alone for final site selection. GIS was useful in mapping scenarios after residents shared local neighborhood knowledge and ideas for change. Residents were interested in long-term environmental planning, provided they could meet immediate needs.

  5. Urban Youths Go 3000 Miles: Engaging and Supporting Young Residents to Conduct Neighborhood Asset Mapping

    OpenAIRE

    Santilli, Alycia; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Wong, Fiona; Ickovics, Jeannette

    2011-01-01

    In 2009, CARE (Community Alliance for Research and Engagement at Yale University) launched a multisectoral chronic disease prevention initiative that conducts baseline data collection, interventions, and follow-up data collection to measure change. Data collection includes asset mapping to assess environmental determinants of chronic disease risk factors in neighborhoods and around schools. CARE hired 7 local high school students to conduct asset mapping; they walked more than 3000 miles and ...

  6. Urban youths go 3000 miles: engaging and supporting young residents to conduct neighborhood asset mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santilli, Alycia; Carroll-Scott, Amy; Wong, Fiona; Ickovics, Jeannette

    2011-12-01

    In 2009, CARE (Community Alliance for Research and Engagement at Yale University) launched a multisectoral chronic disease prevention initiative that conducts baseline data collection, interventions, and follow-up data collection to measure change. Data collection includes asset mapping to assess environmental determinants of chronic disease risk factors in neighborhoods and around schools. CARE hired 7 local high school students to conduct asset mapping; they walked more than 3000 miles and collected 492 data points. Employing youths as community health workers to collect data greatly enriched the community research process and offered many advantages. We were able to efficiently and effectively conduct scientifically rigorous mapping while gaining entry into some of New Haven's most research-wary and skeptical neighborhoods.

  7. Energy potential mapping for energy-producing neighborhoods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dobbelsteen, van den A.; Broersma, S.; Stremke, S.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past five years, the method of energy potential mapping (EPM) has evolved from a cartoonish charting of climatic features with energy consequences to a detailed methodology for the development of spatial plans based on energy-effective foundations. By means of EPM the rudimentary features

  8. Neighborhood-level hot spot maps to inform delivery of primary care and allocation of social resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardt, Nancy S; Muhamed, Shehzad; Das, Rajeeb; Estrella, Roland; Roth, Jeffrey

    2013-01-01

    Challenges to health care access in the US are forcing local policymakers and service delivery systems to find novel ways to address the shortage of primary care clinicians. The uninsured and underinsured face the greatest obstacles in accessing services. Geographic information systems mapping software was used to illustrate health disparities in Alachua County, FL; galvanize a community response; and direct reallocation of resources. The University of Florida Family Data Center created "hot spot" density maps of important health and social indicators to highlight the location of disparities at the neighborhood level. Maps were produced for Medicaid births, teen births, low birth weight, domestic violence incidents, child maltreatment reports, unexcused school absences, and juvenile justice referrals. Maps were widely shared with community partners, including local elected officials, law enforcement, educators, child welfare agencies, health care providers, and service organizations. This data sharing resulted in advocacy efforts to bring resources to the greatest-need neighborhoods in the county. Novel public-private partnerships were forged between the local library district, children and family service providers, and university administrators. Two major changes are detailed: a family resource center built in the neighborhood of greatest need and a mobile clinic staffed by physicians, nurses, physician assistants, health educators, and student and faculty volunteers. Density maps have several advantages. They require minimal explanation. Anyone familiar with local geographic features can quickly identify locations displaying health disparities. Personalizing health disparities by locating them geographically allows a community to translate data to action to improve health care access.

  9. The Map of Vilnius Graffiti as an Indicator of Social Urban Change: the Case Study of Naujininkai Neighborhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Urbonaitė-Barkauskienė

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This article, theoretically based on socio-spatial concepts of Lefebvre, de Certeau and their further interpreta - tions at the New Urban Sociology school (by Gottdiener, Zukin and others, examines the spread of graffiti in the urban space of Vilnius, the change of the local graffiti map during the years 2010–2013 and the possible social implications of the spotted modification of urban landscape. The qualitative research of Vilnius graffiti – which is understood both as an urban practice and an illicit urban inscription – and the case of Naujininkai neighborhood in particular, is based on data obtained from 1 in-depth interviews with experienced graffiti artists, 2 observation of graffiti in public space and 3 visual urban ethnography. Naujininkai neighborhood was attributed by local graffiti writers to the urban periphery in Vilnius graffiti map in 2010. However in 2010–2013 the visual development of urban landscape in Naujininkai indicates the trend, bringing the neigh- borhood a little closer to the urban core.

  10. Durham Neighborhood Compass Neighborhoods

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The Durham Neighborhood Compass is a quantitative indicators project with qualitative values, integrating data from local government, the Census Bureau and other...

  11. Using MapMyFitness to Place Physical Activity into Neighborhood Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Ariel Hirsch

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available It is difficult to obtain detailed information on the context of physical activity at large geographic scales, such as the entire United States, as well as over long periods of time, such as over years. MapMyFitness is a suite of interactive tools for individuals to track their workouts online or using GPS in their phones or other wireless trackers. This method article discusses the use of physical activity data tracked using MapMyFitness to examine patterns over space and time. An overview of MapMyFitness, including data tracked, user information, and geographic scope, is explored. We illustrate the utility of MapMyFitness data using tracked physical activity by users in Winston-Salem, NC between 2006 and 2013. Types of physical activities tracked are described, as well as the percent of activities occurring in parks. Strengths of MapMyFitness data include objective data collection, low participant burden, extensive geographic scale, and longitudinal series. Limitations include generalizability, behavioral change as the result of technology use, and potential ethical considerations. MapMyFitness is a powerful tool to investigate patterns of physical activity across large geographic and temporal scales.

  12. Neighborhoods in Development: Human Development Index and Self-Organizing Maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rende, Sevinc; Donduran, Murat

    2013-01-01

    The Human Development Index (HDI) has been instrumental in broadening the discussion of economic development beyond money-metric progress, in particular, by ranking a country against other countries in terms of the well being of their citizens. We propose self-organizing maps to explore similarities among countries using the components of the HDI…

  13. Using Genealogical Mapping and Genetic Neighborhood Sizes to Quantify Dispersal Distances in the Neotropical Passerine, the Black-Capped Vireo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Athrey, Giridhar; Lance, Richard F; Leberg, Paul L

    2015-01-01

    Dispersal is a key demographic process, ultimately responsible for genetic connectivity among populations. Despite its importance, quantifying dispersal within and between populations has proven difficult for many taxa. Even in passerines, which are among the most intensely studied, individual movement and its relation to gene flow remains poorly understood. In this study we used two parallel genetic approaches to quantify natal dispersal distances in a Neotropical migratory passerine, the black-capped vireo. First, we employed a strategy of sampling evenly across the landscape coupled with parentage assignment to map the genealogical relationships of individuals across the landscape, and estimate dispersal distances; next, we calculated Wright's neighborhood size to estimate gene dispersal distances. We found that a high percentage of captured individuals were assigned at short distances within the natal population, and males were assigned to the natal population more often than females, confirming sex-biased dispersal. Parentage-based dispersal estimates averaged 2400m, whereas gene dispersal estimates indicated dispersal distances ranging from 1600-4200 m. Our study was successful in quantifying natal dispersal distances, linking individual movement to gene dispersal distances, while also providing a detailed look into the dispersal biology of Neotropical passerines. The high-resolution information was obtained with much reduced effort (sampling only 20% of breeding population) compared to mark-resight approaches, demonstrating the potential applicability of parentage-based approaches for quantifying dispersal in other vagile passerine species.

  14. Informal Social Control of Intimate Partner Violence against Women: Results from a Concept Mapping Study of Urban Neighborhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Victoria; Paul, Margaret M.; Todd, Mary-Justine; Lewis, Veronica; Cupid, Malik; Coleman, Jane; Salmon, Christina; O'Campo, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    How the neighborhood environment relates to intimate partner violence against women has been studied using theories applied originally to general violence. Extending social disorganization and collective efficacy theories, they apply a traditional measure informal social control that does not reflect behaviors specific to partner violence. We…

  15. Choice Neighborhood Grantees

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Choice Neighborhoods grants transform distressed neighborhoods, public and assisted projects into viable and sustainable mixed-income neighborhoods by linking...

  16. Mapping Carbon Storage in Urban Trees with Multi-source Remote Sensing Data: Relationships between Biomass, Land Use, and Demographics in Boston Neighborhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raciti, S. M.; Hutyra, L.

    2014-12-01

    High resolution maps of urban vegetation and biomass are powerful tools for policy-makers and community groups seeking to reduce rates of urban runoff, moderate urban heat island effects, and mitigate the effects of greenhouse gas emissions. We develop a very high resolution map of urban tree biomass, assess the scale sensitivities in biomass estimation, compare our results with lower resolution estimates, and explore the demographic relationships in biomass distribution across the City of Boston. We integrated remote sensing data (including LiDAR-based tree height estimates) and field-based observations to map canopy cover and aboveground tree carbon storage at ~1 m spatial scale. Mean tree canopy cover was estimated to be 25.5±1.5% and carbon storage was 355 Gg (28.8 Mg C ha-1) for the City of Boston. Tree biomass was highest in forest patches (110.7 Mg C ha-1), but residential (32.8 Mg C ha-1) and developed open (23.5 Mg C ha-1) land uses also contained relatively high carbon stocks. In contrast with previous studies, we did not find significant correlations between tree biomass and the demographic characteristics of Boston neighborhoods, including income, education, race, or population density. The proportion of households that rent was negatively correlated with urban tree biomass (R2=0.26, p=0.04) and correlated with Priority Planting Index values (R2=0.55, p=0.001), potentially reflecting differences in land management among rented and owner-occupied residential properties. We compared our very high resolution biomass map to lower resolution biomass products from other sources and found that those products consistently underestimated biomass within urban areas. This underestimation became more severe as spatial resolution decreased. This research demonstrates that 1) urban areas contain considerable tree carbon stocks; 2) canopy cover and biomass may not be related to the demographic characteristics of Boston neighborhoods; and 3) that recent advances in

  17. Mapping carbon storage in urban trees with multi-source remote sensing data: relationships between biomass, land use, and demographics in Boston neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raciti, Steve M; Hutyra, Lucy R; Newell, Jared D

    2014-12-01

    High resolution maps of urban vegetation and biomass are powerful tools for policy-makers and community groups seeking to reduce rates of urban runoff, moderate urban heat island effects, and mitigate the effects of greenhouse gas emissions. We developed a very high resolution map of urban tree biomass, assessed the scale sensitivities in biomass estimation, compared our results with lower resolution estimates, and explored the demographic relationships in biomass distribution across the City of Boston. We integrated remote sensing data (including LiDAR-based tree height estimates) and field-based observations to map canopy cover and aboveground tree carbon storage at ~1m spatial scale. Mean tree canopy cover was estimated to be 25.5±1.5% and carbon storage was 355Gg (28.8MgCha(-1)) for the City of Boston. Tree biomass was highest in forest patches (110.7MgCha(-1)), but residential (32.8MgCha(-1)) and developed open (23.5MgCha(-1)) land uses also contained relatively high carbon stocks. In contrast with previous studies, we did not find significant correlations between tree biomass and the demographic characteristics of Boston neighborhoods, including income, education, race, or population density. The proportion of households that rent was negatively correlated with urban tree biomass (R(2)=0.26, p=0.04) and correlated with Priority Planting Index values (R(2)=0.55, p=0.001), potentially reflecting differences in land management among rented and owner-occupied residential properties. We compared our very high resolution biomass map to lower resolution biomass products from other sources and found that those products consistently underestimated biomass within urban areas. This underestimation became more severe as spatial resolution decreased. This research demonstrates that 1) urban areas contain considerable tree carbon stocks; 2) canopy cover and biomass may not be related to the demographic characteristics of Boston neighborhoods; and 3) that recent advances

  18. Neighborhood and Network Disadvantage among Urban Renters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew Desmond

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Drawing on novel survey data, this study maps the distribution of neighborhood and network disadvantage in a population of Milwaukee renters and evaluates the relationship between each disadvantage and multiple social and health outcomes. We find that many families live in neighborhoods with above average disadvantage but are embedded in networks with below average disadvantage, and vice versa. Neighborhood (but not network disadvantage is associated with lower levels of neighborly trust but also with higher levels of community support (e.g., providing neighbors with food. Network (but not neighborhood disadvantage is associated with lower levels of civic engagement. Asthma and diabetes are associated exclusively with neighborhood disadvantage, but depression is associated exclusively with network disadvantage. These findings imply that some social problems may be better addressed by neighborhood interventions and others by network interventions.

  19. Large Neighborhood Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pisinger, David; Røpke, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Heuristics based on large neighborhood search have recently shown outstanding results in solving various transportation and scheduling problems. Large neighborhood search methods explore a complex neighborhood by use of heuristics. Using large neighborhoods makes it possible to find better...... candidate solutions in each iteration and hence traverse a more promising search path. Starting from the large neighborhood search method,we give an overview of very large scale neighborhood search methods and discuss recent variants and extensions like variable depth search and adaptive large neighborhood...... search....

  20. Neighborhoods and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jennifer L; Macinko, James

    2008-01-01

    This review critically summarizes the literature on neighborhood determinants of obesity and proposes a conceptual framework to guide future inquiry. Thirty-seven studies met all inclusion criteria and revealed that the influence of neighborhood-level factors appears mixed. Neighborhood-level measures of economic resources were associated with obesity in 15 studies, while the associations between neighborhood income inequality and racial composition with obesity were mixed. Availability of healthy versus unhealthy food was inconsistently related to obesity, while neighborhood features that discourage physical activity were consistently associated with increased body mass index. Theoretical explanations for neighborhood-obesity effects and recommendations for strengthening the literature are presented.

  1. Segmentation of brain magnetic resonance angiography images based on MAP-MRF with multi-pattern neighborhood system and approximation of regularization coefficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shoujun; Chen, Wufan; Jia, Fucang; Hu, Qingmao; Xie, Yaoqin; Chen, Mingyang; Wu, Jianhuang

    2013-12-01

    Existing maximum a posteriori probability and Markov random field (MRF) models have limitations associated with: (1) the ordinary neighborhood system being unable to differentiate subtle changes due to several-to-one correspondence within the neighborhood; and (2) difficulty finding an appropriate parameter to balance between the spatial context and the data likelihood. Aiming at overcoming the limitations and applications to segmentation of cerebral vessels from magnetic resonance angiography images, we have proposed (1) a multi-pattern neighborhood system and corresponding energy equation to enable the MRF model for segmenting fine cerebral vessels with complicated context; and (2) an iterative approximation algorithm based on the maximum pseudo-likelihood and the space coding mode for the automatic parameter estimation of high level model of MRF. In the implementation, two computational strategies have been employed to speed up: the candidate space of cerebral vessels based on a threshold of the response to multi-scale filtering, and parallel computation of major equations. Three phantoms simulating segmentation challenges of vessels have been devised to quantitatively validate the algorithm. In addition, 10 three-dimensional clinical data sets have been used to validate the algorithm qualitatively. It has been shown that the proposed method could yield smaller error, improve the spatial resolution of MRF model, and better balance the smoothing and data likelihood than the traditional trial-and-error estimation. Comparative studies have shown that the proposed method is better than the 3 segmentation algorithms (Hassouna et al., 2006; Hao et al., 2008; Gao et al., 2011) in terms of segmentation accuracy, robustness to noise and varying curvatures as well as radii. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Neighborhoods, US, 2017, Zillow, SEGS

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This web service depicts nearly 17,000 neighborhood boundaries in over 650 U.S. cities. Zillow created the neighborhood boundaries and is sharing them with the...

  3. Neighborhood Change: Theories, Realities, Prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saltman, Juliet

    This study of one neighborhood stabilization effort is based on interviews with 312 residents of an Akron (Ohio) neighborhood which changed from 11 percent to 57 percent black in the past decade. The results of the survey of residents' concerns in this racially changing neighborhood confirmed Hunter's theory that organizations (in this case, The…

  4. Community, Democracy, and Neighborhood News.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hindman, Elizabeth Blanks

    1998-01-01

    Contributes to scholarship on democracy, community, and journalism by examining the interplay between communication, democracy, and community at an inner-city neighborhood newspaper. Concludes that, through its focus on neighborhood culture, acknowledgment of conflict, and attempts to provide a forum for the neighborhood's self-definition, the…

  5. Reacting to Neighborhood Cues?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Danckert, Bolette; Dinesen, Peter Thisted; Sønderskov, Kim Mannemar

    2017-01-01

    is founded on politically sophisticated individuals having a greater comprehension of news and other mass-mediated sources, which makes them less likely to rely on neighborhood cues as sources of information relevant for political attitudes. Based on a unique panel data set with fine-grained information...

  6. The Spatial Epidemiology of Intimate Partner Violence: Do Neighborhoods Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, Enrique; López-Quílez, Antonio; Marco, Miriam; Lladosa, Silvia; Lila, Marisol

    2015-07-01

    We examined whether neighborhood-level characteristics influence spatial variations in the risk of intimate partner violence (IPV). Geocoded data on IPV cases with associated protection orders (n = 1,623) in the city of Valencia, Spain (2011-2013), were used for the analyses. Neighborhood units were 552 census block groups. Drawing from social disorganization theory, we explored 3 types of contextual influences: concentrated disadvantage, concentration of immigrants, and residential instability. A Bayesian spatial random-effects modeling approach was used to analyze influences of neighborhood-level characteristics on small-area variations in IPV risk. Disease mapping methods were also used to visualize areas of excess IPV risk. Results indicated that IPV risk was higher in physically disordered and decaying neighborhoods and in neighborhoods with low educational and economic status levels, high levels of public disorder and crime, and high concentrations of immigrants. Results also revealed spatially structured remaining variability in IPV risk that was not explained by the covariates. In this study, neighborhood concentrated disadvantage and immigrant concentration emerged as significant ecological risk factors explaining IPV. Addressing neighborhood-level risk factors should be considered for better targeting of IPV prevention. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Neighborhood scale quantification of ecosystem goods and ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ecosystem goods and services are those ecological structures and functions that humans can directly relate to their state of well-being. Ecosystem goods and services include, but are not limited to, a sufficient fresh water supply, fertile lands to produce agricultural products, shading, air and water of sufficient quality for designated uses, flood water retention, and places to recreate. The US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Office of Research and Development’s Tampa Bay Ecosystem Services Demonstration Project (TBESDP) modeling efforts organized existing literature values for biophysical attributes and processes related to EGS. The goal was to develop a database for informing mapped-based EGS assessments for current and future land cover/use scenarios at multiple scales. This report serves as a demonstration of applying an EGS assessment approach at the large neighborhood scale (~1,000 acres of residential parcels plus common areas). Here, we present mapped inventories of ecosystem goods and services production at a neighborhood scale within the Tampa Bay, FL region. Comparisons of the inventory between two alternative neighborhood designs are presented as an example of how one might apply EGS concepts at this scale.

  8. Walks on SPR neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caceres, Alan Joseph J; Castillo, Juan; Lee, Jinnie; St John, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    A nearest-neighbor-interchange (NNI)-walk is a sequence of unrooted phylogenetic trees, T1, T2, . . . , T(k) where each consecutive pair of trees differs by a single NNI move. We give tight bounds on the length of the shortest NNI-walks that visit all trees in a subtree-prune-and-regraft (SPR) neighborhood of a given tree. For any unrooted, binary tree, T, on n leaves, the shortest walk takes Θ(n²) additional steps more than the number of trees in the SPR neighborhood. This answers Bryant’s Second Combinatorial Challenge from the Phylogenetics Challenges List, the Isaac Newton Institute, 2011, and the Penny Ante Problem List, 2009.

  9. Maps & minds : mapping through the ages

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    1984-01-01

    Throughout time, maps have expressed our understanding of our world. Human affairs have been influenced strongly by the quality of maps available to us at the major turning points in our history. "Maps & Minds" traces the ebb and flow of a few central ideas in the mainstream of mapping. Our expanding knowledge of our cosmic neighborhood stems largely from a small number of simple but grand ideas, vigorously pursued.

  10. Methods to measure the impact of home, social, and sexual neighborhoods of urban gay, bisexual, and other men who have sex with men.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beryl A Koblin

    Full Text Available Men who have sex with men (MSM accounted for 61% of new HIV diagnoses in the United States in 2010. Recent analyses indicate that socio-structural factors are important correlates of HIV infection. NYCM2M was a cross-sectional study designed to identify neighborhood-level characteristics within the urban environment that influence sexual risk behaviors, substance use and depression among MSM living in New York City. The sample was recruited using a modified venue-based time-space sampling methodology and through select websites and mobile applications. This paper describes novel methodological approaches used to improve the quality of data collected for analysis of the impact of neighborhoods on MSM health. Previous research has focused predominately on residential neighborhoods and used pre-determined administrative boundaries (e.g., census tracts that often do not reflect authentic and meaningful neighborhoods. This study included the definition and assessment of multiple neighborhoods of influence including where men live (home neighborhood, socialize (social neighborhood and have sex (sexual neighborhood. Furthermore, making use of technological advances in mapping, we collected geo-points of reference for each type of neighborhood and identified and constructed self-identified neighborhood boundary definitions. Finally, this study collected both perceived neighborhood characteristics and objective neighborhood conditions to create a comprehensive, flexible and rich neighborhood-level set of covariates. This research revealed that men perceived their home, social and sexual neighborhoods in different ways. Few men (15% had the same home, social and sexual neighborhoods; for 31%, none of the neighborhoods was the same. Of the three types of neighborhoods, the number of unique social neighborhoods was the lowest; the size of sexual neighborhoods was the smallest. The resultant dataset offers the opportunity to conduct analyses that will yield

  11. Schooling Closer to Home: Desegregation Policy and Neighborhood Contexts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldring, Ellen; Cohen-Vogel, Lora; Smrekar, Claire; Taylor, Cynthia

    2006-01-01

    This article uses census data, information collected by health and police departments, and GIS mapping software to analyze the neighborhood contexts surrounding schools in one Southern school district. When courts lifted Nashville's desegregation order in 1999, the district agreed to implement a new student assignment plan geared toward…

  12. The Healthy Community Neighborhood Initiative: Rationale and Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Arleen F; Morris, D'Ann M; Kahn, Katherine L; Sankaré, Ibrahima C; King, Keyonna M; Vargas, Roberto; Lucas-Wright, Aziza; Jones, Loretta F; Flowers, Astrea; Jones, Felica U; Bross, Rachelle; Banner, Dennishia; Del Pino, Homero E; Pitts, Orwilda L; Zhang, Lujia; Porter, Courtney; Madrigal, Sigrid K; Vassar, Stefanie D; Vangala, Sitaram; Liang, Li-Jung; Martinez, Arturo B; Norris, Keith C

    2016-01-21

    To describe the design and rationale of the Healthy Community Neighborhood Initiative (HCNI), a multi-component study to understand and document health risk and resources in a low-income and minority community. A community-partnered participatory research project. A low-income, biethnic African American and Latino neighborhood in South Los Angeles. Adult community residents aged >18 years. Household survey and clinical data collection; neighborhood characteristics; neighborhood observations; and community resources asset mapping. We enrolled 206 participants (90% of those eligible), of whom 205 completed the household interview and examination, and 199 provided laboratory samples. Among enrollees, 82 (40%) were aged >50 years and participated in functional status measurement. We completed neighborhood observations on 93 street segments; an average of 2.2 (SD=1.6) study participants resided on each street segment observed. The community asset map identified 290 resources summarized in a Community Resource Guide given to all participants. The HCNI community-academic partnership has built a framework to assess and document the individual, social, and community factors that may influence clinical and social outcomes in a community at high-risk for preventable chronic disease. Our project suggests that a community collaborative can use culturally and scientifically sound strategies to identify community-centered health and social needs. Additional work is needed to understand strategies for developing and implementing interventions to mitigate these disparities.

  13. Neighborhood perceptions and allostatic load

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Deurzen, Ioana; Rod, Naja Hulvej; Christensen, Ulla

    2016-01-01

    An influential argument explaining why living in certain neighborhoods can become harmful to one's health maintains that individuals can perceive certain characteristics of the neighborhood as threatening and the prolonged exposure to a threatening environment could induce chronic stress. Followi...... related to AL and this relationship was particularly robust for women....

  14. Universal map for cellular automata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Morales, V.

    2012-01-01

    A universal map is derived for all deterministic 1D cellular automata (CAs) containing no freely adjustable parameters and valid for any alphabet size and any neighborhood range (including non-symmetrical neighborhoods). The map can be extended to an arbitrary number of dimensions and topologies and to arbitrary order in time. Specific CA maps for the famous Conway's Game of Life and Wolfram's 256 elementary CAs are given. An induction method for CAs, based in the universal map, allows mathematical expressions for the orbits of a wide variety of elementary CAs to be systematically derived. -- Highlights: ► A universal map is derived for all deterministic 1D cellular automata (CA). ► The map is generalized to 2D for Von Neumann, Moore and hexagonal neighborhoods. ► A map for all Wolfram's 256 elementary CAs is derived. ► A map for Conway's “Game of Life” is obtained.

  15. Neighborhood Environmental Watch Network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanders, L.D.

    1993-01-01

    The Neighborhood Environmental Watch Network (NEWNET) is a regional network of environmental monitoring stations and a data archival center that supports collaboration between communities, industry, and government agencies to solve environmental problems. The stations provide local displays of measurements for the public and transmit measurements via satellite to a central site for archival and analysis. Station managers are selected from the local community and trained to support the stations. Archived data and analysis tools are available to researchers, educational institutions, industrial collaborators, and the public across the nation through a communications network. Los Alamos National Laboratory and the Environmental Protection Agency have developed a NEWNET pilot program for the Department of Energy. The pilot program supports monitoring stations in Nevada, Arizona, Utah, Wyoming, and California. Additional stations are being placed in Colorado and New Mexico. Pilot stations take radiological and meteorological measurements. Other measurements are possible by exchanging sensors

  16. Geographic object-based delineation of neighborhoods of Accra, Ghana using QuickBird satellite imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stow, Douglas A; Lippitt, Christopher D; Weeks, John R

    2010-08-01

    The objective was to test GEographic Object-based Image Analysis (GEOBIA) techniques for delineating neighborhoods of Accra, Ghana using QuickBird multispectral imagery. Two approaches to aggregating census enumeration areas (EAs) based on image-derived measures of vegetation objects were tested: (1) merging adjacent EAs according to vegetation measures and (2) image segmentation. Both approaches exploit readily available functions within commercial GEOBIA software. Image-derived neighborhood maps were compared to a reference map derived by spatial clustering of slum index values (from census data), to provide a relative assessment of potential map utility. A size-constrained iterative segmentation approach to aggregation was more successful than standard image segmentation or feature merge techniques. The segmentation approaches account for size and shape characteristics, enabling more realistic neighborhood boundaries to be delineated. The percentage of vegetation patches within each EA yielded more realistic delineation of potential neighborhoods than mean vegetation patch size per EA.

  17. Collateral Consequences of Violence in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, David J.

    2009-01-01

    Using data from Add Health, this study investigates the role of neighborhood violence in mediating the effects of neighborhood disadvantage on high school graduation and teenage pregnancy. Results show that neighborhood violence is a strong predictor of both outcomes, net of individual, family, community and school controls. Neighborhood violence…

  18. Neighborhood Context and Immigrant Young Children's Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Tama; Shuey, Elizabeth A.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored how neighborhood social processes and resources, relevant to immigrant families and immigrant neighborhoods, contribute to young children's behavioral functioning and achievement across diverse racial/ethnic groups. Data were drawn from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, a neighborhood-based,…

  19. Measuring physical neighborhood quality related to health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollings, Kimberly A; Wells, Nancy M; Evans, Gary W

    2015-04-29

    Although sociodemographic factors are one aspect of understanding the effects of neighborhood environments on health, equating neighborhood quality with socioeconomic status ignores the important role of physical neighborhood attributes. Prior work on neighborhood environments and health has relied primarily on level of socioeconomic disadvantage as the indicator of neighborhood quality without attention to physical neighborhood quality. A small but increasing number of studies have assessed neighborhood physical characteristics. Findings generally indicate that there is an association between living in deprived neighborhoods and poor health outcomes, but rigorous evidence linking specific physical neighborhood attributes to particular health outcomes is lacking. This paper discusses the methodological challenges and limitations of measuring physical neighborhood environments relevant to health and concludes with proposed directions for future work.

  20. µ-shapes: Delineating urban neighborhoods using volunteered geographic information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matt Aadland

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Urban neighborhoods are a unique form of geography in that their boundaries rely on a social definition rather than a well-defined physical or administrative boundary. Currently, geographic gazetteers capture little more than then the centroid of a neighborhood, limiting potential applications of the data. In this paper, we present µ-shapes, an algorithm that employs fuzzy-set theory to model neighborhood boundaries suitable for populating gazetteers using volunteered geographic information (VGI. The algorithm is evaluated using a reference dataset and VGI from the Map Kibera Project. A confusion matrix comparison between the reference dataset and µ-shape's output demonstrated high sensitivity and accuracy. Analysis of variance indicated that the algorithm was able to distinguish between boundary and interior blocks. This suggests that, given the existing state of GIS technology, the µ-shapes algorithm can enable neighborhood-related queries that incorporate spatial uncertainty, e.g., find all restaurants within the core of a neighborhood.

  1. VT Designated Neighborhood Development Area

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The Neighborhood Development Area designation encourages municipalities and/or developers to plan for new and infill housing in the area within walking distance of...

  2. Durham Neighborhood Compass Block Groups

    Data.gov (United States)

    City and County of Durham, North Carolina — The Durham Neighborhood Compass is a quantitative indicators project with qualitative values, integrating data from local government, the Census Bureau and other...

  3. Stigmatized neighborhoods, social bonding, and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wutich, Amber; Ruth, Alissa; Brewis, Alexandra; Boone, Christopher

    2014-12-01

    The relationship between living in impoverished neighborhoods and poor health is well established, but impacts of neighborhood stigma on health are not well understood. Drawing on long-term research with Latino immigrants, we examine how neighborhood stigma and social bonding affect health in Phoenix, Arizona. During preliminary ethnographic analysis, we developed a novel neighborhood stigma scale. In survey research, we examined effects of neighborhood stigma and social bonding on self-reported physical and mental health. Regression models show that perceived neighborhood stigma and low social bonding are associated with poorer physical and mental health, controlling for other factors. © 2014 by the American Anthropological Association.

  4. The global financial crisis and neighborhood decline

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zwiers, M.D.; Bolt, G.; Van Ham, M.; Van Kempen, R.

    2016-01-01

    Neighborhood decline is a complex and multidimensional process. National and regional variations in economic and political structures (including varieties in national welfare state arrangements), combined with differences in neighborhood history, development, and population composition, make it

  5. Short- and Long-Term Impacts of Neighborhood Built Environment on Self-Rated Health of Older Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spring, Amy

    2018-01-18

    Proximity to health care, healthy foods, and recreation is linked to improved health in older adults while deterioration of the built environment is a risk factor for poor health. Yet, it remains unclear whether individuals prone to good health self-select into favorable built environments and how long-term exposure to deteriorated environments impacts health. This study uses a longitudinal framework to address these questions. The study analyzes 3,240 Americans aged 45 or older from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics with good self-reported health at baseline, and follows them from 1999 to 2013. At each biennial survey wave, individual data are combined with data on services in the neighborhood of residence (defined as the zip code) from the Economic Census. The analysis overcomes the problem of residential self-selection by employing marginal structural models and inverse probability of treatment weights. Logistic regression estimates indicate that long-term exposure to neighborhood built environments that lack health-supportive services (e.g., physicians, pharmacies, grocery stores, senior centers, and recreational facilities) and are commercially declined (i.e., have a high density of liquor stores, pawn shops, and fast food outlets) increases the risk of fair/poor self-rated health compared to more average neighborhoods. Short-term exposure to the same environments as compared to average neighborhoods has no bearing on self-rated health after adjusting for self-selection. Results highlight the importance of expanding individuals' access to health-supportive services prior to their reaching old age, and expanding access for people unlikely to attain residence in service-dense neighborhoods. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Schools, Neighborhood Risk Factors, and Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willits, Dale; Broidy, Lisa; Denman, Kristine

    2013-01-01

    Prior research has identified a link between schools (particularly high schools) and neighborhood crime rates. However, it remains unclear whether the relationship between schools and crime is a reflection of other criminogenic dynamics at the neighborhood level or whether schools influence neighborhood crime patterns independently of other…

  7. Neighborhood Racial Isolation, Disorder and Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Virginia W.; Hillier, Amy E.; Mehta, Neil K.

    2009-01-01

    Recent research suggests that racial residential segregation may be detrimental to health. This study investigates the influence of neighborhood racial isolation on obesity and considers the role of neighborhood disorder as a mediator in this relationship. For the city of Philadelphia, we find that residence in a neighborhood with high black…

  8. Internet Bad Neighborhoods temporal behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira Moura, Giovane; Sadre, R.; Pras, Aiko

    2014-01-01

    Malicious hosts tend to be concentrated in certain areas of the IP addressing space, forming the so-called Bad Neighborhoods. Knowledge about this concentration is valuable in predicting attacks from unseen IP addresses. This observation has been employed in previous works to filter out spam. In

  9. Bad Neighborhoods on the Internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira Moura, G.C.; Sadre, R.; Pras, A.

    2014-01-01

    Analogous to the real world, sources of malicious activities on the Internet tend to be concentrated in certain networks instead of being evenly distributed. In this article, we formally define and frame such areas as Internet Bad Neighborhoods. By extending the reputation of malicious IP addresses

  10. Bad neighborhoods on the internet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira Moura, Giovane; Sadre, R.; Pras, Aiko

    Analogous to the real world, sources of malicious activities on the Internet tend to be concentrated in certain networks instead of being evenly distributed. In this article we formally define and frame such areas as Internet Bad Neighborhoods. By extending the reputation of malicious IP addresses

  11. Local Geographic Variation of Public Services Inequality: Does the Neighborhood Scale Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunzhu Wei

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to explore the effect of the neighborhood scale when estimating public services inequality based on the aggregation of social, environmental, and health-related indicators. Inequality analyses were carried out at three neighborhood scales: the original census blocks and two aggregated neighborhood units generated by the spatial “k”luster analysis by the tree edge removal (SKATER algorithm and the self-organizing map (SOM algorithm. Then, we combined a set of health-related public services indicators with the geographically weighted principal components analyses (GWPCA and the principal components analyses (PCA to measure the public services inequality across all multi-scale neighborhood units. Finally, a statistical test was applied to evaluate the scale effects in inequality measurements by combining all available field survey data. We chose Quito as the case study area. All of the aggregated neighborhood units performed better than the original census blocks in terms of the social indicators extracted from a field survey. The SKATER and SOM algorithms can help to define the neighborhoods in inequality analyses. Moreover, GWPCA performs better than PCA in multivariate spatial inequality estimation. Understanding the scale effects is essential to sustain a social neighborhood organization, which, in turn, positively affects social determinants of public health and public quality of life.

  12. Local Geographic Variation of Public Services Inequality: Does the Neighborhood Scale Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Chunzhu; Cabrera-Barona, Pablo; Blaschke, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to explore the effect of the neighborhood scale when estimating public services inequality based on the aggregation of social, environmental, and health-related indicators. Inequality analyses were carried out at three neighborhood scales: the original census blocks and two aggregated neighborhood units generated by the spatial “k”luster analysis by the tree edge removal (SKATER) algorithm and the self-organizing map (SOM) algorithm. Then, we combined a set of health-related public services indicators with the geographically weighted principal components analyses (GWPCA) and the principal components analyses (PCA) to measure the public services inequality across all multi-scale neighborhood units. Finally, a statistical test was applied to evaluate the scale effects in inequality measurements by combining all available field survey data. We chose Quito as the case study area. All of the aggregated neighborhood units performed better than the original census blocks in terms of the social indicators extracted from a field survey. The SKATER and SOM algorithms can help to define the neighborhoods in inequality analyses. Moreover, GWPCA performs better than PCA in multivariate spatial inequality estimation. Understanding the scale effects is essential to sustain a social neighborhood organization, which, in turn, positively affects social determinants of public health and public quality of life. PMID:27706072

  13. Urbanism, Neighborhood Context, and Social Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwell, Erin York; Behler, Rachel L

    2015-09-01

    Theories of urbanism suggest that the urban context erodes individuals' strong social ties with friends and family. Recent research has narrowed focus to the neighborhood context, emphasizing how localized structural disadvantage affects community-level cohesion and social capital. In this paper, we argue that neighborhood context also shapes social ties with friends and family- particularly for community-dwelling seniors. We hypothesize that neighborhood disadvantage, residential instability, and disorder restrict residents' abilities to cultivate close relationships with neighbors and non-neighbor friends and family. Using data from the National Social Life, Health, and Aging Project (NSHAP), we find that older adults who live in disadvantaged neighborhoods have smaller social networks. Neighborhood disadvantage is also associated with less close network ties and less frequent interaction - but only among men. Furthermore, residents of disordered neighborhoods have smaller networks and weaker ties. We urge scholars to pay greater attention to how neighborhood context contributes to disparities in network-based access to resources.

  14. Crime, neighborhood deprivation, and asthma: a GIS approach to define and assess neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gale, Sara L; Magzamen, Sheryl L; Radke, John D; Tager, Ira B

    2011-06-01

    Exposure to neighborhood factors remains difficult to quantify when neighborhoods are often predefined and imprecisely measured. This study examines the association between neighborhood deprivation and participation in a community-based asthma case management (CM) program in Oakland, CA. We estimated neighborhoods by calculating walking distances of , and miles around each child's (n=2892) residence. The model assesses deprivation by the addition of weighted factors within a child's neighborhood-crime rates, alcohol outlets, and eight 2000 US Census characteristics. The results illustrate that neighborhood deprivation is weakly associated with greater levels of program participation, but neighborhood education level, measured by percentage of residents with less than a high school education, is strongly associated with greater program participation (OR: 4.43, 95% CI: [1.23, 15.99]). Neighborhood deprivation factors were significantly different between neighborhoods defined by walking distances and census blockgroups (Wilcoxon-signed rank test: p<0.05). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Analyzing the Influence of Neighborhood Development Pattern on Modal Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Soltani

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Although several studies have been undertaken on the association between built environmental characteristics and travel patterns in western societies, the impacts of the local built environment on individuals’ travel behavior considering the specific conditions of developing nations have remained largely unknown. Thus, this paper investigates the travel behavior effects of local planning and design in three residential neighborhoods of Shiraz, a city in the southwest of Iran. The data on land use and built environment characteristics were extracted primarily from an existing digital map and GIS, whereas the data on individuals’ socioeconomics and their daily travel behavior were purposefully collected using a field questionnaire survey (n=393. A nested logit model (NLM based on the microeconomic utility concept was then applied to discover the impacts of personal characteristics and built environment factors on the choice mode of the individuals. The results and the associated policy implications can be helpful in defining a strategic agenda for neighborhood design and planning.

  16. How Neighborhood Disadvantage Reduces Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Moiduddin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In this analysis we connect structural neighborhood conditions to birth outcomes through their intermediate effects on mothers’ perceptions of neighborhood danger and their tendency to abuse substances during pregnancy. We hypothesize that neighborhood poverty and racial/ethnic concentration combine to produce environments that mothers perceive as unsafe, thereby increasing the likelihood of negative coping behaviors (substance abuse. We expect these behaviors, in turn, to produce lower birth weights. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a survey of a cohort of children born between 1998 and 2000 and their mothers in large cities in the United States, we find little evidence to suggest that neighborhood circumstances have strong, direct effects on birth weight. Living in a neighborhood with more foreigners had a positive effect on birth weight. To the extent that neighborhood conditions influence birth weight, the effect mainly occurs through an association with perceived neighborhood danger and subsequent negative coping behaviors. Poverty and racial/ethnic concentration increase a mother’s sense that her neighborhood is unsafe. The perception of an unsafe neighborhood, in turn, associates with a greater likelihood of smoking cigarettes and using illegal drugs, and these behaviors have strong and significant effects in reducing birth weight. However, demographic characteristics, rather than perceived danger or substance abuse, mediate the influence of neighborhood characteristics on birth weight.

  17. Neighborhood Effects on Youth Crime

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rotger, Gabriel Pons; Galster, George Charles

    We investigate the degree to which youth (ages 14-29) criminal offenses are influenced by neighbors, identifying causal effects with a natural experimental allocation of social housing in Copenhagen. We find that youth exposed to a one percentage point higher concentration of neighbors with drug...... mechanisms suggests youth interaction in proximate residential context with older adults with drug crime experience as the most plausible source of neighborhood effects....

  18. Functional Interpretation of Neighborhood Public Spaces in Terms of Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid Majedi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this article is to evaluate the effect of neighborhood public space transformation due to rapid urbanization in Tehran since 1960s, on the formation of neighborhood identity. In order to find the role of public spaces in enhancing neighborhood identities, two middle class neighborhoods with different spatial organizations are compared with each other: Nazi Abad a planned neighborhood and Mehran a typical unplanned neighborhood which developed through rapid urbanization.   Next, the effect of neighborhood public spaces on neighborhood inhabitants is evaluated from two perspectives: Perceptual dimension and social dimension. The findings indicate that planned spatial organization and various neighborhood public spaces result in stronger neighborhood identity. It enhances both perceptual dimension of neighborhood identity(place attachment and its social dimension (sense of community. In contrast unplanned spatial organization which is the typical feature of Tehran neighborhoods leads to weak neighborhood identity.

  19. Does neighborhood collective efficacy for families change over time? The Boston Neighborhood Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Nicole M.; Tchetgen Tchetgen, Eric J.; Ehntholt, Amy; Almeida, Joanna; Nguyen, Quynh C.; Molnar, Beth E.; Azrael, Deborah; Osypuk, Theresa L.

    2014-01-01

    There is an increased interest in how neighborhood social processes, such as collective efficacy, may protect mental health. Yet little is known about how stable these neighborhood processes are over time, or how to change them to influence other downstream factors. We used a population-based, repeat cross-sectional study of adults (n=5135) to assess stability of collective efficacy for families in 38 Boston neighborhoods across 4 years (2006, 2008, 2010) (the Boston Neighborhood Survey). We test temporal stability of collective efficacy for families across and within neighborhoods using 2-level random effects linear regression, fixed effects linear regression, T-tests, and Wilcoxon rank tests. Across the different methods, neighborhood collective efficacy for families remained stable across 4 years, after adjustment for neighborhood composition. If neighborhood collective efficacy is measured within 4 years of the exposure period of interest, assuming temporal stability may be valid. PMID:24976653

  20. Neighborhood crime and transit station access mode choice - phase III of neighborhood crime and travel behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    This report provides the findings from the third phase of a three-part study about the influences of neighborhood crimes on travel : mode choice. While previous phases found evidence that high levels of neighborhood crime discourage people from choos...

  1. Segregation and Neighborhood Change in Northern Cities: New Historical GIS Data from 1900-1930.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shertzer, Allison; Walsh, Randall P; Logan, John R

    2016-01-01

    Most quantitative research on segregation and neighborhood change in American cities prior to 1940 has utilized data published by the Census Bureau at the ward level. The transcription of census manuscripts has made it possible to aggregate individual records to a finer level, the enumeration district (ED). Advances in Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have facilitated mapping these data, opening new possibilities for historical GIS research. We report here the creation of a mapped public use data set for EDs in ten northern cities for each decade from 1900 to 1930. We illustrate a range of research topics that can now be pursued: recruitment into ethnic neighborhoods, the effects of comprehensive zoning on neighborhood change, and white flight from black neighbors.

  2. Neighborhood Quality and Labor Market Outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil

    neighborhood may, therefore, hamper individual labor market outcomes because of lack of employed contacts. I investigate this hypothesis by exploiting a unique natural experiment that occurred between 1986 and 1998 when refugee immigrants to Denmark were assigned to municipalities quasirandomly, which...... successfully addresses the methodological problem of endogenous neighborhood selection. Taking account of location sorting, living in a socially deprived neighborhood does not affect labor market outcomes of refugee men. Furthermore, their labor market outcomes are not affected by the overall employment rate...

  3. Child Maltreatment, Problem Behaviors, and Neighborhood Attainment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Preeti; Schuck, Amie M; Widom, Cathy Spatz

    2017-12-01

    Using data from a prospective cohort design study of a group of children with documented histories of abuse and neglect (n = 908) and matched controls (n = 667), this paper examines whether problem behaviors (e.g., prostitution, crime, school problems, and homelessness) in young adulthood explain the link between maltreatment in childhood and living in high-risk neighborhoods in middle adulthood. Problem behaviors were assessed at mean age of 29 and neighborhood characteristics were assessed at mean age of 40. Child maltreatment predicted living in less desirable neighborhoods in middle adulthood. Problem behaviors in young adulthood partially mediated the relationship between childhood maltreatment and residence in less desirable neighborhoods in middle adulthood. The direct paths from child maltreatment to neighborhoods were not significant for Black children. For White children, there was a direct relationship between child maltreatment and living in an economically disadvantaged neighborhood. Problem behaviors were a stronger mediator between child maltreatment and living in more disordered and less socially cohesive neighborhoods for Black children, while the problem behaviors were a stronger mediator for living in more economically disadvantaged and less socially cohesive neighborhoods for White children. Further research is needed to understand these racial differences. Interventions should focus on preventing problem behaviors to minimize the risk of residency in high-risk neighborhoods. © Society for Community Research and Action 2017.

  4. Childhood trauma and neighborhood-level crime interact in predicting adult posttraumatic stress and major depression symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowe, Sarah R; Quinn, James W; Richards, Catherine A; Pothen, John; Rundle, Andrew; Galea, Sandro; Ressler, Kerry J; Koenen, Karestan C; Bradley, Bekh

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has identified several individual-level factors that modify the risk of childhood trauma on adult psychiatric symptoms, including symptoms of major depression (MD) and posttraumatic stress (PTS). Neighborhood-level factors also influence the impact of individual-level exposures on adult psychopathology. However, no prior studies to our knowledge have explored cross-level interactions between childhood trauma and neighborhood-level factors on MD and PTS symptoms. The purpose of this study was therefore to explore cross-level interactions between a neighborhood-level factor - neighborhood-level crime - and childhood trauma on MD and PTS symptoms. Participants in this study (N=3192) were recruited from a large public hospital, and completed self-report inventories of childhood trauma and MD and PTS symptoms. Participant addresses were mapped onto 2010 census tracts, and data on crime within each tract were collected. Multilevel models found a significant cross-level interaction between childhood trauma and neighborhood crime on MD symptoms, such that the influence of high levels of childhood trauma on MD symptoms was enhanced for participants living in high-crime neighborhoods. Supplementary analyses found variation in the strength of cross-level interaction terms by types of childhood trauma and crime, with the strongest associations including emotional neglect paired with personal and property crime. The results provide preliminary support for interventions that help childhood trauma survivors find housing in less vulnerable neighborhoods and build skills to cope with neighborhood crime. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Neighborhood context and health: How neighborhood social capital affects individual health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohnen, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Does it matter for my health in which neighborhood I live? The fact is, health is determined not only by individual characteristics but also by the neighborhood in which someone lives. This thesis shows that health clusters in Dutch neighborhoods and that this is not only a composition effect (that

  6. Neighborhood-Specific and General Social Support: Which Buffers the Effect of Neighborhood Disorder on Depression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joongbaeck; Ross, Catherine E.

    2009-01-01

    Is neighborhood-specific social support the most effective type of social support for buffering the effect of neighborhood disorder on depression? Matching theory suggests that it is. The authors extend the research on neighborhood disorder and adult depression by showing that individuals who have higher levels of both general and…

  7. Exploring the Influence of Neighborhood Characteristics on Burglary Risks: A Bayesian Random Effects Modeling Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongqiang Liu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available A Bayesian random effects modeling approach was used to examine the influence of neighborhood characteristics on burglary risks in Jianghan District, Wuhan, China. This random effects model is essentially spatial; a spatially structured random effects term and an unstructured random effects term are added to the traditional non-spatial Poisson regression model. Based on social disorganization and routine activity theories, five covariates extracted from the available data at the neighborhood level were used in the modeling. Three regression models were fitted and compared by the deviance information criterion to identify which model best fit our data. A comparison of the results from the three models indicates that the Bayesian random effects model is superior to the non-spatial models in fitting the data and estimating regression coefficients. Our results also show that neighborhoods with above average bar density and department store density have higher burglary risks. Neighborhood-specific burglary risks and posterior probabilities of neighborhoods having a burglary risk greater than 1.0 were mapped, indicating the neighborhoods that should warrant more attention and be prioritized for crime intervention and reduction. Implications and limitations of the study are discussed in our concluding section.

  8. Tensor Train Neighborhood Preserving Embedding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenqi; Aggarwal, Vaneet; Aeron, Shuchin

    2018-05-01

    In this paper, we propose a Tensor Train Neighborhood Preserving Embedding (TTNPE) to embed multi-dimensional tensor data into low dimensional tensor subspace. Novel approaches to solve the optimization problem in TTNPE are proposed. For this embedding, we evaluate novel trade-off gain among classification, computation, and dimensionality reduction (storage) for supervised learning. It is shown that compared to the state-of-the-arts tensor embedding methods, TTNPE achieves superior trade-off in classification, computation, and dimensionality reduction in MNIST handwritten digits and Weizmann face datasets.

  9. Comprehensive Neighborhood Portraits and Child Asthma Disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kranjac, Ashley W; Kimbro, Rachel T; Denney, Justin T; Osiecki, Kristin M; Moffett, Brady S; Lopez, Keila N

    2017-07-01

    Objectives Previous research has established links between child, family, and neighborhood disadvantages and child asthma. We add to this literature by first characterizing neighborhoods in Houston, TX by demographic, economic, and air quality characteristics to establish differences in pediatric asthma diagnoses across neighborhoods. Second, we identify the relative risk of social, economic, and environmental risk factors for child asthma diagnoses. Methods We geocoded and linked electronic pediatric medical records to neighborhood-level social and economic indicators. Using latent profile modeling techniques, we identified Advantaged, Middle-class, and Disadvantaged neighborhoods. We then used a modified version of the Blinder-Oaxaca regression decomposition method to examine differences in asthma diagnoses across children in these different neighborhoods. Results Both compositional (the characteristics of the children and the ambient air quality in the neighborhood) and associational (the relationship between child and air quality characteristics and asthma) differences within the distinctive neighborhood contexts influence asthma outcomes. For example, unequal exposure to PM 2.5 and O 3 among children in Disadvantaged and Middle-class neighborhoods contribute to asthma diagnosis disparities within these contexts. For children in Disadvantaged and Advantaged neighborhoods, associational differences between racial/ethnic and socioeconomic characteristics and asthma diagnoses explain a significant proportion of the gap. Conclusions for Practice Our results provide evidence that differential exposure to pollution and protective factors associated with non-Hispanic White children and children from affluent families contribute to asthma disparities between neighborhoods. Future researchers should consider social and racial inequalities as more proximate drivers, not merely as associated, with asthma disparities in children.

  10. Neighborhood effects on heat deaths: social and environmental predictors of vulnerability in Maricopa County, Arizona.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlan, Sharon L; Declet-Barreto, Juan H; Stefanov, William L; Petitti, Diana B

    2013-02-01

    Most heat-related deaths occur in cities, and future trends in global climate change and urbanization may amplify this trend. Understanding how neighborhoods affect heat mortality fills an important gap between studies of individual susceptibility to heat and broadly comparative studies of temperature-mortality relationships in cities. We estimated neighborhood effects of population characteristics and built and natural environments on deaths due to heat exposure in Maricopa County, Arizona (2000-2008). We used 2000 U.S. Census data and remotely sensed vegetation and land surface temperature to construct indicators of neighborhood vulnerability and a geographic information system to map vulnerability and residential addresses of persons who died from heat exposure in 2,081 census block groups. Binary logistic regression and spatial analysis were used to associate deaths with neighborhoods. Neighborhood scores on three factors-socioeconomic vulnerability, elderly/isolation, and unvegetated area-varied widely throughout the study area. The preferred model (based on fit and parsimony) for predicting the odds of one or more deaths from heat exposure within a census block group included the first two factors and surface temperature in residential neighborhoods, holding population size constant. Spatial analysis identified clusters of neighborhoods with the highest heat vulnerability scores. A large proportion of deaths occurred among people, including homeless persons, who lived in the inner cores of the largest cities and along an industrial corridor. Place-based indicators of vulnerability complement analyses of person-level heat risk factors. Surface temperature might be used in Maricopa County to identify the most heat-vulnerable neighborhoods, but more attention to the socioecological complexities of climate adaptation is needed.

  11. Active Seattle: achieving walkability in diverse neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deehr, Rebecca C; Shumann, Amy

    2009-12-01

    The Active Living by Design project based in Seattle (Active Seattle) advocated for policies and projects in diverse communities supporting a more walkable city, while using social marketing and education to get more people walking more often. Walking audits were carried out in select diverse neighborhoods, resulting in recommendations for policy change and built-environment improvements. Advocacy for city-scale policies also occurred. Walking maps and other social-marketing products promoted behavior change. Major Safe Routes to School activities occurred and were made possible by separate funding sources. Positive results of Active Seattle included an increase in funding for pedestrian infrastructure, a pedestrian master plan, a Complete Streets policy, substantial increase in Safe Routes to School activity, and institutionalization of active living and active transportation within partner agencies. Challenges included institutional prioritization for improving pedestrian infrastructure, funding inequity, and a community need that was greater than could be fulfilled. Efforts to overcome funding inequities or other resistance to pedestrian-oriented physical projects will benefit from high-visibility campaigns that have a lasting impact on public perception and decision makers' political will. To reach vulnerable populations that have substantial barriers to increasing walking frequency, extensive staff time for outreach is needed. Changing the built environment to encourage walking may be a long-term solution in communities with diverse populations. Influencing and educating local government officials to make active living projects and policies a high budgetary priority is essential for large-scale impact and long-term change.

  12. Neighborhood social capital and individual health.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohnen, S.M.; Groenewegen, P.P.; Völker, B.; Flap, H.

    2011-01-01

    Neighborhood social capital is increasingly considered to be an important determinant of an individual's health. Using data from the Netherlands we investigate the influence of neighborhood social capital on an individual's self-reported health, while accounting for other conditions of health on

  13. Neighborhood social capital and individual health

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mohnen, S.M.; Groenewegen, P.P.; Völker, B.G.M.; Flap, H.D.

    2010-01-01

    Neighborhood social capital is increasingly considered to be an important determinant of an individual’s health. Using data from the Netherlands we investigate the influence of neighborhood social capital on an individual’s self-reported health, while accounting for other conditions of health on

  14. Who Gentrifies Low-Income Neighborhoods?*

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnish, Terra; Walsh, Randall; White, T. Kirk

    2009-01-01

    This paper uses confidential Census data, specifically the 1990 and 2000 Census Long Form data, to study demographic processes in neighborhoods that gentrified during the 1990’s. In contrast to previous studies, the analysis is conducted at the more refined census-tract level, with a narrower definition of gentrification and more closely matched comparison neighborhoods. Furthermore, our access to individual-level data with census tract identifiers allows us to separately identify recent in-migrants and long-term residents. Our results indicate that, on average, the demographic flows associated with the gentrification of urban neighborhoods during the 1990’s are not consistent with displacement and harm to minority households. In fact, taken as a whole, our results suggest that gentrification of predominantly black neighborhoods creates neighborhoods that are attractive to middle-class black households. PMID:20161532

  15. Who Gentrifies Low-Income Neighborhoods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinnish, Terra; Walsh, Randall; White, T Kirk

    2010-03-01

    This paper uses confidential Census data, specifically the 1990 and 2000 Census Long Form data, to study demographic processes in neighborhoods that gentrified during the 1990's. In contrast to previous studies, the analysis is conducted at the more refined census-tract level, with a narrower definition of gentrification and more closely matched comparison neighborhoods. Furthermore, our access to individual-level data with census tract identifiers allows us to separately identify recent in-migrants and long-term residents. Our results indicate that, on average, the demographic flows associated with the gentrification of urban neighborhoods during the 1990's are not consistent with displacement and harm to minority households. In fact, taken as a whole, our results suggest that gentrification of predominantly black neighborhoods creates neighborhoods that are attractive to middle-class black households.

  16. Ecological Networks and Neighborhood Social Organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browning, Christopher R; Calder, Catherine A; Soller, Brian; Jackson, Aubrey L; Dirlam, Jonathan

    2017-05-01

    Drawing on the social disorganization tradition and the social ecological perspective of Jane Jacobs, the authors hypothesize that neighborhoods composed of residents who intersect in space more frequently as a result of routine activities will exhibit higher levels of collective efficacy, intergenerational closure, and social network interaction and exchange. They develop this approach employing the concept of ecological networks-two-mode networks that indirectly link residents through spatial overlap in routine activities. Using data from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey, they find evidence that econetwork extensity (the average proportion of households in the neighborhood to which a given household is tied through any location) and intensity (the degree to which household dyads are characterized by ties through multiple locations) are positively related to changes in social organization between 2000-2001 and 2006-2008. These findings demonstrate the relevance of econetwork characteristics-heretofore neglected in research on urban neighborhoods-for consequential dimensions of neighborhood social organization.

  17. Neighborhoods and obesity in New York City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Jennifer L; Macinko, James; Dixon, L Beth; Fryer, George E

    2010-05-01

    Recent studies reveal disparities in neighborhood access to food and fitness facilities, particularly in US cities; but few studies assess the effects of multiple neighborhood factors on obesity. This study measured the multilevel relations between neighborhood food availability, opportunities and barriers for physical activity, income and racial composition with obesity (BMI> or =30 kg/m(2)) in New York City, controlling for individual-level factors. Obesity rates varied widely between neighborhoods, ranging from 6.8% to 31.7%. Obesity was significantly (p<0.01) associated with neighborhood-level factors, particularly the availability of supermarkets and food stores, fitness facilities, percent of commercial land use and area income. These findings are consistent with the growing literature showing that area income and availability of food and physical activity resources are related to obesity. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. d-Neighborhood system and generalized F-contraction in dislocated metric space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumari, P Sumati; Zoto, Kastriot; Panthi, Dinesh

    2015-01-01

    This paper, gives an answer for the Question 1.1 posed by Hitzler (Generalized metrics and topology in logic programming semantics, 2001) by means of "Topological aspects of d-metric space with d-neighborhood system". We have investigated the topological aspects of a d-neighborhood system obtained from dislocated metric space (simply d-metric space) which has got useful applications in the semantic analysis of logic programming. Further more we have generalized the notion of F-contraction in the view of d-metric spaces and investigated the uniqueness of fixed point and coincidence point of such mappings.

  19. Obesogenic neighborhood environments, child and parent obesity: the Neighborhood Impact on Kids study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saelens, Brian E; Sallis, James F; Frank, Lawrence D; Couch, Sarah C; Zhou, Chuan; Colburn, Trina; Cain, Kelli L; Chapman, James; Glanz, Karen

    2012-05-01

    Identifying neighborhood environment attributes related to childhood obesity can inform environmental changes for obesity prevention. To evaluate child and parent weight status across neighborhoods in King County (Seattle metropolitan area) and San Diego County differing in GIS-defined physical activity environment (PAE) and nutrition environment (NE) characteristics. Neighborhoods were selected to represent high (favorable) versus low (unfavorable) on the two measures, forming four neighborhood types (low on both measures, low PAE/high NE, high PAE/low NE, and high on both measures). Weight and height of children aged 6-11 years and one parent (n=730) from selected neighborhoods were assessed in 2007-2009. Differences in child and parent overweight and obesity by neighborhood type were examined, adjusting for neighborhood-, family-, and individual-level demographics. Children from neighborhoods high on both environment measures were less likely to be obese (7.7% vs 15.9%, OR=0.44, p=0.02) and marginally less likely to be overweight (23.7% vs 31.7%, OR=0.67, p=0.08) than children from neighborhoods low on both measures. In models adjusted for parent weight status and demographic factors, neighborhood environment type remained related to child obesity (high vs low on both measures, OR=0.41, pobese (20.1% vs 27.7%, OR=0.66, p=0.08), although parent overweight did not differ by neighborhood environment. The lower odds of parent obesity in neighborhoods with environments supportive of physical activity and healthy eating remained in models adjusted for demographics (high vs low on the environment measures, OR=0.57, p=0.053). Findings support the proposed GIS-based definitions of obesogenic neighborhoods for children and parents that consider both physical activity and nutrition environment features. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The neighborhood context of homelessness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander-Eitzman, Ben; Pollio, David E; North, Carol S

    2013-04-01

    We examined and compared the changing neighborhood characteristics of a group of homeless adults over time. We collected the addresses of previous housing and sleep locations from a longitudinal study of 400 homeless adults in the St. Louis, Missouri, region and compared census measures of housing and economic opportunities at different points along individual pathways from housing to homelessness and at 1- and 2-year follow-up interviews. Sleep locations of homeless adults were much more concentrated in the urban core at baseline than were their previous housed and follow-up locations. These core areas had higher poverty, unemployment, and rent-to-income ratios and lower median incomes. The spatial concentration of homeless adults in areas with fewer opportunities and more economic and housing distress may present additional barriers to regaining stable housing and employment. A big-picture spatial and time-course viewpoint is critical for both policymakers and future homelessness researchers.

  1. Geometrical tile design for complex neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czeizler, Eugen; Kari, Lila

    2009-01-01

    Recent research has showed that tile systems are one of the most suitable theoretical frameworks for the spatial study and modeling of self-assembly processes, such as the formation of DNA and protein oligomeric structures. A Wang tile is a unit square, with glues on its edges, attaching to other tiles and forming larger and larger structures. Although quite intuitive, the idea of glues placed on the edges of a tile is not always natural for simulating the interactions occurring in some real systems. For example, when considering protein self-assembly, the shape of a protein is the main determinant of its functions and its interactions with other proteins. Our goal is to use geometric tiles, i.e., square tiles with geometrical protrusions on their edges, for simulating tiled paths (zippers) with complex neighborhoods, by ribbons of geometric tiles with simple, local neighborhoods. This paper is a step toward solving the general case of an arbitrary neighborhood, by proposing geometric tile designs that solve the case of a "tall" von Neumann neighborhood, the case of the f-shaped neighborhood, and the case of a 3 x 5 "filled" rectangular neighborhood. The techniques can be combined and generalized to solve the problem in the case of any neighborhood, centered at the tile of reference, and included in a 3 x (2k + 1) rectangle.

  2. Neighborhood quality and labor market outcomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil

    2014-01-01

    Settlement in a socially deprived neighborhood may hamper individual labor market outcomes because of lack of employed or highly skilled contacts. I investigate this hypothesis by exploiting a unique natural experment that occurred between 1986 and 1998 when refugee immigrants to Denmark were...... of refugee men. Their labor market outcomes are also not affected by the overall employment rate and the overall average skill level in the neighborhood. However, an increase in the average skill level of non-Western immigrant men living in the neighborhood raises their employment probability, while...

  3. Neighborhoods and Child Maltreatment: A Multi-Level Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulton, Claudia J.; Korbin, Jill E.; Su, Marilyn

    1999-01-01

    A study investigated how neighborhood and individual factors affected 400 parents from neighborhoods with different risk profiles for child maltreatment report rates. Neighborhood factors of impoverishment and child care burden significantly affected child abuse potential. Variation in child abuse potential within neighborhoods was greater than…

  4. Impact of Urban Neighborhood Disadvantage on Late Stage Breast Cancer Diagnosis in Virginia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGuzman, Pam Baker; Cohn, Wendy F; Camacho, Fabian; Edwards, Brandy L; Sturz, Vanessa N; Schroen, Anneke T

    2017-04-01

    Research suggests that residents of inner-city urban neighborhoods have higher rates of late stage cancer diagnosis. Identifying urban neighborhoods with high rates of both concentrated disadvantage and late stage cancer diagnosis may assist health care providers to target screening interventions to reduce disparities. The purposes of this study were to (1) create an index to evaluate concentrated disadvantage (CD) using non-racial measures of poverty, (2) determine the impact of neighborhood CD on late stage breast cancer diagnosis in US cities, and (3) to understand the role of obesity on this relationship. We used census block group- (CBG) level poverty indicators from five Virginia cities to develop the index. Breast cancer cases of women aged 18-65 who lived in the five cities were identified from the 2000-2012 Virginia Cancer Registry. A logistic regression model with random intercept was used to evaluate the impact of disadvantage on late stage breast cancer diagnosis. CBG-level maps were developed to geographically identify neighborhoods with both high rates of CD and late breast cancer staging. Over 900 CBGs and 6000 breast cases were included. Global fit of the concentrated disadvantage model was acceptable. The effect of disadvantage on late stage was significant (OR = 1.0083, p = 0.032). Inner-city poverty impacts risk of late stage breast cancer diagnosis. Area-level obesity is highly correlated with neighborhood poverty (ρ = 0.74, p diagnosis for urban poor and for minorities living in these underserved neighborhoods, but more study is needed to understanding the complex relationship between concentrated neighborhood poverty, obesity, and late stage diagnosis.

  5. Demography, foreclosure, and crime:: Assessing spatial heterogeneity in contemporary models of neighborhood crime rates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric P. Baumer

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND The present research evaluates the possibility of spatial heterogeneity in the effects on neighborhood crime rates of both traditional demographic indicators - immigrant concentration, racial composition, socioeconomic disadvantage, and residential instability - and a contemporary aspect of housing transition - foreclosure - that has garnered significant attention in recent scholarship. OBJECTIVE This research advances previous research by explicitly assessing the merits of the typical "global" or "one size fits all" approach that has been applied in most neighborhood studies of demographic context and neighborhood crime rates by juxtaposing it against an alternative strategy - geographically weighted regression (GWR - that highlights the potentially significant "local" variability in model parameters. We assess the local variation of these relationships for census tracts within the city of Chicago. METHODS This paper utilizes GWR to test for spatial heterogeneity in the effects of demographic context and other predictors on neighborhood crime rates. We map local parameter estimates and t-values generated from the GWR models to highlight some of the patterns of demographic context observed in our analysis. CONCLUSIONS GWR results indicate significant variation across Chicago census tracts in the estimates of logged percent black, immigrant concentration, and foreclosure for both robbery and burglary rates. The observed effects of socioeconomic disadvantage on robbery rates and residential stability on burglary rates also are found to vary across local neighborhood clusters in Chicago. Visual inspection of these effects illuminates the importance of supplementing current approaches by "thinking locally" when developing theoretical explanations and empirical models of how demographic context shapes crime rates.

  6. The lived neighborhood: understanding how people with dementia engage with their local environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Richard; Clark, Andrew; Campbell, Sarah; Graham, Barbara; Kullberg, Agneta; Manji, Kainde; Rummery, Kirstein; Keady, John

    2017-05-02

    In this paper, we report progress on "Neighborhoods: our people, our places" an international study about how people living with dementia interact with their neighborhoods. The ideas of social health and citizenship are drawn upon to contextualize the data and make a case for recognizing and understanding the strengths and agency of people with dementia. In particular, we address the lived experience of the environment as a route to better understanding the capabilities, capacities, and competencies of people living with dementia. In doing this, our aim is to demonstrate the contribution of social engagement and environmental support to social health. The study aims to "map" local spaces and networks across three field sites (Manchester, Central Scotland and Linkoping, Sweden). It employs a mix of qualitative and participatory approaches that include mobile and visual methods intended to create knowledge that will inform the design and piloting of a neighborhood-based intervention. Our research shows that the neighborhood plays an active role in the lives of people with dementia, setting limits, and constraints but also offering significant opportunities, encompassing forms of help and support as yet rarely discussed in the field of dementia studies. The paper presents new and distinctive insights into the relationship between neighborhoods and everyday life for people with dementia that have important implications for the debate on social health and policy concerning dementia friendly communities. We end by reflecting on the messages for policy and practice that are beginning to emerge from this on-going study.

  7. Neighborhood Stabilization Program Data NSP3

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD's Neighborhood Stabilization Program (www.HUD.gov/nsp) provides emergency assistance to state and local governments to acquire and redevelop foreclosed...

  8. Neighborhood Stabilization Program Data NSP1 (Statewide)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — HUD's Neighborhood Stabilization Program (www.HUD.gov/nsp) provides emergency assistance to state and local governments to acquire and redevelop foreclosed...

  9. Neighborhood and Friendship Composition in Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Edling, Christofer; Rydgren, Jens

    2010-01-01

    The social surroundings in which an individual grows up and spends his or her everyday life have an effect on his or her life chances. Much of the research into this phenomenon focuses on so-called neighborhood effects and has put particular emphasis on the negative effects of growing up in a poor neighborhood. Originating from the sociological study of inner-city problems in the United States, the research has recentl...

  10. Dimensionality Reduction by Weighted Connections between Neighborhoods

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Fuding; Fan, Yutao; Zhou, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Dimensionality reduction is the transformation of high-dimensional data into a meaningful representation of reduced dimensionality. This paper introduces a dimensionality reduction technique by weighted connections between neighborhoods to improve $K$ -Isomap method, attempting to preserve perfectly the relationships between neighborhoods in the process of dimensionality reduction. The validity of the proposal is tested by three typical examples which are widely employed in the algorithms bas...

  11. Prostate Cancer Severity Associations with Neighborhood Deprivation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charnita M. Zeigler-Johnson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The goal of this paper was to examine neighborhood deprivation and prostate cancer severity. Methods. We studied African American and Caucasian prostate cancer cases from the Pennsylvania State Cancer Registry. Census tract-level variables and deprivation scores were examined in relation to diagnosis stage, grade, and tumor aggressiveness. Results. We observed associations of low SES with high Gleason score among African Americans residing in neighborhoods with low educational attainment (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.13–1.60, high poverty (OR = 1.39, 95% CI = 1.15–1.67, low car ownership (OR = 1.46, 95% CI = 1.20–1.78, and higher percentage of residents on public assistance (OR = 1.32, 95% = 1.08–1.62. The highest quartile of neighborhood deprivation was also associated with high Gleason score. For both Caucasians and African Americans, the highest quartile of neighborhood deprivation was associated with high Gleason score at diagnosis (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.19–1.52; OR = 1.71, 95% CI = 1.21–2.40, resp.. Conclusion. Using a neighborhood deprivation index, we observed associations between high-grade prostate cancer and neighborhood deprivation in Caucasians and African-Americans.

  12. Using Geographic Information Systems to Visualize Relationships Between Perinatal Outcomes and Neighborhood Characteristics When Planning Community Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suplee, Patricia D; Bloch, Joan Rosen; Hillier, Amy; Herbert, Tasha

    2018-03-01

    To describe maternal morbidity, birth outcomes, and neighborhood characteristics of urban women from a racially segregated city with the use of a geographic information system (GIS). Exploratory neighborhood-level study. Existing birth certificate data were linked and aggregated to neighborhood-level data for spatial analyses. Southern city in New Jersey. Women and their 7,858 live births that occurred between 2009 and 2013. Secondary analyses of extant sources were conducted. Maternal health and newborn birth outcomes were geocoded and then aggregated to the neighborhood level for further exploratory spatial analyses through our GIS database. An iterative process was used to generate meaningful visual representations of the data through maps of maternal and infant health in 19 neighborhoods. The racial and ethnic residential segregation and neighborhood patterns of associations of adverse birth outcomes with poverty and crime were illustrated in GIS maps. In 43% of the births, women had a documented medical risk. Significantly more preterm births occurred for Black women (p < .01) and women older than 35 years of age (p = .01). The rate of diabetes was greater in Hispanic women, and the rate of pregnancy-related hypertensive disorders was greater in Black women. Data-driven maps can provide clear evidence of maternal and infant health and health needs based on the neighborhoods where mothers live. This research is important so that maternity care providers can understand contextual factors that affect mothers in their communities and guide the design of interventions. Copyright © 2018 AWHONN, the Association of Women's Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Neighborhood Economic Enterprises: An Analysis, Survey, and Guide to Resources in Starting Up Neighborhood Enterprises.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Neil G.

    This pamphlet provides information on the history of and current trends toward neighborhood economic enterprises and provides guidance for setting up such enterprises. A bibliography of books, articles, and newsletters that have information on how to start and sustain neighborhood businesses and cooperatives is provided. Also included is a list of…

  14. No neighborhood is an island: incorporating distal neighborhood effects into multilevel studies of child developmental competence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caughy, Margaret O'Brien; Hayslett-McCall, Karen L; O'Campo, Patricia J

    2007-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether incorporating information regarding neighborhoods which were more distal to the child's neighborhood added any explanatory power to models of child cognitive competence. Participants included a sample of young African-American children living in an urban setting in the northeast United States. Spatial geographic methods were used to estimate the concentration of economic disadvantage, population instability, and crime in the neighborhoods surrounding the child's residence, and multilevel modeling methods were used to estimate the contribution of these factors to between-neighborhood variance in child cognitive scores. Results indicated that the conditions of distal neighborhoods were related to cognitive scores among the preschooler-age children in this sample.

  15. CONTROLLABILITY OF TRADITIONAL NEIGHBORHOOD AND ITS SIMPLIFIED LAYOUT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Salim Ferwati

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Street hierarchy, as a way of presenting intended information, conforms to social rules that underlay architectural and urban designs to create public, semi-public, and semi-private. These social rules have the responsibility to convey necessary information about place to outsiders as well as to insiders. This research looks at urban spaces as physical structures that represent foci of attention of users and that are collectively a part of the social pattern framework. The argument of this study is that connectivity and forms of streets house certain social rules that intended to serve users, so that any changes in the street layout lead to changes in its social rules. As a case study, the complexity of a walled Arab neighborhood was examined through Sur Lawatyia, located in Muscat Governorate, Oman. By replacing the curvilinear and broken streets of this neighborhood with straight ones; a simplified street layout was derived. Then, a comparison of both street layouts was carried out through mapping, tabulation, charts, correlation test, and with reliance on the method of measurement of street control values introduced by Hillier and Hanson in 1984. The result was that the simple form is far short to be the representation of the space syntax of the traditional street layout.

  16. Orthogonal neighborhood preserving projections: a projection-based dimensionality reduction technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kokiopoulou, Effrosyni; Saad, Yousef

    2007-12-01

    This paper considers the problem of dimensionality reduction by orthogonal projection techniques. The main feature of the proposed techniques is that they attempt to preserve both the intrinsic neighborhood geometry of the data samples and the global geometry. In particular we propose a method, named Orthogonal Neighborhood Preserving Projections, which works by first building an "affinity" graph for the data, in a way that is similar to the method of Locally Linear Embedding (LLE). However, in contrast with the standard LLE where the mapping between the input and the reduced spaces is implicit, ONPP employs an explicit linear mapping between the two. As a result, handling new data samples becomes straightforward, as this amounts to a simple linear transformation. We show how to define kernel variants of ONPP, as well as how to apply the method in a supervised setting. Numerical experiments are reported to illustrate the performance of ONPP and to compare it with a few competing methods.

  17. NEIGHBORHOOD NORMS AND SUBSTANCE USE AMONG TEENS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musick, Kelly; Seltzer, Judith A.; Schwartz, Christine R.

    2008-01-01

    This paper uses new data from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (L.A. FANS) to examine how neighborhood norms shape teenagers’ substance use. Specifically, it takes advantage of clustered data at the neighborhood level to relate adult neighbors’ attitudes and behavior with respect to smoking, drinking, and drugs, which we treat as norms, to teenagers’ own smoking, drinking, and drug use. We use hierarchical linear models to account for parents’ attitudes and behavior and other characteristics of individuals and families. We also investigate how the association between neighborhood norms and teen behavior depends on: (1) the strength of norms, as measured by consensus in neighbors’ attitudes and conformity in their behavior; (2) the willingness and ability of neighbors to enforce norms, for instance, by monitoring teens’ activities; and (3) the degree to which teens are exposed to their neighbors. We find little association between neighborhood norms and teen substance use, regardless of how we condition the relationship. We discuss possible theoretical and methodological explanations for this finding. PMID:18496598

  18. Neighborhood Energy/Economic Development project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-31

    Energy costs impact low income communities more than anyone else. Low income residents pay a larger percentage of their incomes for energy costs. In addition, they generally have far less discretionary energy use to eliminate in response to increasing energy prices. Furthermore, with less discretionary income, home energy efficiency improvements are often too expensive. Small neighborhood businesses are in the same situation. Improved efficiency in the use of energy can improve this situation by reducing energy costs for residents and local businesses. More importantly, energy management programs can increase the demand for local goods and services and lead to the creation of new job training and employment opportunities. In this way, neighborhood based energy efficiency programs can support community economic development. The present project, undertaken with the support of the Urban Consortium Energy Task Force, was intended to serve as a demonstration of energy/economic programming at the neighborhood level. The San Francisco Neighborhood Energy/Economic Development (NEED) project was designed to be a visible demonstration of bringing the economic development benefits of energy management home to low-income community members who need it most. To begin, a Community Advisory Committee was established to guide the design of the programs to best meet needs of the community. Subsequently three neighborhood energy/economic development programs were developed: The small business energy assistance program; The youth training and weatherization program; and, The energy review of proposed housing development projects.

  19. Is the Grass Always Greener in Suburban Neighborhoods? Outdoors Play in Suburban and Inner-City Neighborhoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mika R. Moran

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Children’s outdoors play (OP is an important source of physical activity that has been decreasing in recent years due to changes in neighborhood design, parent safety concerns and child sedentary leisure. However, few studies examined such determinants from children’s perspectives. This study explores environmental and socio-cultural aspects of children’s OP using a qualitative and quantitative approach. Data was collected in two phases: (1 a survey on OP and related variables among 5th and 6th graders (10–12 years old (n = 573; and (2 a mapping activity and semi-structured interview among a subsample of the survey (n = 80. The most common locations for routine OP were parks (40% followed by public facilities (26% and streets (17%. OP was significantly associated with perceived environment, independent mobility and gender, but not with neighborhood type. Inner-city participants reported a higher number and greater variety of OP areas (23 vs. 14. Three main barriers of OP were identified—low quality and poorly maintained play areas, other people in public spaces, and social norms that undermine OP. Thus, in order to encourage routine OP, environmental change to create safe and attractive OP settings should be accompanied by community interventions to enhance social norms that are supportive of OP.

  20. The Influence of Local Conditions on Social Service Partnerships, Parent Involvement, and Community Engagement in Neighborhood Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen-Vogel, Lora; Goldring, Ellen; Smrekar, Claire

    2010-01-01

    By using Geographic Information System (GIS) mapping software to combine health and crime data with data from 20 schools in one Southeastern district, the study explores whether and how neighborhood conditions affect school-community arrangements. Findings show that the nature of the relationships and the strategies principals and teachers use to…

  1. Regridding Scientific Mesh Data Using Arbitrary Cell Neighborhood Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei Mahdiraji, Alireza; Baumann, Peter

    2015-04-01

    A spacial case of the regrid operator uses information of neighboring cells of a cell of interest to perform interpolation on scientific meshes. Example use-cases are smoothing skewed data fields, computing value of the first derivative in oceanographic applications, etc. Using neighbors' information is proved to improve the accuracy of the computations for a cell of interest. The regrid works in two steps: mapping step which assigns to each cell of a mesh a set of its neighboring cells and interpolation step which estimates the data on each cell by combining the data from its neighbors. The common method to specify a cell neighborhood is the stencil string which is originally defined only for structured meshes, e.g., five-point stencil. The stencil was later generalized to express neighborhood on unstructured meshes. A stencil w.r.t. an unstructured mesh consists of a sequence of digits representing the dimensions of neighboring cells of a cell. For instance, the stencil 010 w.r.t. a mesh means any calculation for a vertex needs to have access to all the adjacent vertices (i.e., vertices sharing an edge with the vertex of interest). The stencil uses hard coded dimensions and thus contains no topological abstraction. Moreover, it is not obvious whether the result is the union of elements visited in each intermediate layer (hull) or the elements only in the last layer (halo). In addition, it is not possible to filter intermediate cells using predicates. Finally, existing mesh libraries (e.g., GrAL and GridFields) which accommodate the stencil concept do not provide a generic implementation, i.e., a specific Python or C++ APIs needs to be implemented for each stencil. We propose a neighborhood expression which uses the topological relationships (i.e., boundary, co-boundary, and adjacencies) to express arbitrary cell neighborhood. The expression contains any number of the topological relationships w.r.t. to a mesh and a cell as initial context of the neighborhood

  2. Nirvana Neighborhood: Public/private tensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verónica Ardenghi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Our object of study is the neighborhood called Nirvana [in City Bell, district of La Plata], and our aim is to describe the traces left by the landscape dynamics which mark different historical periods, and to relate the concept of landscape with this neighborhood's current territorial configuration. Framed in Cultural Geography, we go back to Milton Santos, Paul Claval and Mario Margulis' perspective, from the category of landscape. The methodology used was qualitative, and it entailed observation and photographic records of the area, informal talks with neighbors, compilation of documents and journalistic material about the area, all of which allowed us to dig deep into what is "public" and what is "private" in this neighborhood, where and how the "outside" and the "inside" are established and to decide whether its aim is being an open and including landscape or if what they are actually after is pushing strangers away by means of invisible barriers

  3. The Effect of Neighborhood Recorded Crime on Fear: Does Neighborhood Social Context Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Amber L; Breetzke, Gregory; Ivory, Vivienne

    2015-09-01

    A number of individual and neighborhood-level factors may influence the relationship between recorded crime in one's neighborhood and fear of crime. Understanding these factors may assist in reducing fear, which has been associated with poorer physical and mental health. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the effect of recorded crime rates on fear differs based on the neighborhood social context (social fragmentation) using hierarchical regression modelling, with separate analyses by crime type. Recorded crimes (2008-2010) and national (New Zealand) survey data were used. Higher crime in a neighborhood was associated with higher fear of crime, with only small effect size differences in feelings of fear by recorded type of crime. However, when stratified, the associations between violent and drug/alcohol crimes and fear of crime were larger for those living in highly fragmented neighborhoods compared with less fragmented neighborhoods. Efforts to alleviate fear of crime should focus on the broader neighborhood social context in which these feelings are espoused.

  4. Neighborhood Concentrated Disadvantage and Dating Violence among Urban Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Neighborhood Social Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garthe, Rachel C; Gorman-Smith, Deborah; Gregory, Joshua; E Schoeny, Michael

    2018-03-14

    The link between relationship violence and aspects of neighborhood concentrated disadvantage (e.g., percent of unemployed adults, percent of families below poverty level), has been established. However, the literature examining neighborhood social processes, including informal social control and social cohesion, in relation to adolescent dating violence has shown mixed results with a limited theoretical foundation and methodology. Using a social disorganization theoretical framework, this study examined the mediating role of these neighborhood social processes in the relation between concentrated disadvantage and adolescent dating violence within an urban context. Participants included 605 adult residents in 30 census tracts and 203 adolescents from neighborhoods on the West and South sides of Chicago. Neighborhood-level concentrated disadvantage was measured via Census data, adult residents reported on neighborhood social processes, and youth reported on dating violence. Informal social control was negatively associated with dating violence, and social cohesion was positively associated with dating violence. A multilevel mediation model showed that concentrated disadvantage was related to higher levels of dating violence via lower levels of informal social control. These results extend social disorganization theory to dating violence within an urban context, while also highlighting the important role of neighborhood processes on relationship violence. Implications for research and intervention programming are discussed. © Society for Community Research and Action 2018.

  5. Perceived School and Neighborhood Safety, Neighborhood Violence and Academic Achievement in Urban School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    AJ, Milam; CDM, Furr-Holden; PJ, Leaf

    2010-01-01

    Community and school violence continue to be a major public health problem, especially among urban children and adolescents. Little research has focused on the effect of school safety and neighborhood violence on academic performance. This study examines the effect of the school and neighborhood climate on academic achievement among a population of 3rd-5th grade students in an urban public school system. Community and school safety were assessed using the School Climate Survey, an annual city-wide assessment of student’s perception of school and community safety. Community violence was measured using the Neighborhood Inventory for Environmental Typology, an objective observational assessment of neighborhood characteristics. Academic achievement was measured using the Maryland State Assessment (MSA), a standardized exam given to all Maryland 3rd-8th graders. School Climate Data and MSA data were aggregated by school and grade. Objective assessments of neighborhood environment and students’ self-reported school and neighborhood safety were both strongly associated with academic performance. Increasing neighborhood violence was associated with statistically significant decreases from 4.2%-8.7% in math and reading achievement; increasing perceived safety was associated with significant increases in achievement from 16%-22%. These preliminary findings highlight the adverse impact of perceived safety and community violence exposure on primary school children’s academic performance. PMID:21197388

  6. A Longitudinal Analysis of the Influence of the Neighborhood Environment on Recreational Walking within the Neighborhood: Results from RESIDE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian, Hayley; Knuiman, Matthew; Divitini, Mark; Foster, Sarah; Hooper, Paula; Boruff, Bryan; Bull, Fiona; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2017-07-12

    There is limited longitudinal evidence confirming the role of neighborhood environment attributes in encouraging people to walk more or if active people simply choose to live in activity-friendly neighborhoods. Natural experiments of policy changes to create more walkable communities provide stronger evidence for a causal effect of neighborhood environments on residents' walking. We aimed to investigate longitudinal associations between objective and perceived neighborhood environment measures and neighborhood recreational walking. We analyzed longitudinal data collected over 8 yr (four surveys) from the RESIDential Environments (RESIDE) Study (Perth, Australia, 2003-2012). At each time point, participants reported the frequency and total minutes of recreational walking/week within their neighborhood and neighborhood environment perceptions. Objective measures of the neighborhood environment were generated using a Geographic Information System (GIS). Local recreational walking was influenced by objectively measured access to a medium-/large-size park, beach access, and higher street connectivity, which was reduced when adjusted for neighborhood perceptions. In adjusted models, positive perceptions of access to a park and beach, higher street connectivity, neighborhood esthetics, and safety from crime were independent determinants of increased neighborhood recreational walking. Local recreational walking increased by 9 min/wk (12% increase in frequency) for each additional perceived neighborhood attribute present. Our findings provide urban planners and policy makers with stronger causal evidence of the positive impact of well-connected neighborhoods and access to local parks of varying sizes on local residents' recreational walking and health. https://doi.org/10.1289/EHP823.

  7. Dimensionality Reduction by Weighted Connections between Neighborhoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuding Xie

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dimensionality reduction is the transformation of high-dimensional data into a meaningful representation of reduced dimensionality. This paper introduces a dimensionality reduction technique by weighted connections between neighborhoods to improve K-Isomap method, attempting to preserve perfectly the relationships between neighborhoods in the process of dimensionality reduction. The validity of the proposal is tested by three typical examples which are widely employed in the algorithms based on manifold. The experimental results show that the local topology nature of dataset is preserved well while transforming dataset in high-dimensional space into a new dataset in low-dimensionality by the proposed method.

  8. Aging, Neighborhood Attachment, and Fear of Crime: Testing Reciprocal Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Joong-Hwan; Kim, Sangmoon

    2009-01-01

    This study attempts to examine the reciprocal effects between fear of crime and neighborhood attachment because aging is a critical factor in both discussions of fear of crime and neighborhood attachment (friendship, neighboring, social cohesion and trust, informal social control, and participation in neighborhood watch program). Using data from…

  9. A note on neighborhood total domination in graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The minimum cardinality of a NTDS of is called the neighborhood total domination number of and is denoted by nt(). In this paper, we obtain sharp bounds for the neighborhood total domination number of a tree. We also prove that the neighborhood total domination number is equal to the domination number in ...

  10. 76 FR 13152 - Promise Neighborhoods Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-10

    ... to attain an excellent education and successfully transition to college and a career. A Promise... parents or family members who report talking with their child about the importance of college and career... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION RIN 1855-ZA07 Promise Neighborhoods Program Catalog of Federal Domestic...

  11. Neighborhood Bridges: 2012-2013 Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Debra

    2013-01-01

    Neighborhood Bridges is a nationally recognized literacy program using storytelling and creative drama to help children develop their critical literacy skills and to transform them into storytellers of their own lives. In 2012-2013, a total of 640 students in grades three through six from twenty-three classrooms in eleven schools across the…

  12. Neighborhood Bridges: 2010-2011 Evaluation Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingram, Debra

    2011-01-01

    In 2010-2011, students in twenty-five classrooms from eleven schools in the Minneapolis-Saint Paul metropolitan area participated in The Children's Theatre Company's Neighborhood Bridges (Bridges) program. The Children's Theatre Company contracted with the University of Minnesota's Center for Applied Research and Educational Improvement (CAREI) to…

  13. 76 FR 39589 - Promise Neighborhoods Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... Innovation and Improvement, Department of Education. ACTION: Notice of final priorities, requirements... Dropout/Graduation Crisis Among American Indian and Alaska Native Students: Failure to Respond Places the... success of Promise Neighborhoods will require the use of both short-term and long-term goals to measure...

  14. Neighborhood Characteristics and Disability in Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaney, Shannon; Cerda, Magda; Frye, Victoria; Lovasi, Gina S.; Ompad, Danielle; Rundle, Andrew; Vlahov, David

    2009-01-01

    Objective To characterize the influence of the residential neighborhood of older adults on the prevalence of disability. Methods We combined Census data on disability in older adults living in New York City with environmental information from a comprehensive geospatial database. We used factor analysis to derive dimensions of compositional and physical neighborhood characteristics and linear regression to model their association with levels of disability. Measures of neighborhood collective efficacy were added to these models to explore the impact of the social environment. Results Low neighborhood socioeconomic status, residential instability, living in areas with low proportions of foreign born and high proportions of Black residents, and negative street characteristics were associated with higher prevalence of both “physical” disability and “going outside the home” disability. High crime levels were additionally associated with physical disability, although this relationship disappeared when misdemeanor arrests were removed from the crime variable. Low levels of collective efficacy were associated with more going-outside-the-home disability, with racial/ethnic composition dropping out of this model to be replaced by an interaction term. Conclusion The urban environment may have a substantial impact on whether an older adult with a given level of functional impairment is able to age actively and remain independent. PMID:19181694

  15. Neighborhood Disadvantage and Variations in Blood Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cathorall, Michelle L.; Xin, Huaibo; Peachey, Andrew; Bibeau, Daniel L.; Schulz, Mark; Aronson, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the extent to which neighborhood disadvantage accounts for variation in blood pressure. Methods: Demographic, biometric, and self-reported data from 19,261 health screenings were used. Addresses of participants were geocoded and located within census block groups (n = 14,510, 75.3%). Three hierarchical linear models were…

  16. Does neighborhood environment differentiate intimate partner femicides from other femicides?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Kirsten M M; Layde, Peter M; Hamberger, L Kevin; Laud, Purushottam W

    2015-01-01

    We examined the association between neighborhood-level factors and intimate partner femicide (IPF) using Wisconsin Violent Death Reporting System (WVDRS) data and Wisconsin Coalition Against Domestic Violence (WCADV) reports, in concert with neighborhood-level information. After controlling for individual characteristics, neighborhood-level disadvantage was associated with a decreased likelihood of IPF status, as compared with other femicides, whereas neighborhood-level residential instability was associated with an increased likelihood of IPF status. Neighborhood plays a role in differentiating IPFs from other femicides in our study area. Our findings demonstrate the importance of multilevel strategies for understanding and reducing the burden of intimate partner violence. © The Author(s) 2014.

  17. Neighborhood Influences on Late Life Cognition in the ACTIVE Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shannon M. Sisco

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Low neighborhood-level socioeconomic status has been associated with poorer health, reduced physical activity, increased psychological stress, and less neighborhood-based social support. These outcomes are correlates of late life cognition, but few studies have specifically investigated the neighborhood as a unique source of explanatory variance in cognitive aging. This study supplemented baseline cognitive data from the ACTIVE (Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly study with neighborhood-level data to investigate (1 whether neighborhood socioeconomic position (SEP predicts cognitive level, and if so, whether it differentially predicts performance in general and specific domains of cognition and (2 whether neighborhood SEP predicts differences in response to short-term cognitive intervention for memory, reasoning, or processing speed. Neighborhood SEP positively predicted vocabulary, but did not predict other general or specific measures of cognitive level, and did not predict individual differences in response to cognitive intervention.

  18. Obesogenic and youth oriented restaurant marketing in public housing neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Rebecca E; Heinrich, Katie M; Reese-Smith, Jacqueline Y; Regan, Gail R; Adamus-Leach, Heather J

    2014-03-01

    To compare restaurant marketing by restaurant and neighborhood type. All restaurants (61=fast food, FF; 72=table service, TS) within an 800-meter radius of 13 public housing developments (HD) and 4 comparison neighborhoods were audited using the Restaurant Assessment Tool©2010. HD neighborhoods were lower income and higher minority than comparison neighborhoods with similar density and street connectivity. Restaurants in HD neighborhoods had fewer healthy entrées than comparison neighborhoods. FF restaurants had cheaper beverages and more children's meals, supersize drinks, free prize with purchase, super-size items, special characters, and more items geared to driving than TS restaurants. Residents of lower socioeconomic neighborhoods may be differentially exposed to unhealthy food options.

  19. Neighborhood selection and the social reproduction of concentrated racial inequality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Robert J; Sharkey, Patrick

    2008-02-01

    In this paper, we consider neighborhood selection as a social process central to the reproduction of racial inequality in neighborhood attainment. We formulate a multilevel model that decomposes multiple sources of stability and change in longitudinal trajectories of achieved neighborhood income among nearly 4000 Chicago families followed for up to seven years wherever they moved in the United States. Even after we adjust for a comprehensive set of fixed and time-varying covariates, racial inequality in neighborhood attainment is replicated by movers and stayers alike. We also study the emergent consequences of mobility pathways for neighborhood-level structure. The temporal sorting by individuals of different racial and ethnic groups combines to yield a structural pattern offlows between neighborhoods that generates virtually nonoverlapping income distributions and little exchange between minority and white areas. Selection and racially shaped hierarchies are thus mutually constituted and account for an apparent equilibrium of neighborhood inequality.

  20. Neighborhood walkability, physical activity, and walking behavior: the Swedish Neighborhood and Physical Activity (SNAP) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundquist, Kristina; Eriksson, Ulf; Kawakami, Naomi; Skog, Lars; Ohlsson, Henrik; Arvidsson, Daniel

    2011-04-01

    More knowledge concerning the association between physical activity and objectively measured attributes of the built environment is needed. Previous studies on the association between objectively measured neighborhood walkability, physical activity, and walking have been conducted in the U.S. or Australia and research findings are available from only one country in Europe - Belgium. The first aim of this Swedish study of 2269 adults was to examine the associations between neighborhood walkability and walking for active transportation or leisure, and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and whether these hypothesized associations are moderated by age, gender, income, marital status and neighborhood-level socioeconomic status. The second aim was to determine how much of the total variance of the walking and physical activity outcomes can be attributed to neighborhood-level differences. Neighborhood walkability was objectively measured by GIS methods. An index consisting of residential density, street connectivity, and land use mix was constructed to define 32 highly and less walkable neighborhoods in Stockholm City. MVPA was measured objectively during 7 days with an accelerometer and walking was assessed using the validated International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). Multilevel linear as well as logistic models (mixed-effects, mixed-distribution models) were used in the analysis. The statistically significant and "adjusted" results for individuals living in highly walkable neighborhoods, as compared to those living in less walkable neighborhoods, were: (1) 77% and 28% higher odds for walking for active transportation and walking for leisure, respectively, (2) 50 min more walking for active transportation/week, and (3) 3.1 min more MVPA/day. The proportion of the total variance at the neighborhood level was low and ranged between 0.0% and 2.1% in the adjusted models. The findings of the present study stress that future policies concerning the

  1. How much choice is there in housing choice vouchers? Neighborhood risk and free market rental housing accessibility for active drug users in Hartford, Connecticut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Convey Mark

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the mid-1970s, the dominant model for U.S. federal housing policy has shifted from unit-based programs to tenant based vouchers and certificates, intended to allow recipients a choice in their housing and neighborhoods. Surprisingly little research has examined the question of where those with Section 8 housing vouchers are able to live, but some research suggests that voucher holders are more likely to reside in distressed neighborhoods than unsubsidized renter households. Further, federal housing policy has limited drug users' access to housing subsidies. In turn, neighborhood disorder has been associated with higher levels of injection drug risk behaviors, and higher drug-related mortality. This paper explores rental accessibility and neighborhood characteristics of advertised rental housing in Hartford CT. Methods Brief telephone interviews were conducted with landlords or management companies with units to rent in Hartford to explore housing accessibility measured as initial move in costs, credit and criminal background checks, and whether rental subsidies were accepted. These data were supplemented with in-depth interviews with landlords, shelter staff and active users of heroin, crack or cocaine. Apartments for rent were geocoded and mapped using ArcGIS. We used location quotients to identify areas where low-income rental housing is concentrated. Finally, we mapped apartments in relation to drug and violent arrest rates in each neighborhood. Results High security deposits, criminal background and credit checks limit housing accessibility even for drug users receiving vouchers. While most landlords or management companies accepted housing subsidies, several did not. Voucher units are concentrated in neighborhoods with high poverty neighborhoods. Landlords reported little incentive to accept rental subsidies in neighborhoods with low crime rates, but appreciated the guarantee provided by Section 8 in high crime

  2. Space, race, and poverty: Spatial inequalities in walkable neighborhood amenities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Whalen

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Multiple and varied benefits have been suggested for increased neighborhood walkability. However, spatial inequalities in neighborhood walkability likely exist and may be attributable, in part, to residential segregation. OBJECTIVE Utilizing a spatial demographic perspective, we evaluated potential spatial inequalities in walkable neighborhood amenities across census tracts in Boston, MA (US. METHODS The independent variables included minority racial/ethnic population percentages and percent of families in poverty. Walkable neighborhood amenities were assessed with a composite measure. Spatial autocorrelation in key study variables were first calculated with the Global Moran's I statistic. Then, Spearman correlations between neighborhood socio-demographic characteristics and walkable neighborhood amenities were calculated as well as Spearman correlations accounting for spatial autocorrelation. We fit ordinary least squares (OLS regression and spatial autoregressive models when appropriate as a final step. RESULTS Significant positive spatial autocorrelation was found in neighborhood socio-demographic characteristics (e.g. census tract percent Black, but not walkable neighborhood amenities or in the OLS regression residuals. Spearman correlations between neighborhood socio-demographic characteristics and walkable neighborhood amenities were not statistically significant, nor were neighborhood socio-demographic characteristics significantly associated with walkable neighborhood amenities in OLS regression models. CONCLUSIONS Our results suggest that there is residential segregation in Boston and that spatial inequalities do not necessarily show up using a composite measure. COMMENTS Future research in other geographic areas (including international contexts and using different definitions of neighborhoods (including small-area definitions should evaluate if spatial inequalities are found using composite measures, but also should

  3. Pacific northwest vowels: A Seattle neighborhood dialect study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingle, Jennifer K.; Wright, Richard; Wassink, Alicia

    2005-04-01

    According to current literature a large region encompassing nearly the entire west half of the U.S. belongs to one dialect region referred to as Western, which furthermore, according to Labov et al., ``... has developed a characteristic but not unique phonology.'' [http://www.ling.upenn.edu/phono-atlas/NationalMap/NationalMap.html] This paper will describe the vowel space of a set of Pacific Northwest American English speakers native to the Ballard neighborhood of Seattle, Wash. based on the acoustical analysis of high-quality Marantz CDR 300 recordings. Characteristics, such as low back merger and [u] fronting will be compared to findings by other studies. It is hoped that these recordings will contribute to a growing number of corpora of North American English dialects. All participants were born in Seattle and began their residence in Ballard between ages 0-8. They were recorded in two styles of speech: individually reading repetitions of a word list containing one token each of 10 vowels within carrier phrases, and in casual conversation for 40 min with a partner matched in age, gender, and social mobility. The goal was to create a compatible data set for comparison with current acoustic studies. F1 and F2 and vowel duration from LPC spectral analysis will be presented.

  4. The Role of Neighborhood Context and School Climate in School-Level Academic Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, Linda D; McMahon, Susan D; Jason, Leonard A

    2018-03-30

    In recent years, the quality of education available to children has become increasingly dependent on the social and economic demographics of neighborhoods in which the children live. This study assesses the role of community violence in explaining the relation between socio-economic status (SES) and academic outcomes and the potential of positive school climate to promote academic achievement. With a sample of 297 Chicago public elementary schools, we examine community-level and school-level data and use Geographic Information Systems (GIS) mapping to illustrate how school academic achievement coincides with neighborhood economics and crime statistics. Results support the hypothesized mediation, such that lower SES was associated with lower academic achievement, and violent crime partially mediated this relation. School climate was positively associated with academic achievement, and student safety significantly moderated the relation between SES and academic achievement. Implications for theory, research, and intervention are discussed. © Society for Community Research and Action 2018.

  5. "The Good Thing": Mister Rogers' Neighborhood [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zelevansky, Paul

    2004-06-01

    This article considers aspects of the methodology behind the PBS children's show Mister Rogers' Neighborhood. Too easily sentimentalized--and sometimes satirized--for his exploration of feelings and empathy, Fred Rogers in fact carefully structured each show around an investigation of semiotic, phenomenological, and epistemological concerns: the interpretation of images, words, things, events, and kinesthetic sensation that allows children (and adults) to locate themselves in their everyday experience. Mister Rogers explored both the tools and the considerations that facilitate our ability to negotiate relationships, navigate in space, assimilate desires and fears, and ultimately manifest thoughts, projects, and ideals in concrete form. The periodic insertion of graphic clip art in this essay is meant to enact examples of the kind of reflexive thinking that Mister Rogers' Neighborhood proposes and presents.

  6. Defensible Spaces in Philadelphia: Exploring Neighborhood Boundaries Through Spatial Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory Kramer

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Few spatial scales are as important to individual outcomes as the neighborhood. However, it is nearly impossible to define neighborhoods in a generalizable way. This article proposes that by shifting the focus to measuring neighborhood boundaries rather than neighborhoods, scholars can avoid the problem of the indefinable neighborhood and better approach questions of what predicts racial segregation across areas. By quantifying an externality space theory of neighborhood boundaries, this article introduces a novel form of spatial analysis to test where potential physical markers of neighborhood boundaries (major roads, rivers, railroads, and the like are associated with persistent racial boundaries between 1990 and 2010. Using Philadelphia as a case study, the paper identifies neighborhoods with persistent racial boundaries. It theorizes that local histories of white reactions to black in-migration explain which boundaries persistently resisted racial turnover, unlike the majority of Philadelphia’s neighborhoods, and that those racial boundaries shape the location, progress, and reaction to new residential development in those neighborhoods.

  7. Detecting neighborhood vacancy level in Detroit city using remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X.; Wang, R.; Yang, A.; Vojnovic, I.

    2015-12-01

    With the decline of manufacturing industries, many Rust Belt cities, which enjoyed prosperity in the past, are now suffering from financial stress, population decrease and urban poverty. As a consequence, urban neighborhoods deteriorate. Houses are abandoned and left to decay. Neighborhood vacancy brings on many problems. Governments and agencies try to survey the vacancy level by going through neighborhoods and record the condition of each structure, or by buying information of active mailing addresses to get approximate neighborhood vacancy rate. But these methods are expensive and time consuming. Remote sensing provides a quick and comparatively cost-efficient way to access spatial information on social and demographical attributes of urban area. In our study, we use remote sensing to detect a major aspect of neighborhood deterioration, the vacancy levels of neighborhoods in Detroit city. We compared different neighborhoods using Landsat 8 images in 2013. We calculated NDVI that indicates the greenness of neighborhoods with the image in July 2013. Then we used thermal infrared information from image in February to detect human activities. In winter, abandoned houses will not consume so much energy and therefore neighborhoods with more abandoned houses will have smaller urban heat island effect. Controlling for the differences in terms of the greenness obtained from summer time image, we used thermal infrared from winter image to determine the temperatures of urban surface. We find that hotter areas are better maintained and have lower house vacancy rates. We also compared the changes over time for neighborhoods using Landsat 7 images from 2003 to 2013. The results show that deteriorated neighborhoods have increased NDVI in summer and get colder in winter due to abandonment of houses. Our results show the potential application of remote sensing as an easily accessed and efficient way to obtain data about social conditions in cities. We used the neighborhood

  8. Solar Urban Neighborhood (SUN). Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellertson, J.

    1984-07-10

    The Solar Urban Neighborhood (SUN) project was conceived to demonstrate a widely applicable cooperative procedure for low and moderate income urban residents to conserve energy and promote neighborhood revitalization through installing affordable energy conservation and solar retrofit measures on their homes. The self-help retrofit systems demonstrated fan-assisted air panels for walls and a mansard roof as well as vented Trombe wall and a sunspace. Building upon a strong tradition of cooperation within their neighborhood (security watches, community gardening, bartering of skills for do-it-yourself projects), these Roxbury neighbors were able to use the DOE grant as a catalyst for doing a far more ambitious undertaking. Additionally, the project used elements of a private-public partnership since the project director was also an energy retrofit contractor with specialized equipment and skills to share, wholesale purchase access, etc. Countervailing negative forces which impeded the progress of the project were the very ambitiousness of the solar retrofit itself, the delays in receiving the initial start up grant advance and in overcoming zoning restrictions which required design modifications; and discovery of building defects (dry rot, carpenter ants) within the structures at the time of retrofit. Nevertheless, the SUN project did have a wide impact through formal and informal outreach; through an associated project, SUN-TECH, which promoted solar retrofit awareness and involvement of City of Boston building, energy, and housing officials; and through evolvement of a grass roots level public-private partnership.

  9. The Stanford Healthy Neighborhood Discovery Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buman, Matthew P.; Winter, Sandra J.; Sheats, Jylana L.; Hekler, Eric B.; Otten, Jennifer J.; Grieco, Lauren A.; King, Abby C.

    2013-01-01

    Background The built environment can influence physical activity, particularly among older populations with impaired mobility. Existing tools to assess environmental features associated with walkability are often cumbersome, require extensive training, and are not readily available for use by community residents. Purpose This project aimed to develop and evaluate the utility of a computerized, tablet-based participatory tool designed to engage older residents in identifying neighborhood elements that affect active living opportunities. Methods Following formative testing, the tool was used by older adults (aged ≥65 years, in 2011) to record common walking routes (tracked using built-in GPS) and geocoded audio narratives and photographs of the local neighborhood environment. Residents (N=27; 73% women; 77% with some college education; 42% used assistive devices) from three low-income communal senior housing sites used the tool while navigating their usual walking route in their neighborhood. Data were analyzed in 2012. Results Elements (from 464 audio narratives and photographs) identified as affecting active living were commensurate with the existing literature (e.g., sidewalk features, aesthetics, parks/playgrounds, crosswalks). However, within each housing site, the profile of environmental elements identified was distinct, reflecting the importance of granular-level information collected by the tool. Additionally, consensus among residents was reached regarding which elements affected active living opportunities. Conclusions This tool serves to complement other assessments and assist decision makers in consensus-building processes for environmental change. PMID:23498112

  10. Maximizing Green Infrastructure in a Philadelphia Neighborhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Zidar

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available While the Philadelphia Water Department (PWD is counting on Green Stormwater Infrastructure (GI as a key component of its long-term plan for reducing combined sewer overflows, many community stakeholders are also hoping that investment in greening can help meet other ancillary goals, collectively referred to as sustainable redevelopment. This study investigates the challenges associated with implementation of GI in Point Breeze, a residential neighborhood of South Philadelphia. The project team performed a detailed study of physical, social, legal, and economic conditions in the pilot neighborhood over the course of several years, culminating in the development of an agent-based model simulation of GI implementation. The model evaluates a whether PWD’s GI goals can be met in a timely manner, b what kinds of assumptions regarding participation would be needed under different theoretical GI policies, and c the extent to which GI could promote sustainable redevelopment. The model outcomes underscore the importance of private land in helping PWD achieve its GI goals in Point Breeze. Achieving a meaningful density of GI in the neighborhoods most in need of sustainable redevelopment may require new and creative strategies for GI implementation tailored for the types of land present in those particular communities.

  11. Neighborhood Quality and Labor Market Outcomes: Evidence from Quasi-Random Neighborhood Assignment of Immigrants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil

    2012-01-01

    Using survey information about characteristics of personal contacts linked with administrative register information on employment status one year later, I show that unemployed survey respondents with many employed acquaintances have a higher job finding rate. Settlement in a socially deprived...... neighborhood may, therefore, hamper individual labor market outcomes because of lack of employed contacts. I investigate this hypothesis by exploiting a unique natural experiment that occurred between 1986 and 1998 when refugee immigrants to Denmark were assigned to municipalities quasirandomly, which...... successfully addresses the methodological problem of endogenous neighborhood selection. Taking account of location sorting, living in a socially deprived neighborhood does not affect labor market outcomes of refugee men. Furthermore, their labor market outcomes are not affected by the overall employment rate...

  12. Neighborhood walkability: older people's perspectives from four neighborhoods in Ottawa, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Theresa L; Edwards, Nancy; Sveistrup, Heidi; Andrew, Caroline; Egan, Mary

    2010-07-01

    This qualitative study examined older people's walking experiences in 4 Ottawa neighborhoods. Seventy-five adults age 65 years and older who had lived in their neighborhoods for at least 2 yr participated in focus groups and individual interviews. Four themes were identified through data analysis: multidimensional personal meanings, navigating hostile walking environments, experiencing ambiguity, and getting around. Neighborhood walking was experienced within the continuum of personal and environmental change. Findings indicated that the concept of pedestrian connectivity must incorporate aspects of both intersection regulation and design to ensure relevance for an aging population. Participants called for more clarity about policies that affect pedestrian safety for older people. The overarching theme of getting around indicated that walkability assessments must consider how walking fits within an integrated transportation system and how accessible this system is for older people.

  13. Community context and sub-neighborhood scale detail to explain dengue, chikungunya and Zika patterns in Cali, Colombia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy R Krystosik

    Full Text Available Cali, Colombia has experienced chikungunya and Zika outbreaks and hypoendemic dengue. Studies have explained Cali's dengue patterns but lack the sub-neighborhood-scale detail investigated here.Spatial-video geonarratives (SVG with Ministry of Health officials and Community Health Workers were collected in hotspots, providing perspective on perceptions of why dengue, chikungunya and Zika hotspots exist, impediments to control, and social outcomes. Using spatial video and Google Street View, sub-neighborhood features possibly contributing to incidence were mapped to create risk surfaces, later compared with dengue, chikungunya and Zika case data.SVG captured insights in 24 neighborhoods. Trash and water risks in Calipso were mapped using SVG results. Perceived risk factors included proximity to standing water, canals, poverty, invasions, localized violence and military migration. These risks overlapped case density maps and identified areas that are suitable for transmission but are possibly underreporting to the surveillance system.Resulting risk maps with local context could be leveraged to increase vector-control efficiency- targeting key areas of environmental risk.

  14. Neighborhood Risk, Parental Socialization Styles, and Adolescent Conduct Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Gracia

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to analyze the influence of parental socialization styles (authoritarian, authoritative, indulgent and neglectful, and perceived neighborhood risk on three indicators of conduct problems in adolescence (school misconduct, delinquency, and drug use. The sample consists of 1,017 adolescents, aged between 12 and 17. Results from four multivariate factorial designs yielded only main effects of parenting styles and neighborhood risk. Adolescents from authoritative and indulgent families showed lower conduct problems than those with authoritarian and neglectful parents. Also, higher levels of perceived neighborhood risk were significantly associated with more conduct problems. There were no significant interaction effects between parenting styles and perceived neighborhood risk, but results yielded a significant interaction effect between neighborhood risk and sex. Overall, results do not support the idea that parenting styles are more effective under certain neighborhood risk conditions, and suggest that neighbourhood risk influences adolescents’ psychosocial adjustment beyond the influence of parental socialization styles.

  15. A Social Marketing Approach for Developing a Neighborhood Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Sequeira

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on a social marketing project proposal for a community in a social housing neighborhood in Faro, in southern Portugal. The aim of the research is to discuss the possibility of the implementation of a neighborhood network, using a social marketing approach with the goal of strengthening the ties of cooperation, solidarity and friendship between the inhabitants of the neighborhood with a view to fostering social cohesion in the city. The paper offers a theoretical and empirical discussion about the characteristics of particular areas designated as social housing neighborhoods. Data collection was performed in loco by giving a questionnaire to the inhabitants of the neighborhood and by direct observation. The results facilitated a balance between the needs of the residents and their ability to help their neighbors. The results are followed by a discussion and a proposal for a social marketing project targeted to the neighborhood under study.

  16. Workplace Neighborhoods, Walking, Physical Activity, Weight Status, and Perceived Health

    OpenAIRE

    Forsyth, Ann; Oakes, J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent interest has focused on how the built environment in residential neighborhoods affects walking and other physical activity. The neighborhood around the workplace has been examined far less. This study explored the neighborhood around the workplace and its correlation with the amount of walking, level of physical activity, body mass index, and perceived health of those who (a) worked away from home (N = 446) and (b) were retired or unemployed (N = 207). Study participants were recruited...

  17. Neighborhood Integration and Connectivity Predict Cognitive Performance and Decline

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amber Watts PhD

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Neighborhood characteristics may be important for promoting walking, but little research has focused on older adults, especially those with cognitive impairment. We evaluated the role of neighborhood characteristics on cognitive function and decline over a 2-year period adjusting for measures of walking. Method: In a study of 64 older adults with and without mild Alzheimer’s disease (AD, we evaluated neighborhood integration and connectivity using geographical information systems data and space syntax analysis. In multiple regression analyses, we used these characteristics to predict 2-year declines in factor analytically derived cognitive scores (attention, verbal memory, mental status adjusting for age, sex, education, and self-reported walking. Results : Neighborhood integration and connectivity predicted cognitive performance at baseline, and changes in cognitive performance over 2 years. The relationships between neighborhood characteristics and cognitive performance were not fully explained by self-reported walking. Discussion : Clearer definitions of specific neighborhood characteristics associated with walkability are needed to better understand the mechanisms by which neighborhoods may impact cognitive outcomes. These results have implications for measuring neighborhood characteristics, design and maintenance of living spaces, and interventions to increase walking among older adults. We offer suggestions for future research measuring neighborhood characteristics and cognitive function.

  18. A Longitudinal Analysis of the Influence of the Neighborhood Environment on Recreational Walking within the Neighborhood: Results from RESIDE

    OpenAIRE

    Christian, Hayley; Knuiman, Matthew; Divitini, Mark; Foster, Sarah; Hooper, Paula; Boruff, Bryan; Bull, Fiona; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2017-01-01

    Background: There is limited longitudinal evidence confirming the role of neighborhood environment attributes in encouraging people to walk more or if active people simply choose to live in activity-friendly neighborhoods. Natural experiments of policy changes to create more walkable communities provide stronger evidence for a causal effect of neighborhood environments on residents’ walking. Objectives: We aimed to investigate longitudinal associations between objective and perceived neighbor...

  19. Outdoor play among children in relation to neighborhood characteristics : A cross-sectional neighborhood observation study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aarts, M.J.; de Vries, Sanne I; van Oers, J.A.M.; Schuit, A.J.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Although environmental characteristics as perceived by parents are known to be related to children's outdoor play behavior, less is known about the relation between independently measured neighborhood characteristics and outdoor play among children. The purpose of this study was to

  20. Parental and Adolescent Perceptions of Neighborhood Safety Related to Adolescents' Physical Activity in Their Neighborhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esteban-Cornejo, Irene; Carlson, Jordan A.; Conway, Terry L.; Cain, Kelli L.; Saelens, Brian E.; Frank, Lawrence D.; Glanz, Karen; Roman, Caterina G.; Sallis, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the association between adolescent and parental perceptions of neighborhood safety and adolescents' physical activity in multiple locations and to investigate the moderating effect of sex within this association. Method: This cross-sectional study was conducted with 928 adolescents aged 12 to 16…

  1. Metric propositional neighborhood logics on natural numbers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bresolin, Davide; Della Monica, Dario; Goranko, Valentin

    2013-01-01

    Metric Propositional Neighborhood Logic (MPNL) over natural numbers. MPNL features two modalities referring, respectively, to an interval that is “met by” the current one and to an interval that “meets” the current one, plus an infinite set of length constraints, regarded as atomic propositions...... is decidable in double exponential time and expressively complete with respect to a well-defined sub-fragment of the two-variable fragment FO2[N,=,numbers. Moreover, we show that MPNL can be extended in a natural way...

  2. Neighborhood deprivation and childhood autism: a nationwide study from Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinjun; Sjöstedt, Cecilia; Sundquist, Kristina; Zöller, Bengt; Sundquist, Jan

    2014-06-01

    To examine whether there is an association between neighborhood deprivation and childhood autism, after accounting for family- and individual-level sociodemographic characteristics. An open cohort of all children aged 2-11 years was followed between January 1, 2000 and December 31, 2010. Childhood residential locations were geocoded and classified according to neighborhood deprivation (an index of low education, low income, unemployment, and receipt of welfare assistance). Data were analyzed by multilevel logistic regression, with family- and individual-level characteristics at the first level and level of neighborhood deprivation at the second level. During the study period, among a total of 643,456 children, 1699 (0.3%) were diagnosed with childhood autism. Age-standardized cumulative incidence, defined as first registration for childhood autism during the study period, increased with increasing level of neighborhood deprivation. In the study population, 2.2 per 1000 and 3.6 per 1000 children in the least and most deprived neighborhoods, respectively, were diagnosed with childhood autism. Incidence of childhood autism increased with increasing neighborhood-level deprivation across all family and individual-level sociodemographic categories. The odds ratio (OR) for childhood autism for those living in high-deprivation neighborhoods versus those living in low-deprivation neighborhoods was 1.59 (95% confidence interval = 1.35-1.88). High neighborhood deprivation remained significantly associated with odds of childhood autism after adjustment for family- and individual-level sociodemographic characteristics (OR = 1.28, 95% confidence interval = 1.07-1.53, P = 0.007). This study is the largest so far on potential neighborhood influences on childhood autism. Our results show that neighborhood deprivation is associated with childhood autism, independently of family- and individual-level sociodemographic characteristics. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  3. A map of the universe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gott III, J. Richard; Juric, Mario; Schlegel, David; Hoyle, Fiona; Vogeley, Michael; Tegmark, Max; Bahcall, Neta; Brinkmann, Jon

    2003-10-20

    We have produced a new conformal map of the universe illustrating recent discoveries, ranging from Kuiper belt objects in the Solar system, to the galaxies and quasars from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. This map projection, based on the logarithm map of the complex plane, preserves shapes locally, and yet is able to display the entire range of astronomical scales from the Earth s neighborhood to the cosmic microwave background. The conformal nature of the projection, preserving shapes locally, may be of particular use for analyzing large scale structure. Prominent in the map is a Sloan Great Wall of galaxies 1.37 billion light years long, 80 percent longer than the Great Wall discovered by Geller and Huchra and therefore the largest observed structure in the universe.

  4. The spatial evaluation of neighborhood clusters of birth defects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frisch, J.D.

    1990-04-16

    Spatial statistics have recently been applied in epidemiology to evaluate clusters of cancer and birth defects. Their use requires a comparison population, drawn from the population at risk for disease, that may not always be readily available. In this dissertation the plausibility of using data on all birth defects, available from birth defects registries, as a surrogate for the spatial distribution of all live births in the analysis of clusters is assessed. Three spatial statistics that have been applied in epidemiologic investigations of clusters, nearest neighbor distance, average interpoint distance, and average distance to a fixed point, were evaluated by computer simulation for their properties in a unit square, and in a zip code region. Comparison of spatial distributions of live births and birth defects was performed by drawing samples of live births and birth defects from Santa Clara County, determining the street address at birth, geocoding this address and evaluating the resultant maps using various statistical techniques. The proposed method was then demonstrated on a previously confirmed cluster of oral cleft cases. All live births for the neighborhood were geocoded, as were all birth defects. Evaluation of this cluster using the nearest neighbor and average interpoint distance statistics was performed using randomization techniques with both the live births population and the birth defect population as comparison groups. 113 refs., 36 figs., 16 tabs.

  5. What does SNAP benefit usage tell us about food access in low-income neighborhoods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shannon, Jerry

    2014-04-01

    Current GIS based research on food access has focused primarily on the proximity of food sources to places of residence in low-income communities, with relatively little attention given to actual practices of food procurement. This project addresses this issue by using dasymetric mapping techniques to develop fine scale estimates of benefit usage for the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) in the Twin Cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul, Minnesota, drawing from existing zip code level data on benefit distribution and redemptions. Based on this data, this research shows that while supermarkets receive almost all SNAP benefits in suburban areas, these stores have a smaller share of all SNAP redemptions in low-income core neighborhoods. In these latter areas, both convenience stores and mid-sized grocers (e.g., discount grocers, food cooperatives, ethnic markets) play a much larger role in residents' food shopping, even when supermarkets are also present. In addition, these core neighborhoods have a net "outflow" of SNAP dollars, meaning that residents of these areas receive more in benefits than is spent at neighborhood food retailers. This finding confirms existing research showing that low-income residents often travel outside their neighborhoods to get food, regardless of the presence or absence of supermarkets. Rather than simply increasing the number of large food outlets in low-access areas, this research suggests that efforts to improve food access and community health must take into account the geographically complex ways residents interact with the food system. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Counseling in the Gentrified Neighborhood: What School Counselors Should Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Lauren E.; Van Velsor, Patricia

    2018-01-01

    Gentrification occurs when the prevailing demographic and economic environment of an urban neighborhood changes in ways related to social class and physical renewal. Gentrification effects are both positive and negative; however, low-income residents may be disproportionately negatively affected. As neighborhoods transform, schools also change.…

  7. Growing Up in Poor Neighborhoods: How Much Does It Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Susan E.; Jencks, Christopher

    1989-01-01

    Reviews research on how much the life chances of children are affected by the socioeconomic and racial mix of their schools and neighborhoods. Reports that the effect on students' chances of attending college or on White students' academic achievement is small. Black teenage pregnancy rates increase in poor neighborhoods. (Author/RT)

  8. From Neurons to Neighborhoods: An Update--Workshop Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olson, Steve

    2012-01-01

    "From Neurons to Neighborhoods: An Update: Workshop Summary" is based on the original study "From Neurons to Neighborhoods: Early Childhood Development," which was released in October of 2000. From the time of the original publication's release, much has occurred to cause a fundamental reexamination of the nation's…

  9. Neighborhood disadvantage and adolescent stress reactivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel A. Hackman

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Lower socioeconomic status (SES is associated with higher levels of life stress, which in turn affect stress physiology. SES is related to basal cortisol and diurnal change, but it is not clear if SES is associated with cortisol reactivity to stress. To address this question, we examined the relationship between two indices of SES, parental education and concentrated neighborhood disadvantage, and the cortisol reactivity of African-American adolescents to a modified version of the Trier Social Stress Test. We found that concentrated disadvantage was associated with cortisol reactivity and this relationship was moderated by gender, such that higher concentrated disadvantage predicted higher cortisol reactivity and steeper recovery in boys but not in girls. Parental education, alone or as moderated by gender, did not predict reactivity or recovery, while neither education nor concentrated disadvantage predicted estimates of baseline cortisol. This finding is consistent with animal literature showing differential vulnerability, by gender, to the effects of adverse early experience on stress regulation and the differential effects of neighborhood disadvantage in adolescent males and females. This suggests that the mechanisms underlying SES differences in brain development and particularly reactivity to environmental stressors may vary across genders.

  10. Neighborhood linguistic diversity predicts infants' social learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howard, Lauren H; Carrazza, Cristina; Woodward, Amanda L

    2014-11-01

    Infants' direct interactions with caregivers have been shown to powerfully influence social and cognitive development. In contrast, little is known about the cognitive influence of social contexts beyond the infant's immediate interactions with others, for example, the communities in which infants live. The current study addressed this issue by asking whether neighborhood linguistic diversity predicts infants' propensity to learn from diverse social partners. Data were taken from a series of experiments in which 19-month-old infants from monolingual, English-speaking homes were tested in paradigms that assessed their tendency to imitate the actions of an adult who spoke either English or Spanish. Infants who lived in more linguistically diverse neighborhoods imitated more of the Spanish speaker's actions. This relation was observed in two separate datasets and found to be independent from variation in infants' general imitative abilities, age, median family income and population density. These results provide novel evidence suggesting that infants' social learning is predicted by the diversity of the communities in which they live. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Research Progresses of Halo Streams in the Solar Neighborhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi-long, Liang; Jing-kun, Zhao; Yu-qin, Chen; Gang, Zhao

    2018-01-01

    The stellar streams originated from the Galactic halo may be detected when they pass by the solar neighborhood, and they still keep some information at their birth times. Thus, the investigation of halo streams in the solar neighborhood is very important for understanding the formation and evolution of our Galaxy. In this paper, the researches of halo streams in the solar neighborhood are briefly reviewed. We have introduced the methods how to detect the halo streams and identify their member stars, summarized the progresses in the observation of member stars of halo streams and in the study of their origins, introduced in detail how to analyze the origins of halo streams in the solar neighborhood by means of numerical simulation and chemical abundance, and finally discussed the prospects of the LAMOST and GAIA in the research of halo streams in the solar neighborhood.

  12. Social networks, social satisfaction and place attachment in the neighborhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minou Weijs-Perrée

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Feeling socially integrated and being satisfied with one’s social life are important indicators for happiness and well-being of individuals and for the strength of local communities. The effect of the living environment on social networks and the importance of local social contacts in the neighborhood has been addressed by many studies. However, social satisfaction has received little attention in these studies. The aim of this study is to describe and predict the effect of personal and neighborhood characteristics on social satisfaction mediated by the impact of place attachment and neighborhood networks. A path analysis is used based on survey and diary data collected between April and May 2014 in Eindhoven and surroundings in the Netherlands among 177 respondents. Results show that social characteristics of the neighborhood play an important role in explaining social satisfaction of individuals. In addition, results confirm the importance of participating in social activities and walking or cycling in the neighborhood.

  13. a Curvature Based Adaptive Neighborhood for Individual Point Cloud Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, E.; Chen, Q.; Wang, H.; Liu, X.

    2017-09-01

    As a key step in 3D scene analysis, point cloud classification has gained a great deal of concerns in the past few years. Due to the uneven density, noise and data missing in point cloud, how to automatically classify the point cloud with a high precision is a very challenging task. The point cloud classification process typically includes the extraction of neighborhood based statistical information and machine learning algorithms. However, the robustness of neighborhood is limited to the density and curvature of the point cloud which lead to a label noise behavior in classification results. In this paper, we proposed a curvature based adaptive neighborhood for individual point cloud classification. Our main improvement is the curvature based adaptive neighborhood method, which could derive ideal 3D point local neighborhood and enhance the separability of features. The experiment result on Oakland benchmark dataset shows that the proposed method can effectively improve the classification accuracy of point cloud.

  14. Modifiable Neighborhood Features Associated With Adolescent Homicide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Culyba, Alison J; Jacoby, Sara F; Richmond, Therese S; Fein, Joel A; Hohl, Bernadette C; Branas, Charles C

    2016-05-01

    Homicide is a leading cause of adolescent mortality. To our knowledge, relatively little has been studied in terms of the association between environmental neighborhood features, such as streets, buildings, and natural surroundings, and severe violent injury among youth. To assess associations between environmental neighborhood features and adolescent homicide in order to identify targets for future place-based interventions. Population-based case-control study conducted in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, from April 15, 2008, to March 31, 2014. We identified adolescents who died by homicide at 13 to 20 years of age from 2010 to 2012 while residing in Philadelphia. We used incidence-density sampling and random-digit dialing to recruit control participants ages 13 to 20 years matched on sex and indoor-outdoor location at the time of each index case participant's homicide. To obtain environmental data about modifiable features that were present in the immediate surroundings of our case and control participants, blinded field researchers used standardized techniques to photograph case and control participant outdoor locations. Photographic data were stitched together to create 360° panoramic images that were coded for 60 elements of the visible environment. Adolescent homicide. We enrolled 143 homicide case participants (mean [SD] age, 18.4 [1.5] years) and 155 matched control participants (mean [SD] age, 17.2 [2.1] years) who were both outdoors at the time of the homicide. In adjusted analyses, multiple features of Philadelphia streets, buildings, and natural surroundings were associated with adolescent homicide. The presence of street lighting (odds ratio [OR], 0.24; 95% CI, 0.09-0.70), illuminated walk/don't walk signs (OR, 0.16; 95% CI, 0.03-0.92), painted marked crosswalks (OR, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.04-0.63), public transportation (OR, 0.13; 95% CI, 0.03-0.49), parks (OR, 0.09; 95% CI, 0.01-0.88), and maintained vacant lots (OR, 0.17; 95% CI, 0.03-0.81) were significantly

  15. Neighborhood Variation of Sustainable Urban Morphological Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Si; Stimson, Robert

    2018-01-01

    Compact cities and their urban forms have implications on sustainable city development because of high density urban settlement, increased accessibility, and a balanced land use mix. This paper uses quantitative means of understanding urban morphological characteristics with reference to the differing qualities of the urban form (i.e., street patterns, building volumes, land uses and greenery). The results, based on 89 neighborhood communities of Hong Kong, show varying degrees of regional differences in the urban built form supported by numerical statistics and graphical illustrations. This paper offers empirical evidence on some morphological characteristics that can be estimated objectively using modern geospatial technologies and applied universally to inform urban planning. However, more studies linking these quantifiable measures of the physical form with sustainable urban living are needed to account for human comfort in the totality of environmental, social, and economic responsibilities. PMID:29518956

  16. Neighborhood Variation of Sustainable Urban Morphological Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Poh-Chin; Chen, Si; Low, Chien-Tat; Cerin, Ester; Stimson, Robert; Wong, Pui Yun Paulina

    2018-03-07

    Compact cities and their urban forms have implications on sustainable city development because of high density urban settlement, increased accessibility, and a balanced land use mix. This paper uses quantitative means of understanding urban morphological characteristics with reference to the differing qualities of the urban form (i.e., street patterns, building volumes, land uses and greenery). The results, based on 89 neighborhood communities of Hong Kong, show varying degrees of regional differences in the urban built form supported by numerical statistics and graphical illustrations. This paper offers empirical evidence on some morphological characteristics that can be estimated objectively using modern geospatial technologies and applied universally to inform urban planning. However, more studies linking these quantifiable measures of the physical form with sustainable urban living are needed to account for human comfort in the totality of environmental, social, and economic responsibilities.

  17. Neighborhood Variation of Sustainable Urban Morphological Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poh-Chin Lai

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Compact cities and their urban forms have implications on sustainable city development because of high density urban settlement, increased accessibility, and a balanced land use mix. This paper uses quantitative means of understanding urban morphological characteristics with reference to the differing qualities of the urban form (i.e., street patterns, building volumes, land uses and greenery. The results, based on 89 neighborhood communities of Hong Kong, show varying degrees of regional differences in the urban built form supported by numerical statistics and graphical illustrations. This paper offers empirical evidence on some morphological characteristics that can be estimated objectively using modern geospatial technologies and applied universally to inform urban planning. However, more studies linking these quantifiable measures of the physical form with sustainable urban living are needed to account for human comfort in the totality of environmental, social, and economic responsibilities.

  18. Exploring neighborhoods in the metagenome universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aßhauer, Kathrin P; Klingenberg, Heiner; Lingner, Thomas; Meinicke, Peter

    2014-07-14

    The variety of metagenomes in current databases provides a rapidly growing source of information for comparative studies. However, the quantity and quality of supplementary metadata is still lagging behind. It is therefore important to be able to identify related metagenomes by means of the available sequence data alone. We have studied efficient sequence-based methods for large-scale identification of similar metagenomes within a database retrieval context. In a broad comparison of different profiling methods we found that vector-based distance measures are well-suitable for the detection of metagenomic neighbors. Our evaluation on more than 1700 publicly available metagenomes indicates that for a query metagenome from a particular habitat on average nine out of ten nearest neighbors represent the same habitat category independent of the utilized profiling method or distance measure. While for well-defined labels a neighborhood accuracy of 100% can be achieved, in general the neighbor detection is severely affected by a natural overlap of manually annotated categories. In addition, we present results of a novel visualization method that is able to reflect the similarity of metagenomes in a 2D scatter plot. The visualization method shows a similarly high accuracy in the reduced space as compared with the high-dimensional profile space. Our study suggests that for inspection of metagenome neighborhoods the profiling methods and distance measures can be chosen to provide a convenient interpretation of results in terms of the underlying features. Furthermore, supplementary metadata of metagenome samples in the future needs to comply with readily available ontologies for fine-grained and standardized annotation. To make profile-based k-nearest-neighbor search and the 2D-visualization of the metagenome universe available to the research community, we included the proposed methods in our CoMet-Universe server for comparative metagenome analysis.

  19. Exploring Neighborhoods in the Metagenome Universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aßhauer, Kathrin P.; Klingenberg, Heiner; Lingner, Thomas; Meinicke, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The variety of metagenomes in current databases provides a rapidly growing source of information for comparative studies. However, the quantity and quality of supplementary metadata is still lagging behind. It is therefore important to be able to identify related metagenomes by means of the available sequence data alone. We have studied efficient sequence-based methods for large-scale identification of similar metagenomes within a database retrieval context. In a broad comparison of different profiling methods we found that vector-based distance measures are well-suitable for the detection of metagenomic neighbors. Our evaluation on more than 1700 publicly available metagenomes indicates that for a query metagenome from a particular habitat on average nine out of ten nearest neighbors represent the same habitat category independent of the utilized profiling method or distance measure. While for well-defined labels a neighborhood accuracy of 100% can be achieved, in general the neighbor detection is severely affected by a natural overlap of manually annotated categories. In addition, we present results of a novel visualization method that is able to reflect the similarity of metagenomes in a 2D scatter plot. The visualization method shows a similarly high accuracy in the reduced space as compared with the high-dimensional profile space. Our study suggests that for inspection of metagenome neighborhoods the profiling methods and distance measures can be chosen to provide a convenient interpretation of results in terms of the underlying features. Furthermore, supplementary metadata of metagenome samples in the future needs to comply with readily available ontologies for fine-grained and standardized annotation. To make profile-based k-nearest-neighbor search and the 2D-visualization of the metagenome universe available to the research community, we included the proposed methods in our CoMet-Universe server for comparative metagenome analysis. PMID:25026170

  20. Do Neighborhood Characteristics in Amsterdam Influence Adiposity at Preschool Age?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hrudey, E. Jessica; Kunst, Anton E.; Stronks, Karien; Vrijkotte, Tanja G.M.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Neighborhood characteristics may contribute to adiposity in young children, but results in the current literature are inconsistent. This study aimed to investigate whether objective (socioeconomic status (SES)) and subjective (perceived safety, satisfaction with green spaces and perceived physical disorder) neighborhood characteristics directly influence child adiposity (as measured by BMI, percent body fat (%BF) and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR)). Methods: Data on child BMI, %BF and WHtR were obtained from the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development cohort at 5–6 years of age. Three thousand four hundred and sixty nine (3469) children were included in the analyses. Mixed models, using random intercepts for postal code area to account for neighborhood clustering effects, were used to analyze the relationships of interest. Results: Associations were observed for both perceived safety and neighborhood SES with %BF after adjustment for maternal education and ethnicity. All relationships were eliminated with the inclusion of individual covariates and parental BMI into the models. Conclusions: In general, child adiposity at age 5–6 years was not independently associated with neighborhood characteristics, although a small relationship between child %BF and both neighborhood SES and perceived safety cannot be ruled out. At this young age, familial and individual factors probably play a more important role in influencing child adiposity than neighborhood characteristics. PMID:26006128

  1. Why the Neighborhood Social Environment Is Critical in Obesity Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suglia, Shakira F; Shelton, Rachel C; Hsiao, Amber; Wang, Y Claire; Rundle, Andrew; Link, Bruce G

    2016-02-01

    The continuing obesity epidemic in the USA calls for the examination of antecedents to the well-known risk factors of physical activity and diet. The neighborhood built environment has been extensively studied in relation to obesity noting an increased risk of development and prevalence of obesity in relation to numerous built environment characteristics (lack of green spaces, higher number of fast food restaurants, low walkability indices). The neighborhood social environment, however, has been less extensively studied but is perhaps an equally important component of the neighborhood environment. The neighborhood social environment, particularly constructs of social capital, collective efficacy, and crime, is associated with obesity among both adults and children. Several studies have identified physical activity as a potential pathway of the neighborhood social environment and obesity association. Further work on social networks and norms and residential segregation, as well as the examination of dietary behaviors and mental health as potential mediating pathways, is necessary. Given the existing evidence, intervening on the neighborhood social environment may prove to be an effective target for the prevention on obesity. Intervention studies that promote healthy behaviors and prevent obesity while addressing aspects of the neighborhood social environment are necessary to better identify targets for obesity prevention.

  2. Preserving Neighborhood Opportunity: Where Federal Housing Subsidies Expire.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lens, Michael C; Reina, Vincent

    2016-01-01

    Rent burdens are increasing in U.S. metropolitan areas while subsidies on privately owned, publicly subsidized rental units are expiring. As a result, some of the few remaining affordable units in opportunity neighborhoods are at risk of being converted to market rate. Policy makers face a decision about whether to devote their efforts and scarce resources toward developing new affordable housing, recapitalizing existing subsidized housing, and/or preserving properties with expiring subsidies. There are several reasons to preserve these subsidies, one being that properties may be located in neighborhoods with greater opportunity. In this article, we use several sources of data at the census tract level to learn how subsidy expirations affect neighborhood opportunity for low-income households. Our analysis presents several key findings. First, we find that units that left the project-based Section 8 program were - on average - in lower opportunity neighborhoods, but these neighborhoods were improving. In addition, properties due to expiry from the Section 8 program between 2011 and 2020 are in higher opportunity neighborhoods than any other subsidy program. On the contrary, new Low-Income Housing Tax Credit (LIHTC) units were developed in tracts similar to those where LIHTC units are currently active, which tend to be lower opportunity neighborhoods.

  3. Do Neighborhood Characteristics in Amsterdam Influence Adiposity at Preschool Age?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Jessica Hrudey

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neighborhood characteristics may contribute to adiposity in young children, but results in the current literature are inconsistent. This study aimed to investigate whether objective (socioeconomic status (SES and subjective (perceived safety, satisfaction with green spaces and perceived physical disorder neighborhood characteristics directly influence child adiposity (as measured by BMI, percent body fat (%BF and waist-to-height ratio (WHtR. Methods: Data on child BMI, %BF and WHtR were obtained from the Amsterdam Born Children and their Development cohort at 5–6 years of age. Three thousand four hundred and sixty nine (3469 children were included in the analyses. Mixed models, using random intercepts for postal code area to account for neighborhood clustering effects, were used to analyze the relationships of interest. Results: Associations were observed for both perceived safety and neighborhood SES with %BF after adjustment for maternal education and ethnicity. All relationships were eliminated with the inclusion of individual covariates and parental BMI into the models. Conclusions: In general, child adiposity at age 5–6 years was not independently associated with neighborhood characteristics, although a small relationship between child %BF and both neighborhood SES and perceived safety cannot be ruled out. At this young age, familial and individual factors probably play a more important role in influencing child adiposity than neighborhood characteristics.

  4. Neighborhood Factors and Dating Violence Among Youth: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Renee M; Parker, Elizabeth M; Rinehart, Jenny; Nail, Jennifer; Rothman, Emily F

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this review is to summarize the empirical research on neighborhood-level factors and dating violence among adolescents and emerging adults to guide future research and practice. In 2015, a total of 20 articles were identified through a search of the literature using PubMed. Eligible articles included those that (1) had been published in a peer-reviewed journal since 2005; (2) reported a measure of association between at least one neighborhood-level factor and dating violence; and (3) had a study population of youth aged violence and neighborhood factors, and measures of effect. Results were summarized into three categories based on the aspect of neighborhood that was the focus of the work: demographic and structural characteristics (n=11); neighborhood disorder (n=12); and social disorganization (n=8). There was some evidence to suggest that neighborhood disadvantage is associated with dating violence, but very little evidence to suggest that residence characteristics (e.g., racial heterogeneity) are associated with dating violence. Results do suggest that perceived neighborhood disorder is associated with physical dating violence perpetration, but do not suggest that it is associated with physical dating violence victimization. Social control and community connectedness are both associated with dating violence, but findings on collective efficacy are mixed. Existing research suggests that neighborhood factors may be associated with dating violence. However, there is a limited body of research on the neighborhood context of dating violence, and more rigorous research is needed. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Neighborhood Environment and Cognition in Older Adults: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besser, Lilah M; McDonald, Noreen C; Song, Yan; Kukull, Walter A; Rodriguez, Daniel A

    2017-08-01

    Some evidence suggests that treating vascular risk factors and performing mentally stimulating activities may delay cognitive impairment onset in older adults. Exposure to a complex neighborhood environment may be one mechanism to help delay cognitive decline. PubMed, Web of Science, and ProQuest Dissertation and Theses Global database were systematically reviewed, identifying 25 studies published from February 1, 1989 to March 5, 2016 (data synthesized, May 3, 2015 to October 7, 2016). The review was restricted to quantitative studies focused on: (1) neighborhood social and built environment and cognition; and (2) community-dwelling adults aged ≥45 years. The majority of studies were cross-sectional, U.S.-based, and found at least one significant association. The diversity of measures and neighborhood definitions limited the synthesis of findings in many instances. Evidence was moderately strong for an association between neighborhood SES and cognition, and modest for associations between neighborhood demographics, design, and destination accessibility and cognition. Most studies examining effect modification found significant associations, with some evidence for effect modification of the neighborhood SES-cognition association by individual-level SES. No studies had low risk of bias and many tested multiple associations that increased the chance of a statistically significant finding. Considering the studies to date, the evidence for an association between neighborhood characteristics and cognition is modest. Future studies should include longitudinal measures of neighborhood characteristics and cognition; examine potential effect modifiers, such as sex and disability; and study mediators that may help elucidate the biological mechanisms linking neighborhood environment and cognition. Copyright © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Association of Neighborhood Characteristics with Bystander-Initiated CPR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasson, Comilla; Magid, David J.; Chan, Paul; Root, Elisabeth D.; McNally, Bryan F.; Kellermann, Arthur L.; Haukoos, Jason S.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND For persons who have an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, the probability of receiving bystander-initiated cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) may be influenced by neighborhood characteristics. METHODS We analyzed surveillance data prospectively submitted from 29 U.S. sites to the Cardiac Arrest Registry to Enhance Survival between October 1, 2005, and December 31, 2009. The neighborhood in which each cardiac arrest occurred was determined from census-tract data. We classified neighborhoods as high-income or low-income on the basis of a median household income threshold of $40,000 and as white or black if more than 80% of the census tract was predominantly of one race. Neighborhoods without a predominant racial composition were classified as integrated. We analyzed the relationship between the median income and racial composition of a neighborhood and the performance of bystander-initiated CPR. RESULTS Among 14,225 patients with cardiac arrest, bystander-initiated CPR was provided to 4068 (28.6%). As compared with patients who had a cardiac arrest in high-income white neighborhoods, those in low-income black neighborhoods were less likely to receive bystander-initiated CPR (odds ratio, 0.49; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.41 to 0.58). The same was true of patients with cardiac arrest in neighborhoods characterized as low-income white (odds ratio, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.51 to 0.82), low-income integrated (odds ratio, 0.62; 95% CI, 0.56 to 0.70), and high-income black (odds ratio, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.68 to 0.86). The odds ratio for bystander-initiated CPR in high-income integrated neighborhoods (1.03; 95% CI, 0.64 to 1.65) was similar to that for high-income white neighborhoods. CONCLUSIONS In a large cohort study, we found that patients who had an out-of-hospital cardiac arrest in low-income black neighborhoods were less likely to receive bystander-initiated CPR than those in high-income white neighborhoods. (Funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

  7. Relationship of corporal punishment and antisocial behavior by neighborhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew

    2005-10-01

    To examine the relationship of corporal punishment with children's behavior problems while accounting for neighborhood context and while using stronger statistical methods than previous literature in this area, and to examine whether different levels of corporal punishment have different effects in different neighborhood contexts. Longitudinal cohort study. General community. 1943 mother-child pairs from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Internalizing and externalizing behavior problem scales of the Behavior Problems Index. Parental use of corporal punishment was associated with a 0.71 increase (Pcorporal punishment and children's externalizing behavior problems was not dependent on neighborhood context. The research found no discernible relationship between corporal punishment and internalizing behavior problems.

  8. Good and Bad Neighborhood Approximations for Outlier Detection Ensembles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirner, Evelyn; Schubert, Erich; Zimek, Arthur

    2017-01-01

    Outlier detection methods have used approximate neighborhoods in filter-refinement approaches. Outlier detection ensembles have used artificially obfuscated neighborhoods to achieve diverse ensemble members. Here we argue that outlier detection models could be based on approximate neighborhoods...... in the first place, thus gaining in both efficiency and effectiveness. It depends, however, on the type of approximation, as only some seem beneficial for the task of outlier detection, while no (large) benefit can be seen for others. In particular, we argue that space-filling curves are beneficial...

  9. Association between neighborhood safety and overweight status among urban adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnson Renee M

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neighborhood safety may be an important social environmental determinant of overweight. We examined the relationship between perceived neighborhood safety and overweight status, and assessed the validity of reported neighborhood safety among a representative community sample of urban adolescents (who were racially and ethnically diverse. Methods Data come from the 2006 Boston Youth Survey, a cross-sectional study in which public high school students in Boston, MA completed a pencil-and-paper survey. The study used a two-stage, stratified sampling design whereby schools and then 9th–12th grade classrooms within schools were selected (the analytic sample included 1,140 students. Students reported their perceptions of neighborhood safety and several associated dimensions. With self-reported height and weight data, we computed body mass index (BMI, kg/m2 for the adolescents based on CDC growth charts. Chi-square statistics and corresponding p-values were computed to compare perceived neighborhood safety by the several associated dimensions. Prevalence ratios (PRs and 95% confidence intervals (CI were calculated to examine the association between perceived neighborhood safety and the prevalence of overweight status controlling for relevant covariates and school site. Results More than one-third (35.6% of students said they always felt safe in their neighborhood, 43.9% said they sometimes felt safe, 11.6% rarely felt safe, and 8.9% never felt safe. Those students who reported that they rarely or never feel safe in their neighborhoods were more likely than those who said they always or sometimes feel safe to believe that gang violence was a serious problem in their neighborhood or school (68.0% vs. 44.1%, p p = 0.025. In the fully adjusted model (including grade and school stratified by race/ethnicity, we found a statistically significant association between feeling unsafe in one's own neighborhood and overweight status among

  10. Association between neighborhood safety and overweight status among urban adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Dustin T; Johnson, Renee M; Molnar, Beth E; Azrael, Deborah

    2009-01-01

    Background Neighborhood safety may be an important social environmental determinant of overweight. We examined the relationship between perceived neighborhood safety and overweight status, and assessed the validity of reported neighborhood safety among a representative community sample of urban adolescents (who were racially and ethnically diverse). Methods Data come from the 2006 Boston Youth Survey, a cross-sectional study in which public high school students in Boston, MA completed a pencil-and-paper survey. The study used a two-stage, stratified sampling design whereby schools and then 9th–12th grade classrooms within schools were selected (the analytic sample included 1,140 students). Students reported their perceptions of neighborhood safety and several associated dimensions. With self-reported height and weight data, we computed body mass index (BMI, kg/m2) for the adolescents based on CDC growth charts. Chi-square statistics and corresponding p-values were computed to compare perceived neighborhood safety by the several associated dimensions. Prevalence ratios (PRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated to examine the association between perceived neighborhood safety and the prevalence of overweight status controlling for relevant covariates and school site. Results More than one-third (35.6%) of students said they always felt safe in their neighborhood, 43.9% said they sometimes felt safe, 11.6% rarely felt safe, and 8.9% never felt safe. Those students who reported that they rarely or never feel safe in their neighborhoods were more likely than those who said they always or sometimes feel safe to believe that gang violence was a serious problem in their neighborhood or school (68.0% vs. 44.1%, p school) stratified by race/ethnicity, we found a statistically significant association between feeling unsafe in one's own neighborhood and overweight status among those in the Other race/ethnicity group [(PR = 1.56, (95% CI: 1.02, 2.40)]. Conclusion

  11. Neighborhood Frequency Effect in Chinese Word Recognition: Evidence from Naming and Lexical Decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Meng-Feng; Gao, Xin-Yu; Chou, Tai-Li; Wu, Jei-Tun

    2017-01-01

    Neighborhood frequency is a crucial variable to know the nature of word recognition. Different from alphabetic scripts, neighborhood frequency in Chinese is usually confounded by component character frequency and neighborhood size. Three experiments were designed to explore the role of the neighborhood frequency effect in Chinese and the stimuli…

  12. Development and deployment of the Computer Assisted Neighborhood Visual Assessment System (CANVAS) to measure health-related neighborhood conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bader, Michael D M; Mooney, Stephen J; Lee, Yeon Jin; Sheehan, Daniel; Neckerman, Kathryn M; Rundle, Andrew G; Teitler, Julien O

    2015-01-01

    Public health research has shown that neighborhood conditions are associated with health behaviors and outcomes. Systematic neighborhood audits have helped researchers measure neighborhood conditions that they deem theoretically relevant but not available in existing administrative data. Systematic audits, however, are expensive to conduct and rarely comparable across geographic regions. We describe the development of an online application, the Computer Assisted Neighborhood Visual Assessment System (CANVAS), that uses Google Street View to conduct virtual audits of neighborhood environments. We use this system to assess the inter-rater reliability of 187 items related to walkability and physical disorder on a national sample of 150 street segments in the United States. We find that many items are reliably measured across auditors using CANVAS and that agreement between auditors appears to be uncorrelated with neighborhood demographic characteristics. Based on our results we conclude that Google Street View and CANVAS offer opportunities to develop greater comparability across neighborhood audit studies. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Stein Manifolds and Holomorphic Mappings

    CERN Document Server

    Forstneric, Franc

    2011-01-01

    The main theme of this book is the homotopy principle for holomorphic mappings from Stein manifolds to the newly introduced class of Oka manifolds. This book contains the first complete account of Oka-Grauert theory and its modern extensions, initiated by Mikhail Gromov and developed in the last decade by the author and his collaborators. Included is the first systematic presentation of the theory of holomorphic automorphisms of complex Euclidean spaces, a survey on Stein neighborhoods, connections between the geometry of Stein surfaces and Seiberg-Witten theory, and a wide variety of applicat

  14. The neighborhood energy balance equation: does neighborhood food retail environment + physical activity environment = obesity? The CARDIA study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janne Boone-Heinonen

    Full Text Available Recent obesity prevention initiatives focus on healthy neighborhood design, but most research examines neighborhood food retail and physical activity (PA environments in isolation. We estimated joint, interactive, and cumulative impacts of neighborhood food retail and PA environment characteristics on body mass index (BMI throughout early adulthood.We used cohort data from the Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA Study [n=4,092; Year 7 (24-42 years, 1992-1993 followed over 5 exams through Year 25 (2010-2011; 12,921 person-exam observations], with linked time-varying geographic information system-derived neighborhood environment measures. Using regression with fixed effects for individuals, we modeled time-lagged BMI as a function of food and PA resource density (counts per population and neighborhood development intensity (a composite density score. We controlled for neighborhood poverty, individual-level sociodemographics, and BMI in the prior exam; and included significant interactions between neighborhood measures and by sex. Using model coefficients, we simulated BMI reductions in response to single and combined neighborhood improvements. Simulated increase in supermarket density (from 25(th to 75(th percentile predicted inter-exam reduction in BMI of 0.09 kg/m(2 [estimate (95% CI: -0.09 (-0.16, -0.02]. Increasing commercial PA facility density predicted BMI reductions up to 0.22 kg/m(2 in men, with variation across other neighborhood features [estimate (95% CI range: -0.14 (-0.29, 0.01 to -0.22 (-0.37, -0.08]. Simultaneous increases in supermarket and commercial PA facility density predicted inter-exam BMI reductions up to 0.31 kg/m(2 in men [estimate (95% CI range: -0.23 (-0.39, -0.06 to -0.31 (-0.47, -0.15] but not women. Reduced fast food restaurant and convenience store density and increased public PA facility density and neighborhood development intensity did not predict reductions in BMI.Findings suggest that

  15. Using geographic information systems and local food store data in California's low-income neighborhoods to inform community initiatives and resources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghirardelli, Alyssa; Quinn, Valerie; Foerster, Susan B

    2010-11-01

    We examined conditions in California low-income neighborhoods that affect obesity to inform program planning, nutrition education, community participation, investment of resources, and involvement of stakeholders. Staff members in 18 local health departments were trained to use an online geographic information system (GIS) and conduct field surveys. GIS data were aggregated from 68 low-income neighborhoods of 1 or more census tracts. Data were collected in 2007 to 2009 from 473 grocery stores in 62 neighborhoods. Thirty-one percent of neighborhoods mapped had no supermarket within any of their census tract boundaries, but health department staff members estimated that 74.2% of residents had access to a large grocery store within 1 mile. Eighty-one percent of small markets sold produce, and 67.6% offered 4 or more types of fresh vegetables. Small markets and corner stores in California's low-income neighborhoods often have fresh produce available for sale. Stores providing healthy options in typically underserved areas can be part of community efforts to promote healthy eating behaviors.

  16. The Road to Language Learning Is Not Entirely Iconic: Iconicity, Neighborhood Density, and Frequency Facilitate Acquisition of Sign Language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caselli, Naomi K; Pyers, Jennie E

    2017-07-01

    Iconic mappings between words and their meanings are far more prevalent than once estimated and seem to support children's acquisition of new words, spoken or signed. We asked whether iconicity's prevalence in sign language overshadows two other factors known to support the acquisition of spoken vocabulary: neighborhood density (the number of lexical items phonologically similar to the target) and lexical frequency. Using mixed-effects logistic regressions, we reanalyzed 58 parental reports of native-signing deaf children's productive acquisition of 332 signs in American Sign Language (ASL; Anderson & Reilly, 2002) and found that iconicity, neighborhood density, and lexical frequency independently facilitated vocabulary acquisition. Despite differences in iconicity and phonological structure between signed and spoken language, signing children, like children learning a spoken language, track statistical information about lexical items and their phonological properties and leverage this information to expand their vocabulary.

  17. Municipality and Neighborhood Influences on Volunteering in Later Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dury, Sarah; Willems, Jurgen; De Witte, Nico; De Donder, Liesbeth; Buffel, Tine; Verté, Dominique

    2016-06-01

    This article explores the relationships between municipality features and volunteering by older adults. In the literature, strong evidence exists of the influence of place on older people's health. However, the question how neighborhoods and municipalities promote or hinder volunteer participation remains under-explored. Data for the research are derived from the Belgian Aging Studies. We estimate logistic multilevel models for older individuals' engagement in volunteering across 141 municipalities in Belgium (N = 67,144). Analysis shows that neighborhood connectedness, neighborhood satisfaction, home ownership, and presence of services predict voluntary engagement at older ages. The findings support that perceptions and quality of social resources that relate to neighborhoods may be important factors to explain volunteering among older adults. Moreover, the findings suggest that volunteering in later life must be considered within a broader framework. © The Author(s) 2014.

  18. Bringing urban governance back in: Neighborhood conflicts and depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiang

    2018-01-01

    Urban governance and its impact on contentious politics have received remarkably little attention in existing studies on mental health. Drawing on a measure of neighborhood conflicts developed in a survey of thirty-nine urban neighborhoods in Guangzhou, China, this article investigates the potential link between urban governance and mental health. Net of sociodemographic, relational, and environmental measures, it finds that among residents' conflicts with different entities of urban governance, only those with local/grassroots governments are significantly associated with more depressive symptoms. Moreover, these subgroups of government-oriented conflicts associated with more depressive symptoms are related to neighborhood planning and communal properties, reflecting a dilemma in the Chinese model of urban governance. By offering a relational interpretation of neighborhood conflicts, this study not only challenges the previous view that community building in China improves mental health, but calls attention to the significance of urban governance in research on mental health. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Site and neighborhood environments for walking among older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhe; Lee, Chanam

    2010-11-01

    Walking has significant health and mobility benefits for older adults. Previous environment-walking studies have focused on neighborhood environments, overlooking proximate site-level characteristics. This study examines both the neighborhood and site-level environments. A survey was conducted with 114 older adults from five assisted-living facilities in Houston, TX. A subset of 61 participants' environments was examined using Geographic Information Systems (GIS). Multivariate analyses identified positive correlates of walking at the site level including yard landscaping and corner-lots, and neighborhood-level correlates including walking destinations, safety from crime, and sidewalks. Both site-level and neighborhood environmental supports appear important in promoting walking among older adults. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Social Capital and Economic Development: A Neighborhood Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J. Hanka

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Sean Safford’s 2009 book Why the Garden Club Couldn’t Save Youngstown introduces a revolutionary idea that much of a community’s economic resilience is tied to the social capital that exists within it. Recent research suggests that social capital not only benefits those who develop it, but it can serve as a source of economic development in the communities in which it arises. Past quantitative research on the economic benefit of social capital has only examined the city or higher levels of aggregation. This study measures social capital in three diverse socioeconomic neighborhoods to better understand how social capital can serve as a tool for economic development. An ordered probit regression model was developed to examine how individual and neighborhood levels of social capital benefit households within these communities. Moreover, this study addresses how differences in social capital across neighborhoods are explained by both individual and neighborhood characteristics.

  1. CHAPTER 9: USING CENSUS DATA TO APPROXIMATE NEIGHBORHOOD EFFECTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    INTRODUCTION Despite the development of innovative neighborhood data collection methods, such as systematic social observation (1, 2), and the utilization of novel administrative data sources including delinquent tax records, homelessness shelter utilization, reports of housing ...

  2. A Streaming Distance Transform Algorithm for Neighborhood-Sequence Distances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Normand

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We describe an algorithm that computes a “translated” 2D Neighborhood-Sequence Distance Transform (DT using a look up table approach. It requires a single raster scan of the input image and produces one line of output for every line of input. The neighborhood sequence is specified either by providing one period of some integer periodic sequence or by providing the rate of appearance of neighborhoods. The full algorithm optionally derives the regular (centered DT from the “translated” DT, providing the result image on-the-fly, with a minimal delay, before the input image is fully processed. Its efficiency can benefit all applications that use neighborhood- sequence distances, particularly when pipelined processing architectures are involved, or when the size of objects in the source image is limited.

  3. Empowerment Zones and Enterprise Districts - MDC_NeighborhoodStabilizationProg

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Boundaries of Miami-Dade County's Neighborhood Stabilization Program (NSP) areas. NSP is a HUD program to provide emergency assistance to state and local governments...

  4. Neighborhood age structure and its implications for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagney, Kathleen A

    2006-09-01

    Age structure at the neighborhood level is rarely considered in contextual studies of health. However, age structure can play a critical role in shaping community life, the availability of resources, and the opportunities for social engagement-all factors that, research suggests, have direct and indirect effects on health. Age structure can be theorized as a compositional effect and as a contextual effect. In addition, the dynamic nature of age structure and the utility of a life course perspective as applied to neighborhood effects research merits attention. Four Chicago neighborhoods are summarized to illustrate how age structure varies across small space, suggesting that neighborhood age structure should be considered a key structural covariate in contextual research on health. Considering age structure implies incorporating not only meaningful cut points for important age groups (e.g., proportion 65 years and over) but attention to the shape of the distribution as well.

  5. Trajectories of neighborhood change: the case of gentrification

    OpenAIRE

    R A Beauregard

    1990-01-01

    Our understanding of the comparative dynamics of neighborhood change is relatively undeveloped. In order to disentangle various trajectories, the complex processes which constitute gentrification are explored both quantitatively and qualitatively in four neighborhoods in Philadelphia for the postwar period. The analysis reveals quite diverse forms of gentrification, varying in potential and pace, that pivot around the structural forces of capitalism and the particularities of place. Emphasis ...

  6. Why the Neighborhood Social Environment Is Critical in Obesity Prevention

    OpenAIRE

    Suglia, Shakira F.; Shelton, Rachel C.; Hsiao, Amber; Wang, Y. Claire; Rundle, Andrew; Link, Bruce G.

    2016-01-01

    The continuing obesity epidemic in the USA calls for the examination of antecedents to the well-known risk factors of physical activity and diet. The neighborhood built environment has been extensively studied in relation to obesity noting an increased risk of development and prevalence of obesity in relation to numerous built environment characteristics (lack of green spaces, higher number of fast food restaurants, low walkability indices). The neighborhood social environment, however, has b...

  7. Racial Disparities in Sleep: The Role of Neighborhood Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller-Rowell, Thomas E.; Curtis, David S.; El-Sheikh, Mona; Chae, David H.; Boylan, Jennifer M.; Ryff, Carol D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Disparities in sleep duration and efficiency between Black/African American (AA) and White/European American (EA) adults are well-documented. The objective of this study was to examine neighborhood disadvantage as an explanation for race differences in objectively measured sleep. Methods Data were from 133 AA and 293 EA adults who participated in the sleep assessment protocol of the Midlife in the United States (MIDUS) study (57% female; Mean Age = 56.8 years, SD=11.4). Sleep minutes, onset latency, and waking after sleep onset (WASO) were assessed over seven nights using wrist actigraphy. Neighborhood characteristics were assessed by linking home addresses to tract-level socioeconomic data from the 2000 US Census. Multilevel models estimated associations between neighborhood disadvantage and sleep, and the degree to which neighborhood disadvantage mediated race differences in sleep controlling for family socioeconomic position and demographic variables. Results AAs had shorter sleep duration, greater onset latency, and higher WASO than EAs (ps < .001). Neighborhood disadvantage was significantly associated with WASO (B = 3.54, p = .028), but not sleep minutes (B = −2.21, p = .60) or latency (B = 1.55, p = .38). Furthermore, race was indirectly associated with WASO via neighborhood disadvantage (B = 4.63, p = .035), which explained 24% of the race difference. When measures of depression, health behaviors, and obesity were added to the model, the association between neighborhood disadvantage and WASO was attenuated by 11% but remained significant. Conclusion Findings suggest that neighborhood disadvantage mediates a portion of race differences in WASO, an important indicator of sleep efficiency. PMID:27938909

  8. Neighborhood Risk, Parental Socialization Styles, and Adolescent Conduct Problems

    OpenAIRE

    Enrique Gracia; Mª Castillo Fuentes; Fernando García

    2010-01-01

    This article aims to analyze the influence of parental socialization styles (authoritarian, authoritative, indulgent and neglectful), and perceived neighborhood risk on three indicators of conduct problems in adolescence (school misconduct, delinquency, and drug use). The sample consists of 1,017 adolescents, aged between 12 and 17. Results from four multivariate factorial designs yielded only main effects of parenting styles and neighborhood risk. Adolescents from authoritative and indulgent...

  9. Neighborhood crime and travel behavior : an investigation of the influence of neighborhood crime rates on mode choice, phase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    There are considerable environmental and public health benefits if people choose to walk, bicycle, or ride transit, instead of drive. However, little work has been done on the effects of neighborhood crimes on mode choice. Instinctively, we understan...

  10. Neighborhood crime and travel behavior : an investigation of the influence of neighborhood crime rates on mode choice - phase II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    There are considerable environmental and public health benefits if people choose to walk, bicycle, or ride transit, instead of drive. : However, little work has been done on the effects of neighborhood crimes on mode choice. Instinctively, we underst...

  11. Unpacking the Relationships between Impulsivity, Neighborhood Disadvantage, and Adolescent Violence : An Application of a Neighborhood-Based Group Decomposition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, M.S.; van Ham, M.

    2017-01-01

    Scholars have become increasingly interested in how social environments condition the relationships between individual risk-factors and adolescent behavior. An appreciable portion of this literature is concerned with the relationship between impulsivity and delinquency across neighborhood settings.

  12. Community Mapping in Action: Uncovering Resources and Assets for Young Children and Their Families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ordonez-Jasis, Rosario; Myck-Wayne, Janice

    2012-01-01

    Community mapping is a promising practice that can assist early intervention/early childhood special education (EI/ECSE) professionals uncover the depth and diversity of community needs, resources, and learning opportunities, in the neighborhoods surrounding their schools. Community mapping is an inquiry-based method that situates learning in the…

  13. Growing a hypercubical output space in a self-organizing feature map.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, H U; Villmann, T

    1997-01-01

    Neural maps project data from an input space onto a neuron position in a (often lower dimensional) output space grid in a neighborhood preserving way, with neighboring neurons in the output space responding to neighboring data points in the input space. A map-learning algorithm can achieve an optimal neighborhood preservation only, if the output space topology roughly matches the effective structure of the data in the input space. We here present a growth algorithm, called the GSOM or growing self-organizing map, which enhances a widespread map self-organization process, Kohonen's self-organizing feature map (SOFM), by an adaptation of the output space grid during learning. The GSOM restricts the output space structure to the shape of a general hypercubical shape, with the overall dimensionality of the grid and its extensions along the different directions being subject of the adaptation. This constraint meets the demands of many larger information processing systems, of which the neural map can be a part. We apply our GSOM-algorithm to three examples, two of which involve real world data. Using recently developed methods for measuring the degree of neighborhood preservation in neural maps, we find the GSOM-algorithm to produce maps which preserve neighborhoods in a nearly optimal fashion.

  14. Association between neighborhood need and spatial access to food stores and fast food restaurants in neighborhoods of Colonias

    OpenAIRE

    Sharkey, Joseph R; Horel, Scott; Han, Daikwon; Huber, John C

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective To determine the extent to which neighborhood needs (socioeconomic deprivation and vehicle availability) are associated with two criteria of food environment access: 1) distance to the nearest food store and fast food restaurant and 2) coverage (number) of food stores and fast food restaurants within a specified network distance of neighborhood areas of colonias, using ground-truthed methods. Methods Data included locational points for 315 food stores and 204 fast food rest...

  15. Self-Reported Physical Activity within and outside the Neighborhood: Criterion-Related Validity of the Neighborhood Physical Activity Questionnaire in German Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bödeker, Malte; Bucksch, Jens; Wallmann-Sperlich, Birgit

    2018-01-01

    The Neighborhood Physical Activity Questionnaire allows to assess physical activity within and outside the neighborhood. Study objectives were to examine the criterion-related validity and health/functioning associations of Neighborhood Physical Activity Questionnaire-derived physical activity in German older adults. A total of 107 adults aged…

  16. Strategies of Building a Stronger Sense of Community for Sustainable Neighborhoods: Comparing Neighborhood Accessibility with Community Empowerment Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Te-I Albert Tsai

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available New Urbanist development in the U.S. aims at enhancing a sense of community and seeks to return to the design of early transitional neighborhoods which have pedestrian-oriented environments with retail shops and services within walking distances of housing. Meanwhile, 6000 of Taiwan’s community associations have been running community empowerment programs supported by the Council for Cultural Affairs that have helped many neighborhoods to rebuild so-called community cohesion. This research attempts to evaluate whether neighborhoods with facilities near housing and shorter travel distances within a neighborhood would promote stronger social interactions and form a better community attachment than neighborhoods that have various opportunities for residents to participate in either formal or informal social gatherings. After interviewing and surveying residents from 19 neighborhoods in Taipei’s Beitou District, and correlating the psychological sense of community with inner neighborhood’s daily travel distances and numbers of participatory activities held by community organizations under empowerment programs together with frequencies of regular individual visits and casual meetings, statistical evidence yielded that placing public facilities near residential locations is more effective than providing various programs for elevating a sense of community.

  17. Building a National Neighborhood Dataset From Geotagged Twitter Data for Indicators of Happiness, Diet, and Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Quynh C; Li, Dapeng; Meng, Hsien-Wen; Kath, Suraj; Nsoesie, Elaine; Li, Feifei; Wen, Ming

    2016-10-17

    Studies suggest that where people live, play, and work can influence health and well-being. However, the dearth of neighborhood data, especially data that is timely and consistent across geographies, hinders understanding of the effects of neighborhoods on health. Social media data represents a possible new data resource for neighborhood research. The aim of this study was to build, from geotagged Twitter data, a national neighborhood database with area-level indicators of well-being and health behaviors. We utilized Twitter's streaming application programming interface to continuously collect a random 1% subset of publicly available geolocated tweets for 1 year (April 2015 to March 2016). We collected 80 million geotagged tweets from 603,363 unique Twitter users across the contiguous United States. We validated our machine learning algorithms for constructing indicators of happiness, food, and physical activity by comparing predicted values to those generated by human labelers. Geotagged tweets were spatially mapped to the 2010 census tract and zip code areas they fall within, which enabled further assessment of the associations between Twitter-derived neighborhood variables and neighborhood demographic, economic, business, and health characteristics. Machine labeled and manually labeled tweets had a high level of accuracy: 78% for happiness, 83% for food, and 85% for physical activity for dichotomized labels with the F scores 0.54, 0.86, and 0.90, respectively. About 20% of tweets were classified as happy. Relatively few terms (less than 25) were necessary to characterize the majority of tweets on food and physical activity. Data from over 70,000 census tracts from the United States suggest that census tract factors like percentage African American and economic disadvantage were associated with lower census tract happiness. Urbanicity was related to higher frequency of fast food tweets. Greater numbers of fast food restaurants predicted higher frequency of fast

  18. Mrs. Malaprop’s Neighborhood: Using Word Errors to Reveal Neighborhood Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldrick, Matthew; Folk, Jocelyn R.; Rapp, Brenda

    2009-01-01

    Many theories of language production and perception assume that in the normal course of processing a word, additional non-target words (lexical neighbors) become active. The properties of these neighbors can provide insight into the structure of representations and processing mechanisms in the language processing system. To infer the properties of neighbors, we examined the non-semantic errors produced in both spoken and written word production by four individuals who suffered neurological injury. Using converging evidence from multiple language tasks, we first demonstrate that the errors originate in disruption to the processes involved in the retrieval of word form representations from long-term memory. The targets and errors produced were then examined for their similarity along a number of dimensions. A novel statistical simulation procedure was developed to determine the significance of the observed similarities between targets and errors relative to multiple chance baselines. The results reveal that in addition to position-specific form overlap (the only consistent claim of traditional definitions of neighborhood structure) the dimensions of lexical frequency, grammatical category, target length and initial segment independently contribute to the activation of non-target words in both spoken and written production. Additional analyses confirm the relevance of these dimensions for word production showing that, in both written and spoken modalities, the retrieval of a target word is facilitated by increasing neighborhood density, as defined by the results of the target-error analyses. PMID:20161591

  19. A Systematic Review of Neighborhood Disparities in Point-of-Sale Tobacco Marketing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henriksen, Lisa; Rose, Shyanika W.; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Ribisl, Kurt M.

    2015-01-01

    We systematically reviewed evidence of disparities in tobacco marketing at tobacco retailers by sociodemographic neighborhood characteristics. We identified 43 relevant articles from 893 results of a systematic search in 10 databases updated May 28, 2014. We found 148 associations of marketing (price, placement, promotion, or product availability) with a neighborhood demographic of interest (socioeconomic disadvantage, race, ethnicity, and urbanicity). Neighborhoods with lower income have more tobacco marketing. There is more menthol marketing targeting urban neighborhoods and neighborhoods with more Black residents. Smokeless tobacco products are targeted more toward rural neighborhoods and neighborhoods with more White residents. Differences in store type partially explain these disparities. There are more inducements to start and continue smoking in lower-income neighborhoods and in neighborhoods with more Black residents. Retailer marketing may contribute to disparities in tobacco use. Clinicians should be aware of the pervasiveness of these environmental cues. PMID:26180986

  20. A Systematic Review of Neighborhood Disparities in Point-of-Sale Tobacco Marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Joseph G L; Henriksen, Lisa; Rose, Shyanika W; Moreland-Russell, Sarah; Ribisl, Kurt M

    2015-09-01

    We systematically reviewed evidence of disparities in tobacco marketing at tobacco retailers by sociodemographic neighborhood characteristics. We identified 43 relevant articles from 893 results of a systematic search in 10 databases updated May 28, 2014. We found 148 associations of marketing (price, placement, promotion, or product availability) with a neighborhood demographic of interest (socioeconomic disadvantage, race, ethnicity, and urbanicity). Neighborhoods with lower income have more tobacco marketing. There is more menthol marketing targeting urban neighborhoods and neighborhoods with more Black residents. Smokeless tobacco products are targeted more toward rural neighborhoods and neighborhoods with more White residents. Differences in store type partially explain these disparities. There are more inducements to start and continue smoking in lower-income neighborhoods and in neighborhoods with more Black residents. Retailer marketing may contribute to disparities in tobacco use. Clinicians should be aware of the pervasiveness of these environmental cues.

  1. Neighborhood Deprivation and Childhood Asthma Outcomes, Accounting for Insurance Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nkoy, Flory L; Stone, Bryan L; Knighton, Andrew J; Fassl, Bernhard A; Johnson, Joseph M; Maloney, Christopher G; Savitz, Lucy A

    2018-01-09

    Collecting social determinants data is challenging. We assigned patients a neighborhood-level social determinant measure, the area of deprivation index (ADI), by using census data. We then assessed the association between neighborhood deprivation and asthma hospitalization outcomes and tested the influence of insurance coverage. A retrospective cohort study of children 2 to 17 years old admitted for asthma at 8 hospitals. An administrative database was used to collect patient data, including hospitalization outcomes and neighborhood deprivation status (ADI scores), which were grouped into quintiles (ADI 1, the least deprived neighborhoods; ADI 5, the most deprived neighborhoods). We used multivariable models, adjusting for covariates, to assess the associations and added a neighborhood deprivation status and insurance coverage interaction term. A total of 2270 children (median age 5 years; 40.6% girls) were admitted for asthma. We noted that higher ADI quintiles were associated with greater length of stay, higher cost, and more asthma readmissions ( P < .05 for most quintiles). Having public insurance was independently associated with greater length of stay (β: 1.171; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.117-1.228; P < .001), higher cost (β: 1.147; 95% CI: 1.093-1.203; P < .001), and higher readmission odds (odds ratio: 1.81; 95% CI: 1.46-2.24; P < .001). There was a significant deprivation-insurance effect modification, with public insurance associated with worse outcomes and private insurance with better outcomes across ADI quintiles ( P < .05 for most combinations). Neighborhood-level ADI measure is associated with asthma hospitalization outcomes. However, insurance coverage modifies this relationship and needs to be considered when using the ADI to identify and address health care disparities. Copyright © 2018 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

  2. Race, Neighborhood Economic Status, Income Inequality and Mortality.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolle A Mode

    Full Text Available Mortality rates in the United States vary based on race, individual economic status and neighborhood. Correlations among these variables in most urban areas have limited what conclusions can be drawn from existing research. Our study employs a unique factorial design of race, sex, age and individual poverty status, measuring time to death as an objective measure of health, and including both neighborhood economic status and income inequality for a sample of middle-aged urban-dwelling adults (N = 3675. At enrollment, African American and White participants lived in 46 unique census tracts in Baltimore, Maryland, which varied in neighborhood economic status and degree of income inequality. A Cox regression model for 9-year mortality identified a three-way interaction among sex, race and individual poverty status (p = 0.03, with African American men living below poverty having the highest mortality. Neighborhood economic status, whether measured by a composite index or simply median household income, was negatively associated with overall mortality (p<0.001. Neighborhood income inequality was associated with mortality through an interaction with individual poverty status (p = 0.04. While racial and economic disparities in mortality are well known, this study suggests that several social conditions associated with health may unequally affect African American men in poverty in the United States. Beyond these individual factors are the influences of neighborhood economic status and income inequality, which may be affected by a history of residential segregation. The significant association of neighborhood economic status and income inequality with mortality beyond the synergistic combination of sex, race and individual poverty status suggests the long-term importance of small area influence on overall mortality.

  3. Cartographies of danger mapping hazards in America

    CERN Document Server

    Monmonier, Mark

    1997-01-01

    No place is perfectly safe, but some places are more dangerous than others. Whether we live on a floodplain or in ""Tornado Alley,"" near a nuclear facility or in a neighborhood poorly lit at night, we all co-exist uneasily with natural and man-made hazards. As Mark Monmonier shows in this entertaining and immensely informative book, maps can tell us a lot about where we can anticipate certain hazards, but they can also be dangerously misleading. California, for example, takes earthquakes seriously, with a comprehensive program of seismic mapping, whereas Washington has been comparatively lax

  4. Image deblocking using joint Gaussian mixture model and anchored neighborhood regression priors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Meng; He, Xiaohai; Xiong, Shuhua; Qing, Linbo

    2017-07-01

    At low bit rates, Block based transform coding method uses large quantization step to quantize transform coefficients, which usually causes compression artifacts for images. Post-processing strategy is a promising solution which can greatly improve the visual quality of degraded images without change of existing codec. In this paper, we propose an image deblocking method for JPEG compressed images using joint Gaussian mixture model (GMM) and anchored neighborhood regression priors. The proposed method takes advantage of image priors to reduce blocking artifacts and achieve a better image quality simultaneously. First, we utilize GMM to reduce blocking artifacts. Based on the assumption that similar image patches can be derived from one certain Gaussian probability distribution, we formulate the image deblocking as an optimization problem by maximizing a posteriori function. Solving this problem ultimately boils down to the liner Wiener filtering. We then learn mapping functions offline based on the recent adjusted anchored neighborhood regression to enhance image details and edges. Extensive experimental results validate that our proposed method performs better both objectively and subjectively compared to some recently presented methods.

  5. Quantification of exposure to fecal contamination in open drains in four neighborhoods in Accra, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gretsch, Stephanie R; Ampofo, Joseph A; Baker, Kelly K; Clennon, Julie; Null, Clair A; Peprah, Dorothy; Reese, Heather; Robb, Katharine; Teunis, Peter; Wellington, Nii; Yakubu, Habib; Moe, Christine L

    2016-04-01

    In low-income countries, rapid urbanization adds pressure to already stressed water and sanitation systems that are critical to the health of communities. Drainage networks, designed for stormwater but commonly used for disposing of waste, are rarely covered completely, allowing residents to easily come into contact with their contents. This study used spatial mapping, documentation of physical drain characteristics, microbiological analysis of drain samples, and behavioral observation to comprehensively examine drains as a route of exposure to fecal contamination in four low-income neighborhoods in Accra, Ghana. A stochastic model of six likely exposure scenarios was constructed to estimate children's exposure to drain water. Regardless of the age of the child, any exposure scenario considered resulted in exposure to a high level of fecal contamination. Fecal contamination levels in drains were high (Escherichia coli: geometric mean (GM), 8.60 cfu log(10)/100 mL; coliphage: GM, 5.56 pfu log(10)/100 mL), and did not differ by neighborhood or physical drain characteristics, indicating that frequency of contact with drains, and not drain type or location, drives exposure risk. To mitigate health risks associated with this exposure, drains should be covered, with priority given to large concrete and small to medium dirt-lined drains that children were most commonly observed entering.

  6. Using Social Media to Identify Sources of Healthy Food in Urban Neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez-Lopez, Iris N; Clarke, Philippa; Hill, Alex B; Romero, Daniel M; Goodspeed, Robert; Berrocal, Veronica J; Vinod Vydiswaran, V G; Veinot, Tiffany C

    2017-06-01

    An established body of research has used secondary data sources (such as proprietary business databases) to demonstrate the importance of the neighborhood food environment for multiple health outcomes. However, documenting food availability using secondary sources in low-income urban neighborhoods can be particularly challenging since small businesses play a crucial role in food availability. These small businesses are typically underrepresented in national databases, which rely on secondary sources to develop data for marketing purposes. Using social media and other crowdsourced data to account for these smaller businesses holds promise, but the quality of these data remains unknown. This paper compares the quality of full-line grocery store information from Yelp, a crowdsourced content service, to a "ground truth" data set (Detroit Food Map) and a commercially-available dataset (Reference USA) for the greater Detroit area. Results suggest that Yelp is more accurate than Reference USA in identifying healthy food stores in urban areas. Researchers investigating the relationship between the nutrition environment and health may consider Yelp as a reliable and valid source for identifying sources of healthy food in urban environments.

  7. Neighborhood Design, Physical Activity, and Wellbeing: Applying the Walkability Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuniga-Teran, Adriana A; Orr, Barron J; Gimblett, Randy H; Chalfoun, Nader V; Guertin, David P; Marsh, Stuart E

    2017-01-13

    Neighborhood design affects lifestyle physical activity, and ultimately human wellbeing. There are, however, a limited number of studies that examine neighborhood design types. In this research, we examine four types of neighborhood designs: traditional development, suburban development, enclosed community, and cluster housing development, and assess their level of walkability and their effects on physical activity and wellbeing. We examine significant associations through a questionnaire ( n = 486) distributed in Tucson, Arizona using the Walkability Model. Among the tested neighborhood design types, traditional development showed significant associations and the highest value for walkability, as well as for each of the two types of walking (recreation and transportation) representing physical activity. Suburban development showed significant associations and the highest mean values for mental health and wellbeing. Cluster housing showed significant associations and the highest mean value for social interactions with neighbors and for perceived safety from crime. Enclosed community did not obtain the highest means for any wellbeing benefit. The Walkability Model proved useful in identifying the walkability categories associated with physical activity and perceived crime. For example, the experience category was strongly and inversely associated with perceived crime. This study provides empirical evidence of the importance of including vegetation, particularly trees, throughout neighborhoods in order to increase physical activity and wellbeing. Likewise, the results suggest that regular maintenance is an important strategy to improve mental health and overall wellbeing in cities.

  8. Exploring the evolution of node neighborhoods in Dynamic Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orman, Günce Keziban; Labatut, Vincent; Naskali, Ahmet Teoman

    2017-09-01

    Dynamic Networks are a popular way of modeling and studying the behavior of evolving systems. However, their analysis constitutes a relatively recent subfield of Network Science, and the number of available tools is consequently much smaller than for static networks. In this work, we propose a method specifically designed to take advantage of the longitudinal nature of dynamic networks. It characterizes each individual node by studying the evolution of its direct neighborhood, based on the assumption that the way this neighborhood changes reflects the role and position of the node in the whole network. For this purpose, we define the concept of neighborhood event, which corresponds to the various transformations such groups of nodes can undergo, and describe an algorithm for detecting such events. We demonstrate the interest of our method on three real-world networks: DBLP, LastFM and Enron. We apply frequent pattern mining to extract meaningful information from temporal sequences of neighborhood events. This results in the identification of behavioral trends emerging in the whole network, as well as the individual characterization of specific nodes. We also perform a cluster analysis, which reveals that, in all three networks, one can distinguish two types of nodes exhibiting different behaviors: a very small group of active nodes, whose neighborhood undergo diverse and frequent events, and a very large group of stable nodes.

  9. Neighborhood Design, Physical Activity, and Wellbeing: Applying the Walkability Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana A. Zuniga-Teran

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Neighborhood design affects lifestyle physical activity, and ultimately human wellbeing. There are, however, a limited number of studies that examine neighborhood design types. In this research, we examine four types of neighborhood designs: traditional development, suburban development, enclosed community, and cluster housing development, and assess their level of walkability and their effects on physical activity and wellbeing. We examine significant associations through a questionnaire (n = 486 distributed in Tucson, Arizona using the Walkability Model. Among the tested neighborhood design types, traditional development showed significant associations and the highest value for walkability, as well as for each of the two types of walking (recreation and transportation representing physical activity. Suburban development showed significant associations and the highest mean values for mental health and wellbeing. Cluster housing showed significant associations and the highest mean value for social interactions with neighbors and for perceived safety from crime. Enclosed community did not obtain the highest means for any wellbeing benefit. The Walkability Model proved useful in identifying the walkability categories associated with physical activity and perceived crime. For example, the experience category was strongly and inversely associated with perceived crime. This study provides empirical evidence of the importance of including vegetation, particularly trees, throughout neighborhoods in order to increase physical activity and wellbeing. Likewise, the results suggest that regular maintenance is an important strategy to improve mental health and overall wellbeing in cities.

  10. Family and neighborhood disadvantage, home environment, and children's school readiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Lieny; Buettner, Cynthia K; Hur, Eunhye

    2014-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine associations between family socioeconomic risk, neighborhood disadvantage, and children's school readiness. A sample of 420 children from 48 early childcare programs yielded multi-informant data. The average age was 55.3 months (SD = 6.4), with 38% of children being Black, non-Hispanic, Hispanic, or other minority race (American Indian or Alaska Native, Asian, and Native Hawaiian or Pacific Islander). One third (32.4%) of the parents had annual incomes less than $30,000. We used multilevel structural equation modeling to test direct and indirect associations among family socioeconomic risk and neighborhood disadvantage and children's cognitive and social-emotional development through home learning environment and parental depression. Children with a greater number of family socioeconomic risks and a higher level of neighborhood disadvantage demonstrated lower scores on cognitive skills. The degree of family socioeconomic risk was indirectly associated with children's cognitive ability through parents' cognitive stimulation at home. Parents who had more family socioeconomic risks and neighborhood disadvantage reported more depressive symptoms, which, in turn, suggested children's greater probability of having social-emotional problems. In other words, home learning environments explained associations between family socioeconomic disadvantage and children's cognitive skills, while parental depression explained associations between family/neighborhood disadvantages and children's social-emotional problems. Results suggest the importance of intervention or prevention strategies for parents to improve cognitive stimulation at home and to reduce depressive symptoms. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved).

  11. Neighborhood Influences on Vehicle-Pedestrian Crash Severity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toran Pour, Alireza; Moridpour, Sara; Tay, Richard; Rajabifard, Abbas

    2017-12-01

    Socioeconomic factors are known to be contributing factors for vehicle-pedestrian crashes. Although several studies have examined the socioeconomic factors related to the location of the crashes, limited studies have considered the socioeconomic factors of the neighborhood where the road users live in vehicle-pedestrian crash modelling. This research aims to identify the socioeconomic factors related to both the neighborhoods where the road users live and where crashes occur that have an influence on vehicle-pedestrian crash severity. Data on vehicle-pedestrian crashes that occurred at mid-blocks in Melbourne, Australia, was analyzed. Neighborhood factors associated with road users' residents and location of crash were investigated using boosted regression tree (BRT). Furthermore, partial dependence plots were applied to illustrate the interactions between these factors. We found that socioeconomic factors accounted for 60% of the 20 top contributing factors to vehicle-pedestrian crashes. This research reveals that socioeconomic factors of the neighborhoods where the road users live and where the crashes occur are important in determining the severity of the crashes, with the former having a greater influence. Hence, road safety countermeasures, especially those focussing on the road users, should be targeted at these high-risk neighborhoods.

  12. Characterizing bicycle collisions by neighborhood in a large Midwestern city.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaney, Robert A; Kim, Changjoo

    2014-03-01

    Local environmental factors provide important contributions to bicycle safety. The purpose of this study was to characterize bicycle collisions by neighborhood in Cincinnati, Ohio. The majority of prior bicycle safety research has focused on helmet use, especially among youth. Studies that have considered the neighborhood have centered on the built environment and its facilitation of bicycling (e.g., connectivity of roads and road conditions). Other broad conditions may be associated with injury beyond the use of protective equipment and the physical environment. This study sought to determine spatial clustering, local patterning, temporal differences (time of day and season of year), and significant neighborhood-level predictors of bicycle collisions. Bicycle collision data were obtained from the Cincinnati, Ohio Police Department. This study showed that collisions occur at higher rates in the south-central and southwest neighborhoods of Cincinnati, Ohio. There were seasonal and time-of-day differences with respect to collision rates with summer and afternoon being the most common collision times. Neighborhood ethnicity, population density and presence of public transportation were all significant predictors of bicycle collisions. These findings will be disseminated to local city authorities and bicycle advocacy groups.

  13. A method for neighborhood-level surveillance of food purchasing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckeridge, David L; Charland, Katia; Labban, Alice; Ma, Yu

    2014-12-01

    Added sugar, particularly in carbonated soft drinks (CSDs), represents a considerable proportion of caloric intake in North America. Interventions to decrease the intake of added sugar have been proposed, but monitoring their effectiveness can be difficult due to the costs and limitations of dietary surveys. We developed, assessed the accuracy of, and took an initial step toward validating an indicator of neighborhood-level purchases of CSDs using automatically captured store scanner data in Montreal, Canada, between 2008 and 2010 and census data describing neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics. Our indicator predicted total monthly neighborhood sales based on historical sales and promotions and characteristics of the stores and neighborhoods. The prediction error for monthly sales in sampled stores was low (2.2%), and we demonstrated a negative association between predicted total sales and median personal income. For each $10,000 decrease in median personal income, we observed a fivefold increase in predicted monthly sales of CSDs. This indicator can be used by public health agencies to implement automated systems for neighborhood-level monitoring of an important upstream determinant of health. Future refinement of this indicator is possible to account for factors such as store catchment areas and to incorporate nutritional information about products. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

  14. Perceived urban neighborhood environment for physical activity of older adults in Seoul, Korea: A multimethod qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Seunghyun; Kim, Dong Ha

    2017-10-01

    This study assessed the attributes of a perceived urban neighborhood environment for the physical activity (PA) of older adults by applying a qualitative multimethod approach to collect both descriptive and spatial information. Conducted in a northern community of Seoul, Korea, from April 2014 to November 2015, data collection methods included 90 walking tours by researchers, 46 face-to-face, semi-structured interviews combined with qualitative mapping with senior residents aged 65+, 19 guided tours with the interviewees, and 3 focus groups with 12 community service providers. Thematic analysis and pattern finding were performed on the data. Walking was the main type of PA of the older adults. Nine attributes of perceived neighborhood environment for PA were identified under three themes: daily living (everyday life activities, mobility, social opportunities, diverse destinations); the multidimensionality of accessibility (physical, economic, psychosocial), and attractiveness and pleasantness (maintenance, aesthetics). The subcategories of the attributes included proximity, access to public transportation, walkability, cost-worthiness, low or no cost, familiarity, sense of welcoming, sociocultural appropriateness, fair access, order and upkeep, safety, openness, cleanliness, and interestingness. Strategies to generate more movement and activities in the everyday routine of the elderly should be a core task for health promotion and neighborhood design. A strategic application of multiple qualitative methods can create an opportunity to build contextual understanding and to generate ideas in interactions with the community. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Onomastic Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliana Yu. Gordova

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Mapping the onomastic material and creating linguistic atlases of each region remains a significant and urgent problem of Russian onomastics. The paper summarizes the experience of onomastic cartography, and explains the concept of onomastic map as well as linguistic and technical principles of mapping. The author considers traditional objects of mapping and main map topics and describes new opportunities which become possible due to the creation of modern means and techniques of mapping. The paper is illustrated with toponymic maps, compiled by different researchers between 1970 and 2000.

  16. The Effects of Individual Factors on the Formation of Cognitive Maps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Alinam

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Human’s weakened bond to residential areas, compromised identity and stability of residents in residential areas, have resulted in higher rate of transfer. Individual and collective understanding of the environment could be seen as a major force in shaping that environment through the action of human choices and behavior. In this regard, Cognitive maps are of great theoretical and practical importance for understanding how humans interact with their environment. This research is aimed to investigate the effects of the individual factors on the formation of cognitive maps in the neighborhood. Research seeks to answer the question: "How and to what extent the individual factors affect the cognitive and metal maps of the residents in the neighborhood?" Research is a combination of qualitative (interview and quantitative (questionnaire methods which is conducted on 297 residents of a neighborhood in the city of Tabriz. Results indicate that individual characteristics such as gender, age, occupational status, housing ownership status, length of residence, transport mode and duration of walking have a significant relationship within the formation of three components of cognitive map (landmark, route-road and survey knowledge. Educational status is the only variable that does not interact significantly with the cognition knowledge of the neighborhood. Achievement of this research is to introduce the effective individual factors in the formation of cognitive and mental image within the neighborhood and effectiveness rate of each in this process.

  17. Patterns of local segregation: Do they matter for neighborhood crime?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krivo, Lauren J; Byron, Reginald A; Calder, Catherine A; Peterson, Ruth D; Browning, Christopher R; Kwan, Mei-Po; Lee, Jae Yong

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we extend recent research on the spatial measurement of segregation and the spatial dynamics of urban crime by conceptualizing, measuring, and describing local segregation by race-ethnicity and economic status, and examining the linkages of these conditions with levels of neighborhood violent and property crime. The analyses are based on all 8895 census tracts within a sample of 86 large U.S. cities. We fit multilevel models of crime that incorporate measures of local segregation. The results reveal that, net of city-level and neighborhood characteristics, White-Black local segregation is associated with lower violent and property crime. In contrast, local segregation of low income from high income households is connected with higher crime, particularly neighborhood violence. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. How Sustainable is Democratic Innovation? Tracking Neighborhood Councils in Montevideo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Serdült

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Focusing on the relatively longstanding experience of neighborhood councils in the Uruguayan capital of Montevideo (1993–, this research note seeks to analyze how sustainable democratic innovation is and to explain subsequent results. Sustainability is assessed through the evolution of citizens’ participation in elections and through the number of candidates who apply to become neighborhood councilors. For both indicators, a consistent decline in the levels of participation over time is found. This is deemed to be a consequence of an institutional design that seriously limits the performance of neighborhood councils in terms of their influence in the decision-making process and their acquisition of legitimacy and political capital.

  19. Feature Selection with Neighborhood Entropy-Based Cooperative Game Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zeng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Feature selection plays an important role in machine learning and data mining. In recent years, various feature measurements have been proposed to select significant features from high-dimensional datasets. However, most traditional feature selection methods will ignore some features which have strong classification ability as a group but are weak as individuals. To deal with this problem, we redefine the redundancy, interdependence, and independence of features by using neighborhood entropy. Then the neighborhood entropy-based feature contribution is proposed under the framework of cooperative game. The evaluative criteria of features can be formalized as the product of contribution and other classical feature measures. Finally, the proposed method is tested on several UCI datasets. The results show that neighborhood entropy-based cooperative game theory model (NECGT yield better performance than classical ones.

  20. Diversity of neighborhoods promotes cooperation in evolutionary social dilemmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yongjuan; Lu, Jun; Shi, Lei

    2017-02-01

    Explaining the evolution of cooperative behavior is one of the most important and interesting problems in a myriad of disciplines, such as evolutionary biology, mathematics, statistical physics, social science and economics Up to now, there have been a great number of works aiming to this issue with the help of evolutionary game theory. However, vast majority of existing literatures simply assume that the interaction neighborhood and replacement neighborhood are symmetric, which seems inconsistent with real-world cases. In this paper, we consider the asymmetrical neighborhood: player of type A, whose factor is controlled by a parameter τ, has four interaction neighbors and four replacement neighbors, while player of type B, whose factor is controlled by a parameter 1 - τ, possess eight interaction neighbors and four replacement neighbors. By means of numerous Monte Carlo simulations, we found that middle τ can make the cooperation reach the highest level While for this finding, its robustness can be further validated in more games.

  1. Race, Neighborhood Economic Status, Income Inequality and Mortality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mode, Nicolle A; Evans, Michele K; Zonderman, Alan B

    2016-01-01

    Mortality rates in the United States vary based on race, individual economic status and neighborhood. Correlations among these variables in most urban areas have limited what conclusions can be drawn from existing research. Our study employs a unique factorial design of race, sex, age and individual poverty status, measuring time to death as an objective measure of health, and including both neighborhood economic status and income inequality for a sample of middle-aged urban-dwelling adults (N = 3675). At enrollment, African American and White participants lived in 46 unique census tracts in Baltimore, Maryland, which varied in neighborhood economic status and degree of income inequality. A Cox regression model for 9-year mortality identified a three-way interaction among sex, race and individual poverty status (p = 0.03), with African American men living below poverty having the highest mortality. Neighborhood economic status, whether measured by a composite index or simply median household income, was negatively associated with overall mortality (pincome inequality was associated with mortality through an interaction with individual poverty status (p = 0.04). While racial and economic disparities in mortality are well known, this study suggests that several social conditions associated with health may unequally affect African American men in poverty in the United States. Beyond these individual factors are the influences of neighborhood economic status and income inequality, which may be affected by a history of residential segregation. The significant association of neighborhood economic status and income inequality with mortality beyond the synergistic combination of sex, race and individual poverty status suggests the long-term importance of small area influence on overall mortality. PMID:27171406

  2. A Neighborhood Wealth Metric for Use in Health Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moudon, Anne Vernez; Cook, Andrea J.; Ulmer, Jared; Hurvitz, Philip M.; Drewnowski, Adam

    2011-01-01

    Background Measures of neighborhood deprivation used in health research are typically based on conventional area-based SES. Purpose The aim of this study is to examine new data and measures of SES for use in health research. Specifically, assessed property values are introduced as a new individual-level metric of wealth and tested for their ability to substitute for conventional area-based SES as measures of neighborhood deprivation. Methods The analysis was conducted in 2010 using data from 1922 participants in the 2008– 2009 survey of the Seattle Obesity Study (SOS). It compared the relative strength of the association between the individual-level neighborhood wealth metric (assessed property values) and area-level SES measures (including education, income, and percentage above poverty as single variables, and as the composite Singh index) on the binary outcome fair/poor general health status. Analyses were adjusted for gender, categoric age, race, employment status, home ownership, and household income. Results The neighborhood wealth measure was more predictive of fair/poor health status than area-level SES measures, calculated either as single variables or as indices (lower DIC measures for all models). The odds of having a fair/poor health status decreased by 0.85 [0.77, 0.93] per $50,000 increase in neighborhood property values after adjusting for individual-level SES measures. Conclusions The proposed individual-level metric of neighborhood wealth, if replicated in other areas, could replace area-based SES measures, thus simplifying analyses of contextual effects on health. PMID:21665069

  3. Race, Neighborhood Economic Status, Income Inequality and Mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mode, Nicolle A; Evans, Michele K; Zonderman, Alan B

    2016-01-01

    Mortality rates in the United States vary based on race, individual economic status and neighborhood. Correlations among these variables in most urban areas have limited what conclusions can be drawn from existing research. Our study employs a unique factorial design of race, sex, age and individual poverty status, measuring time to death as an objective measure of health, and including both neighborhood economic status and income inequality for a sample of middle-aged urban-dwelling adults (N = 3675). At enrollment, African American and White participants lived in 46 unique census tracts in Baltimore, Maryland, which varied in neighborhood economic status and degree of income inequality. A Cox regression model for 9-year mortality identified a three-way interaction among sex, race and individual poverty status (p = 0.03), with African American men living below poverty having the highest mortality. Neighborhood economic status, whether measured by a composite index or simply median household income, was negatively associated with overall mortality (pinequality was associated with mortality through an interaction with individual poverty status (p = 0.04). While racial and economic disparities in mortality are well known, this study suggests that several social conditions associated with health may unequally affect African American men in poverty in the United States. Beyond these individual factors are the influences of neighborhood economic status and income inequality, which may be affected by a history of residential segregation. The significant association of neighborhood economic status and income inequality with mortality beyond the synergistic combination of sex, race and individual poverty status suggests the long-term importance of small area influence on overall mortality.

  4. 78 FR 79477 - Announcement of Funding Awards, Choice Neighborhoods Grant Program, Fiscal Year 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    ... program aims to transform neighborhoods of poverty into viable mixed-income neighborhoods with access to... Park--Broadway. Sacramento, 801 12th Street, Sacramento, CA 95814-2947. County of St. Louis, 41 South...

  5. Neighborhood characteristics and TV viewing in youth: Nothing to do but watch TV?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timperio, A.; Salmon, J.; Ball, K.; te Velde, S.J.; Brug, J.; Crawford, D.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Neighborhoods that discourage physical activity may encourage indoor activities such as television viewing; however few studies have examined associations between neighborhood characteristics and sedentary activities. This study examined cross-sectional and longitudinal associations

  6. A CATALOG OF MOVING GROUP CANDIDATES IN THE SOLAR NEIGHBORHOOD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao Jingkun; Zhao Gang; Chen Yuqin

    2009-01-01

    Based on the kernel estimator and wavelet technique, we have identified 22 moving group candidates in the solar neighborhood from a sample which includes around 14,000 dwarfs and 6000 giants. Six of them were previously known as the Hercules stream, the Sirus-UMa stream, the Hyades stream, the Caster group, the Pleiades stream, and the IC 2391; five of them have also been reported by other authors. 11 moving group candidates, not previously reported in the literature, show prominent structures in dwarf or giant samples. A catalog of moving group candidates in the solar neighborhood is presented in this work.

  7. The temporal stability of children's neighborhood experiences: A follow-up from birth to age 15

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tom Kleinepier

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite increasing attention being paid to the temporal dynamics of childhood disadvantage, children's neighborhood characteristics are still frequently measured at a single point in time. Whether such cross-sectional measures serve as reliable proxies for children's long-run neighborhood conditions depends on the stability in children's neighborhood experiences over time. Objective: We investigate stability in children's neighborhood environment over time, focusing on two of the most commonly studied neighborhood socioeconomic conditions: The ethnic composition and mean income of the neighborhood. Methods: Drawing on data from the Dutch population registers, an entire cohort of children born in the Netherlands in 1999 (n=179,166 is followed from birth up until age 15. We use year-to-year correlations in the percentage of non-Western ethnic minorities and the mean logged income in the neighborhood to evaluate the temporal stability of children's neighborhood experiences. Results: Results indicate that children's neighborhood characteristics are more stable over time with regard to ethnic composition than with regard to the mean income. Children who had moved at least once had less stability in neighborhood characteristics than children who never moved. Finally, neighborhood experiences were found to be more stable over time for ethnic minority children, although differences were small with regard to mean income in the neighborhood. Conclusions: We conclude that single point-in-time measurements of neighborhood characteristics are reasonable proxies for the long-run ethnic composition of children's neighborhood environment, but rather noisy proxies for the long-run income status of their neighborhood, particularly for those who moved. Contribution: We examine the temporal stability of children's neighborhood experiences over almost the entire childhood life course in the European context.

  8. Determining site-specific background level with geostatistics for remediation of heavy metals in neighborhood soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammy M. Milillo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The choice of a relevant, uncontaminated site for the determination of site-specific background concentrations for pollutants is critical for planning remediation of a contaminated site. The guidelines used to arrive at concentration levels vary from state to state, complicating this process. The residential neighborhood of Hickory Woods in Buffalo, NY is an area where heavy metal concentrations and spatial distributions were measured to plan remediation. A novel geostatistics based decision making framework that relies on maps generated from indicator kriging (IK and indicator co-kriging (ICK of samples from the contaminated site itself is shown to be a viable alternative to the traditional method of choosing a reference site for remediation planning. GIS based IK and ICK, and map based analysis are performed on lead and arsenic surface and subsurface datasets to determine site-specific background concentration levels were determined to be 50 μg/g for lead and 10 μg/g for arsenic. With these results, a remediation plan was proposed which identified regions of interest and maps were created to effectively communicate the results to the environmental agencies, residents and other interested parties.

  9. Mining chemical reactions using neighborhood behavior and condensed graphs of reactions approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luca, Aurélie; Horvath, Dragos; Marcou, Gilles; Solov'ev, Vitaly; Varnek, Alexandre

    2012-09-24

    This work addresses the problem of similarity search and classification of chemical reactions using Neighborhood Behavior (NB) and Condensed Graphs of Reaction (CGR) approaches. The CGR formalism represents chemical reactions as a classical molecular graph with dynamic bonds, enabling descriptor calculations on this graph. Different types of the ISIDA fragment descriptors generated for CGRs in combination with two metrics--Tanimoto and Euclidean--were considered as chemical spaces, to serve for reaction dissimilarity scoring. The NB method has been used to select an optimal combination of descriptors which distinguish different types of chemical reactions in a database containing 8544 reactions of 9 classes. Relevance of NB analysis has been validated in generic (multiclass) similarity search and in clustering with Self-Organizing Maps (SOM). NB-compliant sets of descriptors were shown to display enhanced mapping propensities, allowing the construction of better Self-Organizing Maps and similarity searches (NB and classical similarity search criteria--AUC ROC--correlate at a level of 0.7). The analysis of the SOM clusters proved chemically meaningful CGR substructures representing specific reaction signatures.

  10. Male perpetration of teen dating violence: associations with neighborhood violence involvement, gender attitudes, and perceived peer and neighborhood norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Elizabeth; Silverman, Jay G; Raj, Anita; Decker, Michele R; Miller, Elizabeth

    2011-04-01

    This study aims to examine the link between male perpetration of teen dating violence (TDV) and neighborhood violence, as well as associations with gender attitudes and perceived peer and neighborhood norms related to violence among a sample of urban adolescent boys. Participants of this cross-sectional study (N = 275) were between the ages of 14 and 20 years and recruited from urban community health centers. Crude and adjusted logistic and linear regression models were used to examine TDV perpetration in relation to (a) neighborhood violence involvement, (b) perceptions of peer violence, (c) perceptions of neighborhood violence, and (d) gender attitudes. Slightly more than one in four (28%) boys reported at least one form of TDV perpetration; among boys who have ever had sex, almost half (45%) reported at least one form of TDV perpetration. In logistic and linear regression models adjusted for demographics, boys who reported TDV perpetration were more likely to report involvement in neighborhood violence (odds ratio (OR) = 3.1; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.7-5.5), beliefs that their friends have perpetrated TDV (OR = 2.7; 95%CI = 1.4-5.1), perceptions of violent activity within their neighborhood (OR = 3.0; 95%CI = 1.4-6.3), and greater support of traditional gender norms (β = 3.2, p = 0.002). The findings suggest that efforts are needed to address boys' behaviors related to the perpetration of multiple forms of violence and require explicit efforts to reduce perceived norms of violence perpetration as well as problematic gender attitudes (e.g., increasing support for gender equity) across boys' life contexts.

  11. Neighborhood Crime Rates among Drug Abusing and Non-Drug Abusing Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Norris; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Examines the relationship between paternal drug abuse status and neighborhood crime rates. Although paternal drug abusing families resided in neighborhoods with higher crime rates than parental non-drug abusing families, when controlling for socioeconomic status, ethnicity, and domicile, drug abuse status was not associated with neighborhood crime…

  12. Neighborhood Disorder and the Sense of Personal Control: Which Factors Moderate the Association?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Joongbaeck; Conley, Meghan E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines whether and how select individual characteristics moderate the relationship between neighborhood disorder and a sense of personal control. Our findings show that neighborhood disorder is associated with a decreased sense of control. However, regression analyses including interaction terms of neighborhood disorder and some…

  13. Neighborhood Effects on Nonword Visual Processing in a Language with Shallow Orthography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arduino, Lisa S.; Burani, Cristina

    2004-01-01

    Neighborhood size and neighborhood frequency were orthogonally varied in two experiments on Italian nonwords. In Experiment 1, an inhibitory effect of neighborhood frequency on visual lexical decision was found: The presence of one high-frequency neighbor increased response latencies and error rates to nonwords. By contrast, no effect of…

  14. Changes in Neighborhood Poverty from 1990 to 2000 and Youth's Problem Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leventhal, Tama; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2011-01-01

    This study used data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, a multilevel, longitudinal study of children sampled from 80 diverse neighborhoods, to explore associations among changes in neighborhood poverty from 1990 to 2000 and changes in youth's internalizing problems and property and violent offenses over 6 years (N =…

  15. Social capital across urban neighborhoods: A comparison of self-report and observational data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hill, J.M.; Jobling, R.; Pollet, T.V.; Nettle, D.

    2014-01-01

    Previous self-report survey research has demonstrated significant variation in social trust and neighborhood social ties between two neighborhoods of contrasting socioeconomic fortunes within the same English city. Residents in a deprived neighborhood reported that they trusted their neighbors less

  16. Energy Expenditure associated with the use of neighborhood parks in 2 cities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luis J. Suau; Myron F. Floyd; John O. Spengler; Jay E. Maddock; Paul H. Gobster

    2012-01-01

    Context: Availability of public neighborhood parks is associated with physical activity. Little is known about how parks contribute to population energy balance. Purpose: This study estimated energy expenditure associated with the use of neighborhood parks and compared energy expenditure by activity areas within parks and by neighborhood race/ethnicity and income....

  17. Assault Injury Rates, Social Capital, and Fear of Neighborhood Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Daniel J.; Hutchison, Peter; Monroe, Matthew G.; Reischl, Thomas; Morrel-Samuels, Susan

    2007-01-01

    This study develops an explanatory framework for fear of neighborhood crime based on respondents' social context and local rates of assault injuries. Rates of assault injuries within zip codes are based on hospital discharge records. We find that only four variables have a significant unique contribution to fear of crime: respondent's sex,…

  18. Gender and the Neighborhood Location of Mixed-Race Couples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holloway, Steven; Ellis, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Gender asymmetry in mixed-race heterosexual partnerships and marriages is common. For instance, black men marry or partner with white women at a far higher rate than white men marry or partner with black women. This article asks if such gender asymmetries relate to the racial character of the neighborhoods in which households headed by mixed-race couples live. Gendered power imbalances within households generally play into decisions about where to live or where to move (i.e., men typically benefit more than women), and we find the same in mixed-race couple arrangements and residential attainment. Gender interacts with race to produce a measurable race-by-gender effect. Specifically, we report a positive relationship between the percentage white in a neighborhood and the presence of households headed by mixed-race couples with a white male partner. The opposite holds for households headed by white-blacks and white-Latinos if the female partner is white; they are drawn to predominantly nonwhite neighborhoods. The results have implications for investigations of residential location attainment, neighborhood segregation analysis, and mixed-race studies. PMID:23073752

  19. Neighborhood Density and Word Frequency Predict Vocabulary Size in Toddlers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stokes, Stephanie F.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To document the lexical characteristics of neighborhood density (ND) and word frequency (WF) in the lexicons of a large sample of English-speaking toddlers. Method: Parents of 222 British-English-speaking children aged 27([plus or minus]3) months completed a British adaptation of the MacArthur-Bates Communicative Development Inventory:…

  20. An Examination of the Role of Perceptions in Neighborhood Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosa, Mark W.; White, Rebecca M. B.; Zeiders, Katharine H.; Tein, Jenn-Yun

    2009-01-01

    Accumulating research demonstrates that both archival indicators and residents' self-reports of neighborhood conditions are useful predictors of a variety of physical health, mental health, substance use, criminal, and educational outcomes. Although studies have shown these two types of measures are often related, no research has systematically…

  1. 24 CFR 891.125 - Site and neighborhood standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... site and neighborhood requirements: (a) The site must be adequate in size, exposure, and contour to... to the racial mix of the locality's population. (ii) Units may be considered to be comparable..., comparable opportunities standard involves assessing the overall impact of HUD-assisted housing on the...

  2. Orthographic and Phonological Neighborhood Databases across Multiple Languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marian, Viorica

    2017-01-01

    The increased globalization of science and technology and the growing number of bilinguals and multilinguals in the world have made research with multiple languages a mainstay for scholars who study human function and especially those who focus on language, cognition, and the brain. Such research can benefit from large-scale databases and online resources that describe and measure lexical, phonological, orthographic, and semantic information. The present paper discusses currently-available resources and underscores the need for tools that enable measurements both within and across multiple languages. A general review of language databases is followed by a targeted introduction to databases of orthographic and phonological neighborhoods. A specific focus on CLEARPOND illustrates how databases can be used to assess and compare neighborhood information across languages, to develop research materials, and to provide insight into broad questions about language. As an example of how using large-scale databases can answer questions about language, a closer look at neighborhood effects on lexical access reveals that not only orthographic, but also phonological neighborhoods can influence visual lexical access both within and across languages. We conclude that capitalizing upon large-scale linguistic databases can advance, refine, and accelerate scientific discoveries about the human linguistic capacity.

  3. Neighborhood Disorder and Paternal Involvement of Nonresident and Resident Fathers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Saijun; Fuller, Tamara

    2012-01-01

    Using data of 775 nonresident father families and 1,407 resident father families from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, this study examined whether neighborhood disorder was associated with fathers' supportive involvement in child care. Bivariate analysis indicated that mothers and children of nonresident father families were more…

  4. 24 CFR 941.202 - Site and neighborhood standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT PUBLIC HOUSING DEVELOPMENT PHA Eligibility and Program Requirements § 941.202 Site and... number of public housing units being constructed is the minimum number needed to house current residents... neighborhood must not be one which is seriously detrimental to family life or in which substandard dwellings or...

  5. Neighborhood Deterioration and Social Isolation in Later Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Neal

    1993-01-01

    Tested conceptual model relating neighborhood characteristics to social isolation in later life. Data from nationwide survey supported theoretical sequence of older adults with low levels of educational attainment being more likely to experience financial problems, of elderly people confronted by financial difficulties being more likely to reside…

  6. Evaluating Third-Party Bad Neighborhood Blacklists for Spam Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moreira Moura, Giovane; Sperotto, Anna; Sadre, R.; Pras, Aiko; Seon Hong, C.; Diao, Y.; De Turk, F.

    The distribution of malicious hosts over the IP address space is far from being uniform. In fact, malicious hosts tend to be concentrate in certain portions of the IP address space, forming the so-called Bad Neighborhoods. This phenomenon has been previously exploited to filter Spam by means of Bad

  7. The Physiological Expression of Living in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods for Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenner, Allison B.; Zimmerman, Marc A.; Bauermeister, Jose A.; Caldwell, Cleopatra H.

    2013-01-01

    Evidence suggests that the consequences of chronic exposure to stressors extend beyond psychological effects, and that adolescents living in socio-economically disadvantaged neighborhoods may experience an accumulation of exposure to stressors that wears down the physical systems in the body, resulting in hyper-activation of the stress response.…

  8. Do Head Start Impacts Vary by Neighborhood Context?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Pamela A.; Connors, Maia C.; McCoy, Dana Charles; Gomez, Celia J.; Yoshikawa, Hiro; Aber, J. Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    This paper capitalizes on the addition of geocodes for Head Start centers in which children were randomly assigned to address questions about the role of neighborhood characteristics in moderating impacts of assignment to the Head Start program. Researchers explore the extent to which impacts of assignment to Head Start on outcomes for children…

  9. Spectroscopic Identification of Cool White Dwarfs in the Solar Neighborhood

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kawka, Adela; Vennes, S.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 643, č. 1 (2006), s. 402-415 ISSN 0004-637X R&D Projects: GA ČR GP205/05/P186 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10030501 Keywords : white dwarf s * solar neighborhood * atmospheres Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics Impact factor: 6.119, year: 2006

  10. Neighborhood Predictors of Hopelessness among Adolescent Suicide Attempters: Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Smith, Alina; Spirito, Anthony; Boergers, Julie

    2002-01-01

    Adolescents (N=48) who attempted suicide were administered measures of hopelessness and depression. Those living in neighborhoods with weak social networks reported higher levels of hopelessness, even after controlling for socioeconomic backgrounds and depression. Findings suggest that the environmental context may play a role in the emotional…

  11. Individual snag detection using neighborhood attribute filtered airborne lidar data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brian M. Wing; Martin W. Ritchie; Kevin Boston; Warren B. Cohen; Michael J. Olsen

    2015-01-01

    The ability to estimate and monitor standing dead trees (snags) has been difficult due to their irregular and sparse distribution, often requiring intensive sampling methods to obtain statistically significant estimates. This study presents a new method for estimating and monitoring snags using neighborhood attribute filtered airborne discrete-return lidar data. The...

  12. Time signal filtering by relative neighborhood graph localized linear approximation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Aasted

    1994-01-01

    A time signal filtering algorithm based on the relative neighborhood graph (RNG) used for localization of linear filters is proposed. The filter is constructed from a training signal during two stages. During the first stage an RNG is constructed. During the second stage, localized linear filters...

  13. Researchers looking at how neighborhoods contribute to healthy lifestyles

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Mary Ann

    2005-01-01

    Families living in the Nellies Cave Park area of Blacksburg are helping researchers learn about healthy lifestyles and in return are getting information about their own health. The project by nutrition researchers from Virginia Tech's College of Agriculture and Life Sciences is part of efforts to learn how a neighborhood influences physical activity and diet.

  14. International Timetabling Competition 2011: An Adaptive Large Neighborhood Search algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Matias; Kristiansen, Simon; Stidsen, Thomas Riis

    2012-01-01

    An algorithm based on Adaptive Large Neighborhood Search (ALNS) for solving the generalized High School Timetabling problem in XHSTT-format (Post et al (2012a)) is presented. This algorithm was among the nalists of round 2 of the International Timetabling Competition 2011 (ITC2011). For problem...

  15. A note on neighborhood total domination in graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    [1] Arumugam S and Sivagnanam C, Neighborhood total domination in graphs, Opuscula. Mathematica 31 (2011) 519–531. [2] Chellali M and Haynes T W, A note on the total domination number of a tree, J. Combin. Math. Combin. Comput. 58 (2006) 189–193. [3] Haynes T W, Hedetniemi S T and Slater P J, Fundamentals ...

  16. Homotopy Type of Neighborhood Complexes of Kneser Graphs, KG

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    3

    2017-04-12

    Apr 12, 2017 ... Abstract. Schrijver identified a family of vertex critical subgraphs of the. Kneser graphs called the stable Kneser graphs SGn,k. Björner and de Longueville proved that the neighborhood complex of the stable. Kneser graph SGn,k is homotopy equivalent to a k−sphere. In this article, we prove that the ...

  17. International Timetabling Competition 2011: An Adaptive Large Neighborhood Search algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Sørensen, Matias; Kristiansen, Simon; Stidsen, Thomas Riis

    2012-01-01

    An algorithm based on Adaptive Large Neighborhood Search (ALNS) for solving the generalized High School Timetabling problem in XHSTT-format (Post et al (2012a)) is presented. This algorithm was among the nalists of round 2 of the International Timetabling Competition 2011 (ITC2011). For problem description and results we refer to Post et al (2012b).

  18. Understanding the Demographic Differences in Neighborhood Walking Supports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Susan A; Watson, Kathleen B; Paul, Prabasaj; Schmid, Thomas L; Fulton, Janet E

    2017-04-01

    Information about how presence and usefulness of neighborhood supports for walking differs by demographic characteristics can help guide community strategies to promote walking. Reported presence and usefulness of neighborhood supports (shops, transit stops, sidewalks, parks, interesting things to look at, well-lit at night, low crime rate, and cars following speed limit) were examined in 3973 U.S. adults who completed the 2014 SummerStyles survey. Percentage reporting neighborhood supports as present ranged from 25.3% (SE = 0.8) for interesting things to 55.8% (SE = 1.0) for low crime rate. Percentage who reported a support as useful ranged from 24.6% (SE = 1.4) for transit stops to 79.0% (SE = 1.1) for sidewalks among those with the support. This percentage ranged from 13.4% (SE = 0.8) for transit stops to 52.8% (SE = 1.1) for shops among those without the support. One or more demographic differences were observed for the presence of each support, and the presence of all supports differed by education and metro status. Demographic patterns were less clear when examining usefulness and patterns often differed by support type and presence. Presence and usefulness of neighborhood supports for walking can differ by type and demographic characteristics. Recognizing these difference can help communities plan and implement strategies to promote walking.

  19. A Public Policy for Neighborhood and Community Organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotler, Milton

    1979-01-01

    It is in the interest of federal and local governments to enlarge the power of community and neighborhood organizations for the sake of effective governing. During this era of budgetary and tax restraint, these organizations must be brought into the process of service delivery and development. (Author/RLV)

  20. Individual and Neighborhood Stressors, Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazlehurst, Marnie F; Nurius, Paula S; Hajat, Anjum

    2018-03-08

    Psychosocial and environmental stress exposures across the life course have been shown to be relevant in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Assessing more than one stressor from different domains (e.g., individual and neighborhood) and across the life course moves us towards a more integrated picture of how stress affects health and well-being. Furthermore, these individual and neighborhood psychosocial stressors act on biologic pathways, including immune function and inflammatory response, which are also impacted by ubiquitous environmental exposures such as air pollution. The objective of this study is to evaluate the interaction between psychosocial stressors, at both the individual and neighborhood level, and air pollution on CVD. This study used data from the 2009-2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) from Washington State. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) measured at the individual level, and neighborhood deprivation index (NDI) measured at the zip code level, were the psychosocial stressors of interest. Exposures to three air pollutants-particulate matter (both PM 2.5 and PM 10 ) and nitrogen dioxide (NO₂)-were also calculated at the zip code level. Outcome measures included several self-reported CVD-related health conditions. Both multiplicative and additive interaction quantified using the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI), were evaluated. This study included 32,151 participants in 502 unique zip codes. Multiplicative and positive additive interactions were observed between ACEs and PM 10 for diabetes, in models adjusted for NDI. The prevalence of diabetes was 1.58 (95% CI: 1.40, 1.79) times higher among those with both high ACEs and high PM 10 compared to those with low ACEs and low PM 10 ( p -value = 0.04 for interaction on the multiplicative scale). Interaction was also observed between neighborhood-level stressors (NDI) and air pollution (NO₂) for the stroke and diabetes outcomes on both

  1. Individual and Neighborhood Stressors, Air Pollution and Cardiovascular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazlehurst, Marnie F.; Nurius, Paula S.; Hajat, Anjum

    2018-01-01

    Psychosocial and environmental stress exposures across the life course have been shown to be relevant in the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Assessing more than one stressor from different domains (e.g., individual and neighborhood) and across the life course moves us towards a more integrated picture of how stress affects health and well-being. Furthermore, these individual and neighborhood psychosocial stressors act on biologic pathways, including immune function and inflammatory response, which are also impacted by ubiquitous environmental exposures such as air pollution. The objective of this study is to evaluate the interaction between psychosocial stressors, at both the individual and neighborhood level, and air pollution on CVD. This study used data from the 2009–2011 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS) from Washington State. Adverse childhood experiences (ACEs) measured at the individual level, and neighborhood deprivation index (NDI) measured at the zip code level, were the psychosocial stressors of interest. Exposures to three air pollutants—particulate matter (both PM2.5 and PM10) and nitrogen dioxide (NO2)—were also calculated at the zip code level. Outcome measures included several self-reported CVD-related health conditions. Both multiplicative and additive interaction quantified using the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI), were evaluated. This study included 32,151 participants in 502 unique zip codes. Multiplicative and positive additive interactions were observed between ACEs and PM10 for diabetes, in models adjusted for NDI. The prevalence of diabetes was 1.58 (95% CI: 1.40, 1.79) times higher among those with both high ACEs and high PM10 compared to those with low ACEs and low PM10 (p-value = 0.04 for interaction on the multiplicative scale). Interaction was also observed between neighborhood-level stressors (NDI) and air pollution (NO2) for the stroke and diabetes outcomes on both multiplicative and

  2. Neighborhood Predictors of Mammography Barriers Among US-Based Latinas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina, Yamile; Plascak, Jesse J; Patrick, Donald L; Bishop, Sonia; Coronado, Gloria D; Beresford, Shirley A A

    2017-04-01

    Little is known about how neighborhood factors are associated with Latinas' barriers to cancer screening, including mammography. To address this gap, we examined barriers to mammography by neighborhood racial/ethnic composition and socioeconomic status among a federally qualified health center (FQHC)-based sample of non-adherent Latinas in Western Washington State. Baseline data were drawn from a larger intervention study (n = 536 Latinas). Women indicated why they had not obtained a mammogram in the past 2 years (no reason, knowledge, psychocultural, economic). American Community Survey (2007-2011) data were used to calculate four neighborhood measures that were categorized in tertiles (T): socioeconomic-based concentration, socioeconomic-based segregation, Latino-based concentration, and Latino-based segregation. The proportion of women reporting knowledge-, psychocultural-, and economic-based reasons for not obtaining mammograms in the past 2 years was, respectively, 0.35, 0.19, and 0.31. Approximately 14 % indicated no particular reason. Relative to women residing in areas with greater Latino-based segregation, women in areas with less Latino-based segregation were less likely to report knowledge-based and economic-based reasons for not obtaining a mammogram (p ≤ 0.05). Relative to women residing in areas with greater concentration of Latinos, women in areas with the lowest concentrations were less likely to report knowledge-based reasons for not obtaining a mammogram (p ≤ 0.05). Our findings provide important information about the role of neighborhood characteristics and mammography use among Latinas obtaining care from FQHCs. Future research might examine the mediating role of neighborhood characteristics in the efficacy of mammography screening interventions.

  3. Does neighborhood size really cause the word length effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guitard, Dominic; Saint-Aubin, Jean; Tehan, Gerald; Tolan, Anne

    2018-02-01

    In short-term serial recall, it is well-known that short words are remembered better than long words. This word length effect has been the cornerstone of the working memory model and a benchmark effect that all models of immediate memory should account for. Currently, there is no consensus as to what determines the word length effect. Jalbert and colleagues (Jalbert, Neath, Bireta, & Surprenant, 2011a; Jalbert, Neath, & Surprenant, 2011b) suggested that neighborhood size is one causal factor. In six experiments we systematically examined their suggestion. In Experiment 1, with an immediate serial recall task, multiple word lengths, and a large pool of words controlled for neighborhood size, the typical word length effect was present. In Experiments 2 and 3, with an order reconstruction task and words with either many or few neighbors, we observed the typical word length effect. In Experiment 4 we tested the hypothesis that the previous abolition of the word length effect when neighborhood size was controlled was due to a confounded factor: frequency of orthographic structure. As predicted, we reversed the word length effect when using short words with less frequent orthographic structures than the long words, as was done in both of Jalbert et al.'s studies. In Experiments 5 and 6, we again observed the typical word length effect, even if we controlled for neighborhood size and frequency of orthographic structure. Overall, the results were not consistent with the predictions of Jalbert et al. and clearly showed a large and reliable word length effect after controlling for neighborhood size.

  4. Neighborhood cohesion is associated with reduced risk of stroke mortality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Cari Jo; Guo, Hongfei; Lunos, Scott; Aggarwal, Neelum T; Beck, Todd; Evans, Denis A; Mendes de Leon, Carlos; Everson-Rose, Susan A

    2011-05-01

    Greater social cohesion is related to lower rates of coronary heart disease, but its relation to stroke risk is unstudied. This study examined whether neighborhood social cohesion was protective against stroke mortality and incidence. Data come from 5789 participants (60% female; 62% black; mean age, 74.7 years) in a longitudinal study of chronic diseases in the elderly. Stroke mortality, ascertained through December 31, 2007, was verified through the National Death Index; 186 stroke deaths were identified in 11 years of follow-up. Stroke incidence was determined in a subset (N=3816) with linkage to Medicare claims files; 701 first-ever strokes were identified. Cohesion was measured by 6 items assessing frequency of contact and social interactions with neighbors; items were z-scored and averaged. Individual scores were averaged across 82 census block groups, forming a neighborhood-level measure of social cohesion. Marginal Cox proportional hazard models tested the association of neighborhood-level cohesion with stroke mortality and incidence. Each 1-point increase in cohesion related to a 53% reduced risk of stroke mortality (hazard ratio, 0.47; 95% CI, 0.24 to 0.90), adjusting for relevant covariates, including sociodemographics, known stroke risk factors, and neighborhood-level socioeconomic status. A race×cohesion interaction (P=0.04) revealed cohesion was protective in whites (hazard ratio, 0.34; 95% CI, 0.17 to 0.67) but not blacks (hazard ratio, 1.17; 95% CI, 0.35 to 3.86). Cohesion was unrelated to stroke incidence (P>0.5). Neighborhood-level social cohesion was independently protective against stroke mortality. Research is needed to further examine observed race differences and pathways by which cohesion is health-protective.

  5. Neighborhood Environment and Falls among Community-Dwelling Older Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicklett, Emily Joy; Lohman, Matthew C.; Smith, Matthew Lee

    2017-01-01

    Background: Falls present a major challenge to active aging, but the relationship between neighborhood factors and falls is poorly understood. This study examined the relationship between fall events and neighborhood factors, including neighborhood social cohesion (sense of belonging, trust, friendliness, and helpfulness) and physical environment (vandalism/graffiti, rubbish, vacant/deserted houses, and perceived safety walking home at night). Methods: Data were analyzed from 9259 participants over four biennial waves (2006–2012) of the Health and Retirement Study (HRS), a nationally representative sample of adults aged 65 and older in the United States. Results: In models adjusting for demographic and health-related covariates, a one-unit increase in neighborhood social cohesion was associated with 4% lower odds of experiencing a single fall (odds ratio (OR): 0.96, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.93–0.99) and 6% lower odds of experiencing multiple falls (OR: 0.94, 95% CI: 0.90–0.98). A one-unit increase in the physical environment scale was associated with 4% lower odds of experiencing a single fall (OR: 0.96, 95% CI: 0.93–0.99) and with 5% lower odds of experiencing multiple falls (OR: 0.95, 95% CI: 0.91–1.00) in adjusted models. Conclusions: The physical and social neighborhood environment may affect fall risk among community-dwelling older adults. Findings support the ongoing need for evidence-based fall prevention programming in community and clinical settings. PMID:28208598

  6. Impact of neighborhood design on energy performance and GHG emissions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hachem, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy use and GHG emissions of different neighborhood designs are investigated. • Improving buildings energy performance reduces energy use and GHG emissions by 75%. • Density as isolated factor has limited effect on transport on per capita basis. • Distance to central business district impacts transport GHG emission significantly. - Abstract: This paper presents an innovative and holistic approach to the analysis of the impact of selected design parameters of a new solar community on its environmental performance, in terms of energy efficiency and carbon footprint (green-house gas (GHG) emissions). The design parameters include energy performance level of buildings, density, type of the neighborhood (mixed-use vs residential), location of the commercial center relative to residential areas and the design of the streets. Energy performance is measured as the balance between overall energy consumption for building operations (assuming an all-electric neighborhood) and electricity generation potential through integration of PV panels on available roof surfaces. Greenhouse gas emissions are those associated with building operations and transport. Results of simulations carried out on prototype neighborhoods located in the vicinity of Calgary, Alberta, Canada indicate that, while adopting high-energy efficiency measures can reduce the buildings’ impact by up to 75% in terms of energy consumption and GHG emissions, transport still has a large environmental impact. The parameters of highest impact on transport and its associated GHG emissions are the design of the neighborhood and the distance to the business center. Density, as isolated parameter, has a modest effect on the selected mode of transportation, in terms of using private or public transportation. While this study relates to a specific location and a range of design assumptions, the methodology employed can serve as a template for evaluating design alternatives of new sustainable

  7. The Digital Hood: Social Media Use among Youth in Disadvantaged Neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Robin; Gilliard-Matthews, Stacia; Dunaev, Jamie; Woods, Marcus; Brawner, Bridgette M

    2017-06-01

    This study examines the role of social media in the lives of youth living in disadvantaged neighborhoods. Feminist Standpoint theory, which privileges the voices of marginalized communities in understanding social phenomena, suggests that youth at the margins have specific knowledge that helps us understand social media more broadly. We conducted semi-structured interviews with 30 females and 30 males aged 13 to 24 about their social worlds and neighborhoods, both on- and offline. The findings reveal a dynamic and somewhat concerning interplay between the geographic neighborhood and the digital neighborhood, whereby negative social interactions in the geographic neighborhood are reproduced and amplified on social media.

  8. Somatosensory maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding-Forrester, Samuel; Feldman, Daniel E

    2018-01-01

    Somatosensory areas containing topographic maps of the body surface are a major feature of parietal cortex. In primates, parietal cortex contains four somatosensory areas, each with its own map, with the primary cutaneous map in area 3b. Rodents have at least three parietal somatosensory areas. Maps are not isomorphic to the body surface, but magnify behaviorally important skin regions, which include the hands and face in primates, and the whiskers in rodents. Within each map, intracortical circuits process tactile information, mediate spatial integration, and support active sensation. Maps may also contain fine-scale representations of touch submodalities, or direction of tactile motion. Functional representations are more overlapping than suggested by textbook depictions of map topography. The whisker map in rodent somatosensory cortex is a canonic system for studying cortical microcircuits, sensory coding, and map plasticity. Somatosensory maps are plastic throughout life in response to altered use or injury. This chapter reviews basic principles and recent findings in primate, human, and rodent somatosensory maps. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Topographic mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ,

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) produced its first topographic map in 1879, the same year it was established. Today, more than 100 years and millions of map copies later, topographic mapping is still a central activity for the USGS. The topographic map remains an indispensable tool for government, science, industry, and leisure. Much has changed since early topographers traveled the unsettled West and carefully plotted the first USGS maps by hand. Advances in survey techniques, instrumentation, and design and printing technologies, as well as the use of aerial photography and satellite data, have dramatically improved mapping coverage, accuracy, and efficiency. Yet cartography, the art and science of mapping, may never before have undergone change more profound than today.

  10. Association between neighborhood need and spatial access to food stores and fast food restaurants in neighborhoods of colonias.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Joseph R; Horel, Scott; Han, Daikwon; Huber, John C

    2009-02-16

    To determine the extent to which neighborhood needs (socioeconomic deprivation and vehicle availability) are associated with two criteria of food environment access: 1) distance to the nearest food store and fast food restaurant and 2) coverage (number) of food stores and fast food restaurants within a specified network distance of neighborhood areas of colonias, using ground-truthed methods. Data included locational points for 315 food stores and 204 fast food restaurants, and neighborhood characteristics from the 2000 U.S. Census for the 197 census block group (CBG) study area. Neighborhood deprivation and vehicle availability were calculated for each CBG. Minimum distance was determined by calculating network distance from the population-weighted center of each CBG to the nearest supercenter, supermarket, grocery, convenience store, dollar store, mass merchandiser, and fast food restaurant. Coverage was determined by calculating the number of each type of food store and fast food restaurant within a network distance of 1, 3, and 5 miles of each population-weighted CBG center. Neighborhood need and access were examined using Spearman ranked correlations, spatial autocorrelation, and multivariate regression models that adjusted for population density. Overall, neighborhoods had best access to convenience stores, fast food restaurants, and dollar stores. After adjusting for population density, residents in neighborhoods with increased deprivation had to travel a significantly greater distance to the nearest supercenter or supermarket, grocery store, mass merchandiser, dollar store, and pharmacy for food items. The results were quite different for association of need with the number of stores within 1 mile. Deprivation was only associated with fast food restaurants; greater deprivation was associated with fewer fast food restaurants within 1 mile. CBG with greater lack of vehicle availability had slightly better access to more supercenters or supermarkets, grocery

  11. Association between neighborhood need and spatial access to food stores and fast food restaurants in neighborhoods of Colonias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Han Daikwon

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To determine the extent to which neighborhood needs (socioeconomic deprivation and vehicle availability are associated with two criteria of food environment access: 1 distance to the nearest food store and fast food restaurant and 2 coverage (number of food stores and fast food restaurants within a specified network distance of neighborhood areas of colonias, using ground-truthed methods. Methods Data included locational points for 315 food stores and 204 fast food restaurants, and neighborhood characteristics from the 2000 U.S. Census for the 197 census block group (CBG study area. Neighborhood deprivation and vehicle availability were calculated for each CBG. Minimum distance was determined by calculating network distance from the population-weighted center of each CBG to the nearest supercenter, supermarket, grocery, convenience store, dollar store, mass merchandiser, and fast food restaurant. Coverage was determined by calculating the number of each type of food store and fast food restaurant within a network distance of 1, 3, and 5 miles of each population-weighted CBG center. Neighborhood need and access were examined using Spearman ranked correlations, spatial autocorrelation, and multivariate regression models that adjusted for population density. Results Overall, neighborhoods had best access to convenience stores, fast food restaurants, and dollar stores. After adjusting for population density, residents in neighborhoods with increased deprivation had to travel a significantly greater distance to the nearest supercenter or supermarket, grocery store, mass merchandiser, dollar store, and pharmacy for food items. The results were quite different for association of need with the number of stores within 1 mile. Deprivation was only associated with fast food restaurants; greater deprivation was associated with fewer fast food restaurants within 1 mile. CBG with greater lack of vehicle availability had slightly better

  12. Examining public open spaces by neighborhood-level walkability and deprivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badland, Hannah M; Keam, Rosanna; Witten, Karen; Kearns, Robin

    2010-11-01

    Public open spaces (POS) are recognized as important to promote physical activity engagement. However, it is unclear how POS attributes, such as activities available, environmental quality, amenities present, and safety, are associated with neighborhood-level walkability and deprivation. Twelve neighborhoods were selected within 1 constituent city of Auckland, New Zealand based on higher (n = 6) or lower (n = 6) walkability characteristics. Neighborhoods were dichotomized as more (n = 7) or less (n = 5) socioeconomically deprived. POS (n = 69) were identified within these neighborhoods and audited using the New Zealand-Public Open Space Tool. Unpaired 1-way analysis of variance tests were applied to compare differences in attributes and overall score of POS by neighborhood walkability and deprivation. POS located in more walkable neighborhoods have significantly higher overall scores when compared with less walkable neighborhoods. Deprivation comparisons identified POS located in less deprived communities have better quality environments, but fewer activities and safety features present when compared with more deprived neighborhoods. A positive relationship existed between presence of POS attributes and neighborhood walkability, but the relationship between POS and neighborhood-level deprivation was less clear. Variation in neighborhood POS quality alone is unlikely to explain poorer health outcomes for residents in more deprived areas.

  13. Health, Safety and Environment (HSE assessment of neighborhoods: A case study in Tehran Municipality

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    Narmin Hassanzadeh- Rangi

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Urbanization is growing rapidly in recent centuries. This phenomenon can cause many changes in various aspects of human life including the economy, education and public health This study was conducted to assess the Health, Safety and Environment (HSE problems in Tehran neighborhoods. A new instrument was developed based on the results of a literature review and formulated during a pilot study. Through cluster sampling, 10 neighborhoods were selected based from 374 neighborhoods of Tehran. Six observers completed observational items during the field studies. Secondary data were used to obtain non-observation characteristics. Standard descriptive statistics were used to compare the HSE characteristics in sampled neighborhoods. Furthermore, control chart was used to as a decision rule to identify specific variation among sampled neighborhoods. Niavaran neighborhood had the best HSE status (52.80%±25.03 whereas Khak Sefid neighborhood had the worst one (20.09%±27.51. Standard deviations of HSE characteristics were high in different parts of a neighborhood. Statistical analysis indicated that significant differences in HSE characteristics exist among sampled neighborhoods. HSE status was in warning situation in both rich and poor neighborhoods. Community-based interventions were suggested as health promotion programs to involve and empower people in neighborhoods.

  14. Neighborhood perceptions are associated with tobacco dependence among African American smokers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reitzel, Lorraine R; Vidrine, Jennifer I; Businelle, Michael S; Kendzor, Darla E; Cao, Yumei; Mazas, Carlos A; Li, Yisheng; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S; Cinciripini, Paul M; Cofta-Woerpel, Ludmila; Wetter, David W

    2012-07-01

    The animal and human research literatures suggest that deprived environmental conditions may be associated with drug dependence, but the relation of neighborhood perceptions with a multidimensional measure of tobacco dependence has not been previously studied. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations between neighborhood perceptions (neighborhood problems and neighborhood vigilance) and tobacco dependence among smokers as measured by the Wisconsin Inventory of Smoking Dependence Motives-68 (WISDM). Participants were 384 African American smokers (49% men, 80% < $30,000 annual household income) enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of a smoking cessation intervention. A series of regression models were conducted to examine the associations between neighborhood perceptions and tobacco dependence using a generalized estimating equation approach, which accounted for potential correlation in tobacco dependence between participants from the same neighborhood. Results indicated that more self-reported neighborhood problems and greater neighborhood vigilance were significantly associated with tobacco dependence as measured by the WISDM total score in analyses adjusted for age, gender, income, education, employment status, and partner status (p ≤ .002). Neighborhood perceptions were related to both primary and secondary dependence motives (p ≤ .005). Results suggest that the neighborhood context is associated with dependence on tobacco among African American smokers but longitudinal studies are needed to assess causation. Future research should also explore the mechanisms that account for the associations between neighborhood perceptions and tobacco dependence to better inform intervention development.

  15. The influence of neighborhood socioeconomic status and walkability on TV viewing time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coogan, Patricia F; White, Laura F; Evans, Stephen R; Palmer, Julie R; Rosenberg, Lynn

    2012-11-01

    Influences on TV viewing time, which is associated with adverse health outcomes such as obesity and diabetes, need clarification. We assessed the relation of neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and walkability with TV viewing time in the Black Women's Health Study, a prospective study of African American women. We created neighborhood SES and walkability scores using data from the U.S. census and other sources. We estimated odds ratios for TV viewing 5+ hours/day compared with 0-1 hours/day for quintiles of neighborhood SES and walkability scores. Neighborhood SES was inversely associated with TV viewing time. The odds ratio for watching 5+ hours/day in the highest compared with the lowest quintile of neighborhood SES was 0.66 (95% CI 0.54-0.81). Neighborhood walkability was not associated with TV viewing time. Neighborhood SES should be considered in devising strategies to combat the high levels of sedentariness prevalent in African American women.

  16. Impact of neighborhood separation on the spatial reciprocity in the prisoner’s dilemma game

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xia, Chengyi; Miao, Qin; Zhang, Juanjuan

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We present a novel game model in which interaction and learning neighborhood is not identical. • The separation between interaction and learning neighborhood can largely influence the cooperative behaviors. • Monte Carlo simulations are utilized to verify the evolution of cooperation. • When IN is fixed to be 4, medium-sized LN = 8 is the optimal size to promote the cooperation. • When LN is fixed to be 4, the cooperation can also be highly enhanced when IN > 4. -- Abstract: The evolutionary game theory is a very powerful tool to understand the collective cooperation behavior in many real-world systems. In the spatial game model, the payoff is often first obtained within a specific neighborhood (i.e., interaction neighborhood) and then the focal player imitates or learns the behavior of a randomly selected one inside another neighborhood which is named after the learning neighborhood. However, most studies often assume that the interaction neighborhood is identical with the learning neighborhood. Beyond this assumption, we present a spatial prisoner’s dilemma game model to discuss the impact of separation between interaction neighborhood and learning neighborhood on the cooperative behaviors among players on the square lattice. Extensive numerical simulations demonstrate that separating the interaction neighborhood from the learning neighborhood can dramatically affect the density of cooperators (ρ C ) in the population at the stationary state. In particular, compared to the standard case, we find that the medium-sized learning (interaction) neighborhood allows the cooperators to thrive and substantially favors the evolution of cooperation and ρ C can be greatly elevated when the interaction (learning) neighborhood is fixed, that is, too little or much information is not beneficial for players to make the contributions for the collective cooperation. Current results are conducive to further analyzing and understanding the emergence of

  17. Neighborhood deprivation is strongly associated with participation in a population-based health check.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne Mette Bender

    Full Text Available We sought to examine whether neighborhood deprivation is associated with participation in a large population-based health check. Such analyses will help answer the question whether health checks, which are designed to meet the needs of residents in deprived neighborhoods, may increase participation and prove to be more effective in preventing disease. In Europe, no study has previously looked at the association between neighborhood deprivation and participation in a population-based health check.The study population comprised 12,768 persons invited for a health check including screening for ischemic heart disease and lifestyle counseling. The study population was randomly drawn from a population of 179,097 persons living in 73 neighborhoods in Denmark. Data on neighborhood deprivation (percentage with basic education, with low income and not in work and individual socioeconomic position were retrieved from national administrative registers. Multilevel regression analyses with log links and binary distributions were conducted to obtain relative risks, intraclass correlation coefficients and proportional change in variance.Large differences between neighborhoods existed in both deprivation levels and neighborhood health check participation rate (mean 53%; range 35-84%. In multilevel analyses adjusted for age and sex, higher levels of all three indicators of neighborhood deprivation and a deprivation score were associated with lower participation in a dose-response fashion. Persons living in the most deprived neighborhoods had up to 37% decreased probability of participating compared to those living in the least deprived neighborhoods. Inclusion of individual socioeconomic position in the model attenuated the neighborhood deprivation coefficients, but all except for income deprivation remained statistically significant.Neighborhood deprivation was associated with participation in a population-based health check in a dose-response manner, in which

  18. Real-Time Tracking of Neighborhood Surroundings and Mood in Urban Drug Misusers: Application of a New Method to Study Behavior in Its Geographical Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, David H.; Tyburski, Matthew; Craig, Ian M.; Phillips, Karran A.; Jobes, Michelle L.; Vahabzadeh, Massoud; Mezghanni, Mustapha; Lin, Jia-Ling; Furr-Holden, C. Debra M.; Preston, Kenzie L.

    2013-01-01

    Background Maladaptive behaviors may be more fully understood and efficiently prevented by ambulatory tools that assess people’s ongoing experience in the context of their environment. Methods To demonstrate new field-deployable methods for assessing mood and behavior as a function of neighborhood surroundings (Geographical Momentary Assessment; GMA), we collected time-stamped GPS data and Ecological Momentary Assessment (EMA) ratings of mood, stress, and drug craving over 16 weeks at randomly prompted times during the waking hours of opioid-dependent polydrug users receiving methadone maintenance. Locations of EMA entries and participants’ travel tracks were calculated for the 12 hours before each EMA entry were mapped. Associations between subjective ratings and objective environmental ratings were evaluated at the whole neighborhood and 12-hour track levels. Results Participants (N=27) were compliant with GMA data collection; 3,711 randomly prompted EMA entries were matched to specific locations. At the neighborhood level, physical disorder was negatively correlated with negative mood, stress, and heroin and cocaine craving (ps <.0001 to .0335); drug activity was negatively correlated with stress, heroin and cocaine craving (ps .0009 to .0134). Similar relationships were found for the environments around respondents’ tracks in the 12 hours preceding EMA entries. Conclusions The results support the feasibility of GMA. The relationships between neighborhood characteristics and participants’ reports were counterintuitive and counter-hypothesized, and challenge some assumptions about how ostensibly stressful environments are associated with lived experience and how such environments ultimately impair health. GMA methodology may have applications for development of individual- or neighborhood-level interventions. PMID:24332365

  19. Contributions to urban heat island on the local neighborhood scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertel, Daniel; Schlink, Uwe

    2017-04-01

    Already today around half of the global population is living in urban regions and recent studies expect a further increase until mid-21st century. Therefore, especially in the context of climate change, an increasing amount of urban inhabitants are affected by urban climate and air quality. One special characteristic of urban climate is the urban heat island (UHI) effect, where urbanized regions are warmer than the rural surroundings. With respect to climate change and the growing urbanization it is obvious that the UHI effect will tend to be intensified. To keep our cities worth living, it is necessary to think about adaptation and mitigation strategies which refer to both, climate protection as well as utilization of chances resulting from climate changes. One step to a more precisely adaptation, particularly on the neighborhood scale, is an improved understanding of the magnitude of bio geophysical processes (e.g.: radiation balance, convection efficiency, evapotranspiration, storage heat, anthropogenic heat etc.), which contribute to the urban warming. Considering that UHI can be expressed as temperature difference ΔT between urban and rural areas, we can interpret these processes as how they would change temperature, because of energy redistribution, from a rural area to an urbanized region. Up to now on the local scale there is a knowledge gap about these processes. The mentioned processes are parts of a surface energy balance (based on the work of Zhao et al., 2014). That means they refer to the surface UHI effect and not to the canopy layer UHI effect. Assuming that the urban region is a volume with the top at the height of the canopy layer, we can approximately identify the surface UHI effect as the canopy layer UHI effect since the information comes from both the surface and the atmosphere inside. This assumption is not valid for Zhao's approach because they analyzed whole cities and could neglect such processes within the volume. This contribution

  20. Lexical neighborhood effects in pseudoword spelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tainturier, Marie-Josèphe; Bosse, Marie-Line; Roberts, Daniel J; Valdois, Sylviane; Rapp, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    The general aim of this study is to contribute to a better understanding of the cognitive processes that underpin skilled adult spelling. More specifically, it investigates the influence of lexical neighbors on pseudo-word spelling with the goal of providing a more detailed account of the interaction between lexical and sublexical sources of knowledge in spelling. In prior research examining this topic, adult participants typically heard lists composed of both words and pseudo-words and had to make a lexical decision to each stimulus before writing the pseudo-words. However, these priming paradigms are susceptible to strategic influence and may therefore not give a clear picture of the processes normally engaged in spelling unfamiliar words. In our two Experiments involving 71 French-speaking literate adults, only pseudo-words were presented which participants were simply requested to write to dictation using the first spelling that came to mind. Unbeknownst to participants, pseudo-words varied according to whether they did or did not have a phonological word neighbor. Results revealed that low-probability phoneme/grapheme mappings (e.g., /o/ -> aud in French) were used significantly more often in spelling pseudo-words with a close phonological lexical neighbor with that spelling (e.g., /krepo/ derived from "crapaud," /krapo/) than in spelling pseudo-words with no close neighbors (e.g., /frøpo/). In addition, the strength of this lexical influence increased with the lexical frequency of the word neighbors as well as with their degree of phonetic overlap with the pseudo-word targets. These results indicate that information from lexical and sublexical processes is integrated in the course of spelling, and a specific theoretical account as to how such integration may occur is introduced.

  1. Demarcation of local neighborhoods to study relations between contextual factors and health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chor Dora

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several studies have highlighted the importance of collective social factors for population health. One of the major challenges is an adequate definition of the spatial units of analysis which present properties potentially related to the target outcomes. Political and administrative divisions of urban areas are the most commonly used definition, although they suffer limitations in their ability to fully express the neighborhoods as social and spatial units. Objective This study presents a proposal for defining the boundaries of local neighborhoods in Rio de Janeiro city. Local neighborhoods are constructed by means of aggregation of contiguous census tracts which are homogeneous regarding socioeconomic indicators. Methodology Local neighborhoods were created using the SKATER method (TerraView software. Criteria used for socioeconomic homogeneity were based on four census tract indicators (income, education, persons per household, and percentage of population in the 0-4-year age bracket considering a minimum population of 5,000 people living in each local neighborhood. The process took into account the geographic boundaries between administrative neighborhoods (a political-administrative division larger than a local neighborhood, but smaller than a borough and natural geographic barriers. Results The original 8,145 census tracts were collapsed into 794 local neighborhoods, distributed along 158 administrative neighborhoods. Local neighborhoods contained a mean of 10 census tracts, and there were an average of five local neighborhoods per administrative neighborhood. The local neighborhood units demarcated in this study are less socioeconomically heterogeneous than the administrative neighborhoods and provide a means for decreasing the well-known statistical variability of indicators based on census tracts. The local neighborhoods were able to distinguish between different areas within administrative neighborhoods

  2. Preference Mining Using Neighborhood Rough Set Model on Two Universes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Kai

    2016-01-01

    Preference mining plays an important role in e-commerce and video websites for enhancing user satisfaction and loyalty. Some classical methods are not available for the cold-start problem when the user or the item is new. In this paper, we propose a new model, called parametric neighborhood rough set on two universes (NRSTU), to describe the user and item data structures. Furthermore, the neighborhood lower approximation operator is used for defining the preference rules. Then, we provide the means for recommending items to users by using these rules. Finally, we give an experimental example to show the details of NRSTU-based preference mining for cold-start problem. The parameters of the model are also discussed. The experimental results show that the proposed method presents an effective solution for preference mining. In particular, NRSTU improves the recommendation accuracy by about 19% compared to the traditional method.

  3. Joint physical custody and neighborhood friendships in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prazen, Ariana; Wolfinger, Nicholas H; Cahill, Caitlin; Kowaleski-Jones, Lori

    2011-01-01

    Almost half of first marriages end in divorce, which in turn may produce joint physical custody arrangements. Seen by many states to be in the best interest of the child, joint physical custody is increasingly common. Yet much is unknown about its consequences for children. This article considers how joint physical custody arrangements affect children’s neighborhood friendships, an important component of child well-being because of their contributions to social and cognitive development. Thirteen parents and 17 children (aged 5–11) in 10 families, selected via convenience and snowball sampling, participated in semistructured interviews. The findings suggest that joint physical custody arrangements do not imperil children’s neighborhood friendships; indeed, most children and parents interviewed voiced contentment in this area.

  4. Disorganization, neighborhoods and the intervention of social control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Cristina de Oliveira

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to investigate the determinants of victimization in the neighborhoods of three Brazilian capitals, with emphasis on the involvement of mechanisms that favor the development of various forms of social control in interaction. Social control was treated, therefore, as an intervening variable to clarify the relationship between structural characteristics and crime, an association appointed by the Social Disorganization Theory in the mid-twentieth century. For the analysis we used secondary data from victimization surveys organized by the Center for the Study of Crime and Public Safety, Federal University of Minas Gerais (Crisp / UFMG in partnership with other research centers in the country between 2005/2006, resulting in the possibility for comparison of databases related to vic- timization in Belo Horizonte, Curitiba and Rio de Janeiro. Data were analyzed using hierarchical models suitable for estimating the chance of victimization according to the characteristics of the neighborhoods in these cities

  5. Helping Citizens Help Themselves : Neighborhood Improvement Programs and the Impact of Social Networks, Trust, and Norms on Neighborhood-Oriented Forms of Participation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lelieveldt, H.T.

    2004-01-01

    This article analyzes the relationship between social capital and neighborhood-oriented forms of participation within the context of an innovative Dutch neighborhood improvement program. On the basis of a survey among 307 residents, the author studies the link between three dimensions of social

  6. A Pilot Study to Examine the Disparities in Water Quality between Predominantly Haitian Neighborhoods and Dominican Neighborhoods in Two Cities in the Dominican Republic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Rogers-Brown

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Worldwide, diarrheal disease is a leading cause of death affecting over 1.7 million individuals annually. Much of this can be attributed to lack of clean water, sanitation and hygiene. Nearly all of these deaths occur in countries with developing economies. This public health problem is apparent in the island of Hispaniola; the island that is shared by Haiti and the Dominican Republic. Significant gaps in income between the countries have resulted in Haitians migrating into the Dominican Republic. While there has been increased migration into the Dominican Republic, many of the neighborhoods remain segregated. A cross-sectional analysis was conducted at 49 sites in the Dominican Republic. Samples were classified as being from a Haitian neighborhood or Dominican neighborhood and analyzed for microbial contamination. Overall, Haitian neighborhoods were found to have statistically significantly higher levels of contamination of both coliform and E. coli. The odds of having E. coli contaminated water in Haitian neighborhoods are 4.25 times as high as Dominican neighborhoods. The odds of having coliform contaminated water in Haitian neighborhoods are 4.78 times as high as Dominican neighborhoods. This study provides evidence of the disparity in access to clean drinking water for Haitian immigrants and highlights the need for further investigation.

  7. The Impact of Neighborhood Conditions and Psychological Distress on Preterm Birth in African-American Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giurgescu, Carmen; Zenk, Shannon N; Templin, Thomas N; Engeland, Christopher G; Kavanaugh, Karen; Misra, Dawn P

    2017-05-01

    Prior research suggests that adverse neighborhood conditions are related to preterm birth. One potential pathway by which neighborhood conditions increase the risk for preterm birth is by increasing women's psychological distress. Our objective was to examine whether psychological distress mediated the relationship between neighborhood conditions and preterm birth. One hundred and one pregnant African-American women receiving prenatal care at a medical center in Chicago participated in this cross-sectional design study. Women completed the self-report instruments about their perceived neighborhood conditions and psychological distress between 15-26 weeks gestation. Objective measures of the neighborhood were derived using geographic information systems (GIS). Birth data were collected from medical records. Perceived adverse neighborhood conditions were related to psychological distress: perceived physical disorder (r = .26, p = .01), perceived social disorder (r = .21, p = .03), and perceived crime (r = .30, p = .01). Objective neighborhood conditions were not related to psychological distress. Psychological distress mediated the effects of perceived neighborhood conditions on preterm birth. Psychological distress in the second trimester mediated the effects of perceived, but not objective, neighborhood conditions on preterm birth. If these results are replicable in studies with larger sample sizes, intervention strategies could be implemented at the individual level to reduce psychological distress and improve women's ability to cope with adverse neighborhood conditions. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Association of Mothers’ Perception of Neighborhood Quality and Maternal Resilience with Risk of Preterm Birth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namrata Bhatia

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available We examined the associations of mothers’ perception of neighborhood quality and maternal resilience with risk of preterm birth and whether maternal resilience moderated the effect of neighborhood quality perception. We analyzed data from 10,758 women with singleton births who participated in 2010–2012 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby surveys. Multilevel logistic regression models assessed the effects of mothers’ perception of neighborhood quality and maternal resilience on preterm birth (yes/no, controlling for potential confounders and economic hardship index, a city-level measure of neighborhood quality. Interaction terms were assessed for moderation. Mothers’ perception of neighborhood quality and maternal resilience were each uniquely associated with preterm birth, independent of potential confounders (p-values < 0.05. The risk of preterm birth among mothers who perceived their neighborhood as of poor quality was about 30% greater compared to mothers who perceived their neighborhood as of good quality; the risk was 12% greater among mothers with low resilience compared to those with high resilience. Effects of neighborhood quality were not modified by maternal resilience. The findings suggest that mothers’ perception of neighborhood quality and resilience are associated with the risk of preterm birth. Further research should explore whether initiatives aimed at improving neighborhood quality and women’s self-esteem may improve birth outcomes.

  9. Improving Mental Health Through the Regeneration of Deprived Neighborhoods: A Natural Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, James; Greene, Giles; Farewell, Daniel; Dunstan, Frank; Rodgers, Sarah; Lyons, Ronan A; Humphreys, Ioan; John, Ann; Webster, Chris; Phillips, Ceri J; Fone, David

    2017-08-15

    Neighborhood-level interventions provide an opportunity to better understand the impact of neighborhoods on health. In 2001, the Welsh Government, United Kingdom, funded Communities First, a program of neighborhood regeneration delivered to the 100 most deprived of the 881 electoral wards in Wales. In this study, we examined the association between neighborhood regeneration and mental health. Information on regeneration activities in 35 intervention areas (n = 4,197 subjects) and 75 control areas (n = 6,695 subjects) was linked to data on mental health from a cohort study with assessments made in 2001 (before regeneration) and 2008 (after regeneration). Propensity score matching was used to estimate the change in mental health in intervention neighborhoods versus control neighborhoods. Baseline differences between intervention and control areas were of similar magnitude as produced by paired randomization of neighborhoods. Regeneration was associated with an improvement in the mental health of residents in intervention areas compared with control neighborhoods (β = 1.54, 95% confidence interval: 0.50, 2.59), suggesting a reduction in socioeconomic inequalities in mental health. There was a dose-response relationship between length of residence in regeneration neighborhoods and improvements in mental health (P-trend = 0.05). These results show that targeted regeneration of deprived neighborhoods can improve mental health. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

  10. Association of Mothers’ Perception of Neighborhood Quality and Maternal Resilience with Risk of Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Namrata; Chao, Shin Margaret; Higgins, Chandra; Patel, Suvas; Crespi, Catherine M.

    2015-01-01

    We examined the associations of mothers’ perception of neighborhood quality and maternal resilience with risk of preterm birth and whether maternal resilience moderated the effect of neighborhood quality perception. We analyzed data from 10,758 women with singleton births who participated in 2010–2012 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby surveys. Multilevel logistic regression models assessed the effects of mothers’ perception of neighborhood quality and maternal resilience on preterm birth (yes/no), controlling for potential confounders and economic hardship index, a city-level measure of neighborhood quality. Interaction terms were assessed for moderation. Mothers’ perception of neighborhood quality and maternal resilience were each uniquely associated with preterm birth, independent of potential confounders (p-values < 0.05). The risk of preterm birth among mothers who perceived their neighborhood as of poor quality was about 30% greater compared to mothers who perceived their neighborhood as of good quality; the risk was 12% greater among mothers with low resilience compared to those with high resilience. Effects of neighborhood quality were not modified by maternal resilience. The findings suggest that mothers’ perception of neighborhood quality and resilience are associated with the risk of preterm birth. Further research should explore whether initiatives aimed at improving neighborhood quality and women’s self-esteem may improve birth outcomes. PMID:26274966

  11. Association of Mothers' Perception of Neighborhood Quality and Maternal Resilience with Risk of Preterm Birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Namrata; Chao, Shin Margaret; Higgins, Chandra; Patel, Suvas; Crespi, Catherine M

    2015-08-12

    We examined the associations of mothers' perception of neighborhood quality and maternal resilience with risk of preterm birth and whether maternal resilience moderated the effect of neighborhood quality perception. We analyzed data from 10,758 women with singleton births who participated in 2010-2012 Los Angeles Mommy and Baby surveys. Multilevel logistic regression models assessed the effects of mothers' perception of neighborhood quality and maternal resilience on preterm birth (yes/no), controlling for potential confounders and economic hardship index, a city-level measure of neighborhood quality. Interaction terms were assessed for moderation. Mothers' perception of neighborhood quality and maternal resilience were each uniquely associated with preterm birth, independent of potential confounders (p-values < 0.05). The risk of preterm birth among mothers who perceived their neighborhood as of poor quality was about 30% greater compared to mothers who perceived their neighborhood as of good quality; the risk was 12% greater among mothers with low resilience compared to those with high resilience. Effects of neighborhood quality were not modified by maternal resilience. The findings suggest that mothers' perception of neighborhood quality and resilience are associated with the risk of preterm birth. Further research should explore whether initiatives aimed at improving neighborhood quality and women's self-esteem may improve birth outcomes.

  12. Neighborhood factors and six-month weight change among overweight individuals in a weight loss intervention

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dara D. Mendez, PhD, MPH

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to examine the neighborhood environment and the association with weight change among overweight/obese individuals in the first six months of a 12-month weight loss intervention, EMPOWER, from 2011 to 2015. Measures of the neighborhood environment included neighborhood racial composition, neighborhood income, and neighborhood food retail stores density (e.g., grocery stores. Weight was measured at baseline and 6 months and calculated as the percent weight change from baseline to 6 months. The analytic sample (N = 127 was 91% female and 81% white with a mean age of 51 (±10.4 years. At 6 months, the mean weight loss was 8.0 kg (±5.7, which was equivalent to 8.8% (±6% of baseline weight. Participants living in neighborhoods in which 25–75% of the residents identified as black had the greatest percentage of weight loss compared to those living in neighborhoods with 75% black residents. No other neighborhood measures were associated with weight loss. Future studies testing individual-level behavioral weight loss interventions need to consider the influence of neighborhood factors, and how neighborhood-level interventions could be enhanced with individual-level interventions that address behaviors and lifestyle changes.

  13. Community perception: the ability to assess the safety of unfamiliar neighborhoods and respond adaptively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Daniel Tumminelli; Wilson, David Sloan

    2011-04-01

    When entering an unfamiliar neighborhood, adaptive social decisions are dependent on an accurate assessment of the local safety. Studies of cities have shown that the maintenance of physical structures is correlated with the strength of ties between neighbors, which in turn is responsible for the crime level. Thus it should be theoretically possible to intuit neighborhood safety through the physical structures alone. Here we test whether people have this capacity for judging urban neighborhoods with 3 studies in which individuals observed photographs of unfamiliar neighborhoods in Binghamton, New York. Each study was facilitated by data collected during previous studies performed by the Binghamton Neighborhood Project studies. In the 1st study, observer ratings on neighborhood social quality agreed highly with reports by those living there. In the 2nd, a separate sample of participants played an economic game with adolescent residents from pictured neighborhoods. Players exhibited a lower level of trust toward adolescents from neighborhoods whose residents report lesser social quality. In the 3rd study, the maintenance of physical structures and the presence of businesses explained nearly all variation between neighborhoods in observer ratings (89%), whereas the specific features influencing play in Study 2 remained inconclusive. These and other results suggest that people use the general upkeep of physical structures when making wholesale judgments of neighborhoods, reflecting a adaptation for group living that has strong implications for the role of upkeep in urban environments.

  14. Neighborhood properties are important determinants of temperature sensitive mutations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetlana Lockwood

    Full Text Available Temperature-sensitive (TS mutants are powerful tools to study gene function in vivo. These mutants exhibit wild-type activity at permissive temperatures and reduced activity at restrictive temperatures. Although random mutagenesis can be used to generate TS mutants, the procedure is laborious and unfeasible in multicellular organisms. Further, the underlying molecular mechanisms of the TS phenotype are poorly understood. To elucidate TS mechanisms, we used a machine learning method-logistic regression-to investigate a large number of sequence and structure features. We developed and tested 133 features, describing properties of either the mutation site or the mutation site neighborhood. We defined three types of neighborhood using sequence distance, Euclidean distance, and topological distance. We discovered that neighborhood features outperformed mutation site features in predicting TS mutations. The most predictive features suggest that TS mutations tend to occur at buried and rigid residues, and are located at conserved protein domains. The environment of a buried residue often determines the overall structural stability of a protein, thus may lead to reversible activity change upon temperature switch. We developed TS prediction models based on logistic regression and the Lasso regularized procedure. Through a ten-fold cross-validation, we obtained the area under the curve of 0.91 for the model using both sequence and structure features. Testing on independent datasets suggested that the model predicted TS mutations with a 50% precision. In summary, our study elucidated the molecular basis of TS mutants and suggested the importance of neighborhood properties in determining TS mutations. We further developed models to predict TS mutations derived from single amino acid substitutions. In this way, TS mutants can be efficiently obtained through experimentally introducing the predicted mutations.

  15. Neighborhood fast food availability and fast food consumption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oexle, Nathalie; Barnes, Timothy L; Blake, Christine E; Bell, Bethany A; Liese, Angela D

    2015-01-01

    Recent nutritional and public health research has focused on how the availability of various types of food in a person’s immediate area or neighborhood influences his or her food choices and eating habits. It has been theorized that people living in areas with a wealth of unhealthy fast-food options may show higher levels of fast-food consumption, a factor that often coincides with being overweight or obese. However, measuring food availability in a particular area is difficult to achieve consistently: there may be differences in the strict physical locations of food options as compared to how individuals perceive their personal food availability, and various studies may use either one or both of these measures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between weekly fast-food consumption and both a person’s perceived availability of fast-food and an objective measure of fast-food presence—Geographic Information Systems (GIS)—within that person’s neighborhood. A randomly selected population-based sample of eight counties in South Carolina was used to conduct a cross-sectional telephone survey assessing self-report fast-food consumption and perceived availability of fast food. GIS was used to determine the actual number of fast-food outlets within each participant’s neighborhood. Using multinomial logistic regression analyses, we found that neither perceived availability nor GIS-based presence of fast-food was significantly associated with weekly fast-food consumption. Our findings indicate that availability might not be the dominant factor influencing fast-food consumption. We recommend using subjective availability measures and considering individual characteristics that could influence both perceived availability of fast food and its impact on fast-food consumption. If replicated, our findings suggest that interventions aimed at reducing fast-food consumption by limiting neighborhood fast-food availability might not be completely

  16. PALNS - A software framework for parallel large neighborhood search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Røpke, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    This paper propose a simple, parallel, portable software framework for the metaheuristic named large neighborhood search (LNS). The aim is to provide a framework where the user has to set up a few data structures and implement a few functions and then the framework provides a metaheuristic where ...... parallelization "comes for free". We apply the parallel LNS heuristic to two different problems: the traveling salesman problem with pickup and delivery (TSPPD) and the capacitated vehicle routing problem (CVRP)....

  17. Body mass index, safety hazards, and neighborhood attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovasi, Gina S; Bader, Michael D M; Quinn, James; Neckerman, Kathryn; Weiss, Christopher; Rundle, Andrew

    2012-10-01

    Neighborhood attractiveness and safety may encourage physical activity and help individuals maintain a healthy weight. However, these neighborhood characteristics may not be equally relevant to health across all settings and population subgroups. To evaluate whether potentially attractive neighborhood features are associated with lower BMI, whether safety hazards are associated with higher BMI, and whether environment-environment interactions are present such that associations for a particular characteristic are stronger in an otherwise supportive environment. Survey data and measured height and weight were collected from a convenience sample of 13,102 adult New York City (NYC) residents in 2000-2002; data analyses were completed 2008-2012. Built-environment measures based on municipal GIS data sources were constructed within 1-km network buffers to assess walkable urban form (density, land-use mix, transit access); attractiveness (sidewalk cafés, landmark buildings, street trees, street cleanliness); and safety (homicide rate, pedestrian-auto collision and fatality rate). Generalized linear models with cluster-robust SEs controlled for individual and area-based sociodemographic characteristics. The presence of sidewalk cafés, density of landmark buildings, and density of street trees were associated with lower BMI, whereas the proportion of streets rated as clean was associated with higher BMI. Interactions were observed for sidewalk cafés with neighborhood poverty, for street-tree density with walkability, and for street cleanliness with safety. Safety hazard indicators were not independently associated with BMI. Potentially attractive community and natural features were associated with lower BMI among adults in NYC, and there was some evidence of effect modification. Copyright © 2012 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. TOWARDS A SUSTAINABLE NEIGHBORHOOD: THE ROLE OF OPEN SPACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khalid Al-Hagla

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The neighborhood is a basic planning entity in modern residential planning theories. However open spaces as a vital constituent of the neighborhood’s physical structure, have an important role to play. They are the arena of both, neighbors’ outdoor interactions – consequently building the neighborhood’s sense of community - and the micro ecological sphere - setting its parameters and configuring its fundamentals. The paper aims to investigate the roles and responsibilities that open spaces -in neighborhoods- have to take to achieve sustainability goals and objectives. However it follows an approach based on both the social and ecological neighborhood’s ability to tackle sustainability issues. It focuses on the typical open space structure of the neighborhood as the media of different social and ecological interactions. Regarding this concern the paper differentiates between two main categories of the neighborhood’s open space; "greenspace" and "greyspace". Moreover, the paper develops a three dimension matrix that sets the interrelations between different types of neighborhood open space and sustainability goals and objectives that have to be achieved within the community. It uses this matrix to assess the sustainability performance of different typologies of open space; moreover it determines the priorities of sustainability parameters that have to be applied to an assigned open space. Finally, the paper applies its findings to two different typologies of open spaces in Lebanon; Beirut Pine ‘Horsh Beirut’ as a greenspace, and the historical market, and pedestrian streets in Byblos as a greyspace. The application comes to show the validity of conceptual application of the proposed matrix.

  19. A note on neighborhood total domination in graphs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We also prove that the neighborhood total domination number is equal to the domination number in several classes of graphs including grid graphs. We recall that a leaf in a graph G is a vertex v with deg(v) = 1, and a support vertex is a vertex which is adjacent to a leaf. A double star is a tree with precisely two vertices of.

  20. Neighborhood environment and intimate partner violence: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Kirsten; Wallis, Anne Baber; Hamberger, L Kevin

    2015-01-01

    Intimate partner violence (IPV) is an important global public health problem, affecting women across the life span and increasing risk for a number of unfavorable health outcomes. Typically conceptualized as a private form of violence, most research has focused on individual-level risk markers. Recently, more scholarly attention has been paid to the role that the residential neighborhood environment may play in influencing the occurrence of IPV. With research accumulating since the 1990s, increasing prominence of the topic, and no comprehensive literature reviews yet undertaken, it is time to take stock of what is known, what remains unknown, and the methods and concepts investigators have considered. In this article, we undertake a comprehensive, systematic review of the literature to date on the relationship between neighborhood environment and IPV, asking, "what is the status of scholarship related to the association between neighborhood environment and IPV occurrence?" Although the literature is young, it is receiving increasing attention from researchers in sociology, public health, criminology, and other fields. Obvious gaps in the literature include limited consideration of nonurban areas, limited theoretical motivation, and limited consideration of the range of potential contributors to environmental effects on IPV--such as built environmental factors or access to services. In addition, explanations of the pathways by which place influences the occurrence of IPV draw mainly from social disorganization theory that was developed in urban settings in the United States and may need to be adapted, especially to be useful in explaining residential environmental correlates of IPV in rural or non-U.S. settings. A more complete theoretical understanding of the relationship between neighborhood environment and IPV, especially considering differences among urban, semiurban, and rural settings and developed and developing country settings, will be necessary to advance

  1. Fluorine in the solar neighborhood: Chemical evolution models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spitoni, E.; Matteucci, F.; Jönsson, H.; Ryde, N.; Romano, D.

    2018-04-01

    Context. In light of new observational data related to fluorine abundances in solar neighborhood stars, we present chemical evolution models testing various fluorine nucleosynthesis prescriptions with the aim to best fit those new data. Aim. We consider chemical evolution models in the solar neighborhood testing various nucleosynthesis prescriptions for fluorine production with the aim of reproducing the observed abundance ratios [F/O] versus [O/H] and [F/Fe] versus [Fe/H]. We study in detail the effects of various stellar yields on fluorine production. Methods: We adopted two chemical evolution models: the classical two-infall model, which follows the chemical evolution of halo-thick disk and thin disk phases; and the one-infall model, which is designed only for thin disk evolution. We tested the effects on the predicted fluorine abundance ratios of various nucleosynthesis yield sources, that is, asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars, Wolf-Rayet (W-R) stars, Type II and Type Ia supernovae, and novae. Results: The fluorine production is dominated by AGB stars but the W-R stars are required to reproduce the trend of the observed data in the solar neighborhood with our chemical evolution models. In particular, the best model both for the two-infall and one-infall cases requires an increase by a factor of 2 of the W-R yields. We also show that the novae, even if their yields are still uncertain, could help to better reproduce the secondary behavior of F in the [F/O] versus [O/H] relation. Conclusions: The inclusion of the fluorine production by W-R stars seems to be essential to reproduce the new observed ratio [F/O] versus [O/H] in the solar neighborhood. Moreover, the inclusion of novae helps to reproduce the observed fluorine secondary behavior substantially.

  2. Propositional interval neighborhood logics: Expressiveness, decidability, and undecidable extensions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bresolin, Davide; Goranko, Valentin; Montanari, Angelo

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the expressiveness of the variety of propositional interval neighborhood logics (PNL), we establish their decidability on linearly ordered domains and some important subclasses, and we prove the undecidability of a number of extensions of PNL with additional modalities...... over interval relations. All together, we show that PNL form a quite expressive and nearly maximal decidable fragment of Halpern–Shoham’s interval logic HS....

  3. Neighborhood Environment and Cognition in Older Adults: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Besser, LM; McDonald, NC; Song, Y; Kukull, WA; Rodriguez, DA

    2017-01-01

    © 2017 American Journal of Preventive Medicine Context Some evidence suggests that t reating vascular risk factors and performing mentally stimulating activities may delay cognitive impairment onset in older adults. Exposure to a complex neighborhood environment may be one mechanism to help delay cognitive decline. Evidence acquisition PubMed, Web of Science, and ProQuest Dissertation and Theses Global database were systematically reviewed, identifying 25 studies published from February 1, 19...

  4. Neighborhood fast food availability and fast food consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oexle, Nathalie; Barnes, Timothy L; Blake, Christine E; Bell, Bethany A; Liese, Angela D

    2015-09-01

    Recent nutritional and public health research has focused on how the availability of various types of food in a person's immediate area or neighborhood influences his or her food choices and eating habits. It has been theorized that people living in areas with a wealth of unhealthy fast-food options may show higher levels of fast-food consumption, a factor that often coincides with being overweight or obese. However, measuring food availability in a particular area is difficult to achieve consistently: there may be differences in the strict physical locations of food options as compared to how individuals perceive their personal food availability, and various studies may use either one or both of these measures. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between weekly fast-food consumption and both a person's perceived availability of fast-food and an objective measure of fast-food presence - Geographic Information Systems (GIS) - within that person's neighborhood. A randomly selected population-based sample of eight counties in South Carolina was used to conduct a cross-sectional telephone survey assessing self-report fast-food consumption and perceived availability of fast food. GIS was used to determine the actual number of fast-food outlets within each participant's neighborhood. Using multinomial logistic regression analyses, we found that neither perceived availability nor GIS-based presence of fast-food was significantly associated with weekly fast-food consumption. Our findings indicate that availability might not be the dominant factor influencing fast-food consumption. We recommend using subjective availability measures and considering individual characteristics that could influence both perceived availability of fast food and its impact on fast-food consumption. If replicated, our findings suggest that interventions aimed at reducing fast-food consumption by limiting neighborhood fast-food availability might not be completely effective

  5. On the radius of neighborhood graphs | Mukwembi | Quaestiones ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The k-step graph G′k of a graph G has the same vertex set as G and two vertices are adjacent in G ′ k if and only if there exists a path of length k connecting them in G. The graph G ′ 2 is called the neighborhood graph of G. We present results on the connectivity and the radius of k-step graphs, especially on the radius of ...

  6. Interaction between parenting and neighborhood quality on the risk of adolescent regular smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Xiaozhong; Shenassa, Edmond D

    2012-03-01

    To conduct the first study to examine potential interaction between parenting style and neighborhood quality on the risk of adolescent regular smoking. We analyzed data from a nationally representative sample of U.S. adolescents (n = 1,213 pairs of adolescents and their parents) who participated in the Panel Study of Income Dynamics during 2002-2003. Regular smoking behavior and parental monitoring level were reported by adolescents. Parenting style (i.e., authoritative, authoritarian, permissive, and uninvolved) was defined by cross-classifying self-reported parental warmth and control. Based on parents' perceived neighborhood quality regarding raising children, neighborhoods were identified as either higher quality or lower quality. Adolescents in lower-quality neighborhoods were more likely to be regular smokers (13.7% vs. 8.5%; adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 1.93, 95% CI = 1.02-3.65) than those in higher-quality neighborhoods. In lower-quality neighborhoods, adolescents of authoritarian parents (16.9%; AOR = 10.97, 95% CI = 3.36-35.84) were more likely and those of uninvolved parents (20.3%; AOR = 3.47, 95% CI = 0.91-13.17) were marginally more likely to be regular smokers than those of authoritative parents (4.3%). However, among adolescents in higher-quality neighborhoods, parenting style was independent of the risk of regular smoking. There was marginally significant interaction between authoritarian parenting style and neighborhood quality. Parental monitoring was associated with reduced risk of adolescent smoking, regardless of neighborhood quality. There was no interaction between parental monitoring and neighborhood quality. Authoritative parenting is associated with reduced risk of adolescent regular smoking in lower-quality neighborhoods but not in higher-quality neighborhoods. Authoritative parenting style and parental monitoring may buffer adverse influences of low-quality neighborhood.

  7. Neighborhood Socioeconomic Status and Cognitive Function in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh-Dastidar, Bonnie; Margolis, Karen L.; Slaughter, Mary E.; Jewell, Adria; Bird, Chloe E.; Eibner, Christine; Denburg, Natalie L.; Ockene, Judith; Messina, Catherine R.; Espeland, Mark A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. We examined whether neighborhood socioeconomic status (NSES) is associated with cognitive functioning in older US women and whether this relationship is explained by associations between NSES and vascular, health behavior, and psychosocial factors. Methods. We assessed women aged 65 to 81 years (n = 7479) who were free of dementia and took part in the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study. Linear mixed models examined the cross-sectional association between an NSES index and cognitive functioning scores. A base model adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, education, income, marital status, and hysterectomy. Three groups of potential confounders were examined in separate models: vascular, health behavior, and psychosocial factors. Results. Living in a neighborhood with a 1-unit higher NSES value was associated with a level of cognitive functioning that was 0.022 standard deviations higher (P = .02). The association was attenuated but still marginally significant (P < .1) after adjustment for confounders and, according to interaction tests, stronger among younger and non-White women. Conclusions. The socioeconomic status of a woman's neighborhood may influence her cognitive functioning. This relationship is only partially explained by vascular, health behavior, or psychosocial factors. Future research is needed on the longitudinal relationships between NSES, cognitive impairment, and cognitive decline. PMID:21778482

  8. Neighborhood Foreclosures, Racial/Ethnic Transitions, and Residential Segregation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Matthew; Crowder, Kyle; Spring, Amy

    2015-06-01

    In this article, we use data on virtually all foreclosure events between 2005 and 2009 to calculate neighborhood foreclosure rates for nearly all block groups in the United States to assess the impact of housing foreclosures on neighborhood racial/ethnic change and on broader patterns of racial residential segregation. We find that the foreclosure crisis was patterned strongly along racial lines: black, Latino, and racially integrated neighborhoods had exceptionally high foreclosure rates. Multilevel models of racial/ethnic change reveal that foreclosure concentrations were linked to declining shares of whites and expanding shares of black and Latino residents. Results further suggest that these compositional shifts were driven by both white population loss and minority growth, especially from racially mixed settings with high foreclosure rates. To explore the impact of these racially selective migration streams on patterns of residential segregation, we simulate racial segregation assuming that foreclosure rates remained at their 2005 levels throughout the crisis period. Our simulations suggest that the foreclosure crisis increased racial segregation between blacks and whites by 1.1 dissimilarity points, and between Latinos and whites by 2.2 dissimilarity points.

  9. Walking, obesity and urban design in Chinese neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfonzo, Mariela; Guo, Zhan; Lin, Lin; Day, Kristen

    2014-12-01

    We examined the connections (1) between the design of the built environment and walking, (2) between the design of the built environment and obesity, and (3) between walking and obesity and income in urban settings in China. Six neighborhoods with different built environment characteristics, located in the Chinese cities of Shanghai and Hangzhou, were studied. Data on walking and other physical activity and obesity levels from 1070 residents were collected through a street intercept survey conducted in 2013. Built environment features of 527 street segments were documented using the Irvine-Minnesota Inventory-China (IMI-C) environmental audit. Data were analyzed using the State of Place™ Index. Walking rates, household income and Body Mass Index (BMI) were related; neighborhoods with a higher State of Place™ Index were associated with higher rates of walking. This study began to establish an evidence base for the association of built environment features with walking in the context of Chinese urban design. Findings confirmed that the associations between "walkable" built environment features and walking established in existing research in other countries, also held true in the case of Chinese neighborhoods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. MOVING TO INEQUALITY: NEIGHBORHOOD EFFECTS AND EXPERIMENTS MEET STRUCTURE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Robert J

    2008-07-01

    The Moving to Opportunity (MTO) housing experiment has proven to be an important intervention not just in the lives of the poor, but in social science theories of neighborhood effects. Competing causal claims have been the subject of considerable disagreement, culminating in the debate between Clampet-Lundquist and Massey (2008) and Ludwig et al. (2008). This paper assesses the debate by clarifying analytically distinct questions posed by neighborhood-level theories, reconceptualizing selection bias as a fundamental social process worthy of study in its own right rather than as a statistical nuisance, and reconsidering the scientific method of experimentation, and hence causality, in the social world of the city. I also analyze MTO and independent survey data from Chicago to examine trajectories of residential attainment. Although MTO provides crucial leverage for estimating neighborhood effects on individuals, as proponents rightly claim, I demonstrate the implications imposed by a stratified urban structure and how MTO simultaneously provides a new window on the social reproduction of concentrated inequality.

  11. MOVING TO INEQUALITY: NEIGHBORHOOD EFFECTS AND EXPERIMENTS MEET STRUCTURE1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampson, Robert J.

    2014-01-01

    The Moving to Opportunity (MTO) housing experiment has proven to be an important intervention not just in the lives of the poor, but in social science theories of neighborhood effects. Competing causal claims have been the subject of considerable disagreement, culminating in the debate between Clampet-Lundquist and Massey (2008) and Ludwig et al. (2008). This paper assesses the debate by clarifying analytically distinct questions posed by neighborhood-level theories, reconceptualizing selection bias as a fundamental social process worthy of study in its own right rather than as a statistical nuisance, and reconsidering the scientific method of experimentation, and hence causality, in the social world of the city. I also analyze MTO and independent survey data from Chicago to examine trajectories of residential attainment. Although MTO provides crucial leverage for estimating neighborhood effects on individuals, as proponents rightly claim, I demonstrate the implications imposed by a stratified urban structure and how MTO simultaneously provides a new window on the social reproduction of concentrated inequality. PMID:25360053

  12. Neighborhood greenspace and health in a large urban center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kardan, Omid; Gozdyra, Peter; Misic, Bratislav; Moola, Faisal; Palmer, Lyle J.; Paus, Tomáš; Berman, Marc G.

    2015-07-01

    Studies have shown that natural environments can enhance health and here we build upon that work by examining the associations between comprehensive greenspace metrics and health. We focused on a large urban population center (Toronto, Canada) and related the two domains by combining high-resolution satellite imagery and individual tree data from Toronto with questionnaire-based self-reports of general health perception, cardio-metabolic conditions and mental illnesses from the Ontario Health Study. Results from multiple regressions and multivariate canonical correlation analyses suggest that people who live in neighborhoods with a higher density of trees on their streets report significantly higher health perception and significantly less cardio-metabolic conditions (controlling for socio-economic and demographic factors). We find that having 10 more trees in a city block, on average, improves health perception in ways comparable to an increase in annual personal income of $10,000 and moving to a neighborhood with $10,000 higher median income or being 7 years younger. We also find that having 11 more trees in a city block, on average, decreases cardio-metabolic conditions in ways comparable to an increase in annual personal income of $20,000 and moving to a neighborhood with $20,000 higher median income or being 1.4 years younger.

  13. Local expansions and accretive mappings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. A. Kirk

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available Let X and Y be complete metric spaces with Y metrically convex, let D⊂X be open, fix u0∈X, and let d(u=d(u0,u for all u∈D. Let f:X→2Y be a closed mapping which maps open subsets of D onto open sets in Y, and suppose f is locally expansive on D in the sense that there exists a continuous nonincreasing function c:R+→R+ with ∫+∞c(sds=+∞ such that each point x∈D has a neighborhood N for which dist(f(u,f(v≥c(max{d(u,d(v}d(u,v for all u,v∈N. Then, given y∈Y, it is shown that y∈f(D iff there exists x0∈D such that for x∈X\\D, dist(y,f(x0≤dist(u,f(x. This result is then applied to the study of existence of zeros of (set-valued locally strongly accretive and ϕ-accretive mappings in Banach spaces

  14. Causal mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lauge Baungaard

    2006-01-01

    The lecture note explains how to use the causal mapping method as well as the theoretical framework aoosciated to the method......The lecture note explains how to use the causal mapping method as well as the theoretical framework aoosciated to the method...

  15. Collection Mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harbour, Denise

    2002-01-01

    Explains collection mapping for library media collections. Discusses purposes for creating collection maps, including helping with selection and weeding decisions, showing how the collection supports the curriculum, and making budget decisions; and methods of data collection, including evaluating a collaboratively taught unit with the classroom…

  16. CALS Mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Collin, Ib; Nielsen, Povl Holm; Larsen, Michael Holm

    1998-01-01

    To enhance the industrial applications of CALS, CALS Center Danmark has developed a cost efficient and transparent assessment, CALS Mapping, to uncover the potential of CALS - primarily dedicated to small and medium sized enterprises. The idea behind CALS Mapping is that the CALS State of the ent...

  17. Using structure locations as a basis for mapping the wildland urban interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avi Bar-Massada; Susan I. Stewart; Roger B. Hammer; Miranda H. Mockrin; Volker C. Radeloff

    2013-01-01

    The wildland urban interface (WUI) delineates the areas where wildland fire hazard most directly impacts human communities and threatens lives and property, and where houses exert the strongest influence on the natural environment. Housing data are a major problem for WUI mapping. When housing data are zonal, the concept of a WUI neighborhood can be captured easily in...

  18. Association between daily physical activity and neighborhood environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Kanae; Lee, Jung Su; Kawakubo, Kiyoshi; Kataoka, Yusuke; Asami, Yasushi; Mori, Katsumi; Umezaki, Masahiro; Yamauchi, Taro; Takagi, Hirofumi; Sunagawa, Hiroshi; Akabayashi, Akira

    2009-05-01

    Previous studies on the association between physical activity (PA) and neighborhood environments (NE) focused on either objectively measuring the NE or the residents' perception of NE. Here, we investigate which actual or perceived NE is associated with residents' PA in Japan. Two regions with an objectively assessed high and low residential density, land use mix-diversity, and street connectivity, respectively, were identified in one city. The subjects were selected using a stratified random sampling method by sex and age in each region. The NE of the subjects was objectively measured using the Geographic Information System (GIS), and the subjects' perception of the NE was assessed using a questionnaire. The daily total number of walking steps was measured with an accelerometer, and walking and cycling time were assessed by a questionnaire. For the female subjects, the mean cycling time, subjectively assessed as a means of transport, was significantly longer in the group with a high GIS score for the number of land use types, while the score for total number of walking steps was significantly higher among those who were aware of places to walk to, and cycling time for transport was longer for those who perceived an accessibility to post offices, banks/credit unions, gymnasiums/fitness facilities, and amusement facilities in their neighborhood. For the male subjects, the score for walking time for leisure was longer for those who perceived aesthetics and an accessibility to parks, and the score for total walking steps was significantly higher for those who perceived an accessibility to bookstores or rental video stores in their neighborhood. The results to this study demonstrate that daily PA was high among female subjects living in a NE with land use mix-diversity, and who had an awareness of places to walk to and the accessibility to facilities for daily necessities in their neighborhood. For male subjects, daily PA was high among those who perceived the

  19. Neighborhood deprivation is strongly associated with participation in a population-based health check

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bender, Anne Mette; Kawachi, Ichiro; Jørgensen, Torben

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We sought to examine whether neighborhood deprivation is associated with participation in a large population-based health check. Such analyses will help answer the question whether health checks, which are designed to meet the needs of residents in deprived neighborhoods, may increase...... screening for ischemic heart disease and lifestyle counseling. The study population was randomly drawn from a population of 179,097 persons living in 73 neighborhoods in Denmark. Data on neighborhood deprivation (percentage with basic education, with low income and not in work) and individual socioeconomic...... in both deprivation levels and neighborhood health check participation rate (mean 53%; range 35-84%). In multilevel analyses adjusted for age and sex, higher levels of all three indicators of neighborhood deprivation and a deprivation score were associated with lower participation in a dose...

  20. Assessing the benefits of a rising tide: Educational attainment and increases in neighborhood socioeconomic advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, William R

    2017-02-01

    An emerging approach to studying associations between neighborhood contexts and educational outcomes is to estimate the outcomes of adolescents growing up in neighborhoods that are experiencing economic growth in comparison to peers that reside in economically stable or declining communities. Using data from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health), I examine the association between education attainment and changes in socioeconomic advantage in urban neighborhoods between 1990 and 2000. I find that residing in a neighborhood that experiences economic improvements has a positive association with educational attainment for urban adolescents. Furthermore, race-based analyses suggest consistently positive associations for all race subgroups, lending support to protective models of neighborhood effects that argue high neighborhood SES supports positive outcomes for adolescents residing in these contexts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Neighborhood social capital and adult health: an empirical test of a Bourdieu-based model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpiano, Richard M

    2007-09-01

    Drawing upon Bourdieu's [1986. The forms of capital. In: Richardson, J.G. (Ed.), Handbook of Theory and Research for the Sociology of Education. Greenwood, New York, pp. 241-258.] social capital theory, I test a conceptual model of neighborhood conditions and social capital - considering relationships between neighborhood social capital forms (social support, social leverage, informal social control, and neighborhood organization participation) and adult health behaviors (smoking, binge drinking) and perceived health, as well as interactions between neighborhood social capital and individuals' access to that social capital. Analyzing Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey data linked with tract level census data, results suggest that specific social capital forms were directly associated with both positive and negative health outcomes. Additionally, residents' neighborhood attachment moderated relationships between various social capital forms and health. Future studies should consider social capital resources and the role of differential access to such resources for promoting or compromising health.

  2. The relationship between neighborhood characteristics and recruitment into adolescent family-based substance use prevention programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Hilary F; Miller, Brenda A; Aalborg, Annette E; Keagy, Carolyn D

    2012-04-01

    Youth in disadvantaged neighborhoods are at risk for poor health outcomes. Characteristics of these neighborhoods may translate into intensified risk due to barriers utilizing preventive care such as substance use prevention programs. While family-level risks affect recruitment into prevention programs, few studies have addressed the influence of neighborhood risks. This study consists of 744 families with an 11- to 12-year-old child recruited for a family-based substance use prevention program. Using US Census data, logistic regressions showed neighborhoods were related to recruitment, beyond individual characteristics. Greater neighborhood unemployment was related to decreased agreement to participate in the study and lower rates of high school graduation were related to lower levels of actual enrolment. Conversely, higher rates of single-female-headed households were related to increased agreement. Recruitment procedures may need to recognize the variety of barriers and enabling forces within the neighborhood in developing different strategies for the recruitment of youth and their families.

  3. Housing and Neighborhood Characteristics and Latino Farmworker Family Well-Being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcury, Thomas A; Trejo, Grisel; Suerken, Cynthia K; Grzywacz, Joseph G; Ip, Edward H; Quandt, Sara A

    2015-10-01

    Housing quality and neighborhood characteristics affect individual health and family well-being. This analysis describes characteristics of farmworker housing and neighborhoods and delineates the associations of housing and local neighborhood with indicators of family well-being. Mothers in North Carolina farmworker families (n = 248) completed interviews in 2011-2012. Family well-being measures included stress, family conflict, and outward orientation. Housing measures included ownership and facilities, and neighborhood measures included heavy traffic and driving time to grocery stores. Families experienced elevated stress and conflict, and limited outward orientation. Few owned their homes, which were generally crowded. Few had enclosed play spaces for their children. For many, traffic made it difficult to walk on the street. Housing and neighborhood characteristics were related to increased stress and limited outward orientation. Housing and neighborhood characteristics are important for research on the health of families in vulnerable populations, such as farmworker families.

  4. Urban land use, air toxics and public health: Assessing hazardous exposures at the neighborhood scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corburn, Jason

    2007-01-01

    Land use data are increasingly understood as important indicators of potential environmental health risk in urban areas where micro-scale or neighborhood level hazard exposure data are not routinely collected. This paper aims to offer a method for estimating the distribution of air toxics in urban neighborhoods using land use information because actual air monitoring data rarely exist at this scale. Using Geographic Information System spatial modeling tools, we estimate air toxics concentrations across neighborhoods in New York City and statistically compare our model with the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Air Toxic Assessment and air monitoring data across three NYC neighborhoods. We conclude that land use data can act as a good proxy for estimating neighborhood scale air toxics, particularly in the absence of monitoring data. In addition, the paper suggests that land use data can expand the reach of environmental impact assessments that routinely exclude analyses of potential exposures to urban air toxics at the neighborhood scale

  5. Economic hardship, neighborhood context, and parenting: prospective effects on Mexican-American adolescent's mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Nancy A; Coxe, Stefany; Roosa, Mark W; White, Rebecca M B; Knight, George P; Zeiders, Katharine H; Saenz, Delia

    2011-03-01

    This study examined family and neighborhood influences relevant to low-income status to determine how they combine to predict the parenting behaviors of Mexican-American mothers and fathers. The study also examined the role of parenting as a mediator of these contextual influences on adolescent internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Study hypotheses were examined in a diverse sample of Mexican-American families in which 750 mothers and 467 fathers reported on their own levels of parental warmth and harsh parenting. Family economic hardship, neighborhood familism values, and neighborhood risk indicators were all uniquely associated with maternal and paternal warmth, and maternal warmth mediated the effects of these contextual influences on adolescent externalizing symptoms in prospective analyses. Parents' subjective perceptions of neighborhood danger interacted with objective indicators of neighborhood disadvantage to influence maternal and paternal warmth. Neighborhood familism values had unique direct effects on adolescent externalizing symptoms in prospective analyses, after accounting for all other context and parenting effects.

  6. Automated segmentation of chronic stroke lesions using LINDA: Lesion identification with neighborhood data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustina, Dorian; Coslett, H Branch; Turkeltaub, Peter E; Tustison, Nicholas; Schwartz, Myrna F; Avants, Brian

    2016-04-01

    The gold standard for identifying stroke lesions is manual tracing, a method that is known to be observer dependent and time consuming, thus impractical for big data studies. We propose LINDA (Lesion Identification with Neighborhood Data Analysis), an automated segmentation algorithm capable of learning the relationship between existing manual segmentations and a single T1-weighted MRI. A dataset of 60 left hemispheric chronic stroke patients is used to build the method and test it with k-fold and leave-one-out procedures. With respect to manual tracings, predicted lesion maps showed a mean dice overlap of 0.696 ± 0.16, Hausdorff distance of 17.9 ± 9.8 mm, and average displacement of 2.54 ± 1.38 mm. The manual and predicted lesion volumes correlated at r = 0.961. An additional dataset of 45 patients was utilized to test LINDA with independent data, achieving high accuracy rates and confirming its cross-institutional applicability. To investigate the cost of moving from manual tracings to automated segmentation, we performed comparative lesion-to-symptom mapping (LSM) on five behavioral scores. Predicted and manual lesions produced similar neuro-cognitive maps, albeit with some discussed discrepancies. Of note, region-wise LSM was more robust to the prediction error than voxel-wise LSM. Our results show that, while several limitations exist, our current results compete with or exceed the state-of-the-art, producing consistent predictions, very low failure rates, and transferable knowledge between labs. This work also establishes a new viewpoint on evaluating automated methods not only with segmentation accuracy but also with brain-behavior relationships. LINDA is made available online with trained models from over 100 patients. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Cortical Maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednar, James A; Wilson, Stuart P

    2016-12-01

    In this article, we review functional organization in sensory cortical regions-how the cortex represents the world. We consider four interrelated aspects of cortical organization: (1) the set of receptive fields of individual cortical sensory neurons, (2) how lateral interaction between cortical neurons reflects the similarity of their receptive fields, (3) the spatial distribution of receptive-field properties across the horizontal extent of the cortical tissue, and (4) how the spatial distributions of different receptive-field properties interact with one another. We show how these data are generally well explained by the theory of input-driven self-organization, with a family of computational models of cortical maps offering a parsimonious account for a wide range of map-related phenomena. We then discuss important challenges to this explanation, with respect to the maps present at birth, maps present under activity blockade, the limits of adult plasticity, and the lack of some maps in rodents. Because there is not at present another credible general theory for cortical map development, we conclude by proposing key experiments to help uncover other mechanisms that might also be operating during map development. © The Author(s) 2015.

  8. The incidence of gangs in Salvadoran neighborhoods and its effect in political legitimacy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abby CORDOVA

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available This article explores how the incidence of gangs in Salvadoran neighborhoods erodes trust in the national government. The results show that the levels of trust in the national government vary from one neighborhood to another, depending on their vulnerability to gang generated insecurity. In addition, this article demonstrates that, in neighborhoods with high gang incidence, crime victims and non-victims show similar and low levels of trust in the national government.

  9. Community and child energy balance: differential associations between neighborhood environment and overweight risk by gender

    OpenAIRE

    Kowaleski-Jones, Lori; Wen, Ming

    2013-01-01

    Using data from the 2003 to 2004 continuous National Health Nutrition Examination Survey merged with the 2000 census and other geographic information systems-based neighborhood data, this study conducted gender-specific analyses to examine the influence of neighborhood characteristics on child risk for overweight (defined as gender-specific body mass index which is greater than the 85 percentile). Models of neighborhood influence that include institutional factors, built environment factors, ...

  10. Neighborhood fast food restaurants and fast food consumption: A national study

    OpenAIRE

    Richardson, Andrea S; Boone-Heinonen, Janne; Popkin, Barry M; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Recent studies suggest that neighborhood fast food restaurant availability is related to greater obesity, yet few studies have investigated whether neighborhood fast food restaurant availability promotes fast food consumption. Our aim was to estimate the effect of neighborhood fast food availability on frequency of fast food consumption in a national sample of young adults, a population at high risk for obesity. Methods We used national data from U.S. young adults enrolled...

  11. Counter-Mapping the Neighborhood on Bicycles: Mobilizing Youth to Reimagine the City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Katie Headrick; Hall, Rogers

    2013-01-01

    Personal mobility is a mundane characteristic of daily life. However, mobility is rarely considered an opportunity for learning in the learning sciences, and is almost never leveraged as relevant, experiential material for teaching. This article describes a social design experiment for spatial justice that focused on changes in the personal…

  12. Spatiotemporal chaos in coupled logistic maps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varella Guedes, Andre; Amorim Savi, Marcelo

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this work is to investigate the spatiotemporal dynamics of coupled logistic maps. These maps are prototypes of high-dimensional dynamical systems and have been used to describe the evolution and pattern formation in different systems. Here, the logistic map lattice is coupled by a power law and, therefore, each map is influenced by other maps in its neighborhood. The Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy density is employed to quantify the complexity of system behavior, permitting a general qualitative understanding of different aspects of system dynamics. Three kinds of boundary conditions are treated and the influence of initial conditions is also of concern. Non-homogeneous maps are investigated, showing interesting aspects of spatiotemporal dynamics. The idea is to analyze the spatial interaction between two qualitative different types of behavior from a grid that is split into two parts. Numerical simulations show what types of conditions present a greater tendency to develop chaotic, periodic and synchronized responses. It should be highlighted that non-homogeneous grids have situations where a chaotic pattern can emerge from two periodic responses and also situations where a periodic pattern can emerge from chaos.

  13. Spatiotemporal chaos in coupled logistic maps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Varella Guedes, Andre; Amorim Savi, Marcelo

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this work is to investigate the spatiotemporal dynamics of coupled logistic maps. These maps are prototypes of high-dimensional dynamical systems and have been used to describe the evolution and pattern formation in different systems. Here, the logistic map lattice is coupled by a power law and, therefore, each map is influenced by other maps in its neighborhood. The Kolmogorov-Sinai entropy density is employed to quantify the complexity of system behavior, permitting a general qualitative understanding of different aspects of system dynamics. Three kinds of boundary conditions are treated and the influence of initial conditions is also of concern. Non-homogeneous maps are investigated, showing interesting aspects of spatiotemporal dynamics. The idea is to analyze the spatial interaction between two qualitative different types of behavior from a grid that is split into two parts. Numerical simulations show what types of conditions present a greater tendency to develop chaotic, periodic and synchronized responses. It should be highlighted that non-homogeneous grids have situations where a chaotic pattern can emerge from two periodic responses and also situations where a periodic pattern can emerge from chaos.

  14. Characterization of the School Neighborhood Food Environment in Three Mexican Cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soltero, Erica G; Ortiz Hernández, Luis; Jauregui, Edtna; Lévesque, Lucie; Lopez Y Taylor, Juan; Barquera, Simón; Lee, Rebecca E

    2017-01-01

    Food resources in school neighborhoods can negatively influence diet; however, this environment is understudied. This study characterized the school neighborhood food environment in Guadalajara (n=11), Puerto Vallarta (n=7), and Mexico City (n=14). Convenience stores, table-service restaurants, and taco stands were highly available in all three cities. Grocery stores were highly available in Mexico City school neighborhoods, yet less frequently observed in Guadalajara and Puerto Vallarta. Socioeconomic differences in food cart and grocery store availability were observed in Guadalajara and Puerto Vallarta. Policy and intervention strategies are needed to address the saturation of food resources in Mexico school neighborhoods.

  15. Longitudinal associations of neighborhood collective efficacy and maternal corporal punishment with behavior problems in early childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Julie; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew

    2017-06-01

    Neighborhood and parenting influences on early behavioral outcomes are strongly dependent upon a child's stage of development. However, little research has jointly considered the longitudinal associations of neighborhood and parenting processes with behavior problems in early childhood. To address this limitation, this study explores the associations of neighborhood collective efficacy and maternal corporal punishment with the longitudinal patterns of early externalizing and internalizing behavior problems. The study sample consisted of 3,705 families from a nationally representative cohort study of urban families. Longitudinal multilevel models examined the associations of collective efficacy and corporal punishment with behavior problems at age 3, as well as with patterns of behavior problems between the ages 3 to 5. Interactions between the main predictors and child age tested whether neighborhood and parent relationships with child behavior varied over time. Mediation analysis examined whether neighborhood influences on child behavior were mediated by parenting. The models controlled for a comprehensive set of possible confounders at the child, parent, and neighborhood levels. Results indicate that both maternal corporal punishment and low neighborhood collective efficacy were significantly associated with increased behavior problems. The significant interaction between collective efficacy and child age with internalizing problems suggests that neighborhood influences on internalizing behavior were stronger for younger children. The indirect effect of low collective efficacy on behavior problems through corporal punishment was not significant. These findings highlight the importance of multilevel interventions that promote both neighborhood collective efficacy and nonphysical discipline in early childhood. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. Outdoor air pollution, family and neighborhood environment, and asthma in LA FANS children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Michelle; Qian, Lei; Ritz, Beate

    2009-03-01

    We examined associations between outdoor air pollution and childhood asthma, using measures of SES, neighborhood quality, and social support from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey (LA FANS). We linked residential census tracts for 3114 children to government air monitoring stations and estimated average pollutant concentrations for the year before interview. CO and NO(2) levels increased and O(3) levels decreased as neighborhood quality decreased, yet correlations were low. Pollutant levels were not correlated with neighborhood support. Even after adjustment for social environment characteristics, LA FANS children living in high O(3), PM(10), and CO areas appeared to have worse asthma morbidity.

  17. Systematic neighborhood observations at high spatial resolution: methodology and assessment of potential benefits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tammy C M Leonard

    Full Text Available There is a growing body of public health research documenting how characteristics of neighborhoods are associated with differences in the health status of residents. However, little is known about how the spatial resolution of neighborhood observational data or community audits affects the identification of neighborhood differences in health. We developed a systematic neighborhood observation instrument for collecting data at very high spatial resolution (we observe each parcel independently and used it to collect data in a low-income minority neighborhood in Dallas, TX. In addition, we collected data on the health status of individuals residing in this neighborhood. We then assessed the inter-rater reliability of the instrument and compared the costs and benefits of using data at this high spatial resolution. Our instrument provides a reliable and cost-effect method for collecting neighborhood observational data at high spatial resolution, which then allows researchers to explore the impact of varying geographic aggregations. Furthermore, these data facilitate a demonstration of the predictive accuracy of self-reported health status. We find that ordered logit models of health status using observational data at different spatial resolution produce different results. This implies a need to analyze the variation in correlative relationships at different geographic resolutions when there is no solid theoretical rational for choosing a particular resolution. We argue that neighborhood data at high spatial resolution greatly facilitates the evaluation of alternative geographic specifications in studies of neighborhood and health.

  18. Urban residents' priorities for neighborhood features. A survey of New Orleans residents after Hurricane Katrina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Traci; Farley, Thomas A

    2008-04-01

    Efforts to promote physical activity through environmental changes in low-income, urban, and minority areas should be informed by an understanding of the value that residents place on different neighborhood features and characteristics. Neighborhood rebuilding preferences among 442 New Orleans residents after the damage from Hurricane Katrina were assessed by a random-digit-dialed telephone survey conducted between April 25, 2006 and May 2, 2006. The survey instrument assessed the importance (on a 5-point Likert-type scale on which 1=not at all important and 5=extremely important) for 24 neighborhood features and characteristics. Ratings of neighborhood features were compared by race and income. Overall, residents rated most highly the features that reflected low levels of neighborhood crime and disorder. There was moderate support for features that promote physical activity, specifically sidewalks and crosswalks, neighborhood grocery stores, and parks or playgrounds. Blacks rated more highly than whites 13 neighborhood features such as good schools, lack of noise, a park or playground, affordable housing, health clinics, and the absence of liquor stores. The low-income group rated the following features as being more important than the high-income group: affordable housing, a bus or streetcar line, and the presence of a corner store. New Orleans residents' top neighborhood priority is reducing crime and disorder, but all groups otherwise support neighborhood features that promote physical activity.

  19. The Canadian general surgery resident: defining current challenges for surgical leadership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Corey; Labossière, Joseph; Rommens, Kenton; Birch, Daniel W

    2012-08-01

    Surgery training programs in Canada and the United States have recognized the need to modify current models of training and education. The shifting demographic of surgery trainees, lifestyle issues and an increased trend toward subspecialization are the major influences. To guide these important educational initiatives, a contemporary profile of Canadian general surgery residents and their impressions of training in Canada is required. We developed and distributed a questionnaire to residents in each Canadian general surgery training program, and residents responded during dedicated teaching time. In all, 186 surveys were returned for analysis (62% response rate). The average age of Canadian general surgery residents is 30 years, 38% are women, 41% are married, 18% have dependants younger than 18 years and 41% plan to add to or start a family during residency. Most (87%) residents plan to pursue postgraduate education. On completion of training, 74% of residents plan to stay in Canada and 49% want to practice in an academic setting. Almost half (42%) of residents identify a poor balance between work and personal life during residency. Forty-seven percent of respondents have appropriate access to mentorship, whereas 37% describe suitable access to career guidance and 40% identify the availability of appropriate social supports. Just over half (54%) believe the stress level during residency is manageable. This survey provides a profile of contemporary Canadian general surgery residents. Important challenges within the residency system are identified. Program directors and chairs of surgery are encouraged to recognize these challenges and intervene where appropriate.

  20. Genetic Mapping

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Links for Patient Care Education All About the Human Genome Project Fact Sheets Genetic Education Resources for Teachers Genomic ... genetic mapping? Among the main goals of the Human Genome Project (HGP) was to develop new, better and cheaper ...

  1. Affective Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    . In particular, mapping environmental damage, endangered species, and human made disasters has become one of the focal point of affective knowledge production. These ‘more-than-humangeographies’ practices include notions of species, space and territory, and movement towards a new political ecology. This type...... of digital cartographies has been highlighted as the ‘processual turn’ in critical cartography, whereas in related computational journalism it can be seen as an interactive and iterative process of mapping complex and fragile ecological developments. This paper looks at computer-assisted cartography as part...... of environmental knowledge production. It uses InfoAmazonia, the databased platform on Amazon rainforests, as an example of affective geo-visualization within information mapping that enhances embodiment in the experience of the information. Amazonia is defined as a digitally created affective (map)space within...

  2. Neighborhood consistency in mental arithmetic: Behavioral and ERP evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verguts Tom

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent cognitive and computational models (e.g. the Interacting Neighbors Model state that in simple multiplication decade and unit digits of the candidate answers (including the correct result are represented separately. Thus, these models challenge holistic views of number representation as well as traditional accounts of the classical problem size effect in simple arithmetic (i.e. the finding that large problems are answered slower and less accurate than small problems. Empirical data supporting this view are still scarce. Methods Data of 24 participants who performed a multiplication verification task with Arabic digits (e.g. 8 × 4 = 36 - true or false? are reported. Behavioral (i.e. RT and errors and EEG (i.e. ERP measures were recorded in parallel. Results We provide evidence for neighborhood-consistency effects in the verification of simple multiplication problems (e.g. 8 × 4. Behaviorally, we find that decade-consistent lures, which share their decade digit with the correct result (e.g. 36, are harder to reject than matched inconsistent lures, which differ in both digits from the correct result (e.g. 28. This neighborhood consistency effect in product verification is similar to recent observations in the production of multiplication results. With respect to event-related potentials we find significant differences for consistent compared to inconsistent lures in the N400 (increased negativity and Late Positive Component (reduced positivity. In this respect consistency effects in our paradigm resemble lexico-semantic effects earlier found in simple arithmetic and in orthographic input processing. Conclusion Our data suggest that neighborhood consistency effects in simple multiplication stem at least partly from central (lexico-semantic' stages of processing. These results are compatible with current models on the representation of simple multiplication facts – in particular with the Interacting Neighbors Model

  3. Mexican-American neighborhood's social capital and attitudes about violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Patricia J; Rasu, Rafia; Lesser, Janna; Oscos-Sanchez, Manuel; Mancha, Juan; Orriega, Albert

    2010-01-01

    Measurement of the effectiveness of violence prevention interventions is in a developmental phase. Social capital provides a framework within which to examine this topic from a community perspective. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationships among three measures of social capital and attitudes about violence among Mexican-Americans. A cross-sectional survey was conducted of households randomly selected by block in two adjacent Mexican-American communities. Demographics, attitudes about and experiences with violence, and three measures of social capital (collective efficacy, neighborhood block conditions, community integration) were assessed. Descriptive, bivariate, and logistic regression analyses were used to examine indicators of violence attitudes and experiences. Of the 473 respondents who completed the survey, 323 (68%) were female, 393 (83%) were Mexican-American, 395 (84%) were born in the US, and 346 (72%) owned their own homes. Participants with high measures of collective efficacy were 1.68 times more likely to have negative attitudes about violence (CI 1.06-2.65) and 15.25 times more likely to have negative attitudes about couple violence (CI 9.05-25.74). Participants with high scores on neighborhood block conditions were 2.33 times more likely to have negative attitudes about couple violence (CI 1.40-3.87). Scores on community integration were not significant indicators of participants' tolerance and experiences with violence. Two measures of social capital were positively associated with and predictive of negative attitudes toward violence. The results suggest that primary violence prevention programs in Mexican-American communities should focus on strengthening a sense of collective efficacy and improving neighborhood conditions.

  4. Walk score™ as a global estimate of neighborhood walkability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carr, Lucas J; Dunsiger, Shira I; Marcus, Bess H

    2010-11-01

    Walk Score recently has been demonstrated as a valid and reliable tool for estimating access to nearby facilities, a critical component of the physical activity environment. It has not yet been determined whether Walk Score relates to other critical components of the physical activity environment, including street connectivity, access to public transit, residential density, and crime. The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between Walk Score and objective/subjective measures of the physical activity environment. Walk Scores were calculated for residential addresses of 296 participants of two RCTs (2006-2009). Street connectivity, residential density, access to public transit provisions, and crime were objectively measured (GIS) and cross-referenced with Walk Scores and participant's perceptions of the environment (e.g., perceived crime, access to physical activity facilities, perceived neighborhood walkability). Pairwise Pearson correlations were calculated in March 2010 to compare Walk Score to subjective/objective measures of neighborhood walkability. Significant positive correlations were identified between Walk Score and several objective (e.g., street connectivity, residential density and access to public transit provisions) and subjective (e.g., summed score of the physical activity environment) measures of the physical activity environment. However, positive correlations also were observed between Walk Score and crime. Collectively, these findings support Walk Score as a free, easy-to-use, and quick proxy of neighborhood density and access to nearby amenities. However, positive associations between Walk Score and reported crime highlight a limitation of Walk Score and warrant caution of its use. Copyright © 2010 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Concordance of commercial data sources for neighborhood-effects studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoehner, Christine M; Schootman, Mario

    2010-07-01

    Growing evidence supports a relationship between neighborhood-level characteristics and important health outcomes. One source of neighborhood data includes commercial databases integrated with geographic information systems to measure availability of certain types of businesses or destinations that may have either favorable or adverse effects on health outcomes; however, the quality of these data sources is generally unknown. This study assessed the concordance of two commercial databases for ascertaining the presence, locations, and characteristics of businesses. Businesses in the St. Louis, Missouri area were selected based on their four-digit Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) codes and classified into 14 business categories. Business listings in the two commercial databases were matched by standardized business name within specified distances. Concordance and coverage measures were calculated using capture-recapture methods for all businesses and by business type, with further stratification by census-tract-level population density, percent below poverty, and racial composition. For matched listings, distance between listings and agreement in four-digit SIC code, sales volume, and employee size were calculated. Overall, the percent agreement was 32% between the databases. Concordance and coverage estimates were lowest for health-care facilities and leisure/entertainment businesses; highest for popular walking destinations, eating places, and alcohol/tobacco establishments; and varied somewhat by population density. The mean distance (SD) between matched listings was 108.2 (179.0) m with varying levels of agreement in four-digit SIC (percent agreement = 84.6%), employee size (weighted kappa = 0.63), and sales volume (weighted kappa = 0.04). Researchers should cautiously interpret findings when using these commercial databases to yield measures of the neighborhood environment.

  6. The influence of neighborhood unemployment on mortality after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unrath, Michael; Wellmann, Jürgen; Diederichs, Claudia; Binse, Lisa; Kalic, Marianne; Heuschmann, Peter Ulrich; Berger, Klaus

    2014-07-01

    Few studies have investigated the impact of neighborhood characteristics on mortality after stroke. Aim of our study was to analyze the influence of district unemployment as indicator of neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES-NH) on poststroke mortality, and to compare these results with the mortality in the underlying general population. Our analyses involve 2 prospective cohort studies from the city of Dortmund, Germany. In the Dortmund Stroke Register (DOST), consecutive stroke patients (N=1883) were recruited from acute care hospitals. In the Dortmund Health Study (DHS), a random general population sample was drawn (n=2291; response rate 66.9%). Vital status was ascertained in the city's registration office and information on district unemployment was obtained from the city's statistical office. We performed multilevel survival analyses to examine the association between district unemployment and mortality. The association between neighborhood unemployment and mortality was weak and not statistically significant in the stroke cohort. Only stroke patients exposed to the highest district unemployment (fourth quartile) had slightly higher mortality risks. In the general population sample, higher district unemployment was significantly associated with higher mortality following a social gradient. After adjustment for education, health-related behavior and morbidity was made the strength of this association decreased. The impact of SES-NH on mortality was different for stroke patients and the general population. Differences in the association between SES-NH and mortality may be partly explained by disease-related characteristics of the stroke cohort such as homogeneous lifestyles, similar morbidity profiles, medical factors, and old age. Copyright © 2014 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Neighborhood fast food availability and fast food consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Oexle, Nathalie; Barnes, Timothy L; Blake, Christine E; Bell, Bethany A; Liese, Angela D

    2015-01-01

    Recent nutritional and public health research has focused on how the availability of various types of food in a person’s immediate area or neighborhood influences his or her food choices and eating habits. It has been theorized that people living in areas with a wealth of unhealthy fast-food options may show higher levels of fast-food consumption, a factor that often coincides with being overweight or obese. However, measuring food availability in a particular area is difficult to achieve con...

  8. The Context of Voting: Does Neighborhood Ethnic Diversity Affect Turnout?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bhatti, Yosef; Danckert, Bolette; Hansen, Kasper Møller

    2017-01-01

    natives’ propensity to vote to any substantive extent, irrespective of how the size of the neighborhood is specified. This finding cannot be ascribed to lack of statistical power. Hereby, the study provides an important contribution to the existing knowledge regarding the democratic consequences...... (mobilization theory), diminishes social cohesion that in turn makes voters likely to withdraw from voting (marginalization theory), or does not impact turnout at all. This study is one of the first to investigate the question using individual-level longitudinal data, which adds substantially to the causal...

  9. Neighborhood semantics for modal many-valued logics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cintula, Petr; Noguera, Carles

    online 18 October 2017 (2018) ISSN 0165-0114 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GF15-34650L EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 689176 - SYSMICS Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) JSPS-16-08; Austrian Science Fund(AT) I1897-N25 Program:Bilaterální spolupráce Institutional support: RVO:67985807 ; RVO:67985556 Keywords : mathematical fuzzy logic * modal fuzzy logics * neighborhood frames * Kripke semantics * many-valued logics Subject RIV: BA - Gen eral Mathematics; BA - Gen eral Mathematics (UTIA-B) Impact factor: 2.718, year: 2016

  10. Neighborhood semantics for modal many-valued logics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Cintula, Petr; Noguera, Carles

    online 18 October 2017 (2018) ISSN 0165-0114 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GF15-34650L EU Projects: European Commission(XE) 689176 - SYSMICS Grant - others:AV ČR(CZ) JSPS-16-08; Austrian Science Fund(AT) I1897-N25 Program:Bilaterální spolupráce Institutional support: RVO:67985807 ; RVO:67985556 Keywords : mathematical fuzzy logic * modal fuzzy logics * neighborhood frames * Kripke semantics * many-valued logics Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics; BA - General Mathematics (UTIA-B) Impact factor: 2.718, year: 2016

  11. Nearby, Well Known. The Parochial Realm of Neighborhoods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarethe Kusenbach

    2011-03-01

    urba neighborhoods often fail to notice that their research areas are typically slices of the parochial realm, meaning a social territory that is not unique to cities but also common in suburbs and even small towns. Of course, there can be huge differences between an urban hood and a small town quarter yet both share important characteristics which some urban scholars overlook in their belief that city boundaries, density and diversity, or a certain look and feel guarantee the urban-ness of their research areas.

  12. Perceived Neighborhood Safety Better Predicts Risk of Mortality for Whites than Blacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Assari, Shervin

    2016-11-07

    The current study had two aims: (1) to investigate whether single-item measures of subjective evaluation of neighborhood (i.e., perceived neighborhood safety and quality) predict long-term risk of mortality and (2) to test whether these associations depend on race and gender. The data came from the Americans' Changing Lives Study (ACL), 1986-2011, a nationally representative longitudinal cohort of 3361 Black and White adults in the USA. The main predictors of interest were perceived neighborhood safety and perceived neighborhood quality, as measured in 1986 using single items and treated as dichotomous variables. Mortality due to all internal and external causes was the main outcome. Confounders included baseline age, socioeconomic status (education, income), health behaviors (smoking, drinking, and exercise), and health (chronic medical conditions, self-rated health, and depressive symptoms). Race and gender were focal effect modifiers. Cox proportional hazard models were ran in the pooled sample and stratified by race and gender. In the pooled sample, low perceived neighborhood safety and quality predicted increased risk of mortality due to all causes as well as internal causes, net of all covariates. Significant interaction was found between race and perceived neighborhood safety on all-cause mortality, indicating a stronger association for Whites compared to Blacks. Race did not interact with perceived neighborhood quality on mortality. Gender also did not interact with perceived neighborhood safety or quality on mortality. Perceived neighborhood safety and quality were not associated with mortality due to external causes. Findings suggest that single items are appropriate for the measurement of perceived neighborhood safety and quality. Our results also suggest that perceived neighborhood safety better predicts increased risk of mortality over the course of 25 years among Whites than Blacks.

  13. Examining the social porosity of environmental features on neighborhood sociability and attachment.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John R Hipp

    Full Text Available The local neighborhood forms an integral part of our lives. It provides the context through which social networks are nurtured and the foundation from which a sense of attachment and cohesion with fellow residents can be established. Whereas much of the previous research has examined the role of social and demographic characteristic in relation to the level of neighboring and cohesion, this paper explores whether particular environmental features in the neighborhood affect social porosity. We define social porosity as the degree to which social ties flow over the surface of a neighborhood. The focus of our paper is to examine the extent to which a neighborhood's environmental features impede the level of social porosity present among residents. To do this, we integrate data from the census, topographic databases and a 2010 survey of 4,351 residents from 146 neighborhoods in Australia. The study introduces the concepts of wedges and social holes. The presence of two sources of wedges is measured: rivers and highways. The presence of two sources of social holes is measured: parks and industrial areas. Borrowing from the geography literature, several measures are constructed to capture how these features collectively carve up the physical environment of neighborhoods. We then consider how this influences residents' neighboring behavior, their level of attachment to the neighborhood and their sense of neighborhood cohesion. We find that the distance of a neighborhood to one form of social hole-industrial areas-has a particularly strong negative effect on all three dependent variables. The presence of the other form of social hole-parks-has a weaker negative effect. Neighborhood wedges also impact social interaction. Both the length of a river and the number of highway fragments in a neighborhood has a consistent negative effect on neighboring, attachment and cohesion.

  14. Neighborhood Crime-Related Safety and Its Relation to Children's Physical Activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kneeshaw-Price, Stephanie H; Saelens, Brian E; Sallis, James F; Frank, Lawrence D; Grembowski, David E; Hannon, Peggy A; Smith, Nicholas L; Chan, K C Gary

    2015-06-01

    Crime is both a societal safety and public health issue. Examining different measures and aspects of crime-related safety and their correlations may provide insight into the unclear relationship between crime and children's physical activity. We evaluated five neighborhood crime-related safety measures to determine how they were interrelated. We then explored which crime-related safety measures were associated with children's total moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and MVPA in their neighborhoods. Significant positive correlations between observed neighborhood incivilities and parents' perceptions of general crime and disorder were found (r = 0.30, p = 0.0002), as were associations between parents' perceptions of general crime and disorder and perceptions of stranger danger (r = 0.30, p = 0.0002). Parent report of prior crime victimization in their neighborhood was associated with observed neighborhood incivilities (r = 0.22, p = 0.007) and their perceptions of both stranger danger (r = 0.24, p = 0.003) and general crime and disorder (r = 0.37, p crime within the census block group in which children lived was associated with less physical activity, both total and in their neighborhood (beta = -0.09, p = 0.005, beta = -0.01, p = 0.02, respectively). Neighborhood-active children living in the lowest crime-quartile neighborhoods based on police reports had 40 min more of total MVPA on average compared to neighborhood-active children living in the highest crime-quartile neighborhoods. Findings suggest that police reports of neighborhood crime may be contributing to lower children's physical activity.

  15. Direct and indirect effects of neighborhood characteristics on the perpetration of dating violence across adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Ling-Yin; Foshee, Vangie A; Reyes, Heathe Luz McNaughton; Ennett, Susan T; Halpern, Carolyn T

    2015-03-01

    Neighborhood context plays a role in the development of adolescent health risk behaviors, but few studies have investigated the influence of neighborhoods on the perpetration of dating violence. This longitudinal study examined the direct effects of risky neighborhood structural and physical characteristics on trajectories of the perpetration of dating violence, tested whether collective efficacy mediated these relationships, and determined if the effects varied by the sex of the adolescent. Adolescent data are from a multi-wave longitudinal study from grades 8 to 12; neighborhood data were collected from parents' interviews and U.S. Census data. Multilevel growth curve models were conducted with 3,218 students; the sample was 50% male, 41% White, 50% Black, and 9% other race/ethnicity. In models examining risky neighborhood variables one at a time, and controlling for potential individual-level confounders, the sex of the adolescent interacted with economic disadvantage, residential instability, and physical disorder; these risky neighborhood characteristics increased risk for girls' but not boys' perpetrating of dating violence. In full models with all of the risky neighborhood variables, the sex of the adolescent continued to interact with neighborhood economic disadvantage; living in economically disadvantaged neighborhoods increased girls' but not boys' risk for dating violence across all ages. No other risky neighborhood effects were found for boys or girls. Collective efficacy did not mediate the relationships between other neighborhood characteristics and the outcome. These findings suggest that dating violence prevention strategies for girls should consider the contexts in which they live rather than only targeting changes in their individual characteristics.

  16. The Fragility of Turf: The Neighborhoods of New York City. New York State History Themes #1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkleman, Michael

    People continue to define themselves, their lifestyles, and their beliefs through their neighborhoods--their turf. In studying the history of New York City neighborhoods, it is important to consider the developmental trends and constraints (geography, economic structure, transportation, and technological advances) that contributed to the growth of…

  17. Influences of Neighborhood Context, Individual History and Parenting Behavior on Recidivism among Juvenile Offenders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunwald, Heidi E.; Lockwood, Brian; Harris, Philip W.; Mennis, Jeremy

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of neighborhood context on juvenile recidivism to determine if neighborhoods influence the likelihood of reoffending. Although a large body of literature exists regarding the impact of environmental factors on delinquency, very little is known about the effects of these factors on juvenile recidivism. The sample…

  18. Neighborhood Social Mix and Adults’ Income Trajectories: Longitudinal Evidence from Stockholm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Galster, G.; Andersson, R.; Musterd, S.

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the relationship between neighborhood income composition and income trajectories of adults, employing annual panel data from Stockholm over the 1991–2008 period and multiple measures of neighborhood income mix. We advance the human geography literature in three ways by quantifying

  19. Neighborhood Characteristics as Predictors of Male to Female and Female to Male Partner Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caetano, Raul; Ramisetty-Mikler, Suhasini; Harris, T. Robert

    2010-01-01

    This article examines the association between neighborhood characteristics at the census tract-level, couples' perceived neighborhood social cohesion and informal social control, and male-to-female (MFPV) and female-to-male (FMPV) partner violence in the United States. Data come from a second wave of interviews (2000) with a national sample of…

  20. Measuring neighborhood connection and the association with violence in young adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widome, Rachel; Sieving, Renee E; Harpin, Scott A; Hearst, Mary O

    2008-11-01

    The objectives of this study were to construct measures of adolescent neighborhood connection and test the association of these measures with violence-related behaviors. This study uses data from the baseline Lead Peace-Plus evaluation survey completed by sixth-grade students (n = 118). The survey was conducted in Fall 2006 in four urban community schools with similar ethnically diverse and economically disadvantaged student bodies. The survey instrument, tailored for adolescents, included questions about violence involvement in the past year, as well as youth perceptions of and interactions with others in their neighborhood. Exploratory factor analysis was employed to construct neighborhood connectedness scales. Mixed-model logistic regression was used to examine relationships of these scales with students' violent behaviors, adjusting for age, gender and ethnicity. Exploratory factor analysis yielded two factors. The first factor, intention to contribute, was composed of five items (alpha = .86) that indicated whether adolescents value and intend to work to improve their neighborhoods. The factor, neighborhood social resources, was composed of eight items (alpha = .76) that reflected adolescents' familiarity with neighbors and perceptions that their neighbors could provide support. Students with lower levels of both neighborhood connection measures were more likely to report violent behaviors in the past year. However, the trends were statistically significant only for relationships between intention to contribute and violence indicators. Neighborhood connection can be measured with reliability in middle school students. Cultivating young adolescents' intentions to contribute to their neighborhoods may be an effective strategy for reducing youth violence.

  1. Neighborhood Social Influence and Welfare Receipt in Sweden: A Panel Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mood, Carina

    2010-01-01

    This article places the choice to claim welfare benefits in a social context by studying how neighborhood welfare receipt affects welfare receipt among couples in Stockholm, Sweden. It is expected that the propensity to claim welfare should increase with welfare use in the neighborhood, primarily through stigma reduction and increasing…

  2. 77 FR 23675 - Applications for New Awards; Promise Neighborhoods Program-Implementation Grant Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-20

    ... education and successfully transition to college and a career. A Promise Neighborhood is both a place and a... report talking with their child about the importance of college and career; or --possible fourth... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Applications for New Awards; Promise Neighborhoods Program...

  3. Perceived Neighborhood Social Disorder and Attitudes toward Reporting Domestic Violence against Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, Enrique; Herrero, Juan

    2007-01-01

    This study aims to explore the relationship between perceived neighborhood social disorder and attitudes toward reporting domestic violence against women. Data from a national representative sample (N = 14,994) of Spaniards 18 years old and older were used. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that perceived neighborhood social…

  4. A New Neighborhood Every Fall: Aging in Place in a College Town.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Kathleen H

    Older adults who live in residential neighborhoods adjacent to college and university campuses have a unique experience that makes them vulnerable to marginalization and displacement. As these neighborhoods become increasingly dominated by college students living in rental properties, older adults find themselves in the minority in a neighborhood where they have lived for many years. In addition, these neighborhoods are attractive to universities, city governments, and private companies for their development potential, which can result in gentrification. A year-long ethnographic study of a campus-adjacent neighborhood in a small US college town that is home to a medium-sized public university sheds light on the relationships between members of 5 stakeholder groups that have a vested interest in the neighborhood. The study highlights the need for additional research on different types of neighborhoods and their effects on aging in place in addition to outlining social work interventions in campus-adjacent neighborhoods that are designed to enhance these intergenerational spaces.

  5. School Choice, Gentrification, and the Variable Significance of Racial Stratification in Urban Neighborhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearman, Francis A., III; Swain, Walker A.

    2017-01-01

    Racial and socioeconomic stratification have long governed patterns of residential sorting in the American metropolis. However, recent expansions of school choice policies that allow parents to select schools outside their neighborhood raise questions as to whether this weakening of the neighborhood-school connection might influence the…

  6. The social context moderates the relationships between neighborhood safety and adolescents’ physical activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Background. Previous studies of neighborhood safety and physical (in)activity have typically neglected to consider the youth’s peer context as a modifier of these relationships. Objective. Test the independent and interactive effects of perceived neighborhood safety and time spent with friends and p...

  7. Neighborhood predictors of dating violence victimization and perpetration in young adulthood: a multilevel study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Sonia; Buka, Stephen L; Subramanian, S V; Molnar, Beth E

    2010-09-01

    We examined whether social processes of neighborhoods, such as collective efficacy, during individual's adolescent years affect the likelihood of being involved in physical dating violence during young adulthood. Using longitudinal data on 633 urban youths aged 13 to 19 years at baseline and data from their neighborhoods (collected by the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods), we ran multilevel linear regression models separately by gender to assess the association between collective efficacy and physical dating violence victimization and perpetration, controlling for individual covariates, neighborhood poverty, and perceived neighborhood violence. Females were significantly more likely than were males to be perpetrators of dating violence during young adulthood (38% vs 19%). Multilevel analyses revealed some variation in dating violence at the neighborhood level, partly accounted for by collective efficacy. Collective efficacy was predictive of victimization for males but not females after control for confounders; it was marginally associated with perpetration (P=.07). The effects of collective efficacy varied by neighborhood poverty. Finally, a significant proportion (intraclass correlation=14%-21%) of the neighborhood-level variation in male perpetration remained unexplained after modeling. Community-level strategies may be useful in preventing dating violence.

  8. In the Shadow of the Ivory Tower: Neighborhood Relations in a College Town

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Kathleen H.

    2013-01-01

    Residential neighborhoods adjacent to a higher education institution are home to diverse groups of people who share neither a common sense of community (McMillan & Chavis, 1986) nor the same degree of attachment to place (Low & Altman, 1992). These neighborhoods are characterized by transience and a lack of cohesion. They are highly prized…

  9. Neighborhood Disadvantage, Stressful Life Events, and Adjustment among Mexican American Early Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roosa, Mark W.; Burrell, Ginger L.; Nair, Rajni L.; Coxe, Stefany; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Knight, George P.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined a stress process model in which stressful life events and association with delinquent peers mediated the relationship of neighborhood disadvantage to Mexican American early adolescents' mental health. The authors also proposed that child gender, child generation, and neighborhood informal social control would moderate the…

  10. Children's Residential Mobility and Neighborhood Environment following Parental Divorce and Remarriage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    South, Scott J.; Crowder, Kyle D.; Trent, Katherine

    1998-01-01

    Longitudinal data from the Panel Study of Income Dynamics show that parental divorce sharply increases probabilities that children will move out of their neighborhoods and will move to poorer neighborhoods. These outcomes are especially pronounced for African Americans and children whose parents were previously homeowners. Remarriage also has…

  11. Perceived Neighborhood Social Disorder and Residents' Attitudes toward Reporting Child Physical Abuse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracia, Enrique; Herrero, Juan

    2006-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed to explore the relationship between perceived neighborhood social disorder and attitudes toward reporting child physical abuse. Method: Data from a national probabilistic sample (N = 9,759) were used. Responses about the perception of neighborhood social disorder, perceived frequency of child physical abuse in Spanish…

  12. The Relationship Between Neighborhood Quality and Obesity among Children. NBER Working Paper No. 14985

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, Bisakha; Mennemeyer, Stephen; Gary, Lisa C.

    2009-01-01

    It has long been posited by scientists that we need to have a better understanding in the role that larger contextual factors -- like neighborhood quality and the built environment -- may have on the nation's obesity crisis. This paper explores whether maternal perceptions of neighborhood quality affect children's bodyweight outcomes, and whether…

  13. Changes in smoking, sports participation and overweight: Does neighborhood prevalence matter?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blok, D.J.; Vlas, S.J. de; Empelen, P. van; Richardus, J.H.; Lenthe, F.J. van

    2013-01-01

    We investigated whether the prevalence of health-related behaviors and overweight in neighborhoods is associated with changes in smoking, sports participation and overweight over 13 years of follow-up in Dutch adults residing in 86 neighborhoods of Eindhoven in 1991. We showed that living in

  14. Living environment matters: relationships between neighborhood characteristics and health of the residents in a Dutch municipality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putrik, Polina; de Vries, Nanne K.; Mujakovic, Suhreta; van Amelsvoort, Ludovic; Kant, Ijmert; Kunst, Anton E.; van Oers, Hans; Jansen, Maria

    2015-01-01

    Characteristics of an individual alone cannot exhaustively explain all the causes of poor health, and neighborhood of residence have been suggested to be one of the factors that contribute to health. However, knowledge about aspects of the neighborhood that are most important to health is limited.

  15. Living environment matters : Relationships between neighborhood characteristics and health of the residents in a Dutch municipality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putrik, P.; de Vries, N.K.; Mujakovic, S.; van Amelsvoort, L.; Kant, IJ.; Kunst, A.E.; van Oers, J.A.M.; Jansen, M.

    2015-01-01

    Characteristics of an individual alone cannot exhaustively explain all the causes of poor health, and neighborhood of residence have been suggested to be one of the factors that contribute to health. However, knowledge about aspects of the neighborhood that are most important to health is limited.

  16. Puzzling patterns in neighborhood change: upgrading and downgrading in highly regulated urban housing markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Teernstra, A.B.; van Gent, W.P.C.

    2012-01-01

    This study disentangles the relationship between income and real estate value development in Dutch urban neighborhoods. Within the literature on upgrading and downgrading, it is often assumed that neighborhood income and real estate value development are strongly linked. The results reported

  17. Ageism and social integration of older adults in their neighborhoods in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vitman, Adi; Iecovich, Esther; Alfasi, Nurit

    2014-04-01

    The article aims to examine the extent to which ageism is connected with the social integration of older adults in their neighborhoods and to identify factors that explain social integration. A convenience sample that included 300 older adults aged 65 and older and 300 younger people under the age of 65 who resided in 3 neighborhoods in Tel-Aviv with varied socioeconomic status were interviewed. Kogan's Attitudes toward Old People scale was used to probe ageism. Social integration index included 3 dimensions: frequency of participation in activities in the neighborhood, familiarity with neighbors, and sense of neighborhood. Hierarchical regression analyses examined 3 groups of independent variables: older adults' sociodemographic characteristics, their perceived health and outdoor mobility, and neighborhoods' characteristics including level of ageism. Neighborhoods varied by levels of ageism and social integration. Higher level of social integration of older neighborhoods' residents was explained by a combination of factors: younger age, better self-rated health, and fewer limitations of outdoor mobility, lower levels of ageism reported by a sample of younger respondents, and higher socioeconomic status of the neighborhood. To enable better social integration, intergeneration programs should be developed to decrease ageism, and in order to make communities more age-friendly, there is need to facilitate accessibility to services and public spaces.

  18. 75 FR 1058 - President's Advisory Council for Faith-based and Neighborhood Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-08

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES President's Advisory Council for Faith-based and...-463), the President's Advisory Council for Faith-based and Neighborhood Partnerships announces the following meeting: Name: President's Advisory Council for Faith-based and Neighborhood Partnerships Council...

  19. 75 FR 5331 - President's Advisory Council for Faith-Based and Neighborhood Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-02

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES President's Advisory Council for Faith-Based and...-463), the President's Advisory Council for Faith-Based and Neighborhood Partnerships announces the following meeting: Name: President's Advisory Council for Faith-Based and Neighborhood Partnerships Council...

  20. 75 FR 4822 - President's Advisory Council for Faith-Based and Neighborhood Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-29

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES President's Advisory Council for Faith-Based and...-463), the President's Advisory Council for Faith-based and Neighborhood Partnerships announces the following meeting: Name: President's Advisory Council for Faith-based and Neighborhood Partnerships Council...

  1. 75 FR 8079 - President's Advisory Council on Faith-Based and Neighborhood Partnerships

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-23

    ... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES President's Advisory Council on Faith-Based and...-463), the President's Advisory Council on Faith-Based and Neighborhood Partnerships announces the following meetings: Name: President's Advisory Council on Faith-based and Neighborhood Partnerships Council...

  2. Inequalities in neighborhood child asthma admission rates and underlying community characteristics in one US county.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Andrew F; Moncrief, Terri; Huang, Bin; Simmons, Jeffrey M; Sauers, Hadley; Chen, Chen; Kahn, Robert S

    2013-08-01

    To characterize variation and inequalities in neighborhood child asthma admission rates and to identify associated community factors within one US county. This population-based prospective, observational cohort study consisted of 862 sequential child asthma admissions among 167 653 eligible children ages 1-16 years in Hamilton County, Ohio. Admissions occurred at a tertiary-care pediatric hospital and accounted for nearly 95% of in-county asthma admissions. Neighborhood admission rates were assessed by geocoding addresses to city- and county-defined neighborhoods. The 2010 US Census provided denominator data. Neighborhood admission distribution inequality was assessed by the use of Gini and Robin Hood indices. Associations between neighborhood rates and socioeconomic and environmental factors were assessed using ANOVA and linear regression. The county admission rate was 5.1 per 1000 children. Neighborhood rates varied significantly by quintile: 17.6, 7.7, 4.9, 2.2, and 0.2 admissions per 1000 children (P asthma admission rates varied 88-fold across neighborhood quintiles in one county; a reduction of the county-wide admission rate to that of the bottom quintile would decrease annual admissions from 862 to 34. A rate of zero was present in 15 neighborhoods, which is evidence of what may be attainable. Copyright © 2013 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Perceived and Objectively-Measured Neighborhood Violence and Adolescent Psychological Distress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman-Mellor, Sidra; Margerison-Zilko, Claire; Allen, Kristina; Cerda, Magdalena

    2016-10-01

    Prior research examining links between neighborhood violence and mental health has not been able to establish whether it is perceived levels of neighborhood violence, or actual levels of violent crime, that matter most for adolescents' psychological well-being. In this study, we ascertained both perceived neighborhood safety and objectively-measured neighborhood-level violent crime (using a novel geospatial index of police-reported crime incidents) for 4464 adolescent respondents from the California Health Interview Survey (CHIS 2011-2014). We used propensity score-matched regression models to examine associations between these measures and CHIS adolescents' symptoms of psychological distress. We found that adolescents who perceived their neighborhood to be unsafe were two times more likely than those who perceived their neighborhood to be safe to report serious psychological distress (OR = 2.4, 95 % CI = 1.20, 4.96). Adolescents who lived in areas objectively characterized by high levels of violent crime, however, were no more likely than their peers in safer areas to be distressed (OR = 1.41; 95 % CI = 0.60, 3.32). Our results suggest that, at the population level, adolescents' perceptions of neighborhood violence, rather than objective levels of neighborhood crime, are most salient for their mental health.

  4. Temporary integration, resilient inequality: race and neighborhood change in the transition to adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, Patrick

    2012-08-01

    This article focuses on neighborhood and geographic change arising with the first "selection" of an independent residential setting: the transition out of the family home. Data from two sources-the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, and the Panel Study of Income Dynamics-are used to provide complementary analyses of trajectories of change in geographic location and neighborhood racial and economic composition during young adulthood. Findings indicate that for young adults who originate in segregated urban areas and remain in such areas, the period of young adulthood is characterized by continuity in neighborhood conditions and persistent racial inequality from childhood to adulthood. For young adults who exit highly segregated urban areas, this period is characterized by a substantial leveling of racial inequality, with African Americans moving into less-poor, less-segregated neighborhoods. However, the trend toward racial equality in young adulthood is temporary, as the gaps between whites and blacks grow as the young adults move further into adulthood. Crucial to the reemergence of racial inequality in neighborhood environments is the process of "unselected" change, or change in neighborhood conditions that occurs around young adults after they move to a new neighborhood environment.

  5. Affiliation to Youth Gangs during Adolescence: The Interaction between Childhood Psychopathic Tendencies and Neighborhood Disadvantage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dupere, Veronique; Lacourse, Eric; Willms, J. Douglas; Vitaro, Frank; Tremblay, Richard E.

    2007-01-01

    Because youth gangs tend to cluster in disadvantaged neighborhoods, adolescents living in such neighborhoods are more likely to encounter opportunities to join youth gangs. However, in the face of these opportunities, not all adolescents respond in the same manner. Those with preexisting psychopathic tendencies might be especially likely to join.…

  6. Does Growing Up in a High Crime Neighborhood Affect Youth Criminal Behavior?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil; Dustmann, Christian

    2014-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of early exposure to neighborhood crime on subsequent criminal behavior of youth exploiting a unique natural experiment between 1986 and 1998 when refugee immigrants to Denmark were assigned to neighborhoods quasi-randomly. We find strong evidence that the share...

  7. Longitudinal Associations of Neighborhood Collective Efficacy and Maternal Corporal Punishment with Behavior Problems in Early Childhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Julie; Grogan-Kaylor, Andrew

    2017-01-01

    Neighborhood and parenting influences on early behavioral outcomes are strongly dependent upon a child's stage of development. However, little research has jointly considered the longitudinal associations of neighborhood and parenting processes with behavior problems in early childhood. To address this limitation, this study explores the…

  8. Neighborhood and family intersections: prospective implications for Mexican American adolescents' mental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Rebecca M B; Roosa, Mark W; Zeiders, Katharine H

    2012-10-01

    We present an integrated model for understanding Mexican American youth mental health within family, neighborhood, and cultural contexts. We combined two common perspectives on neighborhood effects to hypothesize that (a) parents' perceptions of neighborhood risk would negatively impact their children's mental health by disrupting key parenting and family processes, and (b) objective neighborhood risk would alter the effect parent and family processes had on youth mental health. We further incorporated a cultural perspective to hypothesize that an ethnic minority group's culture-specific values may support parents to successfully confront neighborhood risk. We provided a conservative test of the integrated model by simultaneously examining three parenting and family process variables: maternal warmth, maternal harsh parenting, and family cohesion. The hypothesized model was estimated prospectively in a diverse, community-based sample of Mexican American adolescents and their mothers (N = 749) living in the southwestern United States. Support for specific elements of the hypothesized model varied depending on the parenting or family process variable examined. For family cohesion results were consistent with the combined neighborhood perspectives. The effects of maternal warmth on youth mental health were altered by objective neighborhood risk. For harsh parenting, results were somewhat consistent with the cultural perspective. The value of the integrated model for research on the impacts of family, neighborhood, and cultural contexts on youth mental health are discussed, as are implications for preventive interventions for Mexican American families and youth. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2012 APA, all rights reserved).

  9. Visual and functional components of the built environment: a case study of urban residential neighborhoods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christopher J. Smith

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that visual and functional characteristics of neighborhoods influence the psychological well-being of residents was tested. An informal test by a survey of advertising strategies for selling real estate was first used. Second, data from a variety of published sources were used to identify some of the underlying dimensions of residential neighborhoods The...

  10. Rural Neighborhood Context, Child Care Quality, and Relationship to Early Language Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Marco, Allison; Vernon-Feagans, Lynne

    2013-08-01

    Prior research with older urban children indicates that disadvantaged neighborhood context is associated with poorer early development, including poorer verbal ability, reading recognition, and achievement scores among children. Neighborhood disadvantage in rural communities and at younger age levels may also be related to development; however this relationship has received little examination. In this study we utilize data from the Family Life Project, a representative sample of babies born to mothers in poor rural counties in North Carolina and Pennsylvania, to address questions related to the relationship between neighborhood context (disadvantage and safety) and children's early language development. We examine mediation of this relationship by child care quality. We also examine geographic isolation and collective socialization as moderators of the relationship between neighborhood context and child care quality. Results indicated that while neighborhood disadvantage did not predict children's development or child care quality, neighborhood safety predicted children's receptive language, with child care quality a partial mediator of this relationship. Collective socialization but not geographic isolation moderated the relationship between neighborhood safety and child care quality. Implications for policy, practice, and future research are discussed, including improving community safety through community policing, neighborhood watch, and social networks and increasing access to quality child care.

  11. Health-Promoting Home and Workplace Neighborhoods: Associations With Multiple Facets of Men's Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulombe, Simon; Meunier, Sophie; Cloutier, Lyne; Auger, Nathalie; Roy, Bernard; Tremblay, Gilles; de Montigny, Francine; Gaboury, Isabelle; Bernard, François-Olivier; Lavoie, Brigitte; Dion, Harold; Houle, Janie

    2017-11-01

    Despite the importance of healthy settings for health promotion, little is known about how neighborhood characteristics affect men's health. The present study aims to explore the associations between perceptions of home and workplace neighborhoods with diverse health outcomes, and to examine mediating mechanisms. A sample of 669 men members of labor unions in Quebec, Canada, completed a questionnaire assessing social and physical aspects of their work and home neighborhoods (the Health-Promoting Neighborhood Questionnaire) as well as subjective and objective health outcomes (perceived health, positive mental health, body mass index) and potential mediators (health behaviors, self-efficacy). Structural equation modeling (path analysis) revealed that the Health-Promoting Neighborhood Questionnaire was associated with all three health outcomes, either directly or indirectly through health behaviors and self-efficacy. Both home and workplace neighborhoods were associated with men's health, home neighborhood being more strongly associated. The findings suggest that physical and social aspects of neighborhood might contribute to men's health. The study highlights positive environmental levers for urban planners, policy makers, and health professionals to promote men's health.

  12. Health-Promoting Home and Workplace Neighborhoods: Associations With Multiple Facets of Men’s Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulombe, Simon; Meunier, Sophie; Cloutier, Lyne; Auger, Nathalie; Roy, Bernard; Tremblay, Gilles; de Montigny, Francine; Gaboury, Isabelle; Bernard, François-Olivier; Lavoie, Brigitte; Dion, Harold; Houle, Janie

    2016-01-01

    Despite the importance of healthy settings for health promotion, little is known about how neighborhood characteristics affect men’s health. The present study aims to explore the associations between perceptions of home and workplace neighborhoods with diverse health outcomes, and to examine mediating mechanisms. A sample of 669 men members of labor unions in Quebec, Canada, completed a questionnaire assessing social and physical aspects of their work and home neighborhoods (the Health-Promoting Neighborhood Questionnaire) as well as subjective and objective health outcomes (perceived health, positive mental health, body mass index) and potential mediators (health behaviors, self-efficacy). Structural equation modeling (path analysis) revealed that the Health-Promoting Neighborhood Questionnaire was associated with all three health outcomes, either directly or indirectly through health behaviors and self-efficacy. Both home and workplace neighborhoods were associated with men’s health, home neighborhood being more strongly associated. The findings suggest that physical and social aspects of neighborhood might contribute to men’s health. The study highlights positive environmental levers for urban planners, policy makers, and health professionals to promote men’s health. PMID:29073845

  13. Does Growing Up in a High Crime Neighborhood Affect Youth Criminal Behavior?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damm, Anna Piil; Dustmann, Christian

    Abstract: This paper investigates the effect of early exposure to neighborhood crime on subsequent criminal behavior of youth exploiting a unique natural experiment between 1986 and 1998 when refugee immigrants to Denmark were assigned to neighborhoods quasi-randomly. We find strong evidence...

  14. Cross-Lingual Neighborhood Effects in Generalized Lexical Decision and Natural Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dirix, Nicolas; Cop, Uschi; Drieghe, Denis; Duyck, Wouter

    2017-01-01

    The present study assessed intra- and cross-lingual neighborhood effects, using both a generalized lexical decision task and an analysis of a large-scale bilingual eye-tracking corpus (Cop, Dirix, Drieghe, & Duyck, 2016). Using new neighborhood density and frequency measures, the general lexical decision task yielded an inhibitory…

  15. THE DEVELOPMENT OF A STANDARDIZED NEIGHBORHOOD DEPRIVATION INDEX FOR USE WITH REPRODUCTIVE OUTCOMES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Census data are widely used for assessing neighborhood socioeconomic context. Research using census data has been inconsistent in variable choice and usually limited to single geographic areas. This paper seeks to a) outline a process for developing a neighborhood deprivation i...

  16. The Effects of Phonological Neighborhoods on Pronunciation Variation in Conversational Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yao

    2011-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the effects of phonological neighborhoods on pronunciation variation in conversational speech. Phonological neighbors are defined as words that are different in one and only one phoneme by addition, deletion and substitution. Phonological neighborhood density refers to the number of neighbors a certain word has. …

  17. The association between neighborhood disorder, social cohesion and hazardous alcohol use: A national multilevel study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuipers, M.A.; van Poppel, M.N.M.; van den Brink, W.; Wingen, M.; Kunst, A.E.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Evidence on associations of alcohol use with neighborhood disorder and social cohesion is limited. The aim of this study was to further investigate these associations. Methods: Individual data of 14,258 Dutch adults, living in 1546 neighborhoods across the Netherlands, were obtained from

  18. Maximal outerplanar graphs as chordal graphs, path-neighborhood graphs, and triangle graphs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.C. Laskar (R.C.); H.M. Mulder (Martyn); B. Novick (Beth)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractMaximal outerplanar graphs are characterized using three different classes of graphs. A path-neighborhood graph is a connected graph in which every neighborhood induces a path. The triangle graph $T(G)$ has the triangles of the graph $G$ as its vertices, two of these being adjacent

  19. Exposure to Neighborhood Affluence and Poverty in Childhood and Adolescence and Academic Achievement and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Sara; Leventhal, Tama; Dupéré, Véronique

    2014-01-01

    Evidence points to associations between the socioeconomic composition of neighborhoods and children's and adolescents' development. A minimal amount of research, however, examines how timing of exposure to neighborhood socioeconomic conditions matters. This study used longitudinal data from the NICHD Study of Early Child Care and Youth Development…

  20. Neighborhood Association Movements and the Fight for Public School in Rio de Janeiro State.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moulin, Nelly; And Others

    An exploratory study designed to analyze the evolution of neighborhood movements in Rio de Janeiro City (Brazil) focuses on actions related to the struggle for public schools. The effort seeks to determine the degree of political autonomy of the neighborhood associations and the nature of the educational demands and their relationship with the…

  1. The Development of a "Neighborhood in Solidarity" in Switzerland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwygart, Marion; Plattet, Alain; Ammor, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a case study based on the "Neighborhood in Solidarity" (NS) methodology to illustrate its application in a locality of 8,000 inhabitants in Switzerland. This specific project is proposed to exemplify the global aim of the NS methodology. That aim is to increase the integration of elderly persons in societies in order to improve their quality of life. The case study demonstrates the enhancement of the capacity of the older people to remain actively engaged in their neighborhood. The article focuses on the creation of an autonomous community of empowered older people who can resolve their own problems after a 5-year project. The construction of the local community is presented throughout the six steps of the methodology: (1) preliminary analysis, (2) diagnostic, (3) construction, (4) project design, (5) project implementation, and (6) empowerment and with three degrees of involvement (community, participative, and integrative involvement). Performance and output indicators, quality indicators, and social determinants of health assess the development of the local project. The impacts of the projects which are illustrated in this specific example motivated this publication to inspire practitioners from other countries.

  2. Automatic prediction of catalytic residues by modeling residue structural neighborhood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Passerini Andrea

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prediction of catalytic residues is a major step in characterizing the function of enzymes. In its simpler formulation, the problem can be cast into a binary classification task at the residue level, by predicting whether the residue is directly involved in the catalytic process. The task is quite hard also when structural information is available, due to the rather wide range of roles a functional residue can play and to the large imbalance between the number of catalytic and non-catalytic residues. Results We developed an effective representation of structural information by modeling spherical regions around candidate residues, and extracting statistics on the properties of their content such as physico-chemical properties, atomic density, flexibility, presence of water molecules. We trained an SVM classifier combining our features with sequence-based information and previously developed 3D features, and compared its performance with the most recent state-of-the-art approaches on different benchmark datasets. We further analyzed the discriminant power of the information provided by the presence of heterogens in the residue neighborhood. Conclusions Our structure-based method achieves consistent improvements on all tested datasets over both sequence-based and structure-based state-of-the-art approaches. Structural neighborhood information is shown to be responsible for such results, and predicting the presence of nearby heterogens seems to be a promising direction for further improvements.

  3. From neighborhood design and food options to residents' weight status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerin, Ester; Frank, Lawrence D; Sallis, James F; Saelens, Brian E; Conway, Terry L; Chapman, James E; Glanz, Karen

    2011-06-01

    This study examined associations of accessibility, availability, price, and quality of food choices and neighborhood urban design with weight status and utilitarian walking. To account for self-selection bias, data on adult residents of a middle-to-high-income neighborhood were used. Participants kept a 2-day activity/travel diary and self-reported socio-demographics, height, and weight. Geographic Information Systems data were used to objectively quantify walking-related aspects of urban design, and number of and distance to food outlets within respondents' 1km residential buffers. Food outlets were audited for availability, price, and quality of healthful food choices. Number of convenience stores and in-store healthful food choices were positively related to walking for errands which, in turn, was predictive of lower risk of being overweight/obese. Negative associations with overweight/obesity unexplained by walking were found for number of grocery stores and healthful food choices in sit-down restaurants. Aspects of urban form and food environment were associated with walking for eating purposes which, however, was not predictive of overweight/obesity. Access to diverse destinations, food outlets and healthful food choices may promote pedestrian activity and contribute to better weight regulation. Accessibility and availability of healthful food choices may lower the risk of overweight/obesity by providing opportunities for healthier dietary patterns. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Radioelement mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2010-01-01

    A high quality geochemical database is pertinent to a wide range of investigations in the earth and life sciences, and should be considered as an essential component of environmental knowledge. Natural radioactive elements associated with radioactive raw materials, the radiation environment and their health impact, form part of such a comprehensive geochemical database. Databases on radioelement mapping have been increasingly used and updated in several countries for the exploration of uranium and thorium raw materials for nuclear fuels, environmental geochemical studies and the assessment of the radiation environment. The demand for radioelement databases is expected to grow over the next decade as new applications for them are foreseen. To this end, the IAEA invited a group of experts to investigate the issues and draft a report on the current state of radioelement mapping and the development of a global radioelement baseline. In the past, based on gamma surveys for uranium exploration and field gamma spectrometry, the IAEA took a leading role in facilitating the development of methodologies and standards for the quantitative estimation of radioelement concentrations and for the geochemical mapping of radioelements.. The need for approved methodologies and standards for radioelement mapping was identified at an IAEA panel meeting in 1972. This led to IAEA technical meetings in 1973 and 1974 and the publication of the proceedings of an IAEA symposium entitled Exploration for Uranium Ore Deposits. In subsequent years, calibration standards and procedures were developed for radiometric field equipment. The standards were based on geological reference materials for laboratory gamma ray spectrometers issued by the IAEA. The information on the standards and the equipment has been documented in detail in IAEA technical reports: Preparation and Certification of IAEA Gamma ray Spectrometry Reference Materials RGU-1, RGTh-1 and RGK-1, report IAEA/RL/148 (1987); and

  5. Affective Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    . In particular, mapping environmental damage, endangered species, and human made disasters has become one of the focal point of affective knowledge production. These ‘more-than-humangeographies’ practices include notions of species, space and territory, and movement towards a new political ecology. This type...... of digital cartographies has been highlighted as the ‘processual turn’ in critical cartography, whereas in related computational journalism it can be seen as an interactive and iterative process of mapping complex and fragile ecological developments. This paper looks at computer-assisted cartography as part...

  6. Participatory maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    , performative, and participatory practice. In particular, mapping environmental damage, endangered species, and human made disasters has become one of the focal point of affective knowledge production. These ‘more-than-human- geographies’ practices include notions of species, space and territory, and movement...... towards a new political ecology. This type of digital cartographies has been highlighted as the ‘processual turn’ in critical cartography, whereas in related computational journalism it can be seen as an interactive and iterative process of mapping complex and fragile ecological developments. This paper...

  7. Neighborhood crime and depressive symptoms among African American women: Genetic moderation and epigenetic mediation of effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Man-Kit; Beach, Steven R H; Simons, Ronald L; Philibert, Robert A

    2015-12-01

    Social scientists have long recognized the important role that neighborhood crime can play in stress-related disease, but very little is known about potential biosocial mechanisms that may link the experience of living in high-crime neighborhoods with depression. The current study introduces an integrated model that combines neighborhood, genetic, and epigenetic factors. Hypotheses were tested with a sample of 99 African American women from the Family and Community Health Study (FACHS). Allele variants of the serotonin transporter gene (5-HTT) interact with neighborhood crime to predict depressive symptoms in a manner consonant with the differential susceptibility perspective. Furthermore, this association is mediated by DNA methylation of the promoter region of the serotonin transporter gene. The findings provide support for an integrated model in which changes in DNA methylation, resulting from neighborhood crime, can result in an increase or decrease in gene activity which, in turn, influences depressive symptoms. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Physical activity promotion among churchgoing Latinas in San Diego, California: does neighborhood cohesion matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Suzanna M; Arredondo, Elva M; Roesch, Scott

    2013-10-01

    This study examined the reciprocal relationship between Latinas' leisure-time physical activity and neighborhood cohesion following the implementation of a 6-month promotora-delivered pilot intervention. A one-group study design was used to promote leisure-time physical activity and build neighborhood cohesion among 143 churchgoing Latinas in San Diego, California. Using a three-wave autoregressive cross-lagged panel model, leisure-time physical activity and neighborhood cohesion (assessed at baseline, 3 and 6 months) were analyzed. Leisure-time physical activity and neighborhood cohesion increased across time. Neighborhood cohesion at 3 months predicted leisure-time physical activity at 6 months. A promotora model in the context of a faith-based setting may be appropriate to promote Latinas' leisure-time physical activity and make socioenvironmental improvements.

  9. Adolescent coping and neighborhood violence: perceptions, exposure, and urban youths' efforts to deal with danger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Andrew; Aber, Mark S; Bhana, Arvinkumar

    2004-03-01

    Neighborhood violence is a persistent source of danger, stress, and other adverse outcomes for urban youth. We examined how 140 African American and Latino adolescents coped with neighborhood danger in low, medium, and high crime neighborhoods throughout Chicago. Participants reported using a range of coping strategies (measured via a modified version of the Ways of Coping Scale; R. S. Lazarus & S. Folkman, 1984). In low and medium crime rate areas, using confrontive strategies was significantly correlated with increased exposure to violence, and no strategies were associated with perceptions of safety. Coping strategies were associated with perceived safety to a substantial degree only in high crime neighborhoods, and none were associated with exposure to violence. A k means cluster analysis identified groups that differed in coping profiles and varied in rates of exposure to violence. Moderating effects of gender, ethnicity, and neighborhood were found for both person level and variable level analyses.

  10. Duration and Timing of Exposure to Neighborhood Poverty and the Risk of Adolescent Parenthood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodtke, Geoffrey T.

    2013-01-01

    Theory suggests that the impact of neighborhood poverty depends on both the duration and timing of exposure. Previous research, however, does not properly analyze the sequence of neighborhoods to which children are exposed throughout the early life course. This study investigates the effects of different longitudinal patterns of exposure to disadvantaged neighborhoods on the risk of adolescent parenthood. It follows a cohort of children in the PSID from age 4 to 19 and uses novel methods for time-varying exposures that overcome critical limitations of conventional regression when selection processes are dynamic. Results indicate that sustained exposure to poor neighborhoods substantially increases the risk of becoming a teen parent and that exposure to neighborhood poverty during adolescence may be more consequential than exposure earlier during childhood. PMID:23720166

  11. Neighborhood Condition and Geographic Locale in Assessing HIV/STI Risk Among African American Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr, Jelani C; Valois, Robert F; Siddiqi, Arjumand; Vanable, Peter; Carey, Michael P; DiClemente, Ralph J; Romer, Daniel; Brown, Larry K; Farber, Naomi B; Salazar, Laura F

    2015-06-01

    Although region and neighborhood condition's effect on HIV/sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk has been studied separately, there is little research examining their interplay. African American adolescents (n = 1,602) from four matched cities in the Northeastern and Southeastern US completed Audio Computer Assisted Self-Interviews and submitted biospecimen samples to detect Sexually Transmitted Infections (chlamydia, gonorrhea, and trichomonas). Logistic and negative binomial regressions determined HIV/STI risk differences by region, neighborhood stress, and stress-region dyads. Northeastern participants demonstrated lower HIV/STI risk while participants from higher stress neighborhoods exhibited greater risk. Relationships between neighborhood condition and ever having anal sex (p use (p partners (p partners than participants in comparable Southeastern neighborhoods (p risk.

  12. Racial identity and academic achievement in the neighborhood context: a multilevel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrd, Christy M; Chavous, Tabbye M

    2009-04-01

    Increasingly, researchers have found relationships between a strong, positive sense of racial identity and academic achievement among African American youth. Less attention, however, has been given to the roles and functions of racial identity among youth experiencing different social and economic contexts. Using hierarchical linear modeling, the authors examined the relationship of racial identity to academic outcomes, taking into account neighborhood-level factors. The sample consisted of 564 African American eighth-graders (56% male). The authors found that neighborhood characteristics and racial identity related positively to academic outcomes, but that some relationships were different across neighborhood types. For instance, in neighborhoods low in economic opportunity, high pride was associated with a higher GPA, but in more advantaged neighborhoods, high pride was associated with a lower GPA. The authors discuss the need to take youth's contexts into account in order to understand how racial identity is active in the lives of African American youth.

  13. Affording Housing at the Expense of Health: Exploring the Housing and Neighborhood Strategies of Poor Families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Diana

    2016-05-01

    Low-income families often simultaneously encounter housing and neighborhood problems pertaining to safety, affordability, and quality issues that necessitate strategies to maximize limited budgets and ensure safety. Such constrained decisions regarding inadequate housing and poor neighborhood conditions, however, may themselves create or exacerbate health risks. Building on the survival strategies literature, this article offers rich and detailed accounts of coping and management strategies on the part of vulnerable families facing housing and neighborhood hardships. The findings are based on in-depth interviews with 72 respondents and ethnographic observations in an urban community. The results illustrate how low-income women avoid neighborhood danger by relegating family life to the home environment, thereby increasing exposure to health risks such as stress, depression, and asthma. The discussion focuses on public health literature linking housing and health and proposes the use of legal strategies and community engagement as resources to complement current approaches to housing and neighborhood problems.

  14. Organized Activity Involvement among Urban Youth: Understanding Family- and Neighborhood- Level Characteristics as Predictors of Involvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Nicole A; Bohnert, Amy M; Governale, Amy

    2018-02-22

    Research examining factors that predict youth's involvement in organized activities is very limited, despite associations with positive outcomes. Using data from 1043 youth (49% female; 46.4% Hispanic, 35.4% African American, 14.0% Caucasian, and 4.2% other) from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods, this study examined how characteristics of parents (supervision, warmth) and neighborhoods (perceived neighborhood safety and collective efficacy) predict patterns of adolescents' involvement in organized activities concurrently (i.e., intensity) and longitudinally (i.e., type and breadth). Parental supervision predicted adolescents' participation in organized activities across multiple waves. Neighborhood violence was positively associated with concurrent participation in organized activities after controlling for socioeconomic status (SES), whereas higher neighborhood collective efficacy predicted greater breadth in organized activity participation across time. These findings have important implications regarding how to attract and sustain organized activity participation for low-income, urban youth.

  15. Walk Score(TM), Perceived Neighborhood Walkability, and walking in the US.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuckel, Peter; Milczarski, William

    2015-03-01

    To investigate both the Walk Score(TM) and a self-reported measure of neighborhood walkability ("Perceived Neighborhood Walkability") as estimators of transport and recreational walking among Americans. The study is based upon a survey of a nationally-representative sample of 1224 American adults. The survey gauged walking for both transport and recreation and included a self-reported measure of neighborhood walkability and each respondent's Walk Score(TM). Binary logistic and linear regression analyses were performed on the data. The Walk Score(TM) is associated with walking for transport, but not recreational walking nor total walking. Perceived Neighborhood Walkability is associated with transport, recreational and total walking. Perceived Neighborhood Walkability captures the experiential nature of walking more than the Walk Score(TM).

  16. The effect of neighborhood structures on tabu search algorithm in solving university course timetabling problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakir, Ali; AL-Khateeb, Belal; Shaker, Khalid; Jalab, Hamid A.

    2014-12-01

    The design of course timetables for academic institutions is a very difficult job due to the huge number of possible feasible timetables with respect to the problem size. This process contains lots of constraints that must be taken into account and a large search space to be explored, even if the size of the problem input is not significantly large. Different heuristic approaches have been proposed in the literature in order to solve this kind of problem. One of the efficient solution methods for this problem is tabu search. Different neighborhood structures based on different types of move have been defined in studies using tabu search. In this paper, different neighborhood structures on the operation of tabu search are examined. The performance of different neighborhood structures is tested over eleven benchmark datasets. The obtained results of every neighborhood structures are compared with each other. Results obtained showed the disparity between each neighborhood structures and another in terms of penalty cost.

  17. Associations of Housing Mobility Interventions for Children in High-Poverty Neighborhoods With Subsequent Mental Disorders During Adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Kessler, Ronald; Duncan, Greg J.; Gennetian, Lisa A.; Katz, Lawrence F.; Kling, Jeffrey R.; Sampson, Nancy A.; Sanbonmatsu, Lisa; Zaslavsky, Alan M.; Ludwig, Jens

    2014-01-01

    Importance Youth in high-poverty neighborhoods have high rates of emotional problems. Understanding neighborhood influences on mental health is crucial for designing neighborhood-level interventions. Objective To perform an exploratory analysis of associations between housing mobility interventions for children in high-poverty neighborhoods and subsequent mental disorders during adolescence. Design, Setting, and Participants The Moving to Opportunity Demonstration from 1994 to 1998...

  18. Neighborhood-based PA and its environmental correlates: a GIS- and GPS based cross-sectional study in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, Marijke; Kamphuis, Carlijn B. M.; Pierik, Frank H.; Ettema, Dick F.; Dijst, Martin J.

    2018-01-01

    Background To improve our understanding of the neighborhood environment – physical activity (PA) relationship, it is of importance to assess associations between neighborhood environmental characteristics and neighborhood-based PA. Methods Participants’ (N = 308; 45–65 years) light PA (LPA) and moderate-vigorous PA (MVPA) within a 400, 800, and 1600 m buffer around adults’ homes was measured using accelerometers and GPS-devices. Land use data in ArcGIS provided neighborhood characteristics fo...

  19. The impact of neighborhood violence and social cohesion on smoking behaviors among a cohort of smokers in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Nancy L.; Lozano, Paula; Santillán, Edna Arillo; Shigematsu, Luz Myriam Reynales; Thrasher, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Recent increases in violent crime may impact a variety of health outcomes in Mexico. We examined relationships between neighborhood-level violence and smoking behaviors in a cohort of Mexican smokers from 2011–2012, and whether neighborhood-level social cohesion modified these relationships. Methods Data were analyzed from adult smokers and recent ex-smokers who participated in Waves 5–6 of the International Tobacco Control Mexico Survey. Self-reported neighborhood violence and social cohesion were asked of Wave 6 survey participants (n=2129 current and former smokers, n=150 neighborhoods). Neighborhood-level averages for violence and social cohesion (range 4–14 and 10–25, respectively) were assigned to individuals. We used generalized estimating equations to determine associations between neighborhood indicators and individual-level smoking intensity, quit behaviors, and relapse. Results Higher neighborhood violence was associated with higher smoking intensity (Risk Ratio (RR)=1.17, 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 1.02–1.33), and fewer quit attempts (RR=0.72, 95% CI 0.61–0.85). Neighborhood violence was not associated with successful quitting or relapse. Higher neighborhood social cohesion was associated with more quit attempts and more successful quitting. Neighborhood social cohesion modified the association between neighborhood violence and smoking intensity: in neighborhoods with higher social cohesion, as violence increased, smoking intensity decreased and in neighborhoods with lower social cohesion, as violence increased, so did smoking intensity. Conclusion In the context of recent increased violence in Mexico, smokers living in neighborhoods with more violence may smoke more cigarettes per day and make fewer quit attempts than their counterparts in less violent neighborhoods. Neighborhood social cohesion may buffer the impact of violence on smoking intensity. PMID:26043898

  20. Safety in numbers: does perceived safety mediate associations between the neighborhood social environment and physical activity among women living in disadvantaged neighborhoods?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timperio, Anna; Veitch, Jenny; Carver, Alison

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study is to examine associations between the neighborhood social environment and leisure-time physical activity (LTPA)(1) and walking among women, and whether these associations are mediated by perceived personal safety. Women (n = 3784) living in disadvantaged urban and rural neighborhoods within Victoria, Australia completed a self-administered survey on five social environment variables (neighborhood crime, neighborhood violence, seeing others walking and exercising in the neighborhood, social trust/cohesion), perceived personal safety, and their physical activity in 2007/8. Linear regression analyses examined associations between social environment variables and LTPA and walking. Potential mediating pathways were assessed using the product-of-coefficients test. Moderated mediation by urban/rural residence was examined. Each social environment variable was positively associated with engaging in at least 150 min/week of LTPA (OR = 1.16 to 1.56). Only two social environment variables, seeing others walking (OR = 1.45) and exercising (OR = 1.31), were associated with ≥ 150 min/week of walking. Perceived personal safety mediated all associations. Stronger mediation was found in urban areas for crime, violence and social trust/cohesion. The neighborhood social environment is an important influence on physical activity among women living in disadvantaged areas. Feelings of personal safety should not be included in composite or aggregate scores relating to the social environment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Air Pollutant Mapping with a Mobile Laboratory during the BEE-TEX Field Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tara I. Yacovitch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Aerodyne Mobile Laboratory was deployed to the Houston Ship Channel and surrounding areas during the Benzene and Other Toxics Exposure field study in February 2015. We evaluated atmospheric concentrations of volatile organic hydrocarbons and other hazardous air pollutants of importance to human health, including benzene, 1,3-butadiene, toluene, xylenes, ethylbenzenes, styrene, and NO 2 . Ambient concentration measurements were focused on the neighborhoods of Manchester, Harrisburg, and Galena Park. The most likely measured concentration of 1,3-butadiene in the Manchester neighborhood (0.17 ppb exceeds the Environmental Protection Agency's E-5 lifetime cancer risk level of 0.14 ppb. In all the three neighborhoods, the measured benzene concentration falls below or within the E-5 lifetime cancer risk levels of 0.4–1.4 ppb for benzene. Pollution maps as a function of wind direction show the impact of nearby sources.

  2. Energetic map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-01-01

    This report explains the energetic map of Uruguay as well as the different systems that delimits political frontiers in the region. The electrical system importance is due to the electricity, oil and derived , natural gas, potential study, biofuels, wind and solar energy

  3. Meal mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholderer, Joachim; Kügler, Jens; Olsen, Nina Veflen

    2013-01-01

    probabilities are subjected to multiple correspondence analysis and mapped into low-dimensional space. In a third step, the principal coordinates representing meal centres and side components in the correspondence analysis solution are subjected to cluster analysis to identify distinct groups of compatible...

  4. Mapping filmmaking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilje, Øystein; Frølunde, Lisbeth; Lindstrand, Fredrik

    2010-01-01

    This chapter concerns mapping patterns in regards to how young filmmakers (age 15 – 20) in the Scandinavian countries learn about filmmaking. To uncover the patterns, we present portraits of four young filmmakers who participated in the Scandinavian research project Making a filmmaker. The focus ...

  5. Participatory Maps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Salovaara-Moring, Inka

    2016-01-01

    , it can be seen as an interactive and iterative process of mapping complex and fragile ecological developments. This article looks at computer-assisted cartography as part of environmental knowledge production. It uses InfoAmazonia, the data-journalism platform on Amazon rainforests, as an example...

  6. Aging in Place in Gentrifying Neighborhoods: Implications for Physical and Mental Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Richard J; Lehning, Amanda J; Kim, Kyeongmo

    2018-01-18

    In the United States, the older adult population and the proportion of neighborhoods experiencing gentrification are both growing. However, there is limited scholarship on the effects of gentrification on older adults, with most work focusing on those who leave rather than stay. This study examines the effects of remaining in a gentrifying neighborhood on older adults' self-rated health and mental health, with particular attention to outcomes for those who are economically vulnerable. Data are from 6,810 community-dwelling respondents in metropolitan areas from the first wave of the National Health & Aging Trends Study combined with the 1970-2010 National Neighborhood Change Database. We estimate the effects of gentrification on self-rated health and mental health separately using a quasi-experimental approach and comparing two methods: matching design and linear regression. Economically vulnerable older adults in gentrifying neighborhoods reported higher self-rated health than economically vulnerable older adults in low-income neighborhoods. Both economically vulnerable and higher-income older adults in gentrifying neighborhoods had more depression and anxiety symptoms than those living in more affluent areas. Higher-income older adults in gentrifying neighborhoods had poorer mental health than their counterparts in low-income neighborhoods. Findings call attention to the complexity of gentrification, and the need for more research examining how the intersection of neighborhood and individual characteristics influences older adults' health. Results reinforce the need for neighborhood-level interventions as well as relocation support to promote health in later life and caution against an overemphasis on aging in place. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of The Gerontological Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Examining the link between neighborhood context and parental messages to their adolescent children about violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindstrom Johnson, Sarah R; Finigan, Nadine M; Bradshaw, Catherine P; Haynie, Denise L; Cheng, Tina L

    2011-07-01

    Living in violent neighborhoods has been shown to alter adolescent's social cognitions and increase aggressive behavior. A similar process may also occur for parents and result in parental support of aggressive behavior. This research examines the influence of perceived neighborhood violence and neighborhood collective efficacy on parental attitudes toward violence and the messages they give their adolescent children about how to resolve interpersonal conflict. Data were collected from 143 African American parents and their adolescent children recruited from three inner-city middle schools to participate in a parenting intervention. Models were fit using structural equation modeling in Mplus. Contrary to expectations, exposure to neighborhood violence was not predictive of either aggressive attitudes or conflict solutions for parents or adolescents. Rather, a mixed effect was found for neighborhood collective efficacy, with higher perceived neighborhood collective efficacy related to less violent attitudes for adolescents but not for parents. Collective efficacy also predicted the messages that parents gave their adolescents about interpersonal conflict, with higher collective efficacy related to messages that were less supportive of violence. Parent and adolescent perception of neighborhood collective efficacy influences the messages that adolescents receive about interpersonal conflict resolution. This suggests that for parents living in violent neighborhoods, their appraisal of the neighborhood is more important in shaping conflict resolution messages than their own experiences with violence. Parent- and family-based programs to prevent youth violence need to address neighborhood factors that influence the messages adolescents receive about how to resolve conflict. Copyright © 2011 Society for Adolescent Health and Medicine. All rights reserved.

  8. The association between sidewalk length and walking for different purposes in established neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Gavin R; Shiell, Alan; Giles-Corti, Billie; Begg, Stephen; Veerman, J Lennert; Geelhoed, Elizabeth; Amarasinghe, Anura; Emery, Jc Herb

    2012-08-01

    Walking in neighborhood environments is undertaken for different purposes including for transportation and leisure. We examined whether sidewalk availability was associated with participation in, and minutes of neighborhood-based walking for transportation (NWT) and recreation (NWR) after controlling for neighborhood self-selection. Baseline survey data from respondents (n = 1813) who participated in the RESIDential Environment (RESIDE) project (Perth, Western Australia) were used. Respondents were recruited based on their plans to move to another neighborhood in the following year. Usual weekly neighborhood-based walking, residential preferences, walking attitudes, and demographics were measured. Characteristics of the respondent's baseline neighborhood were measured including transportation-related walkability and sidewalk length. A Heckman two-stage modeling approach (multivariate Probit regression for walking participation, followed by a sample selection-bias corrected OLS regression for walking minutes) estimated the relative contribution of sidewalk length to NWT and NWR. After adjustment, neighborhood sidewalk length and walkability were positively associated with a 2.97 and 2.16 percentage point increase in the probability of NWT participation, respectively. For each 10 km increase in sidewalk length, NWT increased by 5.38 min/wk and overall neighborhood-based walking increased by 5.26 min/wk. Neighborhood walkability was not associated with NWT or NWR minutes. Moreover, sidewalk length was not associated with NWR minutes. Sidewalk availability in established neighborhoods may be differentially associated with walking for different purposes. Our findings suggest that large investments in sidewalk construction alone would yield small increases in walking.

  9. The social context moderates the relationship between neighborhood safety and adolescents' activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah-Jeanne Salvy

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Studies of neighborhood safety and physical activity have typically neglected to consider the youth's peer context as a modifier of these relationships. This study fills this gap in testing the independent and interactive effects of perceived neighborhood safety and time spent with friends and peers on young adolescents' physical activity and sedentary behavior. Participants (N = 80; ages 13–17 completed the Pedestrian/Traffic Safety and Crime Safety subscales of the adolescent version of the Neighborhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS. An experience sampling methodology was used to assess sedentary behaviors/screen time and the social context in which physical activity and sedentary time/behavior occurred. Physical activity was assessed via accelerometry. Multilevel models were used to estimate the relationships between predictors (neighborhood safety and social context and outcomes (physical activity and sedentary time/behavior. Frequency of peer/friend interactions moderated the relationships between neighborhood safety and adolescents' physical activity and sedentary behavior. Specifically, physical activity was more strongly influenced by neighborhood safety among adolescents who reported spending less time with peers and friends than among those who reported frequent peer interactions. Among youths who perceived that their neighborhoods were safer, spending more time with friends and peers was related to greater engagement in sedentary activities, whereas this was not the case among adolescents who perceived that their neighborhoods were less safe. The peer social context moderates the relationship between perceived neighborhood safety and adolescents' physical activity and sedentary behavior. Improving social interactions at the individual level within neighborhoods may decrease concerns of safety.

  10. Optimizing Scoring and Sampling Methods for Assessing Built Neighborhood Environment Quality in Residential Areas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joel Adu-Brimpong

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Optimization of existing measurement tools is necessary to explore links between aspects of the neighborhood built environment and health behaviors or outcomes. We evaluate a scoring method for virtual neighborhood audits utilizing the Active Neighborhood Checklist (the Checklist, a neighborhood audit measure, and assess street segment representativeness in low-income neighborhoods. Eighty-two home neighborhoods of Washington, D.C. Cardiovascular Health/Needs Assessment (NCT01927783 participants were audited using Google Street View imagery and the Checklist (five sections with 89 total questions. Twelve street segments per home address were assessed for (1 Land-Use Type; (2 Public Transportation Availability; (3 Street Characteristics; (4 Environment Quality and (5 Sidewalks/Walking/Biking features. Checklist items were scored 0–2 points/question. A combinations algorithm was developed to assess street segments’ representativeness. Spearman correlations were calculated between built environment quality scores and Walk Score®, a validated neighborhood walkability measure. Street segment quality scores ranged 10–47 (Mean = 29.4 ± 6.9 and overall neighborhood quality scores, 172–475 (Mean = 352.3 ± 63.6. Walk scores® ranged 0–91 (Mean = 46.7 ± 26.3. Street segment combinations’ correlation coefficients ranged 0.75–1.0. Significant positive correlations were found between overall neighborhood quality scores, four of the five Checklist subsection scores, and Walk Scores® (r = 0.62, p < 0.001. This scoring method adequately captures neighborhood features in low-income, residential areas and may aid in delineating impact of specific built environment features on health behaviors and outcomes.

  11. The Roles of Perceived Neighborhood Disorganization, Social Cohesion, and Social Control in Urban Thai Adolescents' Substance Use and Delinquency

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrnes, Hilary F.; Miller, Brenda A.; Chamratrithirong, Aphichat; Rhucharoenpornpanich, Orratai; Cupp, Pamela K.; Atwood, Katharine A.; Fongkaew, Warunee; Rosati, Michael J.; Chookhare, Warunee

    2013-01-01

    Substance use and delinquency in Thai adolescents are growing public health concerns. Research has linked neighborhood characteristics to these outcomes, with explanations focused on neighborhood disorganization, social cohesion, and social control. This study examines the independent associations of these neighborhood constructs with Thai…

  12. Urban environmental stewardship and changes in vegetative cover and building footprint in New York City neighborhoods (2000-2010)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dexter H. Locke; Kristen L. King; Erika S. Svendsen; Lindsay K. Campbell; Christopher Small; Nancy F. Sonti; Dana R. Fisher; Jacqueline W.T. Lu

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the connections between vegetation cover change, environmental stewardship, and building footprint change in New York City neighborhoods from the years 2000 to 2010. We use a mixed-methods multidisciplinary approach to analyze spatially explicit social and ecological data. Most neighborhoods lost vegetation during the study period. Neighborhoods...

  13. Neighborhood-based PA and its environmental correlates : A GIS- and GPS based cross-sectional study in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, Marijke; Kamphuis, Carlijn B.M.; Pierik, Frank H.; Ettema, Dick F.; Dijst, Martin J.

    2018-01-01

    Background: To improve our understanding of the neighborhood environment - physical activity (PA) relationship, it is of importance to assess associations between neighborhood environmental characteristics and neighborhood-based PA. Methods: Participants' (N = 308; 45-65 years) light PA (LPA) and

  14. How Does the Neighborhood "Come through the Door?" Concentrated Disadvantage, Residential Instability, and the Home Environment for Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Emily M.; Azar, Sandra T.; Matthews, Stephen A.

    2018-01-01

    Living in a disadvantaged neighborhood is associated with heightened risk for poor school readiness and health outcomes in early childhood, and the home environment is thought to be a primary mechanism by which neighborhood context impacts preschoolers. This study examined the effects of neighborhood concentrated disadvantage and neighborhood…

  15. Your House, Your Car, Your Education: The Socioeconomic Situation of the Neighborhood and Its Impact on Life Satisfaction in Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmann, Joerg; Goebel, Jan

    2010-01-01

    This study deals with the impact of socioeconomic conditions and social integration into a local neighborhood on individual life satisfaction in Germany. While the majority of ecological studies to date are based on very broad neighborhood concepts, using large research units for defining neighborhood the present study contains micro-geographic…

  16. Neighborhood Socio-Ecohydrology along a Gradient of Urbanization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson-Smith, D.; Buchert, M.; Stoker, P.; Cannon, M.; Hinners, S.; Li, S.; Endter-Wada, J.; Licon, C.; Bjerregaard, Z.; Li, E.

    2013-12-01

    The work reported here represents a fundamental building block of a larger project that attempts to build the human and research infrastructure needed to understand and tackle the challenges of water sustainability in Utah now and in the future. A major emphasis is the integration of both ecohydrologic and social science research to encompass the complexities of water dynamics in urbanizing watersheds located within arid climatic regions. Our study area includes three neighboring watersheds representing a gradient of urbanization intensity, from relatively pristine montane slopes, to agriculture-dominated rural areas, to the heart of urban Salt Lake City. In order to design an effective social and biophysical instrumentation network along this gradient, it was necessary to identify socio-ecohydrologic contexts that are meaningful and measurable expressions of the diverse ways humans occupy this landscape. Our challenge was to develop a typology of neighborhoods that would reflect combinations of measurable attributes that link urban characteristics and water system outcomes. A subset of these neighborhoods will then be selected for instrumentation and further coordinated data collection on social, engineering, biophysical, and ecological outcomes. Our urban socio-ecohydrology typology was constructed using a wide range of data to characterize Census Block Groups (CBGs) across the Wasatch Range Metropolitan Area (WRMA). CBGs are geographic areas created by the US Census and approximate ';neighborhoods' in most urban settings. Only CBGs with population densities over 50 persons per square mile were included in our typology. A wide range of independent variables were used in a statistical factor/cluster analysis to identify distinctive combinations of land cover, land use, built environment, household structure, socioeconomic status, water infrastructure, policy, and climate characteristics. Variables used in the typology classification were selected because they

  17. MAPPING INNOVATION

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thuesen, Christian Langhoff; Koch, Christian

    2011-01-01

    By adopting a theoretical framework from strategic niche management research (SNM) this paper presents an analysis of the innovation system of the Danish Construction industry. The analysis shows a multifaceted landscape of innovation around an existing regime, built around existing ways of working...... and developed over generations. The regime is challenged from various niches and the socio-technical landscape through trends as globalization. Three niches (Lean Construction, BIM and System Deliveries) are subject to a detailed analysis showing partly incompatible rationales and various degrees of innovation...... potential. The paper further discusses how existing policymaking operates in a number of tensions one being between government and governance. Based on the concepts from SNM the paper introduces an innovation map in order to support the development of meta-governance policymaking. By mapping some...

  18. Age--velocity-dispersion relation in the solar neighborhood

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlberg, R.G.; Dawson, P.C.; Hsu, T.; VandenBerg, D.A.

    1985-07-15

    The age--velocity-dispersion relation for stars in the solar neighborhood is examined as an indicator of the dominant acceleration mechanism of the stars and the formation history of the local disk. Twarog's sample of F stars, for which ages and photometric distances can be determined, is combined with astrometric data to obtain tangential velocities of a set of stars with a large age range. The resulting age--velocity-dispersion relation rises fairly steeply for stars less than 6 Gyr old, thereafter becoming nearly constant with age. These data are consistent with a simple model in which no local disk is initially present, following which stars are born at a constant rate in time and heated by transient spiral waves. The corresponding age-metallicity relation complements this dynamical measure of the formation history of the disk. The use of new stellar models and a revised metallicity calibration leads to quantitative differences from previous work.

  19. The age-velocity-dispersion relation in the solar neighborhood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlberg, R. G.; Dawson, P. C.; Hsu, T.; Vandenberg, D. A.

    1985-07-01

    The age-velocity-dispersion relation for stars in the solar neighborhood is examined as an indicator of the dominant acceleration mechanism of the stars and the formation history of the local disk. Twarog's sample of F stars, for which ages and photometric distances can be determined, is combined with astrometric data to obtain tangential velocities of a set of stars with a large age range. The resulting age-velocity-dispersion relation rises fairly steeply for stars less than 6 Gyr old, thereafter becoming nearly constant with age. These data are consistent with a simple model in which no local disk is initially present, following which stars are born at a constant rate in time and heated by transient spiral waves. The corresponding age-metallicity relation complements this dynamical measure of the formation history of the disk. The use of new stellar models and a revised metallicity calibration leads to quantitative differences from previous work.

  20. Variable neighborhood search for minimum linear arrangement problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladenović Nenad

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The minimum linear arrangement problem is widely used and studied in many practical and theoretical applications. It consists of finding an embedding of the nodes of a graph on the line such that the sum of the resulting edge lengths is minimized. This problem is one among the classical NP-hard optimization problems and therefore there has been extensive research on exact and approximative algorithms. In this paper we present an implementation of a variable neighborhood search (VNS for solving minimum linear arrangement problem. We use Skewed general VNS scheme that appeared to be successful in solving some recent optimization problems on graphs. Based on computational experiments, we argue that our approach is comparable with the state-of-the-art heuristic.

  1. Dynamic Vehicle Routing Using an Improved Variable Neighborhood Search Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yingcheng Xu

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to effectively solve the dynamic vehicle routing problem with time windows, the mathematical model is established and an improved variable neighborhood search algorithm is proposed. In the algorithm, allocation customers and planning routes for the initial solution are completed by the clustering method. Hybrid operators of insert and exchange are used to achieve the shaking process, the later optimization process is presented to improve the solution space, and the best-improvement strategy is adopted, which make the algorithm can achieve a better balance in the solution quality and running time. The idea of simulated annealing is introduced to take control of the acceptance of new solutions, and the influences of arrival time, distribution of geographical location, and time window range on route selection are analyzed. In the experiment, the proposed algorithm is applied to solve the different sizes' problems of DVRP. Comparing to other algorithms on the results shows that the algorithm is effective and feasible.

  2. Child obesity associated with social disadvantage of children's neighborhoods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grow, H Mollie Greves; Cook, Andrea J; Arterburn, David E; Saelens, Brian E; Drewnowski, Adam; Lozano, Paula

    2010-08-01

    Evidence suggests variability in adult obesity risk at a small-scale geographic area is associated with differences in neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES). However, the extent to which geographic variability in child obesity is associated with neighborhood SES is unknown. The objective of this paper was to estimate risk of child obesity associated with multiple census tract SES measures and race within a large urban U.S. county. Height, weight, age, sex, medical insurance type and census tract residence were obtained for 6-18 year old children (n=8616) who received medical care at a health plan in King County, Washington, in 2006. Spatial analyses examined the individual risk of obesity (BMI > or = 95th percentile) with 2000 US census tract measures of median household income, home ownership, adult female education level, single parent households, and race as predictors. Conditional autoregressive regression models that incorporated adjacent census tracts (spatial autocorrelation) were applied to each census tract variable, adjusting for individual variables. We found that in adjusted spatial models, child obesity risk was significantly associated with each census tract variable in the expected direction: lower household income, lower home ownership, and for each 10% increase in less educated women, and single parent households, as well as non-white residents. In a spatial model including all variables, the SES/race variables explained approximately 24% of geographic variability in child obesity. Results indicated that living in census tracts with social disadvantage defined by multiple different measures was associated with child obesity among insured children in a large U.S. urban county. These results contribute new information on relationships between broader social and economic context and child obesity risk using robust spatial analyses. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The neighborhood health exchange: developing a community partnership in residency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tartaglia, Kimberly M; Press, Valerie G; Freed, Benjamin H; Baker, Timothy; Tang, Joyce W; Cohen, Julie C; Laiteerapong, Neda; Alvarez, Kimberly; Schwartz, Mindy; Arora, Vineet M

    2010-09-01

    The current system of residency training focuses on the hospital setting, and resident exposure to the surrounding community is often limited. However, community interaction can play an important role in ambulatory training and in learning systems-based practice, a residency core competency. The goal of the Neighborhood Health Exchange was to develop a community partnership to provide internal medicine residents with an opportunity to interface with community members through a mutually beneficial educational experience. Internal medicine residents received training during their ambulatory block and participated in a voluntary field practicum designed to engage community members in discussions about their health. Community members participated in education sessions led by resident volunteers. Resident volunteers completed a survey on their experiences. All residents stated that the opportunity to lead an exchange was very useful to their overall residency training. Eight exchanges were held with a total of 61 community participants, who completed a 3-question survey following the session. This survey asked about the level of material, the helpfulness of the exchanges, and opportunities for improvement. We received 46 completed surveys from community members: 91% stated that the material was presented "at the right level" and 93% stated that the presentations were somewhat or very helpful. Eighty percent gave positive and encouraging comments about the exchange. Effective community partnerships involve assessing needs of the stakeholders, anticipating leadership turnover, and adapting the Neighborhood Health Exchange model to different groups. Community outreach can also enhance internal medicine ambulatory training experience, provide residents with patient counseling opportunities, and offer a novel method to enhance resident understanding of systems-based practice, especially within the larger community in which their patients live.

  4. Institutional racism, neighborhood factors, stress, and preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendez, Dara D; Hogan, Vijaya K; Culhane, Jennifer F

    2014-01-01

    Racial/ethnic disparities in the risk of preterm birth may be explained by various factors, and previous studies are limited in examining the role of institutional racism. This study focused on the following questions: what is the association between preterm birth and institutional racism as measured by residential racial segregation (geographic separation by race) and redlining (black-white disparity in mortgage loan denial); and what is the association between preterm birth and reported stress, discrimination, and neighborhood quality. We used data from a clinic-based sample of pregnant women (n = 3462) participating in a stress and pregnancy study conducted from 1999 to 2004 in Philadelphia, PA (USA). We linked data from the 2000 US Census and Home Mortgage Disclosure Act (HMDA) data from 1999 to 2004 and developed measures of residential redlining and segregation. Among the entire population, there was an increased risk for preterm birth among women who were older, unmarried, tobacco users, higher number of previous births, high levels of experiences of everyday discrimination, owned their homes, lived in nonredlined areas, and areas with high levels of segregation measured by the isolation index. Among black women, living in a redlined area (where blacks were more likely to be denied mortgage loans compared to whites) was moderately associated with a decreased risk of preterm birth (aRR = 0.8, 95% CI: 0.6, 0.99). Residential redlining as a form institutional racism and neighborhood characteristic may be important for understanding racial/ethnic disparities in pregnancy and preterm birth.

  5. Pioneers of Gentrification: Transformation in Global Neighborhoods in Urban America in the Late Twentieth Century

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jackelyn

    2015-01-01

    Few studies have considered the role of immigration in the rise of gentrification in the late twentieth century. Analysis of U.S. Census and American Community Survey data over 24 years and field surveys of gentrification in low-income neighborhoods across 23 U.S. cities reveal that most gentrifying neighborhoods were “global” in the 1970s or became so over time. An early presence of Asians was positively associated with gentrification; and an early presence of Hispanics was positively associated with gentrification in neighborhoods with substantial shares of blacks and negatively associated with gentrification in cities with high Hispanic growth, where ethnic enclaves were more likely to form. Low-income, predominantly black neighborhoods and neighborhoods that became Asian and Hispanic destinations remained ungentrified despite the growth of gentrification during the late twentieth century. The findings suggest that the rise of immigration after 1965 brought pioneers to many low-income central-city neighborhoods, spurring gentrification in some neighborhoods and forming ethnic enclaves in others. PMID:26689938

  6. Pioneers of Gentrification: Transformation in Global Neighborhoods in Urban America in the Late Twentieth Century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jackelyn

    2016-02-01

    Few studies have considered the role of immigration in the rise of gentrification in the late twentieth century. Analysis of U.S. Census and American Community Survey data over 24 years and field surveys of gentrification in low-income neighborhoods across 23 U.S. cities reveal that most gentrifying neighborhoods were "global" in the 1970s or became so over time. An early presence of Asians was positively associated with gentrification; and an early presence of Hispanics was positively associated with gentrification in neighborhoods with substantial shares of blacks and negatively associated with gentrification in cities with high Hispanic growth, where ethnic enclaves were more likely to form. Low-income, predominantly black neighborhoods and neighborhoods that became Asian and Hispanic destinations remained ungentrified despite the growth of gentrification during the late twentieth century. The findings suggest that the rise of immigration after 1965 brought pioneers to many low-income central-city neighborhoods, spurring gentrification in some neighborhoods and forming ethnic enclaves in others.

  7. Intimate Partner Violence and Subsequent Depression: Examining the Roles of Neighborhood Supportive Mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Emily M; Pinchevsky, Gillian M; Benson, Michael L; Radatz, Dana L

    2015-12-01

    This study examines the direct effects of neighborhood supportive mechanisms (e.g., collective efficacy, social cohesion, social networks) on depressive symptoms among females as well as their moderating effects on the impact of IPV on subsequent depressive symptoms. A multilevel, multivariate Rasch model was used with data from the Project on Human Development in Chicago Neighborhoods to assess the existence of IPV and later susceptibility of depressive symptoms among 2959 adult females in 80 neighborhoods. Results indicate that neighborhood collective efficacy, social cohesion, social interactions, and the number of friends and family in the neighborhood reduce the likelihood that females experience depressive symptoms. However, living in areas with high proportions of friends and relatives exacerbates the impact of IPV on females' subsequent depressive symptoms. The findings indicate that neighborhood supportive mechanisms impact interpersonal outcomes in both direct and moderating ways, although direct effects were more pronounced for depression than moderating effects. Future research should continue to examine the positive and potentially mitigating influences of neighborhoods in order to better understand for whom and under which circumstances violent relationships and mental health are influenced by contextual factors.

  8. Perception of neighborhood crime and drugs increases cardiometabolic risk in Chilean adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Suzanna M; Blanco, Estela; Delva, Jorge; Burrows, Raquel; Reyes, Marcela; Lozoff, Betsy; Gahagan, Sheila

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Studies report an association between neighborhood risk and both obesity and cardiometabolic risk factors (CMR) among adolescents. Here we describe the effect of perceived neighborhood risk on adiposity and CMR among Chilean adolescents. Methods Participants were 523 low- to middle-income Chilean adolescents. We assessed neighborhood risk in early adolescence, adiposity in childhood and in early and later adolescence, and blood pressure and fasting glucose in later adolescence. Neighborhood risk profiles were estimated using latent profile analysis (LPA) and based on reported perceptions of crime and drug sales/use. Using linear and logistic regression, we examined the effect of neighborhood risk on adiposity and CMR. Results Mean age in early and later adolescence was 14 and 17 years, respectively. Participants were 52% male, with a mean BMI z-score of 0.67, and 8% met criteria for the metabolic syndrome. LPA identified two neighborhood profiles: 61% low risk and 39% high risk. In later adolescence, being in the high risk profile predicted a higher BMI z-score, waist-to-height ratio, and fat mass index (p-values Chilean neighborhoods with high crime and drugs, targeted public health interventions and policies for youth could be beneficial. PMID:24411818

  9. Neighborhood characteristics, parenting styles, and children's behavioral problems in Chinese American immigrant families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Erica H; Zhou, Qing; Ly, Jennifer; Main, Alexandra; Tao, Annie; Chen, Stephen H

    2014-04-01

    Using data from a socioeconomically diverse sample of Chinese American children (n = 258, aged 6-9 years) in immigrant families, we examined the concurrent relations among neighborhood economic disadvantage and concentration of Asian residents, parenting styles, and Chinese American children's externalizing and internalizing problems. Neighborhood characteristics were measured with 2000 U.S. Census tract-level data, parents (mostly mothers) rated their own parenting styles, and parents and teachers rated children's behavioral problems. Path analysis was conducted to test two hypotheses: (a) parenting styles mediate the relations between neighborhood characteristics and children's behavioral problems, and (b) children's behavioral problems mediate the relations between neighborhood and parenting styles. We found that neighborhood Asian concentration was positively associated with authoritarian parenting, which in turn was associated with Chinese American children's higher externalizing and internalizing problems (by parents' reports). In addition, neighborhood economic disadvantage was positively related to children's externalizing problems (by parents' reports), which in turn predicted lower authoritative parenting. The current results suggest the need to consider multiple pathways in the relations among neighborhood, family, and child adjustment, and they have implications for the prevention and intervention of behavioral problems in Chinese American children.

  10. Gender equality and violent behavior: how neighborhood gender equality influences the gender gap in violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Man-Kit; Simons, Ronald L; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Edmond, Mary Bond

    2014-01-01

    Using a sample of 703 African American adolescents from the Family and Community Health Study (FACHS) along with census data from the year 2000, we examine the association between neighborhood-level gender equality and violence. We find that boys' and girls' violent behavior is unevenly distributed across neighborhood contexts. In particular, gender differences in violent behavior are less pronounced in gender-equalitarian neighborhoods compared to those characterized by gender inequality. We also find that the gender gap narrows in gender-equalitarian neighborhoods because boys' rates of violence decrease whereas girls' rates remain relatively low across neighborhoods. This is in stark contrast to the pessimistic predictions of theorists who argue that the narrowing of the gender gap in equalitarian settings is the result of an increase in girls' violence. In addition, the relationship between neighborhood gender equality and violence is mediated by a specific articulation of masculinity characterized by toughness. Our results provide evidence for the use of gender-specific neighborhood prevention programs.

  11. Multiple contexts of exposure: Activity spaces, residential neighborhoods, and self-rated health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Gregory; Denney, Justin T; Kimbro, Rachel T

    2015-12-01

    Although health researchers have made progress in detecting place effects on health, existing work has largely focused on the local residential neighborhood and has lacked a temporal dimension. Little research has integrated both time and space to understand how exposure to multiple contexts - where adults live, work, shop, worship, and seek healthcare - influence and shape health and well-being. This study uses novel longitudinal data from the Los Angeles Family and Neighborhood Survey to delve deeper into the relationship between context and health by considering residential and activity space neighborhoods weighted by the amount of time spent in these contexts. Results from multilevel cross-classified logistic models indicate that contextual exposure to disadvantage, residential or non-residential, is independently associated with a higher likelihood of reporting poor or fair health. We also find support for a contextual incongruence hypothesis. For example, adults living in the most disadvantaged neighborhoods are more likely to report poor or fair health when they spend time in more advantaged neighborhoods than in more disadvantaged ones, while residents of more advantaged neighborhoods report worse health when they spend time in more disadvantaged areas. Our results suggest that certain types of place-based cumulative exposures are associated with a sense of relative neighborhood deprivation that potentially manifests in worse health ratings. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Perceived Neighborhood Quality and Cancer Screening Behavior: Evidence from the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyer, Kirsten M M; Malecki, Kristen M; Hoormann, Kelly A; Szabo, Aniko; Nattinger, Ann B

    2016-02-01

    Socioeconomic disparities in colorectal and breast cancer screening persist, partially accounting for disparities in cancer outcomes. Some neighborhood characteristics--particularly area level socioeconomic factors--have been linked to cancer screening behavior, but few studies have examined the relationship between perceived neighborhood quality and screening behavior, which may provide more insight into the ways in which neighborhood environments shape cancer related behaviors. This study examines the relationship between several aspects of the perceived neighborhood environment and breast and colorectal cancer screening behavior among a population-based sample of Wisconsin residents. A sub-goal was to compare the relevance of different perceived neighborhood factors for different screening tests. This is a cross-sectional study of 2008-2012 data from the Survey of the Health of Wisconsin, a population-based annual survey of Wisconsin residents. An average risk sample of Black, Hispanic and White women age 50 and older (n = 1265) were selected. Survey regression analyses examined predictors of screening, as well as adherence to screening guidelines. Models controlled for individual socio-demographic information and insurance status. Perceptions of social and physical disorder, including fear of crime and visible garbage, were associated with screening rates. Findings emphasize the particular importance of these factors for colorectal cancer screening, indicating the necessity of improving screening rates in areas characterized by social disorganization, crime, and physical disorder. Additional work should be done to further investigate the pathways that explain the linkage between neighborhood conditions, perceived neighborhood risks and cancer screening behavior.

  13. Living alone and depression: the modifying role of the perceived neighborhood environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stahl, Sarah T; Beach, Scott R; Musa, Donald; Schulz, Richard

    2017-10-01

    Older adults who live alone are more likely to report feelings of depression than those who live with a spouse or other family members. This study examines the effects of residential status and perceived neighborhood characteristics on depression in middle-aged and older adults. This study is based on a probability sample of 1049 adults aged 55-98 years (M = 69 years) residing in Allegheny County, Pittsburgh, PA, USA in 2014. Thirty percent of participants reported living alone. We tested a multivariate model using living alone (vs. living with a family member or others) and perceived neighborhood physical and social quality as predictors of depressive symptomatology while controlling for age, sex, race, education, and disability. Living alone (compared to living with a family member) was associated with elevated levels of depressive symptomatology. However, perceptions of neighborhood social quality moderated this association. Living alone was more highly associated with depression when the perceived social quality of the neighborhood was low. Neighborhood social quality was not associated with depression among older adults who lived with a family member. Perceptions of neighborhood physical quality were not significantly associated with depression. Perceptions of good neighborhood social quality is important for adults who live alone, in terms of fewer symptoms of depression.

  14. Exploring the role of the built and social neighborhood environment in moderating stress and health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Stephen A; Yang, Tse-Chuan

    2010-05-01

    Health researchers have explored how different aspects of neighborhood characteristics contribute to health and well-being, but current understanding of built environment factors is limited. This study explores whether the association between stress and health varies by residential neighborhood, and if yes, whether built and social neighborhood environment characteristics act as moderators. This study uses multilevel modeling and variables derived from geospatial data to explore the role of neighborhood environment in moderating the association of stress with health. Individual-level data (N = 4,093) were drawn from residents of 45 neighborhoods within Philadelphia County, PA, collected as part of the 2006 Philadelphia Health Management Corporation's Household Health Survey. We find that the negative influence of high stress varied by neighborhood, that residential stability and affluence (social characteristics) attenuated the association of high stress with health, and that the presence of hazardous waste facilities (built environment characteristics) moderated health by enhancing the association with stress. Our findings suggest that neighborhood environment has both direct and moderating associations with health, after adjusting for individual characteristics. The use of geospatial data could broaden the scope of stress-health research and advance knowledge by untangling the intertwined relationship between built and social environments, stress, and health. In particular, future studies should integrate built environment characteristics in health-related research; these characteristics are modifiable and can facilitate health promotion policies.

  15. The Synergy of Family and Neighborhood on Rural Dating Violence Victimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foshee, Vangie A; Chang, Ling-Yin; McNaughton Reyes, H Luz; Chen, May S; Ennett, Susan T

    2015-09-01

    Rural adolescents are at high risk for dating violence victimization (DVV), which has serious negative consequences. Understanding more about the conditions that increase DVV risk for rural adolescents is needed to inform prevention efforts. In response to calls for examining the influence of upper levels of the social ecology on adolescent dating violence, this study examined whether associations between the family context and physical DVV were conditioned by the characteristics of the neighborhoods in which the family resided. Data were from a multi-wave longitudinal study of 3,236 rural adolescents nested in 65 block groups, which defined neighborhoods. Data were collected between 2003 and 2005. Multilevel growth curve modeling was conducted in 2014 to test hypothesized synergistic effects of the family and neighborhood on trajectories of physical DVV from grade 8 to 12. Low parental closeness was a DVV risk in residentially stable (pFamily aggression was a DVV risk, regardless of neighborhood characteristics (p=0.001). Low parental monitoring and rule setting were not DVV risks and their effects were not moderated by neighborhood characteristics. Neighborhood ethnic heterogeneity was significantly (pviolence were not associated with DVV. None of the effects varied by sex of the adolescent, across time (grade), or by the combination of sex and time. Findings demonstrate the importance of considering the family and neighborhood, and particularly their synergistic effects in efforts to prevent adolescent DVV. Copyright © 2015 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Are neighborhood sociocultural factors influencing the spatial pattern of gonorrhea in North Carolina?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan, Ashleigh B; Gesink, Dionne C; Brown, Patrick; Zhou, Lutong; Kaufman, Jay S; Fitch, Molly; Serre, Marc L; Miller, William C

    2011-04-01

    To determine if the spatial pattern of gonorrhea observed for North Carolina was influenced by neighborhood-level sociocultural determinants of health, including race/ethnicity. A generalized linear mixed model with spatially correlated random effects was fit to measure the influence of socio-cultural factors on the spatial pattern of gonorrhea reported to the North Carolina State Health Department (January 1, 2005 to March 31, 2008). Neighborhood gonorrhea rates increased as the percent single mothers increased (25th to 75th neighborhood percentile Relative Rate 1.18, 95% CI 1.12, 1.25), and decreased as socioeconomic status increased (Relative Rate 0.89, 95% CI 0.84, 0.95). Increasing numbers of men in neighborhoods with more women than men did not change the gonorrhea rate, but was associated with decreased rates in neighborhoods with more men than women. Living in the mountains was protective for all race/ethnicities. Rurality was associated with decreased rates for Blacks and increased rates for Native Americans outside the mountains. Neighborhood-level sociocultural factors, primarily those indicative of neighborhood deprivation, explained a significant proportion of the spatial pattern of gonorrhea in both urban and rural communities. Race/ethnicity was an important proxy for social and cultural factors not captured by measures of socioeconomic status. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Gender Equality and Violent Behavior: How Neighborhood Gender Equality Influences the Gender Gap in Violence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Man-Kit; Simons, Ronald L.; Simons, Leslie Gordon; Edmond, Mary Bond

    2014-01-01

    Using a sample of 703 African American adolescents from the Family and Community Health Study (FACHS) along with census data from the year 2000, we examine the association between neighborhood-level gender equality and violence. We find that boys’ and girls’ violent behavior is unevenly distributed across neighborhood contexts. In particular, gender differences in violent behavior are less pronounced in gender-equalitarian neighborhoods compared to those characterized by gender inequality. We also find that the gender gap narrows in gender-equalitarian neighborhoods because boys’ rates of violence decrease whereas girls’ rates remain relatively low across neighborhoods. This is in stark contrast to the pessimistic predictions of theorists who argue that the narrowing of the gender gap in equalitarian settings is the result of an increase in girls’ violence. In addition, the relationship between neighborhood gender equality and violence is mediated by a specific articulation of masculinity characterized by toughness. Our results provide evidence for the use of gender-specific neighborhood prevention programs. PMID:24672996

  18. The role of neighborhood environment and risk of intimate partner femicide in a large urban area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frye, Victoria; Galea, Sandro; Tracy, Melissa; Bucciarelli, Angela; Putnam, Sara; Wilt, Susan

    2008-08-01

    We evaluated the contribution of neighborhood-level factors indicative of social disorganization, including educational and occupational attainment, immigrant concentration, physical disorder, and social cohesion, to the likelihood of intimate partner femicide (IPF) while taking into account known neighborhood- and individual-level IPF risk factors. We used medical examiner data on 1861 femicide victims between 1990 and 1999 and archival information on 59 neighborhoods in New York City to conduct a multilevel case-control analysis. After controlling for neighborhood-level income, we found that no neighborhood factors were significantly associated with IPF risk, as compared with risk of non-IPF and risk of femicide from unknown perpetrators, above and beyond the contributions of individual-level factors. The strongest predictors of IPF were foreign country of birth and young age. IPF victims were nearly twice as likely as non-IPF victims to be foreign born; by contrast, there was little neighborhood-level heterogeneity with respect to IPF risk. Further research is needed to identify neighborhood characteristics that uniquely influence risk of IPF to guide community-level interventions.

  19. Urban Poverty and Neighborhood Effects on Crime: Incorporating Spatial and Network Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graif, Corina; Gladfelter, Andrew S.; Matthews, Stephen A.

    2015-01-01

    Research on neighborhoods and crime is on a remarkable growth trajectory. In this article, we survey important recent developments in the scholarship on neighborhood effects and the spatial stratification of poverty and urban crime. We advance the case that, in understanding the impact of neighborhoods and poverty on crime, sociological and criminological research would benefit from expanding the analytical focus from residential neighborhoods to the network of neighborhoods individuals are exposed to during their daily routine activities. This perspective is supported by reemerging scholarship on activity spaces and macro-level research on inter-neighborhood connections. We highlight work indicating that non-residential contexts add variation in criminogenic exposure, which in turn influence offending behavior and victimization risk. Also, we draw on recent insights from research on gang violence, social and institutional connections, and spatial mismatch, and call for advancements in the scholarship on urban poverty that investigates the salience of inter-neighborhood connections in evaluating the spatial stratification of criminogenic risk for individuals and communities. PMID:27375773

  20. Relationship between neighborhood poverty rate and bloodstream infections in the critically ill.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendu, Mallika L; Zager, Sam; Gibbons, Fiona K; Christopher, Kenneth B

    2012-05-01

    Poverty is associated with increased risk of chronic illness, but its contribution to bloodstream infections is not well-defined. We performed a multicenter observational study of 14,657 patients, aged 18 yrs or older, who received critical care and had blood cultures drawn between 1997 and 2007 in two hospitals in Boston, Massachusetts. Data sources included 1990 U.S. Census and hospital administrative data. Census tracts were used as the geographic units of analysis. The exposure of interest was neighborhood poverty rate categorized as 40%. Neighborhood poverty rate is the percentage of residents with income below the federal poverty line. The primary end point was bloodstream infection occurring 48 hrs before critical care initiation to 48 hrs after. Associations between neighborhood poverty rate and bloodstream infection were estimated by logistic regression models. Adjusted odds ratios were estimated by multivariable logistic regression models. Two thousand four-hundred thirty-five patients had bloodstream infections. Neighborhood poverty rate was a strong predictor of risk of bloodstream infection, with a significant risk gradient across neighborhood poverty rate quintiles. After multivariable analysis, neighborhood poverty rate in the highest quintiles (20%-40% and >40%) were associated with a 26% and 49% increase in bloodstream infection risk, respectively, relative to patients with neighborhood poverty rate of poverty rate, a proxy for decreased socioeconomic status, appears to be associated with risk of bloodstream infection among patients who receive critical care.

  1. Relationships between neighborhood attributes and subjective well-being among the Chinese elderly: Data from Shanghai.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Junling; Weaver, Scott R; Fu, Hua; Jia, Yingnan; Li, Jiang

    2017-11-20

    It has been hypothesized that subjective well-being (SWB) is determined by a combination of individual characteristics, social environment, and physical environment. However, few studies have simultaneously examined the relationships of the social and physical attributes of a neighborhood with SWB. Accordingly, the present study aimed to examine these relationships among Chinese elders. A total of 2,719 elders aged 60 years or older were recruited from 47 neighborhoods in the Xinhua subdistrict of Shanghai by two-stage stratified random sampling and interviewed between July and September 2014. The social and physical attributes of each neighborhood were assessed using validated and psychometrically tested measures. The Chinese version of the international Personal Wellbeing Index was used to assess SWB. Control variables included sex, age, marital status, education level, years living in the neighborhood, self-rated health, chronic conditions, and leisure-time physical activity. Multilevel linear regression analysis was conducted to explore whether social and physical attributes were associated with SWB. The average level of SWB was 74.2 ± 15.7% of the scale maximum. After controlling for individual covariates, individual-level social cohesion and social interaction were positively correlated with SWB, and both individual-level and neighborhood-level aesthetic quality was positively correlated with SWB. In conclusion, both social and physical attributes of neighborhoods were associated with SWB among Chinese elderly. These findings suggest that creating aesthetic and cohesive neighborhoods may encourage Chinese elders to participate in social activities and promote their SWB.

  2. Invited Commentary: Observing Neighborhood Physical Disorder in an Age of Technological Innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Jackelyn

    2017-08-01

    Researchers across several disciplines have argued that the characteristics of neighborhood environments can affect a variety of individual- and neighborhood-level outcomes. Physical disorder is one feature of neighborhoods that scholars have argued is important, but data that capture physical disorder have been limited because of the time and resources required for in-person audits. The advent of Google Street View, which provides publicly available street-level imagery with nearly complete coverage of the United States, opens new possibilities for researchers. In this issue of the Journal, Mooney et al. (Am J Epidemiol. 2017;186(3):265-273) compare in-person and virtual audits in Detroit, Michigan, and demonstrate that virtual audits offer key advantages to measuring neighborhood physical disorder over in-person audits, including substantial reductions in time and resources with little to no loss of measurement precision. In this invited commentary, I welcome the use of virtual audits for advancing the study of neighborhoods and outline areas in which they can advance understanding of neighborhood effects. I also describe areas of caution in their implementation and outline how new innovations can advance the use of virtual audits for furthering understanding of neighborhood environments. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  3. Selection upon genome architecture: conservation of functional neighborhoods with changing genes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fátima Al-Shahrour

    Full Text Available An increasing number of evidences show that genes are not distributed randomly across eukaryotic chromosomes, but rather in functional neighborhoods. Nevertheless, the driving force that originated and maintains such neighborhoods is still a matter of controversy. We present the first detailed multispecies cartography of genome regions enriched in genes with related functions and study the evolutionary implications of such clustering. Our results indicate that the chromosomes of higher eukaryotic genomes contain up to 12% of genes arranged in functional neighborhoods, with a high level of gene co-expression, which are consistently distributed in phylogenies. Unexpectedly, neighborhoods with homologous functions are formed by different (non-orthologous genes in different species. Actually, instead of being conserved, functional neighborhoods present a higher degree of synteny breaks than the genome average. This scenario is compatible with the existence of selective pressures optimizing the coordinated transcription of blocks of functionally related genes. If these neighborhoods were broken by chromosomal rearrangements, selection would favor further rearrangements reconstructing other neighborhoods of similar function. The picture arising from this study is a dynamic genomic landscape with a high level of functional organization.

  4. It takes a village: Fixed-effects analysis of neighborhood collective efficacy and children's development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayoko Ichikawa

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Previous studies suggest that neighborhood social capital is associated with children's mental health. The purpose of this study was to examine the association between neighborhood collective efficacy and children's psychosocial development. Methods: We used data on children and their parents (n = 918 who were part of the Japanese study of Stratification, Health, Income, and Neighborhood (JSHINE from 2010 to 2013 (wave 1 and wave 2. Households were recruited from the Tokyo metropolitan area through clustered random sampling. Changes in children's psychosocial development (assessed using a child behavioral checklist between waves 1 and 2 were regressed on parents' perceptions of changes in neighborhood collective efficacy (social cohesion and informal social control. Results: Change in perception of neighborhood social cohesion was inversely associated with change in child total problems (β = −0.22; 95% confidence interval [CI]: −0.37 to −0.001; effect size d = −0.03. Change in perceptions of neighborhood informal social control was inversely associated with change in children's externalizing problems (β = −0.16; 95% CI: −0.30 to −0.03; d = −0.02. Conclusions: The results of these fixed-effects models suggest that strengthening neighborhood collective efficacy is related to improvements in child psychosocial development.

  5. Gender differences in the effects of urban neighborhood on depressive symptoms in Jamaica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasneth Asher Mullings

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To explore the mental health effects of the urban neighborhood on men and women in Jamaica and the implications for urban planning and social development. METHODS: A cross-sectional household sample of 2 848 individuals 15-74 years of age obtained from the Jamaica Health and Lifestyle Survey 2007-2008 was analyzed. Secondary analysis was undertaken by developing composite scores to describe observer recorded neighborhood features, including infrastructure, amenities/services, physical conditions, community socioeconomic status, and green spaces around the home. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV. Bivariate and multivariate methods were used to explore the associations among gender, neighborhood factors, and risk of depressive symptoms. RESULTS: While no associations were found among rural residents, urban neighborhoods were associated with increased risk of depressive symptoms. Among males, residing in a neighborhood with poor infrastructure increased risk; among females, residing in an informal community/unplanned neighborhood increased risk. CONCLUSIONS: The urban neighborhood contributes to the risk of depression symptomatology in Jamaica, with different environmental stressors affecting men and women. Urban and social planners need to consider the physical environment when developing health interventions in urban settings, particularly in marginalized communities.

  6. Quality over Quantity: Contribution of Urban Green Space to Neighborhood Satisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Van den Berg, Agnes E; Van Dijk, Terry; Weitkamp, Gerd

    2017-05-16

    There is increasing evidence that the quality of green space significantly contributes to neighborhood satisfaction and well-being, independent of the mere amount of green space. In this paper, we examined residents' perceptions of the quality and beneficial affordances of green space in relation to objectively assessed accessibility and usability. We used data from a survey in two neighborhoods ( N = 223) of a medium-sized city in the Netherlands, which were similar in the amount of green space and other physical and socio-demographic characteristics, but differed in the availability of accessible and usable green spaces. Results show that residents of the neighborhood with a higher availability of accessible and usable green spaces were more satisfied with their neighborhood. This difference was statistically mediated by the higher level of perceived green space quality. Neighborhood satisfaction was significantly positively related to well-being. However, residents of the two neighborhoods did not differ in self-reported well-being and beneficial affordances of green space. These analyses contribute to a further understanding of how the accessibility and usability of green spaces may increase people's neighborhood satisfaction. It highlights the importance of perceived quality in addition to the amount of green space when examining the beneficial effects of green space.

  7. Marriage and parenthood in relation to obesogenic neighborhood trajectories: The CARDIA study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone-Heinonen, Janne; Howard, Annie Green; Meyer, Katie; Lewis, Cora E; Kiefe, Catarina I; Laroche, Helena H; Gunderson, Erica P; Gordon-Larsen, Penny

    2015-07-01

    Marriage and parenthood are associated with weight gain and residential mobility. Little is known about how obesity-relevant environmental contexts differ according to family structure. We estimated trajectories of neighborhood poverty, population density, and density of fast food restaurants, supermarkets, and commercial and public physical activity facilities for adults from a biracial cohort (CARDIA, n=4,174, aged 25-50) over 13 years (1992-93 through 2005-06) using latent growth curve analysis. We estimated associations of marriage, parenthood, and race with the observed neighborhood trajectories. Married participants tended to live in neighborhoods with lower poverty, population density, and availability of all types of food and physical activity amenities. Parenthood was similarly but less consistently related to neighborhood characteristics. Marriage and parenthood were more strongly related to neighborhood trajectories in whites (versus blacks), who, in prior studies, exhibit weaker associations between neighborhood characteristics and health. Greater understanding of how interactive family and neighborhood environments contribute to healthy living is needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Parental Perceptions of the Social Environment Are Inversely Related to Constraint of Adolescents’ Neighborhood Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maura Kepper

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: The current study examined relationships between the neighborhood social environment (parental perceived collective efficacy (PCE, constrained behaviors (e.g., avoidance or defensive behaviors and adolescent offspring neighborhood physical activity in low- versus high-incivility neighborhoods. Methods: Adolescents (n = 71; 11–18 years (14.2, SD ± 1.6; male = 37 (52%; non-white = 24 (33.8%; low-income = 20 (29%; overweight/obese = 40 (56% and their parents/guardians enrolled in the Molecular and Social Determinants of Obesity in Developing Youth study were included in the current study. Questionnaires measured parents’/guardians’ PCE, constrained outdoor play practices and offspring neighborhood physical activity. Systematic social observation performed at the parcel-level using Google Street View assessed neighborhood incivilities. t-tests and chi-square tests determined differences by incivilities. Multilevel regression models examined relationships between PCE and: (1 constrained behaviors; and (2 neighborhood physical activity. The Hayes (2013 macro determined the mediating role of constrained behaviors. Results: Parents who had higher PCE reported lower levels of avoidance (p = 0.04 and defensive (p = 0.05 behaviors. However, demographic variables (i.e., gender, race and annual household income limited these results. The direct relationship between PCE and parent-reported neighborhood physical activity was statistically significant in high-incivility neighborhoods only. Neither avoidance nor defensive behavior mediated the relationship between PCE and neighborhood physical activity. Conclusions: PCE influences parenting behaviors related to youth physical activity. Community-based programs that seek to facilitate social cohesion and control may be needed to increase adolescents’ physical activity.

  9. Neighborhood, Family, and Peer Factors Associated with Early Adolescent Smoking and Alcohol Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambron, Christopher; Kosterman, Rick; Catalano, Richard F; Guttmannova, Katarina; Hawkins, J David

    2018-02-01

    There is broad agreement that neighborhood contexts are important for adolescent development, but there is less consensus about their association with adolescent smoking and alcohol use. Few studies have examined associations between neighborhood socioeconomic contexts and smoking and alcohol use while also accounting for differences in family and peer risk factors for substance use. Data drawn from the Seattle Social Development Project (N = 808), a gender-balanced (female = 49%), multiethnic, theory-driven longitudinal study originating in Seattle, WA, were used to estimate trajectories of smoking and alcohol use from 5th to 9th grade. Time-varying measures of neighborhood socioeconomic, family, and peer factors were associated with smoking and alcohol use at each wave after accounting for average growth in smoking and alcohol use over time and demographic differences. Results indicated that living in more socioeconomically disadvantaged neighborhoods, lower family income, lower family general functioning, more permissive family smoking environments, and affiliation with deviant peers were independently associated with increased smoking. Lower family functioning, more permissive family alcohol use environments, and deviant peers were independently associated with increased alcohol use. The effect of neighborhood disadvantage on smoking was mediated by family income and deviant peers while the effect of neighborhood disadvantage on alcohol use was mediated by deviant peers alone. Family functioning and family substance use did not mediate associations between neighborhood disadvantage and smoking or alcohol use. The results highlight the importance of neighborhood, family, and peer factors in early adolescent smoking and alcohol use. Future studies should examine the unique association of neighborhood disadvantage with adolescent smoking net of family socioeconomics, functioning, and substance use, as well as peer affiliations. Better understanding of the

  10. Neighborhood perceptions and hypertension among low-income black women: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maliyhah Al-Bayan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The majority of studies examining the role of neighborhoods and hypertension-related outcomes have been quantitative in nature and very few studies have examined specific disadvantaged populations, including low-income housing residents. The objective of this study was to use qualitative interviews to explore low-income Black women’s perceptions of their neighborhoods and to understand how those perceptions may affect their health, especially as it relates to blood pressure. Methods Seventeen Black female participants, living in public housing communities in New York City, completed one semi-structured, audiotaped interview in July of 2014. All interviews were transcribed, coded, and analyzed for emerging themes using N’Vivo 10 software. Results Three major themes emerged: (1 social connectedness, (2 stress factors, and (3 availability of food options. For example, factors that caused stress varied throughout the study population. Sources of stress included family members, employment, and uncleanliness within the neighborhood. Many participants attributed their stress to personal issues, such as lack of employment and relationships. In addition, the general consensus among many participants was that there should be a greater density of healthy food options in their neighborhoods. Some believed that the pricing of fresh foods in the neighborhoods should better reflect the financial status of the residents in the community. Conclusions Various neighborhood influences, including neighborhood disorder and lack of healthy food options, are factors that appear to increase Black women’s risk of developing high blood pressure. Implications of this research include the need to develop interventions that promote good neighborhood infrastructure (e.g. healthy food stores to encourage good nutrition habits and well-lit walking paths to encourage daily exercise, in addition to interventions that increase hypertension awareness in

  11. Effect of neighborhood factors on diabetes self-care behaviors in adults with type 2 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smalls, Brittany L; Gregory, Chris M; Zoller, James S; Egede, Leonard E

    2014-12-01

    The objective of this study was to identify latent variables for neighborhood factors and diabetes self-care and examine the effect of neighborhood factors on diabetes self-care in adults with type 2 diabetes. 615 subjects were recruited from an academic medical center and a Veterans affairs medical center in the southeastern United States. Validated scales were used to assess neighborhood factors and diabetes-related self-care. Confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) was used to determine the latent constructs. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was then used to assess the relationship between neighborhood factors and diabetes self-care. Based on a theoretical framework, CFA yielded four latent variables for neighborhood factors (neighborhood violence, access to healthy food, social support, and neighborhood esthetics) and one latent variable diabetes self-care (including diet, exercise, foot care, blood sugar testing and medication adherence). SEM showed that social support (r=0.28, paccess to healthy foods (r=-0.16, p=0.003) were significantly associated with self-care behaviors, while neighborhood violence (r=-0.06, paccess to healthy foods (r=-0.20, pself-care behaviors χ(2) (76, N=611)=60, p=0.91, RMSEA=0.00, CFI=1.0). This study developed latent factors for neighborhood characteristics and diabetes self-care and found that social support and access to healthy foods were significantly associated with diabetes self-care and should be considered as targets for future interventions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Racial-ethnic Identity in Context: Examining Mediation of Neighborhood Factors on Children's Academic Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Witherspoon, Dawn P; Daniels, Lisa L; Mason, Amber E; Smith, Emilie Phillips

    2016-03-01

    Research consistently shows that neighborhood socio-demographic characteristics and residents' neighborhood perceptions matter for youth well-being, including a positive sense of racial-ethnic identity. Although elementary-school children are likely in the earlier phases of identity formation, the authors examined whether objective and subjective neighborhood characteristics are related to their racial-ethnic identity and, in turn, their academic adjustment. A diverse sample (30.4% African American, 35.2% White, 12.3% Latino, & 22.0% Other) of 227 children in Grades 2 through 5 were surveyed in afterschool programs. Bivariate correlations showed that youth living in disadvantaged neighborhoods reported more barriers due to their race-ethnicity, but these barriers were not related to their sense of academic efficacy. Residing in a disadvantaged neighborhood was unrelated to youth's academic self-efficacy. However, path analyses showed that positive neighborhood perceptions were associated with a stronger sense of race-ethnicity (i.e., affirmation and belonging), which was in turn related to greater academic efficacy. These results suggest that neighborhood connection provides a source of affirmation and value for young children, helping them to understand who they are as part of a racial-ethnic group and helping to foster a sense of future achievement opportunities. This study provides additional evidence that along with other important proximal contexts (e.g., family, school), young children's neighborhood context is important for development. Results are discussed to highlight environmental influences on young children's awareness of race-ethnicity and the implications of the combined impact of neighborhood and racial-ethnic identity on psychosocial adjustment. © Society for Community Research and Action 2016.

  13. A neighborhood-based approach to population health in the pediatric medical home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Courtney M; Perkins, Jana; Blust, Annette; Kahn, Robert S

    2015-02-01

    Health care reform is increasingly focused on population health outcomes. Local strategies low-income neighborhoods could connect every newborn to a medical home and create a platform to link them with other health-promoting community resources. (1) To improve connections to the medical home for infants from one low-income neighborhood (2) To increase the number of families enrolled in a local home visiting program, and (3) To improve communication between medical staff and home visitors. The study was conducted in a neighborhood with 550 births per year and median household income of $27,000. Quality improvement methods were used to test: (1) newborn registry in the medical home, (2) proactive outreach by nursing staff, (3) standardized protocol for enrolling families in home visiting, and (4) coordination of care between medical home and home visitors. Outcomes were timeliness of well child care and enrollment in home visiting. Time series analyses compared patients from the intervention neighborhood with a demographically similar neighborhood. Mean age at newborn visit decreased from 14.4 to 10.1 days of age. Attendance at 2- and 4-month well child visits increased from 68 to 79% and 35 to 59 %, respectively. Rates did not improve for infants from the comparison neighborhood. Confirmed enrollment in home visiting increased. After spread to 2 more clinics, 43 % of infants in the neighborhood were reached. Neighborhood-based newborn registries, proactive nursing outreach, and collaboration with a home visiting agency aligned multiple clinics in a low-income neighborhood to improve access to health-promoting services.

  14. Neighborhood crime and school climate as predictors of elementary school academic quality: a cross-lagged panel analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Dana Charles; Roy, Amanda L; Sirkman, Gabriel M

    2013-09-01

    Past research has found negative relationships between neighborhood structural disadvantage and students' academic outcomes. Comparatively little work has evaluated the associations between characteristics of neighborhoods and schools themselves. This study explored the longitudinal, reciprocal relationships between neighborhood crime and school-level academic achievement within 500 urban schools. Results revealed that higher neighborhood crime (and particularly violent crime) predicted decreases in school academic achievement across time. School climate emerged as one possible mechanism within this relationship, with higher neighborhood crime predicting decreases in socioemotional learning and safety, but not academic rigor. All three dimensions of school climate were predictive of changes in academic achievement. Although this research supports a primarily unidirectional hypothesis of neighborhoods' impacts on embedded settings, additional work is needed to understand these relationships using additional conceptualizations of neighborhood climate.

  15. Racial/ethnic differences in associations between neighborhood socioeconomic status, distress, and smoking among U.S. adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karriker-Jaffe, Katherine J; Liu, Huiguo; Johnson, Renee M

    2016-01-01

    Neighborhood disadvantage may increase smoking by increasing distress, while neighborhood affluence may reduce smoking by increasing positive affect. We examined whether relationships between neighborhood socioeconomic status (SES) and daily smoking operated through distress and positive affect. Simultaneous multivariate path models used pooled cross-sectional data from the 2000 and 2005 National Alcohol Surveys (15,963 respondents; weighted N = 10,753) and the 2000 Decennial Census. Multiple groups analysis assessed differences by gender and race/ethnicity. Covariates included neighborhood immigrant concentration and individual-level demographics. In the full sample, neighborhood disadvantage significantly increased smoking and neighborhood affluence significantly decreased smoking, with no indirect paths through either distress or positive affect. Unique among Hispanics, affluence resulted in decreased smoking indirectly through reduced distress. Relationships between affect and smoking also varied by race/ethnicity, with no significant differences by gender. Interventions targeting neighborhood socioeconomic status and distress may help reduce smoking, particularly for racial/ethnic minorities.

  16. RACE, CODE OF THE STREET, AND VIOLENT DELINQUENCY: A MULTILEVEL INVESTIGATION OF NEIGHBORHOOD STREET CULTURE AND INDIVIDUAL NORMS OF VIOLENCE*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Eric A.; Simons, Ronald L.

    2011-01-01

    The study outlined in this article drew on Elijah Anderson’s (1999) code of the street perspective to examine the impact of neighborhood street culture on violent delinquency. Using data from more than 700 African American adolescents, we examined 1) whether neighborhood street culture predicts adolescent violence above and beyond an adolescent’s own street code values and 2) whether neighborhood street culture moderates individual-level street code values on adolescent violence. Consistent with Anderson’s hypotheses, neighborhood street culture significantly predicts violent delinquency independent of individual-level street code effects. Additionally, neighborhood street culture moderates individual-level street code values on violence in neighborhoods where the street culture is widespread. In particular, the effect of street code values on violence is enhanced in neighborhoods where the street culture is endorsed widely. PMID:21666759

  17. Influence of social and neighborhood contexts on smoking cessation among urban minorities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dearfield, Craig T; Horn, Kimberly A; Jipguep-Akhtar, Marie C

    2017-12-21

    A range of individual, social, and neighborhood factors influence the smoking-related health inequities of urban minorities. Yet little is known about how these factors interact to influence smoking behaviors, including cessation. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to estimate the variance in cessation service utilization among a sample of primarily African American adults accounted for by individual, social, and neighborhood factors. Findings showed individual and social factors were important predictors of cessation service utilization. Social contexts have significant effects on smoking cessation service use, and social influences were more significant predictors of cessation service use than neighborhood factors.

  18. Obesity and its related factors among women from popular neighborhoods in Casablanca, Morocco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jafri, Ali; Jabari, Mohamed; Dahhak, Mohammed; Saile, Rachid; Derouiche, Abdelfettah

    2013-01-01

    Study of overweight and obesity among women from modest neighborhoods in Casablanca and the related factors influencing this phenomenon. A survey was conducted in 6 neighborhoods of Casablanca using multistage cluster sampling. Anthropometric parameters and body composition were measured, and information about food habits, sociodemographic situation and body image perception were collected using a questionnaire. 425 adult women from popular neighborhoods in Casablanca. We found a prevalence of 47% obesity and 36% overweight. Obesity and overweight exceeded 80% in all age categories except among women educated women.

  19. A hybrid adaptive large neighborhood search algorithm applied to a lot-sizing problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Muller, Laurent Flindt; Spoorendonk, Simon

    This paper presents a hybrid of a general heuristic framework that has been successfully applied to vehicle routing problems and a general purpose MIP solver. The framework uses local search and an adaptive procedure which choses between a set of large neighborhoods to be searched. A mixed integer...... programming solver and its built-in feasibility heuristics is used to search a neighborhood for improving solutions. The general reoptimization approach used for repairing solutions is specifically suited for combinatorial problems where it may be hard to otherwise design operations to define a neighborhood...

  20. Mapping Environmental Inequalities Relevant for Health for Informing Urban Planning Interventions—A Case Study in the City of Dortmund, Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flacke, Johannes; Schüle, Steffen Andreas; Köckler, Heike; Bolte, Gabriele

    2016-01-01

    Spatial differences in urban environmental conditions contribute to health inequalities within cities. The purpose of the paper is to map environmental inequalities relevant for health in the City of Dortmund, Germany, in order to identify needs for planning interventions. We develop suitable indicators for mapping socioeconomically-driven environmental inequalities at the neighborhood level based on published scientific evidence and inputs from local stakeholders. Relationships between socioeconomic and environmental indicators at the level of 170 neighborhoods were analyzed continuously with Spearman rank correlation coefficients and categorically applying chi-squared tests. Reclassified socioeconomic and environmental indicators were then mapped at the neighborhood level in order to determine multiple environmental burdens and hotspots of environmental inequalities related to health. Results show that the majority of environmental indicators correlate significantly, leading to multiple environmental burdens in specific neighborhoods. Some of these neighborhoods also have significantly larger proportions of inhabitants of a lower socioeconomic position indicating hotspots of environmental inequalities. Suitable planning interventions mainly comprise transport planning and green space management. In the conclusions, we discuss how the analysis can be used to improve state of the art planning instruments, such as clean air action planning or noise reduction planning towards the consideration of the vulnerability of the population. PMID:27420090

  1. Mapping Environmental Inequalities Relevant for Health for Informing Urban Planning Interventions-A Case Study in the City of Dortmund, Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flacke, Johannes; Schüle, Steffen Andreas; Köckler, Heike; Bolte, Gabriele

    2016-07-13

    Spatial differences in urban environmental conditions contribute to health inequalities within cities. The purpose of the paper is to map environmental inequalities relevant for health in the City of Dortmund, Germany, in order to identify needs for planning interventions. We develop suitable indicators for mapping socioeconomically-driven environmental inequalities at the neighborhood level based on published scientific evidence and inputs from local stakeholders. Relationships between socioeconomic and environmental indicators at the level of 170 neighborhoods were analyzed continuously with Spearman rank correlation coefficients and categorically applying chi-squared tests. Reclassified socioeconomic and environmental indicators were then mapped at the neighborhood level in order to determine multiple environmental burdens and hotspots of environmental inequalities related to health. Results show that the majority of environmental indicators correlate significantly, leading to multiple environmental burdens in specific neighborhoods. Some of these neighborhoods also have significantly larger proportions of inhabitants of a lower socioeconomic position indicating hotspots of environmental inequalities. Suitable planning interventions mainly comprise transport planning and green space management. In the conclusions, we discuss how the analysis can be used to improve state of the art planning instruments, such as clean air action planning or noise reduction planning towards the consideration of the vulnerability of the population.

  2. MMSE based map estimation for image denoising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Om, Hari; Biswas, Mantosh

    2014-04-01

    Denoising of a natural image corrupted by the additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) is a classical problem in image processing. The NeighShrink [17,18], LAWML [19], BiShrink [20,21], IIDMWT [23], IAWDMNC [25], and GIDMNWC [24] denoising algorithms remove the noise from the noisy wavelet coefficients using thresholding by retaining only the large coefficients and setting the remaining to zero. Generally the threshold depends mainly on the variance, image size, and image decomposition levels. The performances of these methods are not very effective as they are not spatially adaptive i.e., the parameters considered are not smoothly varied in the neighborhood window. Our proposed method overcomes this weakness by using minimum mean square error (MMSE) based maximum a posterior (MAP) estimation. In this paper, we modify the parameters such as variance of the classical MMSE estimator in the neighborhood window of the noisy wavelet coefficients to remove the noise effectively. We demonstrate experimentally that our method outperforms the NeighShrink, LAWML, BiShrink, IIDMWT, IAWDMNC, and GIDMNWC methods in terms of the peak signal-to-noise ratio (PSNR) and structural similarity index measure (SSIM). It is more effective particularly for the highly corrupted natural images.

  3. Reasoning Maps

    OpenAIRE

    Falcão, Renato Pinto de Queiroz

    2003-01-01

    Dissertação (mestrado) - Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Centro Tecnológico. Programa de Pós-Graduação em Engenharia de Produção. Esta dissertação apresenta uma ferramenta de apoio à decisão, baseada na Metodologia Multicritérios de Apoio à Decisão - MCDA, através do desenvolvimento de um software denominado Reasoning Maps. O software permite, de maneira integrada, a construção de mapas cognitivos, suas diversas análises topológicas e o cadastramento e análise de alternativas. Abor...

  4. Projective mapping

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dehlholm, Christian; Brockhoff, Per B.; Bredie, Wender Laurentius Petrus

    2012-01-01

    the applied framework, semantic restrictions, the choice of type of assessors and the validation of product separations. The applied framework concerns the response surface as presented to the assessor in different shapes, e.g. rectangular, square or round. Semantic restrictions are a part of the assessor...... instructions and influence heavily the product placements and the descriptive vocabulary (Dehlholm et.al., 2012b). The type of assessors performing the method influences results with an extra aspect in Projective Mapping compared to more analytical tests, as the given spontaneous perceptions are much dependent...

  5. Mapping of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayed M. Arafat

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Land cover map of North Sinai was produced based on the FAO-Land Cover Classification System (LCCS of 2004. The standard FAO classification scheme provides a standardized system of classification that can be used to analyze spatial and temporal land cover variability in the study area. This approach also has the advantage of facilitating the integration of Sinai land cover mapping products to be included with the regional and global land cover datasets. The total study area is covering a total area of 20,310.4 km2 (203,104 hectare. The landscape classification was based on SPOT4 data acquired in 2011 using combined multispectral bands of 20 m spatial resolution. Geographic Information System (GIS was used to manipulate the attributed layers of classification in order to reach the maximum possible accuracy. GIS was also used to include all necessary information. The identified vegetative land cover classes of the study area are irrigated herbaceous crops, irrigated tree crops and rain fed tree crops. The non-vegetated land covers in the study area include bare rock, bare soils (stony, very stony and salt crusts, loose and shifting sands and sand dunes. The water bodies were classified as artificial perennial water bodies (fish ponds and irrigated canals and natural perennial water bodies as lakes (standing. The artificial surfaces include linear and non-linear features.

  6. Employment of Low-Income African American and Latino Teens: Does Neighborhood Social Mix Matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galster, George; Santiago, Anna; Lucero, Jessica

    We quantify how teen employment outcomes for low-income African Americans and Latinos relate to their neighborhood conditions during ages 14-17. Data come from surveys of Denver Housing Authority (DHA) households who have lived in public housing scattered throughout Denver County. Because DHA household allocation mimics random assignment to neighborhood, this program represents a natural experiment for overcoming geographic selection bias. Our logistic and Tobit regression analyses found overall greater odds of teen employment and more hours worked for those who lived in neighborhoods with higher percentages of pre-1940 vintage housing, property crime rates and child abuse rates, though the strength of relationships was highly contingent on gender and ethnicity. Teen employment prospects of African Americans were especially diminished by residence in more socially vulnerable, violent neighborhoods, implying selective potential gains from social mixing alternatives.

  7. Intelligent fault diagnosis of rolling bearing based on kernel neighborhood rough sets and statistical features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Xiao Ran; Zhang, You Yun; Zhu, Yong Sheng

    2012-01-01

    Intelligent fault diagnosis benefits from efficient feature selection. Neighborhood rough sets are effective in feature selection. However, determining the neighborhood value accurately remains a challenge. The wrapper feature selection algorithm is designed by combining the kernel method and neighborhood rough sets to self-adaptively select sensitive features. The combination effectively solves the shortcomings in selecting the neighborhood value in the previous application process. The statistical features of time and frequency domains are used to describe the characteristic of the rolling bearing to make the intelligent fault diagnosis approach work. Three classification algorithms, namely, classification and regression tree (CART), commercial version 4.5 (C4.5), and radial basis function support vector machines (RBFSVM), are used to test UCI datasets and 10 fault datasets of rolling bearing. The results indicate that the diagnostic approach presented could effectively select the sensitive fault features and simultaneously identify the type and degree of the fault

  8. 76 FR 39615 - Applications for New Awards; Promise Neighborhoods Program-Implementation Grant Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-06

    ... talking with their child about the importance of college and career; or --possible fourth indicator TBD by... DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Applications for New Awards; Promise Neighborhoods Program-- Implementation Grant Competition AGENCY: Office of Innovation and Improvement, Department of Education. ACTION...

  9. Perceived neighborhood walkability and physical exercise: An examination of casual communication in a social process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Masahiro; Jo, Hyerim

    2018-03-05

    Despite the accumulated evidence for the environmental correlates of physical activity, social processes underlying this association are not entirely clear. This study positions communication characterized by weak ties as a social mechanism linking neighborhood walkability with physical exercise. Data from a survey of Chicago residents show that perceived neighborhood walkability is positively related to frequency of weak-tie communication. Frequency of weak-tie communication is related positively to perceived social cohesion and negatively to anonymity, both of which are significantly related to frequency of physical exercise in the neighborhood. Data also show a sequential indirect relationship involving perceived neighborhood walkability, weak-tie communication, anonymity, and physical exercise. Implications are discussed in terms of the role of communication in promoting locality-based physical exercise. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. URBAN MORPHOLOGY FOR HOUSTON TO DRIVE MODELS-3/CMAQ AT NEIGHBORHOOD SCALES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Air quality simulation models applied at various horizontal scales require different degrees of treatment in the specifications of the underlying surfaces. As we model neighborhood scales ( 1 km horizontal grid spacing), the representation of urban morphological structures (e....

  11. A variable neighborhood Walksat-based algorithm for MAX-SAT problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouhmala, Noureddine

    2014-01-01

    The simplicity of the maximum satisfiability problem (MAX-SAT) combined with its applicability in many areas of artificial intelligence and computing science made it one of the fundamental optimization problems. This NP-complete problem refers to the task of finding a variable assignment that satisfies the maximum number of clauses (or the sum of weights of satisfied clauses) in a Boolean formula. The Walksat algorithm is considered to be the main skeleton underlying almost all local search algorithms for MAX-SAT. Most local search algorithms including Walksat rely on the 1-flip neighborhood structure. This paper introduces a variable neighborhood walksat-based algorithm. The neighborhood structure can be combined easily using any local search algorithm. Its effectiveness is compared with existing algorithms using 1-flip neighborhood structure and solvers such as CCLS and Optimax from the eighth MAX-SAT evaluation.

  12. DNR 100K Lakes - Fishing in the Neighborhood (FiN) Ponds

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This layer represents ponds included in DNR's Fishing in the Neighborhood (FiN) program. This program establishes local ponds to provide urban fishing opportunities...

  13. How Neighborhoods Influence Health: Lessons to be learned from the application of political ecology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chitewere, Tendai; Shim, Janet K; Barker, Judith C; Yen, Irene H

    2017-05-01

    This paper articulates how political ecology can be a useful tool for asking fundamental questions and applying relevant methods to investigate structures that impact relationship between neighborhood and health. Through a narrative analysis, we identify how political ecology can develop our future agendas for neighborhood-health research as it relates to social, political, environmental, and economic structures. Political ecology makes clear the connection between political economy and neighborhood by highlighting the historical and structural processes that produce and maintain social inequality, which affect health and well-being. These concepts encourage researchers to examine how people construct neighborhood and health in different ways that, in turn, can influence different health outcomes and, thus, efforts to address solutions. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Right Propositional Neighborhood Logic over Natural Numbers with Integer Constraints for Interval Lengths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bresolin, Davide; Goranko, Valentin; Montanari, Angelo

    2009-01-01

    Interval temporal logics are based on interval structures over linearly (or partially) ordered domains, where time intervals, rather than time instants, are the primitive ontological entities. In this paper we introduce and study Right Propositional Neighborhood Logic over natural numbers...

  15. Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Depressive Symptoms Among Pregnant Women Vary by Income and Neighborhood Poverty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine Cubbin

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available We examined racial/ethnic disparities in depressive symptoms during pregnancy among a population-based sample of childbearing women in California (N = 24,587. We hypothesized that these racial/ethnic disparities would be eliminated when comparing women with similar incomes and neighborhood poverty environments. Neighborhood poverty trajectory descriptions were linked with survey data measuring age, parity, race/ethnicity, marital status, education, income, and depressive symptoms. We constructed logistic regression models among the overall sample to examine both crude and adjusted racial/ethnic disparities in feeling depressed. Next, stratified adjusted logistic regression models were constructed to examine racial/ethnic disparities in feeling depressed among women of similar income levels living in similar neighborhood poverty environments. We found that racial/ethnic disparities in feeling depressed remained only among women who were not poor themselves and who lived in long-term moderate or low poverty neighborhoods.

  16. Influencing Genomic Change and Cancer Disparities through Neighborhood Chronic Toxic Stress Exposure: A Research Framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGuzman, Pamela B; Schminkey, Donna L

    2016-11-01

    Black Americans have disproportionately higher incidence and mortality rates for many cancers. These disparities may be related to genomic changes that occur from exposure to chronic toxic stress and may result from conditions associated with living in racially segregated neighborhoods with high rates of concentrated poverty. The purpose of this article is to present a nursing research framework for developing and testing neighborhood-level interventions that have the potential to mitigate exposure to neighborhood-associated chronic toxic stress, improve individual-level genomic sequelae and cancer outcomes, and reduce cancer health disparities of Black Americans. Public health nursing researchers should collaborate with local officials to determine ways to reduce neighborhood-level stress. Intermediate outcomes can be measured using genomic or other stress biomarkers, and long-term outcomes can be measured by evaluating population-level cancer incidence and mortality. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Social support, socioeconomic and clinical risk: comparison between to neighborhoods in a Brazilian upcountry town

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milce Burgos Ferreira

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the perceptions of two families living in two different neighborhoods (rated according to risk levels regarding social support. A questionnaire was designed to assess social support according to the following dimensions: instrumental, emotional, religious, and support from friends, neighbors and family. The sample was comprised as follows: considering the 114 families living in neighborhood 1, 52 families were interviewed; and among the 162 families living in neighborhood 2, 60 families were interviewed. No significant difference was found related to instrumental, religious and emotional support, including the support from relatives among the families from both neighborhoods. The results disagree with the reviewed literature, which indicated a strong association between social support and families living at socioeconomic risk. In conclusion, social support is important for families, regardless of their risk stratification.

  18. Assessing a family-centered neighborhood service agency: the Del Paso Heights model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minicucci, C

    1997-01-01

    The author describes the Del Paso Model, a neighborhood-based integrated services effort underway in Sacramento County, California. Del Paso Heights is a community made up of African American, Asian, and white families on the northern side of the City of Sacramento. The County of Sacramento selected Del Paso Heights as a location to pilot a new family-centered holistic way to serve families under county human services programs in a Neighborhood Services Agency. The Del Paso Heights model demonstrates the power of the neighborhood as a focal point of integration of services and how the neighborhood can be used as a concept to overcome bureaucratic turf. Like many other community initiatives, measuring the outcomes of the Del Paso Heights Model remains an elusive goal.

  19. 77 FR 27219 - Applications for New Awards; Promise Neighborhoods Program-Implementation Grant Competition...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-09

    ... Applications for New Awards; Promise Neighborhoods Program-- Implementation Grant Competition, Correction AGENCY: Office of Innovation and Improvement, Department of Education. ACTION: Notice; correction... Competition, Correction. Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA) Number: 84.215N (Implementation grants...

  20. Multilevel Associations of Neighborhood Poverty, Crime, and Satisfaction With Blood Pressure in African-American Adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulon, Sandra M; Wilson, Dawn K; Alia, Kassandra A; Van Horn, M Lee

    2016-01-01

    African-American adults experience the highest rates of elevated blood pressure (BP), and this disparity may be linked to socioeconomic and neighborhood-related disadvantage. Based on a bioecological stress-buffering framework, relations of poverty and neighborhood environmental perceptions with BP were assessed using multilevel regression in at-risk African-American adults. This cross-sectional study used baseline data that were collected in 2008 as part of the Positive Action for Today's Health (PATH) trial (N = 409), a community-based intervention to increase walking in low-income, high-crime neighborhoods. BP and perceived neighborhood crime and satisfaction were investigated as individual-level indicators of health and neighborhood environment. Census block groups (N = 22) served as geographic proxies for neighborhoods, and poverty was obtained using 2010 U.S. Census data, to characterize the neighborhood-level socioeconomic environment. There were no individual-level direct associations. Significant cross-product interactions demonstrated that with higher perceived crime, high satisfaction was associated with lower systolic (γ = 3.34) and diastolic (γ = -1.37) BP, but low satisfaction was associated with higher systolic (γ = 15.12) and diastolic (γ = 7.57) BP. Neighborhood-level poverty was associated with diastolic (γ = 11.48, SE = 4.08, P = 0.008) and systolic BP (γ = 12.79, SE = 6.33, P = 0.052). Variance in BP across block groups was low (intraclass correlation coefficients = 0.002-0.014) and there were no significant random effects. Results supported hypotheses, with greater neighborhood satisfaction linked to lower systolic and diastolic BP when perceived crime was high. Neighborhood poverty was also linked to higher systolic and diastolic BP. Prevention efforts should further investigate whether attending to issues of poverty and related neighborhood perceptions reduces high BP in at-risk African-American communities. © Published by Oxford